WorldWideScience

Sample records for revisited power structures

  1. The power reinforcement framework revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jeppe; Andersen, Kim Normann; Danziger, James N.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas digital technologies are often depicted as being capable of disrupting long-standing power structures and facilitating new governance mechanisms, the power reinforcement framework suggests that information and communications technologies tend to strengthen existing power arrangements within...... public organizations. This article revisits the 30-yearold power reinforcement framework by means of an empirical analysis on the use of mobile technology in a large-scale programme in Danish public sector home care. It explores whether and to what extent administrative management has controlled decision......-making and gained most benefits from mobile technology use, relative to the effects of the technology on the street-level workers who deliver services. Current mobile technology-in-use might be less likely to be power reinforcing because it is far more decentralized and individualized than the mainly expert...

  2. Nuclear power revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grear, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modern development of nuclear power technology and the established framework of international agreements and conventions are responding to the major political, economic and environmental issues - high capital costs, the risks posed by nuclear wastes and accidents, and the proliferation of nuclear weaponry - that until recently hindered the expansion of nuclear power.

  3. [The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008] / Karsten Brüggemann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Brüggemann, Karsten, 1965-

    2010-01-01

    Arvustus: The "Baltic Frontier" revisited. Power structures and gross-cultural interactions in the Baltic region. Proceedings of the international symposium in Florence, February 29th and March Ist, 2008. Vienna, 2009

  4. Iran's nuclear power programme revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mossavar-Rahmani, B.

    1980-01-01

    Iran's new government has not yet made a final decision about the fate of that country's once ambitious nuclear power programme. If the programme is kept alive, it will be limited to the completion of at most one or two of the reactors that were already well underway when the revolution broke out. The author traces the origins and growth of the Iranian nuclear power programme between 1974 and 1978, summarizes the principal economic, infrastructural, and political criticisms of the programme as originally planned, discusses the potential for greater use of natural gas as an alternative and, finally, recommends a long, detailed reassessment of Iran's energy options. (author)

  5. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Population Structure Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirnay, Jean-Paul; Bilocq, Florence; Pot, Bruno; Cornelis, Pierre; Zizi, Martin; Van Eldere, Johan; Deschaght, Pieter; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Jennes, Serge; Pitt, Tyrone; De Vos, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    At present there are strong indications that Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibits an epidemic population structure; clinical isolates are indistinguishable from environmental isolates, and they do not exhibit a specific (disease) habitat selection. However, some important issues, such as the worldwide emergence of highly transmissible P. aeruginosa clones among cystic fibrosis (CF) patients and the spread and persistence of multidrug resistant (MDR) strains in hospital wards with high antibiotic pressure, remain contentious. To further investigate the population structure of P. aeruginosa, eight parameters were analyzed and combined for 328 unrelated isolates, collected over the last 125 years from 69 localities in 30 countries on five continents, from diverse clinical (human and animal) and environmental habitats. The analysed parameters were: i) O serotype, ii) Fluorescent Amplified-Fragment Length Polymorphism (FALFP) pattern, nucleotide sequences of outer membrane protein genes, iii) oprI, iv) oprL, v) oprD, vi) pyoverdine receptor gene profile (fpvA type and fpvB prevalence), and prevalence of vii) exoenzyme genes exoS and exoU and viii) group I pilin glycosyltransferase gene tfpO. These traits were combined and analysed using biological data analysis software and visualized in the form of a minimum spanning tree (MST). We revealed a network of relationships between all analyzed parameters and non-congruence between experiments. At the same time we observed several conserved clones, characterized by an almost identical data set. These observations confirm the nonclonal epidemic population structure of P. aeruginosa, a superficially clonal structure with frequent recombinations, in which occasionally highly successful epidemic clones arise. One of these clones is the renown and widespread MDR serotype O12 clone. On the other hand, we found no evidence for a widespread CF transmissible clone. All but one of the 43 analysed CF strains belonged to a ubiquitous P

  6. Revisit to diffraction anomalous fine structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, T.; Fukuda, K.; Tokuda, K.; Shimada, K.; Ichitsubo, T.; Oishi, M.; Mizuki, J.; Matsubara, E.

    2014-01-01

    The diffraction anomalous fine structure method has been revisited by applying this measurement technique to polycrystalline samples and using an analytical method with the logarithmic dispersion relation. The diffraction anomalous fine structure (DAFS) method that is a spectroscopic analysis combined with resonant X-ray diffraction enables the determination of the valence state and local structure of a selected element at a specific crystalline site and/or phase. This method has been improved by using a polycrystalline sample, channel-cut monochromator optics with an undulator synchrotron radiation source, an area detector and direct determination of resonant terms with a logarithmic dispersion relation. This study makes the DAFS method more convenient and saves a large amount of measurement time in comparison with the conventional DAFS method with a single crystal. The improved DAFS method has been applied to some model samples, Ni foil and Fe 3 O 4 powder, to demonstrate the validity of the measurement and the analysis of the present DAFS method

  7. A Structural Equation Model of Risk Perception of Rockfall for Revisit Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Ya-Fen Lee; Yun-Yao Chi

    2014-01-01

    The study aims to explore the relationship between risk perception of rockfall and revisit intention using a Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis. A total of 573 valid questionnaires are collected from travelers to Taroko National Park, Taiwan. The findings show the majority of travelers have the medium perception of rockfall risk, and are willing to revisit the Taroko National Park. The revisit intention to Taroko National Park is influenced by hazardous preferences, willingness-to-pa...

  8. Solution NMR structure determination of proteins revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, Martin; Wagner, Gerhard; Wuethrich, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    This 'Perspective' bears on the present state of protein structure determination by NMR in solution. The focus is on a comparison of the infrastructure available for NMR structure determination when compared to protein crystal structure determination by X-ray diffraction. The main conclusion emerges that the unique potential of NMR to generate high resolution data also on dynamics, interactions and conformational equilibria has contributed to a lack of standard procedures for structure determination which would be readily amenable to improved efficiency by automation. To spark renewed discussion on the topic of NMR structure determination of proteins, procedural steps with high potential for improvement are identified

  9. Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, Silke; Meyer, Verena; Pakura, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    were captured when they described entrepreneurs. Therefore, this paper aims to revisit gender role stereotypes among young adults. Design/methodology/approach: To measure stereotyping, participants were asked to describe entrepreneurs in general and either women or men in general. The Schein......Purpose: Entrepreneurship is shaped by a male norm, which has been widely demonstrated in qualitative studies. The authors strive to complement these methods by a quantitative approach. First, gender role stereotypes were measured in entrepreneurship. Second, the explicit notions of participants......: The images of men and entrepreneurs show a high and significant congruence (r = 0.803), mostly in those adjectives that are untypical for men and entrepreneurs. The congruence of women and entrepreneurs was low (r = 0.152) and insignificant. Contrary to the participants’ beliefs, their explicit notions did...

  10. Structuralism's Relevance in a Post-Structural Era: Re-Visiting Research on Multicultural Curricular Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jenna Min

    2011-01-01

    At the current historical juncture in which differences and inequalities are surfacing greater than ever in the world, societies, and schools, the main goal of this essay is to revisit the aspects of structuralism that can potentially contribute productively to understanding the invisible structures and forces that everyone carries (mostly…

  11. Kuhn's "The structure of scientific revolutions" revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Arabatzis, Theodore

    2012-01-01

    The year 2012 marks the 50th anniversary of the publication of Thomas S. Kuhn's The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Up until recently, the book's philosophical reception has been shaped, for the most part, by the debates and the climate in philosophy of science in the 1960s and 1970s; this new collection of essays takes a renewed look at this work. This volume concentrates on particular issues addressed or raised in light of recent scholarship and without the pressure of the immediate concerns scholars had at the time of the Structure's publication. There has been extensive research on all of the major issues concerning the development of science which are discussed in Structure, work in which the scholars contributing to this volume have all been actively involved. In recent years they have pursued novel research on a number of topics relevant to Structure's concerns, such as the nature and function of concepts, the complexity of logical positivism and its legacy, the relation of history to philosophy o...

  12. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2017-01-01

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  13. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P. [Department of Space Science, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Webb, G. M. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2017-05-20

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1 . We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  14. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As presently applied in Africa, consensus building seems to be a product of knowledge ... Often international professional negotiators and .... The conflict model views individual or group relationships in all structures of power as a ..... for political parties to win and maintain power, Weber states that 'parties live in the house of ...

  15. Electronic structure of super heavy atoms revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gitman, D M; Levin, A D; Tyutin, I V; Voronov, B L

    2013-01-01

    The electronic structure of an atom with Z ⩽ Z c = 137 can be described by the Dirac equation with the Coulomb field of a point charge Ze. It was believed that the Dirac equation with Z > Z c poses difficulties because the formula for the lower energy level of the Dirac Hamiltonian formally gives imaginary eigenvalues. But a strict mathematical consideration shows that difficulties with the electronic spectrum for Z > Z c do not arise if the Dirac Hamiltonian is correctly defined as a self-adjoint operator. In this paper, we briefly summarize the main physical results of that consideration in a form suitable for physicists with some additional new details and numerical calculations of the electronic spectra. (comment)

  16. COGNITIONS AND BEHAVIOR IN A HIERARCHY - MULDERS POWER THEORY REVISITED

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WILKE, HAM

    1992-01-01

    In this study, Mulder's power theory consisting of the power distance reduction tendency (PDR) of less powerful group members towards more powerful others, and the power distance enlargement tendency (PDE) of more powerful group members towards less powerful others, is investigated. In particular,

  17. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  18. LARGE-SCALE FILAMENTARY STRUCTURES AROUND THE VIRGO CLUSTER REVISITED

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk; Rey, Soo-Chang; Lee, Youngdae; Lee, Woong; Chung, Jiwon [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Chungnam National University, 99 Daehak-ro, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Bureau, Martin [Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Yoon, Hyein; Chung, Aeree [Department of Astronomy and Yonsei University Observatory, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jerjen, Helmut [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Lisker, Thorsten [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg (ZAH), Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jeong, Hyunjin; Sung, Eon-Chang, E-mail: screy@cnu.ac.kr, E-mail: star4citizen@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science institute, 776 Daedeokdae-ro, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-20

    We revisit the filamentary structures of galaxies around the Virgo cluster, exploiting a larger data set, based on the HyperLeda database, than previous studies. In particular, this includes a large number of low-luminosity galaxies, resulting in better sampled individual structures. We confirm seven known structures in the distance range 4  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 16  h {sup −1} Mpc, now identified as filaments, where SGY is the axis of the supergalactic coordinate system roughly along the line of sight. The Hubble diagram of the filament galaxies suggests they are infalling toward the main body of the Virgo cluster. We propose that the collinear distribution of giant elliptical galaxies along the fundamental axis of the Virgo cluster is smoothly connected to two of these filaments (Leo II A and B). Behind the Virgo cluster (16  h {sup −1} Mpc < SGY < 27  h {sup −1} Mpc), we also identify a new filament elongated toward the NGC 5353/4 group (“NGC 5353/4 filament”) and confirm a sheet that includes galaxies from the W and M clouds of the Virgo cluster (“W–M sheet”). In the Hubble diagram, the NGC 5353/4 filament galaxies show infall toward the NGC 5353/4 group, whereas the W–M sheet galaxies do not show hints of gravitational influence from the Virgo cluster. The filamentary structures identified can now be used to better understand the generic role of filaments in the build-up of galaxy clusters at z  ≈ 0.

  19. Governing Education: a revisiting of ‘Political Power beyond the State’ 25 years on

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio

    2016-01-01

    that are used in classrooms, management offices, and policy setting agencies. Each of these instruments and calculative devices is pregnant with interest. They bridge the gap between everyday practices and larger governance goals. Yet as the technical sophistication of these instruments increases......This article revisits Political Power Beyond the State: Problematics of Government by sociologist Nikolas Rose and critical accounting scholar Peter Miller. The reach of this influential critique of the nature of power and its exercise ‘beyond the state’ continues to this day, 25 years after...

  20. War Powers Revisited: The President, Congress and the Gulf War

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-04-01

    Framers and Ratifiers, as well as the discussion over the separation of powers , the decision to shift to an offensive capability through increasing the...the president in future crises. The debate over separation of powers in November was brought into focus when 56 members of Congress filed suit against...the use of American forces without prior congressional approval which, in the minds of many, is a clear violation of the separation of powers . That

  1. Nonsafety loads on glass 1E power sources, revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewin, J.

    1980-01-01

    The supply of some nonsafety loads from class 1E power sources is allowed by industry standards (IEEE Standards 308 and 384) and by US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regulatory Guides 1.32 and 1.75. This has been questioned as a possible source of degradation of the class 1E system, and this power deals with assessment of the effects of this practice on the reliability of the power supply for engineered safety features (ESF) systems

  2. Changes in composition, ecology and structure of high-mountain vegetation: a re-visitation study over 42 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Alberto; Frate, Ludovico; Carranza, Maria Laura; Attorre, Fabio; Pelino, Giovanni; Stanisci, Angela

    2016-01-27

    High-mountain ecosystems are increasingly threatened by climate change, causing biodiversity loss, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, very few detailed studies have focussed on plant biodiversity in the high mountains of the Mediterranean. In this study, we investigated the long-term changes that have occurred in the composition, structure and ecology of high-mountain vegetation in the central Apennines (Majella) over the last 42 years. We performed a re-visitation study, using historical and newly collected vegetation data to explore which ecological and structural features have been the most successful in coping with climatic changes. Vegetation changes were analysed by comparing geo-referenced phytosociological relevés collected in high-mountain habitats (dolines, gentle slopes and ridges) on the Majella massif in 1972 and in 2014. Composition analysis was performed by detrended correspondence analysis, followed by an analysis of similarities for statistical significance assessment and by similarity percentage procedure (SIMPER) for identifying which species indicate temporal changes. Changes in ecological and structural indicators were analysed by a permutational multivariate analysis of variance, followed by a post hoc comparison. Over the last 42 years, clear floristic changes and significant ecological and structural variations occurred. We observed a significant increase in the thermophilic and mesonitrophilic plant species and an increment in the frequencies of hemicryptophytes. This re-visitation study in the Apennines agrees with observations in other alpine ecosystems, providing new insights for a better understanding of the effects of global change on Mediterranean high-mountain biodiversity. The observed changes in floristic composition, the thermophilization process and the shift towards a more nutrient-demanding vegetation are likely attributable to the combined effect of higher temperatures and the increase in soil nutrients

  3. Power, conflict and consensus building in Africa: Ideology revisited ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper interrogates and rejects the effectiveness of consensus building as a mechanism for conflict resolution in Africa. Drawing from the conflict/consensus theoretical debates of the 1960s, the paper argues that because of the inherent character of power, and considering the nature of the state in Africa which is ...

  4. Crimillegal Orders: Revisiting Organized Crime’s Political Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schultze-Kraft

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Despite its relevance to understanding political change and instability in many parts of the global South, the relationship between organized crime and political order remains understudied. This article introduces the novel concept of “crimillegality” to address this issue. Taking recourse to the conceptions of political order put forward by Weber, Fukuyama and North, Wallis and Weingast, I explain how regular patterns of social exchange and interaction - involving public and private, and state and non-state actors - that span an assumed divide between the realms of legality (“legitimate upper world” and criminality (“illegitimate underworld” influence the character, shape and evolution of political order. I suggest that it is in crimillegal orders that organized criminality acquires political power to its fullest and that oligopolies of coercion and violence are constitutive elements of such orders. The article concludes by presenting some ideas about how the concept of crimillegality could be usefully adopted in the fields of peace building and the mitigation of non-armed conflict violence in Latin America and other parts of the contemporary world.

  5. A geopolítica do poder terrestre revisitada The geopolitics of land power revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonel Itaussu Almeida Mello

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available O pensamento geopolítico do geógrafo inglês Halford Mackind-er é revisitado com três objetivos: a analisar criticamente os conceitos que formam o arcabouço da teoria do poder terrestre; b enfocar à luz dessa teoria a vitória incruenta da potência insular americana sobre a potência continental soviética no âmbito do sistema bipolar da Guerra Fria; c discutir a atualidade ou obsolescência da geopolítica de Mackinder no contexto da "nova ordem mundial" emergente.The goepolitical ideas of the English geographer Halford J. Mackinder are revisited in order to examine the foundations and contemporary relevance, or obsolescence, of his theory of the land power.

  6. Agglomeration externalities, market structure and employment growth in high-tech industries: Revisiting the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cieślik Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we revisit the existing empirical evidence on the effects of various agglomeration externalities and the market structure on employment growth in the high-tech industries of the European Economic Area (EEA. Our study is based on the dynamic panel dataset of two-digit NACE rev 1.1. industries in 285 regions of the European Economic Area for the period 1995-2007. We find that employment growth is negatively related to competition, while localization and urbanization externalities do not seem to affect growth.

  7. The vacuum structure, special relativity theory and quantum mechanics revisited: a field theory-no-geometry approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolubov, N.N. Jr.; Prykarpatsky, A.K.; Ufuk Taneri

    2008-07-01

    The main fundamental principles characterizing the vacuum field structure are formulated and the modeling of the related vacuum medium and charged point particle dynamics by means of de- vised field theoretic tools are analyzed. The Maxwell electrodynamic theory is revisited and newly derived from the suggested vacuum field structure principles and the classical special relativity theory relationship between the energy and the corresponding point particle mass is revisited and newly obtained. The Lorentz force expression with respect to arbitrary non-inertial reference frames is revisited and discussed in detail, and some new interpretations of relations between the special relativity theory and quantum mechanics are presented. The famous quantum-mechanical Schroedinger type equations for a relativistic point particle in the external potential and magnetic fields within the quasiclassical approximation as the Planck constant (h/2π) → 0 and the light velocity c → ∞ are obtained. (author)

  8. Freely floating structures trapping time-harmonic water waves (revisited)

    OpenAIRE

    Kuznetsov, Nikolay; Motygin, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    We study the coupled small-amplitude motion of the mechanical system consisting of infinitely deep water and a structure immersed in it. The former is bounded above by a free surface, whereas the latter is formed by an arbitrary finite number of surface-piercing bodies floating freely. The mathematical model of time-harmonic motion is a spectral problem in which the frequency of oscillations serves as the spectral parameter. It is proved that there exist axisymmetric structures consisting of ...

  9. Revisiting the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osinski, G. R.; Brunner, A.; Collins, G.; Cohen, B. A.; Coulter, A.; Elphic, R.; Grieve, R. A. F.; Hodges, K.; Horne, A.; Kerrigan, M.

    2015-01-01

    The West and East Clearwater Lake impact structures are two of the most distinctive and recognizable impact structures on Earth. Known regionally as the "Clearwater Lake Complex", these structures are located in northern Quebec, Canada (56 deg 10 N, 74 deg 20 W) approximately 125 km east of Hudson Bay. The currently accepted diameters are 36 km and 26 km for the West and East structures, respectively. Long thought to represent a rare example of a double impact, recent age dating has called this into question with ages of approximately 286 Ma and approximately 460-470 Ma being proposed for the West and East structures, respectively. Relatively little is known about the East Clearwater Lake structure. There is no surface exposure and what information there is comes from geophysics and two drill cores obtained in the 1960s. In contrast, the West Clearwater Lake structure is relatively well preserved with large ring of islands in the approximately 30 km diameter lake. Much of the work done on West Clearwater stems from field investigations carried out in 1977 driven by the Apollo program, with a focus on the impact melt rocks and other impactites, which are well exposed on the ring of islands. To our knowledge, the Clearwater Lake impact structures have not been the focus of detailed impact geology field investigations since the 1977 expedition and the only geological map that exists is from the 1960s and is at the reconnaissance level. Our knowledge of impact cratering processes have increased substantially since this time, as have the analytical techniques available for samples. This provided the motivation for a joint Canadian-US-UK expedition to the West Clearwater Lake impact structure in August and September 2015, under the auspices of the FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) project, part of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). We focus here on the impactites of the West Clearwater Lake

  10. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil [' ' Dunarea de Jos' ' University of Galati, 47, Domneasca, 800008-Galati (Romania)

    2010-02-15

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results. (author)

  11. Output power maximization of low-power wind energy conversion systems revisited: Possible control solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Ciprian; Munteanu, Iulian; Bratcu, Antoneta Iuliana; Ceanga, Emil

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of output power maximization for low-power wind energy conversion systems operated in partial load. These systems are generally based on multi-polar permanent-magnet synchronous generators, who exhibit significant efficiency variations over the operating range. Unlike the high-power systems, whose mechanical-to-electrical conversion efficiency is high and practically does not modify the global optimum, the low-power systems global conversion efficiency is affected by the generator behavior and the electrical power optimization is no longer equivalent with the mechanical power optimization. The system efficiency has been analyzed by using both the maxima locus of the mechanical power versus the rotational speed characteristics, and the maxima locus of the electrical power delivered versus the rotational speed characteristics. The experimental investigation has been carried out by using a torque-controlled generator taken from a real-world wind turbine coupled to a physically simulated wind turbine rotor. The experimental results indeed show that the steady-state performance of the conversion system is strongly determined by the generator behavior. Some control solutions aiming at maximizing the energy efficiency are envisaged and thoroughly compared through experimental results.

  12. A lattice calculation of the nucleon's spin-dependent structure function g2 revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeckeler, M.; Rakow, P.E.L.; Schaefer, A.; Schierholz, G.

    2000-11-01

    Our previous calculation of the spin-dependent structure function g 2 is revisited. The interest in this structure function is to a great extent motivated by the fact that it receives contributions from twist-two as well as from twist-three operators already in leading order of 1/Q 2 thus offering the unique possibility of directly assessing higher-twist effects. In our former calculation the lattice operators were renormalized perturbatively and mixing with lower-dimensional operators was ignored. However, the twist-three operator which gives rise to the matrix element d 2 mixes non-perturbatively with an operator of lower dimension. Taking this effect into account leads to a considerably smaller value of d 2 , which is consistent with the experimental data. (orig.)

  13. Underwater nuclear power plant structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, S.; Toll, H.V.

    1982-01-01

    A structure for an underwater nuclear power generating plant comprising a triangular platform formed of tubular leg and truss members upon which are attached one or more large spherical pressure vessels and one or more small cylindrical auxiliary pressure vessels. (author)

  14. Revisiting local structural changes in GeO2 glass at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juncai; Yao, HuRong; Guo, Zhiying; Jia, Quanjie; Wang, Yan; An, Pengfei; Gong, Yu; Liang, Yaxiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2017-09-18

    Despite the great importance in fundamental and industrial fields, understanding structural changes for pressure-induced polyamorphism in network-forming glasses remains a formidable challenge. Here, we revisited the local structural transformations in GeO2 glass up to 54 GPa using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy via a combination diamond anvil cell and polycapillary half-lens. Three polyamorphic transitions can be clearly identified by XAFS structure refinement. First, a progressive increase of the nearest Ge-O distance and bond disorder to a maximum at ~5-16 GPa, in the same pressure region of previously observed tetrahedral-octahedral transformation. Second, a markedly decrease of the nearest Ge-O distance at ~16-22.6 GPa but a slight increase at ~22.6-32.7 GPa, with a concomitant decrease of bond disorder. This stage can be related to a second-order-like transition from less dense to dense octahedral glass. Third, another decrease in the nearest Ge-O distance at ~32.7-41.4 GPa but a slight increase up to 54 GPa, synchronized with a gradual increase of bond disorder. This stage provides strong evidence for ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism with coordination number >6. Furthermore, cooperative modification is observed in more distant shells. Those results provide a unified local structural picture for elucidating the polyamorphic transitions and densification process in GeO2 glass. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  15. Revisiting local structural changes in GeO2 glass at high pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Juncai; Yao, Hurong; Guo, Zhiying; Jia, Quanjie; Wang, Yan; An, Pengfei; Gong, Yu; Liang, Yaxiang; Chen, Dongliang

    2017-10-20

    Despite the great importance in fundamental and industrial fields, understanding structural changes for pressure-induced polyamorphism in network-forming glasses remains a formidable challenge. Here, we revisited the local structural transformations in GeO 2 glass up to 54 GPa using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy via a combination diamond anvil cell and polycapillary half-lens. Three polyamorphic transitions can be clearly identified by XAFS structure refinement. First, a progressive increase of the nearest Ge-O distance and bond disorder to a maximum at ~5-16 GPa, in the same pressure region of previously observed tetrahedral-octahedral transformation. Second, a marked decrease of the nearest Ge-O distance at ~16-22.6 GPa but a slight increase at ~22.6-32.7 GPa, with a concomitant decrease of bond disorder. This stage can be related to a second-order-like transition from less dense to dense octahedral glass. Third, another decrease in the nearest Ge-O distance at ~32.7-41.4 GPa but a slight increase up to 54 GPa, synchronized with a gradual increase of bond disorder. This stage provides strong evidence for ultrahigh-pressure polyamorphism with coordination number  >6. Furthermore, cooperative modification is observed in more distant shells. Those results provide a unified local structural picture for elucidating the polyamorphic transitions and densification process in GeO 2 glass.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Prabir [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Labbe, Pierre [Electricity of France (EDF); Naus, Dan [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  17. Sparse RNA folding revisited: space-efficient minimum free energy structure prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Sebastian; Jabbari, Hosna

    2016-01-01

    RNA secondary structure prediction by energy minimization is the central computational tool for the analysis of structural non-coding RNAs and their interactions. Sparsification has been successfully applied to improve the time efficiency of various structure prediction algorithms while guaranteeing the same result; however, for many such folding problems, space efficiency is of even greater concern, particularly for long RNA sequences. So far, space-efficient sparsified RNA folding with fold reconstruction was solved only for simple base-pair-based pseudo-energy models. Here, we revisit the problem of space-efficient free energy minimization. Whereas the space-efficient minimization of the free energy has been sketched before, the reconstruction of the optimum structure has not even been discussed. We show that this reconstruction is not possible in trivial extension of the method for simple energy models. Then, we present the time- and space-efficient sparsified free energy minimization algorithm SparseMFEFold that guarantees MFE structure prediction. In particular, this novel algorithm provides efficient fold reconstruction based on dynamically garbage-collected trace arrows. The complexity of our algorithm depends on two parameters, the number of candidates Z and the number of trace arrows T; both are bounded by [Formula: see text], but are typically much smaller. The time complexity of RNA folding is reduced from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]; the space complexity, from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. Our empirical results show more than 80 % space savings over RNAfold [Vienna RNA package] on the long RNAs from the RNA STRAND database (≥2500 bases). The presented technique is intentionally generalizable to complex prediction algorithms; due to their high space demands, algorithms like pseudoknot prediction and RNA-RNA-interaction prediction are expected to profit even stronger than "standard" MFE folding. SparseMFEFold is free

  18. Revisiting short-term price and volatility dynamics in day-ahead electricity markets with rising wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper revisits the short-term price and volatility dynamics in day-ahead electricity markets in consideration of an increasing share of wind power, using an example of the Nord Pool day-ahead market and the Danish wind generation. To do so, a GARCH process is applied, and market coupling and the counterbalance effect of hydropower in the Scandinavian countries are additionally accounted for. As results, we found that wind generation weakly dampens spot prices with an elasticity of 0.008 and also reduces price volatility with an elasticity of 0.02 in the Nordic day-ahead market. The results shed lights on the importance of market coupling and interactions between wind power and hydropower in the Nordic system through cross-border exchanges, which play an essential role in price stabilization. Additionally, an EGARCH specification confirms an asymmetric influence of the price innovations, whereby negative shocks produce larger volatility in the Nordic spot market. While considering heavy tails in error distributions can improve model fits significantly, the EGARCH model outperforms the GARCH model on forecast evaluations. (author)

  19. Examining work structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; Boulette, M.D.; Van Cott, H.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the assessment of the work structure of ten nuclear power plants. Work structure factors are those factors that relate to the way in which work at all levels in a plant is organized, staffed, managed, rewarded, and perceived by plant personnel. Questionnaires given to a cross-section of personnel at the plants were the primary source of data collection. Structured ''critical incident'' interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The study revealed that a variety of work structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. The paper highlights a prioritized set of candidate research themes to be considered in EPRI's Work Structure and Performance Research Program

  20. Power system damping - Structural aspects of controlling active power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, O.

    1997-04-01

    Environmental and economical aspects make it difficult to build new power lines and to reinforce existing ones. The continued growth in demand for electric power must therefore to a great extent be met by increased loading of available lines. A consequence is that power system damping is reduced, leading to a risk of poorly damped power oscillations between the generators. This thesis proposes the use of controlled active loads to increase damping of such electro-mechanical oscillations. The focus is on structural aspects of controller interaction and of sensor and actuator placement. On-off control based on machine frequency in a single machine infinite bus system is analysed using energy function analysis and phase plane plots. An on-off controller with estimated machine frequency as input has been implemented. At a field test it damped oscillations of a 0.9 MW hydro power generator by controlling a 20kW load. The linear analysis uses two power system models with three and twenty-three machines respectively. Each damper has active power as output and local bus frequency or machine frequency as input. The power system simulator EUROSTAG is used both for generation of the linearized models and for time simulations. Measures of active power mode controllability and phase angle mode observability are obtained from the eigenvectors of the differential-algebraic models. The geographical variation in the network of these quantities is illustrated using the resemblance to bending modes of flexible mechanical structures. Eigenvalue sensitivities are used to determine suitable damper locations. A spring-mass equivalent to an inter-area mode provides analytical expressions, that together with the concept of impedance matching explain the structural behaviour of the power systems. For large gains this is investigated using root locus plots. 64 refs, 99 figs, 20 tabs

  1. Electrical structure of the central Cascadia subduction zone: The EMSLAB Lincoln Line revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Rob L.; Wannamaker, Philip E.; McGary, R. Shane; Elsenbeck, Jimmy

    2014-09-01

    The EMSLAB experiment was an ambitious onshore-offshore magnetotelluric (MT) transect of the Cascadia subduction zone. When completed (1985-1988), it was the largest experiment of its kind. Modeling and inversion capabilities at the time were, however, not sufficiently sophisticated to handle a fully regularized inversion of the data, including the seafloor data and bathymetric constraints, with the main final model presented based on trial and error forward modeling of the responses. Moreover, new data collected as part of the Earthscope USArray program are of higher quality due to improvements in instrument technology, and augment the original EMSLAB data set, presenting an opportunity to revisit the structure in this part of the subduction system. We have integrated the original wide-band MT data as well as several long-period stations from the original EMSLAB data set and invert these in conjunction with EMSLAB seafloor responses and new Earthscope data on land. This new composite data set has been analyzed in several ways, within a two-dimensional geometry in which conductivity is assumed to be invariant along a strike direction roughly coincident with that of the subduction zone. We have solved for fully smooth regularized models, as well as solutions that allow discontinuities in conductivity along the top surface of the descending slab. Finally, we have tested specific features in the EMSLAB model, notably a moderately shallow ( 30 km depth) forearc conductor. A feature similar to this shallow conductor is a consistent and required feature in our new inversion models, but the new models highlight the connection between the slab and what is interpreted to be an accumulation of aqueous fluids in the deep crust. The depth ( 40 km) at which the conductor intersects the slab suggests that the fluids are released by the transition of hydrous basalt to eclogite at upper greenschist facies and higher metamorphic grade. The nose of the mantle wedge has a

  2. A new switched power linac structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa, F.

    1989-03-01

    A new pulse power structure has been described that utilizes an easily accessible rectilinear switch. The new structure is more ''forgiving'' (as far as risetime is concerned) than the radial line transformer, and contains fewer switching structures/unit length. The combination of the new structure with the switch proposed seems to offer interesting possibilities for a future linear collider. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  3. Revisiting the electrochemical formation, stability and structure of radical and biradical anionic structures in dinitrobenzenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Munoz, Lindsay S.; Gonzalez, Felipe J. [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Av. I.P.N. 2508. Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360, D.F. (Mexico); Gonzalez, Ignacio [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Area de Electroquimica, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340, D.F. (Mexico); Goulart, Marilia O.F.; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Ribeiro, Adriana Santos [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Tabuleiro do Martins, Maceio, AL, 57072-970 (Brazil); Ribeiro, Rogerio Tavares; Longo, Ricardo L. [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, s/n, Cid. Universitaria, Recife, PE, 50740-540 (Brazil); Navarro, Marcelo, E-mail: navarro@ufpe.b [Departamento de Quimica Fundamental, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Av. Prof. Luiz Freire, s/n, Cid. Universitaria, Recife, PE, 50740-540 (Brazil); Frontana, Carlos, E-mail: ultrabuho@yahoo.com.m [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Investigacion y Estudios Avanzados, Av. I.P.N. 2508. Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, 07360, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-11-30

    The effects of the position of a second nitroaromatic group (orthovs.paravs.meta) during reduction of nitrobenzenes were analysed. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in acetonitrile solution revealed that ortho-, meta- and para-dinitrobenzenes show two reversible reduction processes. An Electrochemical-Electron Spin Resonance (E-ESR) study showed that the corresponding radical anions of the ortho and para derivatives, electrogenerated during the first electron transfer uptake, remain the same even after the second monoelectronic process, increasing their intensity due to the presence of a comproportionation process (A{sup 2-} + A {yields} 2A{center_dot}{sup -}). For the case of the meta derivative, the electrogenerated radical anion at the first reduction peak is consumed at the second reduction step, forming a secondary radical species. During the electrochemical study of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, two successive and reversible electron processes were also observed; however, in this case, a very rare biradical dianion structure was found. The use of ESR-spectroelectrochemistry shed some light on controversial aspects of nitroaromatic reduction, especially concerning the second and further waves. These results were corroborated and interpreted with quantum chemical calculations of the molecular and electronic structures, electron affinities and spin densities. As a result, electrochemical mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  4. Revisiting the electrochemical formation, stability and structure of radical and biradical anionic structures in dinitrobenzenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Munoz, Lindsay S.; Gonzalez, Felipe J.; Gonzalez, Ignacio; Goulart, Marilia O.F.; Abreu, Fabiane Caxico de; Ribeiro, Adriana Santos; Ribeiro, Rogerio Tavares; Longo, Ricardo L.; Navarro, Marcelo; Frontana, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    The effects of the position of a second nitroaromatic group (orthovs.paravs.meta) during reduction of nitrobenzenes were analysed. Cyclic voltammetric experiments in acetonitrile solution revealed that ortho-, meta- and para-dinitrobenzenes show two reversible reduction processes. An Electrochemical-Electron Spin Resonance (E-ESR) study showed that the corresponding radical anions of the ortho and para derivatives, electrogenerated during the first electron transfer uptake, remain the same even after the second monoelectronic process, increasing their intensity due to the presence of a comproportionation process (A 2- + A → 2A· - ). For the case of the meta derivative, the electrogenerated radical anion at the first reduction peak is consumed at the second reduction step, forming a secondary radical species. During the electrochemical study of methyl 3,5-dinitrobenzoate, two successive and reversible electron processes were also observed; however, in this case, a very rare biradical dianion structure was found. The use of ESR-spectroelectrochemistry shed some light on controversial aspects of nitroaromatic reduction, especially concerning the second and further waves. These results were corroborated and interpreted with quantum chemical calculations of the molecular and electronic structures, electron affinities and spin densities. As a result, electrochemical mechanisms are presented and discussed.

  5. Purchasing power parity in OECD countries: nonlinear unit root tests revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Cuestas; Paulo José Regis

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide additional evidence on the purchasing power parity empirical fulfillment in a pool of OECD countries. We apply the Harvey et al. (2008) linearity test and the Kruse (2010) nonlinear unit root test. The results point to the fact that the purchasing power parity theory holds in a greater number of countries than has been reported in previous studies.

  6. Achievement Motivation Revisited: New Longitudinal Data to Demonstrate Its Predictive Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustinx, Paul W. J.; Kuyper, Hans; van der Werf, Margaretha P. C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary school students. Two measures of achievement…

  7. Achievement motivation revisited : New longitudinal data to demonstrate its predictive power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hustinx, P.W.J.; Kuyper, H.; Van der Werf, M.P.C.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    2009-01-01

    During recent decades, the classical one-dimensional concept of achievement motivation has become less popular among motivation researchers. This study aims to revive the concept by demonstrating its predictive power using longitudinal data from two cohort samples, each with 20,000 Dutch secondary

  8. Do Banks Benefit from Internationalization? Revisiting the Market Power-Risk Nexus*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buch, Claudia M.; Koch, Catherine T.; Koetter, Michael

    We analyze the impact of bank internationalization on domestic market power (Lerner index) and risk for German banks. Risk is measured by the official declaration of regulatory authorities that a bank is distressed. We distinguish the volume of foreign assets, the number of foreign countries, and

  9. Women, Leadership, and Power Revisiting the Wicked Witch of the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Sharon D.; Prettyman, Sandra Spickard

    2008-01-01

    By examining the cultural images present in the popular musical "Wicked", cultural norms and biases toward women in leadership and women's leadership practices are explored. The discussion rests on conceptions of male and female leadership "styles", how power is obtained and utilised within organisational settings and how resistance and…

  10. Revisiting the cost escalation curse of nuclear power. New lessons from the French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar Rangel, Lina; Leveque, Francois

    2012-01-01

    Since the first wave of nuclear reactors in 1970 to the construction of Generation III+ reactors in Finland and France in 2005 and 2007 respectively, nuclear power seems to be doomed to a cost escalation curse. In this paper we reexamine this issue for the French nuclear power fleet. Using the construction costs from the Cour des Comptes report, that was publicly available in 2012, we found that previous studies overestimated the cost escalation. Although, it is undeniable that the scale-up ended up in more costly reactors, we found evidence of a learning curve within the same size and type of reactors. This result confirms that standardization is a good direction to look, in order to overcome the cost escalation curse. (authors)

  11. Structural mechanics in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Liangbi

    1998-01-01

    The main research works in structural mechanics in reactor technology are emphatically introduced. It is completed by structural mechanics engineers at Shanghai Nuclear Research and Design Institute associated with the design and construction problems for Qinshan NPP Unit 1 and Pakistani CHASNUPP. About structural mechanics problem for the containment, the rock and soft soil two different bases are considered. For the later the interaction between soil and structure is carefully studied. About the structural mechanics problem for the equipment and pipings, the three dimensional stress and fracture analyses are studied. For the structural dynamics problem, including flow induced vibration, the response analyses under earthquake and loss coolant accident loadings are studied. For pipings, the leak before break technique has been emphatically introduced. A lot of mathematical models, the used computer codes, analytical calculations and experimental results are also introduced. This is a comprehensive description about structural mechanics problem in pressurized water reactor nuclear power plant

  12. Structural Emergency Control for Power Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vu, Thanh Long; Chatzivasileiadis, Spyros; Chiang, Hsiao-Dong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a structural emergency control to render post-fault dynamics of power systems from the critical fault-cleared state to a stable equilibrium point (EP). Theoretically, this is a new control paradigm that does not rely on any continuous measurement or load shedding......, as in the classical setup. Instead, the grid is made stable by intentionally changing the power network structure, and thereby, discretely relocating the EP and its stability region such that the system is consecutively driven from fault-cleared state through a set of EPs to the desired EP. The proposed control...... is designed by solving convex optimization problems, making it possibly scalable to large-scale power grids. In the practical side, the proposed control can be implemented by exploiting the FACTS devices that will be widely available on the grids, and hence, requiring minor investment....

  13. Power Flow and Structure-Borne Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachulec, Marcin

    The method of power flow analysis within a structure depends on the frequency considered. For the low frequencies the standard Finite Element Method (FEM) can be used efficiently. In the high frequencies the Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) proved its usefulness. The distinction between low and ...

  14. Structuring and financing power projects in Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Paul

    1993-01-01

    The contractual arrangements for the financing and construction of three 660 MW coal fired power plants in Hong Kong are summarized in the form of headings and a diagram. These cover the joint venture arrangement, construction and equipment supply, the operation and offtake contract, coal supply and the financial structure with respect to commercial risk. (UK)

  15. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arons, J. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA) California Univ., Livermore, CA (USA). Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-01-07

    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Core support structure for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinkamp, E.; Tautz, J.; Ries, H.

    1979-01-01

    A core support structure for nuclear power plants includes a grid of mutually crossing bridges and a support ring surrounding the grid and connected to ends of the outer bridges of the grid, the grid being formed of profile rod crosses having legs of given length, respective legs of pairs of adjacent crosses abutting one another endwise to form together a side of the smallest mesh opening of the grid, and weld means for securing the profile rod crosses to one another at the mutually abutting ends of the legs thereof; and method of producing the foregoing core support structure

  17. Power mos devices: structures and modelling procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossel, P.; Charitat, G.; Tranduc, H.; Morancho, F.; Moncoqut

    1997-05-01

    In this survey, the historical evolution of power MOS transistor structures is presented and currently used devices are described. General considerations on current and voltage capabilities are discussed and configurations of popular structures are given. A synthesis of different modelling approaches proposed last three years is then presented, including analytical solutions, for basic electrical parameters such as threshold voltage, on-resistance, saturation and quasi-saturation effects, temperature influence and voltage handling capability. The numerical solutions of basic semiconductor devices is then briefly reviewed along with some typical problems which can be solved this way. A compact circuit modelling method is finally explained with emphasis on dynamic behavior modelling

  18. Advanced concrete structures for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerna, W.

    1982-01-01

    The author begins with an overview on the various types of power plants depending on the fuel used in them and then in particular deals with the reinforced concrete structures. Especially for reactor buildings and prestressed concrete pressure vessels concrete is the appropriate material. The methods of construction are described as a function of load and operation. Safety requirements brought new load types for such structures as e.g. airplane crash, internal pressure caused by pipe rupture. Dimensioning is done by means of nonlinear dynamical methods of calculation accounting for plasticizing. These methods are explained. Further the constructional principles of high natural-draft cooling towers are mentioned. (orig.) [de

  19. Structural reliability of atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klemin, A.I.; Polyakov, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    In 1978 the first specialized technical manual ''Technique of Calculating the Structural Reliability of an Atomic Power Plant and Its Systems in the Design Stage'' was developed. The present article contains information about the main characteristics and capabilities of the manual. The manual gives recommendations concerning the calculations of the reliability of such specific systems as the reactor control and safety system, the system of instrumentation and automatic control, and safety systems. 2 refs

  20. The organisational structure of protein networks: revisiting the centrality-lethality hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Karthik; Damaraju, Nandita; Joshi, Govind Krishna

    2014-03-01

    Protein networks, describing physical interactions as well as functional associations between proteins, have been unravelled for many organisms in the recent past. Databases such as the STRING provide excellent resources for the analysis of such networks. In this contribution, we revisit the organisation of protein networks, particularly the centrality-lethality hypothesis, which hypothesises that nodes with higher centrality in a network are more likely to produce lethal phenotypes on removal, compared to nodes with lower centrality. We consider the protein networks of a diverse set of 20 organisms, with essentiality information available in the Database of Essential Genes and assess the relationship between centrality measures and lethality. For each of these organisms, we obtained networks of high-confidence interactions from the STRING database, and computed network parameters such as degree, betweenness centrality, closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity indices. We observe that the networks considered here are predominantly disassortative. Further, we observe that essential nodes in a network have a significantly higher average degree and betweenness centrality, compared to the network average. Most previous studies have evaluated the centrality-lethality hypothesis for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherichia coli; we here observe that the centrality-lethality hypothesis hold goods for a large number of organisms, with certain limitations. Betweenness centrality may also be a useful measure to identify essential nodes, but measures like closeness centrality and pairwise disconnectivity are not significantly higher for essential nodes.

  1. Structure of the Venus middle atmosphere: Venera 15 fourier spectrometry data revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zasova, L. V.; Khatountsev, I. A.; Moroz, V. I.; Ignatiev, N. I.

    1999-01-01

    The data obtained by Infrared Fourier Spectrometer on board Venera 15 Orbiter are revisited. The new database of temperature and aerosol profiles is created for the altitude range 55-100 km. The main improvements concern the involving of the whole spectral range free from absorption by any gases but CO2 into the temperature retrieval procedure. Besides the CO2 15 μm fundamental band, this range also includes the weak hot and isotopic CO2 bands. HITRAN-96 spectral database was used for calculation of the gaseous absorption coefficients. The diurnal variations at the isobaric levels are investigated. At low latitudes at the altitude h > 85 km a minimal temperature is observed in the afternoon, and a maximal one is on the morning day side. The temperature differences reach 20 K near 0.1 mb level. The temperature difference changes its sign below 1 mb level: in the afternoon it is warmer by more than 10 K than in the morning. The density of the clouds at all latitudes is found to be higher in the afternoon than in the morning. In the coldest parts of the `cold collar' the clouds are found to be composed of the mode 3 particles. The thermal zonal wind field reveals the presence of the midlatitude jet, connected with the `cold collar'. The low latitude jet near 85 km, connected with the temperature inversion above this level, is observed. It is also possible that another low latitude jet exists near the cloud tops at low latitudes.

  2. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurkiewicz, W.J.; Thomaz, E.; Rideg, P.; Girao, M.

    1978-01-01

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  3. Financial structure in the Indian power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carstairs, Jamie; Ehrhardt, David

    1995-01-01

    In India, the private power initiative of 1991 has offered on solution to the financing problem - the private financing of generation against long-term power purchase agreements. However, this approach encounters a major problem, the financial weakness of the purchasing agents, the state electricity boards, that play a dominant role in most state's power sectors. At present the SEBs are mostly loss making; even the best performers realize returns on assets well below the cost of capital that they now face. The situation is likely to become worse as costs rise, further weakening the ability of the SEBs to sign credible long-term purchase contracts. The private sector has responded by trying to reduce its exposure to SEBs through obtaining guarantees from state and central governments. There are a number of responses to this problem. The SEBs could try to become financially stronger through both cost reduction and increased revenues from higher tariffs and better collection. However, to make the SEBs and EDs into credible long-term power purchasers, power sector reform and regulation is needed. As these actions will take time, other responses could be investigated such as reducing the role of state power utilities by, for example, giving private generators direct access to industrial consumers. The long-term solution requires more profitable SEBs, if these bodies are to continue to play a dominant role in state-level electricity provision. Profitable SEBs will have access to finance from a range of domestic and international sources. The article finishes with consideration of the factors that will affect the optimal capital structure for SEBs. (author)

  4. Ownership structure and market power in the nordic power market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, E.S.; Bergman, L.

    1999-01-01

    The opening of Nord Pool in 1996 seriously constrained the power companies' ability to exercise market power within their national borders. Currently there is an integration process going on among the power companies in the Nord Pool area. It manifest itself in terms of take-over and reciprocal acquisition of shares in the power companies - nationally and abroad. This process may undo what the introduction of the common power market achieved in curtailing market power. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effects on market power of increased cross- ownership in the Nordic power market. (au)

  5. Structural materials challenges for fusion power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtz, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Structural materials in a fusion power system must function in an extraordinarily demanding environment that includes various combinations of high temperatures, reactive chemicals, time-dependent thermal and mechanical stresses, and intense damaging radiation. The fusion neutron environment produces displacement damage equivalent to displacing every atom in the material about 150 times during its expected service life, and changes in chemical composition by transmutation reactions, which includes creation of reactive and insoluble gases. Fundamental materials challenges that must be resolved to effectively harness fusion power include (1) understanding the relationships between material strength, ductility and resistance to cracking, (2) development of materials with extraordinary phase stability, high-temperature strength and resistance to radiation damage, (3) establishment of the means to control corrosion of materials exposed to aggressive environments, (4) development of technologies for large-scale fabrication and joining, and (5) design of structural materials that provide for an economically attractive fusion power system while simultaneously achieving safety and environmental acceptability goals. The most effective approach to solve these challenges is a science-based effort that couples development of physics-based, predictive models of materials behavior with key experiments to validate the models. The U.S. Fusion Materials Sciences program is engaged in an integrated effort of theory, modeling and experiments to develop structural materials that will enable fusion to reach its safety, environmental and economic competitiveness goals. In this presentation, an overview of recent progress on reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, nanocomposited ferritic alloys, and silicon carbide fiber reinforced composites for fusion applications will be given

  6. Atomic-scale structure of GeSe2 glass revisited: a continuous or broken network of Ge-(Se1/2)4 tetrahedra?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkov, V; Le Messurier, D

    2010-01-01

    The atomic-scale structure of germanium diselenide (GeSe 2 ) glass has been revisited using a combination of high-energy x-ray diffraction and constrained reverse Monte Carlo simulations. The study shows that the glass structure may be very well described in terms of a continuous network of corner- and edge-sharing Ge-Se 4 tetrahedra. The result is in contrast to other recent studies asserting that the chemical order and, hence, network integrity in GeSe 2 glass are intrinsically broken. It is suggested that more elaborate studies are necessary to resolve the controversy.

  7. Seven Issues, Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Jim; De Bra, Paul; Grønbæk, Kaj; Larsen, Deena; Legget, John; schraefel, monica m.c.

    2002-01-01

    It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: Search and Query Composites Virtual Structures Computation in/over hypertext network Versioning Collaborative Work Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited ...

  8. Lakatos Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Court, Deborah

    1999-01-01

    Revisits and reviews Imre Lakatos' ideas on "Falsification and the Methodology of Scientific Research Programmes." Suggests that Lakatos' framework offers an insightful way of looking at the relationship between theory and research that is relevant not only for evaluating research programs in theoretical physics, but in the social…

  9. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  10. Innovation of power management structure in Czechoslovakia and nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cibula, M

    1979-01-01

    The estimate is briefly indicated of power demand in Czechoslovakia till 1990 with the objective of attaining 142 mil. tonnes of specific fuel in that year. The demand will be met from domestic resources by 49%, exports by 44.2% and nuclear power by 6.8%. A brief comparison is presented of capital and fuel costs of brown coal fired power plants, hydroelectric plants and nuclear power plants in Czechoslovakia in 1990.

  11. Environmental dilemmas revisited: structural consequences from the angle of institutional ergonomics

    OpenAIRE

    Beckenkamp, Martin

    2009-01-01

    The structure of a social dilemma lies behind many environmental problems. Mingling temporal aspects of resources with the structure of the social dilemma often leads to wrong conclusions. Therefore, it is worth analytically separating temporal aspects from structural aspects of the dilemma. This article concentrates solely on the structural aspects of the dilemma and the grades of complexity with respect to the number and stakes of the people involved, as well as the asymmetry of endowments ...

  12. Superconducting power distribution structure for integrated circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruby, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a superconducting power distribution structure for an integrated circuit. It comprises a first superconducting capacitor plate; a second superconducting capacitor plate provided with electrical isolation means within the second capacitor plate; dielectric means separating the first capacitor plate from the second capacitor plate; first via means coupled at a first end to the first capacitor plate and extending through the dielectric and the electrical isolation means of the second capacitor plate; first contact means coupled to a second end of the first via means; and second contact means coupled to the second capacitor plate such that the first contact means and the second contact means are accessible from the same side of the second capacitor plate

  13. Piezoelectric Structures and Low Power Generation Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irinela CHILIBON

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A short overview of different piezoelectric structures and devices for generating renewable electricity under mechanical actions is presented. A vibrating piezoelectric device differs from a typical electrical power source in that it has capacitive rather than inductive source impedance, and may be driven by mechanical vibrations of varying amplitude. Several techniques have been developed to extract energy from the environment. Generally, “vibration energy” could be converted into electrical energy by three techniques: electrostatic charge, magnetic fields and piezoelectric. Mechanical resonance frequency of piezoelectric bimorph transducers depends on geometric size (length, width, and thickness of each layer, and the piezoelectric coefficients of the piezoelectric material. Manufacturing processes and intended applications of several energy harvesting devices are presented.

  14. Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Traditionally power distribution networks are either not observable or only partially observable. This complicates development and implementation of new smart grid technologies, such as these related to demand response, outage detection and management, and improved load-monitoring. Here, inspired by proliferation of the metering technology, we discuss statistical estimation problems in structurally loopy but operationally radial distribution grids consisting in learning operational layout of the network from measurements, e.g. voltage data, which are either already available or can be made available with a relatively minor investment. Our newly suggested algorithms apply to a wide range of realistic scenarios. The algorithms are also computationally efficient – polynomial in time – which is proven theoretically and illustrated computationally on a number of test cases. The technique developed can be applied to detect line failures in real time as well as to understand the scope of possible adversarial attacks on the grid.

  15. Sensemaking Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Robin; Cornelissen, Joep

    2014-01-01

    We critique and extend theory on organizational sensemaking around three themes. First, we investigate sense arising non-productively and so beyond any instrumental relationship with things; second, we consider how sense is experienced through mood as well as our cognitive skills of manipulation ...... research by revisiting Weick’s seminal reading of Norman Maclean’s book surrounding the tragic events of a 1949 forest fire at Mann Gulch, USA....

  16. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  17. Revisiting Organizations as Information Processors: Organizational Structure as a Predictor of Noise Filtering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fournier, Kevin L

    2008-01-01

    .... The results of the exploration, though mostly inconclusive, call into question both intuition and literature regarding organizational structure as well as literature in information and knowledge sharing...

  18. Structural Mobility, Exchange Mobility and Subgroup Consistent Mobility Measurement – US–German Mobility Measurements Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    C. SCHLUTER; D. VAN DE GAER

    2008-01-01

    We formalize the concept of structural mobility and use the framework of subgroup consistent mobility measurement to derive a relative and an absolute measure of mobility that is increasing both in upward structural mobility and exchange mobility. In our empirical illustration, we contribute substantively to the ongoing debate about mobility rankings between the USA and Germany.

  19. Revisiting the Local Structure in Ge-Sb-Te based Chalcogenide Superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casarin, Barbara; Caretta, Antonio; Momand, Jamo; Kooi, Bart J.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Bragaglia, Valeria; Calarco, Raffaella; Chukalina, Marina; Yu, Xiaoming; Robertson, John; Lange, Felix R. L.; Wuttig, Matthias; Redaelli, Andrea; Varesi, Enrico; Parmigiani, Fulvio; Malvestuto, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The technological success of phase-change materials in the field of data storage and functional systems stems from their distinctive electronic and structural peculiarities on the nanoscale. Recently, superlattice structures have been demonstrated to dramatically improve the optical and electrical

  20. Revisiting the local structure in Ge-Sb-Te based chalcogenide superlattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casarin, B.; Caretta, A.; Momand, J.; Kooi, B. J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Bragaglia, V.; Calarco, R.; Chukalina, M.; Yu, X.; Robertson, J.; Lange, F.R.L.; Wuttig, M.; Redaelli, A.; Varesi, E.; Parmigiani, F.; Malvestuto, M.

    2016-01-01

    The technological success of phase-change materials in the field of data storage and functional systems stems from their distinctive electronic and structural peculiarities on the nanoscale. Recently, superlattice structures have been demonstrated to dramatically improve the optical and electrical

  1. Role Stress Revisited: Job Structuring Antecedents, Work Outcomes, and Moderating Effects of Locus of Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Sharon; You, Sukkyung

    2014-01-01

    A previous study examined role stress in relation to work outcomes; in this study, we added job structuring antecedents to a model of role stress and examined the moderating effects of locus of control. Structural equation modeling was used to assess the plausibility of our conceptual model, which specified hypothesized linkages among teachers'…

  2. Booth Revisited: Identifying the Determinants of Capital Structure in the Sugar Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Kanwar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The study assesses whether selected exogenous variables: tax rate, size, asset tangibility, volatility and profitability, affect capital structure in a significant manner in the sugar industry. It suggests that decision on capital structuring is found to be weakly affected by the variables chosen in our study. This is also consistent with the results of Booth et al (2001 where modern financial theory is found to be weakly portable across a group of developed and developing countries. It is recommended that more empirical work is done in order to understand the impact of capital structure choices.

  3. SL1 revisited: functional analysis of the structure and conformation of HIV-1 genome RNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuragi, Sayuri; Yokoyama, Masaru; Shioda, Tatsuo; Sato, Hironori; Sakuragi, Jun-Ichi

    2016-11-11

    The dimer initiation site/dimer linkage sequence (DIS/DLS) region of HIV is located on the 5' end of the viral genome and suggested to form complex secondary/tertiary structures. Within this structure, stem-loop 1 (SL1) is believed to be most important and an essential key to dimerization, since the sequence and predicted secondary structure of SL1 are highly stable and conserved among various virus subtypes. In particular, a six-base palindromic sequence is always present at the hairpin loop of SL1 and the formation of kissing-loop structure at this position between the two strands of genomic RNA is suggested to trigger dimerization. Although the higher-order structure model of SL1 is well accepted and perhaps even undoubted lately, there could be stillroom for consideration to depict the functional SL1 structure while in vivo (in virion or cell). In this study, we performed several analyses to identify the nucleotides and/or basepairing within SL1 which are necessary for HIV-1 genome dimerization, encapsidation, recombination and infectivity. We unexpectedly found that some nucleotides that are believed to contribute the formation of the stem do not impact dimerization or infectivity. On the other hand, we found that one G-C basepair involved in stem formation may serve as an alternative dimer interactive site. We also report on our further investigation of the roles of the palindromic sequences on viral replication. Collectively, we aim to assemble a more-comprehensive functional map of SL1 on the HIV-1 viral life cycle. We discovered several possibilities for a novel structure of SL1 in HIV-1 DLS. The newly proposed structure model suggested that the hairpin loop of SL1 appeared larger, and genome dimerization process might consist of more complicated mechanism than previously understood. Further investigations would be still required to fully understand the genome packaging and dimerization of HIV.

  4. `Pd20Sn13' revisited: crystal structure of Pd6.69Sn4.31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilhelm Klein

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of the title compound was previously reported with composition `Pd20Sn13' [Sarah et al. (1981. Z. Metallkd, 72, 517–520]. For the original structure model, as determined from powder X-ray data, atomic coordinates from the isostructural compound Ni13Ga3Ge6 were transferred. The present structure determination, resulting in a composition Pd6.69Sn4.31, is based on single crystal X-ray data and includes anisotropic displacement parameters for all atoms as well as standard uncertainties for the atomic coordinates, leading to higher precision and accuracy for the structure model. Single crystals of the title compound were obtained via a solid-state reaction route, starting from the elements. The crystal structure can be derived from the AlB2 type of structure after removing one eighth of the atoms at the boron positions and shifting adjacent atoms in the same layer in the direction of the voids. One atomic site is partially occupied by both elements with a Pd:Sn ratio of 0.38 (3:0.62 (3. One Sn and three Pd atoms are located on special positions with site symmetry 2. (Wyckoff letter 3a and 3b.

  5. Revisiting drivers of energy intensity in China during 1997–2007: A structural decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Lin; Xu, Ming; Liang, Sai; Zeng, Siyu; Zhang, Tianzhu

    2014-01-01

    The decline of China's energy intensity slowed since 2000. During 2002–2005 it actually increased, reversing the long-term trend. Therefore, it is important to identify drivers of the fluctuation of energy intensity. We use input–output structural decomposition analysis to investigate the contributions of changes in energy mix, sectoral energy efficiency, production structure, final demand structure, and final demand category composition to China's energy intensity fluctuation during 1997–2007. We include household energy consumption in the study by closing the input–output model with respect to households. Results show that sectoral energy efficiency improvements contribute the most to the energy intensity decline during 1997–2007. The increase in China's energy intensity during 2002–2007 is instead explained by changes in final demand composition and production structure. Changes in final demand composition are mainly due to increasing share of exports, while changes in production structure mainly arise from the shift of Chinese economy to more energy-intensive industries. Changes in energy mix and final demand structure contribute little to China's energy intensity fluctuation. From the consumption perspective, growing exports of energy-intensive products and increasing infrastructure demands explain the majority of energy intensity increase during 2002–2007. - Highlights: • We analyzed energy intensity change from production and consumption perspectives. • We extended the research scope of energy intensity to cover household consumption. • Sectoral energy efficiency improvement contributed most to energy intensity decline. • Impact of production structure change on energy intensity varied at different times. • Growing export demand newly became main driver of China's energy intensity increase

  6. Revisiting the phase transition of AdS-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills black holes via AdS/CFT tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moumni, H.

    2018-01-01

    In the present work we investigate the Van der Waals-like phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity (EMPYM) via different approaches. After reconsidering this phase structure in the entropy-thermal plane, we recall the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function to show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like behavior as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law and calculating the critical exponent for different values of charge C and nonlinearity parameter q we confirm that the first and the second order phases persist in the holographic framework. Also the validity of the Maxwell law is governed by the proximity to the critical point.

  7. Revisiting the phase transition of AdS-Maxwell–power-Yang–Mills black holes via AdS/CFT tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. El Moumni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we investigate the Van der Waals-like phase transition of AdS black hole solution in the Einstein–Maxwell–power-Yang–Mills gravity (EMPYM via different approaches. After reconsidering this phase structure in the entropy-thermal plane, we recall the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function to show that the both observables exhibit a Van der Waals-like behavior as the case of the thermal entropy. By checking the Maxwell's equal area law and calculating the critical exponent for different values of charge C and nonlinearity parameter q we confirm that the first and the second order phases persist in the holographic framework. Also the validity of the Maxwell law is governed by the proximity to the critical point.

  8. Ceruloplasmin revisited: structural and functional roles of various metal cation-binding sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bento, Isabel; Peixoto, Cristina; Zaitsev, Vjacheslav N.; Lindley, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    The three-dimensional molecular structure of human serum ceruloplasmin has been reinvestigated using X-ray synchrotron data collected at 100 K from a crystal frozen to liquid-nitrogen temperature. The three-dimensional molecular structure of human serum ceruloplasmin has been reinvestigated using X-ray synchrotron data collected at 100 K from a crystal frozen to liquid-nitrogen temperature. The resulting model, with an increase in resolution from 3.1 to 2.8 Å, gives an overall improvement of the molecular structure, in particular the side chains. In addition, it enables the clear definition of previously unidentified Ca 2+ -binding and Na + -binding sites. The Ca 2+ cation is located in domain 1 in a configuration very similar to that found in the activated bovine factor Va. The Na + sites appear to play a structural role in providing rigidity to the three protuberances on the top surface of the molecule. These features probably help to steer substrates towards the mononuclear copper sites prior to their oxidation and to restrict the size of the approaching substrate. The trinuclear copper centre appears to differ from the room-temperature structure in that a dioxygen moiety is bound in a similar way to that found in the endospore coat protein CotA from Bacillus subtilis

  9. In and out of the cation pumps: P-type ATPase structure revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    . The marked increment during the last three years in the number of crystal structures of P-type ATPases has greatly improved our understanding of the similarities and differences of pumps with different ion specificities, since the structures of the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+-ATPase can now......Active transport across membranes is a crucial requirement for life. P-type ATPases build up electrochemical gradients at the expense of ATP by forming and splitting a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, coupled to conformational changes in the transmembrane section where the ions are translocated...... be compared directly. Mechanisms for ion gating, charge neutralization and backflow prevention are starting to emerge from comparative structural analysis; and in combination with functional studies of mutated pumps this provides a framework for speculating on how the ions are bound and released as well...

  10. The Structure of Goal Contents Revisited. A Verification of the Model in Polish Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Górnik-Durose Małgorzata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents an attempt to confirm the circumplex structure of goal contents, identified in 15 cultures around the world (Grouzet et al., 2005, in nine Polish samples. The procedure followed steps from the original study and included testing the assumed 11-factor goal structure and the two-dimensional circular organization of the goal contents. None of the analyses showed outcomes that would explicitly confirm the results attained in the original study. The CFA showed rather poor fits. Results of the MDS generally supported the assumption about the two-dimensional goal contents structure, however ipsative distance analysis reproduced only one of the two assumed dimensions. Finally, although the CIRCUM analysis showed in principle that in the Polish sample the organization of goal contents on the circumference was quite similar to original, the RMSEA indicated poor fit. Methodological and conceptual reasons for the replication failure are analyzed and discussed.

  11. In and out of the cation pumps: P-type ATPase structure revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bublitz, Maike; Poulsen, Hanne; Morth, Jens Preben

    2010-01-01

    Active transport across membranes is a crucial requirement for life. P-type ATPases build up electrochemical gradients at the expense of ATP by forming and splitting a covalent phosphoenzyme intermediate, coupled to conformational changes in the transmembrane section where the ions are translocated....... The marked increment during the last three years in the number of crystal structures of P-type ATPases has greatly improved our understanding of the similarities and differences of pumps with different ion specificities, since the structures of the Ca2+-ATPase, the Na+,K+-ATPase and the H+-ATPase can now...

  12. Revisiting Earth's radial seismic structure using a Bayesian neural network approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.W.L.

    2015-01-01

    The gross features of seismic observations can be explained by relatively simple spherically symmetric (1-D) models of wave velocities, density and attenuation, which describe the Earth's average(radial) structure. 1-D earth models are often used as a reference for studies on Earth's thermo-chemical

  13. M-theory on eight-manifolds revisited: N = 1 supersymmetry and generalized Spin(7) structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsimpis, Dimitrios

    2006-01-01

    The requirement of N = 1 supersymmetry for M-theory backgrounds of the form of a warped product M x w X, where X is an eight-manifold and M is three-dimensional Minkowski or AdS space, implies the existence of a nowhere-vanishing Majorana spinor ξ on X. ξ lifts to a nowhere-vanishing spinor on the auxiliary nine-manifold Y: = X x S 1 , where S 1 is a circle of constant radius, implying the reduction of the structure group of Y to Spin(7). In general, however, there is no reduction of the structure group of X itself. This situation can be described in the language of generalized Spin(7) structures, defined in terms of certain spinors of Spin(TY+T*Y). We express the condition for N = 1 supersymmetry in terms of differential equations for these spinors. In an equivalent formulation, working locally in the vicinity of any point in X in terms of a 'preferred' Spin(7) structure, we show that the requirement of N = 1 supersymmetry amounts to solving for the intrinsic torsion and all irreducible flux components, except for the one lying in the 27 of Spin(7), in terms of the warp factor and a one-form L on X (not necessarily nowhere-vanishing) constructed as a ξ bilinear; in addition, L is constrained to satisfy a pair of differential equations. The formalism based on the group Spin(7) is the most suitable language in which to describe supersymmetric compactifications on eight-manifolds of Spin(7) structure, and/or small-flux perturbations around supersymmetric compactifications on manifolds of Spin(7) holonomy

  14. Crystal structure of richetite revisited: crystallographic evidence for the presence of pentavalent uranium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plášil, Jakub

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 102, č. 9 (2017), s. 1771-1775 ISSN 0003-004X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LO1603 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/24510 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : richetite * uranyl oxide hydroxy-hydrate * crystal structure * pentavalent uranium * weathering Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.021, year: 2016

  15. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients ( N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  16. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sihvonen, Aleksi J.; Ripollés, Pablo; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Soinila, Seppo; Särkämö, Teppo

    2017-01-01

    Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) and morphometry (VBM) study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter volume (WMV) changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90), we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA). Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered) amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered) amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of the lesions

  17. Revisiting the Neural Basis of Acquired Amusia: Lesion Patterns and Structural Changes Underlying Amusia Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksi J. Sihvonen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although, acquired amusia is a common deficit following stroke, relatively little is still known about its precise neural basis, let alone to its recovery. Recently, we performed a voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM and morphometry (VBM study which revealed a right lateralized lesion pattern, and longitudinal gray matter volume (GMV and white matter volume (WMV changes that were specifically associated with acquired amusia after stroke. In the present study, using a larger sample of stroke patients (N = 90, we aimed to replicate and extend the previous structural findings as well as to determine the lesion patterns and volumetric changes associated with amusia recovery. Structural MRIs were acquired at acute and 6-month post-stroke stages. Music perception was behaviorally assessed at acute and 3-month post-stroke stages using the Scale and Rhythm subtests of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA. Using these scores, the patients were classified as non-amusic, recovered amusic, and non-recovered amusic. The results of the acute stage VLSM analyses and the longitudinal VBM analyses converged to show that more severe and persistent (non-recovered amusia was associated with an extensive pattern of lesions and GMV/WMV decrease in right temporal, frontal, parietal, striatal, and limbic areas. In contrast, less severe and transient (recovered amusia was linked to lesions specifically in left inferior frontal gyrus as well as to a GMV decrease in right parietal areas. Separate continuous analyses of MBEA Scale and Rhythm scores showed extensively overlapping lesion pattern in right temporal, frontal, and subcortical structures as well as in the right insula. Interestingly, the recovered pitch amusia was related to smaller GMV decreases in the temporoparietal junction whereas the recovered rhythm amusia was associated to smaller GMV decreases in the inferior temporal pole. Overall, the results provide a more comprehensive picture of

  18. Power in a startup's relationships with its established partners : Interactions between structural and behavioural power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oukes, Tamara; von Raesfeld Meijer, Ariane; Groen, Aard

    2017-01-01

    Power plays a key role in the relationships between startups and established organisations. Yet researchers have devoted little attention to the startup's perspective on power in such relationships. To study startups' view on power, a useful starting point is their structural power, but this also

  19. Revisiting the issue of class structure in Labor and Monopoly Capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Tinel

    Full Text Available The application by the capitalists of the Taylorian principles of management on a large scale leads to a separation of conception from execution. According to Braverman, the main effect of this propagation is to polarize class structure. Nevertheless, he also identified several counter-tendencies. The process involves both deskilling and reskilling movements and it is not fully convincing to say that there for sure is a class polarization. The counter-tendencies can therefore not be taken as minor nor as necessarily dominated by the class polarization tendency. Therefore, the global outcome is likely to be more indeterminate and unstable than suggested by Braverman.

  20. Revisiting the configuration of small satellites structures in the framework of 3D Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudenzi, P.; Atek, S.; Cardini, V.; Eugeni, M.; Graterol Nisi, G.; Lampani, L.; Pasquali, M.; Pollice, L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper the AM-induced evolution of the design process for small satellites is investigated, leading to the identification of optimal design strategies and the definition of a new MAIT concept. A review of the open literature is presented and some introductory concepts are exposed to highlight the effect of the introduction of AM technologies in the development of new satellites systems. In particular, an innovative structural configuration for the CubeSat class of satellites is proposed, with the ultimate goal of minimizing system complexity via parts reduction and the integration of subsystems through an innovative assembly configuration, as an example to be considered for larger satellites.

  1. Revisiting Factors Associated With Screen Time Media Use: A Structural Study Among School-Aged Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngantcha, Marcus; Janssen, Eric; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Ehlinger, Virginie; Le-Nezet, Olivier; Beck, François; Spilka, Stanislas

    2018-06-01

    Screen-based media overuse has been related to harmful consequences especially among children and adolescents. Given their complex interrelationships, predictors of screen time (ST) should be analyzed simultaneously rather than individually to avoid incomplete conclusions. Structural equation models were conducted to examine associations between media ST (television, video games, and computers) along with harmful consequences in adolescents' well-being, such as underweight and overweight, depression, and school failure. Predictors included individual (gender, age, and physical activity), family (structure and socioeconomic background), and substance use variables. We used the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey organized in 2014, including eighth- and ninth-grade students living in France (N = 3720). Students reported spending 3 hours per day in front of each media. Spending more than 2 hours behind each of those 3 media was associated with lower life satisfaction, less physical activity, active school bullying, and grade repetition. Socioeconomic status was the most important predictor of ST, whereas regular substance uses showed modest associations. The main implication of our findings is to sensitize parents and stakeholders about the limitation of ST, including their own use that adolescents are likely to mimic. Alternative measures such as off-line time should be encouraged.

  2. FlexAID: Revisiting Docking on Non-Native-Complex Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2015-07-27

    Small-molecule protein docking is an essential tool in drug design and to understand molecular recognition. In the present work we introduce FlexAID, a small-molecule docking algorithm that accounts for target side-chain flexibility and utilizes a soft scoring function, i.e. one that is not highly dependent on specific geometric criteria, based on surface complementarity. The pairwise energy parameters were derived from a large dataset of true positive poses and negative decoys from the PDBbind database through an iterative process using Monte Carlo simulations. The prediction of binding poses is tested using the widely used Astex dataset as well as the HAP2 dataset, while performance in virtual screening is evaluated using a subset of the DUD dataset. We compare FlexAID to AutoDock Vina, FlexX, and rDock in an extensive number of scenarios to understand the strengths and limitations of the different programs as well as to reported results for Glide, GOLD, and DOCK6 where applicable. The most relevant among these scenarios is that of docking on flexible non-native-complex structures where as is the case in reality, the target conformation in the bound form is not known a priori. We demonstrate that FlexAID, unlike other programs, is robust against increasing structural variability. FlexAID obtains equivalent sampling success as GOLD and performs better than AutoDock Vina or FlexX in all scenarios against non-native-complex structures. FlexAID is better than rDock when there is at least one critical side-chain movement required upon ligand binding. In virtual screening, FlexAID results are lower on average than those of AutoDock Vina and rDock. The higher accuracy in flexible targets where critical movements are required, intuitive PyMOL-integrated graphical user interface and free source code as well as precompiled executables for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS make FlexAID a welcome addition to the arsenal of existing small-molecule protein docking methods.

  3. Structure of boron clusters revisited, Bn with n = 14-20

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Truong Ba; Tam, Nguyen Minh; Nguyen, Minh Tho

    2012-03-01

    We reinvestigate the structures of neutral boron clusters Bn, with n = 14-20. G3B3 calculations confirm that a transition between 2D and 3D shape occurs at B20, which has a tubular form. In disagreement with Boustani et al. (Phys. Rev. B, 83 (2011) 193405), we find a planar B19 cluster. Standard heats of formation are obtained and used to evaluate the clusters stability. The average binding energy tends to increase with increasing size toward a limit. Higher stability is found B14, B16, B18 and B20. All Bn have negative NICS-values. The bonding nature and electron delocalization of B20 are re-examined using CMO and LOL.

  4. Trypanosomatids topoisomerase re-visited. New structural findings and role in drug discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Balaña-Fouce

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Trypanosomatidae family, composed of unicellular parasites, causes severe vector-borne diseases that afflict human populations worldwide. Chagas disease, sleeping sickness, as well as different sorts of leishmaniases are amongst the most important infectious diseases produced by Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp., respectively. All these infections are closely related to weak health care services in low-income populations of less developed and least economically developed countries. Search for new therapeutic targets in order to hit these pathogens is of paramount priority, as no effective vaccine is currently in use against any of these parasites. Furthermore, present-day chemotherapy comprises old-fashioned drugs full of important side effects. Besides, they are prone to produce tolerance and resistance as a consequence of their continuous use for decades. DNA topoisomerases (Top are ubiquitous enzymes responsible for solving the torsional tensions caused during replication and transcription processes, as well as in maintaining genomic stability during DNA recombination. As the inhibition of these enzymes produces cell arrest and triggers cell death, Top inhibitors are among the most effective and most widely used drugs in both cancer and antibacterial therapies. Top relaxation and decatenation activities, which are based on a common nicking–closing cycle involving one or both DNA strands, have been pointed as a promising drug target. Specific inhibitors that bind to the interface of DNA-Top complexes can stabilize Top-mediated transient DNA breaks. In addition, important structural differences have been found between Tops from the Trypanosomatidae family members and Tops from the host. Such dissimilarities make these proteins very interesting for drug design and molecular intervention. The present review is a critical update of the last findings regarding trypanosomatid’s Tops, their new structural features

  5. Structural plasticity in the dentate gyrus- revisiting a classic injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Perederiy

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The adult brain is in a continuous state of remodeling. This is nowhere more true than in the dentate gyrus, where competing forces such as neurodegeneration and neurogenesis dynamically modify neuronal connectivity, and can occur simultaneously. This plasticity of the adult nervous system is particularly important in the context of traumatic brain injury or deafferentation. In this review, we summarize a classic injury model, lesioning of the perforant path, which removes the main extrahippocampal input to the dentate gyrus. Early studies revealed that in response to deafferentation, axons of remaining fiber systems and dendrites of mature granule cells undergo lamina-specific changes, providing one of the first examples of structural plasticity in the adult brain. Given the increasing role of adult-generated new neurons in the function of the dentate gyrus, we also compare the response of newborn and mature granule cells following lesioning of the perforant path. These studies provide insights not only to plasticity in the dentate gyrus, but also to the response of neural circuits to brain injury.

  6. Factor structure of suggestibility revisited: new evidence for direct and indirect suggestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romuald Polczyk

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Yielding to suggestions can be viewed as a relatively stable individual trait, called suggestibility. It has been long proposed that there are two kinds of suggestible influence, and two kinds of suggestibility corresponding to them: direct and indirect. Direct suggestion involves overt unhidden influence, while indirect suggestion concerns influence that is hidden, and the participant does not know that the suggestibility is being measured. So far however, empirical evidence for the existence of the two factors has been scarce. In the present study, more sophisticated and reliable tools for measuring suggestibility were applied than in the previous research, in the hope that better measurement would reveal the factor structure of suggestibility. Two tests of direct suggestibility were used: the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A, measuring hypnotic susceptibility, and the Barber Suggestibility Scale, measuring non-hypnotic direct imaginative suggestibility. Three tests served to measure indirect suggestibility: the Sensory Suggestibility Scale, measuring indirect suggestibility relating to perception; the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, measuring the tendency to yield to suggestive questions and changing answers after negative feedback; and the Emotional Dialogs Tests, measuring the tendency to perceive nonexistent aggression. Participants and procedure In sum, 115 participants were tested, 69 women, 49 men, mean age 22.20 years, SD = 2.20. Participants were tested in two sessions, lasting for a total of four hours. Results Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the existence of two uncorrelated factors of suggestibility: direct and indirect. Conclusions Suggestibility may indeed involve two factors, direct and indirect, and failure to discover them in previous research may be due to methodological problems.

  7. Investigating the structure of power plant plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paffrath, D

    1978-01-01

    In the down-wind area of the RWE power plant Neurath near Grevenbroich the particle number and SO/sub 2/-concentration distribution were measured from an airplane. The results of the distributions are discussed and they are used to estimate dispersion parameters. Furthermore emission rates are evaluated, and the results are in rather good agreement with the data which have been made avialable by the power plant administration.

  8. Internal structure of reactor building for Madras Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandit, D.P.

    1975-01-01

    The structural configuration and analysis of structural elements of the internal structure of reactor building for the Madras Atomic Power Project has been presented. Two methods of analysis of the internal structure, viz. Equivalent Plane Frame and Finite Element Method, are explained and compared with the use of bending moments obtained. (author)

  9. eWOM, Revisit Intention, Destination Trust and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakar, Abubakar Mohammed; Ilkan, Mustafa; Al-Tal, Raad Meshall; Eluwole, Kayode

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit and destination trust, and the moderating role of gender in medical tourism industry. Result from structural equation modeling (n=240) suggests the following: (1) that eWOM influences intention to revisit and destination trust; (2) that destination trust influences intention to revisit; (3) that the impact of eWOM on intention to revisit is about 1.3 times higher in men; (4) that the impact of eWOM on destination trust is ab...

  10. Aging of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Pland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1991-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program, sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) and conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), had the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant structures for continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued service determinations. Major accomplishments under the SAG Program during the first two years of its planned five-year duration have included: development of a Structural Materials Information Center and formulation of a Structural Aging Assessment Methodology for Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants. 9 refs

  11. Nuclear enhanced power corrections to DIS structure functions

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xiaofeng; Qiu, Jianwei; Zhu, Wei

    2001-01-01

    We calculate nuclear enhanced power corrections to structure functions measured in deeply inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). We find that the nuclear medium enhanced power corrections at order of $O(\\alpha_s/Q^2)$ enhance the longitudinal structure function $F_L$, and suppress the transverse structure function $F_1$. We demonstrate that strong nuclear effects in $\\sigma_A/\\sigma_D$ and $R_A/R_D$, recently observed by HERMES Collaboration, can be explained in ...

  12. A revisit to self-excited push pull vacuum tube radio frequency oscillator for ion sources and power measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hlondo, L. R.; Lalremruata, B.; Punte, L. R. M.; Rebecca, L.; Lalnunthari, J.; Thanga, H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Self-excited push-pull vacuum tube oscillator is one of the most commonly used oscillators in radio frequency (RF)-ion plasma sources for generation of ions using radio frequency. However, in spite of its fundamental role in the process of plasma formation, the working and operational characteristics are the most frequently skip part in the descriptions of RF ion sources in literatures. A more detailed treatment is given in the present work on the RF oscillator alone using twin beam power tetrodes 829B and GI30. The circuit operates at 102 MHz, and the oscillation conditions, stability in frequency, and RF output power are studied and analyzed. A modified form of photometric method and RF peak voltage detection method are employed to study the variation of the oscillator output power with plate voltage. The power curves obtained from these measurements are quadratic in nature and increase with increase in plate voltage. However, the RF output power as measured by photometric methods is always less than the value calculated from peak voltage measurements. This difference is due to the fact that the filament coil of the ordinary light bulb used as load/detector in photometric method is not a perfect inductor. The effect of inductive reactance on power transfer to load was further investigated and a technique is developed to estimate the amount of power correction needed in the photometric measurement result.

  13. Structuring Economic Power for Stability Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wallen, Andrew T

    2006-01-01

    .... By their nature, these operations have a strong economic context. This thesis provides a methodology for evaluating current institutional structures and economic doctrines being forged among various government agencies...

  14. Safety classification of nuclear power plant systems, structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The Safety Classification principles used for the systems, structures and components of a nuclear power plant are detailed in the guide. For classification, the nuclear power plant is divided into structural and operational units called systems. Every structure and component under control is included into some system. The Safety Classes are 1, 2 and 3 and the Class EYT (non-nuclear). Instructions how to assign each system, structure and component to an appropriate safety class are given in the guide. The guide applies to new nuclear power plants and to the safety classification of systems, structures and components designed for the refitting of old nuclear power plants. The classification principles and procedures applying to the classification document are also given

  15. Life quality index revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager

    2004-01-01

    The derivation of the life quality index (LQI) is revisited for a revision. This revision takes into account the unpaid but necessary work time needed to stay alive in clean and healthy conditions to be fit for effective wealth producing work and to enjoyable free time. Dimension analysis...... at birth should not vary between countries. Finally the distributional assumptions are relaxed as compared to the assumptions made in an earlier work by the author. These assumptions concern the calculation of the life expectancy change due to the removal of an accident source. Moreover a simple public...... consistency problems with the standard power function expression of the LQI are pointed out. It is emphasized that the combination coefficient in the convex differential combination between the relative differential of the gross domestic product per capita and the relative differential of the expected life...

  16. Impact loads on nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riera, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The first step in evaluation of a NPP design for protection against impact loading, is to identify those events that may be credible for a particular site. In connection with external, man-made events IAEA Safety Series No.50-SG-S5 provides a methodology for selecting the events that need to be considered. This presentation deals with modelling of interface forces in projectile impact against unyielding structures, vibrations induced by impact, penetration, scabbing and perforation effects

  17. Variable structure unit vector control of electric power generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A variable structure Automatic Generation Control (VSAGC) scheme is proposed in this paper for the control of a single area power system model dominated by steam powered electric generating plants. Unlike existing, VSAGC scheme where the selection of the control function is based on a trial and error procedure, the ...

  18. Geographic Spillovers, Structural Power and Growing 'Agency' Post Lisbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The "actorness" of the European Union in external relations is still, also after the Lisbon Treaty, only partially developed. However, the EU has built up a considerable Structural Power towards its suroundings, mainly due to its big Internal Market. a Power of attraction and geographical...

  19. Changes in attitude structure toward nuclear power in the nuclear power plant locations of Tohoku district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsujikawa, Norifumi; Tsuchida, Shoji; Shiotani, Takamasa; Nakagawa, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    This survey was examined the changes in structure of attitude toward nuclear power and the influence of environmental value on the attitude structure before and after the accident at the Fukushima No. 1 nuclear power plant. With residents of Aomori, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures as participants, we conducted online surveys in November 2009 and October 2011. Comparing the results before and after the accident, we found that trust in the management of nuclear power plants had a stronger influence on the perceived risk and benefit regarding nuclear power after the accident than before the accident. The value of concern about environmental destruction resulted in reduced trust in the management. (author)

  20. Overturning behaviour of nuclear power plant structures during earthquakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalal, J.S.; Perumalswami, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear power plant structures are designed to withstand severe postulated seismic forces. Structures subjected to such forces may be found to ''overturn'', if the factor of safety is computed in the traditional way, treating these forces as static. This study considers the transient nature of the problem and draws distinction between rocking, tipping and overturning. Responses of typical nuclear power plant structures to earthquake motions are used to assess their overturning potential more realistically. Structures founded on both rock and soil are considered. It is demonstrated that the traditional factor of safety, when smaller than unity, indicates only minimal base rotations and not necessarily overturning. (auth.)

  1. Hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply. 5 refs., 2 figs

  2. Revisiting magnetism of capped Au and ZnO nanoparticles: Surface band structure and atomic orbital with giant magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando, Antonio; Crespo, Patricia [Instituto de Magnetismo Aplicado, UCM-CSIC-ADIF, Las Rozas. P.O. Box 155, 28230 Madrid (Spain); Dept. Fisica de Materiales, Universidad Complutense, Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Miguel Angel [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, CSIC, C/ Kelsen, 5, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Coey, Michael [Trinity College Dublin, Dublin (Ireland); Ayuela, Andres; Echenique, Pedro Miguel [Centro de Fisica de Materiales, CFM-MPC CSIC-UPV/EHU, Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, Fac. de Quimicas, Universidad del Pais Vasco UPV-EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In this article we review the exotic magnetism of nanoparticles (NPs) formed by substances that are not magnetic in bulk as described with generality in Section 1. In particular, the intrinsic character of the magnetism observed on capped Au and ZnO NPs is analysed. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) analysis has shown that the magnetic moments are intrinsic and lie in the Au and Zn atoms, respectively, as analysed in Section 2, where the general theoretical ideas are also revisited. Since impurity atoms bonded to the surface act as donor or acceptor of electrons that occupy the surface states, the anomalous magnetic response is analysed in terms of the surface band in Section 3. Finally, Section 4 summarizes our last theoretical proposal. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

  4. Selection of power market structure using the analytic hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhes Bhattacharyya; Prasanta Kumar Dey

    2003-01-01

    Selection of a power market structure from the available alternatives is an important activity within an overall power sector reform program. The evaluation criteria for selection are both subjective as well as objective in nature and the selection of alternatives is characterised by their conflicting nature. This study demonstrates a methodology for power market structure selection using the analytic hierarchy process, a multiple attribute decision- making technique, to model the selection methodology with the active participation of relevant stakeholders in a workshop environment. The methodology is applied to a hypothetical case of a State Electricity Board reform in India. (author)

  5. Climatology and trend of wind power resources in China and its surrounding regions: a revisit using Climate Forecast System Reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejiang Yu; Shiyuan Zhong; Xindi Bian; Warren E. Heilman

    2015-01-01

    The mean climatology, seasonal and interannual variability and trend of wind speeds at the hub height (80 m) of modern wind turbines over China and its surrounding regions are revisited using 33-year (1979–2011) wind data from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR) that has many improvements including higher spatial resolution over previous global reanalysis...

  6. Construction of special structures for nuclear power projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, N.

    2003-01-01

    Construction is a very important stage in the course of realization of Nuclear Power Projects and as much care has be devoted to this stage as to the planning and engineering stages. While the setting up of nuclear power projects used to take over seven years in the past, the time period has now been considerably reduced to about five years with advancements in construction engineering, project management and design techniques, on the basis of new initiatives from the owner agency, Nuclear Power Corporation of India. In this article, the constructional aspects of the specialized structures for nuclear power generation are looked into. (author)

  7. Towards uncovering the structure of power fluctuations of wind farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiwen; Jin, Yaqing; Tobin, Nicolas; Chamorro, Leonardo P

    2017-12-01

    The structure of the turbulence-driven power fluctuations in a wind farm is fundamentally described from basic concepts. A derived tuning-free model, supported with experiments, reveals the underlying spectral content of the power fluctuations of a wind farm. It contains two power-law trends and oscillations in the relatively low- and high-frequency ranges. The former is mostly due to the turbulent interaction between the flow and the turbine properties, whereas the latter is due to the advection between turbine pairs. The spectral wind-farm scale power fluctuations Φ_{P} exhibit a power-law decay proportional to f^{-5/3-2} in the region corresponding to the turbulence inertial subrange and at relatively large scales, Φ_{P}∼f^{-2}. Due to the advection and turbulent diffusion of large-scale structures, a spectral oscillation exists with the product of a sinusoidal behavior and an exponential decay in the frequency domain.

  8. REVISITING EUROPE’S GEOPOLITICAL LANDSCAPE AFTER THE UKRAINE CRISIS: AMERICA’S BALANCE OF POWER STRATEGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Serbos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The unveiling of the economic crisis in Europe foregrounds the resurgence of geopolitics in transatlantic foreign policy analysis. With the EU project still at risk, a fragmented Europe allows Russia to gain ground and challenge the European power balance at large. We argue that the U.S. will seriously try to avert such a path and even loss of commitment towards further EU integration. In order to keep Europe united, we stress that the U.S. can exploit the Ukraine crisis by compelling Europe’s pivotal player (Germany towards a European leadership fully committed to EU integration as its ideal option.

  9. The significance of structural power in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Kørnøv, Lone; Cashmore, Matthew; Richardson, Tim

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of how power dynamics enables and constrains the influence of actors upon decision-making and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Based on structuration theory, a model for studying power dynamics in strategic decision-making processes is developed. The model is used to map and analyse key decision arenas in the decision process of aluminium production in Greenland. The analysis shows that communication lines are an important resource through which actors exercise power and influence decision-making on the location of the aluminium production. The SEA process involved not only reproduction of formal communication and decision competence but also production of alternative informal communication structures in which the SEA had capability to influence. It is concluded, that actors influence strategic decision making, and attention needs to be on not only the formal interactions between SEA process and strategic decision-making process but also on informal interaction and communication between actors as the informal structures, which can be crucial to the outcome of the decision-making process. This article is meant as a supplement to the understanding of power dynamics influence in IA processes and as a contribution to the IA research field with a method to analyse power dynamics in strategic decision-making processes. The article also brings reflections of strengths and weaknesses of using the structuration theory as an approach to power analysis. - Highlights: ► Informal interaction influenced process despite the presence of formalised rules. ► Interdependence of actors influenced SEA effectiveness. ► SEA practitioners successfully exercised power to influence decision-making. ► Power dynamics are properties of actors' interactions in decision-making. ► Power structures can be enabling and not solely limiting.

  10. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs

  11. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  12. Condition monitoring and maintenance of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orr, R.; Prasad, N.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are potentially subject to deterioration due to several environmental conditions, including weather exposure, ground water exposure, and sustained high temperature and radiation levels. The nuclear power plant are generally licensed for a term of 40 years. In order to maximize the return from the existing plants, feasibility studies are in progress for continued operation of many of these plants beyond the original licensed life span. This paper describes a study that was performed with an objective to define appropriate condition monitoring and maintenance procedures. A timely implementation of a condition monitoring and maintenance program would provide a valuable database and would provide justification for extension of the plant's design life. The study included concrete structures such as the containment buildings, interior structures, basemats, intake structures and cooling towers. Age-related deterioration at several operating power plants was surveyed and the potential degradation mechanisms have been identified

  13. Dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures: an evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weaver, H.J.

    1980-02-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) evaluated the applications of system identification techniques to the dynamic testing of nuclear power plant structures and subsystems. These experimental techniques involve exciting a structure and measuring, digitizing, and processing the time-history motions that result. The data can be compared to parameters calculated using finite element or other models of the test systems to validate the model and to verify the seismic analysis. This report summarizes work in three main areas: (1) analytical qualification of a set of computer programs developed at LLL to extract model parameters from the time histories; (2) examination of the feasibility of safely exciting nuclear power plant structures and accurately recording the resulting time-history motions; (3) study of how the model parameters that are extracted from the data be used best to evaluate structural integrity and analyze nuclear power plants

  14. Revisiting the NEH algorithm- the power of job insertion technique for optimizing the makespan in permutation flow shop scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baskar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Permutation flow shop scheduling problems have been an interesting area of research for over six decades. Out of the several parameters, minimization of makespan has been studied much over the years. The problems are widely regarded as NP-Complete if the number of machines is more than three. As the computation time grows exponentially with respect to the problem size, heuristics and meta-heuristics have been proposed by many authors that give reasonably accurate and acceptable results. The NEH algorithm proposed in 1983 is still considered as one of the best simple, constructive heuristics for the minimization of makespan. This paper analyses the powerful job insertion technique used by NEH algorithm and proposes seven new variants, the complexity level remains same. 120 numbers of problem instances proposed by Taillard have been used for the purpose of validating the algorithms. Out of the seven, three produce better results than the original NEH algorithm.

  15. Non-linear relationship between oxygen uptake and power output in the Astrand nomogram-old data revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, J A; Szkutnik, Z; Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Pedersen, P K

    2007-06-01

    For the last decade there have been considerable discussion concerning the linearity / non-linearity of the oxygen uptake (V(O2)) - power output (W) relationship with strong experimental evidence of non-linearity provided mainly by breath-by-breath measurements. In this study, we attempted to answer the question whether the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand nomogram, as presented in the Textbook of Work Physiology, P.-O. Astrand et al. (2003), page 281, based on the Douglas bag method, is indeed linear, as stated by the authors before, or if a change point in V(O2), described by Zoladz et al. (1998) Eur J Appl Physiol 78: 369-377, can possibly be detected in those data. The V(O2) - W data were taken from the Astrand nomogram referenced above and from the Table 9.5 on page 282 in the same reference and tested for the presence of the change point in V(O2), using our two-phase model (see the reference above). In the first phase, a linear V(O2) - W relationship was assumed, whereas in the second one (above the so-called change point) an additional increase in V(O2) above the values expected from the linear model was allowed. It was found that in the data taken from the Astrand nomogram (data for men), as well as in the data taken from the Table 9.5, statistically significant change points in V(O2) were present at the power output of 150 W. The documentation of the presence of a change point in the V(O2) - W relationship in the Astrand data provides further evidence for the existence of a non-linearity in the V(O2) - W relationship in incremental exercise tests of humans, also in V(O2) data based upon the Douglas bag method.

  16. Future of structural reliability methodology in nuclear power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueeller, G I [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany, F.R.); Kafka, P [Gesellschaft fuer Reaktorsicherheit m.b.H. (GRS), Garching (Germany, F.R.)

    1978-10-01

    This paper presents the authors' personal view as to which areas of structural reliability in nuclear power plant design need most urgently to be advanced. Aspects of simulation modeling, design rules, codification and specification of reliability, system analysis, probabilistic structural dynamics, rare events and particularly the interaction of systems and structural reliability are discussed. As an example, some considerations of the interaction effects between the protective systems and the pressure vessel are stated. The paper concludes with recommendation for further research.

  17. The effect of economic growth, oil prices, and the benefits of reactor standardization: Duration of nuclear power plant construction revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csereklyei, Zsuzsanna; Thurner, Paul W.; Bauer, Alexander; Küchenhoff, Helmut

    2016-01-01

    The profitability of nuclear power plant investment is largely determined by the construction duration, which directly impacts discounted cash flows, debt and interest payments, as well as variable costs, such as labor. This paper analyzes the key drivers of construction duration using survival models. We focus especially on the strategic expectation formation of private and public utilities engaging in such highly risky megaprojects. Using a balanced dataset of explanatory variables and the IAEA/PRIS dataset of reactor construction starts between 1950 and 2013 we find that the expectation of rising oil prices and higher economic growth, along with the higher per capita GDP of a country tend to reduce the time needed to grid connection. We also identify the reactor models with the fastest construction duration. - Highlights: • We find that higher future economic growth speeds up nuclear reactor construction. • Higher national capacity (measured by income per capita) results in faster projects. • Higher oil prices during construction lead to faster construction times. • Reactor standardization may result in faster building times.

  18. The significance of structural power in Strategic Environmental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Merrild; Kørnøv, Lone; Cashmore, Matthew Asa

    2013-01-01

    , that actors influence both outcome and frames for strategic decision making and attention needs to be on not only the formal interactions between SEA process and strategic decision-making process but also on informal interaction and communication between actors. The informal structures shows crucial...... to the outcome of the decision-making process. The article is meant as a supplement to the understanding of power dynamics influence in IA processes emphasising the capacity of agents to mobilise and create change. Despite epistemological challenges of using ST theory as an approach to power analysis, this meta......This article presents a study of how power dynamics enables and constrains the influence of actors upon decision-making and Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA). Based on Anthony Giddens structuration theory (ST), a model for studying power dynamics in strategic decision-making processes...

  19. RATU - Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-07-01

    Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants create the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research is carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of materials property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed. The monitoring data obtained in real power plants has been used to simulate more precisely the real environment during laboratory tests. The research on structural analysis has focused on extending and verifying the analysis capabilities for structural assessments of nuclear power plants. A widely applicable system including various computational fracture assessment methods has been created with which different structural problems can be solved reliably and effectively. Research on reliability assessment of maintenance in nuclear power plants is directed to practical case studies on components and structures of safety importance, and to the development of models for maintenance related decision support. A systematic analysis of motor-operated valve has been performed

  20. Organizational structure of power engineering of Kazakhstan. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Pathways of integration in Kazakhstan power engineering are considered and economic structure formation in the branch is revealed as well. In 1994 privatization plan for power engineering branch was accepted. All state enterprises were reorganize in to joint-stock companies. At that there is single state monopoly company - National Power System (NPS) Kazakhstanehnergo. NPS makes a wholesale market of electric energy at the expense of it generation at base power plants, additional purchase abroad, following transport in all regions and its selling to territorial power companies as well as separate buyers. Last time wide application of commercial principles in state sector is observed. For formation of wholesale and retail markets was organized Kazakhstan EnergoPool

  1. Observing trans-Planckian ripples in the primordial power spectrum with future large scale structure probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Sloth, Martin Snoager

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the issue of ripples in the primordial power spectra caused by trans-Planckian physics, and the potential for their detection by future cosmological probes. We find that for reasonably large values of the first slow-roll parameter epsilon (> 0.001), a positive detection of trans......-Planckian ripples can be made even if the amplitude is as low as 10^-4. Data from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) and the proposed future 21 cm survey with the Fast Fourier Transform Telescope (FFTT) will be particularly useful in this regard. If the scale of inflation is close to its present upper bound...

  2. The offshore trend: Structural changes in the wind power sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markard, Jochen; Petersen, Regula

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the wind power sector has begun to move offshore, i.e. to use space and good wind speeds on the open sea for large scale electricity generation. Offshore wind power, however, is not just technologically challenging but also a capital intensive and risky business that requires particular financial and organizational resources not all potential investors might have. We therefore address the question, what impact offshore wind power may have on ownership and organizational structures in the wind power sector. We compare on- and offshore wind park ownership in Denmark, the UK and Germany. The analysis shows that offshore wind power in all three countries is dominated by large firms, many of which are from the electricity sector. In Denmark and the UK, also investors from the gas and oil industry play an important role in the offshore wind business. This development represents a major shift for countries such as Germany and Denmark, in which the wind power sector has grown and matured on the basis of investments by individuals, farmers, cooperatives and independent project developers. The structural changes by which offshore wind power is accompanied have consequences for turbine manufacturers, project developers, investors, associations and policy makers in the field.

  3. Organization, structure, and performance in the US nuclear power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, R.K.

    1986-01-01

    Several propositions are advanced concerning the effects of industry organization and structure on the economic performance of the American commercial nuclear power industry. Both the electric utility industry and the nuclear power plant supply industry are relatively high degree of horizontal disaggregation. The latter is also characterized by an absence of vertical integration. The impact of each of these factors on construction and operating performance is discussed. Evidence is presented suggesting that the combination of horizontal and vertical disaggregation in the industry has had a significant adverse effect on economic performance. The relationship between industrial structure and regulatory behavior is also discussed. 43 references, 4 figures, 9 tables

  4. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Taeyoup

    2008-01-01

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). □ SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure · Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC · SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action □ Benefits of SC Structure · Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works · Minimize Site Labors · Improve the Construction Quality · Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean □ SC Modularization · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features · Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules · Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization □ Project Overview · Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP · Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) · Duration: Sep. 2005 ∼ Aug. 2008 (36 Months) · Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design: Korea Power Engineering Company (KOPEC) - Development of Construction Techniques for SC Modularization: KHNP, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety(KINS), KOPEC □ Performance

  5. Structural design of nuclear power plant using stiffened steel plate concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Ilhwan; Kim, Sungmin; Mun, Taeyoup; Kim, Keunkyeong; Sun, Wonsang

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power is an alternative energy source that is conducive to mitigate the environmental strains. The countries having nuclear power plants are encouraging research and development sector to find ways to construct safer and more economically feasible nuclear power plants. Modularization using Steel Plate Concrete(SC) structure has been proposed as a solution to these efforts. A study of structural modules using SC structure has been performed for shortening of construction period and enhancement of structural safety of NPP structures in Korea. As a result of the research, the design code and design techniques based on limit state design method has been developed. The design code has been developed through various structural tests and theoretical studies, and it has been modified by application design of SC structure for NPP buildings. The code consists of unstiffened SC wall design, stiffened SC wall design, Half-SC slab design, stud design, connection design and so on. The stiffened steel plate concrete(SSC) wall is SC structure whose steel plates with ribs are composed on both sides of the concrete wall, and this structure was developed for improved constructability and safety of SC structure. This paper explains a design application of SC structure for a sample building specially devised to reflect all of major structural properties of main buildings of APR1400. In addition, Stiffening effect of SSC structure is evaluated and structural efficiency of SSC structure is verified in comparison with that of unstiffened SC structure. (author)

  6. Quality assurance in the structural installations of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnellenbach, G.; Wrage, S.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of quality assurance distinguishes between self-monitoring of the design, manufacturing and executing firms and external monitoring by state institutions or by experts commissioned by them. The long-term control of structures is within the area of responsibility of the owner. This quality assurance concept is controlled in detail by statutes, which clearly define responsibilities. This structural engineering quality assurance system also forms the basis for the design, construction and utilization of structural installations of nuclear power stations; requirements emanating from the Atomic Energy Acts for the structural installations demand, however, to some extent a sharpening of self- and external monitoring. Therefore, today a quality concept has been developed for the important engineering safety-related buildings of nuclear power stations. This concept takes account of the strict requirements imposed and fulfils the requirement of KTA 1401. (orig.) [de

  7. Aircraft impact on nuclear power plants concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, R.F.; Barbosa, L.C.B.; Santos, S.H.C.

    1980-01-01

    A summary about the procedures for the analysis of aircraft on concrete structures, aiming to emphasize the aspects related to the nuclear power plants safety, is presented. The impact force is determined by the Riera model. The effect of this impact force on the concrete structures is presented, showing the advantages to use nonlinear behaviour in the concrete submitted to short loads. The simplifications used are shown through a verification example of the nuclear reactor concrete shielding. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Revisiting the Aluminum Trimesate-based MOF (MIL-96): from Structure Determination to the Processing of Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Capture.

    KAUST Repository

    Benzaqui, Marvin; S. Pillai, Renjith; Sabetghadam, Anahid; Benoit, Virginie; Normand, Pé rine; Marrot, Jerome; Menguy, Nicolas; Montero, David; Shepard, William; Tissot, Antoine; Martineau-Corcos, Charlotte; Sicard, Clé mence; Mihaylov, Mihail; Carn, Florent; Beurroeis, Isabelle; Llewellyn, Philip L.; De Weireld, Guy; Hadjiivanov, Konstantin; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Maurin, Guillaume; Steunou, Nathalie; Serre, Christian

    2017-01-01

    A microporous Al trimesate-based metal-organic framework (MOF), denoted MIL-96-(Al), was selected as a porous hybrid filler for the processing of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for CO2/N-2 postcombustion separation. First, the structural model of MIL-96-(Al) initially reported was revisited using a combination of synchrotron-based single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In a second step, pure MIL-96-(Al) crystals differing by their size and aspect ratio, including anisotropic hexagonal platelets and nanoparticles of about 70 nm in diameter, were prepared. Then, a combination of in situ IR spectroscopy, single-gas, and CO2/N-2 coadsorption experiments, calorimetry, and molecular simulations revealed that MIL-96-(Al) nanoparticles show a relatively high CO2 affinity over N-2 owing to strong interactions between CO2 molecules and several adsorption sites such as Al3+ Lewis centers, coordinated water, and hydroxyl groups. Finally, the high compatibility between MIL-96-(Al) nanoparticles and the 6FDA-DAM polymer allowed the processing of homogeneous and defect-free MMMs with a high MOF loading (up to 25 wt %) that outperform pure polymer membranes for CO2/N-2 separation.

  9. Revisiting the Aluminum Trimesate-based MOF (MIL-96): from Structure Determination to the Processing of Mixed Matrix Membranes for CO2 Capture.

    KAUST Repository

    Benzaqui, Marvin

    2017-11-08

    A microporous Al trimesate-based metal-organic framework (MOF), denoted MIL-96-(Al), was selected as a porous hybrid filler for the processing of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) for CO2/N-2 postcombustion separation. First, the structural model of MIL-96-(Al) initially reported was revisited using a combination of synchrotron-based single-crystal X-ray diffraction, solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. In a second step, pure MIL-96-(Al) crystals differing by their size and aspect ratio, including anisotropic hexagonal platelets and nanoparticles of about 70 nm in diameter, were prepared. Then, a combination of in situ IR spectroscopy, single-gas, and CO2/N-2 coadsorption experiments, calorimetry, and molecular simulations revealed that MIL-96-(Al) nanoparticles show a relatively high CO2 affinity over N-2 owing to strong interactions between CO2 molecules and several adsorption sites such as Al3+ Lewis centers, coordinated water, and hydroxyl groups. Finally, the high compatibility between MIL-96-(Al) nanoparticles and the 6FDA-DAM polymer allowed the processing of homogeneous and defect-free MMMs with a high MOF loading (up to 25 wt %) that outperform pure polymer membranes for CO2/N-2 separation.

  10. Structural Power and International Relations Analysis: "Fill your basket, get your preferences"

    OpenAIRE

    Pustovitovskij, Andrej; Kremer, Jan-Frederik

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we will address current deficits of the study of power in IR by introducing a new concept of structural power. After briefly presenting existing concepts of relational power, of structural power as well as of conceptualizing power as the possession of resources (power-as-resources), we will introduce our concept of structural power as an approach suitable for bridging the gap between existing concepts (by strongly focusing on the importance of the structural level). We will s...

  11. PACER revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses a modified version of the PACER concept for power and nuclear material production, which changes the working fluid in the cavity from steam to the molten salt, LiF + BeF 2 . In the PACER concept, a 20-kt peaceful nuclear explosion is contained in a cavity about 200 m in diameter, filled with 200 atm of 500/degree/C steam. Energy from the explosion is used to produce power, and the neutrons are used to produce materials such as 233 U, Pu, 60 Co, and T. The present idea is to modify the PACER concept in three ways, to improve the practicality, predictability, and safety of power production from this technology and thus improve public acceptance of this power source. These improvements are line the cavity with steel; replace the steam with molten salt; and reduce the explosive yield to about 2 kt. This concept is the only fusion power concept where the underlying technology is proven and in hand today. 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Influence of radio frequency power on structure and ionic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    frequency (rf) power on the structure and the ionic conductivity of LiPON thin films has been investigated. The morphology ... be used as a fine alternative to traditional sulfides and ... able lithium batteries (Kennedy and Zhang 1988; Ménétrier.

  13. Influence of radio frequency power on structure and ionic

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) thin films as solid electrolytes were prepared by radio frequency magnetron sputtering of a Li3PO4 target in ambient nitrogen atmosphere. The influence of radio frequency (rf) power on the structure and the ionic conductivity of LiPON thin films has been investigated. The morphology ...

  14. Aging Evaluation of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Y.; Takesue, N.; Tsukagoshi, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, method on the aging evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures was investigated. Problems on the durability evaluation of reinforced concrete structures were pointed out and an evaluation framework was considered. In view of the importance of evaluating the degree of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, relationships should be formulated among the number of years elapsed, t, the amount of action of a deteriorative factor, F, the degree of material deterioration, D, and the performance of the structure, P. Evaluation by PDFt diagrams combining these relationships may be effective. A detailed procedure of durability evaluation for a reinforced concrete structure using PDFt concept is presented for the deterioration factors of thermal effect, irradiation, neutralization and penetration of salinity by referring to the recent papers. And the evaluation framework of the deteriorated material constitutive model which can be used for the numerical analysis of the integrity evaluation for the concrete structure was proposed. (author)

  15. Magnetic shielding structure optimization design for wireless power transmission coil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Zhongyu; Wang, Junhua; Long, Mengjiao; Huang, Hong; Sun, Mingui

    2017-09-01

    In order to improve the performance of the wireless power transmission (WPT) system, a novel design scheme with magnetic shielding structure on the WPT coil is presented in this paper. This new type of shielding structure has great advantages on magnetic flux leakage reduction and magnetic field concentration. On the basis of theoretical calculation of coil magnetic flux linkage and characteristic analysis as well as practical application feasibility consideration, a complete magnetic shielding structure was designed and the whole design procedure was represented in detail. The simulation results show that the coil with the designed shielding structure has the maximum energy transmission efficiency. Compared with the traditional shielding structure, the weight of the new design is significantly decreased by about 41%. Finally, according to the designed shielding structure, the corresponding experiment platform is built to verify the correctness and superiority of the proposed scheme.

  16. Pressure test behaviour of embalse nuclear power plant containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, S.; Marinelli, C.

    1984-01-01

    It's described the structural behaviour of the containment structure during the pressure test of the Embalse plant (CANDU type, 600MW), made of prestressed concrete with an epoxi liner. Displacement, strain, temperature, and pressure measurements of the containment structure of the Embalse Nuclear Power Plant are presented. The instrumentation set up and measurement specifications are described for all variables of interest before, during and after the pressure test. The analytical models to simulate the heat transfer due to sun heating and air convenction and to predict the associated thermal strains and displacements are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  17. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    Research is being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under US nuclear regulatory commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a structural materials information center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of non-destructive evaluation techniques, assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  18. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    Research is being conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the US-NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques, assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. (author). 29 refs., 2 figs

  19. Shoreline change due to coastal structures of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, K. S.; Lee, T. S.; Kim, Y. I.

    2001-01-01

    Characteristics of shoreline change at the coastal area near power plant were analyzed. For a nuclear power plant located in the east coast of Korean peninsula, remote-sensing data, i.e.airborne images and satellite images are acquired and shoreline data were extracted. Recession and davance of shoreline due to coastal structures of powder plant and land reclamation was showed. 1-line numerical shoreline change model was established for simulating the response of shoreline to construction of coastal structures. The model uses curvilinear coordinates that follow the shoreline and is capable of handling the formation of tombolos as well as the growth of salients in the vicinity of coastal structures. The model predicted significant erosion of beach in case breakwaters were extended. Offshore breakwaters were suggested as a countermeasure to shoreline change

  20. Bird nesting on an Athabasca power line structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stedwill, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    SaskPower has recently completed its 400 km Athabasca power line, and is evaluating the predicted environmental impact of the line on the resident population of bald eagles and other raptors. During construction of the line, five major types of impact associated with the line were addressed. Minor route adjustments were made to by-pass nests of bald eagles and osprey to minimize impact of construction on breeding. The proximity of the power line to cliff faces and the north shore of lake Athabasca was maximized, and frequency of stream crossings and proximity to rapids were minimized. Route adjustments were made to ensure that the line was at least 1.6 km from bald eagle nest sites. As structures of the main 115 kV power line allow a minimum separation between conductors and grounded spars of 1.6 m, and between conductors of 4.6 m, electrocution was not considered to be a significant risk. However, on the 25 kV power line in regions of known bald eagle activity and in close proximity to bodies of water, provision was made for special structures to allow birds to perch without danger of electrocution. It was concluded that the resident population of raptors will probably be enhanced, particularly in areas not previously utilized. 8 refs., 5 figs

  1. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W B; Kweon, K J; Suh, Y P; Nah, H S; Lee, K J; Park, D S; Jo, Y K [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  2. A Study on Salt Attack Protection of Structural and Finishing Materials in Power Plant Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, W.B.; Kweon, K.J.; Suh, Y.P.; Nah, H.S.; Lee, K.J.; Park, D.S.; Jo, Y.K. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This is a final report written by both KEPRI and KICT as a co-operative research titled {sup A} study on Salt Protection of Structural and Finishings in Power Plant Structures{sup .} This study presented the methods to prevent the chloride-induced corrosion of power plant structures through collection and analysis of research datum relating to design, construction and maintenance for the prevention of structural and finishing materials, thru material performance tests for anti-corrosion under many kinds of chloride-induced corrosion environments. As a result, this study proposed the guidelines for design, construction and maintenance of power plant structures due to chloride-induced corrosion. (author). 257 refs., 111 figs., 86 tabs.

  3. Aging of concrete containment structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Yasuhiro; Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    Concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants in the US Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance design, considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. Current inservice inspection requirements for concrete containments are summarized. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. A summary is presented. A summary is presented of the Structural Aging (SAG) Program being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved bases for their continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitiative methodology for continued service conditions. Objectives and a summary of accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  4. Impacts of Power Structure on Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the manufacturer’s operational decisions, e.g., wholesale price and product sustainability level, the retailer’s operational decision, e.g., retail margin, and supply chain efficiency under three supply chain power structures: manufacturer Stackelberg, Nash and retailer Stackelberg. As a benchmark, we first obtain the equlibrium price and product sustainability level in a vertically integrated supply chain. Our analysis provides some interesting findings in a decentralized supply chain: (i a dominant manufacturer (retailer always benefits from its power; (ii the entire supply chain earns the most profit from the Nash game, and the least from the retailer Stackelberg game, respectively; (iii as the power shifts from the manufacturer to the retailer, product sustainability and retail price increase; (iv dominant manufacturer does not necessarily imply low wholesale price that would benefit the retailer. Managerial insights are provided for the manufacturer and the retailer, respectively.

  5. Oxidative phosphorylation revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nath, Sunil; Villadsen, John

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are revisited. New experimental data on the involvement of succinate and malate anions respectively in oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation are presented. These new data offer a novel molecular mechanistic...

  6. Cannabidiol revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Mayr

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of cannabidiol, C21H30O2, {systematic name: 2-[(1R,6R-3-methyl-6-(prop-1-en-2-ylcyclohex-2-enyl]-5-pentylbenzene-1,3-diol}, was determined earlier by Jones et al. [(1977. Acta Cryst. B33, 3211–3214] and Ottersen & Rosenqvist [(1977. Acta Chem. Scand. B31, 749–755]. In both investigations, the absolute configuration is given as R,R, referring to Mechoulam et al. [(1967.J. Am. Chem. Soc. 89, 4552–4554]. In the latter, the absolute configuration was identified by chemical means. Using the advantages of modern single-crystal X-ray diffractometers such as area detectors and high-intensity radiation sources, a high-quality structure determination including the absolute configuration was possible and is shown in this work. Furthermore, the rather uncommon Cu Kβ wavelength radiation was applied for the structure determination, which confirmed the absolute structure to be R,R.

  7. Technology standards for structure, etc. concerning nuclear power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Based on the Ordinance for the Technology Standards concerning Nuclear Power Generating Facilities, the technology standards are established for the vessels of class 1 to 4 (including reactor pressure vessels, reactor containment vessels, etc.), the pipes of class 1 to 3, safety valves, pressure test and monitoring test specimens. Those specified are materials, nondestructive tests, structures, shapes, shells, flanges, etc. for the vessels and the pipes, and so on. (Mori, K.)

  8. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today's electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry's transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment

  9. The changing structure of the electric power industry: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    The U. S. electric power industry today is on the road to restructuring a road heretofore uncharted. While parallels can be drawn from similar journeys taken by the airline industry, the telecommunications industry, and, most recently, the natural gas industry, the electric power industry has its own unique set of critical issues that must be resolved along the way. The transition will be from a structure based on a vertically integrated and regulated monopoly to one equipped to function successfully in a competitive market. The long-standing traditional structure of the electric power industry is the result of a complex web of events that have been unfolding for over 100 years. Some of these events had far-reaching and widely publicized effects. Other major events took the form of legislation. Still other events had effects that are less obvious in comparison (e.g., the appearance of technologies such as transformers and steam and gas turbines, the invention of home appliances, the man-made fission of uranium), and it is likely that their significance in the history of the industry has been obscured by the passage of time. Nevertheless, they, too, hold a place in the underpinnings of today`s electric industry structure. The purpose of this report, which is intended for both lay and technical readers, is twofold. First, it is a basic reference document that provides a comprehensive delineation of the electric power industry and its traditional structure, which has been based upon its monopoly status. Second, it describes the industry`s transition to a competitive environment by providing a descriptive analysis of the factors that have contributed to the interest in a competitive market, proposed legislative and regulatory actions, and the steps being taken by the various components of the industry to meet the challenges of adapting to and prevailing in a competitive environment.

  10. Impacts of Power Structure on Sustainable Supply Chain Management

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Li; Yangyang Xu; Fumin Deng; Xuedong Liang

    2017-01-01

    The present paper examines the manufacturer’s operational decisions, e.g., wholesale price and product sustainability level, the retailer’s operational decision, e.g., retail margin, and supply chain efficiency under three supply chain power structures: manufacturer Stackelberg, Nash and retailer Stackelberg. As a benchmark, we first obtain the equlibrium price and product sustainability level in a vertically integrated supply chain. Our analysis provides some interesting findings in a decent...

  11. Development of SC structure modularization in Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Taeyoup [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-04-15

    New Focus on NPP are Rising Concerns on Global Warming, Potential energy crisis (geo-political), Improved reliability and safety of nuclear power plant, Advent of Generation 3+ NPP technology and Economical Energy Resource. New NPPs are 6 units in Korea and 23 in Asia being built, 32 units being planned in China by 2020 (150 by 2050), 10 units being planned in US by 2020 and IAEA expects $200 billions on NPP construction next 25 years (up to 30% of total world energy). {open_square} SC(Steel Plate Concrete) structure {center_dot} Steel Plate is used as a Structural Element instead of Reinforcing Bars in RC {center_dot} SC structure consists of Steel Plate with Headed Studs. Connected by Tie-bars - The Primary Purpose of Tie-bars is to Stiffen and Hold Together the Plates during Construction Process - Headed Studs are Welded to the Inside of Steel Plate for composite action {open_square} Benefits of SC Structure {center_dot} Shorten Construction Duration for Re bar, Forming and Scaffolding Works {center_dot} Minimize Site Labors {center_dot} Improve the Construction Quality {center_dot} Enable Construction Sites to be kept Clean {open_square} SC Modularization {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Fit for Modular Construction for Structural Features {center_dot} Inattentively Effective for Integrated Modules {center_dot} Pre-fabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularization {open_square} Project Overview {center_dot} Project Name: Development of SC structure for Modularization in NPP {center_dot} Project Type: Electric Power Industry R and D (Ministry of Knowledge Economy) {center_dot} Duration: Sep. 2005 {approx} Aug. 2008 (36 Months) {center_dot} Research Team and Scopes - Project Management: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company (KHNP) - Development of Code and Standards for SC Structure: Korea Society of Steel Construction (KSSC) Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) - Development of SC Structural Analysis and Design

  12. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    As part of a general safety analysis, the reliability against structural damage due to an aircraft crash on a nuclear powered ship is evaluated. This structural analysis is an aid in safety design. It is assumed that a Phantom military jet-fighter hits a nuclear powered ship. The total reaction force due to such an aircraft impact on a rigid barrier is specified in the guidelines of the Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission (German Safety Advisory Committee) for pressurized water reactors. This paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structure. (Auth.)

  13. A sensitivity study of seismic structure-soil-structure interaction problems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthees, W.; Magiera, G.

    1982-01-01

    A sensitivity study for the interaction effects of adjacent structures of nuclear power plants caused by horizontal seismic excitation has been performed. The key structural and soil parameters for linear and for nonlinear behaviour were varied within their applicable bandwidth. It has been shown that the interaction phenomena can contribute to the response of structures to such a large extent that it cannot be disregarded. (orig.)

  14. Full scale dynamic testing of Paks nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    This report refers to the full-scale dynamic structural testing activities that have been performed in December 1994 at the Paks (H) Nuclear Power Plant, within the framework of: the IAEA Coordinated research Programme 'Benchmark Study for the Seismic Analysis and Testing of WWER-type Nuclear Power Plants, and the nuclear research activities of ENEL-WR/YDN, the Italian National Electricity Board in Rome. The specific objective of the conducted investigation was to obtain valid data on the dynamic behaviour of the plant's major constructions, under normal operating conditions, for enabling an assessment of their actual seismic safety to be made. As described in more detail hereafter, the Paks NPP site has been subjected to low level earthquake like ground shaking, through appropriately devised underground explosions, and the dynamic response of the plant's 1 st reactor unit important structures was appropriately measured and digitally recorded. In-situ free field response was measured concurrently and, moreover, site-specific geophysical and seismological data were simultaneously acquired too. The above-said experimental data is to provide basic information on the geophysical and seismological characteristics of the Paks NPP site, together with useful reference information on the true dynamic characteristics of its main structures and give some indications on the actual dynamic soil-structure interaction effects for the case of low level excitation

  15. Structural experiences at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlur, A.V.

    1983-01-01

    This paper discusses the original structural and geotechnical design and subsequent structural experience at the Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant. The original design of the 535 MWe Westinghouse two loop PWR nuclear plant operated by Wisconsin Public Service Corporation, was started in 1967 and was completed in 1974 when the unit was put into commercial operation. Since 1974 a number of changes in the regulations and additional requirements have been imposed on operating reactors. The paper traces the influence of the original plant criteria on the backfit evaluations and the minimal physical changes required in the plant's structures and components to comply with the new requirements. In addition, the unique design features and construction challenges of the original design are discussed. Kewaunee Nuclear Power Plant has had one of the best operating performance records in the world. Also, the exposure to radiation for plant personnel and radioactive waste generation has been significantly lower than the average. This has been achieved by a conscientious team effort of all parties involved. Some of the more significant structural design features contributing to the excellent performance is detailed in this paper. (orig.)

  16. Effects of a Structured Discharge Planning Program on Perceived Functional Status, Cardiac Self-efficacy, Patient Satisfaction, and Unexpected Hospital Revisits Among Filipino Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cajanding, Ruff Joseph

    Cardiovascular diseases remain the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among Filipinos and are responsible for a very large number of hospital readmissions. Comprehensive discharge planning programs have demonstrated positive benefits among various populations of patients with cardiovascular disease, but the clinical and psychosocial effects of such intervention among Filipino patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) have not been studied. In this study we aimed to determine the effectiveness of a nurse-led structured discharge planning program on perceived functional status, cardiac self-efficacy, patient satisfaction, and unexpected hospital revisits among Filipino patients with AMI. A true experimental (randomized control) 2-group design with repeated measures and data collected before and after intervention and at 1-month follow-up was used in this study. Participants were assigned to either the control (n = 68) or the intervention group (n = 75). Intervention participants underwent a 3-day structured discharge planning program implemented by a cardiovascular nurse practitioner, which is comprised of a series of individualized lecture-discussion, provision of feedback, integrative problem solving, goal setting, and action planning. Control participants received standard routine care. Measures of functional status, cardiac self-efficacy, and patient satisfaction were measured at baseline; cardiac self-efficacy and patient satisfaction scores were measured prior to discharge, and perceived functional status and number of revisits were measured 1 month after discharge. Participants in the intervention group had significant improvement in functional status, cardiac self-efficacy, and patient satisfaction scores at baseline and at follow-up compared with the control participants. Furthermore, participants in the intervention group had significantly fewer hospital revisits compared with those who received only standard care. The results demonstrate that a

  17. Magnetic moments revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, I.S.; Khanna, F.C.

    1984-01-01

    Consideration of core polarization, isobar currents and meson-exchange processes gives a satisfactory understanding of the ground-state magnetic moments in closed-shell-plus (or minus)-one nuclei, A = 3, 15, 17, 39 and 41. Ever since the earliest days of the nuclear shell model the understanding of magnetic moments of nuclear states of supposedly simple configurations, such as doubly closed LS shells +-1 nucleon, has been a challenge for theorists. The experimental moments, which in most cases are known with extraordinary precision, show a small yet significant departure from the single-particle Schmidt values. The departure, however, is difficult to evaluate precisely since, as will be seen, it results from a sensitive cancellation between several competing corrections each of which can be as large as the observed discrepancy. This, then, is the continuing fascination of magnetic moments. In this contribution, we revisit the subjet principally to identify the role played by isobar currents, which are of much concern at this conference. But in so doing we warn quite strongly of the dangers of considering just isobar currents in isolation; equal consideration must be given to competing processes which in this context are the mundane nuclear structure effects, such as core polarization, and the more popular meson-exchange currents

  18. Space structures, power, and power conditioning; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 11-13, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askew, R.F.

    1988-01-01

    Various papers on space structures, power, and power conditioning are presented. Among the topics discussed are: heterogeneous gas core reaction for space nuclear power, pulsed gas core reactor for burst power, fundamental considerations of gas core reactor systems, oscillating thermionic conversion for high-density space power, thermoelectromagnetic pumps for space nuclear power systems, lightweight electrochemical converter for space power applications, ballistic acceleration by superheated hydrogen, laser-induced current switching in gaseous discharge, electron-beam-controlled semiconductor switches, laser-controlled semiconductor closing and opening switch. Also addressed are: semiconductor-metal eutectic composites for high-power switching, optical probes for the characterization of surface breakdown, 40 kV/20 kA pseudospark switch for laser applications, insulation direction for high-power space systems, state space simulation of spacecraft power systems, structural vibration of space power station systems, minimum-time control of large space structures, novel fusion reaction for space power and propulsion, repetition rate system evaluations, cryogenic silicon photoconductive switches for high-power lasers, multilevel diamondlike carbon capacitor structure, surface breakdown of prestressed insulators, C-Mo and C-Zr alloys for space power systems, magnetic insulation for the space environment

  19. Principles underlying the Fourth Power Nature of Structured Shock Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    Steady structured shock waves in materials including metals, glasses, compounds and solid mixtures, when represented through plots of Hugoniot stress against a measure of the strain rate through which the Hugoniot state is achieved, have consistently demonstrated a dependence to the fourth power. A perhaps deeper observation is that the product of the energy dissipated through the transition to the Hugoniot state and the time duration of the Hugoniot state event exhibits invariance independent of the Hugoniot amplitude. Invariance of the energy-time product and the fourth-power trend are to first order equivalent. Further, constancy of this energy-time product is observed in other dynamic critical state failure events including spall fracture, dynamic compaction and adiabatic shear failure. The presentation pursues the necessary background exposing the foregoing shock physics observations and explores possible statistical physics principals that may underlie the collective dynamic observations.

  20. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent...

  1. Sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Feng Jiang; Zhang, Sui; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a novel sandwich-structured hollow fiber membrane has been developed via a specially designed spinneret and optimized spinning conditions. With this specially designed spinneret, the outer layer, which is the most crucial part of the sandwich-structured membrane, is maintained the same as the traditional dual-layer membrane. The inner substrate layer is separated into two layers: (1) an ultra-thin middle layer comprising a high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) additive to enhance integration with the outer polybenzimidazole (PBI) selective layer, and (2) an inner-layer to provide strong mechanical strength for the membrane. Experimental results show that a high water permeability and good mechanical strength could be achieved without the expensive post treatment process to remove PVP which was necessary for the dual-layer pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes. By optimizing the composition, the membrane shows a maximum power density of 6.23W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 22.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl are used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the best phase inversion hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective PBI layer for osmotic power generation. In addition, this is the first work that shows how to fabricate sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for various applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  2. Seismic margin analysis technique for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choi, In Kil

    2001-04-01

    In general, the Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and the Seismic Margin Assessment(SAM) are used for the evaluation of realistic seismic capacity of nuclear power plant structures. Seismic PRA is a systematic process to evaluate the seismic safety of nuclear power plant. In our country, SPRA has been used to perform the probabilistic safety assessment for the earthquake event. SMA is a simple and cost effective manner to quantify the seismic margin of individual structural elements. This study was performed to improve the reliability of SMA results and to confirm the assessment procedure. To achieve this goal, review for the current status of the techniques and procedures was performed. Two methodologies, CDFM (Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin) sponsored by NRC and FA (Fragility Analysis) sponsored by EPRI, were developed for the seismic margin review of NPP structures. FA method was originally developed for Seismic PRA. CDFM approach is more amenable to use by experienced design engineers including utility staff design engineers. In this study, detailed review on the procedures of CDFM and FA methodology was performed

  3. Sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for osmotic power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Fu, Feng Jiang

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a novel sandwich-structured hollow fiber membrane has been developed via a specially designed spinneret and optimized spinning conditions. With this specially designed spinneret, the outer layer, which is the most crucial part of the sandwich-structured membrane, is maintained the same as the traditional dual-layer membrane. The inner substrate layer is separated into two layers: (1) an ultra-thin middle layer comprising a high molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) additive to enhance integration with the outer polybenzimidazole (PBI) selective layer, and (2) an inner-layer to provide strong mechanical strength for the membrane. Experimental results show that a high water permeability and good mechanical strength could be achieved without the expensive post treatment process to remove PVP which was necessary for the dual-layer pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) membranes. By optimizing the composition, the membrane shows a maximum power density of 6.23W/m2 at a hydraulic pressure of 22.0bar when 1M NaCl and 10mM NaCl are used as the draw and feed solutions, respectively. To our best knowledge, this is the best phase inversion hollow fiber membrane with an outer selective PBI layer for osmotic power generation. In addition, this is the first work that shows how to fabricate sandwich-structured hollow fiber membranes for various applications. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  4. The local structure of U(VI)-ferri-hydrite sorption complexes revisited: EXAFS spectroscopy and Monte-Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossberg, A.; Ulrich, K.U.; Scheinost, A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: EXAFS analysis of actinyl sorption complexes is a complicated task due to the presence of overlapping shells, structural disorder and the presence of multiple scattering paths due to the specific actinyl structure. Hence often controversial interpretations arise from conventional shell fitting. A typical example is the proposed formation of ternary uranyl carbonato surface complexes on ferri-hydrite, where a peak at ∼2.4 Angstrom in the Fourier transform is explained by backscattering carbon atoms at 2.86-2.94 Angstrom. While such ternary carbonate complexes have been confirmed by complementary techniques like FTIR and electrophoretic mobility measurements, the EXAFS peak shows even up in those uranyl ferri-hydrite systems, where great care has been taken to keep the system carbonate-free, rendering an EXAFS fit with carbon meaningless. To overcome this common problem of EXAFS shell fitting, we developed a new analysis approach based on Monte-Carlo simulations coupled to theoretical EXAFS modeling using FEFF. Here, the position of the uranyl atom is first refined in relation to a given ferri-hydrite surface structure. In a second step, the whole complex structure is refined to allow for e.g. surface relaxation effects. Using this approach, a match to the experimental EXAFS spectra of U(VI) ferri-hydrite complexes without carbonate could be achieved. The local structure indicates a mononuclear bidentate (edge-sharing) surface complex, which was identified for the first time by EXAFS spectroscopy. Further fits were performed to elucidate the influence of carbonate and other anions on the structure of the surface complex. The results demonstrate the potential of the Monte-Carlo approach for determining the structure of actinyl surface complexes. (authors)

  5. Sensitivity of nuclear power plant structural response to aircraft impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchhardt, F.; Magiera, G.; Matthees, W.; Weber, M.

    1984-01-01

    In this paper a sensitivity study for aircraft impact is performed concerning the excitation of internal components, with particular regard to nonlinear structural material behaviour in the impact area. The nonlinear material values are varied within the bandwidth of suitable material strength, depending on local stiffness pre-calculations. The analyses are then performed on a globally discretized three-dimensional finite element model of a nuclear power plant, using a relatively fine mesh. For specified nodal points results are evaluated by comparing their response spectra. (Author) [pt

  6. The structural integrity safety case for Sizewell B power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerachty, J.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents the safety case approach adopted for the components of the Sizewell 'B' Power Station for which a high degree of structural integrity is required. Such components include the Reactor Pressure Vessel, Steam Generator and Pressuriser for which Incredibility of Failure is claimed. The two parts of the case involve achievement and demonstration of integrity. This is achieved by extensive measures involving design, manufacture, materials and inspection. The demonstration has required a fracture mechanics approach. The specific role of inspection validation and its relation to critical defect size is described. (author)

  7. Considerations about soil-structures interaction in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muzzi, F.

    1977-01-01

    The main features of the soil-structure interaction for nuclear power plant are presented as they resulted from conservations that the author carried out at the Berkeley (California) University, at the California Institute of Technology and at the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission in Washington (Dec 1975). The complete and inertial interaction approaches of analysis are discussed. The complete approach by the use of finite element technique as suggested by the U.S.N.R.C. Standard Review Plan 3.7.1. (June 1975) is finally described. (author)

  8. Design and structural calculation of nuclear power plant mechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaral, J.A.R. do

    1986-01-01

    The mechanical components of a nuclear power plant must show high quality and safety due to the presence of radioactivity. Besides the perfect functioning during the rigid operating conditions, some postulated loadings are foreseen, like earthquake and loss of coolant accidents, which must be also considered in the design. In this paper, it is intended to describe the design and structural calculations concept and development, the interactions with the piping and civil designs, as well as their influences in the licensing process with the authorities. (Author) [pt

  9. Seismic evaluation and strengthening of Bohunice nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipp, J.G.; Short, S.A.; Grief, T.; Borov, V.; Kuzma, J.

    2001-01-01

    A seismic assessment and strengthening investigation is being performed for selected structures at the Bohunice V1 Nuclear Power Plant in Slovakia. Structures covered in this paper include the reactor building complex and the emergency generator station. The emergency generator station is emphasized in the paper as work is nearly complete while work on the reactor building complex is ongoing at this time. Seismic evaluation and strengthening work is being performed by a cooperative effort of Siemens and EQE along with local contractors. Seismic input is the interim Review Level Earthquake (horizontal peak ground acceleration of 0.3 g). The Bohunice V1 reactor building complex is a WWER 4401230 nuclear power plant that was originally built in the mid-1970s but had extensive seismic upgrades in 1991. Siemens has performed three dimensional dynamic analyses of the reactor building complex to develop seismic demand in structural elements. EQE is assessing seismic capacities of structural elements and developing strengthening schemes, where needed. Based on recent seismic response analyses for the interim Review Level Earthquake which account for soil-structure interaction in a rigorous manner, the 1991 seismic upgrade has been found to be inadequate in both member/connection strength and in providing complete load paths to the foundation. Additional strengthening is being developed. The emergency generator station was built in the 1970s and is a two-story unreinforced brick masonry (URM) shear wall building above grade with a one story reinforced concrete shear wall basement below grade. Seismic analyses and testing of the URM walls has been performed to assess the need for building strengthening. Required structural strengthening for in-plane forces consists of revised and additional vertical steel framing and connections, stiffening of horizontal roof bracing, and steel connections between the roof and supporting walls and pointing of two interior transverse URM

  10. Noncontact power/interrogation system for smart structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spillman, William B., Jr.; Durkee, S.

    1994-05-01

    The field of smart structures has been largely driven by the development of new high performance designed materials. Use of these materials has been generally limited due to the fact that they have not been in use long enough for statistical data bases to be developed on their failure modes. Real time health monitoring is therefore required for the benefits of structures using these materials to be realized. In this paper a non-contact method of powering and interrogating embedded electronic and opto-electronic systems is described. The technique utilizes inductive coupling between external and embedded coils etched on thin electronic circuit cards. The technique can be utilized to interrogate embedded sensors and to provide > 250 mW for embedded electronics. The system has been successfully demonstrated with a number of composite and plastic materials through material thicknesses up to 1 cm. An analytical description of the system is provided along with experimental results.

  11. Patient Safety and Satisfaction Drivers in Emergency Departments Re-visited - An Empirical Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    are entitled safety and satisfaction, waiting time, information delivery, and infrastructure accordingly. As an empirical foundation, a recently published comprehensive survey in 11 Danish EDs is analysed in depth using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consulting the proposed framework, ED decision makers...

  12. Si Thermoelectric Power Generator with an Unconventional Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Iida, Tsutomu; Ohno, Yota; Ishikawa, Masashi; Kogo, Yasuo; Hirayama, Naomi; Arai, Koya; Nakamura, Takashi; Nishio, Keishi; Takanashi, Yoshifumi

    2014-06-01

    We examine the mechanical stability of an unconventional Mg2Si thermoelectric generator (TEG) structure. In this structure, the angle θ between the thermoelectric (TE) chips and the heat sink is less than 90°. We examined the tolerance to an external force of various Mg2Si TEG structures using a finite-element method (FEM) with the ANSYS code. The output power of the TEGs was also measured. First, for the FEM analysis, the mechanical properties of sintered Mg2Si TE chips, such as the bending strength and Young's modulus, were measured. Then, two-dimensional (2D) TEG models with various values of θ (90°, 75°, 60°, 45°, 30°, 15°, and 0°) were constructed in ANSYS. The x and y axes were defined as being in the horizontal and vertical directions of the substrate, respectively. In the analysis, the maximum tensile stress in the chip when a constant load was applied to the TEG model in the x direction was determined. Based on the analytical results, an appropriate structure was selected and a module fabricated. For the TEG fabrication, eight TE chips, each with dimensions of 3 mm × 3 mm × 10 mm and consisting of Sb-doped n-Mg2Si prepared by a plasma-activated sintering process, were assembled such that two chips were connected in parallel, and four pairs of these were connected in series on a footprint of 46 mm × 12 mm. The measured power generation characteristics and temperature distribution with temperature differences between 873 K and 373 K are discussed.

  13. Impact of structural aging on seismic risk assessment of reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two

  14. Effects of air blast on power plant structures and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kot, C.A.; Valentin, R.A.; McLennan, D.A.; Turula, P.

    1978-10-01

    The effects of air blast from high explosives detonation on selected power plant structures and components are investigated analytically. Relying on a synthesis of state of the art methods estimates of structural response are obtained. Similarly blast loadings are determined from compilations of experimental data reported in the literature. Plastic-yield line analysis is employed to determine the response of both concrete and steel flat walls (plates) under impulsive loading. Linear elastic theory is used to investigate the spalling of concrete walls and mode analysis methods predict the deflection of piping. The specific problems considered are: the gross deformation of reinforced concrete shield and containment structures due to blast impulse, the spalling of concrete walls, the interaction or impact of concrete debris with steel containments and liners, and the response of exposed piping to blast impulse. It is found that for sufficiently close-in detonations and/or large explosive charge weights severe damage or destruction will result. This is particularly true for structures or components directly exposed to blast impulse

  15. Structure of the mixed-metal carbonate KAgCO₃ revisited: order-disorder (OD) polytypism and allotwinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hans, Philipp; Stöger, Berthold; Weil, Matthias; Zobetz, Erich

    2015-04-01

    Crystals of KAgCO3 belong to an order-disorder (OD) family of structures composed of layers of two kinds. There are two polytypes with a maximum degree of order [MDO1: Pccb; MDO2: Ibca, doubled a-axis compared with MDO1], which are both realised to a different extent in two crystals under investigation [volume fraction MDO1:MDO2 in crystal (I): 0.0216:0.9784 (3) and in crystal (II): 0.9657:0.0343 (3)]. Sharp diffraction spots and the absence of diffuse scattering indicate highly ordered macroscopic domains. The structure of KAgCO3 was refined concurrently against all reflections using an allotwin model (addition of the intensities of both domains). It is shown that a disorder model refined against reflections of only one domain can lead to a significant overestimation of the volume fraction of this domain.

  16. Structures of the dehydrogenation products of methane activation by 5d transition metal cations revisited: Deuterium labeling and rotational contours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Cameron J.; Boles, Georgia C.; Chernyy, Valeriy; Bakker, Joost M.; Armentrout, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    A previous infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and density functional theory (DFT) study explored the structures of the [M,C,2H]+ products formed by dehydrogenation of methane by four, gas-phase 5d transition metal cations (M+ = Ta+, W+, Ir+, and Pt+). Complicating the analysis of these spectra for Ir and Pt was observation of an extra band in both spectra, not readily identified as a fundamental vibration. In an attempt to validate the assignment of these additional peaks, the present work examines the gas phase [M,C,2D]+ products of the same four metal ions formed by reaction with perdeuterated methane (CD4). As before, metal cations are formed in a laser ablation source and react with methane pulsed into a reaction channel downstream, and the resulting products are spectroscopically characterized through photofragmentation using the free-electron laser for intracavity experiments in the 350-1800 cm-1 range. Photofragmentation was monitored by the loss of D for [Ta,C,2D]+ and [W,C,2D]+ and of D2 in the case of [Pt,C,2D]+ and [Ir,C,2D]+. Comparison of the experimental spectra and DFT calculated spectra leads to structural assignments for all [M,C,2H/2D]+ systems that are consistent with previous identifications and allows a full description of the systematic spectroscopic shifts observed for deuterium labeling of these complexes, some of the smallest systems to be studied using IRMPD action spectroscopy. Further, full rotational contours are simulated for each vibrational band and explain several observations in the present spectra, such as doublet structures in several bands as well as the observed linewidths. The prominent extra bands in the [Pt,C,2D/2H]+ spectra appear to be most consistent with an overtone of the out-of-plane bending vibration of the metal carbene cation structure.

  17. Neurological soft signs and their relationships to neurocognitive functions: a re-visit with the structural equation modeling design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond C K Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neurological soft signs and neurocognitive impairments have long been considered important features of schizophrenia. Previous correlational studies have suggested that there is a significant relationship between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. The purpose of the current study was to examine the underlying relationships between these two distinct constructs with structural equation modeling (SEM. METHODS: 118 patients with schizophrenia and 160 healthy controls were recruited for the current study. The abridged version of the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI and a set of neurocognitive function tests were administered to all participants. SEM was then conducted independently in these two samples to examine the relationships between neurological soft signs and neurocognitive functions. RESULTS: Both the measurement and structural models showed that the models fit well to the data in both patients and healthy controls. The structural equations also showed that there were modest to moderate associations among neurological soft signs, executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory, while the healthy controls showed more limited associations. CONCLUSIONS: The current findings indicate that motor coordination, sensory integration, and disinhibition contribute to the latent construct of neurological soft signs, whereas the subset of neurocognitive function tests contribute to the latent constructs of executive attention, verbal memory, and visual memory in the present sample. Greater evidence of neurological soft signs is associated with more severe impairment of executive attention and memory functions. Clinical and theoretical implications of the model findings are discussed.

  18. Nonlinear seismic soil-structure interaction analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanna, J.K.; Setlur, A.V.; Pathak, D.V.

    1977-01-01

    The heterogeneous and nonlinear soil medium and the detailed three-dimensional structure are synthesized to determine the seismic response to soil-structure systems. The approach is particularly attractive in a design office environment since it: a) leads to interactive motion at the soil-structure interface; b) uses existing public domain programs such as SAPIV, LUSH and FLUSH with marginal modifications; and c) meets current regulatory requirements for soil-structure interaction analysis. Past methods differ from each other depending on the approach adopted for soil and structure representations and procedures for solving the governing differential equations. Advantages and limitations of these methods are reviewed. In the current approach, the three-dimensional structure is represented by the dynamic characteristics of its fixed base condition. This representation is ideal when structures are designed to be within elastic range. An important criterion is the design of the nuclear power plant structures. Model damping coefficients are varied to reflect the damping properties of different structural component materials. The detailed structural model is systematically reduced to reflect important dynamic behavior with simultaneous storing of intermediate information for retrieval of detailed structural response. Validity of the approach has been established with simple numerical experiments. (Auth.)

  19. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this end...

  20. Application of secondary and residual stresses to the assessment of the structural integrity of nuclear power-generating plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banahan, B.D.

    2008-01-01

    the perceived structural integrity. Finally, the future requirements for the residual stresses to be incorporated into structural integrity assessments of ferritic steel nuclear power plant components and structures will be discussed. This will be by reference to various weldment geometries and heat treatment cycles including repair welds and fillet attachment welds. In particular, there is a need for improved measurement techniques and analytical/computer models to provide more realistic three-dimensional stress distributions for a range of weldment geometries. In addition, there is a need to revisit the criteria adopted to establish the initiation fracture toughness of ductile ferritic steels with respect to the attendant redistribution of residual stresses

  1. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. Results We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. Conclusions The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle

  2. Extending the lifespan of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-01-01

    By the end of this decade, 63 of the 111 commercial nuclear power plants in the United States will be more than 20 years old, with some nearing the end of their 40-year operating license term. Faced with the prospect of having to replace lost generating capacity from other sources and substantial shutdown and decommissioning costs, many utilities are expected to apply to continue the service of their plants past the initial licensing period. In support of such applications, evidence should be provided that the capacity of the safety-related systems and structures to mitigate potential extreme events has not deteriorated unacceptably due to either aging or environmental stressor effects during the previous service history

  3. Cascade Structure of Digital Predistorter for Power Amplifier Linearization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. B. Solovyeva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a cascade structure of nonlinear digital predistorter (DPD synthesized by the direct learning adaptive algorithm is represented. DPD is used for linearization of power amplifier (PA characteristic, namely for compensation of PA nonlinear distortion. Blocks of the cascade DPD are described by different models: the functional link artificial neural network (FLANN, the polynomial perceptron network (PPN and the radially pruned Volterra model (RPVM. At synthesis of the cascade DPD there is possibility to overcome the ill conditionality problem due to reducing the dimension of DPD nonlinear operator approximation. Results of compensating nonlinear distortion in Wiener–Hammerstein model of PA at the GSM–signal with four carriers are shown. The highest accuracy of PA linearization is produced by the cascade DPD containing PPN and RPVM.

  4. Revisiting verbs of emission: an update on some relevant theoretical accounts of lexical specification and argument structure of emission verbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasa Milivojevic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the question of what semantic properties lexicalized in verbs determine their syntactic behavior in intransitive motion events and in resultative constructions in English and Serbian. Special attention is devoted to English and Serbian verbs of emission (specifically verbs of sound emission and partly also verbs of light, smell and substance emission regarding their potential to surface as main verbs in these constructions and to combine with directional phrases within specific morphosyntactic templates (unaccusatives and unergatives. The presented research promotes a theoretical view according to which the established syntactic patterns can be applied across the whole class of verbs of emission to express a full er range of atypical verb meanings in motion events. Theoretical conclusions of the research are also relevant for a wider theoretical description of motion events and resultatives in a cross - linguistic perspective. The paper puts forth additional implica tions regarding the projectionalist approach to semantic verb classes against the theoretical framework of Beth Levin (1993. Finally, the paper considers the relevant points of structurally realized similarities via relevant constructional templates in En glish and in Serbian, as well as some important points of morphosyntactic divergence between the two languages. The conclusions presented aim at a more comprehensive contrastive language typology based on language “framing” parameters.

  5. Revisiting Okun's Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R.; Lim, G.C.; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Our paper revisits Okun's relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985-2013. We find that the

  6. Revisiting the Okun relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dixon, R. (Robert); Lim, G.C.; J.C. van Ours (Jan)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractOur article revisits the Okun relationship between observed unemployment rates and output gaps. We include in the relationship the effect of labour market institutions as well as age and gender effects. Our empirical analysis is based on 20 OECD countries over the period 1985–2013. We

  7. Bounded Intention Planning Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Sievers Silvan; Wehrle Martin; Helmert Malte

    2014-01-01

    Bounded intention planning provides a pruning technique for optimal planning that has been proposed several years ago. In addition partial order reduction techniques based on stubborn sets have recently been investigated for this purpose. In this paper we revisit bounded intention planning in the view of stubborn sets.

  8. A Hydrostatic Paradox Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganci, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    This paper revisits a well-known hydrostatic paradox, observed when turning upside down a glass partially filled with water and covered with a sheet of light material. The phenomenon is studied in its most general form by including the mass of the cover. A historical survey of this experiment shows that a common misunderstanding of the phenomenon…

  9. The Faraday effect revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Nenciu, Gheorghe

    2009-01-01

    This paper is the second in a series revisiting the (effect of) Faraday rotation. We formulate and prove the thermodynamic limit for the transverse electric conductivity of Bloch electrons, as well as for the Verdet constant. The main mathematical tool is a regularized magnetic and geometric...

  10. Assessment of soil/structure interaction analysis procedures for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, G.A.; Wei, B.C.

    1977-01-01

    The paper presents an assessment of two state-of-the-art soil/structure interaction analysis procedures that are frequently used to provide seismic analyses of nuclear power plant structures. The advantages of large three-dimensional, elastic, discrete mass models and two-dimensional finite element models are compared. The discrete mass models can provide three-dimensional response capability with economical computer costs but only fair soil/structure interaction representation. The two-dimensional finite element models provide good soil/structure interaction representation, but cannot provide out-of-plane response. Three-dimensional finite element models would provide the most informative and complete analyses. For this model, computer costs would be much greater, but modeling costs would be approximately the same as those required for three-dimensional discrete mass models

  11. Economic Performance and Emission Reduction of Supply Chains in Different Power Structures: Perspective of Sustainable Investment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiutian Shi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental issues have increasingly received attention in both industry and academia. Many firms have started to make sustainable investments, such as adopting the pollution-abatement technologies, to reduce carbon emissions. To investigate the impacts of the sustainable investment on firms’ profit and emission reduction, we consider supply chains with uncertain demand in different power structures. Specifically, we examine the sustainable investment problem in three supply chain power structures, i.e., manufacturer Stackelberg (MS power structure, vertical Nash (VN power structure and retailer Stackelberg (RS power structure. We first derive the optimal decisions for both the retailer and manufacturer in each power structure. Then, by comparing the results in the three power structures, we find that the manufacturer gets benefits from making the sustainable investment, especially in unequal power structures. When the average market size is large (small enough, both of the supply chain members obtain more profits in the MS (RS power structure. From an environmental perspective, we find that the emission reduction is more significant in sequential games (i.e., MS and RS power structures than that in a simultaneous game (i.e., VN power structure. In addition, we conduct some numerical studies and discuss more managerial insights in the paper.

  12. [Power in the hospital. Considerations on a structural problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillen, A

    1997-04-01

    This article tries to establish elements for an analysis of the power relations in hospital. After an explanation of the notion of power with recurrence to Max Weber, it presents different forms of the exercise of power. The traditional authoritarian form of power is compared with modern forms that are less personal and more anonymous. Then, the article tries to explain the special relationship between power and medicine. The basis for the analysis of this relationship is taken from Michel Foucault's analysis of power who describes medicine as the switch position of modern forms of exercise of power. He defines this under two different points of view: firstly, medicine works as an institution of disciplinary power, secondly, medicine is the sustainer of the bio-power, a kind of power that works by giving life.

  13. Structural analysis of aircraft impact on a nuclear powered ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper investigates the aircraft impact on the collision barrier at the side of the ship. The aircraft impact on top of the reactor hatchway is investigated by another analysis. It appears that the most unfavorable angle of impact is always normal to the surface of the collision barrier. Consequently, only normal impact will be considered here. For the specific case of an aircraft striking a nuclear powered ship, the following two effects are considered: Local penetration and dynamic response of the structuure. The local penetration occurs at points where the engines or other rigid objects hit the structure. It is assumed that the aircraft engine is a rigid body projectile and the side wall of the ship is the target. The applied steel penetration formulae for projectiles were empirically derived for military applications, where both the projectile and the target are unlike those of an impact of an aircraft engine. For this reason it is expedient to calculate the upper and the lower limit values of the penetration depths. The results show that the highest penetration depth is less than the sum of all wall thicknesses of the collision barrier. The solution of the dynamic analysis is obtained by using the finite element method. The results are the eigenmodes, the eigenfrequencies, the displacements of the nodes, and the stresses in the applied plane stress elements. It is shown that the maximum stress which only appears in one element is on the same level as the yield stress of the St. 42 steel. The structural analysis shows that the collision barrier is a sufficient safeguard against the perforation of the engine and against the cracking of the structure as a result of the dynamic response to an aircraft impact. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Nuclear power plant design characteristics. Structure of nuclear power plant design characteristics in the IAEA Power Reactor Information System (PRIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-03-01

    One of the IAEA's priorities has been to maintain the Power Reactor Information System (PRIS) database as a viable and useful source of information on nuclear reactors worldwide. To satisfy the needs of PRIS users as much as possible, the PRIS database has included also a set of nuclear power plant (NPP) design characteristics. Accordingly, the PRIS Technical Meeting, organized in Vienna 4-7 October 2004, initiated a thorough revision of the design data area of the PRIS database to establish the actual status of the data and make improvements. The revision first concentrated on a detailed review of the design data completion and the composition of the design characteristics. Based on the results of the review, a modified set and structure of the unit design characteristics for the PRIS database has been developed. The main objective of the development has been to cover all significant plant systems adequately and provide an even more comprehensive overview of NPP unit designs stored in the PRIS database

  15. Rebalancing interests and power structures on crowdworking platforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad Al-Ani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Crowdwork on virtual platforms is developing into a recognisable employment and business model on the internet. Despite their many differences, the platforms that have emerged over the last few years have one thing in common: a crowd of individual producers and capabilities is mobilised – in the form of labour, accommodation or durable goods – onto the market in cooperation and competition with firms from traditional industries. This study analyses the factors crowdworkers consider relevant in their work and the measures they view as helpful in improving their working relationship with platforms. It is apparent that, in the best tradition of the peer economy, this new type of worker still considers learning and fun important factors for his or her engagement. Despite these effectively intrinsic factors, workers are quite aware of their situation, which does not put them on equal terms with the platform’s algorithms and customer focus. This awareness of power disparities does not lead them, however, to reconsider their effectiveness when it comes to renegotiating terms with the platform: when specifically asked about the role of unions, the majority of crowdworkers did not expect help in self-organisation from these institutions. Considering the difficulties in regulating the market for platforms, (self- organisation of crowdworkers, however, is an important prerequisite in rebalancing the power structure dominated by platform owners and their customers. Self-organisation is something digital natives are quite familiar with and we have to assume that crowdworkers are perhaps overconfident in their abilities. And due to the novelty of this industry, this confidence has not been shaken yet by labour disputes or even by growing dissatisfaction with platforms.

  16. Discussion on organization structure system of nuclear power projects in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi

    2011-01-01

    With the development of the nuclear power industry in China, several AE companies were born and now play a major role in building nuclear power projects in China and overseas. After studying current organization structure systems of all nuclear power AE companies in China and comparing with successful foreign ones, this paper proposes some approaches to optimize the structure. (author)

  17. Pockets of Participation: Revisiting Child-Centred Participation Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Myfanwy

    2011-01-01

    This article revisits the theme of the clash of interests and power relations at work in participatory research which is prescribed from above. It offers a possible route toward solving conflict between adult-led research carried out by young researchers, funding requirements and organisational constraints. The article explores issues of…

  18. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend-Jan; Vlak, Just M; van Oers, Monique M; Rottier, Peter J; van Lent, Jan W M

    2015-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  19. Budded baculovirus particle structure revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Qiushi; Bosch, Berend Jan; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.; Rottier, P.J.; Lent, van J.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Baculoviruses are a group of enveloped, double-stranded DNA insect viruses with budded (BV) and occlusion-derived (ODV) virions produced during their infection cycle. BVs are commonly described as rod shaped particles with a high apical density of protein extensions (spikes) on the lipid envelope

  20. Introduction to structural failure modes for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.W.; Gurbuz, O.

    1993-01-01

    This introduction provides a background of the evaluation methods for earthquakes larger than design basis. Seismic probabilistic risk assessment (SPRA) and seismic margin assessment (SMA) methods are introduced to the reader. The basic parameters used to define seismic capacity for each method are explained. The objectives of both evaluation methods and how they can be used to evaluate the adequacy of a seismic design are discussed. General issues related to computing seismic capacity are reviewed relative to SPRA and SMA. Four companion papers presented in the journal following this introduction discuss the types of information (i.e., dynamic tests, earthquake experience, and analytical data) that are used to determine the real capacity of structures and equipment in nuclear power plants to resist earthquakes. The motivation for discussing these three types of information is presented as an introduction to these papers that following in this journal edition. The purpose of the present paper is to lay the groundwork and provide motivation for these papers

  1. Proceedings of the Conference on Structural Analysis and Design of Nuclear Power Plants. v. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    It's presented the discussion of recents research results and developments related to applications of structural mechanics to nuclear power plants, in particular, and to conventional power plants, in a more general context. (E.G.) [pt

  2. Dynamic Topography Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moresi, Louis

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic Topography Revisited Dynamic topography is usually considered to be one of the trinity of contributing causes to the Earth's non-hydrostatic topography along with the long-term elastic strength of the lithosphere and isostatic responses to density anomalies within the lithosphere. Dynamic topography, thought of this way, is what is left over when other sources of support have been eliminated. An alternate and explicit definition of dynamic topography is that deflection of the surface which is attributable to creeping viscous flow. The problem with the first definition of dynamic topography is 1) that the lithosphere is almost certainly a visco-elastic / brittle layer with no absolute boundary between flowing and static regions, and 2) the lithosphere is, a thermal / compositional boundary layer in which some buoyancy is attributable to immutable, intrinsic density variations and some is due to thermal anomalies which are coupled to the flow. In each case, it is difficult to draw a sharp line between each contribution to the overall topography. The second definition of dynamic topography does seem cleaner / more precise but it suffers from the problem that it is not measurable in practice. On the other hand, this approach has resulted in a rich literature concerning the analysis of large scale geoid and topography and the relation to buoyancy and mechanical properties of the Earth [e.g. refs 1,2,3] In convection models with viscous, elastic, brittle rheology and compositional buoyancy, however, it is possible to examine how the surface topography (and geoid) are supported and how different ways of interpreting the "observable" fields introduce different biases. This is what we will do. References (a.k.a. homework) [1] Hager, B. H., R. W. Clayton, M. A. Richards, R. P. Comer, and A. M. Dziewonski (1985), Lower mantle heterogeneity, dynamic topography and the geoid, Nature, 313(6003), 541-545, doi:10.1038/313541a0. [2] Parsons, B., and S. Daly (1983), The

  3. EBG structures on high permittivity substrate to reduce noise in power distribution networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tereshchenko, O.V.; Buesink, Frederik Johannes Karel; Leferink, Frank Bernardus Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The noise reduction effect in a Power Distribution Network (PDN) by implementing Electromagnetic Band Gap structures (EBG) on standard and high permittivity substrates has been investigated. Boards with different EBG structures have been modelled and designed. Using the EBG structures the Power

  4. 'Felson Signs' revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, Phiji P.; Irodi, Aparna; Keshava, Shyamkumar N.; Lamont, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article we revisit, with the help of images, those classic signs in chest radiography described by Dr Benjamin Felson himself, or other illustrious radiologists of his time, cited and discussed in 'Chest Roentgenology'. We briefly describe the causes of the signs, their utility and the differential diagnosis to be considered when each sign is seen. Wherever possible, we use CT images to illustrate the basis of some of these classic radiographic signs.

  5. Time functions revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Albert

    2015-07-01

    In this paper we revisit our joint work with Antonio Siconolfi on time functions. We will give a brief introduction to the subject. We will then show how to construct a Lipschitz time function in a simplified setting. We will end with a new result showing that the Aubry set is not an artifact of our proof of existence of time functions for stably causal manifolds.

  6. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2008-01-01

    We revisit the deterministic graphical games of Washburn. A deterministic graphical game can be described as a simple stochastic game (a notion due to Anne Condon), except that we allow arbitrary real payoffs but disallow moves of chance. We study the complexity of solving deterministic graphical...... games and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm for computing an equilibrium of such a game. The existence of a linear time comparison-based algorithm remains an open problem....

  7. Negotiating and structuring the power purchase agreement (PPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallace, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    In order to meet the needs of both generators and consumers, there are several factors which affect electricity sales that should be considered when negotiating a power purchase agreement. Most importantly, it should be known whether a project is being developed by the end user for its own use, or whether it is being developed by an independent power producer (IPP) for sale to the Power Pool, or directly to others. This paper described a joint venture as being an IPP which can sell power to the Power Pool, an eligible industrial user, or its host (usually to the most economically attractive buyer). Natural gas deregulation provided a big incentive for IPPs to develop new power projects. The things to consider in traditional power purchase arrangements are requests for proposals, the seller's response and a memorandum of understanding. The principle terms of a traditional bilateral power purchase agreement involve the nature of the services to be provided, pricing, termination terms, facilities issues, force majeure and changes in law. This paper also discussed market alternatives to the traditional power purchase agreement. 1 appendix

  8. Activities at ORNL in support of continuing the service of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    In general, nuclear power plant concrete structure's performance has been very good; however, aging of concrete structures occurs with the passage of time that can potentially result in degradation if its effects are not controlled. Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The interaction of the license renewal process and concrete structures is noted. A summary of operating experience related to aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be beneficial for aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Finally, an update on recent activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory related to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. (author)

  9. Structural Implications of Reciprocal Exchange: A Power-Dependence Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacich, Phillip; Bienenstock, Elisa Jayne

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and tests a general model to predict emergent exchange patterns and power differences in reciprocal exchange networks when individual actors follow the norm of reciprocity. With an interesting qualification, the experimental results reported here support the power-dependence approach (Emerson 1972a, b): those who acquire the…

  10. Large J expansion in ABJM theory revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimov, H; Mladenov, S; Rashkov, R C

    Recently there has been progress in the computation of the anomalous dimensions of gauge theory operators at strong coupling by making use of the AdS/CFT correspondence. On the string theory side they are given by dispersion relations in the semiclassical regime. We revisit the problem of a large-charge expansion of the dispersion relations for simple semiclassical strings in an [Formula: see text] background. We present the calculation of the corresponding anomalous dimensions of the gauge theory operators to an arbitrary order using three different methods. Although the results of the three methods look different, power series expansions show their consistency.

  11. Design methods for high temperature power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townley, C.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (scope of paper - reviews of design methods and design criteria currently in use for both nuclear and fossil fuelled power plant; examples chosen are (a) BS 1113, representative of design codes employed for power station boiler plant; (b) ASME Code Case N47, which is being developed for high temperature nuclear reactors, especially the liquid metal fast breeder reactor); design codes for power station boilers; Code Case N47 (design in the absence of thermal shock and thermal fatigue; design against cyclic loading at high temperature; further research in support of high temperature design methods and criteria for LMFBRs); concluding remarks. (U.K.)

  12. Structure design of water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fang; Hou Shuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Drainage is an important function of water discharge surge tank in nuclear power plant. There is little wall and beam inside the water discharge surge tank due to the requirement of major work, which is different from the general structure. Taking water discharge surge tank of nuclear power plant for example, concerned problems are expatiated in the structure scheme of water discharge surge tank, and important structural components are analyzed. Structural analysis model is established by ANSYS finite element analysis. A comprehensive and numerical analysis is performed for different combinations of structural model, and the internal force of structure is extracted. Finally, suggestions for design of similar structure are proposed. (authors)

  13. Blockholder structures and power mechanisms in family firms

    OpenAIRE

    Cacciotti, Gabriella; Ucbasaran, Deniz

    2018-01-01

    We extend the work of Fattoum-Guedri, Guedri, and Delmar (in press) by suggesting that the number of family blockholders moderates the relationship between the distribution of voting power between family and nonfamily blockholders and firm performance. Building on power and negotiation theories, we argue that the participation of multiple generations of family members in the firm’s ownership leads to greater diversity of perspectives that generates potential conflict over the distribution of ...

  14. An organization structure analysis for BC Hydro, Power Smart

    OpenAIRE

    Lellis, Leandro Bianchi

    2006-01-01

    Power Smart is BC Hydro’s demand-side management (DMS) initiative to encourage energy efficiency by its customers. Currently, they are in the midst of a very significant program redesign to influence their largest transmission voltage customers to use energy efficiently without the capability to award a capital incentive. From their internal operating model perspective, Power Smart is considering moving from an audit based function to a more consultative role. This project aims to provide and...

  15. A Feminist Revisit to the First-Year Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Anita

    1996-01-01

    A seminar at Chicago-Kent College of Law (Illinois) that reviews six first-year law school courses by focusing on feminist issues in course content and structure is described. The seminar functions as both a review and a shift in perspective. Courses revisited include civil procedure, contracts, criminal law, justice and the legal system,…

  16. Structural optimization of static power control programs of nuclear power plants with WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokol, E.O.

    2015-01-01

    The question of possibility the power control programs switching for WWER-1000 is considered. The aim of this research is to determine the best program for the power control of nuclear reactor under cyclic diurnal behavior of electrical generation, as well as the switching implementation. The considered problem of finding the best control program refers to the multicriteria optimization class of problems. Operation of the nuclear power generation system simulated using the following power control programs: with constant average temperature of transfer fluid, with constant pressure in the reactor secondary circuit, with constant temperature in input of the nuclear reactor. The target function was proposed. It consists of three normalized criteria: the burn up fraction, the damage level of fuel rod array shells, as well as changes in the power values. When simulation of the nuclear power generation system operation within the life was done, the values of the selected criteria were obtained and inserted in the target function. The minimum of three values of the target function depending on the control program at current time defined the criterion of switching of considered static power control programs for nuclear power generation system

  17. A power structure over the Grothendieck ring of geometric dg categories

    OpenAIRE

    Gyenge, Ádám

    2017-01-01

    We prove the existence of an effective power structure over the Grothendieck ring of geometric dg categories. Using this power structure we show that the categorical zeta function of a geometric dg category can be expressed as a power with exponent the category itself. This implies a conjecture of Galkin and Shinder relating the motivic and categorical zeta functions of varieties. We also deduce a formula for the generating series of the classes of derived categories of the Hilbert scheme of ...

  18. Deepening structural reform, and speeding up self-reliant nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Binghua

    2010-01-01

    Combining the implementation practices of the strategy on self-reliant development of the third generation nuclear power plant, the paper set forth that speeding up self-reliant nuclear power development has strategic significance to the national economy and the people's livelihood, which need further deepening structural reform and nuclear power structural reform with an aim to enhance the international competitiveness of China's nuclear industry. (author)

  19. Effect on antenna structure of high power rf during plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haste, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Fadnek, A.; Carter, M.D.; Beaumont, B.; Becoulet, A.; Kuus, H.; Saoutic, B.

    1993-01-01

    High-power, long-pulse operation on the Tore Supra tokamak results in considerable stress on the plasma-facing components. The ICH antennas must deliver high-power rf(up to 4 MW per antenna) in this environment. The antenna structure is therefore subjected to the power flux resulting from the interaction between rf and the edge plasma. The structure's response during operation is described, as is the condition of the antenna after prolonged use

  20. Models test on dynamic structure-structure interaction of nuclear power plant buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitada, Y.; Hirotani, T.

    1999-01-01

    A reactor building of an NPP (nuclear power plant) is generally constructed closely adjacent to a turbine building and other buildings such as the auxiliary building, and in increasing numbers of NPPs, multiple plants are being planned and constructed closely on a single site. In these situations, adjacent buildings are considered to influence each other through the soil during earthquakes and to exhibit dynamic behaviour different from that of separate buildings, because those buildings in NPP are generally heavy and massive. The dynamic interaction between buildings during earthquake through the soil is termed here as 'dynamic cross interaction (DCI)'. In order to comprehend DCI appropriately, forced vibration tests and earthquake observation are needed using closely constructed building models. Standing on this background, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation (NUPEC) had planned the project to investigate the DCI effect in 1993 after the preceding SSI (soil-structure interaction) investigation project, 'model tests on embedment effect of reactor building'. The project consists of field and laboratory tests. The field test is being carried out using three different building construction conditions, e.g. a single reactor building to be used for the comparison purposes as for a reference, two same reactor buildings used to evaluate pure DCI effects, and two different buildings, reactor and turbine building models to evaluate DCI effects under the actual plant conditions. Forced vibration tests and earthquake observations are planned in the field test. The laboratory test is planned to evaluate basic characteristics of the DCI effects using simple soil model made of silicon rubber and structure models made of aluminum. In this test, forced vibration tests and shaking table tests are planned. The project was started in April 1994 and will be completed in March 2002. This paper describes an outline and the summary of the current status of this project. (orig.)

  1. Deterministic Graphical Games Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Klas Olof Daniel; Hansen, Kristoffer Arnsfelt; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    2012-01-01

    Starting from Zermelo’s classical formal treatment of chess, we trace through history the analysis of two-player win/lose/draw games with perfect information and potentially infinite play. Such chess-like games have appeared in many different research communities, and methods for solving them......, such as retrograde analysis, have been rediscovered independently. We then revisit Washburn’s deterministic graphical games (DGGs), a natural generalization of chess-like games to arbitrary zero-sum payoffs. We study the complexity of solving DGGs and obtain an almost-linear time comparison-based algorithm...

  2. Bottomonium spectrum revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Segovia, Jorge; Entem, David R.; Fernández, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the bottomonium spectrum motivated by the recently exciting experimental progress in the observation of new bottomonium states, both conventional and unconventional. Our framework is a nonrelativistic constituent quark model which has been applied to a wide range of hadronic observables from the light to the heavy quark sector and thus the model parameters are completely constrained. Beyond the spectrum, we provide a large number of electromagnetic, strong and hadronic decays in order to discuss the quark content of the bottomonium states and give more insights about the better way to determine their properties experimentally.

  3. Metamorphosis in Craniiformea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altenburger, Andreas; Wanninger, Andreas; Holmer, Lars E.

    2013-01-01

    We revisited the brachiopod fold hypothesis and investigated metamorphosis in the craniiform brachiopod Novocrania anomala. Larval development is lecithotrophic and the dorsal (brachial) valve is secreted by dorsal epithelia. We found that the juvenile ventral valve, which consists only of a thin...... brachiopods during metamorphosis to cement their pedicle to the substrate. N. anomala is therefore not initially attached by a valve but by material corresponding to pedicle cuticle. This is different to previous descriptions, which had led to speculations about a folding event in the evolution of Brachiopoda...

  4. A novel power amplifier structure for RFID tag applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jianbao; Zhang Shilin; Li De; Zhang Yanzheng; Mao Luhong; Xie Sheng

    2011-01-01

    A novel matching method between the power amplifier (PA) and antenna of an active or semi-active RFID tag is presented. A PCB dipole antenna is used as the resonance inductor of a differential power amplifier. The total PA chip area is reduced greatly to only 240 × 70 μm 2 in a 0.18 μm CMOS process due to saving two on-chip integrated inductors. Operating in class AB with a 1.8 V supply voltage and 2.45 GHz input signal, the PA shows a measured output power of 8 dBm at the 1 dB compression point. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  5. Using package MESSAGE for optimization studies of nuclear power structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrianov, A.A.; Fedorova, E.V.; Korobejnikov, V.V.; Poplavskaya, E.V.; Rachkova, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    The results of optimization research of Russia nuclear power strategies, obtained for different assumptions concerning availability of natural uranium resources were presented. The ability of energy planning package MESSAGE (Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impacts) application for elaborating breeding parameters requirements of fast sodium reactors and assessing the required scale of nuclear fuel cycle enterprises development was demonstrated [ru

  6. Revisiting Nursing Research in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-08-18

    Aug 18, 2016 ... health care research, it is therefore pertinent to revisit the state of nursing research in the country. .... platforms, updated libraries with electronic resource ... benchmarks for developing countries of 26%, [17] the amount is still ...

  7. The power of data: structural bioinformatics yesterday and today

    KAUST Repository

    Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The protein structure database was established in 1971. At the time it contained seven structures, today there are more than 100,000. The improvement is not only a matter of quantity, but also of quality. Did we effectively exploit this information

  8. The issue of statistical power for overall model fit in evaluating structural equation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard HERMIDA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Statistical power is an important concept for psychological research. However, examining the power of a structural equation model (SEM is rare in practice. This article provides an accessible review of the concept of statistical power for the Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA index of overall model fit in structural equation modeling. By way of example, we examine the current state of power in the literature by reviewing studies in top Industrial-Organizational (I/O Psychology journals using SEMs. Results indicate that in many studies, power is very low, which implies acceptance of invalid models. Additionally, we examined methodological situations which may have an influence on statistical power of SEMs. Results showed that power varies significantly as a function of model type and whether or not the model is the main model for the study. Finally, results indicated that power is significantly related to model fit statistics used in evaluating SEMs. The results from this quantitative review imply that researchers should be more vigilant with respect to power in structural equation modeling. We therefore conclude by offering methodological best practices to increase confidence in the interpretation of structural equation modeling results with respect to statistical power issues.

  9. Structural change in European power and gas industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    After decades of stability the European power and gas industries are now undergoing fundamental changes. Made possible by policy reforms and technological developments, these changes are largely driven by commercial forces which have developed their own momentum and dynamics. New commercial risks are a key feature of the emerging market order and companies cannot protect themselves through a ''no move strategy''. This report explores the key changes and examines the emerging commercial strategies in response to the new environment. (author)

  10. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H.; Klevtsov, I. [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V. [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1998-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  11. Durability Testing of Additively Manufactured High Power Microwave Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-29

    D. Hoffman, B. Singh and J. Thomas, Handbook of vacuum science and technology . San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 1998. [17] M. Cuneo, "The effect of...the higher He diffusion rate through rubber o-rings, its lower pumping speed within the cryopump and possibly saturation of the charcoal arrays...Third Edition, CRC Press (Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2016). [3] J. C. Whitaker, “Power Vacuum Tubes Handbook ”, Second Edition, CRC Press (New York, NY, USA

  12. Life management of power plant based on structural damage testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallermo, H; Klevtsov, I [Thermal Engineering Department of Tallinn Technical University, Tallinn (Estonia); Arras, V [Eesti Energia, Tallinn (Estonia)

    1999-12-31

    Life management system is based on the valid nowadays in Estonian power plants regulation documentation. The system allows to estimate stress distribution in components, find computational assessment of cumulated creep damage, determine when and where it is necessary to cut off the particular number of microsamples or take replicas. Finally, the real metal condition may be assessed on the basis of metallographic specimen research and reasonable 3-R decision - run, repair, replacement - made on further component use. (orig.) 6 refs.

  13. Effectiveness of Regulatory Structure in the Power Sector of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Afia Malik

    2007-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to study the regulatory environment in the electricity sector of Pakistan. NEPRA, a regulatory authority was formed in 1997 to protect consumer interests in the area of electricity provision, and to ensure an efficient and competitive environment for the electricity generators and distributors, but it has so far not been able to achieve anything. The power sector (dominated by WAPDA and KESC) is still affected by institutional and organisational weaknesses, with ineff...

  14. Hydro-engineering structure and Liptovska Mara Pumped Storage Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regula, E.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper thirty years history of the Hydro-engineering structure and Liptovska Mara Pumped Storage Power Plant (PSPP) is presented. In 1975 year the Liptovska Mara PSPP was commissioned. There are 2 Kaplan turbines and 2 Derezias reversible turbines with a total installed power 198 MW. The average annual output is 134.5 GWh. As a part of this hydro-engineering structure is Besenova Small-scale power plants with 2 turbines and with installed power 4.64 MW. The average annual output consists 18.3 GWh. There up to end of 2004 year 3,620.172 MWh of electricity was produced. Environmental effects are discussed

  15. Assessing seismic adequacy of existing nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.; Vinogradov, V.; Privalov, S.; Shishenin, V.

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays Russia's specialists perform a huge amount of works to revaluate the NPP safety. These works are certain to include refinement of NPP safety assessment under the effects of specific dynamic loads, earthquake effects included. It should be noted, that a number of Russian NPPs now in operation had been designed either with no account of these loads, or under the requirements which are underestimated as compared with the modern requirements on the external load composition and rate. Revaluation of NPP seismic safety is based on the results of the works taken under orderly sequence on assessment of (1) seismic input and ground effects; (2) structure response and state; (3) equipment and pipelines response and state. The paper considers the methods of NPP structures response and state assessment. Therewith we assume that ground motion predicted behavior at the construction basement has been preset for the SSE and OBE conditions and the effects of soil-structure interaction, including the situation of possible soft soil liquefaction. Necessity to determine both the reaction of a construction and its state as a whole as well as its elements reaction, to evaluate their bearing capacity and destruction zones formation makes it necessary to make up a detailed structural model, which is usually a finite element one. Since seismic revaluation is to be performed for the existing structures, characteristics of which can substantially differ from the design ones, revealing the actual state of this structures becomes critical. If the real values of physical and mechanical properties of the structure materials, connections of elements etc. are used as initial data in a structural model this permits to increase the design assessment credibility and reliability substantially. The paper analyzes the results of determining these initial assessments while inspecting several Russian NPPs on the basis of a 'combined' method. This method is realized at two consecutive stages. The

  16. Tornado-resistance design for the nuclear safety structure of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Zufeng.

    1987-01-01

    The primary design consideration of anti-tornado of the nuclear safety structure of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant is briefly presented. It mainly includes estimating the probability of tornado arising in the site, ascertaining the design requirments of the anti-tornado structures and deciding the tornado load acted on the structures

  17. The power of data: structural bioinformatics yesterday and today

    KAUST Repository

    Tramontano, Anna

    2016-01-25

    The protein structure database was established in 1971. At the time it contained seven structures, today there are more than 100,000. The improvement is not only a matter of quantity, but also of quality. Did we effectively exploit this information to gain knowledge? The answer is certainly affirmative. I will illustrate how this wealth of experimental data has allowed us to explore the landscape of macromolecular structures on one side, and to uncover the properties of specific protein families on the other. The latter plays an essential role in pursuing exciting new avenues in biomedical and biotechnological sciences. Experimental data are also part of a virtuous cycle whereby they reinforce and guide our ability to infer unknown macromolecular structures, which, while providing relevant information to scientists, permits to gauge the level of our understanding of the complex problem of protein folding. A paradigmatic example of the latter is represented by the “Critical Assessment of Techniques for Protein Structure Prediction” (CASP) initiative that I will briefly discuss.

  18. Dynamic interaction of components, structure, and foundation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajuhesh, J.; Hadjian, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A solution is formulated for the dynamic analysis of structures and components with different stiffness and damping characteristics, including the consideration of soil-structure interaction effects. Composite structures are often analysed approximately, in particular with regards to damping. For example, the reactor and other equipment in nuclear power plant structures are often analysed by assuming them uncoupled from the supporting structures. To achieve a better accuracy, the coupled system is hereby analysed as a composite component-structure-soil system. To demonstrate the assembly technique, two examples are considered: (a) a steel structure sitting on a concrete stem and linked by a steel bridge to another concrete structure, and (b) an actual model of a nuclear power plant containment structure. (Auth.)

  19. The maintenance optimization of structural components in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryla, P.; Ardorino, F.; Aufort, P.; Jacquot, J.P.; Magne, L.; Pitner, P.; Verite, B.; Villain, B.; Monnier, B.

    1997-10-01

    An optimization process, called 'OMF-Structures', is developed by Electricite de France (EDF) in order to extend the current 'OMF' Reliability Centered Maintenance to piping structural components. The Auxiliary Feedwater System of a 900 MW French nuclear plant has been studied in order to lay the foundations of the method. This paper presents the currently proposed principles of the process. The principles of the OMF-Structures process include 'Risk-Based Inspection' concepts within an RCM process. Two main phases are identified: The purpose of the first phase is to select the risk-significant failure modes and associated elements. This phase consists of two major steps: potential consequences evaluation and reliability performance evaluation. The second phase consists of the definition of preventive maintenance programs for piping elements that are associated with risk-significant failure modes. (author)

  20. Indirect control and power in mutual control structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karos, D.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    In a mutual control structure agents exercise control over each other. Typical examples occur in the area of corporate governance: firms and investment companies exercise mutual control, in particular by owning each others’ stocks. In this paper we formulate a general model for such situations.

  1. Availability analysis of nuclear power plant system with the consideration of logical loop structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear power plants have logical loop structures in their system configuration. The typical example is a power source system, that is, a nuclear plant generates electricity and it is used for the operation of pumps in the plant. For the reliability or availability analysis of nuclear power plants, it is necessary to treat accurately logical loop structures. Authors have proposed an exact method for solving logical loop structure in reliability analysis, and generalized method has recently been presented. A nuclear power plant system is taken up and essential parts of logical loop structures are modeled into relatively simple form. The procedure to solve a loop structure is shown in which the proposed generalized method is applied, and availability of the system with loop structure is accurately solved. The analysis results indicate that reconsideration of present plant operating procedure should be made for the increase of safety of nuclear power plant in case of 'Loss of offsite power' incident. The analysis results also show an important role of loop structures for maintaining the overall system availability. The analysis procedure is also useful in effectively designing high reliable systems. (author)

  2. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Baolian; Ding, Zujun; Zhao, Huanyu; Jin, Defei

    2014-01-01

    The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF) operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the ...

  3. Quantum duel revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Alexandre G M; Paiva, Milena M

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the quantum two-person duel. In this problem, both Alice and Bob each possess a spin-1/2 particle which models dead and alive states for each player. We review the Abbott and Flitney result—now considering non-zero α 1 and α 2 in order to decide if it is better for Alice to shoot or not the second time—and we also consider a duel where players do not necessarily start alive. This simple assumption allows us to explore several interesting special cases, namely how a dead player can win the duel shooting just once, or how can Bob revive Alice after one shot, and the better strategy for Alice—being either alive or in a superposition of alive and dead states—fighting a dead opponent. (paper)

  4. Satellite failures revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    In January 1994, the two geostationary satellites known as Anik-E1 and Anik-E2, operated by Telesat Canada, failed one after the other within 9 hours, leaving many northern Canadian communities without television and data services. The outage, which shut down much of the country's broadcast television for hours and cost Telesat Canada more than $15 million, generated significant media attention. Lam et al. used publicly available records to revisit the event; they looked at failure details, media coverage, recovery effort, and cost. They also used satellite and ground data to determine the precise causes of those satellite failures. The researchers traced the entire space weather event from conditions on the Sun through the interplanetary medium to the particle environment in geostationary orbit.

  5. Logistics Innovation Process Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Su, Shong-Iee Ivan; Yang, Su-Lan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to learn more about logistics innovation processes and their implications for the focal organization as well as the supply chain, especially suppliers. Design/methodology/approach – The empirical basis of the study is a longitudinal action research project...... that was triggered by the practical needs of new ways of handling material flows of a hospital. This approach made it possible to revisit theory on logistics innovation process. Findings – Apart from the tangible benefits reported to the case hospital, five findings can be extracted from this study: the logistics...... innovation process model may include not just customers but also suppliers; logistics innovation in buyer-supplier relations may serve as an alternative to outsourcing; logistics innovation processes are dynamic and may improve supplier partnerships; logistics innovations in the supply chain are as dependent...

  6. Klein's double discontinuity revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Carl; Grønbæk, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Much effort and research has been invested into understanding and bridging the ‘gaps’ which many students experience in terms of contents and expectations as they begin university studies with a heavy component of mathematics, typically in the form of calculus courses. We have several studies...... of bridging measures, success rates and many other aspects of these “entrance transition” problems. In this paper, we consider the inverse transition, experienced by university students as they revisit core parts of high school mathematics (in particular, calculus) after completing the undergraduate...... mathematics courses which are mandatory to become a high school teacher of mathematics. To what extent does the “advanced” experience enable them to approach the high school calculus in a deeper and more autonomous way ? To what extent can “capstone” courses support such an approach ? How could it be hindered...

  7. Reframing in dentistry: Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivakumar Nuvvula

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The successful practice of dentistry involves a good combination of technical skills and soft skills. Soft skills or communication skills are not taught extensively in dental schools and it can be challenging to learn and at times in treating dental patients. Guiding the child′s behavior in the dental operatory is one of the preliminary steps to be taken by the pediatric dentist and one who can successfully modify the behavior can definitely pave the way for a life time comprehensive oral care. This article is an attempt to revisit a simple behavior guidance technique, reframing and explain the possible psychological perspectives behind it for better use in the clinical practice.

  8. Power systems and electromagnetic safety in of powerful utility buildings and structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.І. Запорожець

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available  Researching of origin terms of electromagnetic contaminations from the unbalanced currents and leak currents in the industrial networks of electric supply of structures and buildings saturated energy.

  9. Theorizing power in transition studies: the role of creativity and novel practices in structural change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffman, J.

    2013-01-01

    An important theoretical challenge for theorizing about power dynamics in societal transitions is the transformation of power itself. In this respect, it is especially puzzling how agency at the level of novel practices can extend beyond the habitual, how it can draw on structures and destructure at

  10. Possible penetration of nuclear power in fuel and power demand structure in chemical industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balajka, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are indicated of the technological applications of high temperature reactors in chemical operations. Nuclear heating may be applied to such processes whose temperature does not 850 degC and pressure is approximately equal to the pressure of helium in the primary circuit of the reactor. The following processes may be implemented: the production of ammonia and methanol, the reduction of iron ore, the implementation of the system of long-distance heat transmission in chemically bound form, etc. The diagram has been designed for the production of ammonia and methanol by steam reforming of methane. The natural gas which enters the process is distributed in the technological and power branches. In the technological branch it is preheated and desulphurized, then mixed with steam and entered the reactor.The outlet mixture of CO, CO 2 , H 2 and Csub(n)Hsub(m) is oxidized with air and following further catalyses a mixture is obtained of N 2 and H 2 in the 1:3 ratio. The power balances and variants are calculated of the distribution of reactor power and its effect on the basic parameters of the technology of the production of NH 3 . (M.D.)

  11. Aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plants for continued service. In meeting this objective, a materials property data base is being developed as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, studies are well under way to review and assess inservice inspection techniques for concrete structures and to develop a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future conditions assessments of these structures. 16 refs., 2 tabs

  12. Optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Fulin

    1991-01-01

    This paper suggests the method of optimal design of base isolation and energy dissipation system for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures. This method is based on dynamic analysis, shaking table tests for a 1/4 scale model, and a great number of low cycle fatigue failure tests for energy dissipating elements. A set of calculation formulas for optimal design of structures with base isolation and energy dissipation system were introduced, which are able to be used in engineering design for earthquake resistant nuclear power plant structures or other kinds of structures. (author)

  13. A linear accelerator power amplification system for high gradient structure research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimson, J.; Mecklenburg, B.

    1999-01-01

    The ongoing development of linear collider high power RF sources and pulse compression systems has resulted in substantial progress towards a goal of providing a peak RF power level of approximately 250 MW at the input of the accelerator structure. While the immediate development and the high power testing of specialized waveguide components required for power transmission at these high levels have proceeded expeditiously due to the availability of resonant ring systems, the testing of high gradient accelerator structures at very high power levels, and the investigation of coupler cavity RF breakdown problems have, typically, been curtailed due to the unavailability of suitable 200 to 300 MW RF test facilities. We describe herein a compact, high peak power amplification system based on a dual hybrid bridge configuration that avoids the need for power splitters at the accelerator dual feed couplers, and also provides a convenient interface for installing high gradient accelerator test structures. Design parameters are presented for a proposed power amplification system that makes use of a 75 MW, 1/2 μs flat-top RF source to produce 280 MW, 1/4 μs flat-top power for testing dual feed TW experimental accelerator sections

  14. Generation of floor response spectra for a model structure of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaidyanathan, C.V.; Kamatchi, P.; Ravichandran, R.; Lakshmanan, N.

    2003-01-01

    The importance of Nuclear power plants and the consequences of a nuclear accident require that the nuclear structures be designed for the most severe environmental conditions. Earthquakes constitutes major design consideration for the system, structures and equipment of a nuclear power plant. The design of structures on ground is based on the ground response spectra. Many important parts of a nuclear power plant facility are attached to the principal parts of the structure and respond in a manner determined by the structural response rather than by the general ground motion to which the structure is supported. Hence the seismic response of equipment is generally based on the response spectrum of the floor on which it is mounted. In this paper such floor response spectra have been generated at different nodes of a chosen model structure of a nuclear power plant. In the present study a detailed nonlinear time history analysis has been carried out on the mathematical model of the chosen Nuclear Power Plant model structure with the spectrum compatible time history. The acceleration response results of the time history analysis has been used in the spectral analysis and the response spectra are generated. Further peak broadening has been done to account for uncertainties in the material properties and soil characteristics. (author)

  15. Structure Design and Analysis of High-Voltage Power Supply for ECRH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lei; Huang Yiyun; Zhao Yanping; Zhang Jian; Yang Lei; Guo Wenjun

    2014-01-01

    In order to develop a high-voltage power supply (HVPS) with high quality parameters, not only its electrical circuit but also its structure should be studied in detail. In this paper, the structure design of the collector power supply for gyrotron is discussed first. Then the electrical field and potential simulations of its main devices are analyzed. Finally, relevant calculations and conclusions are given. (fusion engineering)

  16. A hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, R.E.; Mitra, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper discusses the development of a hierarchical structure for risk criteria applicable to nuclear power plants. The structure provides a unified framework to systematically analyze the implications of different types of criteria, each focusing on a particular aspect of nuclear power plant risks. The framework allows investigation of the specific coverage of a particular criterion and comparison of different criteria with regard to areas to which they apply

  17. Power efficiency optimization of disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure of electron linear accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinghe; Li Jinhai; Li Chunguang

    2014-01-01

    Disk-loaded waveguide traveling wave structure (TWS), which is widely used in scientific research and industry, is a vital accelerating structure in electron linear accelerator. The power efficiency is an important parameter for designing TWS, which greatly effects the expenses for the fabrication and commercial running. The key parameters related with power efficiency were studied for TWS optimization. The result was proved by experiment result, and it shows some help for accelerator engineering. (authors)

  18. Research on market power and market structure: A direct measure of market power of internet platform enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baowen Sun

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This paper aims to clear whether the monopoly structure of the internet industry has produced market power and discussed the welfare change of the internet industry monopoly. Design/methodology/approach – By using new empirical industrial organization methods and taking the e-commerce market as an example, the authors measured market power and economies of scale of the internet platform companies. Findings – Internet platform enterprises have formed scale economy, but it has not had market power, and the industry still maintains high levels of competition; also, the emergence of large enterprises may increase the welfare of consumers. Originality/value – The conclusion of this paper clarified actual competition status of internet industry and provided a new foothold for regulation and ideas for the traditional industry to crack the Marshall Conflict.

  19. Silicon carbide composites as fusion power reactor structural materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snead, L.L., E-mail: SneadLL@ORNL.gov [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Nozawa, T. [Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Ferraris, M. [Politecnico di Torino-DISMIC c. Duca degli Abruzzi, 24I-10129 Torino (Italy); Katoh, Y. [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Shinavski, R. [Hypertherm HTC, 18411 Gothard St., Units A/B/C, Huntington Beach, CA 92648 (United States); Sawan, M. [University of Wisconsin, Madison 417 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive Madison, WI 53706-1687 (United States)

    2011-10-01

    Silicon carbide was first proposed as a low activation fusion reactor material in the mid 1970s. However, serious development of this material did not begin until the early 1990s, driven by the emergence of composite materials that provided enhanced toughness and an implied ability to use these typically brittle materials in engineering application. In the decades that followed, SiC composite system was successfully transformed from a poorly performing curiosity into a radiation stable material of sufficient maturity to be considered for near term nuclear and non-nuclear systems. In this paper the recent progress in the understanding and of basic phenomenon related to the use of SiC and SiC composite in fusion applications will be presented. This work includes both fundamental radiation effects in SiC and engineering issues such as joining and general materials properties. Additionally, this paper will briefly discuss the technological gaps remaining for the practical application of this material system in fusion power devices such as DEMO and beyond.

  20. Humor: Power Conveying Social Structures Inside Forensic Mental Health Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildberg, Frederik A; Paaske, Kristian J; Rasmussen, Vivian L; Nissen, Ricko D; Bradley, Stephen K; Hounsgaard, Lise

    2016-01-01

    According to research literature, humor inside the staff-patient interaction seems to be significant in the area of forensic mental healthcare. However, existing literature on the subject is limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore the characteristics of the use humor by forensic mental health staff members in interactions with forensic mental health inpatients. The study included 32 forensic mental health staff members, used 307 hours of participant observations, 48 informal interviews, and seven formal semistructured interviews. Outcomes identify four themes concerning the conveyance of power to, from, and between forensic mental health staff and patients as they interact: (a) "the informal use: the human-to-human approach," characterized by an informal use of humor and without any reference to mental health issues; (b) the "formal use of humor: the staff-patient approach," characterized as formal with a view on the patient as mentally ill, unable to understand humor, and with the aim of using humor to prevent conflicts or negative behavior; (c) "protest against requested care: the human-patient approach," characterized by the use of humor as a protest against requested care; and the use of (d) "inadequacy humor: the staff-human approach," characterized by the use of inadequacy-humor referring to, for example, patients' physical features. Recommendations and clinical implications are discussed.

  1. Quality control of concrete structures in nuclear power plant, (4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Hisao; Kawaguchi, Tohru; Oike, Takeshi; Morimoto, Shoichi; Takeshita, Shigetoshi.

    1979-01-01

    This report describes the result of an investigation to clarify the effect of concrete temperature as mixed in the summer season on the strength gain characteristics of mass concrete such as used in construction of nuclear power plants. It is pointed out that the low strength gain of control cylinders in summer is caused by two main factors, viz., the absence of water modification in the mix design according to concrete temperature as mixed and high curing temperature after placing up to mold removal rather than concrete temperature itself as mixed. On the other hand, it has been clarified that high strength gain in mass concrete can be realized by lowering concrete temperature as mixed so as to lower the subsequent curing temperature at early age. Furthermore, it is explained that the larger the size of the member is, the more effect can be expected from lowering concrete temperature. The effect of concrete temperature as mixed on high strength concrete to be used in PCCV is discussed in the Appendix. (author)

  2. Structural review of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 containment structure under combined loads for the Systematic Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, C.Y.; Debeling, A.; Tsai, N.C.

    1981-12-01

    A structural reassessment of the containment structure of the Palisades Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as part of the Systematic Evaluation Program. Conclusions about the ability of the containment structure to withstand the Abnormal/Extreme Environment are presented. The reassessment focused mainly on the overall structural integrity of the containment building for the Abnormal/Extreme Environment. In this case, the Abnormal Environmental condition is caused by the worst case of either a Loss-of-Coolant Accident or a main steam line break. The Extreme Environmental condition is the Safe Shutdown Earthquake

  3. The changing structure of the international commercial nuclear power reactor industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Hill, L.J.; Reich, W.J.; Rowan, W.J.

    1992-12-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an understanding of the international commercial nuclear power industry today and how the industry is evolving. This industry includes reactor vendors, product lines, and utility customers. The evolving structure of the international nuclear power reactor industry implies different organizations making decisions within the nuclear power industry, different outside constraints on those decisions, and different priorities than with the previous structure. At the same time, cultural factors, technical constraints, and historical business relationships allow for an understanding of the organization of the industry, what is likely, and what is unlikely. With such a frame of reference, current trends and future directions can be more readily understood

  4. Towards assuring the continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. Pertinent concrete structures are described in terms of their importance, design considerations, and materials of construction. Degradation factors which can potentially impact the ability of these structures to meet their functional and performance requirements are identified. A review of the performance history of the concrete components in nuclear power plants is provided. Accomplishments of the SLAG Program are summarized, i.e., development of the structural materials information center, development of a structural aging assessment methodology, evaluation of models for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete, review of in-service inspection methods, and development of a methodology for reliability-based condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures. On-going activities are also described

  5. Seismic capacities of existing nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wesley, D.A.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Narver, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    The paper presents a discussion of the more important conservatisms and some of the results obtained when this methodology has been applied to various nuclear plants. Results are shown for both BWR and PWR plants, on both rock and soil sites, and for plants and soil sites, and for plants that were designed in the late 1960s to plants that have yet to load fuel. Safe shutdown earthquake design levels of 0.1 g to 0.25 g were used for these plants. Overall median structural factors of safety for the lowest significant seismic failure capacity at each plant ranged from 3.5 to 8.5. The lowest containment-related failure capacity at each plant ranged from 4.6 to 31. The types of failure corresponding to each safety factor are also tabulated. (orig./HP)

  6. Statistical Power Analysis with Missing Data A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Davey, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Statistical power analysis has revolutionized the ways in which we conduct and evaluate research.  Similar developments in the statistical analysis of incomplete (missing) data are gaining more widespread applications. This volume brings statistical power and incomplete data together under a common framework, in a way that is readily accessible to those with only an introductory familiarity with structural equation modeling.  It answers many practical questions such as: How missing data affects the statistical power in a study How much power is likely with different amounts and types

  7. Increased power to weight ratio of piezoelectric energy harvesters through integration of cellular honeycomb structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, N; Thompson, L L

    2016-01-01

    The limitations posed by batteries have compelled the need to investigate energy harvesting methods to power small electronic devices that require very low operational power. Vibration based energy harvesting methods with piezoelectric transduction in particular has been shown to possess potential towards energy harvesters replacing batteries. Current piezoelectric energy harvesters exhibit considerably lower power to weight ratio or specific power when compared to batteries the harvesters seek to replace. To attain the goal of battery-less self-sustainable device operation the power to weight ratio gap between piezoelectric energy harvesters and batteries need to be bridged. In this paper the potential of integrating lightweight honeycomb structures with existing piezoelectric device configurations (bimorph) towards achieving higher specific power is investigated. It is shown in this study that at low excitation frequency ranges, replacing the solid continuous substrate of conventional bimorph with honeycomb structures of the same material results in a significant increase in power to weight ratio of the piezoelectric harvester. At higher driving frequency ranges it is shown that unlike the traditional piezoelectric bimorph with solid continuous substrate, the honeycomb substrate bimorph can preserve optimum global design parameters through manipulation of honeycomb unit cell parameters. Increased operating lifetime and design flexibility of the honeycomb core piezoelectric bimorph is demonstrated as unit cell parameters of the honeycomb structures can be manipulated to alter mass and stiffness properties of the substrate, resulting in unit cell parameter significantly influencing power generation. (paper)

  8. An Adaptive and Hybrid Approach for Revisiting the Visibility Pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ícaro Lins Leitão da Cunha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the visibility problem, which is traditionally known in Computer Graphics and Vision fields as the process of computing a (potentially visible set of primitives in the computational model of a scene. We propose a hybrid solution that uses a dry structure (in the sense of data reduction, a triangulation of the type J1a, to accelerate the task of searching for visible primitives. We came up with a solution that is useful for real-time, on-line, interactive applications as 3D visualization. In such applications the main goal is to load the minimum amount of primitives from the scene during the rendering stage, as possible. For this purpose, our algorithm executes the culling by using a hybrid paradigm based on viewing-frustum, back-face culling and occlusion models. Results have shown substantial improvement over these traditional approaches if applied separately. This novel approach can be used in devices with no dedicated processors or with low processing power, as cell phones or embedded displays, or to visualize data through the Internet, as in virtual museums applications.

  9. Robust stability analysis of large power systems using the structured singular value theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellanos, R.; Sarmiento, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Messina, A.R. [Cinvestav, Graduate Program in Electrical Engineering, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examines the application of structured singular value (SSV) theory to analyse robust stability of complex power systems with respect to a set of structured uncertainties. Based on SSV theory and the frequency sweep method, techniques for robust analysis of large-scale power systems are developed. The main interest is focused on determining robust stability for varying operating conditions and uncertainties in the structure of the power system. The applicability of the proposed techniques is verified through simulation studies on a large-scale power system. In particular, results for the system are considered for a wide range of uncertainties of operating conditions. Specifically, the developed technique is used to estimate the effect of variations in the parameters of a major system inter-tie on the nominal stability of a critical inter-area mode. (Author)

  10. High power CW output from low confinement asymmetric structure diode laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordache, G.; Buda, M.; Acket, G.A.; Roer, van de T.G.; Kaufmann, L.M.F.; Karouta, F.; Jagadish, C.; Tan, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    High power continuous wave output from diode lasers using low loss, low confinement, asymmetric structures is demonstrated. An asymmetric structure with an optical trap layer was grown by metal organic vapour phase epitaxy. Gain guided 50 µm wide stripe 1-3 mm long diode lasers were studied. 1.8 W

  11. Low activation structural material candidates for fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, C.B.A.; Cook, I.

    1997-06-01

    Under the SEAL Programme of the European Long-Term Fusion Safety Programme, an assessment was performed of a number of possible blanket structural materials. These included the steels then under consideration in the European Blanket Programme, as well as materials being considered for investigation in the Advanced Materials Programme. Calculations were performed, using SEAFP methods, of the activation properties of the materials, and these were related, based on the SEAFP experience, to assessments of S and E performance. The materials investigated were the SEAFP low-activation martensitic steel (LA12TaLC); a Japanese low-activation martensitic steel (F-82H), a range of compositional variants about this steel; the vanadium-titanium-chromium alloy which was the original proposal of the ITER JCT for the ITER in-vessel components; a titanium-aluminium intermetallic (Ti-Al) which is under investigation in Japan; and silicon carbide composite (SiC). Assessed impurities were included in the compositions of these materials, and they have very important impacts on the activation properties. Lack of sufficiently detailed data on the composition of chromium alloys precluded their inclusion in the study. (UK)

  12. The structure of trust in the safety of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Motoki; Haruna, Yasuhiro; Kitada, Atsuko.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify the structure of people's trust in electric power companies and nuclear power generation. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire surveys in the United States and Japan with a special emphasis on the trustworthiness of electric power companies. The results indicated that trustworthiness of electric power companies were rated higher by Americans than by Japanese. Furthermore, trustworthiness of electric power companies in the United States was highly correlated with their trustfulness in private companies in general, whereas one in Japan was rather than correlated with their trust level in the government. This difference may imply Americans do not differentiate electric power companies from other private organizations, while Japanese assign a special status to them closely linked to the government. (author)

  13. Effect of sputtering power on structure and properties of Bi film deposited by DC magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Guo; He Zhibing; Xu Hua; Li Jun; Chen Taihua; Chen Jiajun

    2012-01-01

    Bi film was fabricated at different sputtering powers by DC magnetron sputtering. The deposition rate of Bi film as the function of sputtering power was studied. The surface topography of Bi film was observed by SEM, and the growth mode of Bi film was investigated. The crystal structure was analyzed by XRD. The grain size and stress of Bi film were calculated. The SEM images show that all the films are columnar growth. The average grain size firstly increases as the sputtering power increases, then decreases at 60 W. The film becomes loose with the increase of sputtering power, while, the film gets compact when the sputtering power becomes from 45 to 60 W. The XRD results show that films are polycrystalline of hexagonal. And the stress transforms from the tensile stress to compressive stress as the sputtering power increases. (authors)

  14. Validation of seismic soil structure interaction (SSI) methodology for a UK PWR nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llambias, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    The seismic loading information for use in the seismic design of equipment and minor structures within a nuclear power plant is determined from a dynamic response analysis of the building in which they are located. This dynamic response analysis needs to capture the global response of both the building structure and adjacent soil and is commonly referred to as a soil structure interaction (SSI) analysis. NNC have developed a simple and cost effective methodology for the seismic SSI analysis of buildings in a PWR nuclear power station at a UK soft site. This paper outlines the NNC methodology and describes the approach adopted for its validation

  15. Development of Structural Health Monitoring System for pipes in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eom, H. S.; Choi, Y. C.; Shin, S. H.; Youn, D. B.; Park, J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Structural health monitoring (SHM) has becoming an important issue in the maintenance of various structures such as large steel plates, vessels, and pipes in nuclear power plants. There are important factors to be considered in developing an SHM system. With consideration of these factors, we have developed a computerized multi-channel ultrasonic system that can handle array transducers and generate a high-power pulse for online SHM of the plates and pipes. The proposed system is compact but has all the necessary functions for SHM of important structure such as pipes and plates in a NPP

  16. Structural design of the turbine building of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella, L.N.; Reis, F.J.C.; Jurkiewicz, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The Turbine Building of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1, and particularly its structure and structural design are described. The Turbine Building, as far as its structure is concerned, deviates from the standard structure of any turbine building due to the fact that huge ducts are provided in the foundation mat as to accomodate the circulating water system. This aspect and the fact that the building is founded upon a very deep strata of compacted and controlled fill, makes out of the building structure 'a concrete ship floating in the sea of sand', and by the same reason presents by itself an interesting structure, worth to be known to all engineers involved in design of power plants. This pape, suplemented by a few slides shown during presentation of the paper at the conference, covers the subject mainly from the designers' point of view. (Author)

  17. Survey and analysis of work structure in nuclear power plants. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauman, M.B.; Pain, R.F.; Van Cott, H.P.; Davidson, M.K.

    1983-06-01

    Work-structure factors are those factors that relate to the way in which work at all levels in a plant is organized, staffed, managed, rewarded, and perceived by plant personnel. Research over many years has demonstrated that these work-structure factors are closely correlated with organizational effectiveness, safety, and profitability. The work structure of ten nuclear power plants was assessed using questionnaires. Structured critical incident interviews were conducted to verify the questionnaire results. The study revealed that a variety of work-structure factor problem areas do exist in nuclear power plants. The study recommends a prioritized set of candidate research issues to be considered as part of EPRI's Work Structure and Performance Research Program

  18. Comparative research of finite element methods for perforated structures of nuclear power plant primary equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Guangming; Deng Xiaoyun; Jin Ting

    2013-01-01

    Many perforated structures are used for nuclear power plant primary equipment, and they are complex, and have various forms. In order to explore the analysis and evaluation method, this paper used finite element method and equivalent analytic method to do the comparative analysis of perforated structures. The paper considered the main influence factors (including perforated forms, arrangements, and etc.), obtaining the systematic analysis methods of perforated structures. (authors)

  19. Continuing the service of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants (NPPs) for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program consists of three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technologies, and quantitative methodologies for continued service determinations. Recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are summarized

  20. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Performance evaluation examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Based on experimental and analytical considerations, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been incorporated in new recommendations. This document shows outdoor civil structures earthquake resistance and endurance performance evaluation examples based on revised recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  1. Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectrometry: A Powerful Tool for Natural Product Structure Elucidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew R; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-11-03

    Mass spectrometry is a powerful tool in natural product structure elucidation, but our ability to directly correlate fragmentation spectra to these structures lags far behind similar efforts in peptide sequencing and proteomics. Often, manual data interpretation is required and our knowledge of the expected fragmentation patterns for many scaffolds is limited, further complicating analysis. Here, we summarize advances in natural product structure elucidation based upon the application of collision induced dissociation fragmentation mechanisms.

  2. Optimal wireless receiver structure for omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gougheri, Hesam Sadeghi; Kiani, Mehdi

    2016-08-01

    In order to achieve omnidirectional inductive power transmission to biomedical implants, the use of several orthogonal coils in the receiver side (Rx) has been proposed in the past. In this paper, the optimal Rx structure for connecting three orthogonal Rx coils and the power management is found to achieve the maximum power delivered to the load (PDL) in the presence of any Rx coil tilting. Unlike previous works, in which a separate power management has been used for each coil to deliver power to the load, different resonant Rx structures for connecting three Rx coils to a single power management are studied. In simulations, connecting three Rx coils with the diameters of 3 mm, 3.3 mm, and 3.6 mm in series and resonating them with a single capacitor at the operation frequency of 100 MHz led to the maximum PDL for large loads when the implant was tilted for 45o. This optimal Rx structure achieves higher PDL in worst-case scenarios as well as reduces the number of power managements to only one.

  3. The structure of atomic power industry with allowance for energy production other than electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleksandrov, A.P.; Legasov, V.A.; Sidorenko, V.A.; Ponomarev-Stepnoj, N.N.; Protsenko, A.N.; Grebennik, V.N.; Glushkov, E.S.

    1977-01-01

    The important tendency in the development of nuclear power is broadening the scope of its application for substitution of mineral fuel by the nuclear one not only at the electrical power production but in other energy consuming fields of industry. The development of large-scale nuclear power plants permits the provision of the significant part of energy supply of all kinds and save on oil and gas. Scales and rates of development of nuclear power are estimated for the model society on the basis of predicted need energy consumption per capita. The possible rates and scales of nuclear power development are determined at some alternative amounts of potential reserves of organic fuel (oil, gas) per capita and within the economically and ecologically reasonable scales of coal utilization. There has been given the analysis of possible scopes of application of nuclear power industry: for production of electricity, central heating, hydrogen generation, gasification of coals, metallurgy, chemistry by means of medium- and high-temperature reactors. The conceivable relation between electrical energy and heat production in energetics and the nuclear power industry and the dynamics of change in this relation is being forecasted. The promising development of high temperature helium reactors has been discussed. Considerations on possible effect of thorium cycle on the structure of nuclear power industry are outlined. The nuclear power industry is being developed mainly on the basis of nuclear power plants with thermal reactors and it should not be expected for the next decade that its structure is to change significantly. However, the development of only this type reactors will require, as early as the end of this century, the significant consumption of natural uranium and considerable increase in capacities of uranium output and uranium enrichment industry. Therefore, in the following stages of development of nuclear power industry it is necessary to introduce fast breeders

  4. Developing a computerized aging management system for concrete structures in finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Neshawy, F.; Piironen, J.; Sistonen, E.; Vesikari, E.; Tuomisto, M.; Hradil, P.; Ferreira, M.

    2013-01-01

    Finland has four nuclear reactors units in two power plants. The first unit started operation in 1977 and in the early 1980's all four units were in use. During the last few years the aging management of the Nuclear Power Plant's (NPP) concrete structures has grown an important issue because the existing structures are reaching the end of their licensed operating lifetime (about 40 years). Therefore the nuclear power companies are developing aging management systems to avoid premature degradation of NPP facilities and to be able to extend their operating lifetime. This paper is about the development of a computerized ageing management system for the nuclear power plants concrete structures. The computerized ageing management system is built upon central database and implementation applications. It will assist the personnel of power companies to implement the aging management activities at different phases of the lifetime of a power plant. It will provide systematic methods for planning, surveillance, inspection, monitoring, condition assessment, maintenance and repair of structures. (authors)

  5. The Faraday effect revisited General theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cornean, H D; Pedersen, T G

    2005-01-01

    This paper is the first in a series revisiting the Faraday effect, or more generally, the theory of electronic quantum transport/optical response in bulk media in the presence of a constant magnetic field. The independent electron approximation is assumed. For free electrons, the transverse conductivity can be explicitly computed and coincides with the classical result. In the general case, using magnetic perturbation theory, the conductivity tensor is expanded in powers of the strength of the magnetic field $B$. Then the linear term in $B$ of this expansion is written down in terms of the zero magnetic field Green function and the zero field current operator. In the periodic case, the linear term in $B$ of the conductivity tensor is expressed in terms of zero magnetic field Bloch functions and energies. No derivatives with respect to the quasimomentum appear and thereby all ambiguities are removed, in contrast to earlier work.

  6. Structural Aging Program to evaluate continued performance of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1994-01-01

    This report discusses the Structural Aging (SAG) Program which is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the United States Nuclear Regulatory commission (USNRC). The SAG Program is addressing the aging management of safety-related concrete structures in nuclear power plants for the purpose of providing improved technical bases for their continued service. The program is organized into three technical tasks: Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technologies, and Quantitative Methodology for continued Service Determinations. Objectives and a summary of recent accomplishments under each of these tasks are presented

  7. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2009-01-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  8. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structures - Overview of Methods and Related Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, Dan J [ORNL

    2009-05-01

    The objectives of this limited study were to provide an overview of the methods that are available for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete and metallic structures, and to provide an assessment of the status of methods that address inspection of thick, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. In meeting these objectives a general description of nuclear power plant safety-related structures was provided as well as identification of potential degradation factors, testing and inspection requirements, and operating experience; methods for inspection of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures and containment metallic pressure boundaries were identified and described; and applications of nondestructive evaluation methods specifically related to inspection of thick-section reinforced concrete structures and inaccessible portions of containment metallic pressure boundaries were summarized. Recommendations are provided on utilization of test article(s) to further advance nondestructive evaluation methods related to thick-section, heavily-reinforced concrete and inaccessible portions of the metallic pressure boundary representative of nuclear power plant containments. Conduct of a workshop to provide an update on applications and needed developments for nondestructive evaluation of nuclear power plant structures would also be of benefit.

  9. The critical catastrophe revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mulatier, Clélia; Rosso, Alberto; Dumonteil, Eric; Zoia, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The neutron population in a prototype model of nuclear reactor can be described in terms of a collection of particles confined in a box and undergoing three key random mechanisms: diffusion, reproduction due to fissions, and death due to absorption events. When the reactor is operated at the critical point, and fissions are exactly compensated by absorptions, the whole neutron population might in principle go to extinction because of the wild fluctuations induced by births and deaths. This phenomenon, which has been named critical catastrophe, is nonetheless never observed in practice: feedback mechanisms acting on the total population, such as human intervention, have a stabilizing effect. In this work, we revisit the critical catastrophe by investigating the spatial behaviour of the fluctuations in a confined geometry. When the system is free to evolve, the neutrons may display a wild patchiness (clustering). On the contrary, imposing a population control on the total population acts also against the local fluctuations, and may thus inhibit the spatial clustering. The effectiveness of population control in quenching spatial fluctuations will be shown to depend on the competition between the mixing time of the neutrons (i.e. the average time taken for a particle to explore the finite viable space) and the extinction time

  10. Lorentz violation naturalness revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belenchia, Alessio; Gambassi, Andrea; Liberati, Stefano [SISSA - International School for Advanced Studies, via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-08

    We revisit here the naturalness problem of Lorentz invariance violations on a simple toy model of a scalar field coupled to a fermion field via a Yukawa interaction. We first review some well-known results concerning the low-energy percolation of Lorentz violation from high energies, presenting some details of the analysis not explicitly discussed in the literature and discussing some previously unnoticed subtleties. We then show how a separation between the scale of validity of the effective field theory and that one of Lorentz invariance violations can hinder this low-energy percolation. While such protection mechanism was previously considered in the literature, we provide here a simple illustration of how it works and of its general features. Finally, we consider a case in which dissipation is present, showing that the dissipative behaviour does not percolate generically to lower mass dimension operators albeit dispersion does. Moreover, we show that a scale separation can protect from unsuppressed low-energy percolation also in this case.

  11. Heat transfer and structure stress analysis of micro packaging component of high power light emitting diode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chih-Neng

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the heat transfer and structural stress analysis of the micro- scale packaging structure of a high-power light emitting diode. The thermal-effect and thermal-stress of light emitting diode are determined numerically. Light emitting diode is attached to the silicon substrate through the wire bonding process by using epoxy as die bond material. The silicon substrate is etched with holes at the bottom and filled with high conductivity copper material. The chip temperature and structure stress increase with input power consumption. The micro light emitting diode is mounted on the heat sink to increase the heat dissipation performance, to decrease chip temperature, to enhance the material structure reliability and safety, and to avoid structure failure as well. This paper has successfully used the finite element method to the micro-scale light emitting diode heat transfer and stress concentration at the edges through etched holes.

  12. Activities in Support of Continuing the Service of Nuclear Power Plant Safety-Related Concrete Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The license renewal process in the U.S. is outlined and its current status provided. Operating experience related to performance of the concrete structures is presented. Basic components of a program to manage aging of the concrete structures are identified and described: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Finally, areas are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  13. An improved basis for evaluating continued service of Category I concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Mori, Y.; Arndt, E.G.

    1992-01-01

    The Structural Aging (SAG) Program has the overall objective of preparing technical bases for regulatory criteria which will provide the NRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in nuclear power plant evaluations for continued service. In meeting this objective three primary activities are underway: (1) development of a structural materials information center containing data and information on the variation of concrete and concrete-related material properties over time; (2) establishment of procedures to make quantitative evaluations of the presence, magnitude, and significance of environmental stressors or aging factors that can impact critical component performance, as well as techniques which can be used for repair of degraded concrete structures; and (3) formulation of a quantitative methodology for performing current condition assessments and making reliability-based life predictions of critical concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Accomplishments to date under each of these tasks are presented

  14. High power testing oa ANL X-band dielectric-loaded accelerating structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power, J. G.; Gai, W.; Jing, C.; Konecny, R.; Gold, S. H.; Kinkead, A. K.

    2002-01-01

    In the second phase of a program to develop a compact accelerator based on a dielectric-loaded accelerating structure, we have conducted high power tests on a traveling-wave and a standing-wave prototype. Indications are that the traveling-wave structure achieved an accelerating gradient of 3-5 MV/m before the input coupling window failed, while the standing wave structure was poorly matched at high power due to contamination of copper residue on its coupling window. To solve both of these problems, a new method for coupling RF into the structures has been developed. The new couplers and the rest of the modular structure are currently under construction and will be tested at the Naval Research Laboratory shortly

  15. Leak rates and structural integrity tests for Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant primary containment. Regulatory experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamani Alegria, Yuri Raul; Salgado Gonzalez, Julio Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    In the Appendix A General Design Criteria for Nuclear Power Plants of the US Code of Federal Regulations title 10 part 50 (10CFR50) is established the Criterion 1 Quality standards and records which requires that structures, systems and components important to safety should be tested to quality standards according with the importance of the safety function to be performed. This regulation has been adopted by the Mexican Regulatory Body (CNSNS) for their nuclear power plants. (author)

  16. Are Public-Private Partnerships an Appropriate Governance Structure for Power Plants? A Transaction Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S. Ping; Hsu, Yaowen

    2015-04-01

    In order to meet the requirements of the rapid economic growth, many countries demand an increasing number of power plants to meet the increasing electricity usage. Since high capital requirements of power plants present a big issue for these countries, PPPs have been considered an alternative to provide power plant infrastructure. In particular, in emerging or developing countries, PPPs may be the fastest way to provide the infrastructure needed. However, while PPPs are a promising alternative to providing various types of infrastructure, many failed power plant PPP projects have made it evident that PPPs, under certain situations, can be very costly or even a wrong choice of governance structure. While the higher efficiency due to better pooling of resources is greatly emphasized in Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs), the embedded transaction inefficiencies are often understated or even ignored. Through the lens of Transaction Cost Economics (TCE), this paper aims to answer why and when PPPs may become a costly governance structure for power plants. Specifically, we develop a TCE-based theory of PPPs as a governance structure. This theory suggests that three major opportunism problems embedded in infrastructure PPPs are possible to cause substantial transaction costs and render PPPs a costly governance structure. The three main opportunism problems are principal-principal problem, firm's hold-up problem, and government-led hold-up problem. Moreover, project and institutional characteristics that may lead to opportunism problems are identified. Based on these characteristics, an opportunism-focused transaction cost analysis (OTCA) for PPPs as a governance structure is proposed to supplement the current practice of PPP feasibility analysis. As a part of theory development, a case study of PPP power plants is performed to evaluate the proposed theory and to illustrate how the proposed OTCA can be applied in practice. Policies and administration strategies for power

  17. Active Power Filter DC Bus Voltage Piecewise Reaching Law Variable Structure Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolian Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The DC bus voltage stability control is one key technology to ensure that Active Power Filter (APF operates stably. The external disturbances such as power grid and load fluctuation and the system parameters changing may affect the stability of APF DC bus voltage and the normal operation of APF. The mathematical model of DC bus voltage is established according to power balance principle and a DC bus voltage piecewise reaching law variable structure control algorithm is proposed to solve the above problem, and the design method is given. The simulation and experiment results proved that the proposed variable structure control algorithm can eliminate the chattering problem existing in traditional variable structure control effectively, is insensitive to system disturbance, and has good robustness and fast dynamic response speed and stable DC bus voltage with small fluctuation. The above advantages ensure the compensation effect of APF.

  18. Market power and price structure in the electricity market; Markedsmakt og prisstruktur i kraftmarkedet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halseth, Arve

    1998-12-01

    This report evaluates the importance of market power on price formation and price structure in the Norwegian electricity market. A simple oligopoly model is used to show how the equilibrium is affected by demand, distribution of capacity between two major suppliers, and marginal production costs, given that the suppliers do not cooperate. Two important conclusions can be drawn from the calculations: (1) a high concentration on the supply side does not necessarily lead to essential market power, and (2) market power may contribute to increased stability and predictability. The main conclusion is that market power can be positive for society and it is not uniquely associated with a high concentration on the supply side. If emphasis is placed on stability and predictability, market power should not be defined as deviation from prices under free competition but rather should be related to the requirement that the suppliers should not obtain unreasonably high profit with unreasonably little utilization of capacity. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  19. On the structure and phase transitions of power-law Poissonian ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Oshanin, Gleb

    2012-10-01

    Power-law Poissonian ensembles are Poisson processes that are defined on the positive half-line, and that are governed by power-law intensities. Power-law Poissonian ensembles are stochastic objects of fundamental significance; they uniquely display an array of fractal features and they uniquely generate a span of important applications. In this paper we apply three different methods—oligarchic analysis, Lorenzian analysis and heterogeneity analysis—to explore power-law Poissonian ensembles. The amalgamation of these analyses, combined with the topology of power-law Poissonian ensembles, establishes a detailed and multi-faceted picture of the statistical structure and the statistical phase transitions of these elemental ensembles.

  20. SEGR- and SEB-hardened structure with DSPSOI in power MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhaohuan; Fu, Xinghua; Yang, Fashun; Tan, Kaizhou; Ma, Kui; Wu, Xue; Lin, Jiexing

    2017-12-01

    Single event irradiation-hardened power MOSFET is the most important device for DC/DC converter in space environment application. Single event gate rupture (SEGR) and single event burnout (SEB), which will degrade the running safety and reliability of spacecraft, are the two typical failure modes in power MOSFETs. In this paper, based on recombination mechanism of interface between oxide and silicon, a novel hardened power MOSFETs structure for SEGR and SEB is proposed. The structure comprises double stagger partial silicon-on-insulator (DSPSOI) layers. Results show that the safety operation area (SOA) of a 130 V N-channel power MOSFET in single event irradiation environment is enhanced by up to 50% when the linear-energy-transfer value of heavy ion is a constant of 98 MeV·cm2/mg in the whole incident track, and the other parameters are almost maintained at the same value. Thus this novel structure can be widely used in designing single event irradiation-hardened power MOSFETs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61464002), the Grand Science and Technology Special Project in Guizhou Province of China (No. [2015]6006), and the Ministry of Education Open Foundation for Semiconductor Power Device Reliability (No. 010201).

  1. Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS). Case study on nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam (India). Computer Div.; Aghila, G. [National Institute of Technology, Karaikal (India). Dept. of Computer Science and Engineering

    2015-05-15

    In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.

  2. Micro-structured nuclear fuel and novel nuclear reactor concepts for advanced power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa-Simil, Liviu

    2008-01-01

    Many applications (e.g. terrestrial and space electric power production, naval, underwater and railroad propulsion and auxiliary power for isolated regions) require a compact-high-power electricity source. The development of such a reactor structure necessitates a deeper understanding of fission energy transport and materials behavior in radiation dominated structures. One solution to reduce the greenhouse-gas emissions and delay the catastrophic events' occurrences may be the development of massive nuclear power. The actual basic conceptions in nuclear reactors are at the base of the bottleneck in enhancements. The current nuclear reactors look like high security prisons applied to fission products. The micro-bead heterogeneous fuel mesh gives the fission products the possibility to acquire stable conditions outside the hot zones without spilling, in exchange for advantages - possibility of enhancing the nuclear technology for power production. There is a possibility to accommodate the materials and structures with the phenomenon of interest, the high temperature fission products free fuel with near perfect burning. This feature is important to the future of nuclear power development in order to avoid the nuclear fuel peak, and high price increase due to the immobilization of the fuel in the waste fuel nuclear reactor pools. (author)

  3. Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS). Case study on nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, P.; Thandra, Prasanth Kumar; Rajan, J.; Satyamurthy, S.A.V.; Aghila, G.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, due to the sophistication offered by the Internet, strategic organizations like nuclear power plants are linked to the outside world communication through the Internet. The entry of outside world communication into strategic organization (nuclear power plant) increases the hacker's attempts to crack its security and to trace any information which is being sent among the top level officials. Information security system in nuclear power plant is very crucial as even small loophole in the security system will lead to a major disaster. Recent cyber attacks in nuclear power plant provoked information security professionals to look deeply into the information security aspects of strategic organizations (nuclear power plant). In these lines, Shamir secret sharing scheme with dynamic access structure (SSSDAS) is proposed in the paper which provides enhanced security by providing dynamic access structure for each node in different hierarchies. The SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to any strategic organizations with hierarchical structures. In this paper the possible scenarios where SSSDAS algorithm can be applied to nuclear power plant is explained as a case study. The proposed SSSDAS scheme identifies the wrong shares, if any, used for reconstruction of the secret. The SSSDAS scheme also address the three major security parameters namely confidentiality, authentication and integrity.

  4. Leadership and Management Theories Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Mona Toft

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the paper is to revisit and analyze key contributions to the understanding of leadership and management. As a part of the discussion a role perspective that allows for additional and/or integrated leader dimensions, including a change-centered, will be outlined. Seemingly, a major...

  5. Revisiting Inter-Genre Similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Bob L.; Gouyon, Fabien

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the idea of ``inter-genre similarity'' (IGS) for machine learning in general, and music genre recognition in particular. We show analytically that the probability of error for IGS is higher than naive Bayes classification with zero-one loss (NB). We show empirically that IGS does...... not perform well, even for data that satisfies all its assumptions....

  6. Pascal software structures achieve definite control of the 24 MFTF sustaining neutral-beam power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Precise control of large, complex systems is not assured unless there is known to be no unintended interactions in the control system. The software controlling the sustaining neutral-beam power supplies of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility accomplishes this feat. The software structures comprise some 16,000 lines of commented Pascal code, distributed amoung 10 different tasks. Each task may control any of the 24 power supplies. All the tasks are strictly event-driven, and are not subject to any system mode. Since there is no global information in the software, we know that all the power supplies are controlled independently

  7. Cost structure of coal- and nuclear-fired electric power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helmuth, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the cost structure of coal and nuclear electric power generation. The emphasis of the paper is to empirically estimate the direct costs of generating base-load electric power at the plant level. Empirically, the paper first investigates the relative comparative costs of nuclear and coal power generation, based on historical operating data. Consideration of the learning curve and other dynamic elements is incorporated in the analysis. The second empirical thrust is to inestigate economies of scale for both technologies. The results from the empirical studies give an indication as to the future and present cost viability of each technology. Implications toward energy policy are discussed

  8. Architectural and structural engineering aspects of protective design for nuclear power plants against terrorist attack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musacchio, J.M.; Rozen, A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several threat studies which have been performed, provides collective data on costs, and discusses, in a general sense, architectural/structural aspects of passive protection design measures which have been developed and utilized at several nuclear power plants. By combining relevant architectural and structural measures in the standard design, it is possible to substantially reduce the vulnerability of nuclear power plants to terrorist attack and the estimated damage to a manageable level with a minimal investment. (orig./HP)

  9. Application of the Safety Classification of Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-04-01

    This publication describes how to complete tasks associated with every step of the classification methodology set out in IAEA Safety Standards Series No. SSG-30, Safety Classification of Structures, Systems and Components in Nuclear Power Plants. In particular, how to capture all the structures, systems and components (SSCs) of a nuclear power plant to be safety classified. Emphasis is placed on the SSCs that are necessary to limit radiological releases to the public and occupational doses to workers in operational conditions This publication provides information for organizations establishing a comprehensive safety classification of SSCs compliant with IAEA recommendations, and to support regulators in reviewing safety classification submitted by licensees

  10. Evaluation of earthquake resistance design for underground structures of nuclear power plant, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohma, Junichi; Kokusho, Kenji; Iwatate, Takahiro; Ohtomo, Keizo

    1986-01-01

    As to earthquake resistant design of underground civil engineering structures related with emergency cooling water system of nuclear power plant, it is required these structures must maintain the function of great important their own facilities during earthquakes, especially for design earthquake motion. In this study, shaft pipline, pit and duct for cooling sea water facilities were chosen as typical underground structures, and the authors deal with the seismic design method for calculation of the principal sectional force in these structures generated by design earthquake motion. Especially, comparative investigations concerned with response displacement method versus dynamic analysis methods (lumped mass analysis and finite element analysis) are discussed. (author)

  11. Method on the aging evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsutaka, Yoshinori; Tsukagoshi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, method on the durability evaluation in nuclear power plant concrete structures was investigated. In view of the importance of evaluating the degree of deterioration of reinforced concrete structures, relationships should be formulated among the number of years elapsed, t, the amount of action of a deteriorative factor, F, the degree of material deterioration, D, and the performance of the structure, P. Evaluation by PDFt diagrams combining these relationships may be effective. A detailed procedure of durability evaluation for a reinforced concrete structure using PDFt concept is presented for the deterioration factors of thermal effect, irradiation, neutralization and penetration of salinity by referring to the recent papers

  12. Study of Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and grid power flow control Part C: a review of alternative structures

    CERN Document Server

    Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Maestri, Sebastian; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Uicich, Gustavo; Benedetti, Mario; Carrica, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of a Transfer line (TT2) Consolidation Programme, a number of studies on Energy cycling have been commissioned. Part of this work involves the study of different power electronic system topologies for magnet energy recovery. The key objective of the study is to find topologies and control strategies that result in the control of the peak power required from the power network as well as to recover the magnet energy into capacitor banks with controlled voltage fluctuation. In previous reports, the use of a boost front-end converter and two-quadrant (2Q) converter supplying DC link of a four-quadrant magnet supply were analyzed. From this analysis, different features and figures of merit were considered in order to compare the structures, which allowed to define some considerations that a proper topology should have. Consequently, these considerations were used to define some novel topologies. The previous topologies are briefly summarized, as a starting point to develop some novel struc...

  13. High Power Test of an X-Band Slotted-IRIS Accelerator Structure at NLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doebert, S.; Fandos, R.; Grudiev, A.; Heikkinen, S.; Rodriquez, J.A.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Laurent, L.

    2007-01-01

    The CLIC study group at CERN has built two X-band HDS (hybrid damped structure) accelerating structures for high-power testing in NLCTA at SLAC. These accelerating structures are novel with respect to their rf- design and their fabrication technique. The eleven-cell constant impedance structures, one made out of copper and one out of molybdenum, are assembled from clamped high-speed milled quadrants. They feature the same heavy higher-order-mode damping as nominal CLIC structures achieved by slotted irises and radial damping waveguides for each cell. The X-band accelerators are exactly scaled versions of structures tested at 30 GHz in the CLIC test facility, CTF3. The results of the X-band tests are presented and compared to those at 30 GHz to determine frequency scaling, and are compared to the extensive copper data from the NLC structure development program to determine material dependence and make a basic validation of the HDS design

  14. Coded aperture tomography revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bizais, Y.; Rowe, R.W.; Zubal, I.G.; Bennett, G.W.; Brill, A.B.

    1983-01-01

    Coded aperture (CA) Tomography never achieved wide spread use in Nuclear Medicine, except for the degenerate case of Seven Pinhole tomagraphy (7PHT). However it enjoys several attractive features (high sensitivity and tomographic ability with a statis detector). On the other hand, resolution is usually poor especially along the depth axis and the reconstructed volume is rather limited. Arguments are presented justifying the position that CA tomography can be useful for imaging time-varying 3D structures, if its major drawbacks (poor longitudinal resolution and difficulty in quantification) are overcome. Poor results obtained with 7PHT can be explained by both a very limited angular range sampled and a crude modelling of the image formation process. Therefore improvements can be expected by the use of a dual-detector system, along with a better understanding of its sampling properties and the use of more powerful reconstruction algorithms. Non overlapping multipinhole plates, because they do not involve a decoding procedure, should be considered first for practical applications. Use of real CA should be considered for cases in which non overlapping multipinhole plates do not lead to satisfactory solutions. We have been and currently are carrying out theoretical and experimental works, in order to define the factors which limit CA imaging and to propose satisfactory solutions for Dynamic Emission Tomography

  15. 'Counterfeit deviance' revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy; Hingsburger, Dave; Hoath, Jordan; Ioannou, Stephanie

    2013-09-01

    The field has seen a renewed interest in exploring the theory of 'counterfeit deviance' for persons with intellectual disability who sexually offend. The term was first presented in 1991 by Hingsburger, Griffiths and Quinsey as a means to differentiate in clinical assessment a subgroup of persons with intellectual disability whose behaviours appeared like paraphilia but served a function that was not related to paraphilia sexual urges or fantasies. Case observations were put forward to provide differential diagnosis of paraphilia in persons with intellectual disabilities compared to those with counterfeit deviance. The brief paper was published in a journal that is no longer available and as such much of what is currently written on the topic is based on secondary sources. The current paper presents a theoretical piece to revisit the original counterfeit deviance theory to clarify the myths and misconceptions that have arisen and evaluate the theory based on additional research and clinical findings. The authors also propose areas where there may be a basis for expansion of the theory. The theory of counterfeit deviance still has relevance as a consideration for clinicians when assessing the nature of a sexual offence committed by a person with an intellectual disability. Clinical differentiation of paraphilia from counterfeit deviance provides a foundation for intervention that is designed to specifically treat the underlying factors that contributed to the offence for a given individual. Counterfeit deviance is a concept that continues to provide areas for consideration for clinicians regarding the assessment and treatment of an individual with an intellectual disability who has sexually offended. It is not and never was an explanation for all sexually offending behavior among persons with intellectual disabilities. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gaussian entanglement revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lami, Ludovico; Serafini, Alessio; Adesso, Gerardo

    2018-02-01

    We present a novel approach to the separability problem for Gaussian quantum states of bosonic continuous variable systems. We derive a simplified necessary and sufficient separability criterion for arbitrary Gaussian states of m versus n modes, which relies on convex optimisation over marginal covariance matrices on one subsystem only. We further revisit the currently known results stating the equivalence between separability and positive partial transposition (PPT) for specific classes of Gaussian states. Using techniques based on matrix analysis, such as Schur complements and matrix means, we then provide a unified treatment and compact proofs of all these results. In particular, we recover the PPT-separability equivalence for: (i) Gaussian states of 1 versus n modes; and (ii) isotropic Gaussian states. In passing, we also retrieve (iii) the recently established equivalence between separability of a Gaussian state and and its complete Gaussian extendability. Our techniques are then applied to progress beyond the state of the art. We prove that: (iv) Gaussian states that are invariant under partial transposition are necessarily separable; (v) the PPT criterion is necessary and sufficient for separability for Gaussian states of m versus n modes that are symmetric under the exchange of any two modes belonging to one of the parties; and (vi) Gaussian states which remain PPT under passive optical operations can not be entangled by them either. This is not a foregone conclusion per se (since Gaussian bound entangled states do exist) and settles a question that had been left unanswered in the existing literature on the subject. This paper, enjoyable by both the quantum optics and the matrix analysis communities, overall delivers technical and conceptual advances which are likely to be useful for further applications in continuous variable quantum information theory, beyond the separability problem.

  17. Izmit Foreshocks Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsworth, W. L.; Bulut, F.

    2016-12-01

    Much of what we know about the initiation of earthquakes comes from the temporal and spatial relationship of foreshocks to the initiation point of the mainshock. The 1999 Mw 7.6 Izmit, Turkey, earthquake was preceded by a 44 minute-long foreshock sequence. Bouchon et al. (Science, 2011) analyzed the foreshocks using a single seismic station, UCG, located to the north of the east-west fault, and concluded on the basis of waveform similarity that the foreshocks repeatedly re-ruptured the same fault patch, driven by slow slip at the base of the crust. We revisit the foreshock sequence using seismograms from 9 additional stations that recorded the four largest foreshocks (Mw 2.0 to 2.8) to better characterize spatial and temporal evolution of the foreshock sequence and their relationship to the mainshock hypocenter. Cross-correlation timing and hypocentroid location with hypoDD reveals a systematic west-to-east propagation of the four largest foreshocks toward the mainshock hypocenter. Foreshock rupture dimensions estimated using spectral ratios imply no major overlap for the first three foreshocks. The centroid of 4th and largest foreshock continues the eastward migration, but lies within the circular source area of the 3rd. The 3rd, however, has a low stress drop and strong directivity to the west . The mainshock hypocenter locates on the eastern edge of foreshock 4. We also re-analyzed waveform similarity of all 18 foreshocks recorded at UCG by removing the common mode signal and clustering the residual seismogram using the correlation coefficient as the distance metric. The smaller foreshocks cluster with the larger events in time order, sometimes as foreshocks and more commonly as aftershocks. These observations show that the Izmit foreshock sequence is consistent with a stress-transfer driven cascade, moving systematically to the east along the fault and that there is no observational requirement for creep as a driving mechanism.

  18. A study on the water-proof of structures in electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kown, Ki Ju [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1996-12-31

    As some of the currently used waterproofing systems are found to be un properly applied for each building type or environmental condition, adequate methods or systems are required to determine the proper materials effectiveness of waterproofing. Performance tests were conducted in order to examine the applicability and effectiveness of previously studied waterproofing systems and to propose the improvement directions of the waterproofing systems. Waterproofing systems and methods were systematized in order to be applied adequately considering the structure parts, structural and environmental conditions. -Analysis of waterproof methods and materials -Characteristics related with waterproofing of power plants structures -Site investigation of waterproofing of power plant structures -Determination of optimal waterproofing material, system and construction method -Waterproofing performance tests (author). 96 refs., 223 figs.

  19. A study on the water-proof of structures in electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kown, Ki Ju [Korea Electric Power Corp. (KEPCO), Taejon (Korea, Republic of). Research Center

    1995-12-31

    As some of the currently used waterproofing systems are found to be un properly applied for each building type or environmental condition, adequate methods or systems are required to determine the proper materials effectiveness of waterproofing. Performance tests were conducted in order to examine the applicability and effectiveness of previously studied waterproofing systems and to propose the improvement directions of the waterproofing systems. Waterproofing systems and methods were systematized in order to be applied adequately considering the structure parts, structural and environmental conditions. -Analysis of waterproof methods and materials -Characteristics related with waterproofing of power plants structures -Site investigation of waterproofing of power plant structures -Determination of optimal waterproofing material, system and construction method -Waterproofing performance tests (author). 96 refs., 223 figs.

  20. Structure and mechanism of the ATPase that powers viral genome packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Brendan J; Hayes, Janelle A; Stone, Nicholas P; Duffy, Caroline M; Sankaran, Banumathi; Kelch, Brian A

    2015-07-21

    Many viruses package their genomes into procapsids using an ATPase machine that is among the most powerful known biological motors. However, how this motor couples ATP hydrolysis to DNA translocation is still unknown. Here, we introduce a model system with unique properties for studying motor structure and mechanism. We describe crystal structures of the packaging motor ATPase domain that exhibit nucleotide-dependent conformational changes involving a large rotation of an entire subdomain. We also identify the arginine finger residue that catalyzes ATP hydrolysis in a neighboring motor subunit, illustrating that previous models for motor structure need revision. Our findings allow us to derive a structural model for the motor ring, which we validate using small-angle X-ray scattering and comparisons with previously published data. We illustrate the model's predictive power by identifying the motor's DNA-binding and assembly motifs. Finally, we integrate our results to propose a mechanistic model for DNA translocation by this molecular machine.

  1. Investigation of organizational structures of nuclear power plants and their cooperation with superordinate organizational structures. Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Management structure and methods applied in nuclear power plants were examined regarding the control of tasks, competences and responsibilities. Two German nuclear power plants were selected as representative plants. Their organizational structure is called PUME (=production, supervision, mechanical engineering/electrotechnics) and PUTI (=production, supervision, engineering, maintenance). On the second executive level the two organizational structures do not differ from each other any more. There is a uniform structure: production, supervision, mechanical engineering, maintenance, electro-techics/maintenance. Within bounds of the organizational freedom of the companies the applicable rules were converted into routine definitions. Furthermore the most important procedures were examined according to the operational manual, e.g. those concerning maintenance, the regulations for health physics and the reflow of informations in the field of the quality-assurance-system according to the KTA-Regulation 1401. The external requirements derived of the set of regulations are taken into account within the procedures. The examined organizational structure and the study of the procedures are free of weak points. This goes for the requirements derived of the set of regulations as well as for those based on management/organizational theory. More ways for improvement are seen on systemizing and integrating further the internal regulations. (orig.) [de

  2. Overview on recent results of the VTT's research programme on assuring nuclear power plant structural safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Aaltonen, P.; Kauppinen, P.; Keinaenen, H.; Talja, H.; Valo, M.; Wallin, K.; Toerroenen, K.

    1994-01-01

    An overview of the Finnish national research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety, being carried out from 1990 to 1994, is presented. The focus of this paper is on recent results in the areas of experimental and computational fracture mechanics, material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry, nondestructive testing methods and procedures, and verification of structural integrity assessment methods by large scale component tests. (author). 21 refs, 21 figs, 2 tabs

  3. The effect of management and organizational structure on nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thurber, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Many informed observers have proposed that utility management is a key element underlying the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP). One way that management likely influences plant safety performance is through the organizational structures it consciously creates or allows to exist. This paper describes an empirical analysis of the relationships between some important dimensions of plant organizational structure and measures of plant safety performance

  4. Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    Performance evaluation recommendations and manuals of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance have been updated in June 2005 by the Japan Society of Civil Engineers. Based on experimental and analytical considerations on the recommendations of May 2002, analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings have been evaluated and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance. Technical documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-06-01

    The Japan Society of Civil Engineers has updated performance evaluation recommendations of nuclear power plants outdoor significant civil structures earthquake resistance in June 2005. Experimental and analytical considerations on the seismic effects evaluation criteria, such as analytical seismic models of soils for underground structures, effects of vertical motions on time-history dynamic analysis and shear fracture of reinforced concretes by cyclic loadings, were shown in this document and incorporated in new recommendations. (T. Tanaka)

  6. Micro-size antenna structure with vertical nanowires for wireless power transmission and communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jong-Gu; Jeong, Yeri; Shin, Jeong Hee; Choi, Ji-Woong; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seung Nam; Jang, Jae Eun

    2014-11-01

    For biomedical implanted devices, a wireless power or a signal transmission is essential to protect an infection and to enhance durability. In this study, we present a magnetic induction technique for a power transmission without any wire connection between transmitter (Tx) and receiver (Rx) in a micro scale. Due to a micro size effect of a flat spiral coil, a magnetic inductance is not high. To enhance the magnetic inductance, a three dimensional magnetic core is added to an antenna structure, which is consisted of ZnO nano wires coated by a nickel (Ni) layer. ZnO nano wires easily supply a large effective surface area with a vertical structural effect to the magnetic core structure, which induces a higher magnetic inductance with a ferro-magnetic material Ni. The magnetic induction antenna with the magnetic core shows a high inductance value, a low reflection power and a strong power transmission. The power transmission efficiencies are tested under the air and the water medium are almost the same values, so that the magnetic induction technique is quite proper to body implanted systems.

  7. Study on integrity evaluation of structures associated with nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The 3.11 Tohoku District -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and tsunami made us observations of tsunami height in large exceedance of the design, and besides it gave the most damages to several nuclear power plants facing the Pacific Ocean at source area of the earthquake. Particularly, at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the great tsunami caused the simultaneous failure on several plant's equipment and components, which escalated into the core damage. Considering these background, the objective of this research is to enhance fundamental technology relative to integrity evaluation of SSC's (System, Structure, components) targeting external events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Specifically, it is performed to develop structure evaluation methods against tsunami, to develop seismic isolation system, and to enhance non-liner analysis methods for building and so on. In viewpoint of the other external events except earthquake and tsunami, it was performed to develop impact analysis methods on building and outdoor structure against swept things caused by tornadoes. After that on the basis of these developments, it is performed to draw up guidelines such as the base isolation structure review guide, and the structure design and risk evaluation guide against tsunami, which are to be used in cross-check analysis targeting integrity evaluation of nuclear power plant's structures against external events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. (author)

  8. Study on integrity evaluation of structures associated with nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The 3.11 Tohoku District -off the Pacific Ocean Earthquake and tsunami made us observations of tsunami height in large exceedance of the design, and besides it gave the most damages to several nuclear power plants facing the Pacific Ocean at source area of the earthquake. Particularly, at Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the great tsunami caused the simultaneous failure on several plant's equipment and components, which escalated into the core damage. Considering these background, the objective of this research is to enhance fundamental technology relative to integrity evaluation of SSC's (System, Structure, components) targeting external events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. Specifically, it is performed to develop structure evaluation methods against tsunami, to develop seismic isolation system, and to enhance non-liner analysis methods for building and so on. In viewpoint of the other external events except earthquake and tsunami, it was performed to develop impact analysis methods on building and outdoor structure against swept things caused by tornadoes. After that on the basis of these developments, it is performed to draw up guidelines such as the base isolation structure review guide, and the structure design and risk evaluation guide against tsunami, which are to be used in cross-check analysis targeting integrity evaluation of nuclear power plant's structures against external events such as earthquakes and tsunamis. (author)

  9. Integrated software system for seismic evaluation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, J.; Graves, H.L.

    1993-01-01

    The computer software CARES (Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures) was developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. It represents an effort to utilize established numerical methodologies commonly employed by industry for structural safety evaluations of nuclear power plant facilities and incorporates them into an integrated computer software package operated on personal computers. CARES was developed with the objective of including all aspects of seismic performance evaluation of nuclear power structures. It can be used to evaluate the validity and accuracy of analysis methodologies used for structural safety evaluations of nuclear power plants by various utilities. CARES has a modular format, each module performing a specific type of analysis. The seismic module integrates all the steps of a complete seismic analysis into a single package with many user-friendly features such as interactiveness and quick turnaround. Linear structural theory and pseudo-linear convolution theory are utilized as the bases for the development with a special emphasis on the nuclear regulatory requirements for structural safety of nuclear plants. The organization of the seismic module is arranged in eight options, each performing a specific step of the analysis with most of input/output interfacing processed by the general manager. Finally, CARES provides comprehensive post-processing capability for displaying results graphically or in tabular form so that direct comparisons can be easily made. (author)

  10. Structural integrity of power generating speed bumps made of concrete foam composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, B.; Muttaqin, M.; Hastrino, D.; Sebayang, A.; Basuki, W. S.; Sabri, M.; Abda, S.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper concrete foam composite speed bumps were designed to generate electrical power by utilizing the movements of commuting vehicles on highways, streets, parking gates, and drive-thru station of fast food restaurants. The speed bumps were subjected to loadings generated by vehicles pass over the power generating mechanical system. In this paper, we mainly focus our discussion on the structural integrity of the speed bumps and discuss the electrical power generating speed bumps in another paper. One aspect of structural integrity is its ability to support designed loads without breaking and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs. The concrete foam composites were used for the speed bumps; the reinforcement materials are selected from empty fruit bunch of oil palm. In this study, the speed bump materials and structure were subjected to various tests to obtain its physical and mechanical properties. To analyze the structure stability of the speed bumps some models were produced and tested in our speed bump test station. We also conduct a FEM-based computer simulation to analyze stress responses of the speed bump structures. It was found that speed bump type 1 significantly reduced the radial voltage. In addition, the speed bump is equipped with a steel casing is also suitable for use as a component component in generating electrical energy.

  11. Revisiting instanton corrections to the Konishi multiplet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alday, Luis F. [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford,Andrew Wiles Building, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Woodstock Road, Oxford, OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Korchemsky, Gregory P. [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CNRS, CEA,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-12-01

    We revisit the calculation of instanton effects in correlation functions in N=4 SYM involving the Konishi operator and operators of twist two. Previous studies revealed that the scaling dimensions and the OPE coefficients of these operators do not receive instanton corrections in the semiclassical approximation. We go beyond this approximation and demonstrate that, while operators belonging to the same N=4 supermultiplet ought to have the same conformal data, the evaluation of quantum instanton corrections for one operator can be mapped into a semiclassical computation for another operator in the same supermultiplet. This observation allows us to compute explicitly the leading instanton correction to the scaling dimension of operators in the Konishi supermultiplet as well as to their structure constants in the OPE of two half-BPS scalar operators. We then use these results, together with crossing symmetry, to determine instanton corrections to scaling dimensions of twist-four operators with large spin.

  12. Experimental/analytical determination of optimal piezoelectric actuator locations on complex structures based on the actuator power factor

    OpenAIRE

    Bhargava, Adesh

    1995-01-01

    The actuator power factor is defined as the ratio of the total dissipative mechanical power of a PZT actuator to the total supplied electrical power to the PZT actuator. If measured experimentally, it can be used to optinlize the actuator location and configuration for complex structures. The concept of actuator power factor is based on the ability of an integrated induced strain actuator such as a PZT actuator to transfer supplied electrical energy into structural mechanical energy. For a gi...

  13. Post-Structuralism and Ethical Practical Action: Issues of Identity and Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walshaw, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In an era when familiar categories of identity are breaking down, an argument is made for using post-structuralist vocabulary to talk about ethical practical action in mathematics education. Using aspects of Foucault's post-structuralism, an explanation is offered of how mathematical identifications are tied to the social organization of power. An…

  14. GirlPOWER! Strengthening Mentoring Relationships through a Structured, Gender-Specific Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Julia M.; Silverthorn, Naida; Sanchez, Bernadette; DuBois, David L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine GirlPOWER! an innovative program that uses structure and group-based activities to enhance one-to-one mentoring relationships for young adolescent girls from the perspective of the focus, purpose, and authorship dimensions of mentoring relationships that Karcher and Nakkula described. The discussion draws on several sources of…

  15. Graph Structure in Three National Academic Webs: Power Laws with Anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelwall, Mike; Wilkinson, David

    2003-01-01

    Explains how the Web can be modeled as a mathematical graph and analyzes the graph structures of three national university publicly indexable Web sites from Australia, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom. Topics include commercial search engines and academic Web link research; method-analysis environment and data sets; and power laws. (LRW)

  16. General requirements for concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This standard provides the general requirements used in the design, construction, testing, and commissioning of concrete containment structures for CANDU nuclear power plants designated as class containment and is directed to the owners, designers, manufacturers, fabricators, and constructors of the concrete components and parts

  17. Structural rehabilitation of a fossil power station after major fire damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.; Archer, J.C.; Shipskie, W.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the eruption and course of a fire at a fossil power station. Focus is on the damage to the building and the reinforced concrete pedestal, and the assessments and repairs involved in the restoration. Emphasis is given to the pedestal since, both the response to fire and the repair for such a massive structure are of particular interest

  18. Ageing of significant to safety structure elements of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimovas, G.; Ramanauskiene, A.; Ziliukas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The paper analyzes the ageing problems of structure elements in nuclear power plants. The standard documents and principal parts of the ageing evaluation program are presented. The ageing evaluation model is being worked out and degradation mechanisms of different atomic reactor materials are being compared. (author)

  19. Role and capabilities of financial structures in development of fuel-power complex in Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevzlin, L.B.; Kukin, N.V.

    1993-01-01

    The problems of financing the enterprises of the fuel-power complex (FPC) in Russia nowadays are discussed. The causes of the FPC hard financial situation are analyzed. The forms and methods of investing activity financing and participation of financial structures in stock-holding of FPC enterprises, which can improve the present situation, are shown

  20. Comparison of Family Power Structure and Identity Style Between Delinquent and Non-Delinquent Juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Shaghelanilor, Hossein; Pocock, Lesley

    2015-12-01

    Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012. They answered the instrument of family power structure (Saidian, 2004) and identity style (ISI-6G: White et al. 1998). The obtained data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, and Levene's test. The findings indicated a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles with regard to family power structure, its subscales (P family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family power structure can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescent delinquency.

  1. Emerging Threats, Force Structures, and the Role of Air Power in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Young Ho. 1996. " Anatomy of the North Korean Military: Structure of Threat." Junlyak nonchong [Strategic Journal]. Vol. 4, No. 2. (in Korean...effects of mass without having to mass is a big part of the essence of air power’s new leverage. This means that the day of the classic " gorilla " force

  2. Online channel operation mode: Game theoretical analysis from the supply chain power structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Huang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Dual-channels have been widely used in practice, and the pricing decisions and the online channel operation mode choice have been the core problems in dual-channel supply chain management. This paper focuses on the online channel operation mode choice from the supply chain power structures based on game theoretical analysis. Design/methodology/approach: This paper utilizes three kinds of game theoretical models to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the optimal pricing and online channel operation mode choice. Findings: Results derived in this paper indicate that when the self-price elasticity is large, the power structures have no direct impact on the decisions. However, when the self-price elasticity is small and customers’ preference for the online channel is low, then in the MS market, it is better for the retailer to operate the online channel, while in the RS market or in the VN market, it is better for the manufacturer to operate the online channel. Research limitations/implications: In this paper, we do not consider stochastic demand and asymmetric information, which may not well suit the reality. Originality/value: This paper provides a different perspective to analyze the impact of supply chain power structures on the pricing decisions and online channel operation mode choice. The comparison of these two online channel operation modes in this paper is also a unique point.

  3. Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten

    2016-01-01

    and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable....... It is thus a central point that power is not necessarily something that breaks down and represses. On the contrary, an explicit focus on the dynamics of power in relation to creativity can be productive for the organisation. Our main focus is to elaborate the implications of this for practice and theory...

  4. The hard-core model on random graphs revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbier, Jean; Krzakala, Florent; Zhang, Pan; Zdeborová, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    We revisit the classical hard-core model, also known as independent set and dual to vertex cover problem, where one puts particles with a first-neighbor hard-core repulsion on the vertices of a random graph. Although the case of random graphs with small and very large average degrees respectively are quite well understood, they yield qualitatively different results and our aim here is to reconciliate these two cases. We revisit results that can be obtained using the (heuristic) cavity method and show that it provides a closed-form conjecture for the exact density of the densest packing on random regular graphs with degree K ≥ 20, and that for K > 16 the nature of the phase transition is the same as for large K. This also shows that the hard-code model is the simplest mean-field lattice model for structural glasses and jamming

  5. Summary and conclusions of a program addressing aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Hookham, C.J.; Graves, H.L. III

    1999-01-01

    Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. The focus of this program was on structural integrity rather than on leaktightness or pressure retention of concrete structures. Primary program accomplishments include formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, in-depth evaluations were conducted of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability. (orig.)

  6. Optimization of power plants management structure based on the generalized criteria of the efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salov Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the analysis of the operation of power plants in the conditions of economic restructuring to ensure successful entry into the market is carried out. The analysis of the five management structures, including current, typical structure and re-designed by the authors is presented. There are developed the partial efficiency criteria of the management structures that characterize the most important properties - the balance, integrity, controllability and stability. Local criteria of the analyzed structures do not allow to make a definite conclusion about the effectiveness of one of the structures analyzed, formulated global efficiency criterion. There is developed the global criterion of the comparative effectiveness of the management systems based on the DEA method (Data envelopment analysis, taking into account the complex of the proposed local criteria. The considered management structures are ranked based on the generalized criterion of efficiency.

  7. Power flow analysis for islanded microgrid in hierarchical structure of control system using optimal control theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Diep Thanh

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In environmental uncertainties, the power flow problem in islanded microgrid (MG becomes complex and non-trivial. The optimal power flow (OPL problem is described in this paper by using the energy balance between the power generation and load demand. The paper also presents the hierarchical control structure which consists of primary, secondary, tertiary, and emergency controls. Clearly, optimal power flow (OPL which implements a distributed tertiary control in hierarchical control. MG consists of diesel engine generator (DEG, wind turbine generator (WTG, and photovoltaic (PV power. In the control system considered, operation planning is realized based on profiles such that the MG, load, wind and photovoltaic power must be forecasted in short-period, meanwhile the dispatch source (i.e., DEG needs to be scheduled. The aim of the control problem is to find the dispatch output power by minimizing the total cost of energy that leads to the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. Experimental results are presented, showing the effectiveness of optimal control such that the generation allows demand profile.

  8. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability

  9. Evaluation of aged concrete structures for continued service in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Marchbanks, M.F.; Arndt, E.G.

    1988-01-01

    Results are summarized of a study on concrete component aging and its significance relative to continued service of nuclear power plants (NPPs) beyond the initial period for which they were granted operating licenses. Progress is presented of a second study being conducted to identify and provide acceptance criteria for structural safety issues which the USNRC staff will need to address when applications are submitted for continued service of NPPs. Major activities under this program include: development of a materials property data base, establishment of structural component assessment and repair procedures, and development of a methodology for determination of structural reliability. 19 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  10. Loosening and damage mechanism of thread-joined structures in nuclear power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Hui

    1999-01-01

    The author proposes a loosening mechanism of thread-joined structures under vibrate environments in the nuclear power equipment and structures, which is on the base of the macro and imperceptible-mechanics analysis. It has answered the problems on the seizing, the adhesive wearing, the generation of cracks, the thread-tooth fracture. So it has a conclusion that the loosening of thread-joined structures is essential trend, in other words, the locking property of thread-pair is failure under vibrate environments

  11. High-strength concrete and the design of power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puttonen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Based on the literature, the design of high-strength concrete structures and the suitability of high-strength concrete for the power plant structures have been studied. Concerning the behavior of structures, a basic difference between the high-strength concrete and the traditional one is that the ductility of the high-strength concrete is smaller. In the design, the non-linear stress-strain relationship of the high-strength concrete has to be taken into account. The use of the high-strength concrete is economical if the strength of the material can be utilized. In the long term, the good durability and wear resistance of the high-strength concrete increases the economy of the material. Because of the low permeability of the high-strength concrete, it is a potential material in the safety-related structures of nuclear power plants. The study discovered no particular power plant structure which would always be economical to design of high-strength concrete. However, the high-strength concrete was found to be a competitive material in general

  12. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  13. Technology development on the assessment of structural integrity of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Moon; Choun, Y. S.; Choi, I. K. and others

    1999-04-01

    Nuclear power plants in Korea show drop off in their performance and safety margin as the age of plants increase. The reevaluation of Kori-1 Unit on its performance and safety for life extension is expected in the near future. However, technologies and information related are insufficient to quantitatively estimate them. The final goal of this study is to develop the basic testing and evaluation techniques related with structural integrity of important nuclear equipment and structures. A part of the study includes development of equipment qualification technique. To ensure the structural integrity of structures, systems, and equipment in nuclear power plants, the following 5 research tasks were performed in the first year. - Analysis of dynamic characteristics of reactor internals - Analysis of engineering characteristics of instrumental earthquakes recorded in Korea - Analysis of ultimate pressure capacity and failure mode of containments building - Development of advanced NDE techniques using ultrasonic resonance scattering - Development of equipment qualification technique against vibration aging. These technologies developed in this study can be used to ensure the structural safety of operational nuclear power plants, and for the long-term life management. (author)

  14. RATU Nuclear power plant structural safety research programme 1990-1994. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintamaa, R.; Sarkimo, M.

    1995-12-01

    The major part of nuclear energy research in Finland has been organized as five-year nationally coordinated research programmes. The research programme on the Nuclear Power Plant Structural Safety was carried out during the period from 1990 to 1994. The total volume was about 76 person-years and the expenditure about 49 million FIM. Studies on the structural materials in nuclear power plants created the experimental data and background information necessary for the structural integrity assessments of mechanical components. The research was carried out by developing experimental fracture mechanics methods including statistical analysis methods of material property data, and by studying material ageing and, in particular, mechanisms of material deterioration due to neutron irradiation, corrosion and water chemistry. Besides material studies, new testing methods and sensors for the measurement of loading and water chemistry parameters have been developed

  15. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sung Gook; Joe, Yang Hee

    2005-01-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities

  16. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Gook [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: sgcho@incheon.ac.kr; Joe, Yang Hee [Department of Civil and Environmental System Engineering, University of Incheon, 177 Dohwa-dong, Nam-gu, Incheon 402-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-08-01

    By nature, the seismic fragility analysis results will be considerably affected by the statistical data of design information and site-dependent ground motions. The engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are analyzed in this paper. An improved method of seismic fragility analysis is evaluated by comparative analyses to verify its efficiency for practical application to nuclear power plant structures. The effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures are also evaluated from the comparative studies. Observing the obtained results, the proposed method is more efficient for the multi-modes structures. The case study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities.

  17. Mechanical and structural modules in a nuclear power plant advantages of the innovative approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlandi, S.; De Angelis, F.; Marconi, M.

    2010-01-01

    The modular layout design of a Nuclear Power Plant like the Westinghouse AP600/AP1000 has been developed basically to gain advantages in erection time schedule as well as in minimizing commissioning and start up test to be performed in the field. It is the first time for a Nuclear Power Plant to have a layout configuration fully designed as structured integrated mechanical Modules; this approach has been studied and implemented also to consider already in design phase decommissioning requirements which are mandatory to be able to perform dismantling at the end of the Plant Operation Life. Nevertheless it is the first time the possibility has been investigated to erect the civil structures as structural prefabricated modules: it means to have developed special composite structures which cannot be considered traditional reinforced concrete structures as well as structural beams frames. An approach like the above promotes impressive advantages in terms of extensive prefabrication in the workshops both for mechanical and structural modules, arranging in the workshops also factory acceptance tests as well as specific pre-acceptance commissioning activities. It means also that specific requirements have to be implemented in order to promote the implementation of this technology. Construction and adjustments flexibility in the field during NPP erection is heavily decreased due to modular prefabricated assemblies as well as it is mandatory to complete all the lay out plant design before entering the prefabrication phase in the workshops. Also structural design codes have to be qualified or properly readjusted to manage structural problems in composite structural frames which are innovative for organization, structural behaviour and which have different working ways starting from prefabrication, transportation, lifting up to the installation in the field and concrete pouring. (authors)

  18. Local adaptations in bryophytes revisited: the genetic structure of the calcium-tolerant peatmoss Sphagnum warnstorfii along geographic and pH gradients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mikulášková, E.; Hájek, Michal; Veleba, A.; Johnson, M. G.; Hájek, Tomáš; Shaw, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 1 (2015), s. 229-242 ISSN 2045-7758 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/10/0638 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Calcium tolerance * hybridization * population structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.537, year: 2015

  19. Wind power takes off. A structural revolution; Vindkraften tar fart. En strukturell revolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staahl, Benjamin; Lilliecreutz, Johan

    2009-03-15

    is still important growth opportunities in the future. It is still a relatively open market - which also can have large impact on the management of the electricity market as a whole. Wind power has reached a 'Tipping point' and growth will continue to be very strong. A dominant design has been established where the majority of development can be carried out, which in itself is accelerating the development. The growing market attracts new entrants, for example from China. Wind power contributes to a structural overhaul of the electricity market. Expansion of wind power changes the conditions of the electricity market as a whole. Traditionally, wind power was owned and operated on a smaller scale by local actors. Although the power companies are now taking a more active role, wind power is still suitable for small scale electricity generation, modular expansion and power generation close to the consumer. It allows for partial or full self-sufficiency for forestry and agriculture enterprises, associations and individual citizens. They can also become net producers of electricity. This can mean a big change long-term electricity market as a whole, particularly as some other renewable energy sources share this characteristic

  20. Thermal Flow and Structure Stability Analyses of High Power Waterload for 2450 MHz microwave applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seon, S. W.; Kim, H. J.; Wang, S. J.; Kim, J. N.

    2016-01-01

    This study is focused on analyzing the internal flow dynamics in the waterload by changing the inlet and outlet locations and adding guide pipeline to the inlet. The internal flow field simulation is done with CFX tool to compare the water flow velocity and temperature distributions in the waterload. The waterload absorbs RF power, converts it to thermal power, and increases the water temperature so that heat could be quickly removed by the water injection. And it is installed on the end of transmission line and is used to absorb reflected RF power. High power waterload with cone-shaped quartz is designed for 10-30 kW power handling at 2450 MHz microwave system. The thermal flow and structural stability analysis for the 2450 MHz waterload is done using ANSYS and the results are presented in this work. Relocation of the inlet and addition of the guide pipeline in the simulation shows a decrease in the localized maximum water temperature and increased water velocity around the heat source. It is also shown that the modified waterload is structurally more stable

  1. Thermal Flow and Structure Stability Analyses of High Power Waterload for 2450 MHz microwave applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seon, S. W.; Kim, H. J.; Wang, S. J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J. N. [KRF, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    This study is focused on analyzing the internal flow dynamics in the waterload by changing the inlet and outlet locations and adding guide pipeline to the inlet. The internal flow field simulation is done with CFX tool to compare the water flow velocity and temperature distributions in the waterload. The waterload absorbs RF power, converts it to thermal power, and increases the water temperature so that heat could be quickly removed by the water injection. And it is installed on the end of transmission line and is used to absorb reflected RF power. High power waterload with cone-shaped quartz is designed for 10-30 kW power handling at 2450 MHz microwave system. The thermal flow and structural stability analysis for the 2450 MHz waterload is done using ANSYS and the results are presented in this work. Relocation of the inlet and addition of the guide pipeline in the simulation shows a decrease in the localized maximum water temperature and increased water velocity around the heat source. It is also shown that the modified waterload is structurally more stable.

  2. Characteristics of Soil Structure Interaction for Reactor Building of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Moon Joo; Jung, Rae Young; Hyun, Chang Hun; Kim, Moon Soo; Lim, Nam Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    On 16 July 2007, the Nigataken-chuetsu-oki earthquake registering a moment magnitude of 6.8 occurred at a depth of about 15 km. As a result of this earthquake, noticeable shaking exceeding the design ground motion was measured at the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station (KKN), the biggest nuclear power plant in the world, located at about 16 km away from the epicenter. This earthquake triggered a fire at an electrical transformer and insignificant damage on some parts of facilities. This event gave an impulse to study on the damage and safety margin of nuclear power plant due to the strong earthquake exceeding design basis. As a part of those efforts, KARISMA (KAshiwazaki-Kariwa Research Initiative for Seismic Margin Assessment) benchmark study was launched by the IAEA in terms of an international collaborative research. The main objectives of this research are to estimate the structural behavior and to evaluate the seismic margin of reactor building considering the effects of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI). This paper presents verification of structural model developed here and validation of soil foundation characteristics through soil-column analysis. It has also been demonstrated that the spring constants and damping coefficient obtained from impedance analysis represent well the soil foundation characteristics

  3. Soil–structure interaction analyses to locate nuclear power plant free-field seismic instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, James J., E-mail: jasjjoh@aol.com [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Ake, Jon P. [US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Maslenikov, Oleg R. [James J. Johnson and Associates, Alamo, CA (United States); Kenneally, Roger M. [Consultant, Seminole, FL (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Determine the location of seismic instrumentation so that recorded motion will be free-field motion. • Certified Designs of nuclear island for AP1000 and EPR; ABWR Reactor Building were analyzed. • Three site conditions and multiple recorded time histories were considered. • Instrumentation located 1-diameter from the edge of structure/foundation is adequate. • Acceptance criteria were probability of non-exceedance of response spectra values. - Abstract: The recorded earthquake ground motion at the nuclear power plant site is needed for several purposes. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.12, Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation for Earthquakes, NRC (1997a), describes acceptable instrumentation to meet the requirements in NRC's regulations pertaining to earthquake engineering criteria for nuclear power plants. The ground motion data recorded by the free-field seismic instrumentation are used to compare the actual earthquake motion at the site with the design input motion. The result of the comparison determines if the Operating Basis Earthquake ground motion (OBE) has been exceeded and plant shutdown is required per the guidance in NRC Regulatory Guide 1.166, Pre-Earthquake Planning and Immediate Nuclear Power Plant Operator Postearthquake Actions, NRC (1979b). The free-field is defined as a location on the ground surface or in the site soil column that is sufficiently distant from the site structures to be essentially unaffected by the vibration of the site structures.

  4. Life-cycle cost assessment of seismically base-isolated structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hao; Weng, Dagen; Lu, Xilin; Lu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The life-cycle cost of seismic base-isolated nuclear power plants is modeled. • The change law of life-cycle cost with seismic fortification intensity is studied. • The initial cost of laminated lead rubber bearings can be expressed as the function of volume. • The initial cost of a damper can be expressed as the function of its maximum displacement and tonnage. • The use of base-isolation can greatly reduce the expected damage cost, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost. -- Abstract: Evaluation of seismically base-isolated structural life-cycle cost is the key problem in performance based seismic design. A method is being introduced to address the life-cycle cost of base-isolated reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Each composition of life-cycle cost is analyzed including the initial construction cost, the isolators cost and the excepted damage cost over life-cycle of the structure. The concept of seismic intensity is being used to estimate the expected damage cost, greatly simplifying the calculation. Moreover, French Cruas nuclear power plant is employed as an example to assess its life-cycle cost, compared to the cost of non-isolated plant at the same time. The results show that the proposed method is efficient and the expected damage cost is enormously reduced because of the application of isolators, which leads to the reduction of the life-cycle cost of nuclear power plants

  5. Evaluating The Financial Consequences of Different Financing Structure for Nuclear Power Project under Malaysian Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammed Zulfakar Zolkaffly; Faisal Izwan Abdul Rashid; Siti Syarina Mat Sali; Fairuz Suzana Mohd Chachuli; Mohd Azmi Sidid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Full text: In 2010, Malaysia through the Economic Transformation Programme (ETP) has initiated an effort to explore nuclear energy as an option for electricity generation post-2020 in order to meet country's growing energy demand and diversify its energy mix. To date, Malaysia is focusing its efforts on the preparatory activities, pending to make decision to embark on nuclear power project. The development of nuclear power plants is a major undertaking for any country which that requires huge financial implications and commitments. On this note, this paper aims at evaluating the financial consequences of different financing structure for nuclear power project under Malaysian market condition, based on two key financial indicators, namely, Net Present Value (NPV) and Internal Rate of Return (IRR). The computer model FINPLAN developed by the IAEA was used to perform this study. The result shows that different financing structure significantly affect the sensitivity of NPV and IRR, that may be of interest to the investors in exploring viable financing structure for nuclear power project development. (author)

  6. Remembered Experiences and Revisit Intentions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnes, Stuart; Mattsson, Jan; Sørensen, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is an experience-intensive sector in which customers seek and pay for experiences above everything else. Remembering past tourism experiences is also crucial for an understanding of the present, including the predicted behaviours of visitors to tourist destinations. We adopt a longitudinal...... approach to memory data collection from psychological science, which has the potential to contribute to our understanding of tourist behaviour. In this study, we examine the impact of remembered tourist experiences in a safari park. In particular, using matched survey data collected longitudinally and PLS...... path modelling, we examine the impact of positive affect tourist experiences on the development of revisit intentions. We find that longer-term remembered experiences have the strongest impact on revisit intentions, more so than predicted or immediate memory after an event. We also find that remembered...

  7. Full-scale dynamic structural testing of Paks nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Rin, E.M.; Muzzi, F.P.

    1995-01-01

    Within the framework of the IAEA coordinated 'Benchmark Study for the seismic analysis and testing of WWER-type NPPs', in-situ dynamic structural testing activities have been performed at the Paks Nuclear Power Plant in Hungary. The specific objective of the investigation was to obtain experimental data on the actual dynamic structural behaviour of the plant's major constructions and equipment under normal operating conditions, for enabling a valid seismic safety review to be made. This paper gives a synthetic description of the conducted experiments and presents some results, regarding in particular the free-field excitations produced during the earthquake-simulation experiments and an experiment of the dynamic soil-structure interaction global effects at the base of the reactor containment structure. Moreover, a method which can be used for inferring dynamic structural characteristics from the recorded time-histories is briefly described and a simple illustrative example given. (author)

  8. Probabilistic methods for condition assessment and life prediction of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, B.R.; Mori, Yasuhiro

    1993-01-01

    A probability-based methodology is being developed in support of the NRC Structural Aging Program to assist in evaluating the reliability of existing concrete structures in nuclear power plants under potential future operating loads and extreme evironmental and accidental events. The methodology includes models to predict structural deterioration due to environmental stressors, a database to support the use of these models, and methods for analyzing time-dependent reliability of concrete structural components subjected to stochastic loads. The methodology can be used to support a plant license extension application by providing evidence that safety-related concrete structures in their current (service) condition are able to withstand future extreme events with a level of reliability sufficient for public health and safety. (orig.)

  9. An analytical model of stand dynamics as a function of tree growth, mortality and recruitment: the shade tolerance-stand structure hypothesis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavala, Miguel A; Angulo, Oscar; Bravo de la Parra, Rafael; López-Marcos, Juan C

    2007-02-07

    Light competition and interspecific differences in shade tolerance are considered key determinants of forest stand structure and dynamics. Specifically two main stand diameter distribution types as a function of shade tolerance have been proposed based on empirical observations. All-aged stands of shade tolerant species tend to have steeply descending, monotonic diameter distributions (inverse J-shaped curves). Shade intolerant species in contrast typically exhibit normal (unimodal) tree diameter distributions due to high mortality rates of smaller suppressed trees. In this study we explore the generality of this hypothesis which implies a causal relationship between light competition or shade tolerance and stand structure. For this purpose we formulate a partial differential equation system of stand dynamics as a function of individual tree growth, recruitment and mortality which allows us to explore possible individual-based mechanisms--e.g. light competition-underlying observed patterns of stand structure--e.g. unimodal or inverse J-shaped equilibrium diameter curves. We find that contrary to expectations interspecific differences in growth patterns can result alone in any of the two diameter distributions types observed in the field. In particular, slow growing species can present unimodal equilibrium curves even in the absence of light competition. Moreover, light competition and shade intolerance evaluated both at the tree growth and mortality stages did not have a significant impact on stand structure that tended to converge systematically towards an inverse J-shaped curves for most tree growth scenarios. Realistic transient stand dynamics for even aged stands of shade intolerant species (unimodal curves) were only obtained when recruitment was completely suppressed, providing further evidence on the critical role played by juvenile stages of tree development (e.g. the sampling stage) on final forest structure and composition. The results also point out the

  10. Misalignment tolerable coil structure for biomedical applications with wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Jeff P W; Chen, Nan; Chung, Henry S H; Chan, Leanne L H

    2013-01-01

    Coil-misalignment is one of the major hurdles for inductively coupled wireless power transfer in applications like retinal prosthesis. Weak magnetic flux linkage due to coil misalignments would significantly impair the power efficiency. A novel receiver configuration with high misalignment tolerance is presented in this paper. The proposed receiver is composed of two receiver coils placed orthogonally, so as to reduce the variation of mutual inductance between transmitting and receiving coils under misalignment conditions. Three different receiver coil structures are analyzed and compared using the same length of wire. Theoretical predictions have been confirmed with measurement results.

  11. Seismic fragility analyses of nuclear power plant structures based on the recorded earthquake data in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joe, Yang Hee; Cho, Sung Gook

    2003-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces an improved method for evaluating seismic fragilities of components of nuclear power plants in Korea. Engineering characteristics of small magnitude earthquake spectra recorded in the Korean peninsula during the last several years are also discussed in this paper. For the purpose of evaluating the effects of the recorded earthquake on the seismic fragilities of Korean nuclear power plant structures, several cases of comparative studies have been performed. The study results show that seismic fragility analysis based on the Newmark's spectra in Korea might over-estimate the seismic capacities of Korean facilities. (author)

  12. Improved Structure and Fabrication of Large, High-Power KHPS Rotors - Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corren, Dean [Verdant Power, Inc.; Colby, Jonathan [Verdant Power, Inc.; Adonizio, Mary Ann [Verdant Power, Inc.

    2013-01-29

    Verdant Power, Inc, working in partnership with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the University of Minnesota St. Anthony Falls Laboratory (SAFL), among other partners, used evolving Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) models and techniques to improve the structure and fabrication of large, high-power composite Kinetic Hydropower System (KHPS) rotor blades. The objectives of the project were to: design; analyze; develop for manufacture and fabricate; and thoroughly test, in the lab and at full scale in the water, the improved KHPS rotor blade.

  13. Online Monitoring of Concrete Structures in Nuclear Power Plants: Interim Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Cai, Guowei [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Agarwal, Vivek [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The existing fleet of nuclear power plants in the United States have initial operating licenses of 40 years, and many of these plants have applied for and received license extensions. As plant structures, systems, and components age, their useful life—considering both structural integrity and performance—is reduced as a result of deterioration of the materials. Assessment and management of aging concrete structures in nuclear plants require a more systematic approach than simple reliance on existing code-based design margins of safety. Structural health monitoring is required to produce actionable information regarding structural integrity that supports operational and maintenance decisions. The online monitoring of concrete structures project conducted under the Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Technologies Pathway of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program at Idaho National Laboratory is seeking to develop and demonstrate capabilities for concrete structures health monitoring. Through this research project, several national laboratories and Vanderbilt University propose to develop a framework of research activities for the health monitoring of nuclear power plant concrete structures that includes the integration of four elements—damage modeling, monitoring, data analytics, and uncertainty quantification. This report briefly discusses activities in this project during October-December, 2014. The most significant activity during this period was the organizing of a two-day workshop on research needs in online monitoring of concrete structures, hosted by Vanderbilt University in November 2014. Thirty invitees from academia, industry and government participated in the workshop. The presentations and discussions at the workshop surveyed current activities related to concrete structures deterioration modeling and monitoring, and identified the challenges, knowledge gaps, and opportunities for advancing the state of the art; these

  14. Revisiting Mutual Fund Performance Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Angelidis, Timotheos; Giamouridis, Daniel; Tessaromatis, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Mutual fund manager excess performance should be measured relative to their self-reported benchmark rather than the return of a passive portfolio with the same risk characteristics. Ignoring the self-reported benchmark introduces biases in the measurement of stock selection and timing components of excess performance. We revisit baseline empirical evidence in mutual fund performance evaluation utilizing stock selection and timing measures that address these biases. We introduce a new factor e...

  15. Quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-04-01

    This guide describes a method acceptable to the NRC staff for complying with the Commission's regulations with regard to quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants. This guide applies to all types of nuclear power plants. (U.S.)

  16. Supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel during the construction phase of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1974-01-01

    This standard sets forth the supplementary quality assurance requirements for installation, inspection, and testing of structural concrete and structural steel for nuclear power plant construction. The requirements may also be extended to other appropriate parts of nuclear power plants when specified in contract documents. This standard is intended to be used in conjunction with ANSI N45.2

  17. Revisiting the dose-effect correlations in irradiated head and neck cancer using automatic segmentation tools of the dental structures, mandible and maxilla

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thariat, J.; Ramus, L.; Odin, G.; Vincent, S.; Orlanducci, M.H.; Dassonville, O.; Darcourt, V.; Lacout, A.; Marcy, P.Y.; Cagnol, G.; Malandain, G.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. - Manual delineation of dental structures is too time-consuming to be feasible in routine practice. Information on dose risk levels is crucial for dentists following irradiation of the head and neck to avoid post-extraction osteoradionecrosis based on empirical dose-effects data established on bidimensional radiation therapy plans. Material and methods. - We present an automatic atlas-based segmentation framework of the dental structures, called Dentalmaps, constructed from a patient image-segmentation database. Results. - This framework is accurate (within 2 Gy accuracy) and relevant for the routine use. It has the potential to guide dental care in the context of new irradiation techniques. Conclusion. - This tool provides a user-friendly interface for dentists and radiation oncologists in the context of irradiated head and neck cancer patients. It will likely improve the knowledge of dose-effect correlations for dental complications and osteoradionecrosis. (authors)

  18. Dynamic interactions of components, structure, and foundation of nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajuhesh, J.; Hadjian, A.H.

    1977-01-01

    A solution is formulated for the dynamic analysis of structures and components with different stiffness and damping characteristics, including the consideration of soil-structure interaction effects. Composite structures are often analysed approximately, in particular with regards to damping. For example, the reactor and other equipment in nuclear power plant structures are often analysed by assuming them uncoupled from the supporting structures. To achieve a better accuracy, the coupled system is hereby analysed as a composite component-structure-soil system. Although derivation of mass and stiffness matrices for the component-structure-soil system is a simple problem, the determination of the damping characteristics of such a system is more complex. This emphasis on the proper evaluation of system damping is warranted on the grounds that, when resonance conditions occur, the response amplitude is governed to a significant degree by the system damping. The damping information is usually available for each sub-structure separately with its based fixed or devoid of rigid-body modes of motion. The rigid-body motions are often free of damping resistance but sometimes, such as in the case of soil-structure interaction, or in the case of aerodynamic resistance, are uniquely defined. The composite damping matrix for the complete structure is hereby derived from the above-mentioned information. Thus, the damping matrix is first obtained for the free-free model of each sub-structure (the model containing the structural degrees of freedom together with rigid-body modes of motion), and then the submatrices for the free-free models are assembled to form the composite damping matrix in acccordance with an assembly technique relating the sub-structure coordinates to the global coordinates of the composite structure

  19. Examining Relationships of Destination Image, Service Quality, e-WOM, and Revisit Intention to Sabang Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangga Restu Prayogo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to study the relationship among destination image, service quality, e-WOM, and revisit intentions in the tourism industry. A questionnaire given to tourists who visit one of the farrest island in western part of Indonesia, Sabang Island and using sampling through the convenience sampling. A structural equation model (SEM test with WarpPLS 3.0 was used to test the relationship between research variables. This research gathered from 150 respondents. The empirical results from PLS-SEM showed that; the destination image positive affect e-WOM and revisit intention; service quality affect e-WOM and revisit intention; e-WOM positive affect to revisit intention tourists. The implications and future research issues were discussed.

  20. Numerical simulations of novel high-power high-brightness diode laser structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucke, Konstantin; Rogg, Joseph; Kelemen, Marc T.; Poprawe, Reinhart; Weimann, Guenter

    2001-07-01

    One of the key topics in today's semiconductor laser development activities is to increase the brightness of high-power diode lasers. Although structures showing an increased brightness have been developed specific draw-backs of these structures lead to a still strong demand for investigation of alternative concepts. Especially for the investigation of basically novel structures easy-to-use and fast simulation tools are essential to avoid unnecessary, cost and time consuming experiments. A diode laser simulation tool based on finite difference representations of the Helmholtz equation in 'wide-angle' approximation and the carrier diffusion equation has been developed. An optimized numerical algorithm leads to short execution times of a few seconds per resonator round-trip on a standard PC. After each round-trip characteristics like optical output power, beam profile and beam parameters are calculated. A graphical user interface allows online monitoring of the simulation results. The simulation tool is used to investigate a novel high-power, high-brightness diode laser structure, the so-called 'Z-Structure'. In this structure an increased brightness is achieved by reducing the divergency angle of the beam by angular filtering: The round trip path of the beam is two times folded using internal total reflection at surfaces defined by a small index step in the semiconductor material, forming a stretched 'Z'. The sharp decrease of the reflectivity for angles of incidence above the angle of total reflection leads to a narrowing of the angular spectrum of the beam. The simulations of the 'Z-Structure' indicate an increase of the beam quality by a factor of five to ten compared to standard broad-area lasers.

  1. Design issues and implications for the structural integrity and lifetime of fusion power plant components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karditas, P.J.

    1996-05-01

    This review discusses, with example calculations, the criteria, and imposed constraints and limitations, for the design of fusion components and assesses the implications for successful design and power plant operation. The various loading conditions encountered during the operation of a tokamak lead to structural damage and possible failure by such mechanisms as yielding, thermal creep rupture and fatigue due to thermal cycling, plastic strain cycling (ratcheting), crack growth-propagation and radiation induced swelling and creep. Of all the possible damage mechanisms, fatigue, creep and their combination are the most important in the structural design and lifetime of fusion power plant components operating under steady or load varying conditions. Also, the effect of neutron damage inflicted onto the structural materials and the degradation of key properties is of major concern in the design and lifetime prediction of components. Structures are classified by, and will be restricted by existing or future design codes relevant to medium and high temperature power plant environments. The ways in which existing design codes might be used in present and near future design activities, and the implications, are discussed; the desirability of an early start towards the development of fusion-specific design codes is emphasised. (UK)

  2. Ageing management of nuclear power plant concrete structures - Overview and suggested research topics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, J.

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their ageing are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, non-destructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimisation of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to non-destructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections; basemat; and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to ageing management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. (author)

  3. Application of concrete filled steel bearing wall to inner concrete structure fro PWR nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hisashi; Tanaka, Mamoru; Inoue, Kunio; Fukihara, Masaaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi.

    1992-01-01

    'Concrete filled steel bearing wall', applied to the inner concrete structure for PWR nuclear power plant, was developed for rationalization of construction procedure at site. It was concluded through preliminary studies that this new type of wall, where concrete is placed between steel plates, is best suited for the strength members of the above structure, due to the high strength and ductility of surface steel plates and the confinement effect of filled concrete. To verify the behavior from the elastic range to the inelastic range, the ultimate strength and the failure mechanism, and to clarify experimentally the structural integrity of the inner concrete structure, which was composed of a concrete filled steel bearing wall, against seismic lateral loads, horizontal loading tests using a 1/10th scale model of the inner concrete structure for PWR nuclear power plant were conducted. As a result of the tests, the inner concrete structure composed of a concrete filled steel bearing wall appeared to have a larger load carrying capacity and a higher ductility as compared with that composed of a reinforced concrete wall. (author)

  4. An examination on aseismatic design of civil engineering structures in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aida, Masakazu; Nakamura, Haruaki; Suzuki, Hideya

    1990-01-01

    As for the aseismatic design of civil engineering structures in nuclear power stations, the basic way of thinking and the example design are shown in the technical guidelines and others, but when the aseismatic design is actually carried out, the techniques of aseismatic calculation and the modeling for structural analysis are left to the judgement of designers. Among such various problems, in this report, the applicability of response displacement method and response magnitude method as the aseismatic calculation techniques and the necessity of rigid region in rahmen members in structural analysis were examined, and those are described. As the structures in nuclear power stations, there are cooling water intake and discharge facilities, emergency water intake, breakwater, unloading quays, revetments, the foundations of tanks, machinery and equipment, piping and others, roads, bridges, tunnels and so on. The outline of their aseismatic design and the examination on the cases of aseismatic design are reported. These structures are frequently underground structures, which are different from those on the ground. (K.I.)

  5. Assessment and management of aging of nuclear power plant safety-related structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Graves, H.L. III; Ellingwood, B.R.

    2003-01-01

    Background information and data have been developed for improving existing and developing new methods to assist in quantifying the effects of age-related degradation on the performance of nuclear power plant (NPP) safety-related structures. Factors that can lead to age-related degradation of safety-related structures are identified and their manifestations described. Current regulatory testing and inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Techniques commonly used to inspect NPP concrete structures to assess and quantify age-related degradation are summarized. An approach for conduct of condition assessments of structures in NPPs is presented. Criteria, based primarily on visual indications, are provided for use in classification and assessment of concrete degradation. Materials and techniques for repair of degraded structures are noted and guidance provided on repair options available for various forms of degradation. A probabilistic methodology for condition assessment and reliability-based life prediction has been developed and applied to structures subject to combinations of structural load processes and to structural systems. The methodology has also been used to investigate optimization of in-service inspection and maintenance strategies to maintain failure probability below a specified target value as well as to minimize costs. Fragility assessments involving analytical solutions and finite-element methods have been utilized to predict the effect of aging degradation on structural component performance. (author)

  6. Review of structure damping values for elastic seismic analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, P.S.; Steele, L.K.; Johnson, J.J.; Mensing, R.W.

    1993-03-01

    Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission guidance on structure damping values for elastic seismic design analysis of nuclear power plants are contained in Regulatory Guide 1.61 (R.G. 1.61). The objectives of the study described in this report are to investigate the adequacy of R.G1.61 structure damping values based on currently available data, and to recommend revisions to R.G. 1.61 as appropriate. Measured structure damping values, and associated structure, foundation, excitation, and input/response parameters, were collected and compiled. These data were analyzed to identify the parameters that significantly influence structure damping and to quantify structure damping in terms of these parameters. Based on this study, current R.G. 1.61 damping values for structure design are either adequate, or require only minor revision, depending on the structure material. More explicit guidance on structure damping values for seismic analysis to determine input to equipment has been prepared, along with other recommendations to improve the applicability of R.G. 1.61

  7. Seismic analysis and structure capacity evaluation of the Belene nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Hashimoto, P.S.; Campbell, R.D.; Baltus, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    The seismic analysis and structure capacity evaluation of the Belene Nuclear Power Plant, a two-unit WWER 1000, was performed. The principal objective of the study was to review the major aspects of the seismic design including ground motion specification, foundation concept and materials, and the Unit I main reactor building structure response and capacity. The main reactor building structure /foundation/soil were modeled and analyzed by a substructure approach to soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis. The elements of the substructure approach, implemented in the family of computer programs CLASSI, are: Specification of the free-field ground motion; Modeling the soil profile; SSI parameters; Modeling the structure; SSI-response analyses. Each of these aspects is discussed. The Belene Unit 1 main reactor building structure was evaluated to verify the seismic design with respect to current western criteria. The structural capacity evaluation included criteria development, element load distribution analysis, structural element selection, and structural element capacity evaluation. Equipment and commodity design criteria were similarly reviewed and evaluated. Methodology results and recommendations are presented. (author)

  8. Geographical evaluation of the impact of nuclear power plants on settlement structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Divinsky, B.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of nuclear power plants are classed with respect to their character (one-sided or many-sided), order (primary or secondary), quality (positive or adverse), duration (temporary or permanent), and space (microregional or macroregional). The following topics must be included in the methodology of evaluation of the impacts of a nuclear power plant on the region: characteristics of the present settlement network, relationships within the settlement system, spatial transformation of settlements, development of urbanization, population density, town and village sizes, functional types of settlements, migration, age and social structure of the population, economic activity, town and village facilities, technical infrastructure, transport and traffic, psycho-social impacts of the occurrence of the nuclear power plant, microecology (microenvironment). (M.D.). 5 refs

  9. Nuclear power plant systems, structures and components and their safety classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The assurance of a nuclear power plant's safety is based on the reliable functioning of the plant as well as on its appropriate maintenance and operation. To ensure the reliability of operation, special attention shall be paid to the design, manufacturing, commissioning and operation of the plant and its components. To control these functions the nuclear power plant is divided into structural and functional entities, i.e. systems. A systems safety class is determined by its safety significance. Safety class specifies the procedures to be employed in plant design, construction, monitoring and operation. The classification document contains all documentation related to the classification of the nuclear power plant. The principles of safety classification and the procedures pertaining to the classification document are presented in this guide. In the Appendix of the guide, examples of systems most typical of each safety class are given to clarify the safety classification principles

  10. The changing structure of the electric power industry, 1970--1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Section 205(a)(2) of the Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 (Public Law 95--91) requires the Administrator of the Energy information Administration (EIA) to carry out a central, comprehensive, and unified energy data information program that will collect, evaluate, assemble, analyze, and disseminate data and information relevant to energy resources, reserves, production, demand, technology, and related economic and statistical information. To assist in meeting these responsibilities in the area of electric power, EIA has prepared this report, The Changing Structure of the Electric Power Industry, 1970--1991. The purpose of the this report is to provide a comprehensive overview of the ownership of the US electric power industry over the past two decades, with emphasis on the major changes that have occurred, their causes, and their effects

  11. Power density of piezoelectric transformers improved using a contact heat transfer structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Wei Wei; Chen, Li Juan; Pan, Cheng Liang; Liu, Yong Bin; Feng, Zhi Hua

    2012-01-01

    Based on contact heat transfer, a novel method to increase power density of piezoelectric transformers is proposed. A heat transfer structure is realized by directly attaching a dissipater to the piezoelectric transformer plate. By maintaining the vibration mode of the transformer and limiting additional energy losses from the contact interface, an appropriate design can improve power density of the transformer on a large scale, resulting from effective suppression of its working temperature rise. A prototype device was fabricated from a rectangular piezoelectric transformer, a copper heat transfer sheet, a thermal grease insulation pad, and an aluminum heat radiator. The experimental results show the transformer maintains a maximum power density of 135 W/cm(3) and an efficiency of 90.8% with a temperature rise of less than 10 °C after more than 36 h, without notable changes in performance. © 2012 IEEE

  12. Analysis of public consciousness structure and consideration of information supply against the nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimooka, Hiroshi

    2001-01-01

    The Energy Engineering Research Institute carried out six times of questionnaire on analysis of public consciousness structure for fiscal years for 1986 to 1999, to obtain a lot of informations on public recognition against the nuclear power generation. In recent, as a feasibility on change of consciousness against the power generation was supposed by occurrence of the JCO critical accident forming the first victim in Japan on September, 1999 after investigation in fiscal year 1998, by carrying out the same questionnaire as one in previous fiscal year to the same objects after the accident, to analyze how evaluation, behavior determining factor and so forth on the power generation changed by the accident. In this paper, on referring to results of past questionnaires, were introduced on the questionnaire results and their analysis carried out before and after the JCO critical accident, to consider on information supply referred by them. (G.K.)

  13. On integration of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles into existing power system structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galus, Matthias D.; Zima, Marek; Andersson, Goeran

    2010-01-01

    Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) represent one option for the electrification of private mobility. In order to efficiently integrate PHEVs into power systems, existing organizational structures need to be considered. Based on procedures of power systems planning and operation, actors are identified whose operational activities will be affected by PHEV integration. Potential changes and challenges in the actors' long- and short term planning activities are discussed. Further, a PHEV operation state description is developed which defines vehicle operation states from the power system point of view integrating uncontrolled, controlled recharging and vehicle to grid (V2G) utilization in one single framework. Future PHEV managing entities, such as aggregators, can use this framework for planning and operation activities including load management and V2G. This operational state description could provide a solution for future short term planning challenges of PHEVs and an aegis for various routes of current research, which to date have been weakly linked to each other.

  14. MasterOnline Periodontology and Implant Therapy-revisited after seven years: A case study of the structures and outcomes in a blended learning CPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratka-Krüger, P; Wölber, J P; Blank, J; Holst, K; Hörmeyer, I; Vögele, E

    2018-02-01

    There is a great need for postgraduate training and continuing professional development (CPD), specifically in the field of periodontology. Despite the plenty of periodontal CPDs, there is a lack of information about the performance of CPDs in a blended learning setting. This study is a case study of the structures and outcomes in a blended learning CPD programme in periodontology, the MasterOnline Periodontology and Implant Therapy hosted by the University of Freiburg's Dental School. The structures of the blended learning CPD were analysed with the aims to (i) make explicit how various innovative educational methods and ICT tools can be successfully applied to a Web-supported postgraduate periodontology training programme, (ii) identify the programme's impact on learning transfer in students' dental practices and (iii) identify other outcomes, synergies and any changes required during the existence. Using qualitative interviewing, the various types of learning transfer and elements of the study programme that foster transfer could be exemplified. A period of 7 years was analysed. In this duration, 50 students successfully graduated to a master of science. Qualitative interviews were performed with six students and four teachers affirming the learning transfer in a blended learning setting. This case study shows that blended learning can be a successful approach for CPD in dentistry. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Pipe failure probability - the Thomas paper revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydell, B.O.Y.

    2000-01-01

    Almost twenty years ago, in Volume 2 of Reliability Engineering (the predecessor of Reliability Engineering and System Safety), a paper by H. M. Thomas of Rolls Royce and Associates Ltd. presented a generalized approach to the estimation of piping and vessel failure probability. The 'Thomas-approach' used insights from actual failure statistics to calculate the probability of leakage and conditional probability of rupture given leakage. It was intended for practitioners without access to data on the service experience with piping and piping system components. This article revisits the Thomas paper by drawing on insights from development of a new database on piping failures in commercial nuclear power plants worldwide (SKI-PIPE). Partially sponsored by the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI), the R and D leading up to this note was performed during 1994-1999. Motivated by data requirements of reliability analysis and probabilistic safety assessment (PSA), the new database supports statistical analysis of piping failure data. Against the background of this database development program, the article reviews the applicability of the 'Thomas approach' in applied risk and reliability analysis. It addresses the question whether a new and expanded database on the service experience with piping systems would alter the original piping reliability correlation as suggested by H. M. Thomas

  16. Improved power efficiency of blue fluorescent organic light-emitting diode with intermixed host structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Shouzhen; Zhang, Shiming; Zhang, Zhensong; Wu, Yukun; Wang, Peng; Guo, Runda; Chen, Yu; Qu, Dalong; Wu, Qingyang; Zhao, Yi, E-mail: yizhao@jlu.edu.cn; Liu, Shiyong

    2013-11-15

    High power efficiency (PE) p-bis(p-N,N-diphenyl-aminostyryl)benzene (DSA-ph) based fluorescent blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is demonstrated by utilizing intermixed host (IH) structure. The PE outperforms those devices based on single host (SH), mixed host (MH), and double emitting layers (DELs). By further optimizing the intermixed layer, peak PE of the IH device is increased up to 8.7 lm/W (1.7 times higher than conventional SH device), which is the highest value among the DSA-ph based blue device reported so far. -- Highlights: • DSA-ph based blue fluorescent OLEDs are fabricated. • The intermixed host structure is first introduced into the blue devices. • Blue device with the highest power efficiency based on DSA-ph is obtained.

  17. Layout Capacitive Coupling and Structure Impacts on Integrated High Voltage Power MOSFETs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Lin; Knott, Arnold; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger

    2016-01-01

    The switching performances of the integrated high voltage power MOSFETs that have prevailing interconnection matrices are being heavily influenced by the parasitic capacitive coupling of on-chip metal wires. The mechanism of the side-byside coupling is generally known, however, the layer-to-layer......The switching performances of the integrated high voltage power MOSFETs that have prevailing interconnection matrices are being heavily influenced by the parasitic capacitive coupling of on-chip metal wires. The mechanism of the side-byside coupling is generally known, however, the layer...... extraction tool shows that the side-by-side coupling dominated structure can perform better than the layer-to-layer coupling dominated structure, in terms of on-resistance times input or output capacitance, by 9.2% and 4.9%, respectively....

  18. On the Soft Limit of the Large Scale Structure Power Spectrum: UV Dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Garny, Mathias; Porto, Rafael A; Sagunski, Laura

    2015-01-01

    We derive a non-perturbative equation for the large scale structure power spectrum of long-wavelength modes. Thereby, we use an operator product expansion together with relations between the three-point function and power spectrum in the soft limit. The resulting equation encodes the coupling to ultraviolet (UV) modes in two time-dependent coefficients, which may be obtained from response functions to (anisotropic) parameters, such as spatial curvature, in a modified cosmology. We argue that both depend weakly on fluctuations deep in the UV. As a byproduct, this implies that the renormalized leading order coefficient(s) in the effective field theory (EFT) of large scale structures receive most of their contribution from modes close to the non-linear scale. Consequently, the UV dependence found in explicit computations within standard perturbation theory stems mostly from counter-term(s). We confront a simplified version of our non-perturbative equation against existent numerical simulations, and find good agr...

  19. Structural Reliability Methods for Wind Power Converter System Component Reliability Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kostandyan, Erik; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2012-01-01

    Wind power converter systems are essential subsystems in both off-shore and on-shore wind turbines. It is the main interface between generator and grid connection. This system is affected by numerous stresses where the main contributors might be defined as vibration and temperature loadings....... The temperature variations induce time-varying stresses and thereby fatigue loads. A probabilistic model is used to model fatigue failure for an electrical component in the power converter system. This model is based on a linear damage accumulation and physics of failure approaches, where a failure criterion...... is defined by the threshold model. The attention is focused on crack propagation in solder joints of electrical components due to the temperature loadings. Structural Reliability approaches are used to incorporate model, physical and statistical uncertainties. Reliability estimation by means of structural...

  20. Age-Related Degradation of Nuclear Power Plant Structures and Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Chang, T.-Y.; Chokshi, N.; Hofmayer, C.; Morante, R.; Shteyngart, S.

    1999-01-01

    This paper summarizes and highlights the results of the initial phase of a research project on the assessment of aged and degraded structures and components important to the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPPs). A review of age-related degradation of structures and passive components at NPPs was performed. Instances of age-related degradation have been collected and reviewed. Data were collected from plant generated documents such as Licensing Event Reports, NRC generic communications, NUREGs and industry reports. Applicable cases of degradation occurrences were reviewed and then entered into a computerized database. The results obtained from the review of degradation occurrences are summarized and discussed. Various trending analyses were performed to identify which structures and components are most affected, whether degradation occurrences are worsening, and what was the most common aging mechanisms. The paper also discusses potential aging issues and degradation-susceptible structures and passive components which would have the greatest impact on plant risk

  1. Lipsky Revisited: the Case of the Structural Programme for Risk Areas (Programa Estrutural em Áreas de Risco - PEAR of the Municipality of Belo Horizonte (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Salej

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The practices of street-level bureaucracy (SLB constitute a central issue to efforts made to understand the implementation of public policies. Lipsky?s seminal work established the theoretical bases for a methodical analysis of this type of practice. Nevertheless, the appropriation of Lipsky, at least in the Latin American context, is limited to partial references and lacks a rigorous empirical examination of the theory. Our analysis of the Structural Programme for Risk Areas, based on both primary data (ethnographic participation, interviews, focus groups and secondary data (official texts, identified practices and contexts not foreseen by the theory. Contrary to the theoretical postulates, it was found that the behavioural hypotheses of rationalisation of service and cognitive simplification are not good predictors of the relationships of street-level bureaucrats (SLBs with their clients.

  2. Automated identification of RNA 3D modules with discriminative power in RNA structural alignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theis, Corinna; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in predicting RNA structure is moving towards filling the 'gap' in 2D RNA structure prediction where, for example, predicted internal loops often form non-canonical base pairs. This is increasingly recognized with the steady increase of known RNA 3D modules. There is a general...... comparative evidence. Subsequently, the modules, initially represented by a graph, are turned into models for the RMDetect program, which allows to test their discriminative power using real and randomized Rfam alignments. An initial extraction of 22495 3D modules in all PDB files results in 977 internal loop...

  3. Concept and structure of instrumentation and control of the Atucha II nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, D.; Roca, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The general structure of instrumentation and control of Atucha II nuclear power plant as well as the technologies used, are described: concepts of functional decentralization and physical centralization; concept of functional group and functional complex; description of the technologies used (physical support) in the project of plant instrumentation and control; description of the different automation levels on the basis of concepts of control interface, automatism, regulation, group and subgroup controls; principles of signal conditioning; concept of announcement of alarms and state: supervisory computer, description of HAS (Hard wired Alarm System) and CAS (Computer Alarm System); application of the above mentioned structure to the project of another type of plants. (Author)

  4. Feasibility Study on The Modulization of Structure and System Facility for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This final report is a results of Study on applicable to SC(Steel Concrete) structure for NPPS and experimentation of SC wall-Support joint carried out by KEPRI from 2001.7.1 to 2000.3.27. The major objectives is to study on application of SC structure and behavior of SC wall-support joint. This result is applicable to plan a main project for ''Development of Modular Construction System in the Nuclear Power Plant''. (author). 45 refs., 19 figs., 23 tabs.

  5. Development of conventional fatigue database for structure materials of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bing

    2002-01-01

    Management system of the conventional fatigue database for structure materials of nuclear power plant (NPP) is developed. The database included the parameters of design curves, i.e., the stress-life, survival probability-stress-life, strain-life, survival probability-strain-life, stress-strain and survival probability-stress-strain curves, and corresponding information of materials and testing conditions. Two ways, by materials name or by the inter-bounds of material mechanical properties, are constructed to search the database. From the searched information it can be conveniently performed of the conventional fatigue design analysis and reliability assessment of structures

  6. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...

  7. Global MLST of Salmonella Typhi Revisited in Post-Genomic Era: Genetic conservation, Population Structure and Comparative genomics of rare sequence types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kien-Pong eYap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Typhoid fever, caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, remains an important public health burden in Southeast Asia and other endemic countries. Various genotyping methods have been applied to study the genetic variations of this human-restricted pathogen. Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST is one of the widely accepted methods, and recently, there is a growing interest in the re-application of MLST in the post-genomic era. In this study, we provide the global MLST distribution of S. Typhi utilizing both publicly available 1,826 S. Typhi genome sequences in addition to performing conventional MLST on S. Typhi strains isolated from various endemic regions spanning over a century. Our global MLST analysis confirms the predominance of two sequence types (ST1 and ST2 co-existing in the endemic regions. Interestingly, S. Typhi strains with ST8 are currently confined within the African continent. Comparative genomic analyses of ST8 and other rare STs with genomes of ST1/ST2 revealed unique mutations in important virulence genes such as flhB, sipC and tviD that may explain the variations that differentiate between seemingly successful (widespread and unsuccessful (poor dissemination S. Typhi populations. Large scale whole-genome phylogeny demonstrated evidence of phylogeographical structuring and showed that ST8 may have diverged from the earlier ancestral population of ST1 and ST2, which later lost some of its fitness advantages, leading to poor worldwide dissemination. In response to the unprecedented increase in genomic data, this study demonstrates and highlights the utility of large-scale genome-based MLST as a quick and effective approach to narrow the scope of in-depth comparative genomic analysis and consequently provide new insights into the fine scale of pathogen evolution and population structure.

  8. STRUCTURE, PROPAGATION, AND EXPANSION OF A CME-DRIVEN SHOCK IN THE HELIOSPHERE: A REVISIT OF THE 2012 JULY 23 EXTREME STORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Zhu, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Luhmann, Janet G. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Vourlidas, Angelos, E-mail: liuxying@spaceweather.ac.cn [The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20732 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We examine the structure, propagation, and expansion of the shock associated with the 2012 July 23 extreme coronal mass ejection. Characteristics of the shock determined from multi-point imaging observations are compared to in situ measurements at different locations and a complex radio type II burst, which according to our definition has multiple branches that may not all be fundamental-harmonic related. The white-light shock signature can be modeled reasonably well by a spherical structure and was expanding backward even on the opposite side of the Sun. The expansion of the shock, which was roughly self-similar after the first ∼1.5 hr from launch, largely dominated over the translation of the shock center for the time period of interest. Our study also suggests a bow-shock morphology around the nose at later times due to the outward motion in combination with the expansion of the ejecta. The shock decayed and failed to reach Mercury in the backward direction and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory B ( STEREO B ) and Venus in the lateral directions, as indicated by the imaging and in situ observations. The shock in the nose direction, however, may have persisted to the far outer heliosphere, with predicted impact on Dawn around 06:00 UT on July 25 and on Jupiter around 23:30 UT on July 27 by a magnetohydrodynamic model. The type II burst shows properties generally consistent with the spatial/temporal variations of the shock deduced from imaging and in situ observations. In particular, the low-frequency bands agree well with the in situ measurements of a very low density ahead of the shock at STEREO A .

  9. A study in the reliability analysis method for nuclear power plant structures (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Byung Hwan; Choi, Seong Cheol; Shin, Ho Sang; Yang, In Hwan; Kim, Yi Sung; Yu, Young; Kim, Se Hun [Seoul, Nationl Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Nuclear power plant structures may be exposed to aggressive environmental effects that may cause their strength and stiffness to decrease over their service life. Although the physics of these damage mechanisms are reasonably well understood and quantitative evaluation of their effects on time-dependent structural behavior is possible in some instances, such evaluations are generally very difficult and remain novel. The assessment of existing steel containment in nuclear power plants for continued service must provide quantitative evidence that they are able to withstand future extreme loads during a service period with an acceptable level of reliability. Rational methodologies to perform the reliability assessment can be developed from mechanistic models of structural deterioration, using time-dependent structural reliability analysis to take loading and strength uncertainties into account. The final goal of this study is to develop the analysis method for the reliability of containment structures. The cause and mechanism of corrosion is first clarified and the reliability assessment method has been established. By introducing the equivalent normal distribution, the procedure of reliability analysis which can determine the failure probabilities has been established. The influence of design variables to reliability and the relation between the reliability and service life will be continued second year research.

  10. Introduction to structural and mechanical failure modes for nuclear power facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The three papers presented in this section discuss the types of information (i.e., dynamic tests, earthquake experience and analytical data) which are used in predicting the capacity of structures and equipment in nuclear power plants to resist earthquakes. The background and motivation for discussing these three types of information is presented in this paper as an introduction to the papers which follow in this section

  11. Transmutation technology development; thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis of the HYPER target beam window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. H.; Ju, E. S.; Song, M. K.; Jeon, Y. Z. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    A thermal hydraulic power analysis, a structure analysis and optimization computation for some design factor for the design of spallation target suitable for HYPER with 1000 MW thermal power in this study was performed. Heat generation formula was used which was evaluated recently based on the LAHET code, mainly to find the maximum beam current under given computation conditions. Thermal hydraulic power of HYPER target system was calculated using FLUENT code, structure conducted by inputting the data into ANSYS. On the temp of beam windows and the pressure distribution calculated using FLUENT. Data transformation program was composed apply the data calculated using FLUENT being commercial CFD code and ANSYS being FEM code for CFX structure analysis. A basic study was conducted on various singular target to obtain fundamental data on the shape for optimum target design. A thermal hydraulic power analysis and structure analysis were conducted on the shapes of parabolic, uniform, scanning beams to choose the optimum shape of beam current analysis was done according to some turbulent model to simulate the real flow. To evaluate the reliability of numerical analysis result, benchmarking of FLUENT code reformed at SNU and Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology and it was compared to CFX in the possession of Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute and evaluated. Reliable deviation was observed in the results calculated using FLUENT code, but temperature deviation of about 200 .deg. C was observed in the result from CFX analysis at optimum design condition. Several benchmarking were performed on the basis of numerical analysis concerning conventional HYPER. It was possible to allow a beam arrests of 17.3 mA in the case of the {phi} 350 mm parabolic beam suggested to the optimum in nuclear transmutation when stress equivalent to VON-MISES was calculated to be 140 MPa. 29 refs., 109 figs. (Author)

  12. Quality control of the structural design of Angra 2 and 3 power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merino, J.L.E.; Carvalho, S.R.B. de

    1985-01-01

    The quality control requirements for nuclear power plants are done by CNEN and might be followed by the organizations that are responsible for those activities, such as: design, suppliers, construction, fabrication, mounting, installation, commissioning, operation, maintenance, modification and decommissioning. The Promon's experience for using a quality control program in the structural design of Angra 2 and 3, and the verification system adopted, are presented. (E.G.) [pt

  13. Comparison of Comet Enflow and VA One Acoustic-to-Structure Power Flow Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2010-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software based on the Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA). In this method the same finite element mesh used for structural and acoustic analysis can be employed for the high frequency solutions. Comet Enflow is being validated for a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing the EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) results from the commercial software program VA One from ESI Group. Early in this program a number of discrepancies became apparent in the Enflow predicted response for the power flow from an acoustic space to a structural subsystem. The power flow anomalies were studied for a simple cubic, a rectangular and a cylindrical structural model connected to an acoustic cavity. The current investigation focuses on three specific discrepancies between the Comet Enflow and the VA One predictions: the Enflow power transmission coefficient relative to the VA One coupling loss factor; the importance of the accuracy of the acoustic modal density formulation used within Enflow; and the recommended use of fast solvers in Comet Enflow. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 16 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  14. Structural properties of nitrogenated amorphous carbon films: Influence of deposition temperature and radiofrequency discharge power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, G.; Bouchet-Fabre, B.; Zellama, K.; Clin, M.; Ballutaud, D.; Godet, C.

    2008-01-01

    The structural properties of nitrogenated amorphous carbon deposited by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering of graphite in pure N 2 plasma are investigated as a function of the substrate temperature and radiofrequency discharge power. The film composition is derived from x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, nuclear reaction analysis and elastic recoil detection measurements and the film microstructure is discussed using infrared, Raman, x-ray photoemission and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopic results. At low deposition temperature and low radiofrequency power, the films are soft, porous, and easily contaminated with water vapor and other atmospheric components. The concentration of nitrogen in the films is very large for low deposition temperatures (∼33.6 at. % N at 150 deg. C) but decreases strongly when the synthesis temperature increases (∼15 at. % N at 450 deg. C). With increasing deposition temperature and discharge power values, the main observed effects in amorphous carbon nitride alloys are a loss of nitrogen atoms, a smaller hydrogen and oxygen contamination related to the film densification, an increased order of the aromatic sp 2 phase, and a strong change in the nitrogen distribution within the carbon matrix. Structural changes are well correlated with modifications of the optical and transport properties

  15. Structural materials requirements for in-vessel components of fusion power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der

    2000-01-01

    The economic production of fusion energy is determined by principal choices such as using magnetic plasma confinement or generating inertial fusion energy. The first generation power plants will use deuterium and tritium mixtures as fuel, producing large amounts of highly energetic neutrons resulting in radiation damage in materials. In the far future the advanced fuels, 3 He or 11 B, determine power plant designs with less radiation damage than in the first generation. The first generation power plants design must anticipate radiation damage. Solid sacrificing armour or liquid layers could limit component replacements costs to economic levels. There is more than radiation damage resistance to determine the successful application of structural materials. High endurance against cyclic loading is a prominent requirement, both for magnetic and inertial fusion energy power plants. For high efficiency and compactness of the plant, elevated temperature behaviour should be attractive. Safety and environmental requirements demand that materials have low activation potential and little toxic effects under both normal and accident conditions. The long-term contenders for fusion power plant components near the plasma are materials in the range from innovative steels, such as reduced activation ferritic martensitic steels, to highly advanced ceramic composites based on silicon carbide, and chromium alloys. The steels follow an evolutionary path to basic plant efficiencies. The competition on the energy market in the middle of the next century might necessitate the riskier but more rewarding development of SiCSiC composites or chromium alloys

  16. Cerocene Revisited: The Electronic Structure of and Interconversion Between Ce2(C8H8)3 and Ce(C8H8)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Marc D.; Booth, Corwin H.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Andersen, Richard A.

    2009-02-02

    New synthetic procedures for the preparation of Ce(cot)2, cerocene, from [Li(thf)4][Ce(cot)2], and Ce2(cot)3 in high yield and purity are reported. Heating solid Ce(cot)2 yields Ce2(cot)3 and COT while heating Ce2(cot)3 with an excess of COT in C6D6 to 65oC over four months yields Ce(cot)2. The solid state magnetic susceptibility of these three organocerium compounds shows that Ce(cot)2 behaves as a TIP (temperature independent paramagnet) over the temperature range of 5-300 K, while that of Ce2(cot)3 shows that the spin carriers are antiferromagnetically coupled below 10 K; above 10 K, the individual spins are uncorrelated, and [Ce(cot)2]- behaves as an isolated f1 paramagnet. The EPR at 1.5K for Ce2(cot)3 and [Ce(cot)2]- have ground state of MJ= +- 1/2. The LIII edge XANES of Ce(cot)2 (Booth, C.H.; Walter, M.D.; Daniel, M.; Lukens, W.W., Andersen, R.A., Phys. Rev. Lett. 2005, 95, 267202) and 2Ce2(cot)3 over 30-500 K are reported; the Ce(cot)2 XANES spectra show Ce(III) and Ce(IV) signatures up to a temperature of approximately 500 K, whereupon the Ce(IV) signature disappears, consistent with the thermal behavior observed in the melting experiment. The EXAFS of Ce(cot)2 and Ce2(cot)3 are reported at 30 K; the agreement between the molecular parameters for Ce(cot)2 derived from EXAFS and single crystal X-ray diffraction data are excellent. In the case of Ce2(cot)3 no X-ray diffraction data are known to exist, but the EXAFS are consistent with a"triple-decker" sandwich structure. A molecular rationalization is presented for the electronic structure of cerocene having a multiconfiguration ground state that is an admixture of the two configurations Ce(III, 4f1)(cot1.5-)2 and Ce(IV, 4f0)(cot2-)2; the multiconfigurational ground state has profound effects on the magnetic properties and on the nature of the chemical bond in cerocene and, perhaps, other molecules.

  17. Revisiting Francisella tularensis subsp. holarctica, Causative Agent of Tularemia in Germany With Bioinformatics: New Insights in Genome Structure, DNA Methylation and Comparative Phylogenetic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Busch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Francisella (F. tularensis is a highly virulent, Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and the causative agent of the zoonotic disease tularemia. Here, we generated, analyzed and characterized a high quality circular genome sequence of the F. tularensis subsp. holarctica strain 12T0050 that caused fatal tularemia in a hare. Besides the genomic structure, we focused on the analysis of oriC, unique to the Francisella genus and regulating replication in and outside hosts and the first report on genomic DNA methylation of a Francisella strain. The high quality genome was used to establish and evaluate a diagnostic whole genome sequencing pipeline. A genotyping strategy for F. tularensis was developed using various bioinformatics tools for genotyping. Additionally, whole genome sequences of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica isolates isolated in the years 2008–2015 in Germany were generated. A phylogenetic analysis allowed to determine the genetic relatedness of these isolates and confirmed the highly conserved nature of F. tularensis subsp. holarctica.

  18. High power experimental studies of hybrid photonic band gap accelerator structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JieXi Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the first high power tests of hybrid photonic band gap (PBG accelerator structures. Three hybrid PBG (HPBG structures were designed, built and tested at 17.14 GHz. Each structure had a triangular lattice array with 60 inner sapphire rods and 24 outer copper rods sandwiched between copper disks. The dielectric PBG band gap map allows the unique feature of overmoded operation in a TM_{02} mode, with suppression of both lower order modes, such as the TM_{11} mode, as well as higher order modes. The use of sapphire rods, which have negligible dielectric loss, required inclusion of the dielectric birefringence in the design. The three structures were designed to sequentially reduce the peak surface electric field. Simulations showed relatively high surface fields at the triple point as well as in any gaps between components in the clamped assembly. The third structure used sapphire rods with small pin extensions at each end and obtained the highest gradient of 19  MV/m, corresponding to a surface electric field of 78  MV/m, with a breakdown probability of 5×10^{-1} per pulse per meter for a 100-ns input power pulse. Operation at a gradient above 20  MV/m led to runaway breakdowns with extensive light emission and eventual damage. For all three structures, multipactor light emission was observed at gradients well below the breakdown threshold. This research indicated that multipactor triggered at the triple point limited the operational gradient of the hybrid structure.

  19. Continuing the service of aging concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Arndt, E.G.

    1993-01-01

    Concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants because they provide foundation, support, shielding and containment functions. History tells us that concrete is a durable material. However, a number of factors can compromise its performance, singly or in combination: (1) faulty design, (2) use of unsuitable materials, (3) improper workmanship, (4) exposure to aggressive environments, and (5) excessive structural loads. Furthermore, aging of nuclear power plant (NPP) concrete structures occurs with the passage of time and has the potential, if its effects are not controlled, to increase the risk to public health and safety. Although limited, incidences of degradation of concrete structures in NPPs indicate that there is a need for improved surveillance, inspection/testing, and maintenance to enhance the technical bases for assurance of continued safe operation of NPPs. Guidelines and criteria for use in evaluating the remaining structural margins (residual life) are required. Potential regulatory applications of this research include: improved predictions of long-term material and structural performance and available safety margins at future times; establishment of limits on exposure to environmental stressors; reduction in total reliance by licensing on inspection and surveillance through development of a methodology which will enable the integrity of structures to be assessed (either pre- or post-accident); and improvements in damage inspection methodology through potential incorporation of results into national standards which could be referenced by standard review plans

  20. Substructure identification for shear structures: cross-power spectral density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Dongyu; Johnson, Erik A

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a substructure identification method for shear structures is proposed. A shear structure is divided into many small substructures; utilizing the dynamic equilibrium of a one-floor substructure, an inductive identification problem is formulated, using the cross-power spectral densities between structural floor accelerations and a reference response, to estimate the parameters of that one story. Repeating this procedure, all story parameters of the shear structure are identified from top to bottom recursively. An identification error analysis is performed for the proposed substructure method, revealing how uncertain factors (e.g. measurement noise) in the identification process affect the identification accuracy. According to the error analysis, a smart reference selection rule is designed to choose the optimal reference response that further enhances the identification accuracy. Moreover, based on the identification error analysis, explicit formulae are developed to calculate the variances of the parameter identification errors. A ten-story shear structure is used to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed substructure method. The simulation results show that the method, combined with the reference selection rule, can very accurately identify structural parameters despite large measurement noise. Furthermore, the proposed formulae provide good predictions for the variances of the parameter identification errors, which are vital for providing accurate warnings of structural damage. (paper)

  1. Issues related to structural aging in probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellingwood, Bruce R.

    1998-01-01

    Structural components and systems have an important safety function in nuclear power plants. Although they are essentially passive under normal operating conditions, they play a key role in mitigating the impact of extreme environmental events such as earthquakes, winds, fire and floods on plant safety. Moreover, the importance of structural components and systems in accident mitigation is amplified by common-cause effects. Reinforced concrete structural components and systems in NPPs are subject to a phenomenon known as aging, leading to time-dependent changes in strength and stiffness that may impact their ability to withstand various challenges during their service lives from operation, the environment and accidents. Time-dependent changes in structural properties as well as challenges to the system are random in nature. Accordingly, condition assessment of existing structures should be performed within a probabilistic framework. The mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) provides a means for identifying aging structural components that may play a significant role in mitigating plant risk. Structural condition assessments supporting a decision regarding continued service can be rendered more efficient if guided by the logic of a PRA

  2. Modeling and analysis of aging behavior of concrete structures in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J.Y.R.; James, R.J.; Dunham, R.S. [ANATECH (United States)

    2011-07-01

    As nuclear power plants approach the end of their original design life and begin to transition to the life extension phase, consideration has to be given to the effects of structural aging when evaluating the extended operation of reinforced or pre-stressed concrete structures. The behavior of concrete is highly nonlinear, having low tensile strength, shear stiffness and strength that depend on crack widths, and a confinement-dependent compressive elasto-plasticity. A concrete material model is described having the appropriate capabilities required for evaluating structural aging. The model treats reinforced concrete as a three-phase composite: plain concrete material as a three-dimensional continuum phase, steel reinforcement (rebar) as a uni-directional phase, and a rebar-concrete interaction phase. Structural aging is defined as the combined effects of time dependent material properties degradation and service induced changes in loading and operational conditions. Three broad categories of structural aging, and the interaction between them, are considered: 1) Aging effects due to expected time dependent changes in material properties, 2) Aging effects due to unexpected time dependent material degradation, and 3) Aging effects due to operational environment and loading. Example analyses are presented which illustrate the value of using advanced modeling and simulation in evaluating expected and unusual structural behavior. This is particularly important for safety structures that are approaching the end of their design life and are facing the prospect of re-licensing for extended operation

  3. Revisiting the TALE repeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong; Yan, Chuangye; Wu, Jianping; Pan, Xiaojing; Yan, Nieng

    2014-04-01

    Transcription activator-like (TAL) effectors specifically bind to double stranded (ds) DNA through a central domain of tandem repeats. Each TAL effector (TALE) repeat comprises 33-35 amino acids and recognizes one specific DNA base through a highly variable residue at a fixed position in the repeat. Structural studies have revealed the molecular basis of DNA recognition by TALE repeats. Examination of the overall structure reveals that the basic building block of TALE protein, namely a helical hairpin, is one-helix shifted from the previously defined TALE motif. Here we wish to suggest a structure-based re-demarcation of the TALE repeat which starts with the residues that bind to the DNA backbone phosphate and concludes with the base-recognition hyper-variable residue. This new numbering system is consistent with the α-solenoid superfamily to which TALE belongs, and reflects the structural integrity of TAL effectors. In addition, it confers integral number of TALE repeats that matches the number of bound DNA bases. We then present fifteen crystal structures of engineered dHax3 variants in complex with target DNA molecules, which elucidate the structural basis for the recognition of bases adenine (A) and guanine (G) by reported or uncharacterized TALE codes. Finally, we analyzed the sequence-structure correlation of the amino acid residues within a TALE repeat. The structural analyses reported here may advance the mechanistic understanding of TALE proteins and facilitate the design of TALEN with improved affinity and specificity.

  4. Structure of conceptual models in the senior operating staff of nuclear power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oboznov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. The relationships between conceptual model structures and an operator’s professional efficiency are of direct practical importance, particularly in the case of large-scale industrial complexes combining several human-machine systems. A typical example is the power unit of a nuclear power plant (NPP. Objective and methods. The purpose of this study was to explore the conceptual models of senior reactor operators (SROs of NPPs. The study involved 64 men working as SRO at five NPPs in Russia. The methods included: structured interviews, expert estimations, multidimensional scaling (ALSCAL, the K-means clustering algorithm, and frequency analysis. The procedure was as follows: 32 key characteristics of the power unit were defined, including shift operators’ jobs and duties, technical subsystems, types of equipment, and the crucial power unit parameters. The participants were offered a 32×32 matrix for pair-wise estimation of the strength of the links between these key characteristics on a seven-point scale (496 links in total. Results. A general scheme of key characteristics in the conceptual models was defined. is scheme was displayed in the operators regardless of their employment history. Within the scheme, however, two types of conceptual models were identified, which could be distinguished by the relative number of strong links between the key characteristics. With respect to intersystem links including key characteristics of the reactor and turbine NPP departments, this number was significantly higher in models of Type 1 than in those of Type 2. A positive correlation between the number of these links and the professional efficiency indicators was also established. Operators with Type 1 models were able to more predictably represent the power unit operation. Conclusion. The main role in creating predictable and efficient conceptual models was played by strong intersystem links in mental representations of workflow.

  5. Salient design features of secondary containment structure of Narora Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahalkar, B.D.

    1975-01-01

    Design of the secondary containment structure for Narora Atomic Power Project is an improvement over the two earlier structures at of Rajasthan and Kalpakkam wherein Candu-type of reactors are involved. The major improvements envisaged are : to limit the leakage through the double containment envelope to 0.1% of volume of the building per day as against 0.1% per hour achieved for earlier stations; to separate heavy water atmosphere from that of light water for effective heavy water recovery; and better man-rem budgetting by limiting inner containment structure upto boiler room floor level and making boiler room area accessible during normal operation for servicing of light water system equipment. Narora Atomic Power Station is located in the Indo-Gangetic alluvial plains in seismically active zone IV. Comprehensive soil investigation, including dynamic properties of soil is required to be undertaken as the foundation level of the containment structure is 17 M below the ground level. The salient results of this investigation relevant to the foundations as well as type of foundation proposed are presented in brief. Double containment concept similar to that adopted for Kalpakkam station is provided for this station also. However, necessary changes in design to withstand large earthquake forces are required to be made. These design problems are discussed in brief. (author)

  6. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dundulis, Gintautas; Kulak, Ronald F.; Marchertas, Algirdas; Uspuras, Eugenijus

    2007-01-01

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied

  7. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don

    2016-01-01

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  8. High power microwave source with a three dimensional printed metamaterial slow-wave structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, David M.; Shiffler, Don [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Albuquerque, New Mexico 871117 (United States)

    2016-05-15

    For over the last decade, the concept of metamaterials has led to new approaches for considering the interaction of radiation with complex structures. However, practical manifestations of such a device operating at high power densities have proven difficult to achieve due to the resonant nature of metamaterials and the resultant high electric fields, which place severe constraints on manufacturing the slow wave structures. In this paper, we describe the first experimental manifestation of a high power microwave device utilizing a metallic slow wave structure (metamaterial-like) fabricated using additive manufacturing. The feasibility of utilizing additive manufacturing as a technique for building these relatively complicated structures has thus been demonstrated. The MW class microwave source operates in the C-band and shows frequency tunablility with electron beam voltage. The basic electromagnetic characteristics of this device, the construction using additive manufacturing, and the basic performance as a microwave oscillator are considered. Due to the tunable nature of the device, it shows promise not only as an oscillator but also as a microwave amplifier. Therefore, the dispersive characteristics and a discussion of the anticipated gain is included as it relates to an amplifier configuration.

  9. Structural integrity analysis of an Ignalina nuclear power plant building subjected to an airplane crash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dundulis, Gintautas [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos, 44403 Kaunas-35 (Lithuania)]. E-mail: gintas@isag.lei.lt; Kulak, Ronald F. [RFK Engineering Mechanics Consultants (United States); Marchertas, Algirdas [Northern Illinois University (United States); Uspuras, Eugenijus [Laboratory of Nuclear Installation Safety, Lithuanian Energy Institute, 3 Breslaujos, 44403 Kaunas-35 (Lithuania)

    2007-08-15

    Recent terrorist attacks using commandeered commercial airliners on civil structures have raised the issue of the ability of nuclear power plants to survive the consequences of an airliner crash. The structural integrity analysis due to the effects of an aircraft crash on an Ignalina nuclear power plant (INPP) accident localization system (ALS) building is the subject of this paper. A combination of the finite element method and empirical relationships were used for the analysis. A global structural integrity analysis was performed for a portion of the ALS building using the dynamic loading from an aircraft crash impact model. The local effects caused by impact of the aircraft's engine on the building wall were evaluated independently by using an empirical formula. The results from the crash analysis of a twin engine commercial aircraft show that the impacted reinforced concrete wall of the ALS building will not have through-the-wall concrete failure, and the reinforcement will not fail. Strain-rate effects were found to delay the onset of cracking. Therefore, the structural integrity of the impacted wall of the INPP ALS building will be maintained during the crash event studied.

  10. Electrical Structure of Future Off-shore Wind Power Plant with a High Voltage Direct Current Power Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan

    The increasing demand of electric power and the growing consciousness towards the changing climate has led to a rapid development of renewable energy in the recent years. Among all, wind energy has been the fastest growing energy source in the last decade. But the growing size of wind power plants......, better wind conditions at off-shore and the general demand to put them out of sight have all contributed to the installation of large wind power plants in off-shore condition. However, moving wind power plants far out in the off-shore comes with many associated problems. One of the main challenges...... is the transmission of power over long distance. Historically, the power transmission from off-shore wind power plants has been done via HVAC submarine cables. This provides a simple solution, but AC cables cannot be arbitrarily long. It is shown in the report that major issues with HVAC cable transmission system...

  11. Development of new CAD system for steel structures of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morii, Yasuhiro; Kudou, Takashi; Kouno, Kenichi; Yamada, Koutarou

    2000-01-01

    IHI has developed a new Three-Dimensional Computer-Aided Design (3D-CAD) system to improve the design efficiency and quality of the steel structure of nuclear power plants. This system covers every design phase from the initial arrangement of structure to the production design sharing the same database. The system incorporates the design rules and professional expertise of designers, and enable easy and efficient design. The system can easily generate the three-dimensional data for structures, model data for stress analyses and composite arrangement data. The system has already been applied to several plants under construction and has achieved excellent results. The outline of the new CAD system is introduced. (author)

  12. Katanin spiral and ring structures shed light on power stroke for microtubule severing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehr, Elena; Szyk, Agnieszka; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Szczesna, Ewa; Zuo, Xiaobing; Roll-Mecak, Antonina

    2017-08-07

    Microtubule-severing enzymes katanin, spastin and fidgetin are AAA ATPases critical for the biogenesis and maintenance of complex microtubule arrays in axons, spindles and cilia. Because of a lack of 3D structures, their mechanism has remained poorly understood. We report the first X-ray structure of the monomeric AAA katanin module and cryo-EM reconstructions of the hexamer in two conformations. These reveal an unexpected asymmetric arrangement of the AAA domains mediated by structural elements unique to severing enzymes and critical for their function. Our reconstructions show that katanin cycles between open spiral and closed ring conformations, depending on the ATP occupancy of a gating protomer that tenses or relaxes inter-protomer interfaces. Cycling of the hexamer between these conformations would provide the power stroke for microtubule severing.

  13. Study on the Evolution Mechanism and Development Forecasting of China’s Power Supply Structure Clean Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohua Song

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The clean development of China’s power supply structure has become a crucial strategic problem for the low-carbon, green development of Chinese society. Considering the subsistent developments of optimized allocation of energy resources and efficient utilization, the urgent need to solve environmental pollution, and the continuously promoted power market-oriented reform, further study of China’s power structure clean development has certain theoretical value. Based on the data analysis, this paper analyzes the key factors that influence the evolution process of the structure with the help of system dynamics theory and carries out comprehensive assessments after the construction of the structure evaluation system. Additionally, a forecasting model of the power supply structure development based on the Vector Autoregressive Model (VAR has been put forward to forecast the future structure. Through the research of policy review and scenario analysis, the paths and directions of structure optimization are proposed. In this paper, the system dynamics, vector autoregressive model (VAR, policy mining, and scenario analysis methods are combined to systematically demonstrate the evolution of China’s power structure, and predict the future direction of development. This research may provide a methodological and practical reference for the analysis of China’s power supply structure optimization development and for theoretical studies.

  14. Fish population genetic structure shaped by hydroelectric power plants in the upper Rhine catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouskov, Alexandre; Reyes, Marta; Wirthner-Bitterlin, Lisa; Vorburger, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The Rhine catchment in Switzerland has been transformed by a chain of hydroelectric power stations. We addressed the impact of fragmentation on the genetic structure of fish populations by focusing on the European chub (Squalius cephalus). This fish species is not stocked and copes well with altered habitats, enabling an assessment of the effects of fragmentation per se. Using microsatellites, we genotyped 2133 chub from 47 sites within the catchment fragmented by 37 hydroelectric power stations, two weirs and the Rhine Falls. The shallow genetic population structure reflected drainage topology and was affected significantly by barriers to migration. The effect of power stations equipped with fishpasses on genetic differentiation was detectable, albeit weaker than that of man-made barriers without fishpasses. The Rhine Falls as the only long-standing natural obstacle (formed 14 000 to 17 000 years ago) also had a strong effect. Man-made barriers also exacerbated the upstream decrease in allelic diversity in the catchment, particularly when lacking fishpasses. Thus, existing fishpasses do have the desired effect of mitigating fragmentation, but barriers still reduce population connectivity in a fish that traverses fishpasses better than many other species. Less mobile species are likely to be affected more severely.

  15. Development of a seismic damage assessment program for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyun Moo; Cho, Yang Heui; Shin, Hyun Mok [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2001-12-15

    The most part of the nuclear power plants operating currently in Korea are more than 20 years old and obviously we cannot pretend that their original performance is actually maintained. In addition, earthquake occurrences show an increasing trend all over the world, and Korea can no more be considered as a zone safe from earthquake. Therefore, need is to guarantee the safety of these power plant structures against seismic accident, to decide to maintain them operational and to obtain data relative to maintenance/repair. Such objectives can be reached by damage assessment using inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation. It appears to be more important particularly for the structure enclosing the nuclear reactor that must absolutely protect against any radioactive leakage. Actually, the tendency of the technical world, led by the OECD/NEA, BNL in the United States, CEA in France and IAEA, is to develop researches or programs to assess the seismic safety considering aging degradation of operating nuclear power plants. Regard to the above-mentioned international technical trend, a technology to establish inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation so as to assess damage level and seismic safety margin appears to be necessary. Damage assessment and prediction system to grasp in real-time the actual seismic resistance capacity and damage level by 3-dimensional graphic representations are also required.

  16. Development of a seismic damage assessment program for nuclear power plant structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Hyun Moo; Cho, Ho Hyun; Cho, Yang Hui [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2000-12-15

    Some of nuclear power plants operating currently in Korea have been passed about 20 years after construction. Moreover, in the case of KORI I the service year is over 20 years, so their abilities are different from initial abilities. Also, earthquake outbreak increase, our country is not safe area for earthquake. Therefore, need is to guarantee the safety of these power plant structures against seismic accident, to decide to maintain them operational and to obtain data relative to maintenance/repair. Such objectives can be reached by damage assessment using inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation. It appears to be more important particularly for the structure enclosing the nuclear reactor that must absolutely protect against any radioactive leakage. Actually, the tendency of the technical world, led by the OECD/NEA, BNL in the United States, CEA in France and IAEA, is to develop researches or programs to assess the seismic safety considering aging degradation of operating nuclear power plants. Regard to the above-mentioned international technical trend, a technology to establish inelastic seismic analysis considering aging degradation so as to assess damage level and seismic safety margin appears to be necessary. Damage assessment and prediction system to grasp in real-time the actual seismic resistance capacity and damage level by 3-dimensional graphic representations are also required.

  17. Reduced activation structural materials for fusion power plants - The European Union program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaaf, B. van der; Le Marois, G.; Moeslang, A.; Victoria, M.

    2003-01-01

    The competition of fusion power plants with the renewable energy sources in the second half of the 21st century requires structural materials operating at high temperatures, and sufficient radiation resistance to ensure high plant efficiency and availability. The reduced activation materials development in the EU counts several steps regarding the radiation damage resistance: 75 dpa for DEMO and 150 dpa and beyond for power plants. The maximum operating temperature development line ranges from the present day from the present day feasible 600 K up to 1300- K in advanced power plants. The reduced activation steel, RAS, forms the reference for the development efforts. EUROFER has been manufactured in the EU on industrial scale with specified purity and mechanical properties up to 825 K. The oxide dispersion strengthened , ODS, variety of RAS should reach the 925 K operation limit. The EU has selected silicon carbide ceramic composite as the primary high temperature, 1300 K, goal. On a small scale the potential of tungsten alloys for higher temperatures is investigated. The present test environments for radiation resistance are insufficient to provide data for DEMO. Hence the support of the EU for the International Fusion Materials Irradiation facility. The computational modelling is expected to guide the materials development and the design of near plasma components. The EU co-operates closely with Japan, the RF and US in IEA and IAEA co-ordinated agreements, which are highly beneficial for the fusion structural materials development. (author)

  18. Three Mile Island revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacLeod, G.K.

    1986-01-01

    The accident at Three Mile Island proved that the Pennsylvania Department of Health lacked the tools to deal with the serious health consequences that occurred during and after this emergency. Despite the relative safety of nuclear power generation, we must be better prepared for the health and medical consequences of serous radiation emergencies. The author reviews the Three Mile Island accident through the eyes of newspaper reporters

  19. Nordic Corporate Governance Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviews the key elements of the Nordic governance model, which include a distinct legal system, high governance ratings and low levels of corruption. Other characteristics include concentrated ownership, foundation ownership, semi two-tier board structures, employee representation...

  20. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Munroe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz, achieving a gradient of 128  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 3.6×10^{-3} per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 150 ns. The tested standing-wave structure was a single high-gradient cell with an inner row of elliptical rods and an outer row of round rods; the elliptical rods reduce the peak surface magnetic field by 20% and reduce the temperature rise of the rods during the pulse by several tens of degrees, while maintaining good damping and suppression of high order modes. When compared with a single-cell standing-wave undamped disk-loaded waveguide structure with the same iris geometry under test at the same conditions, the PBG-E structure yielded the same breakdown rate within measurement error. The PBG-E structure showed a greatly reduced breakdown rate compared with earlier tests of a PBG structure with round rods, presumably due to the reduced magnetic fields at the elliptical rods vs the fields at the round rods, as well as use of an improved testing methodology. A post-testing autopsy of the PBG-E structure showed some damage on the surfaces exposed to the highest surface magnetic and electric fields. Despite these changes in surface appearance, no significant change in the breakdown rate was observed in testing. These results demonstrate that PBG structures, when designed with reduced surface magnetic fields and operated to avoid extremely high pulsed heating, can operate at breakdown probabilities comparable to undamped disk-loaded waveguide structures and are thus viable for high-gradient accelerator applications.

  1. High-power piezoelectric characteristics of textured bismuth layer structured ferroelectric ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirozumi; Kawada, Shinichiro; Kimura, Masahiko; Shiratsuyu, Kousuke; Sakabe, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    Abstract-The high-power piezoelectric characteristics in h001i oriented ceramics of bismuth layer structured ferroelectrics (BLSF), SrBi(2)Nb(2)O(9) (SBN), (Bi,La)(4)Ti(3)O(12) (BLT), and CaBi(4)Ti(4)O(15) (CBT), were studied by a constant voltage driving method. These textured ceramics were fabricated by a templated grain growth (TGG) method, and their Lotgering factors were 95%, 97%, and 99%, respectively. The vibration velocities of the longitudinal mode (33-mode) increased proportionally to an applied electric field up to 2.5 m/s in these textured BLSF ceramics, although, the vibration velocity of the 33-mode was saturated at more than 1.0 m/s in the Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. The resonant frequencies were constant up to the vibration velocity of 2.5 m/s in the SBN and CBT textured ceramics; however, the resonant frequency decreased with increasing over the vibration velocity of 1.5 m/s in the BLT textured ceramics. The dissipation power density of the BLT was almost the same as that of the Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. However, the dissipation power densities of the SBN and CBT were lower than those of the BLT and Pb(Mn,Nb)O(3)-PZT ceramics. The textured SBN and CBT ceramics are good candidates for high-power piezoelectric applications.

  2. Improvement of RF Wireless Power Transmission Using a Circularly Polarized Retrodirective Antenna Array with EBG Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Trinh-Van

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance improvement of a circularly polarized (CP retrodirective array (RDA through the suppression of mutual coupling effects. The RDA is designed based on CP Koch-shaped patch antenna elements with an inter-element spacing as small as 0.4 λ for a compact size ( λ is the wavelength in free space at the designed frequency of 5.2 GHz. Electromagnetic band gap (EBG structures are applied to reduce the mutual coupling between the antenna elements, thus improving the circular polarization characteristic of the RDA. Two CP RDAs with EBGs, in the case 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 arrays, are used as wireless power transmitters to transmit a total power of 50 W. A receiver is located at a distance of 1 m away from the transmitter to harvest the transmitted power. At the broadside direction, the simulated results demonstrate that the received powers are improved by approximately 11.32% and 12.45% when using the 5 × 5 and 10 × 10 CP RDAs with the EBGs, respectively, as the transmitters.

  3. The Matrix Organization Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Ulhøi, John Parm

    1999-01-01

    This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively).......This paper gives a short overview of matrix structure and technology management. It outlines some of the characteristics and also points out that many organizations may actualy be hybrids (i.e. mix several ways of organizing to allocate resorces effectively)....

  4. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitano, Takehito

    1997-01-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  5. Methodologies for rapid evaluation of seismic demand levels in nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrique, M.; Asfura, A.; Mukhim, G.

    1990-01-01

    A methodology for rapid assessment of both acceleration spectral peak and 'zero period acceleration' (ZPA) values for virtually any major structure in a nuclear power plant is presented. The methodology is based on spectral peak and ZPA amplification factors, developed from regression analyses of an analytical database. The developed amplification factors are applied to the plant's design ground spectrum to obtain amplified response parameters. A practical application of the methodology is presented. This paper also presents a methodology for calculating acceleration response spectrum curves at any number of desired damping ratios directly from a single known damping ratio spectrum. The methodology presented is particularly useful and directly applicable to older vintage nuclear power plant facilities (i.e. such as those affected by USI A-46). The methodology is based on principles of random vibration theory. The methodology has been implemented in a computer program (SPECGEN). SPECGEN results are compared with results obtained from time history analyses. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of soil damping techniques used in soil structure interaction analysis of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    A prediction of dynamic soil properties at the site of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in the seismic analysis of the facility. Conventional modal analysis procedures can accommodate virtually any range of equivalent elastic soil stiffness which is used to characterize the site. However, high radiation damping associated with energy dissipation in the soil half-space is difficult to accommodate in an elastic modal solution to the dynamic problem. Several methods are available to combine the soil damping with the structural damping in a composite modal damping coefficient. However, even with this convenient representation, the resulting large fractions of critical damping can make modal solutions to the problems suspect. This paper is based on experience gained in this area during studies performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission involving seismic analyses of power plants

  7. Experimental investigation into the seismic behavior of nuclear power plant shear wall structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneally, R.M.; Burns, J.J. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power plant structures are designed to resist large earthquakes. However, as new data are obtained on earthquake activity throughout the United States, plant design earthquake levels have increased. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission is sponsoring an analytical-experimental research program to obtain information on the strucutral response of nuclear power plant shear wall strucutres subjected to earthquake motions within and beyond their design basis. Using different size scale models constructed with microconcrete and prototypical concrete this research has demonstrated consistent results for measured values of stiffness at load levels within the design basis. Furthermore, the values are well below the theoretical stiffnesses calculated from an uncracked cross-section strength-of-materials approach. Current program emphasis is to assess the credibility of previous experimental work by beginning to resolve the 'stiffness difference' issue. (orig.)

  8. Seismic resistance design of nuclear power plant building structures in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitano, Takehito [Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    Japan is one of the countries where earthquakes occur most frequently in the world and has incurred a lot of disasters in the past. Therefore, the seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant plays a very important role in Japan. This report describes the general method of seismic resistance design of a nuclear power plant giving examples of PWR and BWR type reactor buildings in Japan. Nuclear facilities are classified into three seismic classes and is designed according to the corresponding seismic class in Japan. Concerning reactor buildings, the short-term allowable stress design is applied for the S1 seismic load and it is confirmed that the structures have a safety margin against the S2 seismic load. (J.P.N.)

  9. A note on the application of probabilistic structural reliability methodology to nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, H.A.

    1978-01-01

    The interest shown in the general prospects of primary energy in European countries prompted description of the actual European situation. Explanation of the needs for installation of nuclear power plants in most contries of the European Communities are given. Activities of the Commission of the European Communities to initiate a progressive harmonization of already existing European criteria, codes and complementary requirements in order to improve the structural reliability of components and systems of nuclear power plants are summarized. Finally, the applicability of a probabilistic safety analysis to facilitate decision-making as to safety by defining acceptable target and limit values, coupled with a subjective estimate as it is applied in the safety analyses performed in most European countries, is demonstrated. (Auth.)

  10. Linking empowering leadership to safety participation in nuclear power plants: a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Córcoles, Mario; Schöbel, Markus; Gracia, Francisco J; Tomás, Inés; Peiró, José M

    2012-07-01

    Safety participation is of paramount importance in guaranteeing the safe running of nuclear power plants. The present study examined the effects of empowering leadership on safety participation. Based on a sample of 495 employees from two Spanish nuclear power plants, structural equation modeling showed that empowering leadership has a significant relationship with safety participation, which is mediated by collaborative team learning. In addition, the results revealed that the relationship between empowering leadership and collaborative learning is partially mediated by the promotion of dialogue and open communication. The implications of these findings for safety research and their practical applications are outlined. An empowering leadership style enhances workers' safety performance, particularly safety participation behaviors. Safety participation is recommended to detect possible rule inconsistencies or misunderstood procedures and make workers aware of critical safety information and issues. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Structure and frame conditions for power exchange agreements with the Continent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedswang, R.

    1996-01-01

    The conference paper relates to the obtained agreements between Norway and the Continent on the exchange of electric power. The paper discusses the structure and frame conditions for the ELSAM, PreussenElektra, SEP and EuroStrom agreements. ELSAM covers the agreement with Denmark which started on 27 July 1995. The PreussenElektra agreement includes the exchange of power with the German PreussenElektra AG which starts on 1 October 1998. SEP covers the agreement with the Netherlands which is planned to start on 1 October 2001, and the EuroStrom agreement with the German EST EuroStrom Trading GmbH in Hamburg which is planned to start on 1 January 2003. 8 figs

  12. Ownership options, financing structures, and regulatory considerations affecting independent power production projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, G.M.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper is a framework for analysis of the legal, financing, and policy differences between independent power production projects (IPPs) and projects with qualifying facility status (QFs) under the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). At a basic level, there is no fundamental difference in types of ownership and financing structures available to IPPs and QFS. The key consideration, though, is the regulatory and legal implications to project participants. Significant issues arise for equity participants, lenders, developers, and project operators that are considering IPP projects. Of course, many of these same issues apply to certain types of QF projects that are not fully exempt from the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA)

  13. Assessment of modular construction for safety-related structures at advanced nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, J.; Morante, R.; Hofmayer, C.

    1997-03-01

    Modular construction techniques have been successfully used in a number of industries, both domestically and internationally. Recently, the use of structural modules has been proposed for advanced nuclear power plants. The objective in utilizing modular construction is to reduce the construction schedule, reduce construction costs, and improve the quality of construction. This report documents the results of a program which evaluated the proposed use of modular construction for safety-related structures in advanced nuclear power plant designs. The program included review of current modular construction technology, development of licensing review criteria for modular construction, and initial validation of currently available analytical techniques applied to concrete-filled steel structural modules. The program was conducted in three phases. The objective of the first phase was to identify the technical issues and the need for further study in order to support NRC licensing review activities. The two key findings were the need for supplementary review criteria to augment the Standard Review Plan and the need for verified design/analysis methodology for unique types of modules, such as the concrete-filled steel module. In the second phase of this program, Modular Construction Review Criteria were developed to provide guidance for licensing reviews. In the third phase, an analysis effort was conducted to determine if currently available finite element analysis techniques can be used to predict the response of concrete-filled steel modules

  14. Computer-aided load monitoring system for nuclear power plant steel framing structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaczylo, A.T.; Fung, S-J; Hooks, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    The design of nuclear power plant steel framing structures is a long and involved process. It is often complicated by numerous changes in design loads as a result of additions, deletions and modifications of HVAC hangers, cable tray hangers, electric conduit hangers, and small bore and large bore mechanical component supports. Manual tracking of load changes of thousands of supports and their impact to the structural steel design adequacy is very time-consuming and is susceptible to errors. This paper presents a computer-aided load monitoring system using the latest technology of data base management and interactive computer software. By linking the data base to analysis and investigation computer programs, the engineer has a very powerful tool to monitor not only the load revisions but also their impact on the steel structural floor framing members and connections. Links to reporting programs allow quick information retrieval in the form of comprehensive reports. Drawing programs extract data from the data base to draw hanger load system drawings on a computer-aided drafting system. These capabilities allow engineers to minimize modifications by strategically locating new hangers or rearranging auxiliary steel configuration

  15. Overview of the age-related degradation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    License renewal of nuclear power plants is an issue of increasing interest to the U.S. nuclear industry and the U.S. NRC. This paper presents and evaluates the plausible age-related degradation mechanisms that may affect the concrete and steel containment structures and other Class I structures to continue to perform their safety functions. Preventive and/or mitigative options are outlined for managing degradation mechanisms that could significantly affect plant performance during the license renewal period. The provided technical information and the degradation management options may be used as references for comparison with plant specific conditions to ensure that age-related degradation is controlled during the license renewal term. Plausible degradation mechanisms described and analyzed as they may affect the concrete, reinforcing steel, containment steel shell, prestressed-tendon, steel liner and other structural components typically used in Class I structures. The significance of these age-related degradation mechanisms to the structural components are evaluated, giving consideration to the design basis and quality of construction; typical service conditions; operating and maintenance history; and current test, inspection and refurbishment practices for containment and Class I structures. Degradation mechanisms which cannot be generically dispositioned on the basis of the two-step approach: (1) they will not cause significant degradation, or (2) any potential degradation will be bounded by current test, inspection, analytical evaluation, and/or refurbishment programs are identified. Aging degradation management measures are recommended to address the remaining age-related degradation mechanisms. A three-phase approach for the management of the containment and Class I structures is introduced. Various techniques, testing tools and the acceptable criteria for each step of the evaluation of the structures status are provided. The preventive and mitigative

  16. Revisiting and renegotiating Wars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    Alley in order to avoid the bullets of the Bosnian Serbian snipers positioned around the city. Based on a close reading of Sala’s work, this article will scrutinize how subjectivating techniques of power, during times of war, affectively work to create boundaries between those excluded from and those...... included within humanity. Conversely, focusing on how these techniques are being questioned within the work, I will discuss the resistance potential of what I will refer to as practices of subjectivization. Eventually, I will seek to position the “war-critical” strategy of the work within a broader context...... of the late modern war paradigm....

  17. The super collider revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.; Pato, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors suggest a revised version of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) that employs the planned SSC first stage machine as an injector of 0.5 TeV protons into a power laser accelerator. The recently developed Non-linear Amplification of Inverse Bremsstrahlung Acceleration (NAIBA) concept dictates the scenario of the next stage of acceleration. Post Star Wars lasers, available at several laboratories, can be used for the purpose. The 40 TeV CM energy, a target of the SSC, can be obtained with a new machine which can be 20 times smaller than the planned SSC

  18. EPR paradox revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klippert, R. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-07-01

    In a seminal paper from 1935 Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen produced one of the most powerful weapon against the unpredictability of the world ensured by quantum mechanics. The recent production of entangled states, with all its possible future applications in quantum computation, re-open the possibility of testing EPR states on physical grounds. The present intends to present a challenge to the wedding of classical (special) relativity with quantum mechanics, the so called relativistic quantum mechanics. Making use of the same apparatus devised in EPR, it is shown that non local quantum states are incompatible with either their possibility of being measured or else with Lorentz invariance (or even with both). (author)

  19. 4'' + D VR technology for structural analysis and integrated maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, I. S.; Yoon, S. H.; Shim, K. W.; Yu, Y. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2002-01-01

    engineered structures but also for the on-line design modification. In this regard it is of utmost importance to employ the 4 + D VR technology for the nuclear power plants in their design stage as well as for the operating plants for optimal maintenance schedules and procedures. By using this technology one can perform structural design optimization needed for building the nuclear power plant. The 4 + D VR design and construction optimization may result in savings of 200∼300 million per month of reduced construction time for the two units

  20. Schroedinger's variational method of quantization revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasue, K.

    1980-01-01

    Schroedinger's original quantization procedure is revisited in the light of Nelson's stochastic framework of quantum mechanics. It is clarified why Schroedinger's proposal of a variational problem led us to a true description of quantum mechanics. (orig.)

  1. The vibrational behaviour of the generator support structure for Koeberg nuclear power station at high frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.E.

    1988-06-01

    The vibrational behaviour of the generator support structure at Koeberg nuclear power station at frequencies primarily in the region of 80 Hz to 110 Hz was examined. The effect of soil-structure interaction and the change in stiffness of the foundation soil was investigated. Vibration tests were performed on the generator support structure and the results were compared with a theoretical finite element analysis of the structure. By varying the soil-cement foundation stiffness it was possible to demonstrate the change in dynamic behaviour of the structure in the higher frequency band 80 Hz to 110 Hz. Comment has been made on the design code DIN 4024 in view of the findings of this thesis. It was concluded that the empirical rules regarding the inclusion of the foundation in an analysis specified by the code do not cover all cases and greater cognisance of the effect of the foundation stiffness on the vibration behaviour of such machine foundations is necessary. Obvious machine frequencies higher than the operational frequencies should be analysed where it is considered necessary. 24 refs., 25 tabs., 83 figs

  2. Power in methods: language to infants in structured and naturalistic contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Kuchirko, Yana; Luo, Rufan; Escobar, Kelly; Bornstein, Marc H

    2017-11-01

    Methods can powerfully affect conclusions about infant experiences and learning. Data from naturalistic observations may paint a very different picture of learning and development from those based on structured tasks, as illustrated in studies of infant walking, object permanence, intention understanding, and so forth. Using language as a model system, we compared the speech of 40 mothers to their 13-month-old infants during structured play and naturalistic home routines. The contrasting methods yielded unique portrayals of infant language experiences, while simultaneously underscoring cross-situational correspondence at an individual level. Infants experienced substantially more total words and different words per minute during structured play than they did during naturalistic routines. Language input during structured play was consistently dense from minute to minute, whereas language during naturalistic routines showed striking fluctuations interspersed with silence. Despite these differences, infants' language experiences during structured play mirrored the peak language interactions infants experienced during naturalistic routines, and correlations between language inputs in the two conditions were strong. The implications of developmental methods for documenting the nature of experiences and individual differences are discussed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Predicting transmission of structure-borne sound power from machines by including terminal cross-coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlrich, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    of translational terminals in a global plane. This paired or bi-coupled power transmission represents the simplest case of cross-coupling. The procedure and quality of the predicted transmission using this improved technique is demonstrated experimentally for an electrical motor unit with an integrated radial fan......Structure-borne sound generated by audible vibration of machines in vehicles, equipment and house-hold appliances is often a major cause of noise. Such vibration of complex machines is mostly determined and quantified by measurements. It has been found that characterization of the vibratory source...

  4. Fundamental BOP I and C systems structure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Harada, H.; Yamamori, T.; Igarashi, K.; Arakida, T.

    2008-01-01

    Digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems using distributed control systems (DCS) are essential elements for nuclear power plants (NPPs) seeking higher reliability, availability and maintainability. Hitachi can boast its broad new build and refurbishment project experience in Japan and other markets since the 1970s. Throughout its continuous involvement in NPP design, fabrication, construction and maintenance over 30 years, Hitachi has increasingly integrated digital I and C system with its own DCS suite. This paper focuses on the fundamental characteristics of Hitachi's Balance of Plant (BOP) I and C systems structure for new build nuclear projects. (author)

  5. Conceptual design of nuclear fusion power reactor DREAM. Reactor structures and remote maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Satoshi; Seki, Yasushi; Ueda, Shuzo; Kurihara, Ryoichi; Adachi, Junichi; Yamazaki, Seiichiro; Hashimoto, Toshiyuki.

    1997-01-01

    Nuclear fusion reactors are required to be able to compete another energy sources in economy, reliability, safety and environmental integrity for commercial use. In the DREAM (DRastically EAsy Maintenance) reactor, a very low activated material of SiC/SiC composite has been introduced for the structural material, a reactor configuration for very easy maintenance and the helium gas of a high temperature for the cooling system, and hence DREAM has been proven to be very attractively as the commercial power reactor due to the high availability and efficiency of the plant and minimization of radioactive wastes. (author)

  6. THE MULTIPHASE STRUCTURE AND POWER SOURCES OF GALACTIC WINDS IN MAJOR MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupke, David S. N.; Veilleux, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Massive, galaxy-scale outflows are known to be ubiquitous in major mergers of disk galaxies in the local universe. In this paper, we explore the multiphase structure and power sources of galactic winds in six ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z –1 , and the highest velocities (2000-3000 km s –1 ) are seen only in ionized gas. The outflow energy and momentum in the QSOs are difficult to produce from a starburst alone, but are consistent with the QSO contributing significantly to the driving of the flow. Finally, when all gas phases are accounted for, the outflows are massive enough to provide negative feedback to star formation.

  7. Optical fiber-based core-shell coaxially structured hybrid cells for self-powered nanosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Zhu, Guang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Guo, Wenxi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); State Key Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dong, Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); School of Materials Science and Enginnering, Zhenzhou University, Zhenghou 450001 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-07-03

    An optical fiber-based 3D hybrid cell consisting of a coaxially structured dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) and a nanogenerator (NG) for simultaneously or independently harvesting solar and mechanical energy is demonstrated. The current output of the hybrid cell is dominated by the DSSC, and the voltage output is dominated by the NG; these can be utilized complementarily for different applications. The output of the hybrid cell is about 7.65 {mu}A current and 3.3 V voltage, which is strong enough to power nanodevices and even commercial electronic components. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Detection and sizing of defects in structural components of a nuclear power plant by ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Z.; Miya, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, progress of ECT (eddy current testing) technique for inspection of stress corrosion cracks in a structural component of a nuclear power plant is reported. Access and scanning vehicle (robot), advanced probes for steam generator tube inspection, development and evaluation of new probes for welding joint, and ECT based crack sizing technique are described respectively. Based on these new techniques, it is clarified that ECT can play as a supplement of ultrasonic techniques for the welding zone inspection. It is also proved in this work that new ECT sensors are efficient even for a stainless plate as thick as 15 mm. (authors)

  9. Detection and Sizing of Defects in Structural Components of a Nuclear Power Plant by ECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhenmao; Miya, Kenzo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, progress of ECT technique for inspection of stress corrosion cracks in a structural component of a nuclear power plant is reported. Access and scanning vehicle (robot), advanced probes for SG tube inspection, development and evaluation of new probes for welding joint, and ECT based crack sizing technique are described respectively. Based on these new techniques, it is clarified that ECT can play as a supplement of UT for the welding zone inspection. It is also proved in this work that new ECT sensors are efficient even for a stainless plate as thick as 15mm

  10. Structural characteristics of a graphite moderated critical assembly for a Zero Power reactor at IEA (Brazil)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida Ferreira, A.C. de; Hukai, R.Y.

    1975-01-01

    The structural characteristics of a graphite moderated core of a critical assembly to be installed in the Zero Power Reactor of IEA have been defined. These characteristics are the graphite block dimensions, the number and dimensions of the holes in the graphite, the pitch, the dimensions of the sticks of fuel and graphite to be inserted in the holes, and the mechanical reproducibility of the system. The composition of the fuel and moderator sticks were also defined. The main boundary conditions were the range of the relation C/U and C/TH used in commercial HTGR and the neutronics homogeneity

  11. A structural and thermal packaging approach for power processing units for 30-cm ion thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloy, J. E.; Sharp, G. R.

    1975-01-01

    Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) is currently being studied for possible use in a number of near earth and planetary missions. The thruster subsystem for these missions would consist of 30 centimeter ion thrusters with Power Processor Units (PPU) clustered in assemblies of from two to ten units. A preliminary design study of the electronic packaging of the PPU has been completed at Lewis Research Center of NASA. This study evaluates designs meeting the competing requirements of low system weight and overall mission flexibility. These requirements are evaluated regarding structural and thermal design, electrical efficiency, and integration of the electrical circuits into a functional PPU layout.

  12. Creep-fatigue effects in structural materials used in advanced nuclear power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brinkman, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    Various aspects of time-dependent fatigue behavior of a number of structural alloys in use or planned for use in advanced nuclear power generating systems are reviewed. Materials included are types 304 and 316 stainless steel, Fe-2 1/4 Cr-1 Mo steel, and alloy 800H. Examples of environmental effects, including both chemical and physical interaction, are presented for a number of environments. The environments discussed are high-purity liquid sodium, high vacuum, air, impure helium, and irradiation damage, including internal helium bubble generation

  13. CARES-ESTSC, Seismic Structure Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costantino, C.J.; Miller, C.A.; Heymsfield, E.; Yang, A.

    1999-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: CARES, Computer Analysis for Rapid Evaluation of Structures, was developed for NRC staff use to determine the validity and accuracy of the analysis methods used by various utilities for structural safety evaluations of nuclear power plants. CARES is organized in a modular format with the basic modules of the system performing static, seismic, and nonlinear analysis. In this release, only the seismic module is implemented. This module defines the design seismic criteria at a given site, evaluates the free-field motion, and computes the structural response and floor response spectra including soil-structure interaction. The eight options in CARES currently are: a general manager for the seismic module, deconvolution analysis, structural data preparation for soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis, input motion preparation for SSI analysis, SSI analysis, earthquake simulations/data, PSD (Power Spectral Density) related acceleration time history/spectra analysis, and plot generation. 2 - Method of solution: The seismic module works in the frequency domain. Earthquake motion simulation is based on the fundamental property that any periodic function can be expanded in a series of sinusoidal waves. The computer uses a random number generator to produce strings of phase angles with uniform distribution in the 0-2 pi range. Then, a linear correction procedure due to Scanlon and Sacks is employed to derive an adjusted array of amplitudes. The acceleration ensemble is subsequently modified by a deterministic intensity function composed of three segments: an initial buildup, a stationary duration, and exponential steady decay. A parabolic correction procedure outlined by Jennings and Housner is applied to the acceleration ensemble to bring the end velocity of the ground motion to zero. The soil-structure system is represented by a three-dimensional lumped parameter type model. The structural model is built up from three

  14. Duration of load revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmeyer, Preben; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    A duration of load study representing 13 years of testing was recently terminated. Preliminary results have been published over the years. This paper represents the final account of the study, which was focused on the influ-ence of moisture content on time to failure for structural timber subject...

  15. Moment tensor decompositions revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 1 (2015), s. 231-252 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP210/12/1491 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : dynamics and mechanics of faulting * earthquake source observations * seismic anisotropy * theoretical seismology Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.550, year: 2015

  16. Tourists' perceptions and intention to revisit Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Lazar, Ana Florina; Komolikova-Blindheim, Galyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose - The overall purpose of this study is to explore tourists' perceptions and their intention to revisit Norway. The aim is to find out what are the factors that drive the overall satisfaction, the willingness to recommend and the revisit intention of international tourists that spend their holiday in Norway. Design-Method-Approach - the Theory of Planned Behavior (Ajzen 1991), is used as a framework to investigate tourists' intention and behavior towards Norway as destination. The o...

  17. Practical applications of probabilistic structural reliability analyses to primary pressure systems of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, F.J.

    1980-01-01

    Primary pressure systems of nuclear power plants are built to exacting codes and standards with provisions for inservice inspection and repair if necessary. Analyses and experiments have demonstrated by deterministic means that very large margins exist on safety impacting failures under normal operating and upset conditions. Probabilistic structural reliability analyses provide additional support that failures of significance are very, very remote. They may range in degree of sophistication from very simple calculations to very complex computer analyses involving highly developed mathematical techniques. The end result however should be consistent with the desired usage. In this paper a probabilistic structural reliability analysis is performed as a supplement to in-depth deterministic evaluations with the primary objective to demonstrate an acceptably low probability of failure for the conditions considered. (author)

  18. Development of high power models of four-slot Annular Coupled Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kageyama, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Yoshino, K.; Yamazaki, Y.

    1994-01-01

    A π/2-mode standing-wave linac (f=1.296 GHz) of an Annular Coupled Structure (ACS) has been developed for the 1-GeV proton linac of the Japanese Hadron Project (JHP). This ACS has four coupling slots between accelerating and coupling cells in order to suppress higher order mode mixing with the π/2 coupling mode. High-β(β=v/c=0.78) and low-β(0.52) prototypes were constructed and tested up to each design RF power. Concerning the effect of the coupling slots on the fields of a coupled-cavity linac, it was found that the slot configuration of the side-coupled structure (SCS) tilts the accelerating field. On the other hand, the four-slot configuration of the ACS gives an almost axially symmetric accelerating field to the beam. (author)

  19. Inspection and mitigating measures for life extension of nuclear power plant containment structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, B.L.; Daye, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    The subject of life extension of nuclear power plants has drawn considerable attention during the last few years. Interest in life extension initiated because of both safety and economic reasons. A number of evaluations have been performed. The main thrust of earlier work was directed toward evaluating the factors causing aging, and defining degradation sites, degradation mechanism and failure modes. At present, attention is directed toward establishing the appropriate inspection programs suitable for each of the defined aging sites. Some components and aging sites are already subjected to routine inspection programs such as the surveillance of post-tensioning system and the integrated leak rate test (ILRT) of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete containments. The aging process affects mechanical, electrical and structural components in all types of containments. This paper addresses the structural components of PWR containments only and presents examples of inspection approaches and describes methods to prevent further degradation of select sites

  20. Low-activation structural ceramic composites for fusion power reactors: materials development and main design issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, A.S.; Le Bars, N.; Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Salavy, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    Development of advanced Low-Activation Materials (LAMs) with favourable short-term activation characteristics is discussed, for the use as structural materials in a fusion power reactor (in order to reduce the risk associated with a major accident, in particular those related with radio-isotopes release in the environment), and to try to approach the concept of an inherently safe reactor. LA Ceramics Composites (LACCs) are the most promising LAMs because of their relatively good thermo-mechanical properties. At present, SiC/SiC composite is the only LACC considered by the fusion community, and therefore is the one having the most complete data base. The preliminary design of a breeding blanket using SiC/SiC as structural material indicated that significant improvement of its thermal conductivity is required. (author) 11 refs.; 3 figs