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Sample records for reviewed herd health

  1. Invited review: effect of udder health management practices on herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufour, S; Fréchette, A; Barkema, H W; Mussell, A; Scholl, D T

    2011-02-01

    A systematic review of the scientific literature on relationships between management practices used on dairy farms and herd somatic cell count (SCC) was undertaken to distinguish those management practices that have been consistently shown to be associated with herd SCC from those lacking evidence of association. Relevant literature was identified using a combination of database searches (PubMed, Medline, CAB, Agricola, and Web of Science) and iterative screening of references. To be included in the review, a manuscript had to be published after 1979 in French, English, or Dutch; study design had to be other than case report or case series; herds studied had to be composed of ≥ 40 milking cows producing on average ≥ 7,000kg of milk in 305 d; interventions studied had to be management practices applied at the herd level and used as udder health control strategies; and SCC had to be measured using electronic cell counting methods. The 36 manuscripts selected were mainly observational cross-sectional studies; 8 manuscripts dealt exclusively with automatic milking systems and 4 with management of calves and heifers and its effect on SCC in early lactation heifers. Most practices having consistent associations with SCC were related to milking procedures: wearing gloves during milking, using automatic take-offs, using postmilking teat dipping, milking problem cows last, yearly inspection of the milking system, and use of a technique to keep cows standing following milking; all were consistently associated with lower herd SCC. Other practices associated with lower SCC were the use of a freestall system, sand bedding, cleaning the calving pen after each calving, surveillance of dry-cow udders for mastitis, use of blanket dry-cow therapy, parenteral selenium supplementation, udder hair management, and frequent use of the California Mastitis Test. Regarding SCC of heifers, most of the consistent associations reported were related to interventions made during the

  2. REPLACEMENT IN RABBIT HERDS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim F.M. Marai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Doe rabbit's replacement constitutes the annual renewal rate of new breeders that must be incorporated into the production stock. Criterion for culling non-productive animals differs significantly among fryer production colonies, foundation stocks and a colony with continuous enzootic disease or continuous malnourishment. In commercial rabbit production, good management improves the health and productivity of the entire herd, by reducing the all-time high replacement rates and improving economic viability. In the present article, a comprehensive review of numerous experiences in the rabbit production field of different countries, was presented. Basic recommendations for professional breeders were highlighted, covering critical issues such as the need for continuously upgrading the health status of the colony, the positive effect of   genetic selection and the nutritional conditioning and special treatment of young does being groomed as future replacements.

  3. Modelling the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews how the dynamics of the health-production complex in livestock herds is mimicked by livestock herd simulation models. Twelve models simulating the dynamics of dairy, beef, sheep and sow herds were examined. All models basically included options to alter input and output...

  4. Benchmarking dairy herd health status using routinely recorded herd summary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker Gaddis, K L; Cole, J B; Clay, J S; Maltecca, C

    2016-02-01

    Genetic improvement of dairy cattle health through the use of producer-recorded data has been determined to be feasible. Low estimated heritabilities indicate that genetic progress will be slow. Variation observed in lowly heritable traits can largely be attributed to nongenetic factors, such as the environment. More rapid improvement of dairy cattle health may be attainable if herd health programs incorporate environmental and managerial aspects. More than 1,100 herd characteristics are regularly recorded on farm test-days. We combined these data with producer-recorded health event data, and parametric and nonparametric models were used to benchmark herd and cow health status. Health events were grouped into 3 categories for analyses: mastitis, reproductive, and metabolic. Both herd incidence and individual incidence were used as dependent variables. Models implemented included stepwise logistic regression, support vector machines, and random forests. At both the herd and individual levels, random forest models attained the highest accuracy for predicting health status in all health event categories when evaluated with 10-fold cross-validation. Accuracy (SD) ranged from 0.61 (0.04) to 0.63 (0.04) when using random forest models at the herd level. Accuracy of prediction (SD) at the individual cow level ranged from 0.87 (0.06) to 0.93 (0.001) with random forest models. Highly significant variables and key words from logistic regression and random forest models were also investigated. All models identified several of the same key factors for each health event category, including movement out of the herd, size of the herd, and weather-related variables. We concluded that benchmarking health status using routinely collected herd data is feasible. Nonparametric models were better suited to handle this complex data with numerous variables. These data mining techniques were able to perform prediction of health status and could add evidence to personal experience in herd

  5. Herd health and management of dairy cow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćaǧlayan, Alper; Yüca, Songül

    2016-04-01

    Herd management requires multidisciplinary practices including animal feeding, gynecology, artificial insemination, immunology, and similar topics. Animal feeding is the most delicate subject as the fodder expense is 70% of the farm cost and as nearly all of the metabolic diseases arising out as health problem are because of misfeeding. However, a business organization's being able to maintain making profit will be possible by taking a healthy calf from breeding herd every year. For this reason, precision registrations of birth and artificial insemination, following-up pregnant state of animals, and making the other animals pregnant as soon as possible should be primary aim. It should not be forgotten that diarrhea and pneumonia in calves are among the most frequently witnessed infection related health problems. Mastitis, metritis and foot diseases take an important place in mature cows. These diseases can be minimized by vaccinations that are done properly and in suitable time, in-service training of staffs, making shelters suitable for animals welfare, and improving the hygienic conditions.

  6. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ifende, V.I.; Derks, M.; Hooijer, G.A.; Hogeveen, H.

    2014-01-01

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes are meant to support herd health and farmers’ income (Brand and Guard 1996). They were introduced in the Netherlands in the 1970s (Sol and Renkema 1984) and at present many veterinarians provide them to farmers. VHHM comprises a basic structure of

  7. Rotavirus vaccination and herd immunity: an evidence-based review

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    Seybolt LM

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lorna M Seybolt, Rodolfo E BéguéDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Diseases, Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USAAbstract: Until recently, rotavirus was the most common cause of diarrhea in infants and young children with over 100 million cases and 400,000 deaths every year worldwide. Yet, its epidemiology is changing rapidly with the introduction of two rotavirus vaccines in the mid 2000s. Both vaccines were shown to be highly efficacious in prelicensure studies to reduce severe rotavirus disease; the efficacy being more pronounced in high- and middle-income countries than in low-income countries. Herd immunity – the indirect protection of unimmunized individuals as a result of others being immunized – was not expected to be a benefit of rotavirus vaccination programs since the vaccines were thought to reduce severe disease but not to decrease virus transmission significantly. Postlicensure studies, however, have suggested that this assumption may need reassessment. Studies in a variety of settings have shown evidence of greater than expected declines in rotavirus disease. While these studies were not designed specifically to detect herd immunity – and few failed to detect this phenomenon – the consistency of the evidence is compelling. These studies are reviewed and described here. While further work is needed, clarifying the presence of herd immunity is not just an academic exercise but an important issue for rotavirus control, especially in lower income countries where the incidence of the disease is highest and the direct protection of the vaccines is lower.Keywords: rotavirus, vaccine, herd immunity, efficacy

  8. Herd health and production management in dairy practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brand, A.; Noordhuizen, J.P.T.M.; Schukken, Y.H.

    1996-01-01

    This text aims to teach students, practitioners and farm advisors how to give management support to the dairy farmer in order to optimize the health, productivity and welfare of his herd. The book covers management practices and farm conditions which have both positive and negative influences on

  9. Veterinary dairy herd health management in Europe: constraints and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannas da Silva, J; Noordhuizen, J P T M; Vagneur, M; Bexiga, R; Gelfert, C C; Baumgartner, W

    2006-03-01

    The nature of veterinary work in dairy health management in Europe has changed over the past years and will change even more dramatically in the near future. The consumers and the media show increasing concern about animal welfare, safety of products of animal origin and traceability of animal products. Farmers in Europe have to produce under strict, often expensive and laborious regulations, while still commercially competing with farmers outside the EU and not subject to the same rules. Veterinarians should adapt their knowledge and skills to the new challenges and developments of the dairy sector. Dairy farmers nowadays ask for support in areas that go beyond clinical activities: environmental protection, welfare, nutrition, grassland management, economics and business management. Bovine practitioners should be able to advise in many different areas and subjects--that is the challenge to our profession. Veterinary education with regards to cattle health management should start with individual animal clinical work, which constitutes the basis of herd health advisory programmes. The bovine practitioner should then look beyond that and regard the herd as the unit. Each diseased cow or group of cows should be detected early enough to avoid financial losses or such losses should be prevented altogether by detecting and managing risk factors contributing to disease occurrence. Herd health and production management programmes represent the first level to optimise dairy farm performance. Expansions to that should further be considered, comprising both animal health and welfare issues, as well as food safety and public health issues. The latter could be addressed by quality risk management programmes following the HACCP-principles. Cattle veterinarians should follow recent developments and invest in new skills and knowledge in order to maintain their usefulness to the modern dairy farmer. Finally we are convinced that the cattle practitioner should evolve into this

  10. Dairy Herd Management Types Assessed from Indicators of Health, Reproduction, Replacement Milk Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Hindhede, Jens; Kristensen, T.

    1996-01-01

    Variables related to health, reproduction, replacement milk production in 111 Danish dairy herds were studied with factor analysis. The objectives were to identify management types and to assess the relevance of those types for herd milk production. Median herd size and total milk production were...... 59 cows and 7100 kg of energy-corrected milk, respectively. Based on cow data, 22 herd variables were defined. A factor analysis identified 10 first-order factors and 5 second-order factors. The latter factors were valid indicators of replacement intensity, variability of milk production, potential...... for peak milk production, disease a complex pattern related to herd size and age, cow size live cattle sales. The potential for peak milk production, replacement intensity variability of milk production were strong predictors of herd milk production. Interactions with herd size were important. The derived...

  11. Disease Recording Systems and Herd Health Schemes for Production Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Disease recording of cattle is compulsory in Sweden and Norway. Sweden and Denmark also have mandatory disease recording for swine, whereas Finland and Norway only have compulsory recording of infectious diseases. Both compulsory and voluntary systems are databased, the first ones developed in the 1970's. Disease recording at pig slaughtering is somewhat older. The veterinary practitioner, and often also the farmer, can report treated cases as well as fertility disturbances to the systems. Disease recording at slaughter is carried out by veterinarians and inspection officers. The databases are handled by the veterinary authorities or the agricultural organisations in each country. Costs are defrayed by the authorities and/or the agricultural industry. The farmers receive periodic reports. Data are stored for three to ten years, often longer. Affiliation to animal health schemes for cattle or swine is voluntary. In Sweden and Denmark (cattle they are run within the scope of government regulations. Affiliation to animal health programmes may also be demanded by organisations within the agricultural industry. These organisations are also responsible for the administration of the programmes. Costs to take part in herd health schemes are covered by the farmers themselves. In certain cases, grants are received from agricultural organisations, authorities, or the European Union. Recording of diseases and the format of animal health schemes in the Nordic countries are described here in order to illustrate the possibilities to compare data between countries.

  12. Problems in maintenance of herd health associated with acid forming emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostuch, M.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of sour gas plant emissions on dairy herds are described. A veterinarian establishing a practice in Rocky Mountain House, Alberta, found that dairy herds in that area suffered from a disproportionately higher occurrence of health problems than Minnesota herds with similar types of management. These problems are postulated to result from acid-forming emissions from two large sour gas plants in the area (the Ram River and Gulf Strachan plants). Health problems found in dairy cattle in the Rocky Mountain House area were: unthriftiness, increased susceptibility to infectious diseases, reproductive problems, and 'downer' animals (cows unable to stand up unassisted). Problems related to the reproductive organs were the most apparent. Clinical observations of problems in dairy herds are described. Since the levels of emissions from the plants have decreased, incidence of problems in dairy herds has also decreased. 1 ref., 2 figs

  13. Financial aspects of veterinary herd health management programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifende, V I; Derks, M; Hooijer, G A; Hogeveen, H

    2014-09-06

    Veterinary herd health management (VHHM) programmes have been shown to be economically effective in the past. However, no current information is available on costs and benefits of these programmes. This study compared economics and farm performance between participants and non-participants in VHHM programmes in 1013 dairy farms with over 40 cows. Milk Production Registration (MPR) data and a questionnaire concerning VHHM were used. Based on the level of participation in VHHM (as indicated in the questionnaire), costs of the programmes were calculated using a normative model. The economic value of the production effects was similarly calculated using normative modelling based on MPR data. Participants in VHHM had a better performance with regard to production, but not with regard to reproduction. Over 90 per cent of the VHHM participants were visited at least once every six weeks and most participants discussed at least three topics. In most farms, the veterinarian did the pregnancy checks as part of the VHHM programmes. There was a benefit to cost ratio of about five per cow per year for VHHM participants, and a mean difference in net returns of €30 per cow per year after adjusting for the cost of the programme. This portrays that participation in a VHHM programme is cost-efficient. There is, however, much unexplained variation in the net returns, possibly due to diverse approaches by veterinarians towards VHHM or by other factors not included in this analysis, like nutritional quality or management abilities of the farmer. British Veterinary Association.

  14. The effect of herd formation among healthcare investors on health sector growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulin, Zhou; Antwi, Henry Asante; Wang, Wenxin; Yiranbon, Ethel; Marfo, Emmanuel Opoku; Acheampong, Patrick

    2016-07-19

    China has become the world's second largest healthcare market based on a recent report by the World Health Organization. Eventhough China achieved universal health insurance coverage in 2011, representing the largest expansion of insurance coverage in human history achieved; health inequality remains endemic in China. Lessons from the effect of market crisis on health equity in Europe and other places has reignited interest in exploring the potential healthcare market aberrations that can trigger distributive injustice in healthcare resource allocation among China's provinces. Recently, many healthcare investors in China have become more concerned about capital preservation, and are responding by abandoning long term investments strategies in healthcare. This investment withdrawal en mass is perceived to be influenced by herding tendencies and can trigger or consolidate endemic health inequality. Our study simultaneously employs four testing models (two state spaced models and two return dispersion models) to establish the existence of procyclical (herding) behavior among the stocks and its health equity implications. These are applied to a large set of data to compare and contrast results of herd formation among investors in fourteen healthcare sectors in China. The study reveals that apart from the cross sectional standard deviation (CSSD) model, the remaining two models and our augmented state space model yields significant evidence of herding in all subsectors of the healthcare market. We also find that the herding effect is more prominent during down movements of the market. Herding behavior may lead to contemporaneous loss of investor confidence and capital withdrawal and thereby deprive the healthcare sector of the much needed capital for expansion. Thus there may be obvious delay in efforts to bridge the gap in access to healthcare facilities, medical support services, medical supplies, pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, diagnostic substances, medical

  15. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers' intentions to improve herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, P J; Sok, J; Tranter, R B; Blanco-Penedo, I; Fall, N; Fourichon, C; Hogeveen, H; Krieger, M C; Sundrum, A

    2016-10-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers' and legislators' expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers' intentions towards improving the health status of their organic herds through the use of the Theory of Planned Behaviour. It was found that farmers across the countries were positive about taking additional preventative measures to improve the health status of their herds. They believed this would not only improve herd physical performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but also achieve greater cost effectiveness and improved job satisfaction for them. Most study farmers would implement a tailored package of improvement measures designed by the study team with higher uptake most likely being by younger farmers, those who make greater use of veterinarians and professional advisory services, and those supplying specialist milk-marketing chains. Furthermore, farmers will be most likely to take-up additional health promotion if compatible with their everyday activities and if they have strong business performance goals aimed at maximising the physical performance of the herd. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Assessing, and understanding, European organic dairy farmers’ intentions to improve herd health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, P.J.; Sok, J.; Tranter, R.B.; Blanco-Penedo, I.; Fall, N.; Fourichon, C.; Hogeveen, H.; Krieger, M.C.; Sundrum, A.

    2016-01-01

    Many believe the health status of organic dairy herds in Europe should be improved to meet consumers’ and legislators’ expectations to improve animal welfare. This paper reports on a study in four countries that examined dairy farmers’ intentions towards improving the health status of their

  17. Genetic correlations between milk production and health and fertility dependent on herd environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Windig, J.J.; Calus, M.P.L.; Beerda, B.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2006-01-01

    High milk production in dairy cattle can have negative side effects on health and fertility traits. This paper explores the genetic relationship of milk yield with health and fertility depending on herd environment. A total of 71,720 lactations from heifers calving in 1997 to 1999 in the Netherlands

  18. Veterinary herd health management-Experience among farmers and farm managers in Swedish dairy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C; Alvåsen, K; Eldh, A C; Frössling, J; Lomander, H

    2018-07-01

    A preventive herd health approach will most likely reduce incidences of clinical and subclinical disease. Swedish veterinary organizations offer specific veterinary herd health management (HHM) programs, but these services are not used to a large extent. The aim of this study was to investigate dairy farmers' experience of HHM and the conditions for collaboration with veterinarians in HHM. Six focus group discussions were conducted in March 2015 in West Sweden. In total, 33 dairy farmers participated. The recordings were transcribed and coded using thematic analysis, and the transcripts were reviewed to identify potential factors indicating barriers for farmers to engage a veterinarian in HHM. The participants reported HHM to be important, but they had difficulty defining the actions included in the concept. They described a wide range of their work duties as preventive. The farmers' list of potential contributions by the veterinarians in HHM was strikingly short compared to the considerable number of preventive measures they performed themselves. Four main obstacles for farmers and farm managers to engage a veterinarian in HHM on their farm were identified in the analysis: "costs", "veterinary knowledge, skills, and organization", "farmer attitudes", and "veterinarian-farmer relationships". Costs were proposed as the main reason against engaging a veterinarian in HHM and included a high veterinary bill, low cost-benefit of veterinary services, and high costs to implement advice. Poor veterinary competence in HHM and poor knowledge about effective measures, practical farming, and farm economics were other important obstacles. Veterinarians were perceived to insufficiently describe their services and their benefits, and several participants felt they had never been offered veterinary HHM. Although veterinary HHM may be initiated by the farmer, the participants expected the veterinarian to have special responsibility for the initiation. A firm trust between farmer

  19. [Survey among livestock practices on herd health management and an Internet-based animal health portal in Switzerland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Tavel, L; Buri, S; Witschi, U; Kirchhofer, M

    2009-12-01

    The importance of herd health management in Switzerland, its implementation by veterinarians as well as their willingness to collaborate within an Internet portal have been assessed by a questionnaire. The portal is meant to serve the genetic evaluation, the veterinary herd health management and the obligation to record treatments; it should be at disposal for all users in form of a central database. For the survey, questionnaires were sent to 784 veterinarians (mixed and livestock practices) in Switzerland. Amongst them, 217 (27.7 %) questionnaires could be evaluated. 125 veterinarians already offer a herd health management service and 147 veterinarians are inclined to collaborate in a central registration of animal health data. In this context, they are interested in an efficient veterinary herd health management program, which will allow direct exchange of data with farmers via an Internet portal. However, they fear a lack of interest of their customers and express some concern regarding data protection. The portal providers must therefore consider the needs of all potential users in order to succeed in this project. At this condition, the veterinarians are prepared to spread herd health management amongst the breeders by means of the animal health portal.

  20. Associations among descriptors of herd management and phenotypic and genetic levels of health and fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calus, M.P.L.; Windig, J.J.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to investigate the association of descriptors of herd environment with phenotypic levels and breeding values of fertility and health traits. Analyses were performed for 82,080 first-lactation heifers and 173,787 multiparous cows. Fourteen environmental parameters were

  1. Challenging the myth of the irrational dairy farmer; understanding decision-making related to herd health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, E; Jakobsen, E B

    2011-01-01

    Veterinarians working with dairy cows are suggested to refocus their efforts from being task-oriented providers of single-cow therapy and develop themselves into advice-oriented herd health management advisors. The practising cattle veterinarian's ability to translate knowledge into on-farm application requires a profound understanding of the dairy farm as an integrated system. Consequently, educating and motivating farmers are key issues. To achieve such insight the veterinarian needs to work with several scientific disciplines, especially epidemiology and (behavioural) economics. This trans-disciplinary approach offers new methodological possibilities and challenges to students of dairy herd health management. Advisors working with dairy herd health management may sometimes experience that farmers do not follow their advice. Potentially, this could lead to the interpretation that such farmers are behaving irrationally. However, farmers who are confronted with advice suggesting a change of behaviour are placed in a state of cognitive dissonance. To solve such dissonance they may either comply with the advice or reduce the dissonance by convincing themselves that the suggested change in management is impossible to implement. Consequently, herd health management advisors must understand the fundamental and instrumental relationships between individual farmers' values, behaviour and perception of risk, to stimulate and qualify the farmer's decision-making in a way that will increase the farmer's satisfaction and subjective well-being. Traditionally, studies on herd health economics have focussed on financial methods to measure the value of technical outcomes from suggested changes in management, following the basic assumption that farmers strive to maximise profit. Farmers, however, may be motivated by very different activities, e.g. animal health and welfare or other farmers' recognition, making it impossible to provide 'one-size-fts-all' consultancy because the

  2. Testing new dairy cattle for disease can boost herd health, cut costs

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Dale A; Adaska, J M; Higginbotham, G E; Castillo, Alejandro R Dr.; Collar, Carol; Sischo, William M

    2009-01-01

    Dairy producers seldom test or examine incoming cattle, although these important biosecurity practices are recommended. This pilot project examined risk management decisions that producers make when faced with test-positive animals in purchased groups of dairy cattle, in order to provide information on disease risks and conditions that could affect animal health and performance. New arrivals to seven herds at dairy farms in four California counties were examined and tested for a range of cond...

  3. The association between farmers’ participation in herd health programmes and their behaviour concerning treatment of mild clinical mastitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lind Ann-Kristina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Denmark, it has recently become mandatory for all dairy farmers with more than 100 cows to sign up for a herd health programme. Three herd health programmes are available. These differ in a number of aspects, including the frequency of veterinary visits and the farmer’s access to prescription drugs. The objective of this study was to investigate whether dairy farmers’ behavioural intentions, i.e. to call a veterinarian or start medical treatment on the day that they detect a cow with mild clinical mastitis (MCM, are different depending on the type of herd health programme. Methods A questionnaire survey based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB was conducted. TPB proposes that a person’s behavioural intention is strongly correlated with his or her actual behaviour. Three behavioural factors determine the behavioural intention: attitude, subjective norm and perceived behavioural control. Each of these factors is decided by a set of beliefs, each of which in turn is weighted by an evaluation: 1 the expected outcomes of performing the behaviour, 2 what a person believes that others think of the behaviour, and 3 the person’s perceived power to influence the behaviour. A set of statements about the treatment of MCM based on interviews with 38 dairy farmers were identified initially. The statements were rephrased as questions and the resulting questionnaire was distributed to 400 randomly selected Danish dairy farmers who use the two most restrictive herd health programmes, either Core or Module1, and to all 669 farmers with the least restrictive herd health programme, Module2. The association between intention and the herd health programme was modelled using logistic regression. Results The farmers with the Module2 herd health programme had a significantly higher behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, when compared to farmers with a more restrictive herd health programme (OR = 2.1, p Conclusion Danish dairy

  4. Blood Selenium Associated with Health and Fertility in Norwegian Dairy Herds

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    Kommisrud E

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of blood selenium (Se concentrations in Norwegian Red heifers and dry period cows was conducted to reveal possible association to management, feeding, health and fertility. Selenium contents were determined in 254 herd blood samples consisting of pooled samples from individual non-lactating animals from herds in 5 counties. The Se concentrations showed a normal distribution with mean 0.09 μg Se/g blood, with a standard deviation (SD of 0.05, and ranged from 0.02 to 0.23 μg/g, with 50 % of the samples being between 0.06 and 0.11 μg/g. The herds with Se concentrations below 0.06 μg/g were smaller (21.4 ± 8.7 cow-years than those with Se levels above 0.11 μg/g (27.5 ± 14.1 cow-years (P pre partum and decreased incidence of mastitis, ovarian cysts and anoestrus/silent oestrus post partum.

  5. Serological assessment of the establishment of herd immunity against measles in a health district in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlina, Y; Marlindawati, M A; Shamsuddin, K

    2016-12-08

    Malaysia still faces challenges optimizing resources to effectively eliminate measles through high immunization and herd immunity, with sporadic outbreaks of measles as evidence. The objective of this study is to determine the age-specific positive measles antibodies seroprevalence used for assessing the establishment of herd immunity against measles in different age groups. This is useful for identifying vulnerable age groups requiring supplementary immunization. A seroprevalence study was conducted among respondents aged 6-9 years, 15-24 years and 45-54 years attending government health clinics in Seremban between September 2014 and January 2015. A total of 1541 measles IgG antibody status were determined using ELISA technique (NovaTec Immundiagnostica GMBH) and assessment of establishment of herd immunity was based on indicators developed by Plans. Data on socio-demographic background as well as medical and medication history were also gathered. Seropositive rate for all respondents were 87% (95% CI 85-89), while the rest had either indeterminate [6% (95% CI 5-7)] or negative titre [7% (95% CI 6-8)]. None of the factors analyzed except for age were significant predictors of positive measles antibodies. Seropositive rate differed by age with the highest rate seen in adults (94%; CI 92-96), followed by children (90%; 95% CI 87-94) and adolescents, and young adults (74%; 95% CI 70-78). Based on Plans' indicators, herd immunity was established in adults and children, but not in adolescents and young adults. To tackle the most susceptible group in the present study, it is advisable to give booster vaccination to secondary school students and freshmen who enter colleges and universities in Malaysia.

  6. Animal health and welfare planning improves udder health and cleanliness but not leg health in Austrian dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremetsberger, Lukas; Leeb, Christine; Winckler, Christoph

    2015-10-01

    Animal health and welfare planning is considered an important tool for herd management; however, its effectiveness is less well known. The aim of this study was to conduct animal health and welfare planning on 34 Austrian dairy farms and to evaluate changes in health and welfare after 1 yr. After an initial assessment using the Welfare Quality protocol (Welfare Quality Consortium, Lelystad, the Netherlands), results were reported back to the farmers. Health and welfare area(s) in which both the farmer and the researcher regarded improvement as important were discussed. Management practices and husbandry measures were chosen according to the respective farm situation. One year after interventions had been initiated, farms were reassessed, and the degree of implementation of improvement measures was recorded. The average implementation rate was 57% and thus relatively high when compared with other studies. High degrees of implementation were achieved related to cleanliness and udder health, at 77 and 63%, respectively. Intervention measures addressing udder health were mostly easy to incorporate in the daily routine and led to a reduced somatic cell score, whereas this score increased in herds without implementation of measures. The decrease in cows with dirty teats was more pronounced when measures were implemented compared with control farms. The implementation rate regarding leg health (46%) was comparably low in the present study, and leg health did not improve even when measures were implemented. Lying comfort, social behavior, and human-animal relationship did not require interventions and were therefore seldom chosen by farmers as part of health and welfare plans. In conclusion, the structured, participatory process of animal health and welfare planning appears to be a promising way to improve at least some animal health and welfare issues. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Farmers taking responsibility for herd health development—stable schools in research and advisory activities as a tool for dairy health and welfare planning in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, Silvia; Bell, Nick J.; Brinkmann, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Achieving and maintaining a high herd health and welfare status is an important aim in organic livestock farming. The varying farming systems across and within countries call for models that are relevant for different farming types and that can be integrated into local practice. In stable schools...... for animal health and welfare planning, providing an overview of ongoing activities and their implementation into advisory situations in selected European countries. Studies on stable schools as an intervention tool showed improvements regarding the specific project aim on the majority of the participating...... farms. Farmers and facilitators were convinced of the approach and benefits for dairy herds. Farmers’ attitude and attention towards their herds and their ownership of the process appear to be crucial success factors for herd health and welfare situations. In some European countries, this method has...

  8. Selenium status in cattle herds in Wallonia (Belgium: overview and health management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcef Mehdi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Monitoring was performed in order to determine the Selenium (Se status of cattle herds in different agricultural areas in Wallonia (Belgium. Materials and Methods: The study included 114 heifers and 184 cows (82 dairy and 102 beef cows from 66 cattle farms situated in Wallonia. The Se status was assessed by measuring the glutathion peroxydase in red cells and converting it to the equivalent Se blood content. Results: The average blood concentrations of Se were very low. The Ardennes region was an area where the lowest Se status was recorded. The highest levels of Se in dairy cows and beef cows were recorded respectively in the limoneuse region and Famenne areas. The Se content in beef herds was lower compared with that of dairy herds (35 vs. 56 μg/L, p<0.01. Conclusion: On average over all the regions, 87% of animals were classified as deficient and only 13% of the animals were classified as adequate. The heifers from both dairy and beef herds in Wallonia exhibited a deficiency in Se classified as moderate to severe. The beef herds showed larger deficiencies compared with the dairy herds. Selenium deficiency can be prevented by ensuring adequate supplementation of deficient animals in Se deficient regions. An increased consumption of vitamin-mineral supplements, the use of Se-enriched fertilizers and ingredients containing high levels of Se can help to reduce or correct deficiencies recorded in cattle herds in Wallonia.

  9. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boersema JSC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  10. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boersema, Jsc; Noordhuizen, Jptm; Vieira, A; Lievaart, Jj; Baumgartner, W

    2008-09-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms.

  11. Imbedding HACCP principles in dairy herd health and production management: case report on calf rearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Driven by consumer demands, European legislation has suggested the use of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point) as the quality risk management programme for the whole dairy chain. Until now, an exception has been made for primary producers, but as regulations evolve, on-farm HACCP-like programmes should be ready to assure food safety as well as animal health and animal welfare. In our field experiment, the HACCP-concept was used to combine both optimal farm management and formalisation of quality assurance in an on-farm situation in the Netherlands. The process of young stock rearing was chosen, since its importance for the future of the farm is often underestimated. Hazards and their associated risk factors can be controlled within the farm-specific standards and tolerances, as targets can be controlled by corrective measures and by implementation of farm-specific worksheets. The veterinarian is pivotal for the facility-based HACCP team, since he/she has knowledge about on-farm risk assessment and relations between clinical pathology, feed and farm management. The HACCP concept in combination with veterinary herd health and production management programmes offers a promising approach to optimise on-farm production processes (i.e., young stock rearing) in addition to a structural approach for quality risk management on dairy farms. PMID:21851722

  12. Consultancy to dairy farmers relating to animal health and herd health management on small- and medium-sized farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothmann, H; Nechanitzky, K; Sturmlechner, F; Drillich, M

    2014-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to obtain information about animal health challenges for dairy farmers of small- and medium-sized herds and about the fields in which consultancy services should be improved. The hyperlink to an internet-based survey was sent to 9,021 farmers in Austria. The survey included questions about the participants and their farms, about who is consulting with the farmers with regard to animal health, feeding, sire selection, construction of barns and animal husbandry, about animal health issues farmers find most challenging, and about their demands for improved consultancy services. The questionnaire was completed anonymously. Analyses were stratified by milk yield (categorized) and whether farmers worked full-time or part-time. The overall response rate was 11.3% (n=1,018). The majority of farms kept less than 20 cows (54.0%) or 20 to 50 cows (40.1%). With regard to animal health, the veterinarian was the most important consultant for the majority of farmers (84.6%). On issues related to feeding, sire selection, and stable construction, the veterinarian was seen as a less important consultant than specialists in these fields (20.4, 11.6, and 7.9% suggested the veterinarian as an important consultant in these areas). The survey indicated that reproductive disorders, udder disease, poor conception rate, lameness, and calf diarrhea represent the most important challenges to farmers. Of these, concerns about calf diarrhea were affected by milk yield of the herds and management. More high- than low-yielding farms (11.7 vs. 6.4%) and more full-time than part-time managed herds (9.6 vs.4.3%) regarded calf diarrhea as an important problem. Farmers would welcome improved consultancy with regard to fertility, feeding, and sire selection. The results indicated which animal health issues farmers find particularly challenging and displayed which areas farmers require improved consultancy services. Veterinarians and organizations offering consultancy

  13. Population-level impact and herd effects following human papillomavirus vaccination programmes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Mélanie; Bénard, Élodie; Boily, Marie-Claude; Ali, Hammad; Baandrup, Louise; Bauer, Heidi; Beddows, Simon; Brisson, Jacques; Brotherton, Julia M L; Cummings, Teresa; Donovan, Basil; Fairley, Christopher K; Flagg, Elaine W; Johnson, Anne M; Kahn, Jessica A; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Kjaer, Susanne K; Kliewer, Erich V; Lemieux-Mellouki, Philippe; Markowitz, Lauri; Mboup, Aminata; Mesher, David; Niccolai, Linda; Oliphant, Jeannie; Pollock, Kevin G; Soldan, Kate; Sonnenberg, Pam; Tabrizi, Sepehr N; Tanton, Clare; Brisson, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programmes were first implemented in several countries worldwide in 2007. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the population-level consequences and herd effects after female HPV vaccination programmes, to verify whether or not the high efficacy reported in randomised controlled clinical trials are materialising in real-world situations. Methods We searched the Medline and Embase databases (between Jan 1, 2007 and Feb 28, 2014) and conference abstracts for time-trend studies that analysed changes, between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods, in the incidence or prevalence of at least one HPV-related endpoint: HPV infection, anogenital warts, and high-grade cervical lesions. We used random-effects models to derive pooled relative risk (RR) estimates. We stratified all analyses by age and sex. We did subgroup analyses by comparing studies according to vaccine type, vaccination coverage, and years since implementation of the vaccination programme. We assessed heterogeneity across studies using I2 and χ2 statistics and we did trends analysis to examine the dose–response association between HPV vaccination coverage and each study effect measure. Findings We identified 20 eligible studies, which were all undertaken in nine high-income countries and represent more than 140 million person-years of follow-up. In countries with female vaccination coverage of at least 50%, HPV type 16 and 18 infections decreased significantly between the pre-vaccination and post-vaccination periods by 68% (RR 0·32, 95% CI 0·19–0·52) and anogenital warts decreased significantly by 61% (0·39, 0·22–0·71) in girls 13–19 years of age. Significant reductions were also recorded in HPV types 31, 33, and 45 in this age group of girls (RR 0·72, 95% CI 0·54–0·96), which suggests cross-protection. Additionally, significant reductions in anogenital warts were also reported in boys younger than 20

  14. Trends in udder health and emerging mastitogenic pathogens in South African dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Petzer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyse the results of milk samples obtained from South African dairy herds during the period 1996 to April 2007 in order to identify possible trends in isolates of microorganisms and their pathogenicity under field conditions. Milk samples were obtained from 7 of the 9 provinces in South Africa where there are low numbers of dairy cows. Although there is scientific limitation to a country wide survey, such as the variation in herd size, management skills, parity, milk yield, milking frequency and other parameters, the size of this database helps to give a fair indication of general udder health in South Africa. Cytology and routine bacteriology were performed on 379 000 milk samples of lactating cows and bacteriology on 11 946 samples from non-lactating cows. According to the results obtained, mastitis did not decrease in South Africa over the test period. The prevalence of mastitis and teat canal infection was lowest in 2002. Mastitis and teat canal infection increased from 2002 to 2006 from 8.1 % and 24.1 % to 15.4 and 30.0 % respectively. The percentage of mastitogenic pathogens isolated from cows over these years also varied. Previously unknown or almost eradicated mastitogenic pathogens such as αβ haemolytic Staphylococcus aureus which is thought to be of human origin, Streptococcus agalactiae and Enterococcus canis were responsible for numerous mastitis outbreaks seen in the test samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated bacteria in milk samples from both lactating and dry cows, followed by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. Although Staphylococcus aureus remained the principal mastitogenic pathogen in South Africa, owing to its chronic nature and resultant economic losses, most cases of mastitis were caused by coagulase-negative staphylococci. This finding increases the importance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (formerly described as a

  15. Beef herd health and productivity and exposure to the petroleum industry in west-central Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waldner, C. L.

    1999-07-01

    Health and productivity of cow-calf herds surrounding a new sour gas processing plant have been monitored from the fall of 1991 through to the calfing season in 1997. No significant change in the risk of non-pregnancy, abortion, stillbirth, calf mortality, median calfing date or crude weaning date have been found. There was measurable improvement in average age-adjusted weight for both male and female calves. Exposure to hydrogen sulfide and the complex mixture of compounds found in emissions from sour gas processing plants did not appear to have affected productivity parameters across the cow-calf production cycles examined, although there have been five examples of positive association between increasing exposure to total sulfation and decreased productivity. Increased risk of non-pregnancy was occasionally observed to be associated with one or more of sour flaring battery facilities, all battery flaring sites, active gas wells, and larger field facilities, however, these associations were not consistent among years . Risk of abortions did not increase with proximity of facilities or flaring. Examples of positive correlation were observed between volume of sour gas flared from battery sites and increased risk of stillbirth, sour gas and increased calf mortality, and exposure to oil well or all well sites and increased productivity.

  16. Graph-based impact analysis as a framework for incorporating practitioner knowledge in dairy herd health management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, M; Schwabenbauer, E-M; Hoischen-Taubner, S; Emanuelson, U; Sundrum, A

    2018-03-01

    Production diseases in dairy cows are multifactorial, which means they emerge from complex interactions between many different farm variables. Variables with a large impact on production diseases can be identified for groups of farms using statistical models, but these methods cannot be used to identify highly influential variables in individual farms. This, however, is necessary for herd health planning, because farm conditions and associated health problems vary largely between farms. The aim of this study was to rank variables according to their anticipated effect on production diseases on the farm level by applying a graph-based impact analysis on 192 European organic dairy farms. Direct impacts between 13 pre-defined variables were estimated for each farm during a round-table discussion attended by practitioners, that is farmer, veterinarian and herd advisor. Indirect impacts were elaborated through graph analysis taking into account impact strengths. Across farms, factors supposedly exerting the most influence on production diseases were 'feeding', 'hygiene' and 'treatment' (direct impacts), as well as 'knowledge and skills' and 'herd health monitoring' (indirect impacts). Factors strongly influenced by production diseases were 'milk performance', 'financial resources' and 'labour capacity' (directly and indirectly). Ranking of variables on the farm level revealed considerable differences between farms in terms of their most influential and most influenced farm factors. Consequently, very different strategies may be required to reduce production diseases in these farms. The method is based on perceptions and estimations and thus prone to errors. From our point of view, however, this weakness is clearly outweighed by the ability to assess and to analyse farm-specific relationships and thus to complement general knowledge with contextual knowledge. Therefore, we conclude that graph-based impact analysis represents a promising decision support tool for herd

  17. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  18. Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis at calving in dairy herds with suboptimal udder health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundberg, Å; Nyman, A-K; Aspán, A; Börjesson, S; Unnerstad, H Ericsson; Waller, K Persson

    2016-03-01

    Udder infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, and Streptococcus uberis are common causes of bovine mastitis. To study these pathogens in early lactation, a 12-mo longitudinal, observational study was carried out in 13 herds with suboptimal udder health. The aims of the study were to investigate the occurrence of these pathogens and to identify if presence of the 3 pathogens, and of genotypes within the pathogens, differed with respect to herd, season, and parity. Quarter milk samples, collected at calving and 4 d in milk (DIM), were cultured for the 3 pathogens. Genotyping of staphylococcal and streptococcal isolates was performed using spa typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, respectively. For each of the 3 pathogens, cows with an udder infection at calving or 4 DIM were allocated to 1 of 4 infection types: cleared (pathogen present only at calving), persistent (pathogen present in the same quarter at calving and 4 DIM), new (pathogen present only at 4 DIM), or cleared/new (pathogen present in 1 quarter at calving and in another quarter at 4 DIM). Associations between season or parity and overall occurrence of pathogens or infection types were determined using univariable mixed-effect logistic-regression models and the Fisher's exact test, respectively. The most commonly occurring pathogen was Staph. aureus, followed by Strep. dysgalactiae and Strep. uberis. Persistent infections were the most common infection type among Staph. aureus-infected cows, whereas cleared infections were the most common among Strep. dysgalactiae- and Strep. uberis-positive cows. The proportion of cows with persistent Staph. aureus infections and the proportion of cows having a Strep. uberis infection at calving or 4 DIM were higher in the multiparous cows than in primiparous cows. Infections with Strep. dysgalactiae were less common during the early housing season than during the late housing or pasture seasons, whereas persistent Strep. uberis

  19. Development of a Simherd web application for herd health advisors - experiences and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    and the lack of user friendliness. This was challenged in the project supported by the Danish Law of Innovation during 2007 to 2009, where the specific aim was to develop a user friendly web application of the SimHerd model in collaboration between StrateKo, Danish Cattle Federation and Aarhus University...

  20. Inclusion of the value of herd immunity in economic evaluations of vaccines. A systematic review of methods used

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nymark, Liv Solvår; Sharma, T; Miller, A

    2017-01-01

    human-transmissible diseases from 1976 to 2015. Of these, 172 (28%) included herd immunity. While 4% of studies included herd immunity in 2001, 53% of those published in 2015 did this. Pneumococcal, human papilloma and rotavirus vaccines represented the majority of studies (63%) considering herd...

  1. Efficiency of dairy farms participating and not participating in veterinary herd health management programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Marjolein; Hogeveen, Henk; Kooistra, Sake R; van Werven, Tine; Tauer, Loren W

    2014-12-01

    This paper compares farm efficiencies between dairies who were participating in a veterinary herd health management (VHHM) program with dairies not participating in such a program, to determine whether participation has an association with farm efficiency. In 2011, 572 dairy farmers received a questionnaire concerning the participation and execution of a VHHM program on their farms. Data from the questionnaire were combined with farm accountancy data from 2008 through 2012 from farms that used calendar year accounting periods, and were analyzed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA). Two separate models were specified: model 1 was the basic stochastic frontier model (output: total revenue; input: feed costs, land costs, cattle costs, non-operational costs), without explanatory variables embedded into the efficiency component of the error term. Model 2 was an expansion of model 1 which included explanatory variables (number of FTE; total kg milk delivered; price of concentrate; milk per hectare; cows per FTE; nutritional yield per hectare) inserted into the efficiency component of the joint error term. Both models were estimated with the financial parameters expressed per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow. Land costs, cattle costs, feed costs and non-operational costs were statistically significant and positive in all models (P<0.01). Frequency distributions of the efficiency scores for the VHHM dairies and the non-VHHM dairies were plotted in a kernel density plot, and differences were tested using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-sample test. VHHM dairies had higher total revenue per cow, but not per 100 kg milk. For all SFA models, the difference in distribution was not statistically different between VHHM dairies and non-VHHM dairies (P values 0.94, 0.35, 0.95 and 0.89 for the basic and complete model per 100 kg fat and protein corrected milk and per cow respectively). Therefore we conclude that with our data farm participation in VHHM is not related

  2. Prevalence of Coxiella Burnetii in Dairy Herds - Diagnostic Methods and Risk to Humans - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymańska-Czerwińska Monika

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Q fever is a zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii. The main source of infection are ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats. C. burnetii is excreted via birth products, vaginal mucus, milk, and faeces. Raw milk is considered useful for epidemiological examinations of animals and evaluation of infection dynamics at the herd level. This article summarises data on prevalence studies on C. burnetii in bulk-tank milk in different European countries with the means of serological tests and PCR. It also summarises the results of studies to evaluate the actual risk of disease transmission to humans through consumption of raw milk. Moreover, the available diagnostic tools for detection C. burnetii infection are presented.

  3. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of

  4. Maintenance of Brucella abortus free herds; a review with emphasis on the epidemiology and the problems in diagnosing brucellosis in areas of low prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This review covers some epidemiological aspects that allow Brucella to survive, spread, and maintain itself in the environment. Because the success of maintaining Brucella-free herds is determined by the efficiency of the serological tests to detect a single infected animal the limitations of the

  5. Determinants of antimicrobial treatment for udder health in Danish dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gussmann, Maya Katrin; Græsbøll, Kaare; Toft, Nils

    2017-01-01

    Societal pressure to limit the use of antibiotics in livestock production systems, including dairy cattle systems, is consistently increasing. To motivate farmers to reduce antibiotic usage, it is important to understand the factors that determine whether a cow will be treated with antibiotics...... or not. If farmers' usual practices regarding antibiotic treatments are taken into account, they may be motivated to adopt control measures that can facilitate prudent use of antibiotics and are at the same time cost-effective. In this study, we analyzed database recordings of milk yield and somatic cell...... count from the routine milk recording scheme, clinical registrations of mastitis and PCR results, and cow factors such as days in milk and parity in relation to antibiotic treatments for 518 dairy herds in Denmark. Farm-wise logistic regressions were used to predict antimicrobial treatment based...

  6. Effect of vaccination against sub-clinical Porcine Circovirus type 2 infection in a high-health finishing pig herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gitte Blach; Nielsen, Jens Peter; Haugegaard, John

    2017-01-01

    During the last decade, the clinical manifestation of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2) infections has mostly changed from postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome and high mortality to sub-clinical infections manifested only through impaired production parameters. However, co-infection with other...... respiratory pathogens often results in a larger effect on production, sometimes with clinical signs. Little is known about the impact of a moderate level PCV2 infection without co-infections, particularly in terms of feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial consumption. The purpose of the study was to evaluate...... the effect of vaccination against PCV2 in a sub-clinically infected, high-health finishing herd in terms of viral load in serum, feed conversion ratio and antimicrobial treatments. The study was conducted as a randomised clinical field trial with a parallel group design. Vaccination against PCV2...

  7. A herd health approach to dairy cow nutrition and production diseases of the transition cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, F J; O'Grady, L; Rice, D A; Doherty, M L

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents a practical, on-farm approach for the monitoring and prevention of production disease in dairy cattle. This integrated approach, should be used in an interdisciplinary way by farmers, veterinarians, nutrition advisors and other relevant professionals for the improvement of animal health and welfare and producer profitability. The key areas that form the basis for this approach are body condition score management, negative energy balance, hypocalcaemia, rumen health and trace element status. Monitoring criteria are described for each of these key areas, which when considered collectively, will facilitate the assessment of dairy cow health with regard to clinical and subclinical disease. The criteria, which are informed by published scientific literature, are based on farm management and environmental factors, clinical data, milk production records, dietary analysis, and assessment of blood and liver concentrations of various metabolites or trace elements. The aim is to review the efficacy of production disease control measures currently in place, and if necessary to modify them or formulate new ones.

  8. Pension funds' herding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, D.; Chen, D.; Minderhoud, P.; Schudel, W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper uses unique and detailed transaction data to analyse herding behavior among pension funds. We distinguish between weak, semi strong and strong herding behaviour. Weak herding occurs if pension funds have similar rebalancing strategies. Semi strong herding arises when pension funds react

  9. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleen Joachim L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Results Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Conclusions Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  10. Communication in production animal medicine: modelling a complex interaction with the example of dairy herd health medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Joachim L; Atkinson, Owen; Noordhuizen, Jos Ptm

    2011-07-20

    The importance of communication skills in veterinary medicine is increasingly recognised. Appropriate communication skills towards the client are of utmost importance in both companion animal practice and production animal field and consultancy work. The need for building a relationship with the client, alongside developing a structure for the consultation is widely recognised and applies to both types of veterinary practice. Veterinary advisory practice in production animal medicine is, however, characterised by a more complex communication on different levels. While the person-orientated communication is a permanent process between veterinarian and client with a rather personal perspective and defines the roles of interaction, the problem-orientated communication deals with emerging difficulties; the objective is to solve an acute health problem. The solution - orientated communication is a form of communication in which both veterinarian and client address longstanding situations or problems with the objective to improve herd health and subsequently productivity performance. All three forms of communication overlap. Based on this model, it appears useful for a veterinary practice to offer both a curative and an advisory service, but to keep these two separated when deemed appropriate. In veterinary education, the strategies and techniques necessary for solution orientated communication should be included in the teaching of communication skills.

  11. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination: a systematic review and meta-analysis of predictions from transmission-dynamic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie; Bogaards, Johannes A; Baussano, Iacopo; Vänskä, Simopekka; Jit, Mark; Boily, Marie-Claude; Smith, Megan A; Berkhof, Johannes; Canfell, Karen; Chesson, Harrell W; Burger, Emily A; Choi, Yoon H; De Blasio, Birgitte Freiesleben; De Vlas, Sake J; Guzzetta, Giorgio; Hontelez, Jan A C; Horn, Johannes; Jepsen, Martin R; Kim, Jane J; Lazzarato, Fulvio; Matthijsse, Suzette M; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Pavelyev, Andrew; Pillsbury, Matthew; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Tully, Stephen P; Turner, Hugo C; Usher, Cara; Walsh, Cathal

    2016-11-01

    Modelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis of model predictions of the long-term population-level effectiveness of vaccination against HPV 16, 18, 6, and 11 infection in women and men, to examine the variability in predicted herd effects, incremental benefit of vaccinating boys, and potential for HPV-vaccine-type elimination. We searched MEDLINE and Embase for transmission-dynamic modelling studies published between Jan 1, 2009, and April 28, 2015, that predicted the population-level impact of vaccination on HPV 6, 11, 16, and 18 infections in high-income countries. We contacted authors to determine whether they were willing to produce new predictions for standardised scenarios. Strategies investigated were girls-only vaccination and girls and boys vaccination at age 12 years. Base-case vaccine characteristics were 100% efficacy and lifetime protection. We did sensitivity analyses by varying vaccination coverage, vaccine efficacy, and duration of protection. For all scenarios we pooled model predictions of relative reductions in HPV prevalence (RR prev ) over time after vaccination and summarised results using the median and 10th and 90th percentiles (80% uncertainty intervals [UI]). 16 of 19 eligible models from ten high-income countries provided predictions. Under base-case assumptions, 40% vaccination coverage and girls-only vaccination, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·53 (80% UI 0·46-0·68) and 0·36 (0·28-0·61), respectively, after 70 years. With 80% girls-only vaccination coverage, the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men was 0·93 (0·90-1·00) and 0·83 (0·75-1·00), respectively. Vaccinating boys in addition to girls increased the RR prev of HPV 16 among women and men by 0·18 (0·13-0

  12. Use of herd management programmes to improve the reproductive performance of dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Heuer, C; Morton, J; Brownlie, T

    2014-05-01

    There has been a long history of herd health and production management programmes in many dairy industries around the world, but evidence for the efficacy of such programmes is limited. In response to a perceived decline in fertility of dairy cows, a herd reproductive management programme (InCalf) was introduced in New Zealand in 2007. This programme uses a management cycle approach that includes an assessment of the current herd status, identification of areas for improvement, development of a plan, implementation of this plan and finally a review process. The programme uses facilitators who work with farmers either in a one-to-one manner or in a formalised group setting that involves a series of meetings over a 12-month period (the farmer action group). The hypothesis that involvement in a reproductive management programme would improve herd reproductive performance was tested using a herd-level controlled randomised study (the National Herd Fertility Study) involving herds in four geographic regions of New Zealand over 2 years. Within each region, herds were ranked on the basis of the 6-week in-calf rate (i.e. the proportion of the herd pregnant in the first 6 weeks of the seasonal breeding programme) in the year preceding commencement of the study and then randomly assigned to be involved in a farmer action group or left as untreated controls. The key outcome variable of the study was the 6-week in-calf rate. Pregnancy diagnosis was undertaken at 12 weeks after the start of the seasonal breeding programme, which allowed determination of conception dates and hence calculation of the 6-week in-calf rate. Additional measurements including heifer live weight and body condition score (pre-calving and pre-mating) were undertaken to test whether treatment resulted in measurable changes in some of the key determinants of herd reproductive performance. Involvement in the farmer action group of InCalf resulted in a 2 percentage point increase in the 6-week in-calf rate

  13. The perception of veterinary herd health management by Dutch dairy farmers and its current status in the Netherlands: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derks, Marjolein; van de Ven, Lindsay M A; van Werven, Tine; Kremer, Wim D J; Hogeveen, Henk

    2012-05-01

    The importance of veterinary herd health management (VHHM) is increasing in both dairy farming and veterinary practice. Little is known, however, about how VHHM is perceived by farmers in terms of structure, content and satisfaction. In 2007 a questionnaire, containing questions about these three items was therefore sent to 800 Dutch dairy farmers. Farmers received two questionnaires, one for participants in VHHM and one for non-participants, allowing them to choose the appropriate one. Results were summarized and statistically analyzed. Farmers who were participating in VHHM had better farm performance. They were satisfied with the way VHHM was executed on their farm. However, there were some pressure points. Goal setting and evaluation was still not a regular part of VHHM, even though it is said to be effective in literature. Time spent on VHHM not visible to the farmer was often not charged or not clearly specified on the bill. The differences in opinions between participants and non-participants of VHHM indicated a lack of communication and/or product differentiation. Satisfaction with the way VHHM was executed on the farm had no significant influence on 305-day production. There was, however, some influence on calving interval and bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Management, operational, animal health, and economic characteristics of large dairy herds in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evink, T L; Endres, M I

    2017-11-01

    Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in

  15. The relationship between antibody status to bovine corona virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus and disease incidence, reproduction and herd characteristics in dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tråvén Madeleine

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV and bovine corona virus (BCV affects cattle worldwide. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of these infections on general health and reproduction parameters measurable on herd level and to explore the association between antibody status and some herd characteristics. Methods We collected a pooled milk sample from five primiparous cows from 79 Swedish dairy herds in September 2006. The samples were analysed for immunoglobulin G antibodies to BCV and BRSV with indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Herd level data from 1 September 2005 to 30 August 2006 were accessed retrospectively. The location of the herds was mapped using a geographical information system. Results Ten herds were antibody negative to both viruses and were compared with 69 herds positive to BCV or BRSV or both. Positive herds had a higher (P = 0.001 bulk tank milk somatic cell count (BMSCC compared with negative herds. The medians for all other analyzed health and reproductive parameters were consistently in favour of the herds negative to both viruses although the differences were not statistically significant. A higher proportion (P = 0.01 of herds used professional technicians for artificial insemination, rather than farm personnel, amongst the 33 herds negative to BCV compared with the 46 positive herds. Conclusions Our result shows that herds that were antibody positive to BCV and/or BRSV had a higher BMSCC compared with herds negative to BCV and BRSV. There was also tendency that negative herds had a better general herd health compared with positive. A higher proportion amongst the BCV negative herds used external technicians for AI instead of farm personnel, indicating that it is possible to avoid infection although having regular visits. Negative herds were located in close proximity to positive herds, indicating that local spread and airborne transmission between herds might not be of great

  16. Health status of mule deer and white-tailed deer herds on the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creekmore, T.E.; Franson, J.C.; Sileo, L. [National Wildlife Health Research Center, Madison, WI (United States); Griess, J.M.; Roy, R.R. [Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, CO (United States); Baker, D.L. [Colorado Division of Wildlife, Ft. Collins, CO (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal is a fenced, 6,900-ha Superfund site under remediation by the US Army and the Shell Oil Company. A variety of environmental contaminants including organochlorine pesticides, metals, and nerve-gas-production by-products are in the soil or in the water on the site. The authors evaluated the health of 18 radio-collared deer (13 mule deer [Odocoileus hemionus] and 5 white-tailed deer [O. virginianus]) collected by gunshot. Prior to collection, more than 4,000 locations of the 18 deer were plotted during a period of more than 2 years. Blood samples from the euthanized animals were collected for serologic, hematologic, and contaminant evaluations. Necropsies were preformed and tissues collected for histopathologic examinations and environmental contaminants analyses. Results indicate that the physical conditions of the mule deer were fair/good and of the white-tailed deer were good. Antibody prevalence against epizootic hemorrhagic disease serotype 2 was 85% and bovine virus diarrhea 56%. Two mule deer had severe testicular atrophy, and one of these animals also had antler deformities. Three mule deer had alopecia with dermatitis and hyperkeratosis. Results of heavy metal, and organochlorine pesticide analyses from blood and tissue samples and other analyses will be presented.

  17. Denmark: Health system review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Annegrete; Krasnik, Allan; Rudkjøbing, Andreas

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) series provide detailed descriptions of health systems in the countries of the WHO European Region as well as some additional OECD countries. An individual health system review (HiT) examines the specific approach to the organization, financing and delivery...... of health services in a particular country and the role of the main actors in the health system. It describes the institutional framework, process, content, and implementation of health and health care policies. HiTs also look at reforms in progress or under development and make an assessment of the health...... system based on stated objectives and outcomes with respect to various dimensions (health status, equity, quality, efficiency, accountability)....

  18. Ukraine: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhan, Valery; Rudiy, Volodymyr; Shevchenko, Maryna; Nitzan Kaluski, Dorit; Richardson, Erica

    2015-03-01

    This analysis of the Ukrainian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Since the country gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1991, successive governments have sought to overcome funding shortfalls and modernize the health care system to meet the needs of the population's health. However, no fundamental reform of the system has yet been implemented and consequently it has preserved the main features characteristic of the Semashko model; there is a particularly high proportion of total health expenditure paid out of pocket (42.3 % in 2012), and incentives within the system do not focus on quality or outcomes. The most recent health reform programme began in 2010 and sought to strengthen primary and emergency care, rationalize hospitals and change the model of health care financing from one based on inputs to one based on outputs. Fundamental issues that hampered reform efforts in the past re-emerged, but conflict and political instability have proved the greatest barriers to reform implementation and the programme was abandoned in 2014. More recently, the focus has been on more pressing humanitarian concerns arising from the conflict in the east of Ukraine. It is hoped that greater political, social and economic stability in the future will provide a better environment for the introduction of deep reforms to address shortcomings in the Ukrainian health system. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  19. Slovenia: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albreht, Tit; Pribakovic Brinovec, Radivoje; Josar, Dusan; Poldrugovac, Mircha; Kostnapfel, Tatja; Zaletel, Metka; Panteli, Dimitra; Maresso, Anna

    2016-06-01

    This analysis of the Slovene health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health of the population has improved over the last few decades. While life expectancy for both men and women is similar to EU averages, morbidity and mortality data show persistent disparities between regions, and mortality from external causes is particularly high. Satisfaction with health care delivery is high, but recently waiting times for some outpatient specialist services have increased. Greater focus on preventive measures is also needed as well as better care coordination, particularly for those with chronic conditions. Despite having relatively high levels of co-payments for many services covered by the universal compulsory health insurance system, these expenses are counterbalanced by voluntary health insurance, which covers 95% of the population liable for co-payments. However, Slovenia is somewhat unique among social health insurance countries in that it relies almost exclusively on payroll contributions to fund its compulsory health insurance system. This makes health sector revenues very susceptible to economic and labour market fluctuations. A future challenge will be to diversify the resource base for health system funding and thus bolster sustainability in the longer term, while preserving service delivery and quality of care. Given changing demographics and morbidity patterns, further challenges include restructuring the funding and provision of long-term care and enhancing health system efficiency through reform of purchasing and provider-payment systems. World Health Organization 2016 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  20. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filippitzi, M. E.; Kruse, Amanda Brinch; Postma, M.

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different...... European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative...... on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used...

  1. Malta: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzopardi Muscat, Natasha; Calleja, Neville; Calleja, Antoinette; Cylus, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    This analysis of the Maltese health system reviews the developments in its organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The health system in Malta consists of a public sector, which is free at the point of service and provides a comprehensive basket of health services for all its citizens, and a private sector, which accounts for a third of total health expenditure and provides the majority of primary care. Maltese citizens enjoy one of the highest life expectancies in Europe. Nevertheless, non-communicable diseases pose a major concern with obesity being increasingly prevalent among both adults and children. The health system faces important challenges including a steadily ageing population, which impacts the sustainability of public finances. Other supply constraints stem from financial and infrastructural limitations. Nonetheless, there exists a strong political commitment to ensure the provision of a healthcare system that is accessible, of high quality, safe and also sustainable. This calls for strategic investments to underpin a revision of existing processes whilst shifting the focus of care away from hospital into the community. World Health Organization 2014 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  2. France: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevreul, Karine; Berg Brigham, Karen; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Hernandez-Quevedo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the French health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The French population has a good level of health, with the second highest life expectancy in the world for women. It has a high level of choice of providers, and a high level of satisfaction with the health system. However, unhealthy habits such as smoking and harmful alcohol consumption remain significant causes of avoidable mortality. Combined with the significant burden of chronic diseases, this has underscored the need for prevention and integration of services, although these have not historically been strengths of the French system. Although the French health care system is a social insurance system, it has historically had a stronger role for the state than other Bismarckian social insurance systems. Public financing of health care expenditure is among the highest in Europe and out-of-pocket spending among the lowest. Public insurance is compulsory and covers the resident population; it is financed by employee and employer contributions as well as increasingly through taxation. Complementary insurance plays a significant role in ensuring equity in access. Provision is mixed; providers of outpatient care are largely private, and hospital beds are predominantly public or private non-profit-making. Despite health outcomes being among the best in the European Union, social and geographical health inequities remain. Inequality in the distribution of health care professionals is a considerable barrier to equity. The rising cost of health care and the increasing demand for long-term care are also of concern. Reforms are ongoing to address these issues, while striving for equity in financial access; a long-term care reform including public coverage of long-term care is still pending. World Health Organization 2015 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the

  3. Estonia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Taavi; Habicht, Triin; Kahur, Kristiina; Reinap, Marge; Kiivet, Raul; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Estonian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. Without doubt, the main issue has been the 2008 financial crisis. Although Estonia has managed the downturn quite successfully and overall satisfaction with the system remains high, it is hard to predict the longer-term effects of the austerity package. The latter included some cuts in benefits and prices, increased cost sharing for certain services, extended waiting times, and a reduction in specialized care. In terms of health outcomes, important progress was made in life expectancy, which is nearing the European Union (EU) average, and infant mortality. Improvements are necessary in smoking and alcohol consumption, which are linked to the majority of avoidable diseases. Although the health behaviour of the population is improving, large disparities between groups exist and obesity rates, particularly among young people, are increasing. In health care, the burden of out-of-pocket payments is still distributed towards vulnerable groups. Furthermore, the number of hospitals, hospital beds and average length of stay has decreased to the EU average level, yet bed occupancy rates are still below EU averages and efficiency advances could be made. Going forwards, a number of pre-crisis challenges remain. These include ensuring sustainability of health care financing, guaranteeing a sufficient level of human resources, prioritizing patient-centred health care, integrating health and social care services, implementing intersectoral action to promote healthy behaviour, safeguarding access to health care for lower socioeconomic groups, and, lastly, improving evaluation and monitoring tools across the health system. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  4. The porcupine caribou herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Brad; Douglas, David C.; Walsh, Noreen E.; Young, Donald D.; McCabe, Thomas R.; Russell, Donald E.; White, Robert G.; Cameron, Raymond D.; Whitten, Kenneth R.; Douglas, David C.; Reynolds, Patricia E.; Rhode, E.B.

    2002-01-01

    Documentation of the natural range of variation in ecological, life history, and physiological characteristics of caribou (Rangifer tarandus) of the Porcupine caribou herd is a necessary base for detecting or predicting any potential effects of industrial development on the performance (e.g., distribution, demography, weight-gain of individuals) of the herd. To demonstrate an effect of development, post-development performance must differ from pre-development performance while accounting for any natural environmental trends.We had 2 working hypotheses for our investigations: 1) performance of the Porcupine caribou herd was associated with environmental patterns and habitat quality, and 2) access to important habitats was a key influence on demography.We sought to document the range of natural variation in habitat conditions, herd size, demography (defined here as survival and reproduction), sources and magnitude of mortality, distribution, habitat use, and weight gain and loss, and to develop an understanding of the interactions among these characteristics of the herd.In addition, we investigated ways that we could use this background information, combined with auxiliary information from the adjacent Central Arctic caribou herd, to predict the direction and magnitude of any potential effects of industrial oil development in the 1002 Area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge on Porcupine caribou herd calf survival on the herd's calving grounds during June.

  5. Austria: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmarcher, Maria M; Quentin, Wilm

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the Austrian health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health-system performance. The Austrian health system provides universal coverage for a wide range of benefits and high-quality care. Free choice of providers and unrestricted access to all care levels (general practitioners, specialist physicians and hospitals) are characteristic features of the system. Unsurprisingly, population satisfaction is well above EU average. Income-related inequality in health has increased since 2005, although it is still relatively low compared to other countries. The health-care system has been shaped by both the federal structure of the state and a tradition of delegating responsibilities to self-governing stakeholders. On the one hand, this enables decentralized planning and governance, adjusted to local norms and preferences. On the other hand, it also leads to fragmentation of responsibilities and frequently results in inadequate coordination. For this reason, efforts have been made for several years to achieve more joint planning, governance and financing of the health-care system at the federal and regional level. As in any health system, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health-care system are well above the EU15 average, both in absolute terms and as a percentage of GDP. There are important structural imbalances in healthcare provision, with an oversized hospital sector and insufficient resources available for ambulatory care and preventive medicine. This is coupled with stark regional differences in utilization, both in curative services (hospital beds and specialist physicians) and preventative services such as preventive health check-ups, outpatient rehabilitation, psychosocial and psychotherapeutic care and nursing. There are clear social inequalities in the use of medical services, such as preventive health check-ups, immunization or dentistry

  6. Vaccination, herd behavior, and herd immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Matan J; Brezis, Mayer; Block, Colin; Diederich, Adele; Chinitz, David

    2013-11-01

    During the 2009 outbreak of novel influenza AH1N1, insufficient data were available to adequately inform decision makers about benefits and risks of vaccination and disease. We hypothesized that individuals would opt to mimic their peers, having no better decision anchor. We used Game Theory, decision analysis, and transmission models to simulate the impact of subjective risks and preference estimates on vaccination behavior. We asked 95 students to provide estimates of risk and health state valuations with regard to AH1N1 infection, complications, and expectations of vaccine benefits and risks. These estimates were included in a sequential chain of models: a dynamic epidemic model, a decision tree, and a population-level model. Additionally, participants' intentions to vaccinate or not at varying vaccination rates were documented. The model showed that at low vaccination rates, vaccination dominated. When vaccination rates increased above 78%, nonvaccination was the dominant strategy. We found that vaccination intentions did not correspond to the shift in strategy dominance and segregated to 3 types of intentions: regardless of what others do 29/95 (31%) intended to vaccinate while 27/95 (28%) did not; among 39 of 95 (41%) intention was positively associated with putative vaccination rates. Some people conform to the majority's choice, either shifting epidemic dynamics toward herd immunity or, conversely, limiting societal goals. Policy leaders should use models carefully, noting their limitations and theoretical assumptions. Behavior drivers were not explicitly explored in this study, and the discrepant results beg further investigation. Models including real subjective perceptions with empiric or subjective probabilities can provide insight into deviations from expected rational behavior and suggest interventions in order to provide better population outcomes.

  7. Review of transmission routes of 24 infectious diseases preventable by biosecurity measures and comparison of the implementation of these measures in pig herds in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippitzi, M E; Brinch Kruse, A; Postma, M; Sarrazin, S; Maes, D; Alban, L; Nielsen, L R; Dewulf, J

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to review the transmission routes of important infectious pig diseases and to translate these into biosecurity measures preventing or reducing the transmission between and within pig herds. Furthermore, it aimed to identify the level of implementation of these measures in different European countries and discuss the observed variations to identify potentials for improvement. First, a literature review was performed to show which direct and indirect transmission routes of 24 infectious pig diseases can be prevented through different biosecurity measures. Second, a quantitative analysis was performed using the Biocheck.UGent™, a risk-based scoring system to evaluate biosecurity in pig herds, to obtain an insight into the implementation of these biosecurity measures. The database contained farm-specific biosecurity data from 574 pig farms in Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden, entered between January 2014 and January 2016. Third, a qualitative analysis based on a review of literature and other relevant information resources was performed for every subcategory of internal and external biosecurity in the Biocheck.UGent™ questionnaire. The quantitative analysis indicated that at the level of internal, external and overall biosecurity, Denmark had a significantly distinct profile with higher external biosecurity scores and less variation than the rest of the countries. This is likely due to a widely used specific pathogen-free (SPF) system with extensive focus on biosecurity since 1971 in Denmark. However, the observed pattern may also be attributed to differences in data collection methods. The qualitative analysis identified differences in applied policies, legislation, disease status, pig farm density, farming culture and habits between countries that can be used for shaping country-specific biosecurity advice to attain improved prevention and control of important pig diseases in European pig farms. © 2017 Blackwell

  8. Impact of animal health and welfare planning on medicine use, herd health and production in European organic dairy farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivemeyer, S; Smolders, G; Brinkmann, J

    2012-01-01

    medicine use through animal health and welfare planning (AHWP). Medicine use (excluding complementary treatments such as homeopathic remedies) was assessed as the total number of treatments and as the number of treatments of various disease categories (udder, fertility, metabolism, locomotion and others...... acidosis and imbalanced energy supply, respectively. Calving interval was used as an indicator for fertility. Milk recording data and treatment data were retrospectively collected for a one year period before and after the first farm visit. Focus areas of animal health and welfare plans were either...

  9. Switzerland: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pietro, Carlo; Camenzind, Paul; Sturny, Isabelle; Crivelli, Luca; Edwards-Garavoglia, Suzanne; Spranger, Anne; Wittenbecher, Friedrich; Quentin, Wilm

    2015-01-01

    This analysis of the Swiss health system reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The Swiss health system is highly complex, combining aspects of managed competition and corporatism (the integration of interest groups in the policy process) in a decentralized regulatory framework shaped by the influences of direct democracy. The health system performs very well with regard to a broad range of indicators. Life expectancy in Switzerland (82.8 years) is the highest in Europe after Iceland, and healthy life expectancy is several years above the European Union (EU) average. Coverage is ensured through mandatory health insurance (MHI), with subsidies for people on low incomes. The system offers a high degree of choice and direct access to all levels of care with virtually no waiting times, though managed care type insurance plans that include gatekeeping restrictions are becoming increasingly important. Public satisfaction with the system is high and quality is generally viewed to be good or very good. Reforms since the year 2000 have improved the MHI system, changed the financing of hospitals, strengthened regulations in the area of pharmaceuticals and the control of epidemics, and harmonized regulation of human resources across the country. In addition, there has been a slow (and not always linear) process towards more centralization of national health policy-making. Nevertheless, a number of challenges remain. The costs of the health care system are well above the EU average, in particular in absolute terms but also as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP) (11.5%). MHI premiums have increased more quickly than incomes since 2003. By European standards, the share of out-of-pocket payments is exceptionally high at 26% of total health expenditure (compared to the EU average of 16%). Low and middle-income households contribute a greater share of their income to

  10. Contextual herd factors associated with cow culling risk in Québec dairy herds: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-09-01

    Several health disorders, such as milk fever, displaced abomasum, and mastitis, as well as impaired reproductive performance, are known risk factors for the removal of affected cows from a dairy herd. While cow-level risk factors are well documented in the literature, herd-level associations have been less frequently investigated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cow- and herd-level determinants on variations in culling risk in Québec dairy herds: whether herd influences a cow's culling risk. For this, we assessed the influence of herd membership on cow culling risk according to displaced abomasum, milk fever, and retained placenta. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in the Province of Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec dairy producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations starting between January 1st and December 31st, 2010. Using multilevel logistic regression, we analysed a total of 10,529 cows from 201 herds that met the inclusion criteria. Milk fever and displaced abomasum were demonstrated to increase the cow culling risk. A minor general herd effect was found for the culling risk (i.e. an intra-class correlation of 1.0% and median odds ratio [MOR] of 1.20). The proportion of first lactation cows was responsible for this significant, but weak herd effect on individual cow culling risk, after taking into account the cow-level factors. On the other hand, the herd's average milk production was a protective factor. The planning and management of forthcoming replacement animals has to be taken into consideration when assessing cow culling risks and herd culling rates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Investigation of productivity in a south Indian Malabari goat herd shows opportunities for planned animal health management to improve food security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargison, N D; Ivil, S A J; Abraham, J; Abubaker, S P S; Hopker, A M; Mazeri, S; Otter, I A; Otter, N

    2017-03-18

    Here the authors report the objective veterinary clinical measurement of productivity in a representative south Indian Malabari goat herd. The authors show failure to meet pragmatic production targets that are commensurate with the animals' genetic potential or adequate to meet the demands of global food security. The authors suggest that this situation may have arisen as a consequence of animal husbandry constraints and protein undernutrition and imply the involvement of nematode parasitism. Benzimidazole resistance was detected in Haemonchus species, showing the need for better understanding of the principles of sustainable helminth parasite control within the southern Indian context. This study highlights the need to understand the true costs of goat production in seasonally resource-poor environments, while also considering its impact on the overall ecosystem in which the animals are placed. They conclude that pragmatic opportunities for improvements in goat production efficiency lie in the development of problem-focused planned animal health and nutrition management. British Veterinary Association.

  12. Herd-level interpretation of test results for epidemiologic studies of animal diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jette; Gardner, Ian A.

    2000-01-01

    Correct classification of the true status of herds is an important component of epidemiologic studies and animal disease-control programs. We review theoretical aspects of herd-level testing through consideration of test performance (herd-level sensitivity, specificity and predictive values......), the factors affecting these estimates, and available software for calculations. We present new aspects and considerations concerning the effect of precision and bias in estimation of individual-test performance on herd-test performance and suggest methods (pooled testing, targeted sampling of subpopulations...... with higher prevalence, and use of combinations of tests) to improve herd-level sensitivity when the expected within-herd prevalence is low....

  13. Herd Protection from Drinking Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, James A; Eisenberg, Joseph N S

    2016-11-02

    Herd immunity arises when a communicable disease is less able to propagate because a substantial portion of the population is immune. Nonimmunizing interventions, such as insecticide-treated bednets and deworming drugs, have shown similar herd-protective effects. Less is known about the herd protection from drinking water, sanitation, and hand hygiene (WASH) interventions. We first constructed a transmission model to illustrate mechanisms through which different WASH interventions may provide herd protection. We then conducted an extensive review of the literature to assess the validity of the model results and identify current gaps in research. The model suggests that herd protection accounts for a substantial portion of the total protection provided by WASH interventions. However, both the literature and the model suggest that sanitation interventions in particular are the most likely to provide herd protection, since they reduce environmental contamination. Many studies fail to account for these indirect effects and thus underestimate the total impact an intervention may have. Although cluster-randomized trials of WASH interventions have reported the total or overall efficacy of WASH interventions, they have not quantified the role of herd protection. Just as it does in immunization policy, understanding the role of herd protection from WASH interventions can help inform coverage targets and strategies that indirectly protect those that are unable to be reached by WASH campaigns. Toward this end, studies are needed to confirm the differential role that herd protection plays across the WASH interventions suggested by our transmission model. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s) of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Erling; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    2008-12-18

    Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1) identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2) submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s) of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3) to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse) of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased production when compared to most of the participating farmers

  15. A mixed methods inquiry: How dairy farmers perceive the value(s of their involvement in an intensive dairy herd health management program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Erling

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has been scarce when it comes to the motivational and behavioral sides of farmers' expectations related to dairy herd health management programs. The objectives of this study were to explore farmers' expectations related to participation in a health management program by: 1 identifying important ambitions, goals and subjective well-being among farmers, 2 submitting those data to a quantitative analysis thereby characterizing perspective(s of value added by health management programs among farmers; and 3 to characterize perceptions of farmers' goals among veterinarians. Methods The subject was initially explored by means of literature, interviews and discussions with farmers, herd health management consultants and researchers to provide an understanding (a concourse of the research entity. The concourse was then broken down into 46 statements. Sixteen Danish dairy farmers and 18 veterinarians associated with one large nationwide veterinary practice were asked to rank the 46 statements that defined the concourse. Next, a principal component analysis was applied to identify correlated statements and thus families of perspectives between respondents. Q-methodology was utilized to represent each of the statements by one row and each respondent by one column in the matrix. A subset of the farmers participated in a series of semi-structured interviews to face validate the concourse and to discuss subjects like animal welfare, veterinarians' competences as experienced by the farmers and time constraints in the farmers' everyday life. Results Farmers' views could be described by four families of perspectives: Teamwork, Animal welfare, Knowledge dissemination, and Production. Veterinarians believed that farmers' primary focus was on production and profit, however, farmers' valued teamwork and animal welfare more. Conclusion The veterinarians in this study appear to focus too much on financial performance and increased

  16. Online Anti-Brand Herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langley, David J.; Tan, Chee-Wee; Worm, Daniël

    The online environment offers a fertile breeding ground for anti-brand herds of disgruntled consumers. Firms are often caught off guard by the unpredictability of such herds and, as a consequence, are forced into a reactive, defensive stance. We conduct a social media analysis that aims to shed...... light on the formation, growth, and dissolution of online anti-brand herds. First we expand on the concept of environmental turbulence to advance core properties unique to online herd behavior. Next, based on evidence gathered from 40 online anti-brand herd episodes targeting two prominent firms from...... the Netherlands, we develop an analytical model to investigate drivers of herd formation, growth, and dissolution. Finally, combining environmental turbulence literature with our empirical findings, we derive a novel typology of online anti-brand herd behaviors, and put forward six propositions to guide theory...

  17. Belgium: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerkens, Sophie; Merkur, Sherry

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Belgian population continues to enjoy good health and long life expectancy. This is partly due to good access to health services of high quality. Financing is based mostly on proportional social security contributions and progressive direct taxation. The compulsory health insurance is combined with a mostly private system of health care delivery, based on independent medical practice, free choice of physician and predominantly fee-for-service payment. This Belgian HiT profile (2010) presents the evolution of the health system since 2007, including detailed information on new policies. While no drastic reforms were undertaken during this period, policy-makers have pursued the goals of improving access to good quality of care while making the system sustainable. Reforms to increase the accessibility of the health system include measures to reduce the out-of-pocket payments of more vulnerable populations (low-income families and individuals as well as the chronically ill). Quality of care related reforms have included incentives to better integrate different levels of care and the establishment of information systems, among others. Additionally, several measures on pharmaceutical products have aimed to reduce costs for both the National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance (NIHDI) and patients, while maintaining the quality of care. World Health Organization 2010, on behalf of the European Observatory on health systems and Policies.

  18. Direct and indirect effects of wastewater use and herd environment on the occurrence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elahi, Ehsan; Zhang, Liqin; Abid, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad Tariq; Xinru, Han

    2017-03-01

    The use of wastewater for rearing domestic animals is a common phenomenon in most of the developing countries like Pakistan that face a serious shortage of freshwater resources. However, most of the literature has only focused on the indirect effects of wastewater use on animal health or productivity, and literature on the direct effects of wastewater use is rare. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the direct and indirect effects of wastewater usage on the prevalence of animal diseases and animal health in Pakistan. The study is based on a household-level survey of 360 domestic water buffalo herds collected from 12 districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. We tested the prevalence of the animal's diseases, animal's health, and wastewater-use preference with various econometric tools, such as the Poisson, negative binomial, and logistic regressions. The findings of the study show that the majority of the farmers use wastewater for buffalo bathing due to the shortage of freshwater resources. Results explore the prevalence of diseases such as clinical mastitis, tick infestation, and foot and mouth disease at the farm level significantly associated with buffalo bathing in the wastewater. Moreover, bathing in wastewater pre- and post-milking also plays a role in the occurrence of diseases. Particularly, if the buffalo's access to wastewater for bathing is within 60 min after milking, the probability of the animals being exposed to mastitis is higher. Furthermore, on investigation, a number of factors are found, such as the distance to the water source, power shortage, groundwater availability, and the education of farmers that influence farmers' behavior of letting their animals take a bath in wastewater. Moreover, the use of different preventive measures improves the animal's health.

  19. Bulgaria health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimova, Antoniya; Rohova, Maria; Moutafova, Emanuela; Atanasova, Elka; Koeva, Stefka; Panteli, Dimitra; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, demographic development in Bulgaria has been characterized by population decline, a low crude birth rate, a low fertility rate, a high mortality rate and an ageing population. A stabilizing political situation since the early 2000s and an economic upsurge since the mid-2000s were important factors in the slight increase of the birth and fertility rates and the slight decrease in standardized death rates. In general, Bulgaria lags behind European Union (EU) averages in most mortality and morbidity indicators. Life expectancy at birth reached 73.3 years in 2008 with the main three causes of death being diseases of the circulatory system, malignant neoplasms and diseases of the respiratory system. One of the most important risk factors overall is smoking, and the average standardized death rate for smoking-related causes in 2008 was twice as high as the EU15 average. The Bulgarian health system is characterized by limited statism. The Ministry of Health is responsible for national health policy and the overall organization and functioning of the health system and coordinates with all ministries with relevance to public health. The key players in the insurance system are the insured individuals, the health care providers and the third party payers, comprising the National Health Insurance Fund, the single payer in the social health insurance (SHI) system, and voluntary health insurance companies (VHICs). Health financing consists of a publicprivate mix. Health care is financed from compulsory health insurance contributions, taxes, outofpocket (OOP) payments, voluntary health insurance (VHI) premiums, corporate payments, donations, and external funding. Total health expenditure (THE) as a share of gross domestic product (GDP) increased from 5.3% in 1995 to 7.3% in 2008. At the latter date it consisted of 36.5% OOP payments, 34.8% SHI, 13.6% Ministry of Health expenditure, 9.4% municipality expenditure and 0.3% VHI. Informal payments in the health

  20. Poland health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Anna; Panteli, Dimitra; Borkowski, W; Dmowski, M; Domanski, F; Czyzewski, M; Gorynski, Pawel; Karpacka, Dorota; Kiersztyn, E; Kowalska, Iwona; Ksiezak, Malgorzata; Kuszewski, K; Lesniewska, A; Lipska, I; Maciag, R; Madowicz, Jaroslaw; Madra, Anna; Marek, M; Mokrzycka, A; Poznanski, Darius; Sobczak, Alicja; Sowada, Christoph; Swiderek, Maria; Terka, A; Trzeciak, Patrycja; Wiktorzak, Katarzyna; Wlodarczyk, Cezary; Wojtyniak, B; Wrzesniewska-Wal, Iwona; Zelwianska, Dobrawa; Busse, Reinhard

    2011-01-01

    Since the successful transition to a freely elected parliament and a market economy after 1989, Poland is now a stable democracy and is well represented within political and economic organizations in Europe and worldwide. The strongly centralized health system based on the Semashko model was replaced with a decentralized system of mandatory health insurance, complemented with financing from state and territorial self-government budgets. There is a clear separation of health care financing and provision: the National Health Fund (NFZ) the sole payer in the system is in charge of health care financing and contracts with public and non-public health care providers. The Ministry of Health is the key policy-maker and regulator in the system and is supported by a number of advisory bodies, some of them recently established. Health insurance contributions, borne entirely by employees, are collected by intermediary institutions and are pooled by the NFZ and distributed between the 16 regional NFZ branches. In 2009, Poland spent 7.4% of its gross domestic product (GDP) on health. Around 70% of health expenditure came from public sources and over 83.5% of this expenditure can be attributed to the (near) universal health insurance. The relatively high share of private expenditure is mostly represented by out-of-pocket (OOP) payments, mainly in the form of co-payments and informal payments. Voluntary health insurance (VHI) does not play an important role and is largely limited to medical subscription packages offered by employers. Compulsory health insurance covers 98% of the population and guarantees access to a broad range of health services. However, the limited financial resources of the NFZ mean that broad entitlements guaranteed on paper are not always available. Health care financing is overall at most proportional: while financing from health care contributions is proportional and budgetary subsidies to system funding are progressive, high OOP expenditures

  1. Herbs in grassland and health of the dairy herd. 1: The potential medicinal value of pasture herbs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laldi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the period April - October 2011 Sibilla Laldi (MSc-student WUR) carried out the research project ‘Herbs in grasslands and health of the dairy herd’, a project of the Louis Bolk Institute. In this project the relation between pastures herbs and health of dairy cattle was studied on 22 dairy farms.

  2. Breakeven costs for embryo transfer in a commercial dairy herd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, T A; Troyer, B W

    1987-11-01

    Differences in Estimated Breeding Values expressed in dollars were compared by simulation of two, 100-cow, closed herds. One herd practiced normal intensity of female selection. The other herd generated various herd replacements by embryo transfer by varying 1) selection rate of embryo transfer dams and 2) numbers of daughters per dam from which embryos were transferred, while varying the merit of mates of embryo transfer dams. Estimated Breeding Value dollars were compounded each generation and regressed to remove age adjustments and added feed and health costs. Beginning values in both herds included a standard deviation of 55 Cow Index dollars, herd average of -23 Cow Index dollars, and a 120 Predicted Difference dollars for mates of dams not embryo transferred. Average merit of all sires used increased $12 per year. Herd calving rate (.70), proportion females (.5), calf loss (.15), and heifer survival rate (.83) were used. Breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow entering the milking herd was computed by Net Present Value analysis using a 10% discount rate over 10 and 20 yr. Breakeven cost or the maximum expense that would allow a 10% return on the expenditure ranged from $135 to $510 per surviving cow, $24 to $125 per transfer, $47 to $178 per pregnancy, and $81 to $357 per female calf born. As the number of replacements resulting from embryo transfer increased, breakeven cost per embryo transfer cow decreased due to diminishing return.

  3. Culling from the herd's perspective-Exploring herd-level management factors and culling rates in Québec dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Denis; Delgado, Hector; Cue, Roger; Sewalem, Asheber; Wade, Kevin; Lacroix, René; Lefebvre, Daniel; Arsenault, Julie; Bouchard, Émile; Dubuc, Jocelyn

    2017-11-01

    The relationship between cows' health, reproductive performance or disorders and their longevity is well demonstrated in the literature. However these associations at the cow level might not hold true at the herd level, and herd-level variables can modify cow-level outcomes independently of the cows' characteristics. The interaction between cow-level and herd-level variables is a relevant issue for understanding the culling of dairy cows. However it requires the appropriate group-level variables to assess any contextual effect. Based on 10 years of health and production data, the objectives of this paper are:(a) to quantify the culling rates of dairy herds in Québec; (b) to determine the profiles of the herds based on herd-level factors, such as demographics, reproduction, production and health indicators, and whether these profiles can be related to herd culling rates for use as potential contextual variables in multilevel modelling of culling risk. A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted on data from dairy herds in Québec, Canada, by extracting health information events from the dairy herd health management software used by most Québec producers and their veterinarians. Data were extracted for all lactations taking place between January 1st, 2001 and December 31st, 2010. A total of 432,733 lactations from 156,409 cows out of 763 herds were available for analysis. Thirty cow-level variables were aggregated for each herd and years of follow-up, and their relationship was investigated by Multiple Factor Analysis (MFA). The overall annual culling rate was 32%, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) of [31.6%,32.5%]. The dairy sale rate by 60 days in milk (DIM) was 3.2% [2.8%,3.6%]. The annual culling rate within 60 DIM was 8.2% [7.9%,8.4%]. The explained variance for each axis from the MFA was very low: 14.8% for the first axis and 13.1% for the second. From the MFA results, we conclude there is no relationship between the groups of herd-level indicators

  4. Canada: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchildon, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Canada is a high-income country with a population of 33 million people. Its economic performance has been solid despite the recession that began in 2008. Life expectancy in Canada continues to rise and is high compared with most OECD countries; however, infant and maternal mortality rates tend to be worse than in countries such as Australia, France and Sweden. About 70% of total health expenditure comes from the general tax revenues of the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Most public revenues for health are used to provide universal medicare (medically necessary hospital and physician services that are free at the point of service for residents) and to subsidise the costs of outpatient prescription drugs and long-term care. Health care costs continue to grow at a faster rate than the economy and government revenue, largely driven by spending on prescription drugs. In the last five years, however, growth rates in pharmaceutical spending have been matched by hospital spending and overtaken by physician spending, mainly due to increased provider remuneration. The governance, organization and delivery of health services is highly decentralized, with the provinces and territories responsible for administering medicare and planning health services. In the last ten years there have been no major pan-Canadian health reform initiatives but individual provinces and territories have focused on reorganizing or fine tuning their regional health systems and improving the quality, timeliness and patient experience of primary, acute and chronic care. The medicare system has been effective in providing Canadians with financial protection against hospital and physician costs. However, the narrow scope of services covered under medicare has produced important gaps in coverage and equitable access may be a challenge in these areas. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and

  5. Croatia: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Džakula, Aleksandar; Sagan, Anna; Pavić, Nika; Lonćčarek, Karmen; Sekelj-Kauzlarić, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Croatia is a small central European country on the Balkan peninsula, with a population of approximately 4.3 million and a gross domestic product (GDP) of 62% of the European Union (EU) average (expressed in purchasing power parity; PPP) in 2012. On 1 July 2013, Croatia became the 28th Member State of the EU. Life expectancy at birth has been increasing steadily in Croatia (with a small decline in the years following the 1991 to 1995 War of Independence) but is still lower than the EU average. Prevalence of overweight and obesity in the population has increased during recent years and trends in physical inactivity are alarming. The Croatian Health Insurance Fund (CHIF), established in 1993, is the sole insurer in the mandatory health insurance (MHI) system that provides universal health coverage to the whole population. The ownership of secondary health care facilities is distributed between the State and the counties. The financial position of public hospitals is weak and recent reforms were aimed at improving this. The introduction of concessions in 2009 (public private partnerships whereby county governments organize tenders for the provision of specific primary health care services) allowed the counties to play a more active role in the organization, coordination and management of primary health care; most primary care practices have been privatized. The proportion of GDP spent on health by the Croatian government remains relatively low compared to western Europe, as does the per capita health expenditure. Although the share of public expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure (THE) has been decreasing, at around 82% it is still relatively high, even by European standards. The main source of the CHIFs revenue is compulsory health insurance contributions, accounting for 76% of the total revenues of the CHIF, although only about a third of the population (active workers) is liable to pay full health care contributions. Although the breadth and scope

  6. Greece: Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economou, Charalambos

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (EU) countries. The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. Access to services is based on citizenship as well as on occupational status.The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments.The largest share of health expenditure constitutes private expenditure, mainly in the form of out of pocket payments which is also the element contributing most to the overall increase in health expenditure. The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. The presence of private providers is more obvious in primary care,especially in diagnostic technologies, private physicians' practices and pharmaceuticals. Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. It suffers from the absence of cost-containment measures and defined criteria for funding, resulting in sickness funds experiencing economic constraints and budget deficits. The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair

  7. Sleep, noise and health: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Zaharna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sleep is a physiologic recuperative state that may be negatively affected by factors such as psychosocial and work stress as well as external stimuli like noise. Chronic sleep loss is a common problem in today′s society, and it may have significant health repercussions such as cognitive impairment, and depressed mood, and negative effects on cardiovascular, endocrine, and immune function. This article reviews the definition of disturbed sleep versus sleep deprivation as well as the effects of noise on sleep. We review the various health effects of chronic partial sleep loss with a focus on the neuroendocrine/hormonal, cardiovascular, and mental health repercussions.

  8. Herding Complex Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ruf, Sebastian F.

    2018-04-12

    The problem of controlling complex networks is of interest to disciplines ranging from biology to swarm robotics. However, controllability can be too strict a condition, failing to capture a range of desirable behaviors. Herdability, which describes the ability to drive a system to a specific set in the state space, was recently introduced as an alternative network control notion. This paper considers the application of herdability to the study of complex networks. The herdability of a class of networked systems is investigated and two problems related to ensuring system herdability are explored. The first is the input addition problem, which investigates which nodes in a network should receive inputs to ensure that the system is herdable. The second is a related problem of selecting the best single node from which to herd the network, in the case that a single node is guaranteed to make the system is herdable. In order to select the best herding node, a novel control energy based herdability centrality measure is introduced.

  9. Effects of free-range and confined housing on joint health in a herd of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etterlin, Pernille Engelsen; Ytrehus, Bjørnar; Lundeheim, Nils; Heldmer, Eva; Österberg, Julia; Ekman, Stina

    2014-09-11

    Free-range housing, in which pigs have access to both indoor and outdoor areas, is mandatory in organic pig production in Europe, but little is known about the effects of this housing on joint health in pigs. A high level of joint condemnations at slaughter has been reported in organic free-range pigs in Sweden, compared with pigs raised in conventional confined housing. We hypothesised that biomechanical forces imposed on the joints of pigs that range freely promote the development of osteochondrosis and lead to joint condemnation. We compared the prevalence of osteochondrosis and other joint lesions (e.g. arthritis, traumatic) in the elbow and hock joints of 91 crossbred Hampshire (Yorkshire × Landrace) fattening pigs that were housed in a free-range indoor/outdoor system with that in 45 pigs housed in confined indoor pens. A larger proportion of free-range than confined pigs had osteochondrosis in the elbow joints (69 vs. 50%, p free-range pigs showed moderate or severe lesions (33 vs. 16%, p free-range pigs also showed a higher prevalence of osteochondrosis in the hock joints (83 vs. 62%, p free-range pigs had condemned joints, all of which showed severe osteochondrosis, while no joints of confined pigs were condemned. In this experiment the prevalence of osteochondrosis in the elbow and the hock was higher, and lesions were more severe, in free-range than in confined pigs, suggesting that free-range housing increases the risk of acquiring osteochondrosis. Increased biomechanical stress to vulnerable joint structures may be the mechanism behind this effect, however more studies are needed to verify these results. This study suggests that modification of housing, and breeding for joints that are more adapted to free-range movement may be needed in free-range pig production. Severe osteochondrosis is a cause of joint condemnation, but the condemnation rate at slaughter underestimates the actual frequency of joint lesions and hence is a poor assessment of joint

  10. Mastitis and related management factors in certified organic dairy herds in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansson Ingrid

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mastitis is one of the major threats to animal health, in organic farming as well as conventional. Preliminary studies of organic dairy herds have indicated better udder health in such herds, as compared to conventional herds. The aim of this paper was to further study mastitis and management related factors in certified organic dairy herds. Methods An observational study of 26 certified organic dairy herds in mid-eastern Sweden was conducted during one year. A large-animal practitioner visited the herds three times and clinically examined and sampled cows, and collected information about general health and management routines. Data on milk production and disorders treated by a veterinarian in the 26 herds, as well as in 1102 conventional herds, were retrieved from official records. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess associations between herd type (organic vs. conventional and incidence of disorders. Results The organic herds that took part in the study ranged in size from 12 to 64 cows, in milk production from 3772 to 10334 kg per cow and year, and in bulk milk somatic cell counts from 83000 to 280000 cells/ml. The organic herds were found to have a lower incidence of clinical mastitis, teat injuries, and a lower proportion of cows with a high somatic cell count (as indicated by the UDS, Udder Disease Score compared to conventional herds. The spectrum of udder pathogenic bacteria was similar to that found in other Swedish studies. Treatment of mastitis was found to be similar to what is practised in conventional herds. Homeopathic remedies were not widely used in the treatment of clinical mastitis. The calves in most of these organic herds suckled their dams for only a few days, which were not considered to substantially affect the udder health. The main management factor that was different from conventional herds was the feeding strategy, where organic herds used a larger share of forage. Conclusion Udder

  11. The health economics of cholera: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Amber; Hall, Angela H; Mogasale, Vittal; Quentin, Wilm

    2018-06-12

    Vibrio cholera is a major contributor of diarrheal illness that causes significant morbidity and mortality globally. While there is literature on the health economics of diarrheal illnesses more generally, few studies have quantified the cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness of cholera-specific prevention and control interventions. The present systematic review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature specific to cholera as it pertains to key health economic measures. A systematic review was performed with no date restrictions up through February 2017 in PubMed, Econlit, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Review to identify relevant health economics of cholera literature. After removing duplicates, a total of 1993 studies were screened and coded independently by two reviewers, resulting in 22 relevant studies. Data on population, methods, and results (cost-of-illness and cost-effectiveness of vaccination) were compared by country/region. All costs were adjusted to 2017 USD for comparability. Costs per cholera case were found to be rather low: $1000/case. There is adequate evidence to support the economic value of vaccination for the prevention and control of cholera when vaccination is targeted at high-incidence populations and/or areas with high case fatality rates due to cholera. When herd immunity is considered, vaccination also becomes a cost-effective option for the general population and is comparable in cost-effectiveness to other routine immunizations. Cholera vaccination is a viable short-to-medium term option, especially as the upfront costs of building water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure are considerably higher for countries that face a significant burden of cholera. While WASH may be the more cost-effective solution in the long-term when implemented properly, cholera vaccination can still be a feasible, cost-effective strategy. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with the growing-finishing performances of swine herds: an exploratory study on serological and herd level indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fablet, C; Rose, N; Grasland, B; Robert, N; Lewandowski, E; Gosselin, M

    2018-01-01

    Growing and finishing performances of pigs strongly influence farm efficiency and profitability. The performances of the pigs rely on the herd health status and also on several non-infectious factors. Many recommendations for the improvement of the technical performances of a herd are based on the results of studies assessing the effect of one or a limited number of infections or environmental factors. Few studies investigated jointly the influence of both type of factors on swine herd performances. This work aimed at identifying infectious and non-infectious factors associated with the growing and finishing performances of 41 French swine herds. Two groups of herds were identified using a clustering analysis: a cluster of 24 herds with the highest technical performance values (mean average daily gain = 781.1 g/day +/- 26.3; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.5 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 4.1% +/- 0.9; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 121.2 kg +/- 5.2) and a cluster of 17 herds with the lowest performance values (mean average daily gain =715.8 g/day +/- 26.5; mean feed conversion ratio = 2.6 kg/kg +/- 0.1; mean mortality rate = 6.8% +/- 2.0; and mean carcass slaughter weight = 117.7 kg +/- 3.6). Multiple correspondence analysis was used to identify factors associated with the level of technical performance. Infection with the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and the porcine circovirus type 2 were infectious factors associated with the cluster having the lowest performance values. This cluster also featured farrow-to-finish type herds, a short interval between successive batches of pigs (≤3 weeks) and mixing of pigs from different batches in the growing or/and finishing steps. Inconsistency between nursery and fattening building management was another factor associated with the low-performance cluster. The odds of a herd showing low growing-finishing performance was significantly

  13. HERD HEALTH DEFINITION AND STRATEGIES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF VETERINARY PREVENTIVE MEDICINE PROGRAMS SALUD DE HATO DEFINICIÓN Y ESTRATEGIAS PARA EL ESTABLECIMIENTO DE PROGRAMAS DE MEDICINA VETERINARIA PREVENTIVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zambrano Varon, Jorge Luis

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of a herd health program for food animals is the maintenance of animal health and production at the most efficient level that provides competitive economic returns to the farmer. Some equally important secondary objectives include providing animal welfare, ensuring the product’s quality, minimization of pollution of the environment by animal wastes, the prevention of zoonoses, and the avoidance of contaminants and residues in animal products. Targets of performance need to be considered when establishing a production medicine management program. In a herd health program, the actual levels of efficiency are compared to the objectives previously set; the difference corresponds to sub optimal production problems. Using an oriented problem-solving approach to adequately identify health issues that may negatively impact the production system, it is possible to implement the necessary corrective actions to health problems. The reasons for failure are then identified, recommendations for improvement are made and performance is monitored to assess the effectiveness of the action taken. Veterinary epidemiology has become a very important quantitative tool to assess and follow herd health programs. The objectives of the present paper are to discuss some of the basic principles of herd health, and to present a practical approach to use epidemiological tools for herd health problem investigations.El objetivo principal de un programa de Salud de hato en animales de producción es el mantenimiento de la salud animal y la producción en el nivel más eficiente que ofrezca rentabilidad económica competitiva al productor. Algunos objetivos secundarios igualmente importante, incluyen proporcionar bienestar animal, garantizar la calidad de los productos producidos, minimizar el impacto medio ambiental generado por los residuos de origen animal, la prevención de las enfermedades zoonóticas y disminución de la presentación de

  14. Risk factors for displaced abomasum or ketosis in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, L; Hultgren, J; Tråvén, M; Holtenius, K; Emanuelson, U

    2012-03-01

    Risk factors associated with high or low long-term incidence of displaced abomasum (DA) or clinical ketosis were studied in 60 Swedish dairy herds, using multivariable logistic regression modelling. Forty high-incidence herds were included as cases and 20 low-incidence herds as controls. Incidence rates were calculated based on veterinary records of clinical diagnoses. During the 3-year period preceding the herd classification, herds with a high incidence had a disease incidence of DA or clinical ketosis above the 3rd quartile in a national database for disease recordings. Control herds had no cows with DA or clinical ketosis. All herds were visited during the housing period and herdsmen were interviewed about management routines, housing, feeding, milk yield, and herd health. Target groups were heifers in late gestation, dry cows, and cows in early lactation. Univariable logistic regression was used to screen for factors associated with being a high-incidence herd. A multivariable logistic regression model was built using stepwise regression. A higher maximum daily milk yield in multiparous cows and a large herd size (p=0.054 and p=0.066, respectively) tended to be associated with being a high-incidence herd. Not cleaning the heifer feeding platform daily increased the odds of having a high-incidence herd twelvefold (pketosis in Swedish dairy herds. These results confirm the importance of housing, management and feeding in the prevention of metabolic disorders in dairy cows around parturition and in early lactation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. "Don't Have A Cow, Man!": Recognizing Herd Share Agreements for Raw Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Dissatisfaction with the industrial model of food production has caused many consumers to seek out food produced on local, family-scale farms that use U.S. Department of Agriculture certified organic or other sustainable practices to grow their food and raise their livestock. While almost all of the types of food that are available at the grocery store can also be found at the local farmers market, one food that is difficult to find in many states is raw milk—that is, milk that has not undergone pasteurization (heat treatment). This difficulty lies in the fact that most states prohibit the direct retail sale of raw milk to the final consumer because public health officials and state legislators fear that raw milk may contain bacteria harmful to human health such as E. coli, Campylobacter, and Listeria. However, some consumers reject these warnings and instead believe that raw milk possesses both nutritional and medicinal qualities. Indeed, an ever-increasing body of scientific research published in peer-reviewed journals supports the claim that raw milk consumption can mitigate or prevent some allergies and infections, especially in young children. In order for consumers to obtain raw milk in states where its sale is prohibited, some consumers have entered into arrangements with farmers known as “herd sharing,” through which the consumer effectively becomes an owner of the herd of cows or goats. For the price of the share and a monthly boarding fee, the shareholder can receive a weekly distribution of the herd’s primary dividend, namely the raw milk. Several states expressly permit this practice while most are silent and still a few prohibit it outright. The three courts in the United States that have ruled on herd share agreements have split, with two courts rejecting the agreements as a circumvention of the state’s prohibition on the sale of raw milk, and the other court assuming the agreement’s validity in light of the state’s failure to adequately

  16. Animal Board Invited Review: Sheep birth distribution in past herds: a review for prehistoric Europe (6th to 3rd millennia BC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasse, M; Tresset, A; Bălăşescu, A; Blaise, E; Tornero, C; Gandois, H; Fiorillo, D; Nyerges, É Á; Frémondeau, D; Banffy, E; Ivanova, M

    2017-12-01

    In temperate latitudes sheep have a seasonal reproductive behaviour, which imposes strong constraints on husbandry in terms of work organization and availability of animal products. During the last 50 years, researchers have focused on understanding the mechanisms driving small ruminants' reproduction cycles and finding ways to control them. This characteristic is inherited from their wild ancestor. However, the history of its evolution over the 10 millennia that separates present day European sheep from their Near Eastern ancestors' remains to be written. This perspective echoes archaeologists' current attempts at reconstructing ancient pastoral societies' socio-economical organization. Information related to birth seasonality may be retrieved directly from archaeological sheep teeth. The methodology consists of reconstructing the seasonal cycle record in sheep molars, through sequential analysis of the stable oxygen isotope composition (δ 18O) of enamel. Because the timing of tooth development is fixed within a species, inter-individual variability in this parameter reflects birth seasonality. A review of the data obtained from 10 European archaeological sites dated from the 6th to the 3rd millennia BC is provided. The results demonstrate a restricted breeding season for sheep: births occurred over a period of 3 to 4 months, from late winter to early summer at latitudes 43°N to 48°N, while a later onset was observed at a higher latitude (59°N). All conclusions concurred with currently held expectations based on present day sheep physiology, which, aside from the historical significance, contributes to the reinforcing of the methodological basis of the approach. Further study in this area will permit regional variability attributable to technical choices, within global schemes, to be fully reported.

  17. INFORMATION ASYMMETRY AND HERDING BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puput Tri Komalasari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conceptually, the stock market is strong form efficient in the long term. However, in practice, there are various forms of market anomalies that undermine the accuracy of the efficient market hypothesis. One factor suspected as the cause of market inefficiency is herding behavior. Investors herd when they imitate the actions of other investors. This behavior occurs when there is a continuous interaction among rational investors that prevents them from seeking information about market fundamentals. This study provides new insights by including information asymmetry as a moderating variable. This research examines the phenomenon of herding behavior in the Indonesia Stock Exchange as well as examines directly the effect of information asymmetry on herding behavior. The period of study is 2008 using time series of daily stocks data that actively traded in the capital market. Results of this study find that investor tends to follow market consensus when price changes at the low level, but when there is large price swing market participant acts independently from other investors. Interestingly, this study finds that information asymmetry is a necessary condition for the existence of herding behavior.

  18. Estimating the herd immunity effect of rotavirus vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Suzanne L; Malpica-Llanos, Tanya; Friberg, Ingrid K; Fischer-Walker, Christa; Ashraf, Sania; Walker, Neff

    2015-07-31

    Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of death in children under 5, and an estimated 39% of these deaths are attributable to rotavirus. Currently two live, oral rotavirus vaccines have been introduced on the market; however, the herd immunity effect associated with rotavirus vaccine has not yet been quantified. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the herd immunity effects associated with rotavirus vaccines. We performed a systematic literature review of articles published between 2008 and 2014 that measured the impact of rotavirus vaccine on severe gastroenteritis (GE) morbidity or mortality. We assessed the quality of published studies using a standard protocol and conducted meta-analyses to estimate the herd immunity effect in children less than one year of age across all years presented in the studies. We conducted these analyses separately for studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome and those reporting an all-cause GE outcome. In studies reporting a rotavirus-specific GE outcome, four of five of which were conducted in the United States, the median herd effect across all study years was 22% [19-25%]. In studies reporting an all-cause GE outcome, all of which were conducted in Latin America, the median herd effect was 24.9% [11-30%]. There is evidence that rotavirus vaccination confers a herd immunity effect in children under one year of age in the United States and Latin American countries. Given the high variability in vaccine efficacy across regions, more studies are needed to better examine herd immunity effects in high mortality regions. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae Isolates Recovered from Pigs in Apparently Healthy Multiplier Herds with Isolates from Herds with Swine Dysentery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohaemorrhagic colitis of grower/finisher pigs classically resulting from infection by the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. This study aimed to determine whether B. hyodysenteriae isolates from pigs in three healthy German multiplier herds supplying gilts to other farms differed from isolates from nine German production herds with SD. Isolates were subjected to whole genomic sequencing, and in silico multilocus sequence typing showed that those from the three multiplier herds were of previously undescribed sequence types (ST132, ST133 and ST134, with all isolates from the same herd having the same ST. All isolates were examined for the presence of 332 genes encoding predicted virulence or virulence lifestyle associated factors, and these were well conserved. Isolates from one multiplier herd were atypical in being weakly haemolytic: they had 10 amino acid substitutions in the haemolysin III protein and five in the haemolysin activation protein compared to reference strain WA1, and had a disruption in the promoter site of the hlyA gene. These changes likely contribute to the weakly haemolytic phenotype and putative lack of virulence. These same isolates also had nine base pair insertions in the iron metabolism genes bitB and bitC and lacked five of six plasmid genes that previously have been associated with colonisation. Other overall differences between isolates from the different herds were in genes from three of five outer membrane proteins, which were not found in all the isolates, and in members of a block of six plasmid genes. Isolates from three herds with SD had all six plasmid genes, while isolates lacking some of these genes were found in the three healthy herds-but also in isolates from six herds with SD. Other differences in genes of unknown function or in gene expression may contribute to variation in virulence; alternatively, superior husbandry and better general health may have

  20. Biosecurity and animal disease management in organic and conventional Swedish dairy herds: a questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuelson, Ulf; Sjöström, Karin; Fall, Nils

    2018-04-12

    Good animal health is a notion that is germane to organic dairy production, and it is expected that such herds would pay significant attention on the health of their animals. However, it is not known if the applied animal disease management is actually more adequate in organic dairy cattle herds than in conventional dairy herds. A questionnaire study on biosecurity and animal disease management activities was therefore conducted among Swedish farmers with organic and conventional dairy cattle herds. A total of 192 useable questionnaires were returned; response rates of 30.3 and 20.2% for organic and conventional farmers, respectively. Herd characteristics of the two herd types were very similar, except that pipeline/tie-stall systems were less common in organic farms and that organic farmers had a higher education level than their conventional counterparts. Also, very few systematic differences in general or specific disease management activities were observed between the two types of farms. The main exceptions being how milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was used, views on policy actions in relation to antibiotic use, and attitudes towards calling for veterinary support. Using milk from cows during antibiotic treatment was more common in conventional herds, although it was mainly given to bull calves. Farmers of organic herds were more positive to policy actions to reduce the use and need for antibiotics, and they reported waiting longer before contacting a veterinarian for calves with diarrhoea and cows with subclinical mastitis. The stated biosecurity and animal disease management was relatively equal in Swedish organic and conventional dairy herds. Our results thus indicate that animal health is as important in conventionally managed dairy herds in Sweden as in organically managed herds.

  1. Investor mood, herding and the Ramadan effect

    OpenAIRE

    Gavriilidis, Konstantinos; Kallinterakis, Vasileios; Tsalavoutas, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    In view of evidence linking herding and social mood, we examine whether the positive mood documented during Ramadan translates into higher herding compared to non-Ramadan days. Drawing on a sample of seven majority Muslim countries, we report significant herding during Ramadan in most of our sample markets. Additionally, we show that herding appears significantly stronger within rather than outside Ramadan for most tests whereby its significance is manifested on both Ramadan- and non-Ramadan-...

  2. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus) herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a func...

  3. Traditional ecological knowledge underlying herding decisions of pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamou, C; de Boer, I J M; Ripoll-Bosch, R; Oosting, S J

    2018-04-01

    Pastoralists have traditional ecological knowledge (TEK), which is important for their livelihoods and for policies and interventions. Pastoralism is under pressure, however, which may result in a decline of pastoral lifestyle and its related TEK. We, therefore, addressed the following objectives (i) to inventorise and assess how pastoralists characterise and value soils and forages in their environment, (ii) to analyse how soil, forage and livestock (i.e. cattle) characteristics relate to herding decisions and (iii) to determine whether TEK underlying herding decisions differs across generations. Data were collected through focus groups and individual interviews with 72 pastoralists, belonging to three generations and to three agro-ecological zones. Using a three-point scale (high, medium, low), four grasses and three tree forages were assessed in terms of nutritional quality for milk, meat, health and strength. Using their own visual criteria, pastoralists identified five different soils, which they selected for herding at different times of the year. Pastoralists stated that Pokuri was the best soil because of its low moisture content, whereas Karaal was the worst because forage hardly grows on it. They stated that perennials, such as Andropogon gayanus and Loxoderra ledermannii, were of high nutritional quality, whereas annuals such as Andropogon pseudapricus and Hyparrhenia involucrata were of low nutritional quality. Afzelia africana was perceived of high quality for milk production, whereas Khaya senegalensis had the highest quality for meat, health and strength. Pastoralists first used soil, then forage and finally livestock characteristics in their herding decisions. Pastoralists' TEK was not associated with their generations, but with their agro-ecological zones. This study suggests that pastoralists had common and detailed TEK about soils, forages and livestock characteristics, underlying their herding decisions. To conclude, pastoralists use a holistic

  4. Parasites and parasite management practices of organic and conventional dairy herds in Minnesota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, U S; Moon, R D; Stromberg, B E; Schroth, S L; Michels, L; Wolff, L J; Kelton, D F; Heins, B J

    2015-05-01

    producers stated they had not treated them. In conclusion, gastrointestinal parasite egg counts were low overall at the time of the survey, and most surveyed producers did not perceive gastrointestinal parasites to be a problem for their animals' health. Independent of the herd type, fly control was mostly targeted at the lactating herd and preweaned calves. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Netherlands: health system review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schäfer, W.; Kroneman, M.; Boerma, W.; van den Berg, M.; Westert, G.; Devillé, W.; van Ginneken, E.

    2010-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of health systems and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of

  6. [Emissions from dairy industry and the influence of herd management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dämmgen, Ulrich; Brade, Wilfried; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Rösemann, Claus; Dämmgen, Jürgen; Meyer, Ulrich

    2017-08-11

    The purpose of this paper is to identify specific emission-reduction opportunities in dairy herds arising from aspects of useful herd management with the potential to reduce emissions, which are within the scope of veterinary activities. In future, it might be one of a veterinarian's advisory capacities to deal with the aspect of climate and environmental protection in animal husbandry. The models involved are similar to those of the national agricultural emission inventory. They allow quantifying the impacts of improved animal health, extended productive lifespan and grazing of an entire dairy herd (cows, calves, heifers and bulls) on emissions from the herd itself, in addition to those originating from the entire production chain, including provision of primary energy, water, feed production and processing. Ammonia emissions are the main focus. The reductions achieved here are not huge, though noticeable. They do not create extra costs. As can be shown, improved animal health and welfare are also environmentally beneficial. The reduction of greenhouse gas and air pollutant (eutrophying and acidifying gases and particles) emissions is an acknowledged political goal. If Germany wants to achieve the emission ceilings it has agreed to, agriculture will have to contribute. Planning will have to precede action if agriculture is itself to keep control of the processes.

  7. Systematic review of public health branding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Hersey, James C; Renaud, Jeanette; Yaroch, Amy L

    2008-12-01

    Brands build relationships between consumers and products, services, or lifestyles by providing beneficial exchanges and adding value to their objects. Brands can be measured through associations that consumers hold for products and services. Public health brands are the associations that individuals hold for health behaviors, or lifestyles that embody multiple health behaviors. We systematically reviewed the literature on public health brands; developed a methodology for describing branded health messages and campaigns; and examined specific branding strategies across a range of topic areas, campaigns, and global settings. We searched the literature for published studies on public health branding available through all relevant, major online publication databases. Public health branding was operationalized as any manuscripts in the health, social science, and business literature on branding or brands in health promotion marketing. We developed formalized decision rules and applied them in identifying articles for review. We initially identified 154 articles and reviewed a final set of 37, 10 from Africa, Australia, and Europe. Branded health campaigns spanned most of the major domains of public health and numerous communication strategies and evaluation methodologies. Most studies provided clear information on planning, development, and evaluation of the branding effort, while some provided minimal information. Branded health messages typically are theory based, and there is a body of evidence on their behavior change effectiveness, especially in nutrition, tobacco control, and HIV/AIDS. More rigorous research is needed, however, on how branded health messages impact specific populations and behaviors.

  8. Vitamin A and mother child health Review

    OpenAIRE

    Günlemez, Ayla; Atasay, Begüm; Arsan, Saadet

    2003-01-01

    Vitamin A has a critical role in normal vision cell differantiation proliferation and maintanence of epithelial cell integrity Vitamin A deficiency is one of the most prevalent and important deficiencies and is of public health significance in developing countries This article reviews vitamin A deficiency in the world and Turkey and it’s effect on maternal and child health Key words: vitamin A maternal health child health

  9. Genotype-specific risk factors for Staphylococcus aureus in Swiss dairy herds with an elevated yield-corrected herd somatic cell count.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, B; Bodmer, M; van den Borne, B H P; Reist, M; Graber, H U; Steiner, A; Boss, R; Wohlfender, F

    2014-01-01

    Staph. aureus GTB (rather than Staph. aureus non-GTB) compared with herds without purchase of heifers. Furthermore, herds that did not use udder ointment as supportive therapy for acute mastitis had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (odds ratio: 8.5, 95% CI: 1.6-58.4) or Staph. aureus non-GTB (odds ratio: 6.1, 95% CI: 1.3-27.8) than herds that used udder ointment occasionally or regularly. Herds in which the milker performed unrelated activities during milking had significantly higher odds of being infected with Staph. aureus GTB (rather than Staph. aureus non-GTB) compared with herds in which the milker did not perform unrelated activities at milking. Awareness of 4 potential risk factors identified in this study guides implementation of intervention strategies to improve udder health in both Staph. aureus GTB and Staph. aureus non-GTB herds. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gross margin losses due to Salmonella Dublin infection in Danish dairy cattle herds estimated by simulation modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Torben Dahl; Kudahl, Anne Braad; Østergaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    and dynamic simulation model. The model incorporated six age groups (neonatal, pre-weaned calves, weaned calves, growing heifers, breeding heifers and cows) and five infection stages (susceptible, acutely infected, carrier, super shedder and resistant). The effects of introducing one S. Dublin infectious......Salmonella Dublin affects production and animal health in cattle herds. The objective of this study was to quantify the gross margin (GM) losses following introduction and spread of S. Dublin within dairy herds. The GM losses were estimated using an age-structured stochastic, mechanistic...... with poorer management and herd size, e.g. average annual GM losses were estimated to 49 euros per stall for the first year after infection, and to 8 euros per stall annually averaged over the 10 years after herd infection for a 200 cow stall herd with very good management. In contrast, a 200 cow stall herd...

  11. Health Literacy and Women's Reproductive Health: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitko, Michelle; O'Conor, Rachel; Bailey, Stacy Cooper

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Health literacy is thought to impact women's reproductive health, yet no comprehensive systematic reviews have been conducted on the topic. Our objective was to systematically identify, investigate, and summarize research on the relationship between health literacy and women's reproductive health knowledge, behaviors, and outcomes. Methods: PRISMA guidelines were used to guide this review. English language, peer-reviewed research articles indexed in MEDLINE as of February 2015 were searched, along with study results posted on Clinicaltrials.gov. Articles were included if they (1) described original data-driven research conducted in developed countries, (2) were published in a peer-reviewed journal, (3) measured health literacy using a validated assessment, (4) reported on the relationship between health literacy and reproductive health outcomes, related knowledge, or behaviors, and (5) consisted of a study population that included reproductive age women. Results: A total of 34 articles met eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Data were abstracted from articles by two study authors using a standardized form. Abstracted data were then reviewed and summarized in table format. Overall, health literacy was associated with reproductive health knowledge across a spectrum of topics. It was also related to certain health behaviors, such as prenatal vitamin use and breastfeeding. Its relationship with other reproductive behaviors and outcomes remains unclear. Conclusions: Health literacy plays an important role in reproductive knowledge and may impact behaviors and outcomes. While further research is necessary, healthcare providers should utilize health literacy best practices now to promote high-quality care for patients. PMID:27564780

  12. Diagnostic herd sensitivity using environmental samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigre, Håkan; Josefsen, Mathilde Hartmann; Seyfarth, Anne Mette

    either at farm or slaughter. Three sample matrices were collected; dust samples (5 environmental swabs), nasal swabs (10 pools with 5 animals per pool) and air samples (1 filter). Based on the assumption that MRSA occurred in all 48 herds the overall herd sensitivity was 58% for nasal swabs, 33% for dust....... In our example, the prevalence of infected pigs in each herd was estimated from the pooled samples of nasal swabs. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effect of animal prevalence on the probability to detect MRSA in the dust and air samples at herd level. The results show a significant increase...

  13. Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Human Oesophagostomiasis: A Serious Public Health Problem in Tropical ... Historical events were described from its first record in Ethiopia in 1905. ... information on patterns of distribution and relation of transmission to seasons and ...

  14. The management of bovine reproduction in elite herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, I Martin; Wathes, D Claire; Dobson, Hilary

    2006-01-01

    The management of bovine reproduction is the cornerstone of health provision in elite herds. Aims and objectives for reproductive performance should be herd specific and data to monitor progress should not only be frequently collected, but also analysed and reported. Strategic monitoring of animals should include a vaginal examination for evidence of uterine disease, as well as transrectal ultrasonography of the genital tract. There has been considerable advancement in our ability to intervene in the reproduction of cattle during the last 50 years. However, it is salutary to note that during this time fertility has consistently declined, despite increasing veterinary intervention. Most elite herds use artificial insemination and success depends on accurate detection of oestrus expression, but this appears to be less overt than 25 years ago. In addition, half the cattle have abnormal oestrous cycles after parturition and conception rates are decreasing by 1% per year. Risk factors for abnormal oestrous cycles include puerperal problems, negative energy balance, which can be evaluated by body condition scoring, and uterine disease. Bacterial contamination of the uterus is ubiquitous after parturition in cattle and disease disrupts ovarian follicle growth and function. Reproduction is also disrupted by stress associated with clinical disease, pain or a sub-optimal environment. The challenge for veterinarians providing reproduction control programmes to elite herds is to transfer our knowledge of the problems underlying subfertility to the farm, in order to provide effective solutions.

  15. Initial insights on the performances and management of dairy cattle herds combining two breeds with contrasting features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, M A; Thénard, V; Mihout, S

    2016-05-01

    Finding ways of increasing animal production with low external inputs and without compromising reproductive performances is a key issue of livestock systems sustainability. One way is to take advantage of the diversity and interactions among components within livestock systems. Among studies that investigate the influence of differences in animals' individual abilities in a herd, few focus on combinations of cow breeds with contrasting features in dairy cattle herds. This study aimed to analyse the performances and management of such multi-breed dairy cattle herds. These herds were composed of two types of dairy breeds: 'specialist' (Holstein) and 'generalist' (e.g. Montbeliarde, Simmental, etc.). Based on recorded milk data in southern French region, we performed (i) to compare the performances of dairy herds according to breed-type composition: multi-breed, single specialist breed or single generalist breed and (ii) to test the difference of milk performances of specialist and generalist breed cows (n = 10 682) per multi-breed dairy herd within a sample of 22 farms. The sampled farmers were also interviewed to characterise herd management through multivariate analysis. Multi-breed dairy herds had a better trade-off among milk yield, milk fat and protein contents, herd reproduction and concentrate-conversion efficiency than single-breed herds. Conversely, they did not offer advantages in terms of milk prices and udder health. Compared to specialist dairy herds, they produce less milk with the same concentrate-conversion efficiency but have better reproductive performances. Compared to generalist dairy herds, they produce more milk with better concentrate-conversion efficiency but have worse reproductive performances. Within herds, specialist and generalist breed cows significantly differed in milk performances, showing their complementarity. The former produced more milk for a longer lactation length while the latter produced milk with higher protein and fat

  16. Health Information Economy: Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-04-19

    Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science.

  17. Health Information Economy: Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Kamal; Roudbari, Masoud; Sadoughi, Farahnaz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Health Information Economy (HIE) is one of the broader, more complex, and challenging and yet important topics in the field of health science that requires the identification of its dimensions for planning and policy making. The aim of this study was to determine HIE concept dimensions. Methods: This paper presents a systematic methodology for analyzing the trends of HIE. For this purpose, the main keywords of this area were identified and searched in the databases and from among 4775 retrieved sources, 12 sources were studied in the field of HIE. Results: Information Economy (IE) in the world has passed behind four paradigms that involve the information evaluation perspective, the information technology perspective, the asymmetric information perspective and information value perspective. In this research, the fourth perspective in the HIE was analyzed. The main findings of this research were categorized in three major groups, including the flow of information process in the field of health (production. collection, processing and dissemination), and information applications in the same field (education, research, health industry, policy, legislation, and decision-making) and the underlying fields. Conclusion: According to the findings, HIE has already developed a theoretical and conceptual gap that due to its importance in the next decade would be one of the research approaches to health science. PMID:26153182

  18. Islamophobia, Health, and Public Health: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen; Alcalá, Héctor E; Sharif, Mienah Zulfacar

    2018-06-01

    In 2017, a "Muslim ban" on immigrants to the United States was coupled with a continued rise in Islamophobia and hate crimes toward Muslims. Islamophobia undermines health equity, yet delineating the effects of Islamophobia globally is challenging as it affects a myriad of groups (geographically, racially, and socially). Additionally, stereotypes equate all Muslims with populations from the Middle East and South Asia. To date, health research pays insufficient attention to Islamophobia, Muslims, and those racialized to be Muslim. This literature review advances our understanding of racism and health by examining the racialization of religion, by specifically examining Islamophobia as a form of discrimination. Per PRISMA guidelines, we conducted a search in October 2017 using PubMed-MEDLINE and a combination of terms. We identified additional articles using other search engines. For inclusion, articles needed to include a descriptor of discrimination, contain an identifier of Muslim or Muslim-like identity (i.e., groups commonly perceived as Muslim, including Arabs, Middle Easterners, North Africans, and South Asians), include a health outcome, be in English, and be published between 1990 and 2017. We identified 111 unique peer-reviewed articles. We excluded articles that did not meet the following criteria: (1) examined Islamophobia, discrimination, or racism among a Muslim or Muslim-like population; (2) included a health outcome or discussion of health disparities; and (3) was conducted in North America, Europe, Australia, or New Zealand. This yielded 53 articles. The majority of studies (n = 34; 64%) were quantitative. The remaining studies were qualitative (n = 7; 13%), mixed methods (n = 2; 4%), or reviews (n = 10; 19%). Most studies were based in the United States (n = 31; 58%). Nearly half of the reviewed studies examined mental health (n = 24; 45%), and one fourth examined physical health or health behaviors (n = 13; 25%). Others

  19. Herd-level risk factors for subclinical Salmonella infection in European finishing-pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Dahl, J.; Stege, H.

    2004-01-01

    Our objective was to find herd factors associated with pigs testing seropositive for Salmonella. Data were collected from 359 finishing-pig herds in Germany, Denmark, Greece, The Netherlands and Sweden, between 1996 and 1998. Pigs fed non-pelleted feed (dry or wet) had 2- and 2.5-times lower odds...... recruiting from more than three supplier herds had three-times higher odds to test seropositive than pigs in herds which breed their own replacement stock or recruit from a maximum of three supplier herds....

  20. Risk factors for Coxiella burnetii antibodies in bulk tank milk from Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Jens Frederik; Paul, Suman; Christoffersen, Anna-Bodil

    2013-01-01

    .2), artificial insemination by other people than artificial insemination technicians (OR = 7.7), routine herd health contract with the veterinarian (OR = 4.3) and hygiene precautions taken by veterinarians (OR = 5). In addition, herd size, hired labour, trading of cattle between farms, quarantine and use...

  1. Office design and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ann; Potter, John; Paterson, Margaret; Harding, Thomas; Tyler-Merrick, Gaye; Kirk, Ray; Reid, Kate; McChesney, Jane

    2017-12-15

    To carry out a systematic review of recent research into the effects of workplace design, comparing individual with shared workspaces, on the health of employees. The research question was "Does workplace design (specifically individual offices compared with shared workspaces) affect the health of workers?" A literature search limited to articles published between 2000 and 2017 was undertaken. A systematic review was carried out, and the findings of the reviewed studies grouped into themes according to the primary outcomes measured in the studies. The literature search identified 15 relevant studies addressing health effects of shared or open-plan offices compared with individual offices. Our systematic review found that, compared with individual offices, shared or open-plan office space is not beneficial to employees' health, with consistent findings of deleterious effects on staff health, wellbeing and productivity. Our findings are also consistent with those of earlier reviews. These findings have public health implications for the New Zealand workforce. Decisions about workplace design should include weighing the short-term financial benefits of open-plan or shared workspaces against the significant harms, including increased sickness absence, lower job satisfaction and productivity, and possible threats to recruitment and retention of staff.

  2. Forecasting metal prices: Do forecasters herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierdzioch, C.; Rulke, J. C.; Stadtmann, G.

    2013-01-01

    We analyze more than 20,000 forecasts of nine metal prices at four different forecast horizons. We document that forecasts are heterogeneous and report that anti-herding appears to be a source of this heterogeneity. Forecaster anti-herding reflects strategic interactions among forecasters...

  3. Biosecurity in 121 Danish sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boklund, Anette; Mortensen, Sten; Houe, H.

    2003-01-01

    Herds are under constant risk of introducing new pathogens from different sources. In this article we describe biosecurity practices in Danish sow herds. Between December 1, 1999 and February 29, 2000, 121 sow units were interviewed regarding biosecurity on the site. The questionnaire contained 6...

  4. Victoria's review of registration for health practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotts, H; Carter, M

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses some of the issues raised in the Interim Report of the current Review of Registration of Health Practitioners being conducted for the Victorian Health Department. The Report attempts to develop the framework in which the registration Boards will operate as part of a cohesive registration system. It proposed a mechanism and criteria for the registration of new groups as well as principles which can be applied to the ongoing review of each existing Board. The Review takes the perspective that registration of health practitioners carries with it both advantages and disadvantages for the general community. Under the proposed new system the controls exercised over health care providers by Registration Boards would be evaluated on the basis of to what extent the benefits to the public outweighed the potential costs. It is in this context that the Report addresses issues such as consumer complaints handling, registration of individual practitioners and controls over professional advertising and other business practices.

  5. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stengärde Lena

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations. Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap to nine weeks postpartum (pp. Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds.

  6. Metabolic profiles in five high-producing Swedish dairy herds with a history of abomasal displacement and ketosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengärde, Lena; Tråvén, Madeleine; Emanuelson, Ulf; Holtenius, Kjell; Hultgren, Jan; Niskanen, Rauni

    2008-01-01

    Background Body condition score and blood profiles have been used to monitor management and herd health in dairy cows. The aim of this study was to examine BCS and extended metabolic profiles, reflecting both energy metabolism and liver status around calving in high-producing herds with a high incidence of abomasal displacement and ketosis and to evaluate if such profiles can be used at herd level to pinpoint specific herd problems. Methods Body condition score and metabolic profiles around calving in five high-producing herds with high incidences of abomasal displacement and ketosis were assessed using linear mixed models (94 cows, 326 examinations). Cows were examined and blood sampled every three weeks from four weeks ante partum (ap) to nine weeks postpartum (pp). Blood parameters studied were glucose, fructosamine, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, haptoglobin and cholesterol. Results All herds had overconditioned dry cows that lost body condition substantially the first 4–6 weeks pp. Two herds had elevated levels of NEFA ap and three herds had elevated levels pp. One herd had low levels of insulin ap and low levels of cholesterol pp. Haptoglobin was detected pp in all herds and its usefulness is discussed. Conclusion NEFA was the parameter that most closely reflected the body condition losses while these losses were not seen in glucose and fructosamine levels. Insulin and cholesterol were potentially useful in herd profiles but need further investigation. Increased glutamate dehydrogenase suggested liver cell damage in all herds. PMID:18687108

  7. Rationing in health systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keliddar, Iman; Mosadeghrad, Ali Mohammad; Jafari-Sirizi, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    Background: It is difficult to provide health care services to all those in need of such services due to limited resources and unlimited demands. Thus, priority setting and rationing have to be applied. This study aimed at critically examining the concept of rationing in health sector and identifying its purposes, influencing factors, mechanisms, and outcomes. Methods: The critical interpretive synthesis methodology was used in this study. PubMed, Cochrane, and Proquest databases were searched using the related key words to find related documents published between 1970 and 2015. In total, 161 published reports were reviewed and included in the study. Thematic content analysis was applied for data analysis. Results: Health services rationing means restricting the access of some people to useful or potentially useful health services due to budgetary limitation. The inherent features of the health market and health services, limited resources, and unlimited needs necessitate health services rationing. Rationing can be applied in 4 levels: health care policy- makers, health care managers, health care providers, and patients. Health care rationing can be accomplished through fixed budget, benefit package, payment mechanisms, queuing, copayments, and deductibles. Conclusion: This paper enriched our understanding of health services rationing and its mechanisms at various levels and contributed to the literature by broadly conceptualizing health services rationing.

  8. Risk factors associated with Neospora caninum abortion in Ontario Holstein dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, J C; Duffield, T F; Kelton, D; Lissemore, K; Hietala, S K; Leslie, K E; McEwen, B; Peregrine, A S

    2005-02-28

    The objective of this epidemiological study was to identify risk factors for Neospora caninum-related abortions in Ontario Holstein dairy herds. A total of 88 herds, consisting of 5080 cattle, and utilizing Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) services, were divided into three groups. Case (n = 30) and first control (n = 31) herds were selected from 1998 and 1999 fetal abortion submissions to the Animal Health Laboratory, University of Guelph, that were histopathologically positive or negative, respectively, for N. caninum. A second control group (n = 27) was selected from multiple sources of herds sampled within the previous 4 years that had a low seroprevalence (recorded information on housing, animal species present, manure management, reproduction, biosecurity practices, wildlife observations, peri-parturient cow management, herd disease history and nutrition. Production and other herd parameters were obtained from DHI records. Logistic regression indicated that the following parameters were positively associated with a N. caninum abortion in a herd: the N. caninum herd seroprevalence (OR = 1.1), the total number of dogs on a farm (OR = 2.8), the frequency that dogs were observed defecating in mangers (OR = 2.8), the number of horses on a farm (OR = 3.1), the observed annual rate of retained fetal membranes (OR = 1.2) and the observed annual rate of cows returning to estrus after pregnancy confirmation (OR = 1.2). Factors negatively associated were the frequency of stray cats and wild canids observed on a farm (OR = 0.4 and OR = 0.7, respectively) and the housing of heifers on loafing packs (a housing pen divided into feed manger, scrape alley and bedded pack areas, OR = 0.1).

  9. Fluorosis in a dairy herd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, W G

    1972-04-29

    Investigation of a high incidence of hip arthritis in a herd of Ayrshires resulted in the discovery of abnormal levels of fluorine in samples of bone. Suspicion of fluorosis was not aroused earlier as the area is not contaminated by industrial fall-out. In addition, many affected animals had no lesions in their teeth; this was because their dentition was complete before ingesting fluorine from a mineral supplement. Only cows receiving toxic levels of fluorine during their first lactation showed lesions, and these were confined to the fourth pair of incisors. Two metabolic profile tests were caried out to establish that the input-output balance in the main metabolites was normal. Analysis of various constituents of the diet revealed significant levels of fluorine in the mineral supplement only. Arthritis was the most prominent feature. This led to debility, with loss of milk and carcase value. Confirmation of fluorosis was obtained by analysis of bone and urine.

  10. Ecology of the Porcupine caribou herd

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    Kenneth R. Whitten

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have described general patterns of population regulation that fit most caribou (Rangifer tarandus herds. Nevertheless, specific factors operating on particular populations vary greatly, and efforts to categorize herds according to the general patterns often lead to confusion. It is difficult for biologists to attempt to describe population dynamics in terms of density relationships for wide-ranging arctic caribou such as the Porcupine Herd. In these herds density varies as a function of dispersal and erratic movement patterns and is not simply the number of caribou divided by a fixed range area. Density is also a poor surrogate for resource availability per individual caribou because climatic factors affect forage and/or access to forage independendy of caribou numbers. Thus classic signs of nutritional stress such as delayed puberty, reduced productivity, and winter starvation can occur when a population is small as well as large and do not necessarily denote food competition brought on by high density, per se. Nutritional stress and exacerbated predation due to adverse weather conditions occasionally cause the Porcupine Herd to decline, and limiting factors such as poor nutrition, predation, harvest, accidents, and disease act in combination to keep herd growth rates low during periods of good weather. Adverse weather setbacks occur frequently, and the herd remains within a fairly restricted range of densities over long time periods. There is no true density dependent regulation and no equilibrium in this system.

  11. Reproductive handle of the herd of cattle of double purpose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Hernandez, A.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the environmental factors is analyzed, in the reproductive efficiency of herd cattle of double purpose. The reproductive behavior begins with the gestation of the heifers. Under the conditions of the Colombian tropic these they reach the weight required for the reproduction to an age but late that in the temperate areas. Once the first childbirth, the cow takes place it enters in exhaustion that makes that this animal is the but difficult to reproduce after the childbirth, that which demands special cares of handling and feeding. The interval among the childbirth to evaluate the reproductive efficiency. Environmental factors that influence significantly. The use of the practice simple of handling, health, selection and feeding produces significant increments in the fertility of the herd of cattle of double purpose. One practices of effective handling in the improvement of the reproductive behavior of the cows of double purpose it is the restricted nursing

  12. A review on systematic reviews of health information system studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Francis; Kuziemsky, Craig; Price, Morgan; Gardner, Jesse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to consolidate existing evidence from published systematic reviews on health information system (HIS) evaluation studies to inform HIS practice and research. Fifty reviews published during 1994-2008 were selected for meta-level synthesis. These reviews covered five areas: medication management, preventive care, health conditions, data quality, and care process/outcome. After reconciliation for duplicates, 1276 HIS studies were arrived at as the non-overlapping corpus. On the basis of a subset of 287 controlled HIS studies, there is some evidence for improved quality of care, but in varying degrees across topic areas. For instance, 31/43 (72%) controlled HIS studies had positive results using preventive care reminders, mostly through guideline adherence such as immunization and health screening. Key factors that influence HIS success included having in-house systems, developers as users, integrated decision support and benchmark practices, and addressing such contextual issues as provider knowledge and perception, incentives, and legislation/policy.

  13. Systematic review of women veterans' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnals, Jennifer J; Garovoy, Natara; McCutcheon, Susan J; Robbins, Allison T; Mann-Wrobel, Monica C; Elliott, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Given recent, rapid growth in the field of women veterans' mental health, the goal of this review was to update the status of women veterans' mental health research and to identify current themes in this literature. The scope of this review included women veterans' unique mental health needs, as well as gender differences in veterans' mental health needs. Database searches were conducted for relevant articles published between January 2008 and July 2011. Searches were supplemented with bibliographic reviews and consultation with subject matter experts. The database search yielded 375 titles; 32 met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The women veterans' mental health literature crosses over several domains, including prevalence, risk factors, health care utilization, treatment preferences, and access barriers. Studies were generally cross-sectional, descriptive, mixed-gender, and examined Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users from all service eras. Results indicate higher rates of specific disorders (e.g., depression) and comorbidities, with differing risk factors and associated medical and functional impairment for female compared with male veterans. Although satisfaction with VA health care is generally high, unique barriers to care and indices of treatment satisfaction exist for women. There is a breadth of descriptive knowledge in many content areas of women veterans' mental health; however, the research base examining interventional and longitudinal designs is less developed. Understudied content areas and targets for future research and development include certain psychiatric disorders (e.g., schizophrenia), the effects of deployment on woman veterans' families, and strategies to address treatment access, attrition, and provision of gender-sensitive care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Gastrointestinal nematodes and anthelmintic resistance in Danish goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Signe A.; Sørensen, Camilla; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in Danish goats and the presence of anthelmintic resistance (AR) in 10 selected herds were investigated during April-September 2012. All Danish herds (n = 137) with 10 or more adult goats were invited to participate, and of these 27 herds met......, resistance to the most commonly used anthelmintics is widespread in larger goat herds throughout Denmark....

  15. United States of America: health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Thomas; Rosenau, Pauline; Unruh, Lynn Y; Barnes, Andrew J; Saltman, Richard B; van Ginneken, Ewout

    2013-01-01

    This analysis of the United States health system reviews the developments in organization and governance, health financing, health-care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The US health system has both considerable strengths and notable weaknesses. It has a large and well-trained health workforce, a wide range of high-quality medical specialists as well as secondary and tertiary institutions, a robust health sector research program and, for selected services, among the best medical outcomes in the world. But it also suffers from incomplete coverage of its citizenry, health expenditure levels per person far exceeding all other countries, poor measures on many objective and subjective measures of quality and outcomes, an unequal distribution of resources and outcomes across the country and among different population groups, and lagging efforts to introduce health information technology. It is difficult to determine the extent to which deficiencies are health-system related, though it seems that at least some of the problems are a result of poor access to care. Because of the adoption of the Affordable Care Act in 2010, the United States is facing a period of enormous potential change. Improving coverage is a central aim, envisaged through subsidies for the uninsured to purchase private insurance, expanded eligibility for Medicaid (in some states) and greater protection for insured persons. Furthermore, primary care and public health receive increased funding, and quality and expenditures are addressed through a range of measures. Whether the ACA will indeed be effective in addressing the challenges identified above can only be determined over time. World Health Organization 2013 (acting as the host organization for, and secretariat of, the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies).

  16. Religiousness and Mental Health: Systematic Review Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdAleati, Naziha S; Mohd Zaharim, Norzarina; Mydin, Yasmin Othman

    2016-12-01

    Many people use religious beliefs and practices to cope with stressful life events and derive peace of mind and purpose in life. The goal of this paper was to systematically review the recent psychological literature to assess the role of religion in mental health outcomes. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and psychological databases on the relationship between religiosity and mental health. Seventy-four articles in the English and Arabic languages published between January 2000 and March 2012 were chosen. Despite the controversial relationship between religion and psychiatry, psychology, and medical care, there has been an increasing interest in the role which spirituality and religion play in mental health. The findings of past research showed that religion could play an important role in many situations, as religious convictions and rules influence the believer's life and health care. Most of the past literature in this area reported that there is a significant connection between religious beliefs and practices and mental health.

  17. Temporary employment and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Marianna; Kivimäki, Mika; Joensuu, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka; Elovainio, Marko; Vahtera, Jussi

    2005-06-01

    We aimed to review evidence on the relationship between temporary employment and health, and to see whether the association is dependent on outcome measure, instability of employment, and contextual factors. We systematically searched for studies of temporary employment and various health outcomes and critically appraised 27 studies. The review suggests higher psychological morbidity among temporary workers compared with permanent employees. According to some studies, temporary workers also have a higher risk of occupational injuries but their sickness absence is lower. Morbidity may be higher in temporary jobs with high employment instability and in countries with a lower number of temporary workers and unemployed workers. The evidence indicates an association between temporary employment and psychological morbidity. The health risk may depend on instability of temporary employment and the context. Confounding by occupation may have biased some of the studies. Additional research to clarify the role of employment instability, hazard accumulation, and selection is recommended.

  18. Within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in endemically infected dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY In this study within-herd prevalence of Salmonella Dublin was investigated in three age groups (calves, young stock, adult cows) during five herd visits at 3-month intervals of 14 endemically infected dairy herds. A total of 10162 paired faecal cultures and antibody measurements were used...... stock and adult cows than in calves. Hierarchical mixed-model results showed that seroprevalence was associated with the bacteriological status in calves and cows, but not in young stock. These results can be used to develop and validate theoretical infection dynamics models and to design effective...... control programmes for Salmonella Dublin in dairy herds....

  19. THE HERD BEHAVIOR AND THE FINANCIAL INSTABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CRISTIAN IONESCU

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the international financial situation of the last 50 years, and considering the complexity and severity of the financial crises, it is important to study the episodes of financial instability, and especially to understand both operating mechanisms and propagation mechanisms. One endogenous mechanism of financial instability is the herd behavior, which may increase the volatility and the amplitude of any sub-part of the financial system. This paper aims to analyze this phenomenon, considering the behavior of the financial market participants, the role of information in the making decisions process, banking responsibility regarding the herd behavior. The paper also illustrates two examples of herd behavior (run bank and the "too many to fail" problem, and presents three herding measures, in an attempt to achieve a quantitative analysis of the phenomenon, besides the qualitative analysis exposed above.

  20. School-Based Interventions Going Beyond Health Education to Promote Adolescent Health: Systematic Review of Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Nichola; Jamal, Farah; Viner, Russell M; Dickson, Kelly; Patton, George; Bonell, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Health education in school classrooms can be effective in promoting sexual health and preventing violence and substance use but effects are patchy and often short term. Classroom education is also challenging because of schools' increasing focus on academic-performance metrics. Other school-based approaches are possible, such as healthy school policies, improving how schools respond to bullying, and parent outreach, which go beyond health education to address broader health determinants. Existing systematic reviews include such interventions but often alongside traditional health education. There is scope for a systematic review of reviews to assess and synthesize evidence across existing reviews to develop an overview of the potential of alternative school-based approaches. We searched 12 databases to identify reviews published after 1980. Data were reviewed by two researchers. Quality was assessed using a modified Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews checklist and results were synthesized narratively. We screened 7,544 unique references and included 22 reviews. Our syntheses suggest that multicomponent school-based interventions, for example, including school policy changes, parent involvement, and work with local communities, are effective for promoting sexual health and preventing bullying and smoking. There is less evidence that such intervention can reduce alcohol and drug use. Economic incentives to keep girls in school can reduce teenage pregnancies. School clinics can promote smoking cessation. There is little evidence that, on their own, sexual-health clinics, antismoking policies, and various approaches targeting at-risk students are effective. There is good evidence that various whole-school health interventions are effective in preventing teenage pregnancy, smoking, and bullying. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Religiousness and mental health: a review

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    Moreira-Almeida Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. METHOD: The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. DISCUSSION: The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness. Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  2. Floods and human health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderman, Katarzyna; Turner, Lyle R; Tong, Shilu

    2012-10-15

    Floods are the most common type of disaster globally, responsible for almost 53,000 deaths in the last decade alone (23:1 low- versus high-income countries). This review assessed recent epidemiological evidence on the impacts of floods on human health. Published articles (2004-2011) on the quantitative relationship between floods and health were systematically reviewed. 35 relevant epidemiological studies were identified. Health outcomes were categorized into short- and long-term and were found to depend on the flood characteristics and people's vulnerability. It was found that long-term health effects are currently not well understood. Mortality rates were found to increase by up to 50% in the first year post-flood. After floods, it was found there is an increased risk of disease outbreaks such as hepatitis E, gastrointestinal disease and leptospirosis, particularly in areas with poor hygiene and displaced populations. Psychological distress in survivors (prevalence 8.6% to 53% two years post-flood) can also exacerbate their physical illness. There is a need for effective policies to reduce and prevent flood-related morbidity and mortality. Such steps are contingent upon the improved understanding of potential health impacts of floods. Global trends in urbanization, burden of disease, malnutrition and maternal and child health must be better reflected in flood preparedness and mitigation programs. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Religiousness and mental health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Almeida, Alexander; Neto, Francisco Lotufo; Koenig, Harold G

    2006-09-01

    The relationship between religiosity and mental health has been a perennial source of controversy. This paper reviews the scientific evidence available for the relationship between religion and mental health. The authors present the main studies and conclusions of a larger systematic review of 850 studies on the religion-mental health relationship published during the 20th Century identified through several databases. The present paper also includes an update on the papers published since 2000, including researches performed in Brazil and a brief historical and methodological background. The majority of well-conducted studies found that higher levels of religious involvement are positively associated with indicators of psychological well-being (life satisfaction, happiness, positive affect, and higher morale) and with less depression, suicidal thoughts and behavior, drug/alcohol use/abuse. Usually the positive impact of religious involvement on mental health is more robust among people under stressful circumstances (the elderly, and those with disability and medical illness). Theoretical pathways of the religiousness-mental health connection and clinical implications of these findings are also discussed. There is evidence that religious involvement is usually associated with better mental health. We need to improve our understanding of the mediating factors of this association and its use in clinical practice.

  4. Short communication: Microbiological quality of raw cow milk and its association with herd management practices in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, X Y; Zhao, S G; Zheng, N; Li, S L; Zhang, Y D; Liu, H M; McKillip, J; Wang, J Q

    2017-06-01

    Contamination of raw milk with bacterial pathogens is potentially hazardous to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the total bacteria count (TBC) and presence of pathogens in raw milk in Northern China along with the associated herd management practices. A total of 160 raw milk samples were collected from 80 dairy herds in Northern China. All raw milk samples were analyzed for TBC and pathogens by culturing. The results showed that the number of raw milk samples with TBC milk samples were Staphylococcus aureus positive, 72 (45.00%) were Escherichia coli positive, 2 (1.25%) were Salmonella positive, 2 (1.25%) were Listeria monocytogenes positive, and 3 (1.88%) were Campylobacter positive. The prevalence of S. aureus was influenced by season, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and use of a Dairy Herd Improvement program. The TBC was influenced by season and milk frequency. The correlation between TBC and prevalence of S. aureus or E. coli is significant. The effect size statistical analysis showed that season and herd (but not Dairy Herd Improvement, herd size, milking frequency, disinfection frequency, and area) were the most important factors affecting TBC in raw milk. In conclusion, the presence of bacteria in raw milk was associated with season and herd management practices, and further comprehensive study will be powerful for effectively characterizing various factors affecting milk microbial quality in bulk tanks in China. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Growth rate, health and welfare in a dairy herd with natural suckling until 6–8 weeks of age: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mejdell Cecilie

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over a period of two years, growth rate and health were measured for dairy calves allowed to suckle their mothers up to 6–8 weeks of age. Thirty-one calves were weighted weekly, and the mean daily growth rate was 1.2 ± 0.03 kg from birth up to 13 weeks of age. Illness in calves and young stock was not observed. In the cows, the mean incidences of ketosis, displaced abomasum, puerperal paresis, mastitis, teat injury and retained placenta were 0, 0, 8, 22, 1 and 1%, respectively, during a 6-year period. The mean daily gain of 56 growing bulls was 1.4 kg when slaughtered at 15 months of age, which is higher than the mean daily gain of 0.95 kg in the population. Probiotics, hormones and vaccines were not used, and antibiotics were only used for treating illness. The present study indicates many advantages and few problems when dairy calves are penned together with the cows and allowed natural feeding up to 6–8 weeks of age. This production system was easy to manage, preferred by the farmer, and may satisfy the public concern regarding the practice of immediate separation of cow and calf in commercial milk production.

  6. Personal Health Records: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roehrs, Alex; da Costa, Cristiano André; Righi, Rodrigo da Rosa; de Oliveira, Kleinner Silva Farias

    2017-01-06

    Information and communication technology (ICT) has transformed the health care field worldwide. One of the main drivers of this change is the electronic health record (EHR). However, there are still open issues and challenges because the EHR usually reflects the partial view of a health care provider without the ability for patients to control or interact with their data. Furthermore, with the growth of mobile and ubiquitous computing, the number of records regarding personal health is increasing exponentially. This movement has been characterized as the Internet of Things (IoT), including the widespread development of wearable computing technology and assorted types of health-related sensors. This leads to the need for an integrated method of storing health-related data, defined as the personal health record (PHR), which could be used by health care providers and patients. This approach could combine EHRs with data gathered from sensors or other wearable computing devices. This unified view of patients' health could be shared with providers, who may not only use previous health-related records but also expand them with data resulting from their interactions. Another PHR advantage is that patients can interact with their health data, making decisions that may positively affect their health. This work aimed to explore the recent literature related to PHRs by defining the taxonomy and identifying challenges and open questions. In addition, this study specifically sought to identify data types, standards, profiles, goals, methods, functions, and architecture with regard to PHRs. The method to achieve these objectives consists of using the systematic literature review approach, which is guided by research questions using the population, intervention, comparison, outcome, and context (PICOC) criteria. As a result, we reviewed more than 5000 scientific studies published in the last 10 years, selected the most significant approaches, and thoroughly surveyed the health

  7. An Investigation into the Etiological Agents of Swine Dysentery in Australian Pig Herds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom La

    Full Text Available Swine dysentery (SD is a mucohemorrhagic colitis, classically seen in grower/finisher pigs and caused by infection with the anaerobic intestinal spirochete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. More recently, however, the newly described species Brachyspira hampsonii and Brachyspira suanatina have been identified as causing SD in North America and/or Europe. Furthermore, there have been occasions where strains of B. hyodysenteriae have been recovered from healthy pigs, including in multiplier herds with high health status. This study investigated whether cases of SD in Australia may be caused by the newly described species; how isolates of B. hyodysenteriae recovered from healthy herds compared to isolates from herds with disease; and how contemporary isolates compare to those recovered in previous decades, including in their plasmid gene content and antimicrobial resistance profiles. In total 1103 fecal and colon samples from pigs in 97 Australian herds were collected and tested. Of the agents of SD only B. hyodysenteriae was found, being present in 34 (35.1% of the herds, including in 14 of 24 (58% herds that had been considered to be free of SD. Multilocus sequence typing applied to 96 isolates from 30 herds and to 53 Australian isolates dating from the 1980s through the early 2000s showed that they were diverse, distinct from those reported in other countries, and that the 2014/16 isolates generally were different from those from earlier decades. These findings provided evidence for ongoing evolution of B. hyodysenteriae strains in Australia. In seven of the 20 herds where multiple isolates were available, two to four different sequence types (STs were identified. Isolates with the same STs also were found in some herds with epidemiological links. Analysis of a block of six plasmid virulence-associated genes showed a lack of consistency between their presence or absence and their origin from herds currently with or without disease; however

  8. Nail Properties and Bone Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouya Saeedi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Physicochemical properties of nail may offer valuable insight into the health of bone. Currently, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA is the gold standard technique for evaluating bone health through bone mineral density (BMD. However, only 70% of fractures are explained by low BMD according to DXA. Therefore, the World Health Organisation recommended the need for the development of alternative methods of assessing bone health. Keratin and collagen type I are major proteins in nail and bone, respectively. Both of these proteins undergo post-translational modifications, with a possible correlation between the degree of post-translational modifications in keratin and collagen. Raman spectroscopy is a technique used to detect changes in protein composition and structure. As changes in protein function and structure may be associated with the development of osteoporosis, Raman spectroscopy may be a valuable adjunct to assess bone health and fracture risk. This review critically evaluates various methods and techniques to identify the link between nail properties and bone health. The strengths and limitations of various studies and the potential use of nail protein and minerals to evaluate bone health have been also presented.

  9. Health related smartphone applications: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelis Stergiannis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid evolution of technology, has offered access to a variety of applications and technologies to healthcare professionals. New operating systems developed in the field of mobile devices revolutionized the way in which they are used. One of the main features offered by advanced software of a smartphone is the user’s access to a wealth of new, impressive applications across several operating systems for smartphones. The health related applications provided through smartphones, promote more active involvement of patients and healthcare professionals to provided care and are a new tool for improving health. The purpose of this abstract paper or article was to refer to applications currently used in the health sector, indicating specific capabilities they offer through review of electronic literature, focusing on scientific articles published in databases (PubMed, Scopus, etc. referring to the potentials they offer. It seems that several health related applications have been developed, that can be classified into two main categories. One category comprises applications that are informative, i.e. provide information to the user about health issues, allowing a person to read, gather resources to make decisions, but also to introduce its own data. These applications are mostly used by health care professionals. The second major category of applications refers to those related to help with the diagnosis, treatment and decision-making on various health related issues and in some cases take the form of consultancy, substituting the health care professional. As technology advances, the development of new health related applications is expected, specialized, with new features. Finally, the use of such applications by health care professionals is essential.

  10. Health Hazards of Xylene: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    T. Rajan, Sharada; Malathi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Xylene, an aromatic hydrocarbon is widely used in industry and medical laboratory as a solvent. It is a flammable liquid that requires utmost care during its usage. On exposure the vapours are rapidly absorbed through the lungs and the slowly through the skin. Prolonged exposure to xylene leads to significant amount of solvent accumulation in the adipose and muscle tissue. This article reviews the various acute and chronic health effects of xylene through various routes of exposure.

  11. Population decline in the Delta caribou herd with reference to other Alaskan herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg et al.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available After growing continuously for nearly 15 years, the Delta caribou herd began to decline in 1989. Most other Interior Alaskan herds also began declining. In the Delta herd, and in other herds, the declines were caused primarily by high summer mortality of calves and increased natural mortality of adult females. Other minor causes included increased winter mortality of calves, and reduced parturition rates of 3-year-old and older females. The decline in the Delta herd also coincided with increased wolf (Canis lupus numbers, winters with deeper than normal snow, and warm summers. Mean body weight of annual samples of 10-month-old female calves was consistently low during the decline. Except in some of the smallest Interior Alaskan herds, we conclude that evidence for population regulation in Alaskan caribou is weak, and that herds are likely to fluctuate within a wide range of densities due to complex interactions of predation and weather. Unless wolf numbers are influenced by man, the size of a caribou herd in a given year is likely to be largely a function of its size during the previous population low and the number of years of favorable weather in the interim.

  12. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available I will review the drastic change seen in herd composition and slaughtering strategy the last decades inthe reindeer husbandry of Fennoscandia (i. e. Finland, Norway and Sweden. Herd composition was traditionally a function of the multipurpose herd, where reproduction of draught power played a major role. Hence, the slaughter scheme was based on adult males, in particular castrates. The herd represented the owner's capital and was viewed as the best insurance for staying in business. Indeed, a big and well composed herd announced social status as well as authority. Historically this has resulted in rises and falls in reindeer numbers. Control of the herd was being emphasized through age and sex composition and selection of behavioural traits and easily recognisable animals which favour handling. A high proportion of adults alleviated control of the herd as it eased the herding and reduced the mortality risk as they were able to withstand the highly stochastic environment. The introduction of the snowmobiles in the 1960s revolutionized the herding and transportation and hence reduced the importance of the male segment of the herd and amplified the ongoing transformation of the modern society into a market based economy. Now, the challenge was to efficiently convert the limited primary plant production into animal product, mainly meat. This is primarily achieved by balancing the animal numbers in accordance to the forage resources. However, also herd composition and slaughtering strategy are essential for maximizing the meat output per area unit. A highest possible proportion of reproductive females combined with a slaughtering scheme based on calves was tested and partly implemented in Soviet-Union already in the 1930s and introduced in the 1960s in Finland. Also in parts of Norway and Sweden this scheme was modified and tested. However, the formal work of refining and testing this new strategy based on modern population theory blended with

  13. Prevalence of intestinal pathogens in Danish finishing pig herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stege, H.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Møller, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    Our aim was to determine the prevalence of the intestinal bacteria: Lawsonia intracellularis, Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, Serpulina intermedia, Brachyspira innocens, Brachyspira pilosicoli, pathogenic Escherichia coli (serogroups 0138, 0139, 0141 and 0149) and Salmonella enterica in Danish...... were collected and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or culture. L. intracellularis was found in 74 herds (93.7%), B. hyodysenteriae in two herds (2.5%), S. intermedia in 10 herds (12.7%), B. innocens in 27 herds (34.2%), B. pilosicoli in 15 herds (19.0%), pathogenic E. call in 19 herds (24...

  14. Mitigating Herding in Hierarchical Crowdsourcing Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Han; Miao, Chunyan; Leung, Cyril; Chen, Yiqiang; Fauvel, Simon; Lesser, Victor R; Yang, Qiang

    2016-12-05

    Hierarchical crowdsourcing networks (HCNs) provide a useful mechanism for social mobilization. However, spontaneous evolution of the complex resource allocation dynamics can lead to undesirable herding behaviours in which a small group of reputable workers are overloaded while leaving other workers idle. Existing herding control mechanisms designed for typical crowdsourcing systems are not effective in HCNs. In order to bridge this gap, we investigate the herding dynamics in HCNs and propose a Lyapunov optimization based decision support approach - the Reputation-aware Task Sub-delegation approach with dynamic worker effort Pricing (RTS-P) - with objective functions aiming to achieve superlinear time-averaged collective productivity in an HCN. By considering the workers' current reputation, workload, eagerness to work, and trust relationships, RTS-P provides a systematic approach to mitigate herding by helping workers make joint decisions on task sub-delegation, task acceptance, and effort pricing in a distributed manner. It is an individual-level decision support approach which results in the emergence of productive and robust collective patterns in HCNs. High resolution simulations demonstrate that RTS-P mitigates herding more effectively than state-of-the-art approaches.

  15. Bacteriological etiology and treatment of mastitis in Finnish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakkamäki, Johanna; Taponen, Suvi; Heikkilä, Anna-Maija; Pyörälä, Satu

    2017-05-25

    The Finnish dairy herd recording system maintains production and health records of cows and herds. Veterinarians and farmers register veterinary treatments in the system. Milk samples for microbiological analysis are routinely taken from mastitic cows. The laboratory of the largest dairy company in Finland, Valio Ltd., analyzes most samples using real-time PCR. This study addressed pathogen-specific microbiological data and treatment and culling records, in combination with cow and herd characteristics, from the Finnish dairy herd recording system during 2010-2012. The data derived from 240,067 quarter milk samples from 93,529 dairy cows with mastitis; 238,235 cows from the same herds served as the control group. No target pathogen DNA was detected in 12% of the samples. In 49% of the positive samples, only one target species and in 19%, two species with one dominant species were present. The most common species in the samples with a single species only were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) (43%), followed by Staphylococcus aureus (21%), Streptococcus uberis (9%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8%), Corynebacterium bovis (7%), and Escherichia coli (5%). On average, 36% of the study cows and 6% of the control cows had recorded mastitis treatments during lactation. The corresponding proportions were 16 and 6% at drying-off. For more than 75% of the treatments during lactation, diagnosis was acute clinical mastitis. In the milk samples from cows with a recorded mastitis treatment during lactation, CNS and S. aureus were most common, followed by streptococci. Altogether, 48% of the cows were culled during the study. Mastitis was reported as the most common reason to cull; 49% of study cows and 18% of control cows were culled because of mastitis. Culling was most likely if S. aureus was detected in the milk sample submitted during the culling year. The PCR test has proven to be an applicable method also for large-scale use in bacterial diagnostics. In the present

  16. Abortion studies in Iranian dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keshavarzi, Hamideh; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, Ali; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2017-01-01

    Abortions, especially those occurring during late pregnancy, lead to considerable economic losses. To estimate the financial losses related to pregnancy loss, at first the influencing factors on abortion need to be identified. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine and quantify the risk...... factors and their interactions for abortion in Iranian dairy herds. Based on data from 6 commercial herds, logistic regression was used to identify the risk factors for abortion. The basic time unit used in the study was a 3-week period corresponding to an estrus cycle. Thus, stage of lactation...... factors were herd effect, pregnancy stage, previous abortion, calving month, cumulative fat corrected milk (FCM) yield level, mastitis in current 3-weeks in milk, accumulated number of mastitis and all 2-way interactions. Pregnancy tests were performed between 35 and 50 days after insemination. Abortion...

  17. Review of health risks in acrylonitrile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirguis, S S; Cohen, M B; Rajhans, G S

    1984-05-01

    The Occupational Health Branch of the Ontario Ministry of Labour began a study in 1978 for the evaluation of health risks associated with acrylonitrile (AN) exposure. Detailed hygiene and medical investigations were conducted in fourteen plants for evaluating AN exposure in various industrial processes. For companies were also studied in relation to mixed chemical exposure representing acrylic fibres, nitrile rubber, ABS-resin, and acrylic emulsions production. The possible interaction between AN and other coexisting chemical exposures was reviewed since dimethyl formamide, styrene, and butadiene have similar pharmacokinetics and possible synergistic effects. Exposure in acrylic fibre production may be synergistic and carcinogenic. Results of air monitoring indicated exposure levels to AN below 2 ppm (TWA) in most cases. Exposure to other co-existing chemicals was evaluated. Results of medical tests indicated no significant abnormalities in chest x-rays or liver function tests in currently exposed workers.

  18. Visual monitoring of reproduction in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thysen, Iver; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1994-01-01

    Two complementary approaches to produce visual information from reproduction records are described and exemplified. The Event Display shows all reproductive events, over a year, for all cows in a herd, by symbols placed in an array with columns representing calendar weeks and rows representing...... individual cows. The Reproduction Monitor consists of graphs of insemination and pregnancy rates evaluated weekly with a Bayesian technique. These visual monitoring tools are well suited to explore temporal variation in reproductive performance, they provide a quick overview of herd performance...

  19. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Mota Borges Bottino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS. The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  20. Cyberbullying and adolescent mental health: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottino, Sara Mota Borges; Bottino, Cássio M C; Regina, Caroline Gomez; Correia, Aline Villa Lobo; Ribeiro, Wagner Silva

    2015-03-01

    Cyberbullying is a new form of violence that is expressed through electronic media and has given rise to concern for parents, educators and researchers. In this paper, an association between cyberbullying and adolescent mental health will be assessed through a systematic review of two databases: PubMed and Virtual Health Library (BVS). The prevalence of cyberbullying ranged from 6.5% to 35.4%. Previous or current experiences of traditional bullying were associated with victims and perpetrators of cyberbullying. Daily use of three or more hours of Internet, web camera, text messages, posting personal information and harassing others online were associated with cyberbullying. Cybervictims and cyberbullies had more emotional and psychosomatic problems, social difficulties and did not feel safe and cared for in school. Cyberbullying was associated with moderate to severe depressive symptoms, substance use, ideation and suicide attempts. Health professionals should be aware of the violent nature of interactions occurring in the virtual environment and its harm to the mental health of adolescents.

  1. An analysis of herding behavior in security analysts’ networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zheng; Zhang, YongJie; Feng, Xu; Zhang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we build undirected weighted networks to study herding behavior among analysts and to analyze the characteristics and the structure of these networks. We then construct a new indicator based on the average degree of nodes and the average weighted clustering coefficient to research the various types of herding behavior. Our findings suggest that every industry has, to a certain degree, herding behavior among analysts. While there is obvious uninformed herding behavior in real estate and certain other industries, industries such as mining and nonferrous metals have informed herding behavior caused by analysts’ similar reactions to public information. Furthermore, we relate the two types of herding behavior to stock price and find that uninformed herding behavior has a positive effect on market prices, whereas informed herding behavior has a negative effect.

  2. On the surveillance for animal diseases in small herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, Matthias; Dekker, Aldo

    2005-01-01

    Small herds may present a problem in surveillance for infectious animal diseases because typical levels of a within-herd design prevalence are not directly applicable. We suggest a definition of small herds as those smaller than 2/(within-herd design prevalence) on the basis that such herds would...... be expected to have less than two (i.e. only one) infected animals. Consequently, the probability of detecting small herds cannot be improved by choosing a larger sample size within the herd. We derive necessary sample sizes of herds and the probability ("confidence") of detecting disease within a stratum...... conservative (lower) estimates of the confidence for a given sample size and should therefore be preferred....

  3. Herd Clustering: A synergistic data clustering approach using collective intelligence

    KAUST Repository

    Wong, Kachun; Peng, Chengbin; Li, Yue; Chan, Takming

    2014-01-01

    , this principle is used to develop a new clustering algorithm. Inspired by herd behavior, the clustering method is a synergistic approach using collective intelligence called Herd Clustering (HC). The novel part is laid in its first stage where data instances

  4. A Review of Hip Hop-Based Interventions for Health Literacy, Health Behaviors, and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia

    2017-07-01

    African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.

  5. Wine, resveratrol and health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Raúl F; García-Parrilla, Maria C; Puertas, Belén; Cantos-Villar, Emma

    2009-05-01

    Several studies have cited the Mediterranean diet as an example of healthy eating. In fact, the Mediterranean diet has become the reference diet for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Red wine seems to be an essential component of the diet, since moderate consumption of wine is associated with lower risk and mortality from cardiovascular disease. Evidence is also accumulating that wine helps prevent the development of certain cancers. Of all the many components of wine, resveratrol, which is a natural component specifically present in wine, has been identified as being mainly responsible for these health-promoting properties. Many valuable properties such as cardioprotective and anticarcinogenic activity have been attributed to resveratrol; however, its bioavailability is quite low. The bioactivity of metabolites derived from resveratrol, and the accumulation of resveratrol in vital organs are still under study, but there are high expectations of positive results. Other stilbene compounds are also considered in this review, despite being present in undetectable or very small quantities in wine. The present paper reviews all aspects of the health properties of wine, bioactive compounds found in wine, and their concentrations, bioavailability and possible synergistic effects.

  6. Prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge in dairy herds depends on timing but not method of detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    A review of existing literature was conducted to determine the prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge (PVD) in dairy herds around the world and detection methodologies that influence prevalence estimates. Four databases (PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus) were queried with the sea...

  7. Steps can be taken to keep bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) out of your herd

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is a review, written for a lay publication whose core audience in dairy producers. Control of BVD in any dairy operation must rely on the implementation of an organized strategy combining biosecurity, surveillance and increased herd resistance. This article discusses the design and implementati...

  8. Population-level impact, herd immunity, and elimination after human papillomavirus vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brisson, Marc; Bénard, Élodie; Drolet, Mélanie

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundModelling studies have been widely used to inform human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination policy decisions; however, many models exist and it is not known whether they produce consistent predictions of population-level effectiveness and herd effects. We did a systematic review and meta-a...

  9. E-herding : patterns of online mass-behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.

    2012-01-01

    Herding is convergent social behavior driven by inter-personal interaction, without centralized coordination. Herding in the online setting, which we call e-herding, is important for marketing scholars and practitioners because of its potential impact on product adoption and brand image and because

  10. Forecasting Housing Approvals in Australia: Do Forecasters Herd?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Rülke

    2012-01-01

    Price trends in housing markets may reflect herding of market participants. A natural question is whether such herding, to the extent that it occurred, reflects herding in forecasts of professional forecasters. Using more than 6,000 forecasts of housing approvals for Australia, we did not find...

  11. 9 CFR 77.36 - Interstate movement from qualified herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... date of movement. If a group of captive cervids from a qualified herd is being moved interstate... unclassified herd. (4) Captive cervids being moved interstate for the purpose of exhibition only may be moved... being moved directly from a classified herd, the captive cervid must be isolated from all other animals...

  12. Herd- and sow-related risk factors for lameness in organic and conventional sow herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knage-Rasmussen, Kristian Møllegaard; Houe, Hans; Rousing, Tine

    2014-01-01

    included in the study were clinical parameters and factors related to the production system. Sows were examined visually by one of four trained observers. The organic sows were assigned scores for lameness, body condition, hoof length, bursitis, abscesses and leg wounds, while the conventional sows were...... assigned scores for lameness, body condition and bursitis. A multivariable analysis was carried out by logistic regression with the herd and observer as random effects. The average herd lameness prevalence in gestation and lactation sows in organic herds was 11% in summer/autumn and 4.6% in winter....../spring. ‘Wounds, bursitis and abscess’ on legs (OR=4.7, P3 (OR=1.79, P=0.008) were associated with increased risk of lameness in Danish organic sow herds. Season (winter/spring v. summer/autumn) lowered the risk of lameness (OR=0.37, P

  13. Some herding, record keeping and treatment methods used in Alaskan reindeer herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Dieterich

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20000 reindeer (Rangifer tarandus in Alaska are gathered once or twice yearly to facilitate identification, serologic sampling, treatment and antler removal. Various air and land craft are used to bring the animals into a corral system from which they can be herded into a padded, pneumatically operated, squeeze apparatus. Ear tags are applied or read if already in place and ears are notched. A portable, computerized rapid data retrieval system is used to record reproductive success, vaccination and treatment status and other miscellaneous information. Ivermectin is being administered in the early winter months to treat reindeer in many herds for warbles, nasal bots and internal parasites. A killed, homologous Brucella suis type 4 vaccine is being used in two large (3500 herds. Efforts are being made to incorporate other innovative methods to improve herding and corralling methods.

  14. Cubicle Refusal in Norwegian Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myren HJ

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to survey the behaviour of choosing the alley area instead of a cubicle as a lying place (cubicle refusal, a questionnaire was sent to the 273 dairy farms in Norway known to keep cows in cubicle housing systems. Sixty-six percent of the farmers contacted were included in the study. The median herd size was 18 cows (range 7–118. More than 85% of the herds had sheds providing one or more cubicles per cow. The mean herd occurrence of cubicle refusal was 6%, but showed great variation (range 0–55%. Regression analysis showed a significant association between rearing heifers in slatted floor pens and an increased cubicle refusal occurrence (p = 0.02, R2 = 0.05, while herd size, use of litter, or cubicle-to-animal ratio were not found to be associated with cubicle refusal. The practice of rearing heifers in slatted floor pens accounted for about one half of the observed cubicle refusal (etiologic fraction = 0.51.

  15. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Pierdzioch

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time.

  16. House Price Forecasts, Forecaster Herding, and the Recent Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Pierdzioch; Ruelke

    2013-01-01

    We used the Wall Street Journal survey data for the period 2006–2012 to analyze whether forecasts of house prices and housing starts provide evidence of (anti-)herding of forecasters. Forecasts are consistent with herding (anti-herding) of forecasters if forecasts are biased towards (away from) t......) the consensus forecast. We found that anti-herding is prevalent among forecasters of house prices. We also report that, following the recent crisis, the prevalence of forecaster anti-herding seems to have changed over time....

  17. Antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella and E. coli from Pennsylvania dairy herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial resistance in bacterial pathogens is an increasing public health concern. The objective of this study was to examine antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella and E. coli isolates from Pennsylvania dairy herds. Manure composite samples were collected from 76 farms: on each farm one sample...

  18. Change in lameness risk estimates in piglets due to the modelling of herd-level variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, M.K.; Christensen, J.

    1999-01-01

    In a previous study (Christensen, 1996. Prev. Vet. Med. 26, 107-118), an effect parameter changed from positive to negative depending on the model used. The study considered lameness in suckling piglets and the dataset included 7632 litters from 35 herds from the Health and Production Surveillanc...

  19. 9 CFR 55.23 - Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... all CWD-positive, CWD-suspect, and CWD-exposed animals. (2) Has the authority, based on State law or... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of States and enrolled herd owners. 55.23 Section 55.23 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION...

  20. Could information about herd immunity help us achieve herd immunity? Evidence from a population representative survey experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnesen, Sveinung; Bærøe, Kristine; Cappelen, Cornelius; Carlsen, Benedicte

    2018-05-01

    Immunisation causes dramatic reductions in morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases; however, resistance to vaccination is nonetheless widespread. An understudied issue - explored here - is whether appeals to collective as opposed to individual benefits of vaccination encourage people to vaccinate. Knowledge of this is important not least with respect to the design of public health campaigns, which often lack information about the collective benefits of vaccination. Using a between-subjects experimental survey design, we test whether information about the effects of herd immunity influences people's decision to vaccinate. A representative sample of Norwegians was confronted with a hypothetical scenario in which a new and infectious disease is on its way to Norway. The sample was split in three - a control group and two treatment groups. The one treatment group was provided information about collective benefits of vaccination; the other was provided information about the individual benefits of vaccination. Both treatments positively affect people's decision to vaccinate; however, informing about the collective benefits has an even stronger effect than informing about the individual benefits. Our results suggest that people's decision about whether to vaccinate and thus contribute to herd immunity is influenced by concern for others. Thus, stressing the collective benefits of vaccination could increase the effectiveness of health campaigns.

  1. Passenger safety, health, and comfort: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayman, R B

    1997-05-01

    Since the birth of aviation medicine approximately 80 yrs ago, practitioners and scientists have given their attention primarily to flight deck crew, cabin crew, and ground support personnel. However, in more recent years we have broadened our horizons to include the safety, health, and comfort of passengers flying commercial aircraft. This will be even more compelling as more passengers take to the air in larger aircraft and flying longer hours to more distant destinations. Further, we can expect to see more older passengers because people in many countries are living longer, healthier lives. The author first discusses the stresses imposed by ordinary commercial flight upon travelers such as airport tumult, barometric pressure changes, immobility, jet lag, noise/ vibration, and radiation. Medical considerations are next addressed describing inflight illness and medical care capability aboard U.S. air carriers. Passenger safety, cabin air quality, and the preventive medicine aspects of air travel are next reviewed in the context of passenger safety, health, and comfort. Recommendations are addressed to regulator agencies, airlines aircraft manufacturers, and the aerospace medicine community.

  2. Seroprevalence of border disease in Danish sheep and goat herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tegtmeier, C.; Stryhn, H.; Uttenthal, Åse

    2000-01-01

    A study was conducted in 1994-96 with the aim of assessing the serological prevalence of Border Disease (BD) among sheep and goats in Denmark and to investigate possible relations to herd factors. From each of 1000 herds, 2 blood samples were obtained from animals older than 1 year. The examination.......50. There was no difference between the prevalence in sheep and goat herds. Records for well over half of the herds could be combined with data from the Danish Central Husbandry Register. No association between occurrence of ED and herd size was found. Cattle were registered as contemporarily present on 135 out of 521 herds...... which was shown to be strongly associated to ED. The estimated herd prevalences of ED among farms with and without contemporary cattle were 0.24 and 0.042, respectively....

  3. Mentorship in the health professions: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Annette; van Diggele, Christie; Mellis, Craig

    2018-01-10

    The importance of mentorship within health care training is well recognised. It offers a means to further enhance workforce performance and engagement, promote learning opportunities and encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. There are both career and life benefits associated with mentorship, and it is increasingly recognised as a bidirectional process that benefits both mentors and mentees. Recently, mentoring has been considered an essential step in professional and personal development, particularly in the field of health care. This article provides a review of the recent literature to assist those considering the implementation of mentorship programmes within their institutions. Discussion includes topics relating to the key elements of effective mentorship, the various phases and styles of mentorship, the need for career-long mentoring, ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship. Learning within the workplace includes the development of knowledge and skills, and an understanding of the values important to the profession and the culture of organisations. Within health care training, organisations may encompass hospitals, universities, training organisations and regulatory bodies. The practice of mentorship may help to foster an understanding of the enduring elements of practice within these organisations. Mentoring involves both a coaching and an educational role, requiring a generosity of time, empathy, a willingness to share knowledge and skills, and an enthusiasm for teaching and the success of others. Being mentored is believed to have an important influence on personal development, career guidance and career choice. Ethical issues and potential difficulties in mentorship include conflict of interest, imbalance of power and unrealistic expectations. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  4. Mental Health Services in School-Based Health Centers: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, Ranbir Mangat; Diallo, Ana F.

    2016-01-01

    Mental health issues affect 20-25% of children and adolescents, of which few receive services. School-based health centers (SBHCs) provide access to mental health services to children and adolescents within their schools. A systematic review of literature was undertaken to review evidence on the effectiveness of delivery of mental health services…

  5. Herd factors associated with dairy cow mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConnel, C; Lombard, J; Wagner, B; Kopral, C; Garry, F

    2015-08-01

    Summary studies of dairy cow removal indicate increasing levels of mortality over the past several decades. This poses a serious problem for the US dairy industry. The objective of this project was to evaluate associations between facilities, herd management practices, disease occurrence and death rates on US dairy operations through an analysis of the National Animal Health Monitoring System's Dairy 2007 survey. The survey included farms in 17 states that represented 79.5% of US dairy operations and 82.5% of the US dairy cow population. During the first phase of the study operations were randomly selected from a sampling list maintained by the National Agricultural Statistics Service. Only farms that participated in phase I and had 30 or more dairy cows were eligible to participate in phase II. In total, 459 farms had complete data for all selected variables and were included in this analysis. Univariable associations between dairy cow mortality and 162 a priori identified operation-level management practices or characteristics were evaluated. Sixty of the 162 management factors explored in the univariate analysis met initial screening criteria and were further evaluated in a multivariable model exploring more complex relationships. The final weighted, negative binomial regression model included six variables. Based on the incidence rate ratio, this model predicted 32.0% less mortality for operations that vaccinated heifers for at least one of the following: bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza 3, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Haemophilus somnus, leptospirosis, Salmonella, Escherichia coli or clostridia. The final multivariable model also predicted a 27.0% increase in mortality for operations from which a bulk tank milk sample tested ELISA positive for bovine leukosis virus. Additionally, an 18.0% higher mortality was predicted for operations that used necropsies to determine the cause of death for some proportion of dead

  6. FLUORIDE: A REVIEW OF USE AND EFFECTS ON HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Kanduti, Domen; Sterbenk, Petra; Artnik, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Appropriate oral health care is fundamental for any individual?s health. Dental caries is still one of the major public health problems. The most effective way of caries prevention is the use of fluoride. Aim: The aim of our research was to review the literature about fluoride toxicity and to inform physicians, dentists and public health specialists whether fluoride use is expedient and safe. Methods: Data we used in our review were systematically searched and collected from web...

  7. Runne-Beana: Dog Herds Ethnographer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrdene Anderson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Saami society in Lapland (now often called Saapmi, particularly the seasonally-nomadic reindeer-breeding sector, is predicated upon mobility and autonomy of its actors. Runne-Beana, a talented reindeer-herding dog, exhibited both mobility and autonomy when allocating to himself a peripatetic ethnographer, on the first day of five years of doctoral dissertation fieldwork in arctic Norway in 1972. That family’s and the wider community’s reactions to Runne-Beana’s behavior, and mine, highlight the tensions when mobility and autonomy compound with ideologies of ownership and control. At the same time, his companionship profoundly shaped all field relationships, engendering an understanding of dog culture as it is manifest in the herder/herding dog/reindeer triad and in the interpenetration of assumptions concerning child/dog enculturation.

  8. Dynamic production monitoring in pig herds II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bono, Claudia; Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2013-01-01

    an expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm applied on a dataset containing data from 15 herds, each of them including insemination and farrowing observations over a period ranging from 150 to 800 weeks. The model included a set of parameters describing the parity-specific farrowing rate and the re......-insemination effect. It also provided reliable forecasting on weekly basis. Statistical control tools were used to give warnings in case of impaired farrowing rate. For each herd, farrowing rate profile, analysis of model components over time and detection of alarms were computed. The model provided a good overview...... of the development of the parity specific farrowing rate over time and the control charts were able to detect impaired results. Suggestions for future improvements include addition of parity-specific control charts, calibration of the charts for use in practice and inclusion of a sow effect in the farrowing model....

  9. Herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in French cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, Maud; Béral, Marina; Scoizec, Axelle; Mathevon, Yoann; Durand, Benoit; Courcoul, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    Although officially free of bovine tuberculosis (bTB), France has been experiencing a slight increase in the incidence and geographical spread of the infection. Eradication of bTB requires determining the infection risk factors. Although several studies identifying bTB risk factors have been conducted in the United Kingdom and Spain, no information is currently available regarding bTB risk factors in French cattle. The objective of this work was thus to study the factors associated with the risk of bTB in cattle herds in three French administrative divisions (départements of Ardennes, Côte d'Or and Dordogne). A case-control study was conducted to compare herds having experienced a bTB outbreak between 2012 and early 2014 with randomly selected control herds of the three study départements. A questionnaire of farming practices, inter-herd contacts (e.g. at pasture or via vehicles or materials), and the presence of other domestic species was carried out in the selected herds. Data on other variables of interest included animal movements between farms and potential contacts between cattle and wildlife (e.g. badger and wild boar abundances) were also collected. Multivariable logistic regression and multimodel inference methods were used to assess risk factors related to bTB. A total of 216 herds (72 cases and 144 controls) were analyzed. The two main risk factors were the presence of a recent neighboring outbreak, being defined as a neighboring herd at pasture reported as infected in the past two years (odds ratio (OR)=3.6; population attributable fraction (PAF)=30.7%) and the presence of a farm building for cattle housing or for feed storage located at more than 300-m from inhabited areas (OR=2.3; PAF=27.6%). Another risk factor was related to sharing water points at pasture with a recent neighboring outbreak. Results illustrated the multifactorial nature of bTB dynamics. The risk factors related to recently infected neighboring herds could be attributable to

  10. Effectiveness and Appropriateness of mHealth Interventions for Maternal and Child Health: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Huan; Chai, Yanling; Dong, Le; Niu, Wenyi; Zhang, Puhong

    2018-01-01

    Background The application of mobile health (mHealth) technology in reproductive, maternal, newborn, and child health (RMNCH) is increasing worldwide. However, best practice and the most effective mHealth interventions have not been reviewed systematically. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of mHealth interventions for RMNCH around the world were conducted to investigate their characteristics as well as the features and effectiveness of mHealth interventions. Methods ...

  11. Population dynamics of caribou herds in southwestern Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Valkenburg

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The five naturally occurring and one transplanted caribou (Rangifer tarandus granti herd in southwestern Alaska composed about 20% of Alaska's caribou population in 2001. All five of the naturally occurring herds fluctuated considerably in size between the late 1800s and 2001 and for some herds the data provide an indication of long-term periodic (40-50 year fluctuations. At the present time, the Unimak (UCH and Southern Alaska Peninsula (SAP are recovering from population declines, the Northern Alaska Peninsula Herd (NAP appears to be nearing the end of a protracted decline, and the Mulchatna Herd (MCH appears to now be declining after 20 years of rapid growth. The remaining naturally occurring herd (Kilbuck has virtually disappeared. Nutrition had a significant effect on the size of 4-month-old and 10-month-old calves in the NAP and the Nushagak Peninsula Herd (NPCH and probably also on population growth in at least 4 (SAP, NAP, NPCH, and MCH of the six caribou herds in southwestern Alaska. Predation does not appear to be sufficient to keep caribou herds in southwestern Alaska from expanding, probably because rabies is endemic in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and is periodically transferred to wolves (Canis lupus and other canids. However, we found evidence that pneumonia and hoof rot may result in significant mortality of caribou in southwestern Alaska, whereas there is no evidence that disease is important in the dynamics of Interior herds. Cooperative conservation programs, such as the Kilbuck Caribou Management Plan, can be successful in restraining traditional harvest and promoting growth in caribou herds. In southwestern Alaska we also found evidence that small caribou herds can be swamped and assimilated by large herds, and fidelity to traditional calving areas can be lost.

  12. Arsenic and human health effects: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Khaja Shameem Mohammed; Jayasinghe, Sudheera Sammanthi; Chandana, Ediriweera P S; Jayasumana, Channa; De Silva, P Mangala C S

    2015-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is ubiquitous in nature and humans being exposed to arsenic via atmospheric air, ground water and food sources are certain. Major sources of arsenic contamination could be either through geological or via anthropogenic activities. In physiological individuals, organ system is described as group of organs that transact collectively and associate with other systems for conventional body functions. Arsenic has been associated with persuading a variety of complications in body organ systems: integumentary, nervous, respiratory, cardiovascular, hematopoietic, immune, endocrine, hepatic, renal, reproductive system and development. In this review, we outline the effects of arsenic on the human body with a main focus on assorted organ systems with respective disease conditions. Additionally, underlying mechanisms of disease development in each organ system due to arsenic have also been explored. Strikingly, arsenic has been able to induce epigenetic changes (in utero) and genetic mutations (a leading cause of cancer) in the body. Occurrence of various arsenic induced health effects involving emerging areas such as epigenetics and cancer along with their respective mechanisms are also briefly discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Child labour and health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batomen Kuimi, Brice Lionel; Oppong-Nkrumah, Oduro; Kaufman, Jay; Nazif-Munoz, Jose Ignacio; Nandi, Arijit

    2018-06-01

    This study aimed to synthesise the available knowledge, identify unexplored areas and discuss general limits of the published evidence. We focused on outcomes commonly hypothesised to be affected by child labour: nutritional status, harmful exposures and injuries. Four electronic databases (EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus, ISI Web of Science) were searched in November 2017. All articles published since 1996, without restrictions on language, were considered for inclusion. Out of the 1090 abstracts initially identified by the search, 78 articles were selected for inclusion and reviewed. Most of the studies were conducted in Asia and South America, and only a third of them compared working children to a control group of non-working children. Child labour appears to be associated with poor nutritional status, diseases due to harmful exposures, and a higher prevalence of injuries. Despite evidence for a negative relation between child work and health, the cross-sectional design of most studies limits the causal interpretation of existing findings. More rigorous observational studies are needed to confirm and better quantify these associations.

  14. Health Promotion in Schools: A Scoping Review of Systematic Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Roy; Pearson, Mark; Anderson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Schools are an important setting for a wide variety of activities to promote health. The purpose of this paper is to map the different types of health promotion programmes and activities in schools, to estimate the amount of published evaluations of health promotion within UK schools, and to identify any provisional "candidate…

  15. Analysis of Q fever in Dutch dairy goat herds and assessment of control measures by means of a transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontje, D M; Backer, J A; Hogerwerf, L; Roest, H I J; van Roermund, H J W

    2016-01-01

    Between 2006 and 2009 the largest human Q fever epidemic ever described occurred in the Netherlands. The source of infection was traced back to dairy goat herds with abortion problems due to Q fever. The first aim of control measures taken in these herds was the reduction of human exposure. To analyze Q fever dynamics in goat herds and to study the effect of control measures, a within-herd model of Coxiella burnetii transmission in dairy goat herds was developed. With this individual-based stochastic model we evaluated six control strategies and three herd management styles and studied which strategy leads to a lower Q fever prevalence and/or to disease extinction in a goat herd. Parameter values were based on literature and on experimental work. The model could not be validated with independent data. The results of the epidemiological model were: (1) Vaccination is effective in quickly reducing the prevalence in a dairy goat herd. (2) When taking into account the average time to extinction of the infection and the infection pressure in a goat herd, the most effective control strategy is preventive yearly vaccination, followed by the reactive strategies to vaccinate after an abortion storm or after testing BTM (bulk tank milk) positive. (3) As C. burnetii in dried dust may affect public health, an alternative ranking method is based on the cumulative amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment (from disease introduction until extinction). Using this criterion, the same control strategies are effective as when based on time to extinction and infection pressure (see 2). (4) As the bulk of pathogen excretion occurs during partus and abortion, culling of pregnant animals during an abortion storm leads to a fast reduction of the amount of C. burnetii emitted into the environment. However, emission is not entirely prevented and Q fever will not be eradicated in the herd by this measure. (5) A search & destroy (i.e. test and cull) method by PCR of individual milk

  16. PFOA and possible health effects : A review of scientific literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijs KJ; Bogers RP; M&G; M&V

    2017-01-01

    Associations were found between blood concentrations of PFOA in humans and possible health effects and functioning of the body. This is the result of a review of previously performed reviews of the scientific literature on studies conducted among humans by the National Institute for Public Health

  17. Health Inequality in South Africa: A Systematic Review | Obuaku ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents a review of key empirical studies on health inequalities in South Africa with the aim of contributing to a comparative examination of social inequalities in health across different countries in Europe and other parts of the World. Studies reviewed were identified through a computerised search of key words ...

  18. On-call work and health: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botterill Jackie S

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many professions in the fields of engineering, aviation and medicine employ this form of scheduling. However, on-call work has received significantly less research attention than other work patterns such as shift work and overtime hours. This paper reviews the current body of peer-reviewed, published research conducted on the health effects of on-call work The health effects studies done in the area of on-call work are limited to mental health, job stress, sleep disturbances and personal safety. The reviewed research suggests that on-call work scheduling can pose a risk to health, although there are critical gaps in the literature.

  19. Geographic information systems (GIS) for Health Promotion and Public Health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nykiforuk, Candace I J; Flaman, Laura M

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to identify how geographic information system (GIS) applications have been used in health-related research and to critically examine the issues, strengths, and challenges inherent to those approaches from the lenses of health promotion and public health. Through the review process, conducted in 2007, it is evident that health promotion and public health applications of GIS can be generally categorized into four predominant themes: disease surveillance (n = 227), risk analysis (n = 189), health access and planning (n = 138), and community health profiling (n = 115). This review explores how GIS approaches have been used to inform decision making and discusses the extent to which GIS can be applied to address health promotion and public health questions. The contribution of this literature review will be to generate a broader understanding of how GIS-related methodological techniques and tools developed in other disciplines can be meaningfully applied to applications in public health policy, promotion, and practice.

  20. Multifractality and herding behavior in the Japanese stock market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajueiro, Daniel O.; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present evidence of multifractality and herding behavior for a large set of Japanese stocks traded in the Tokyo Stock Exchange. We find evidence that herding behavior occurs in periods of extreme market movements. Therefore, based on the intuition behind the tests to detect herding phenomenon developed, for instance, in Christie and Huang [Christie W, Huang R. Following the pied pier: do individual returns herd around the market? Financ Analysts J 1995;51:31-7] and Chang et al. [Chang EC, Cheng JW, Khorana A. Examination of herd behavior in equity markets: an international perspective. J Bank Finance 2000;24:1651-99], we suggest that herding behavior may be one of the causes of multifractality.

  1. Post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical symptoms, and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, E. Okholm; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  2. Postweaning multisystematic wasting syndrome in Danish pig herds: productivity, clinical signs and pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okholm Nielsen, Elisabeth; Enøe, Claes; Jorsal, Sven Erik Lind

    2008-01-01

    were 36 g and 52 g less in the case herds than in the control herds. By examining three weaner pigs from each herd the PMWS diagnosis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry in 78 per cent of the case herds, but at least one PMWS-positive weaner pig was found in 19 of the control herds...

  3. Systematic review of health branding: growth of a promising practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, W Douglas; Blitstein, Jonathan; Vallone, Donna; Post, Samantha; Nielsen, Wendy

    2015-03-01

    Brands are marketing tools that create mental representations in the minds of consumers about products, services, and organizations. Brands create schema that help consumers decide whether to initiate or continue use of a product or service. Health branding determines behavioral choice by building consumer relationships and identification with health behaviors and their benefits. Health branding can be measured by the associations individuals form with health behaviors. In 2008, Evans and colleagues systematically reviewed the literature on health brands, reported on branded health messages and campaigns worldwide, and examined specific branding strategies in multiple subject areas. This paper extends that review. We replicated the comprehensive online literature search strategy from 2008. We screened a total of 311 articles and included 130 for full-text review. This included both articles from the 2008 review and new articles. After excluding those new articles that did not meet full-text inclusion criteria, we reviewed 69 in total. Of these, 32 were new articles since the 2008 review. Branded health campaigns cover most major domains of public health and appear worldwide. Since 2008, we observed improvement in evaluation, application of theory, and description of campaign strategies in published work. We recommend enhanced education of public health practitioners and researchers on the use and evaluation of branding.

  4. Consumers in mental health service leadership: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, Brett; Gordon, Sarah; Happell, Brenda

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary mental health policies call for greater involvement of mental health service consumers in all aspects and at all levels of service planning, delivery, and evaluation. The extent to which consumers are part of the decision-making function of mental health organizations varies. This systematic review synthesizes empirical and review studies published in peer-reviewed academic journals relating to consumers in leadership roles within mental health organizations. The Cochrane Library, Medline, and PsycINFO were searched for articles specifically analysing and discussing consumers' mental health service leadership. Each article was critically appraised against the inclusion criteria, with 36 articles included in the final review. The findings of the review highlight current understandings of organizational resources and structures in consumer-led organizations, determinants of leadership involvement, and how consumer leadership interacts with traditional mental health service provision. It appears that organizations might still be negotiating the balance between consumer leadership and traditional structures and systems. The majority of included studies represent research about consumer-run organizations, with consumer leadership in mainstream mental health organizations being less represented in the literature. Advocates of consumer leadership should focus more on emphasizing how such leadership itself can be a valuable resource for organizations and how this can be better articulated. This review highlights the current gaps in understandings of consumer leadership in mental health, including a need for more research exploring the benefits of consumer leadership for other consumers of services. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  5. Quality of reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages and health outcomes: a systematic review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weed, Douglas L; Mink, Pamela J

    2011-01-01

    Background: Medical and public health decisions are informed by reviews, which makes the quality of reviews an important scientific concern. Objective: We systematically assessed the quality of published reviews on sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and health, which is a controversial topic that is important to public health. Design: We performed a search of PubMed and Cochrane databases and a hand search of reference lists. Studies that were selected were published reviews and meta-analyses (June 2001 to June 2011) of epidemiologic studies of the relation between SSBs and obesity, type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and coronary heart disease. A standardized data-abstraction form was used. Review quality was assessed by using the validated instrument AMSTAR (assessment of multiple systematic reviews), which is a one-page tool with 11 questions. Results: Seventeen reviews met our inclusion and exclusion criteria: obesity or weight (16 reviews), diabetes (3 reviews), metabolic syndrome (3 reviews), and coronary heart disease (2 reviews). Authors frequently used a strictly narrative review (7 of 17 reviews). Only 6 of 17 reviews reported quantitative data in a table format. Overall, reviews of SSBs and health outcomes received moderately low–quality scores by the AMSTAR [mean: 4.4 points; median: 4 points; range: 1–8.5 points (out of a possible score of 11 points)]. AMSTAR scores were not related to the conclusions of authors (8 reviews reported an association with a mean AMSTAR score of 4.1 points; 9 reviews with equivocal conclusions scored 4.7 points; P value = 0.84). Less than one-third of published reviews reported a comprehensive literature search, listed included and excluded studies, or used duplicate study selection and data abstraction. Conclusion: The comprehensive reporting of epidemiologic evidence and use of systematic methodologies to interpret evidence were underused in published reviews on SSBs and health. PMID:21918218

  6. Is compensation "bad for health"? A systematic meta-review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spearing, Natalie M; Connelly, Luke B

    2011-01-01

    There is a common perception that injury compensation has a negative impact on health status, and systematic reviews supporting this thesis have been used to influence policy and practice decisions. This study evaluates the quality of the empirical evidence of a negative correlation between injury compensation and health outcomes, based on systematic reviews involving both verifiable and non-verifiable injuries. Systematic meta-review (a "review of reviews"). PubMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PEDro, PsycInfo, EconLit, Lexis, ABI/INFORM, The Cochrane Library, and the AHRQ EPC were searched from the date of their inception to August 2008, and hand searches were conducted. Selection criteria were established a priori. Included systematic reviews examined the impact of compensation on health, involved adults, were published in English and used a range of outcome measures. Two investigators independently applied standard instruments to evaluate the methodological quality of the included reviews. Data on compensation scheme design (i.e., the intervention) and outcome measures were also extracted. Eleven systematic reviews involving verifiable and non-verifiable injuries met the inclusion criteria. Nine reviews reported an association between compensation and poor health outcomes. All of them were affected by the generally low quality of the primary (observational) research in this field, the heterogeneous nature of compensation laws (schemes) and legal processes for seeking compensation, and the difficulties in measuring compensation in relation to health. Notwithstanding the limitations of the research in this field, one higher quality review examining a single compensation process and relying on primary studies using health outcome (rather than proxy) measures found strong evidence of no association between litigation and poor health following whiplash, challenging the general belief that legal processes have a negative impact on health status. Moves to alter scheme design and

  7. Health Insurance Rate Review Fact Sheet

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Affordable Care Act is bringing an unprecedented level of scrutiny and transparency to health insurance rate increases. The Act ensures that, in any State, any...

  8. [Academic review of global health approaches: an analytical framework].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Giraldo, Alvaro

    2015-09-01

    In order to identify perspectives on global health, this essay analyzes different trends from academia that have enriched global health and international health. A database was constructed with information from the world's leading global health centers. The search covered authors on global diplomacy and global health and was performed in PubMed, LILACS, and Google Scholar with the key words "global health" and "international health". Research and training centers in different countries have taken various academic approaches to global health; various interests and ideological orientations have emerged in relation to the global health concept. Based on the mosaic of global health centers and their positions, the review concludes that the new concept reflects the construction of a paradigm of renewal in international health and global health, the pre-paradigmatic stage of which has still not reached a final version.

  9. Peer Mentoring for Health Behavior Change: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petosa, R. L.; Smith, Laureen H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Peer mentoring can be a powerful complement to health instruction. Mentoring has been used to change health behaviors and promote sustainable lifestyle patterns in adults and, more recently, among adolescents. Purpose: This article reviews the use of peer mentoring to promote health practices and describes how this approach can be used…

  10. A systematic review of health manpower forecasting models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins-Coelho, G.; Greuningen, M. van; Barros, H.; Batenburg, R.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Health manpower planning (HMP) aims at matching health manpower (HM) supply to the population’s health requirements. To achieve this, HMP needs information on future HM supply and requirement (S&R). This is estimated by several different forecasting models (FMs). In this paper, we review

  11. Review Article Conscientious Objection and Reproductive Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However conscientious objection amongst the available few is a hitherto undocumented potential factor influencing access to health care in SSA. Provision of certain reproductive health services goes counter to some individual's religious and moral beliefs and practices. Health providers sometimes refuse to participate in or ...

  12. Digital Inclusion & Health Communication: A Rapid Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Kim; Boulet, Mark; Smith, Liam; Bragge, Peter

    2018-06-11

    Information and communication technologies can be a valuable tool for enhancing health communication. However, not everyone is utilising the wide suite of digital opportunities. This disparity has the potential to exacerbate existing social and health inequalities, particularly among vulnerable groups such as those who are in poor health and the elderly. This review aimed to systematically identify the common barriers to, and facilitators of, digital inclusion. A comprehensive database search yielded 969 citations. Following screening, seven systematic reviews and three non-systematic reviews were identified. Collectively, the reviews found that physical access continues to be a barrier to digital inclusion. However, provision of access alone is insufficient, as digital ability and attitude were also potential barriers. Social support, direct user experience and collaborative learning/design were identified as key strategies to improve inclusion. These review findings provide guidance for health communication practitioners in designing and implementing effective programmes in the digital environment.

  13. Comparison of treatment records and inventory of empty drug containers to quantify antimicrobial usage in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobrega, Diego B; De Buck, Jeroen; Naqvi, S Ali; Liu, Gang; Naushad, Sohail; Saini, Vineet; Barkema, Herman W

    2017-12-01

    Assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) is vital for interpreting the origin of changes in antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of the present study were to estimate the association between AMU determined using on-farm treatment records (TR) and inventory of empty drug containers (INV). Herds were selected to represent Canadian dairy farms. Producers were asked to record animal health events and treatments on a standard General Health Event form. For inventory data, 40-L receptacles were placed at various locations considered convenient to deposit all empty drug containers. Antimicrobial defined-daily dosages (ADD) were calculated for 51 Canadian herds using the 2 methods. Estimation of AMU was 31,840 ADD using the INV and 14,487 ADD using the TR, indicating that for every TR entry, 2.20 times more treatments were observed using the INV. Mastitis, reproductive conditions, and dry cow therapy were the most frequent reasons for antimicrobial therapy when assessing TR. For all antimicrobials evaluated, mean ADD was higher using the INV versus TR. Regardless, a strong positive correlation (0.80) was observed between the 2 methods, indicating that herds with increased number of ADD recorded using the INV also had increased number of ADD recorded using TR. Furthermore, a positive association was observed for the 6 most commonly used antimicrobials. In comparison to methods used in surveillance programs on AMU in livestock that assume a constant use in all herds (i.e., sales data), INV provided a herd-level specific quantity of AMU positively correlated with AMU recorded at the animal level in general. The INV was easy to implement and provided a measure of total AMU in the herd. Availability of such information would be valuable for interpreting changes in AMR at the herd level and enabling evaluation of interventions for decreasing AMR. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelling the economic impact of three lameness causing diseases using herd and cow level evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettema, Jehan; Østergaard, Søren; Kristensen, Anders Ringgaard

    2010-06-01

    Diseases to the cow's hoof, interdigital skin and legs are highly prevalent and of large economic impact in modern dairy farming. In order to support farmer's decisions on preventing and treating lameness and its underlying causes, decision support models can be used to predict the economic profitability of such actions. An existing approach of modelling lameness as one health disorder in a dynamic, stochastic and mechanistic simulation model has been improved in two ways. First of all, three underlying diseases causing lameness were modelled: digital dermatitis, interdigital hyperplasia and claw horn diseases. Secondly, the existing simulation model was set-up in way that it uses hyper-distributions describing diseases risk of the three lameness causing diseases. By combining information on herd level risk factors with prevalence of lameness or prevalence of underlying diseases among cows, marginal posterior probability distributions for disease prevalence in the specific herd are created in a Bayesian network. Random draws from these distributions are used by the simulation model to describe disease risk. Hereby field data on prevalence is used systematically and uncertainty around herd specific risk is represented. Besides the fact that estimated profitability of halving disease risk depended on the hyper-distributions used, the estimates differed for herds with different levels of diseases risk and reproductive efficiency. (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray, Christopher M; Bishop, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the market

  16. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Wray

    Full Text Available Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents' accumulating information over a bounded state-space, and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents' accumulating information over an unbounded state-space, numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock

  17. A Financial Market Model Incorporating Herd Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Herd behaviour in financial markets is a recurring phenomenon that exacerbates asset price volatility, and is considered a possible contributor to market fragility. While numerous studies investigate herd behaviour in financial markets, it is often considered without reference to the pricing of financial instruments or other market dynamics. Here, a trader interaction model based upon informational cascades in the presence of information thresholds is used to construct a new model of asset price returns that allows for both quiescent and herd-like regimes. Agent interaction is modelled using a stochastic pulse-coupled network, parametrised by information thresholds and a network coupling probability. Agents may possess either one or two information thresholds that, in each case, determine the number of distinct states an agent may occupy before trading takes place. In the case where agents possess two thresholds (labelled as the finite state-space model, corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over a bounded state-space), and where coupling strength is maximal, an asymptotic expression for the cascade-size probability is derived and shown to follow a power law when a critical value of network coupling probability is attained. For a range of model parameters, a mixture of negative binomial distributions is used to approximate the cascade-size distribution. This approximation is subsequently used to express the volatility of model price returns in terms of the model parameter which controls the network coupling probability. In the case where agents possess a single pulse-coupling threshold (labelled as the semi-infinite state-space model corresponding to agents’ accumulating information over an unbounded state-space), numerical evidence is presented that demonstrates volatility clustering and long-memory patterns in the volatility of asset returns. Finally, output from the model is compared to both the distribution of historical stock returns and the

  18. Using a Herd Profile to Determine Age-Specific Prevalence of Bovine Leukemia Virus in Michigan Dairy Herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald J. Erskine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Enzootic bovine leukosis is a contagious disease of cattle caused by the retrovirus, bovine leukemia virus (BLV and is the most common cause of malignant neoplasm in cattle. In order to facilitate surveillance of this disease in dairy herds, we developed a method to combine ELISA of milk collected during routine production testing with a prescribed sampling of cows that is independent of the proportion of cows within each lactation. In 113 Michigan dairy herds, milk samples from ten cows in each of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactations were analyzed for anti-Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV antibodies by milk ELISA. For each herd, a BLV herd profile (BHP was calculated as the simple average of the percent of BLV-positive cows within each of the four lactation groups. The mean BHP for all herds was 32.8%, with means of 18.5, 28.8, 39.2, and 44.8% of 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and ≥4th lactation animals infected, respectively. In eight herds, we determined the correlation between the BHP, and true herd prevalence by testing the entire lactating herd (r=0.988,  P<0.0001. The BHP allows discrimination of lactation-specific BLV prevalence within a dairy herd, to help identify risk factors and management plans that may be important in transmission of BLV.

  19. Veneto Region, Italy. Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, Franco; Mantoan, Domenico; Maresso, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. This HiT is one of the first to be written on a subnational level of government and focuses on the Veneto Region of northern Italy. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. The Veneto Region is one of Italy's richest regions and the health of its resident population compares favourably with other regions in Italy. Life expectancy for both men and women, now at 79.1 and 85.2 years, respectively, is slightly higher than the national average, while mortality rates are comparable to national ones. The major causes of death are tumours and cardiovascular diseases. Under Italy's National Health Service, the organization and provision of health care is a regional responsibility and regions must provide a nationally defined (with regional input) basic health benefit package to all of their citizens; extra services may be provided if budgets allow. Health care is mainly financed by earmarked central and regional taxes, with regions receiving their allocated share of resources from the National Health Fund. Historically, health budget deficits have been a major problem in most Italian regions, but since the early 2000s the introduction of efficiency measures and tighter procedures on financial management have contributed to a significant decrease in the Veneto Regions health budget deficit.The health system is governed by the Veneto Region government (Giunta) via the Departments of Health and Social Services, which receive technical support from a single General Management Secretariat. Health care is

  20. Does Indigenous health research have impact? A systematic review of reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinchin, Irina; Mccalman, Janya; Bainbridge, Roxanne; Tsey, Komla; Lui, Felecia Watkin

    2017-03-21

    Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians (hereafter respectfully Indigenous Australians) claim that they have been over-researched without corresponding research benefit. This claim raises two questions. The first, which has been covered to some extent in the literature, is about what type(s) of research are likely to achieve benefits for Indigenous people. The second is how researchers report the impact of their research for Indigenous people. This systematic review of Indigenous health reviews addresses the second enquiry. Fourteen electronic databases were systematically searched for Indigenous health reviews which met eligibility criteria. Two reviewers assessed their characteristics and methodological rigour using an a priori protocol. Three research hypotheses were stated and tested: (1) reviews address Indigenous health priority needs; (2) reviews adopt best practice guidelines on research conduct and reporting in respect to methodological transparency and rigour, as well as acceptability and appropriateness of research implementation to Indigenous people; and (3) reviews explicitly report the incremental impacts of the included studies and translation of research. We argue that if review authors explicitly address each of these three hypotheses, then the impact of research for Indigenous peoples' health would be explicated. Seventy-six reviews were included; comprising 55 journal articles and 21 Australian Government commissioned evidence review reports. While reviews are gaining prominence and recognition in Indigenous health research and increasing in number, breadth and complexity, there is little reporting of the impact of health research for Indigenous people. This finding raises questions about the relevance of these reviews for Indigenous people, their impact on policy and practice and how reviews have been commissioned, reported and evaluated. The findings of our study serve two main purposes. First, we have identified knowledge and

  1. Deployment Health Centers Review, 2016-2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-21

    the short and long-term adverse effects of military service on the physical and mental health of veterans. We recommend that the DHB continue to...adverse effects of military service on the physical and mental health of veterans” by expanding on current clinical, surveillance, and research efforts...the ability to identify, treat, and minimize the short- and long-term adverse effects of military service on the mental and physical health of

  2. United Kingdom (England): Health system review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Seán

    2011-01-01

    The Health Systems in Transition (HiT) profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. HiTs examine different approaches to the organization, financing and delivery of health services and the role of the main actors in health systems; describe the institutional framework, process, content and implementation of health and health care policies; and highlight challenges and areas that require more in-depth analysis. Various indicators show that the health of the population has improved over the last few decades. However, inequalities in health across socioeconomic groups have been increasing since the 1970s. The main diseases affecting the population are circulatory diseases, cancer, diseases of the respiratory system and diseases of the digestive system. Risk factors such as the steadily rising levels of alcohol consumption, the sharp increases in adult and child obesity and prevailing smoking levels are among the most pressing public health concerns, particularly as they reflect the growing health inequalities among different socioeconomic groups. Health services in England are largely free at the point of use. The NHS provides preventive medicine, primary care and hospital services to all those ordinarily resident. Over 12% of the population is covered by voluntary health insurance schemes, known in the United Kingdom as private medical insurance (PMI), which mainly provides access to acute elective care in the private sector. Responsibility for publicly funded health care rests with the Secretary of State for Health, supported by the Department of Health. The Department operates at a regional level through 10 strategic health authorities (SHAs), which are responsible for ensuring the quality and performance of local health services within their geographic area. Responsibility for commissioning health services at the local level lies with 151 primary care

  3. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Harry J; Smith, L Lerissa; McKool, Marissa; Mitchell, Denise N; Roth Bayer, Carey

    2015-12-23

    The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s), health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  4. Health Policy Training: A Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. Heiman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The context within which health care and public health systems operate is framed by health policies. There is growing consensus about the need for increased health policy leadership and a health professional workforce prepared to assume these leadership roles. At the same time, there is strong evidence supporting the need for a broader policy lens and the need to intentionally target health disparities. We reviewed the published literature between 1983 and 2013 regarding health policy training. From 5124 articles identified, 33 met inclusion criteria. Articles varied across common themes including target audience, goal(s, health policy definition, and core curricular content. The majority of articles were directed to medical or nursing audiences. Most articles framed health policy as health care policy and only a small number adopted a broader health in all policies definition. Few articles specifically addressed vulnerable populations or health disparities. The need for more rigorous research and evaluation to inform health policy training is compelling. Providing health professionals with the knowledge and skills to engage and take leadership roles in health policy will require training programs to move beyond their limited health care-oriented health policy framework to adopt a broader health and health equity in all policies approach.

  5. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristine Husøy Onarheim

    Full Text Available Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health.Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1. In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles.The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development.This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better

  6. Economic Benefits of Investing in Women's Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onarheim, Kristine Husøy; Iversen, Johanne Helene; Bloom, David E

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the status of women's health falls short of its potential. In addition to the deleterious ethical and human rights implications of this deficit, the negative economic impact may also be consequential, but these mechanisms are poorly understood. Building on the literature that highlights health as a driver of economic growth and poverty alleviation, we aim to systematically investigate the broader economic benefits of investing in women's health. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, we systematically reviewed health, gender, and economic literature to identify studies that investigate the impact of women's health on micro- and macroeconomic outcomes. We developed an extensive search algorithm and conducted searches using 10 unique databases spanning the timeframe 01/01/1970 to 01/04/2013. Articles were included if they reported on economic impacts stemming from changes in women's health (table of outcome measures included in full review, Table 1). In total, the two lead investigators independently screened 20,832 abstracts and extracted 438 records for full text review. The final review reflects the inclusion of 124 articles. The existing literature indicates that healthier women and their children contribute to more productive and better-educated societies. This study documents an extensive literature confirming that women's health is tied to long-term productivity: the development and economic performance of nations depends, in part, upon how each country protects and promotes the health of women. Providing opportunities for deliberate family planning; healthy mothers before, during, and after childbirth, and the health and productivity of subsequent generations can catalyze a cycle of positive societal development. This review highlights the untapped potential of initiatives that aim to address women's health. Societies that prioritize women's health will likely have better population health

  7. Evaluations of health promoting schools: a review of nine studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mũkoma, Wanjirũ; Flisher, Alan J

    2004-09-01

    The concept of 'health promoting schools' has been embraced internationally as an effective way of promoting the health of children, adolescents, and the wider school community. It is only recently that attempts have been made to evaluate health promoting schools. This paper reviews evaluations of health promoting schools and draws useful evaluation methodology lessons. The review is confined to school-based interventions that are founded explicitly on the concept of the health promoting school and employ the concept beyond one school domain. We included nine evaluations in this review. Seven of these were published in the peer reviewed scientific literature. Two were unpublished reports. One study was a randomized controlled trial, while a quasi-experimental research design with comparison schools was used in three studies. With three exceptions, combinations of quantitative and qualitative data were collected. There was evidence that the health promoting school has some influence on various domains of health for the school community. It is also possible to integrate health promotion into the school curriculum and policies successfully. However, the evaluation of health promoting schools is complex. We discuss some of the methodological challenges of evaluating health promoting schools and make suggestions for improving future evaluations.

  8. Trafficking and Health: A Systematic Review of Research Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Abby C; Arcara, Jennet; Graham, Laurie M; Macy, Rebecca J

    2018-04-01

    Trafficking in persons (TIP) is a human rights violation with serious public health consequences. Unfortunately, assessing TIP and its health sequelae rigorously and reliably is challenging due to TIP's clandestine nature, variation in definitions of TIP, and the need to use research methods that ensure studies are ethical and feasible. To help guide practice, policy, and research to assess TIP and health, we undertook a systematic literature review of 70 peer-reviewed, published articles to (a) identify TIP and health research methods being used, (b) determine what we can learn about TIP and health from these varied methodologies, and (c) determine the gaps that exist in health-focused TIP research. Results revealed that there are various quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis methods being used to investigate TIP and health. Furthermore, findings show that the limitations of current methodologies affect what is known about TIP and health. In particular, varying definitions, participant recruitment strategies, ethical standards, and outcome measures all affect what is known about TIP and health. Moreover, findings demonstrate an urgent need for representative and nonpurposive recruitment strategies in future investigations of TIP and health as well as research on risk and protective factors related to TIP and health, intervention effectiveness, long-term health outcomes, and research on trafficked people beyond women trafficked for sex. We offer recommendations for research, policy, and practice based on review results.

  9. The impact of mHealth interventions on health systems: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuin, Jill; Salie, Faatiema; Abdullahi, Leila H; Douglas, Tania S

    2016-11-25

    Mobile health (mHealth) has been described as a health enabling tool that impacts positively on the health system in terms of improved access, quality and cost of health care. The proposed systematic review will examine the impact of mHealth on health systems by assessing access, quality and cost of health care as indicators. The systematic review will include literature from various sources including published and unpublished/grey literature. The databases to be searched include: PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, NHS Health Technology Assessment Database and Web of Science. The reference lists of studies will be screened and conference proceedings searched for additional eligible reports. Literature to be included will have mHealth as the primary intervention. Two authors will independently screen the search output, select studies and extract data; discrepancies will be resolved by consensus and discussion with the assistance of the third author. The systematic review will inform policy makers, investors, health professionals, technologists and engineers about the impact of mHealth in strengthening the health system. In particular, it will focus on three metrics to determine whether mHealth strengthens the health system, namely quality of, access to and cost of health care services. Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42015026070.

  10. Controlling herding in minority game systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Zi-Gang; Wu, Zhi-Xi; Su, Riqi; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2016-02-01

    Resource allocation takes place in various types of real-world complex systems such as urban traffic, social services institutions, economical and ecosystems. Mathematically, the dynamical process of resource allocation can be modeled as minority games. Spontaneous evolution of the resource allocation dynamics, however, often leads to a harmful herding behavior accompanied by strong fluctuations in which a large majority of agents crowd temporarily for a few resources, leaving many others unused. Developing effective control methods to suppress and eliminate herding is an important but open problem. Here we develop a pinning control method, that the fluctuations of the system consist of intrinsic and systematic components allows us to design a control scheme with separated control variables. A striking finding is the universal existence of an optimal pinning fraction to minimize the variance of the system, regardless of the pinning patterns and the network topology. We carry out a generally applicable theory to explain the emergence of optimal pinning and to predict the dependence of the optimal pinning fraction on the network topology. Our work represents a general framework to deal with the broader problem of controlling collective dynamics in complex systems with potential applications in social, economical and political systems.

  11. Herding agent field application system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buist, Ian; Belore, Randy [SL Ross Environmental Research (Canada)], email: ian@slross.com

    2011-07-01

    Chemical herding agents can be applied to deal with an oil slick. This study investigates the key system components of application systems for herding agents and shows how application systems can also be developed for operational herder usage in drift ice. These two application systems are respectively required for small boat and a helicopter operations. The factors, including the selection of flow rates, pressures and atomizing nozzle types, which give the appropriate herder droplet size distributions for small boat and aerial application systems were investigated in the initial stage of the study. In a later stage, on commercializing herders for in situ burning, further research is expected to deal with the many problems not tackled in the initial stage, such as the mounting of the nozzles, pumps and reservoirs on various aerial platforms and the provision of heating and insulation for cold-weather use. The paper presented the experiments and simulations that have been conducted as well as the basic design parameters for field application systems.

  12. Mastitis prevention and control practices and mastitis treatment strategies associated with the consumption of (critically important) antimicrobials on dairy herds in Flanders, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, M; Piepers, S; De Vliegher, S

    2016-04-01

    The main objectives of this study were to evaluate to what extent variations in herd-level antimicrobial consumption (AMC) can be explained by differences in management practices that are consistently effective in the prevention of (sub)clinical mastitis, on the one hand, and by differences in mastitis treatment strategies, on the other hand. Antimicrobial consumption data were obtained during 2012 and 2013 by "garbage can audits" and expressed as antimicrobial treatment incidences (ATI) for all compounds combined (total ATI) and for the critically important antimicrobials for human health separately. Data on mastitis prevention and control practices were obtained via face-to-face interviews performed during herd visits in March 2013. Some management practices and treatment strategies related to udder health were associated with the total AMC. However, the results demonstrated that implementing effective udder health management practices does not necessarily imply a low AMC and vice versa. Herds participating in a veterinary herd health management program and herds selectively drying off cows used fewer antimicrobials compared with herds not participating in such a program or applying blanket dry-cow therapy. Moreover, herds treating (some) (sub)clinical mastitis cases with intramammary homeopathic substances consumed fewer antimicrobials than herds not applying such homeopathic treatments. Besides these factors, no other direct association was found between effective udder health management practices on the one hand and AMC on the other hand. Also, the use of critically important antimicrobials was only associated with the way in which subclinical mastitis cases were treated. The latter indicates that the AMC of critically important antimicrobials is potentially driven by factors other than those included in this study such as those related to the "mindset" of the veterinarians and their farmers. Future research should therefore aim to unravel the reasoning of

  13. Mobile Health Applications for Pediatric Care: Review and Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Samantha Sangie; Murugiah, Muthu Kumar; Soh, Yee Chang; Wong, Tin Wui; Ming, Long Chiau

    2018-05-01

    Despite the surge in mobile health (mHealth) applications (apps) about pediatric care in commercial app stores, to our knowledge, reviews of the quality of such apps are lacking. Consequently, it is a great challenge for health care professionals (HCPs) to identify appropriate and reliable mHealth apps for delivering health care services. Thus, we performed a structured review of the extant literature about mHealth apps in pediatric care and quality assessment of selected apps found in commercial app stores. A review and comparison of mHealth apps in pediatric care found in Google's Play Store (Android system) and Apple's App Store (iOS system) were performed. For the structured review of the available literature, Google Scholar, PubMed, IEEE Xplore Digital Library, and Science Direct online databases were used for the literature search. The assessment criteria used for comparison included requirement for Internet connection, size of application, information on disease, diagnostic tools, medical calculator, information on disease treatments, dosage recommendations, and drug interaction checker. Fifty mHealth apps for general pediatric care and 8 mHealth apps for specific pediatric diseases were discussed in the literature. Of the 90 mHealth apps we reviewed, 27 that fulfilled the study criteria were selected for quality assessment. Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline scored the highest (score=7), while PediaBP scored the lowest (score=3). Medscape, Skyscape, and iGuideline are the most comprehensive mHealth apps for HCPs as quick references for pediatric care. More studies about mHealth apps in pediatric care are warranted to ensure the quality and reliability of mHealth apps.

  14. A review on bovine besnoitiosis: a disease with economic impact in herd health management, caused by Besnoitia besnoiti (Franco and Borges, ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Helder; Leitão, Alexandre; Gottstein, Bruno; Hemphill, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Bovine besnoitiosis is caused by the largely unexplored apicomplexan parasite Besnoitia besnoiti. In cows, infection during pregnancy often results in abortion, and chronically infected bulls become infertile. Similar to other apicomplexans B. besnoiti has acquired a largely intracellular lifestyle, but its complete life cycle is still unknown, modes of transmission have not been entirely resolved and the definitive host has not been identified. Outbreaks of bovine besnoitiosis in cattle were described in the 1990s in Portugal and Spain, and later several cases were also detected in France. More cases have been reported recently in hitherto unaffected countries, including Italy, Germany, Switzerland, Hungary and Croatia. To date, there is still no effective pharmaceutical compound available for the treatment of besnoitiosis in cattle, and progress in the identification of novel targets for intervention through pharmacological or immunological means is hampered by the lack of molecular data on the genomic and transcriptomic level. In addition, the lack of an appropriate small animal laboratory model, and wide gaps in our knowledge on the host-parasite interplay during the life cycle of this parasite, renders vaccine and drug development a cost- and labour-intensive undertaking.

  15. Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health care system in Sudan: review and analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threats (SWOT Analysis). Ebrahim M.A. Ebrahim, Luam Ghebrehiwot, Tasneem Abdalgfar, Muhammad Hanafiah Juni ...

  16. Increment 23/24 Critical Readiness Review Health Maintenance System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieschwitz, Linda

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Health Maintenance System. It includes information on the carbon dioxide (CO2) and moisture removal system (CMRS), the variable oxygen system,rendevous station panels, and the crew contamination protection kit (CCPK).

  17. Relationships between functional herd life and conformation traits in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The genetic relationship between conformation traits and functional herd life of the South African Jersey population was investigated. Data on conformation traits (n = 46 238) and functional herd life (n = 90 530) on registered South African Jersey cows calving between 1989 and 2008 were obtained from the Integrated ...

  18. Maximum herd efficiency in meat production I. Optima for slaughter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profit rate for a meat production enterprise can be decomposedinto the unit price for meat and herd ... supply and demand, whereas breeding improvement is gen- ... Herd efficiency is total live mass for slaughter divided by costs .... tenance and above-maintenance components by Dickerson, and ..... Growth and productivity.

  19. 9 CFR 77.35 - Interstate movement from accredited herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accredited herd. If a group of captive cervids from an accredited herd is being moved interstate together to... cervids is being moved together, the entire group must be isolated from all other livestock during the... from isolation; or (3) If the captive cervid to be added is not being moved directly from a classified...

  20. Stochastic models to simulate paratuberculosis in dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.S.; Weber, M.F.; Kudahl, Anne Margrethe Braad

    2011-01-01

    in the design of certification, surveillance, and control strategies for paratuberculosis in cattle herds. A detailed comparison is made between the Dutch JohneSSim and the Danish PTB-Simherd, using the same context of a set of control strategies in a typical Dutch/Danish herd. The conclusion is that while...

  1. Patterns of herding and their occurrence in an online setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, D.J.; Hoeve, M.C.; Ortt, J.R.; Pals, N.; Vecht, B. van der

    2014-01-01

    When groups of consumers share information or express their opinions about products and services, their attitudes or behavior sometime align without centralized coordination, a phenomenon known as herding. Building on pattern-based explanations of herding from the cognitive science literature, we

  2. Genetic value of herd life adjusted for milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allaire, F R; Gibson, J P

    1992-05-01

    Cow herd life adjusted for lactational milk production was investigated as a genetic trait in the breeding objective. Under a simple model, the relative economic weight of milk to adjusted herd life on a per genetic standard deviation basis was equal to CVY/dCVL where CVY and CVL are the genetic coefficients of variation of milk production and adjusted herd life, respectively, and d is the depreciation per year per cow divided by the total fixed costs per year per cow. The relative economic value of milk to adjusted herd life at the prices and parameters for North America was about 3.2. An increase of 100-kg milk was equivalent to 2.2 mo of adjusted herd life. Three to 7% lower economic gain is expected when only improved milk production is sought compared with a breeding objective that included both production and adjusted herd life for relative value changed +/- 20%. A favorable economic gain to cost ratio probably exists for herd life used as a genetic trait to supplement milk in the breeding objective. Cow survival records are inexpensive, and herd life evaluations from such records may not extend the generation interval when such an evaluation is used in bull sire selection.

  3. Control of Yersinia enterocolitica in pigs at herd level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjerve, Eystein; Lium, Bjørn; Nielsen, Bent

    1998-01-01

    of slaughter pigs (OR = 0.44) also lowered the herd prevalence. The most expressed risk factor was using an own farm vehicle for transport of slaughter pigs to abattoirs (OR = 12.92). Separation between clean and unclean section in herds (OR = 2.67), daily observations of a cat with kittens on the farm (OR = 2...

  4. Patterns of Herding and their Occurrence in an Online Setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langley, David J.; Hoeve, Maarten C.; Ortt, J. Roland; Pals, Nico; van der Vecht, Bob

    When groups of consumers share information or express their opinions about products and services, their attitudes or behavior sometime align without centralized coordination, a phenomenon known as herding. Building on pattern-based explanations of herding from the cognitive science literature, we

  5. The systematic review team: contributions of the health sciences librarian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudden, Rosalind F; Protzko, Shandra L

    2011-01-01

    While the role of the librarian as an expert searcher in the systematic review process is widely recognized, librarians also can be enlisted to help systematic review teams with other challenges. This article reviews the contributions of librarians to systematic reviews, including communicating methods of the review process, collaboratively formulating the research question and exclusion criteria, formulating the search strategy on a variety of databases, documenting the searches, record keeping, and writing the search methodology. It also discusses challenges encountered such as irregular timelines, providing education, communication, and learning new technologies for record keeping. Rewards include building relationships with researchers, expanding professional expertise, and receiving recognition for contributions to health care outcomes.

  6. [Permanent education in health: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccas, Fernanda Luppino; Batista, Sylvia Helena Souza da Silva

    2014-02-01

    To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and practices related to permanent education in health. A bibliographical search was conducted for original articles in the PubMed, Web of Science, LILACS, IBECS and SciELO databases, using the following search terms: "public health professional education", "permanent education", "continuing education", "permanent education health". Of the 590 articles identified, after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 were selected for further analysis, grouped according to the criteria of key elements, and then underwent meta-synthesis. The 48 original publications were classified according to four thematic units of key elements: 1) concepts, 2) strategies and difficulties, 3) public policies and 4) educational institutions. Three main conceptions of permanent education in health were found: problem-focused and team work, directly related to continuing education and education that takes place throughout life. The main strategies for executing permanent education in health are discussion, maintaining an open space for permanent education , and permanent education clusters. The most limiting factor is mainly related to directly or indirect management. Another highlight is the requirement for implementation and maintenance of public policies, and the availability of financial and human resources. The educational institutions need to combine education and service aiming to form critical-reflexive graduates. The coordination between health and education is based as much on the actions of health services as on management and educational institutions. Thus, it becomes a challenge to implement the teaching-learning processes that are supported by critical-reflexive actions. It is necessary to carry out proposals for permanent education in health involving the participation of health professionals, teachers and educational institutions. To undertake a meta-synthesis of the literature on the main concepts and

  7. Dairy herd mastitis and reproduction: using simulation to aid interpretation of results from discrete time survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Christopher D; Bradley, Andrew J; Breen, James E; Green, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) is a simulation-based technique for evaluating the relative importance of different inputs to a complex process model. It is commonly employed in decision analysis and for evaluation of the potential impact of uncertainty in research findings on clinical practice, but has a wide variety of other possible applications. In this example, it was used to evaluate the association between herd-level udder health and reproductive performance in dairy herds. Although several recent studies have found relatively large associations between mastitis and fertility at the level of individual inseminations or lactations, the current study demonstrated that herd-level intramammary infection status is highly unlikely to have a clinically significant impact on the overall reproductive performance of a dairy herd under typical conditions. For example, a large increase in incidence rate of clinical mastitis (from 92 to 131 cases per 100 cows per year) would be expected to increase a herd's modified FERTEX score (a cost-based measure of overall reproductive performance) by just £4.50(1) per cow per year. The herd's background level of submission rate (proportion of eligible cows served every 21 days) and pregnancy risk (proportion of inseminations leading to a pregnancy) correlated strongly with overall reproductive performance and explained a large proportion of the between-herd variation in performance. PSA proved to be a highly useful technique to aid understanding of results from a complex statistical model, and has great potential for a wide variety of applications within the field of veterinary science. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Design and validation of a dynamic discrete event stochastic simulation model of mastitis control in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allore, H G; Schruben, L W; Erb, H N; Oltenacu, P A

    1998-03-01

    A dynamic stochastic simulation model for discrete events, SIMMAST, was developed to simulate the effect of mastitis on the composition of the bulk tank milk of dairy herds. Intramammary infections caused by Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus spp. other than Strep. agalactiae, Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were modeled as were the milk, fat, and protein test day solutions for individual cows, which accounted for the fixed effects of days in milk, age at calving, season of calving, somatic cell count (SCC), and random effects of test day, cow yield differences from herdmates, and autocorrelated errors. Probabilities for the transitions among various states of udder health (uninfected or subclinically or clinically infected) were calculated to account for exposure, heifer infection, spontaneous recovery, lactation cure, infection or cure during the dry period, month of lactation, parity, within-herd yields, and the number of quarters with clinical intramammary infection in the previous and current lactations. The stochastic simulation model was constructed using estimates from the literature and also using data from 164 herds enrolled with Quality Milk Promotion Services that each had bulk tank SCC between 500,000 and 750,000/ml. Model parameters and outputs were validated against a separate data file of 69 herds from the Northeast Dairy Herd Improvement Association, each with a bulk tank SCC that was > or = 500,000/ml. Sensitivity analysis was performed on all input parameters for control herds. Using the validated stochastic simulation model, the control herds had a stable time average bulk tank SCC between 500,000 and 750,000/ml.

  9. Health literacy and public health: A systematic review and integration of definitions and models

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sorensen, Kristine

    2012-01-25

    Abstract Background Health literacy concerns the knowledge and competences of persons to meet the complex demands of health in modern society. Although its importance is increasingly recognised, there is no consensus about the definition of health literacy or about its conceptual dimensions, which limits the possibilities for measurement and comparison. The aim of the study is to review definitions and models on health literacy to develop an integrated definition and conceptual model capturing the most comprehensive evidence-based dimensions of health literacy. Methods A systematic literature review was performed to identify definitions and conceptual frameworks of health literacy. A content analysis of the definitions and conceptual frameworks was carried out to identify the central dimensions of health literacy and develop an integrated model. Results The review resulted in 17 definitions of health literacy and 12 conceptual models. Based on the content analysis, an integrative conceptual model was developed containing 12 dimensions referring to the knowledge, motivation and competencies of accessing, understanding, appraising and applying health-related information within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion setting, respectively. Conclusions Based upon this review, a model is proposed integrating medical and public health views of health literacy. The model can serve as a basis for developing health literacy enhancing interventions and provide a conceptual basis for the development and validation of measurement tools, capturing the different dimensions of health literacy within the healthcare, disease prevention and health promotion settings.

  10. Oral Health Equals Total Health: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Yap

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral health is essential to total health and satisfactory quality of life. According to the World Health Organization (2012, oral health has been defined as a state of being free of mouth and facial pain, oral infections and sores, and oral and other diseases that limit an individual’s capacity in biting, chewing, smiling, speaking, and psychosocial well-being. Oral conditions like dental caries and periodontal (gum disease continue to plague humanity. Nearly all adults have existing tooth decay, and severe gum disease occurs in 15 to 20% of middle-aged adults. The adverse effects of inadequate care for teeth, gums, bite, and jaws can move beyond the mouth to affect overall physical and psychological health. Research has indicated that poor oral health may be associated with medical conditions such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes, pneumonia, and other respiratory diseases. It has also been linked to pre-term births and low-birth-weight babies. Jaw problems are also a common cause of headaches and ear and facial pain. Dental clearance prior to medical treatment, including cancer/bisphosphonate therapy and cardiac surgery, minimizes both oral and systemic complications. Many medical conditions have oral manifestations, and some medications have side effects that lead to compromised oral health as well as jaw function disabilities. This paper summarizes and highlights the importance of oral-systemic connections. In addition, the features of common dental problems are discussed. 

  11. Using systematic review in occupational safety and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, John; Piacentino, John; MacMahon, Kathleen; Schulte, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Evaluation of scientific evidence is critical in developing recommendations to reduce risk. Healthcare was the first scientific field to employ a systematic review approach for synthesizing research findings to support evidence-based decision-making and it is still the largest producer and consumer of systematic reviews. Systematic reviews in the field of occupational safety and health are being conducted, but more widespread use and adoption would strengthen assessments. In 2016, NIOSH asked RAND to develop a framework for applying the traditional systematic review elements to the field of occupational safety and health. This paper describes how essential systematic review elements can be adapted for use in occupational systematic reviews to enhance their scientific quality, objectivity, transparency, reliability, utility, and acceptability. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemilt, Ian; Mugford, Miranda; Drummond, Michael; Eisenstein, Eric; Mallender, Jacqueline; McDaid, David; Vale, Luke; Walker, Damian

    2006-11-15

    Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as well as regular dialogue between Cochrane reviewers and economists to

  13. Twelve myths about systematic reviews for health system policymaking rebutted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moat, Kaelan A; Lavis, John N; Wilson, Mike G; Røttingen, John-Arne; Bärnighausen, Till

    2013-01-01

    Systematic reviews are increasingly being viewed as important sources of information for policymakers who need to make decisions on different aspects of the health system, often under tight time constraints and with many factors competing for their attention. Unfortunately, a number of misconceptions, or 'myths', stand in the way of promoting their use. The belief that systematic review topics are not relevant to health systems policymaking, that they cannot be found quickly, and that they are not available in formats that are useful for policymakers are but three examples of such myths. This paper uses evidence drawn mainly from Health Systems Evidence, a continuously updated repository of syntheses of health systems research, to counter these and nine other common myths, with the aim of changing the constraining beliefs associated with them, while improving the prospects for the use of systematic reviews in health system policymaking.

  14. Public Health's Approach to Systemic Racism: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Billie; Wendel, Monica; Kerr, Jelani; Brooms, Derrick; Rollins, Aaron

    2018-05-04

    Recently, public health has acknowledged racism as a social determinant of health. Much evidence exists on the impact of individual-level racism and discrimination, with little to no examination of racism from the standpoint of systems and structures. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to analyze the extent to which public health currently addresses systemic racism in the published literature. Utilizing the PRISMA guidelines, this review examines three widely used databases to examine published literature covering the topic as well as implications for future research and practice. A total of 85 articles were included in the review analysis after meeting study criteria. Across numerous articles, the terms racism and systemic racism are largely absent. A critical need exists for an examination of the historical impact of systemic racism on the social determinants of health and health of marginalized populations.

  15. Dairy operation management practices and herd milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losinger, W C; Heinrichs, A J

    1996-03-01

    A national US survey collected data on herd milk production and management of Holstein herds. Step-wise selection identified management practices that were related to herd milk production using only operations that calculated herd milk production as well as using data from all operations. Results were similar. Milk production was highest in the West. Operations with 25% registered cattle had higher production than operations with no registered cattle. Dairy operations that reported a mean BW > 545 kg at first calving had higher mean milk production than operations with a mean BW or = 27 mo at first calving. In addition, use of the following management practices was associated with higher rolling herd average milk production: calves born in individual areas in buildings, calves hand-fed first colostrum, starter grain fed to preweaned calves, ionophores fed to heifers from birth to first calving, DHIA record-keeping system used, computerized records, and no new cattle introduced in the previous 12 mo.

  16. Modeling salmonella Dublin into the dairy herd simulation model Simherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudahl, Anne Braad

    2010-01-01

    Infection with Salmonella Dublin in the dairy herd and effects of the infection and relevant control measures are currently being modeled into the dairy herd simulation model called Simherd. The aim is to compare the effects of different control strategies against Salmonella Dublin on both within...... of the simulations will therefore be used for decision support in the national surveillance and eradication program against Salmonella Dublin. Basic structures of the model are programmed and will be presented at the workshop. The model is in a phase of face-validation by a group of Salmonella......-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project Dublin on both within-herd- prevalence and economy by simulations. The project is a part of a larger national project "Salmonella 2007 - 2011" with the main objective to reduce the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin in Danish Dairy herds. Results...

  17. Diagnostic studies of abortion in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, J.S.; Willadsen, C. M.; Nielsen, Thomas Krogh

    1997-01-01

    Diagnostic findings in 218 aborted bovine foetuses are reported. The materials were examined in a matched case-control study of 69 Danish dairy herds with a sudden increase in the number of abortions and a corresponding 69 control herds. Foetuses aborted during the subsequent 6-month period were...... examined to identify the cause of abortion if possible. A total of 186 specimens were submitted from case herds and 32 from control herds. A likely cause of abortion was diagnosed in 73 foetuses. The most common cause was bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV: 13%) followed by Neospora caninum infection (10......%), mycosis (5%) and Bacillus licheniformis infection (4%). Foetal and/or placental lesions were found in a further 27 cases. Only BVDV infection and neosporosis were diagnosed in more than one foetus per herd and only protozoal associated abortions occurred significantly more frequently in the case, rather...

  18. Relationship between stepping and kicking behavior and milking management in dairy cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    L. Cerqueira, Joaquim; Araújo, José P P; Blanco-Penedo, Isabel

    2017-01-01

    We studied the relationship between behavior during milking with milking parlor management, measuring the occurrence of steps and kicks, and cow-related factors. We also investigated the link between stepping and kicking during milking and udder health. A total of 2,903 direct observations...... of milking behavior were collected in 44 dairy herds in the north of Portugal. The results showed great variability in the occurrence of stepping and kicking among herds during milking. Mixed linear and logistic regression models for factors associated with stepping and kicking were developed. Cows in tandem...... of the visit also showed a trend toward higher kicking frequency. The results suggest that animal welfare measures, like kicking and stepping, are suitable for epidemiologic studies. Significant interactions were observed when animals were affected by challenging health and welfare situations....

  19. Physical Attractiveness and Health in Western Societies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeden, Jason; Sabini, John

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from developed Western societies is reviewed for the claims that (a) physical attractiveness judgments are substantially based on body size and shape, symmetry, sex-typical hormonal markers, and other specific cues and (b) physical attractiveness and these cues substantially predict health. Among the cues that the authors review, only…

  20. Effects of health insurance on labour supply: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quynh, Nga Le Thi; Groot, Wim; Tomini, Sonila M.; Tomini, Florian

    2017-01-01

    This study provides a systematic review of empirical evidence on the labour supply effects of health insurance. The outcomes in the 63 studies reviewed include labour supply in terms of hours worked and the probability of employment, self-employment and the level of economic formalisation. One of

  1. Instruments for measuring mental health recovery: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, Marisa; Groessl, Erik J; O'Connell, Maria; Davidson, Larry; Aarons, Gregory A

    2013-12-01

    Persons in recovery, providers, and policymakers alike are advocating for recovery-oriented mental health care, with the promotion of recovery becoming a prominent feature of mental health policy in the United States and internationally. One step toward creating a recovery-oriented system of care is to use recovery-oriented outcome measures. Numerous instruments have been developed to assess progress towards mental health recovery. This review identifies instruments of mental health recovery and evaluates the appropriateness of their use including their psychometric properties, ease of administration, and service-user involvement in their development. A literature search using the Medline and Psych-INFO databases was conducted, identifying 21 instruments for potential inclusion in this review, of which thirteen met inclusion criteria. Results suggest only three instruments (25%) have had their psychometric properties assessed in three or more unique samples of participants. Ease of administration varied between instruments, and for the majority of instruments, development included service user involvement. This review updates and expands previous reviews of instruments to assess mental health recovery. As mental health care continues to transform to a recovery-oriented model of service delivery, this review may facilitate selection of appropriate assessments of mental health recovery for systems to use in evaluating and improving the care they provide. © 2013.

  2. SYNCHRONIZATION PROGRAMS FOR REPRODUCTIVE MANAGEMENT OF DAIRY HERDS PROGRAMAS DE SINCRONIZACIÓN DE CELOS PARA EL MANEJO REPRODUCTIVO DE GANADERÍAS DE LECHE

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Jose

    2009-01-01

    There are many factors that can influence reproduction of the dairy cow such as management, physiologic factors, nutrition, genetics, and diseases Reproductive efficiency. Reproductive performance is therefore a major concern in dairy herds to success, and it has to be subject of continuous and accurate evaluation in reproductive herd health programs, in order to detect problems and implement adequate solutions. Controlled breeding programs have allowed dairy producers to optimize service rat...

  3. The influence of selected litter and herd factors on treatments for lameness in suckling piglets from 35 Danish herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, J.

    1996-01-01

    was: high-risk litters are (1) large litters, (2) litters with previous diseases or deaths, (3) litters where the nursing sow had been treated, or (4) litters from high-parity sows. Litters from large conventional herds or from herds with a high stocking density were expected to have a high risk...

  4. Almonds and Cardiovascular Health: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumik Kalita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Several preventive strategies to reduce dyslipidemia have been suggested, of which dietary modification features as an important one. Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and strategies to manage dyslipidemia have been shown to reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Although there are proven pharmacological therapies to help manage this condition, nutritional interventions are a safer option to help prevent and manage dyslipidemia. Addition of almonds in the daily diet has been proposed to beneficially impact the lipid profile. This review critically examines the available evidence assessing the effect of almonds on dyslipidemia in the South Asian (particularly Indian context. An extensive review comprised of epidemiological studies, clinical trials, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews was conducted from published literature from across the world. Studies examining the effect of almonds on different aspects of dyslipidemia viz. high low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, triglyceridaemia, and high total cholesterol levels have been included. In several studies, almonds have been shown to reduce LDL-C—which is a known risk factor for CHD—and the effect of almonds has been well documented in systematic reviews and meta-analysis of clinical trials. Addition of almonds in the diet has been shown to not only to reduce LDL-C levels, but also to maintain HDL-C levels. This review provides information about the use of this simple nutritional strategy which may help manage known major risk factors for heart disease, such as high LDL-C and low HDL-C levels especially in the context of South Asians.

  5. [A Literature Review of Health Effects on Workers in Disasters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Yu; Mori, Koji

    2015-09-01

    Various types of disasters, such as natural disasters, industrial accidents and crimes, often occur in the workplace and many workers are involved in them. They are not only directly injured but also exposed to health hazards, such as terrible experiences and chemical materials. Occupational health specialists are expected to act to minimize the adverse health effects from them speedily and appropriately. It is assumed that learning from past cases is effective for such occupational health activities. Accordingly, we conducted a literature review about the health effects on workers in disasters. Relevant literature was searched in PubMed. Twenty four studies were extracted by our criteria. In this review, subjects were limited to general workers by excluding professional workers, such as emergency services and firefighters. The health effects were examined as follows: mental health (13 articles), respiratory (5), cardiovascular (2), musculoskeletal (1), skin (1), nervous (1), and general (1). It was obvious that few studies on general workers were published when considering large number of disasters in the past. Factors that affect health outcomes were categorized into ① those related to devastation of environment of work and life due to disaster, and ② those related to health hazards due to disasters. Knowledge from the review will support the activities of occupational health specialists during disasters, but additional studies are needed.

  6. Immigrant Youth in Canadian Health Promoting Schools: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; McPherson, Charmaine; Murray-Orr, Anne

    2017-01-01

    In this essay, we review empirical, theoretical, and substantial grey literature in relation to immigrant youth and health promoting schools (HPS). We examine the health promotion concept to consider how it may inform the HPS model. Using Canada as an example, we examine current immigrant youth demographics and define several key terms including…

  7. Mental health research in Ghana: A literature review | Read | Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context/Background: Mental health is a neglected area in health care in Ghana. With few clinicians and trained researchers in the field, research has been limited both in quantity and quality. Method: A search of the available literature revealed 98 articles published between 1955 and 2009. Sixty-six are reviewed in this ...

  8. A Scoping Review of Health Disparities in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop-Fitzpatrick, Lauren; Kind, Amy J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience increased morbidity and decreased life expectancy compared to the general population, and these disparities are likely exacerbated for those individuals who are otherwise disadvantaged. We conducted a review to ascertain what is known about health and health system quality (e.g., high…

  9. Sleep, Health and Wellness at Work: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Magnavita

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many occupational factors may interfere with sleep. Sleep disturbances can, in turn, endanger the health and safety of workers. This rapid review of the literature identifies the main factors that alter the quantity and quality of sleep, indicates the effects these alterations have on the wellbeing of workers and suggests some health promotion measures.

  10. Status and review of health of Indian coral reefs

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajan, R.; Satyanarayan, C.; Raghunathan, C.; Koya, S.S.; Ravindran, J.; Manikandan, B.; Venkataraman, K.

    Status of reef health incorporating species-wise cover of scleractinians has been reported covering 61 stations in 29 reef locations of the four major reef regions in India as of March 2011, alongside a review of available reef health data since...

  11. Book Review: Housing and Health: The relationship between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book Review: Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions and the health of council tenants. SA Okanlawon. Abstract. D. S. Bryne, S. P. Harrison, J. Keithley, and P. McCarthy (1986). Gower, England. 149pp. Hardcover. ISBN: O 566 00864 5. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL ...

  12. Human Trafficking: A Review for Mental Health Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a review of current research on human trafficking for mental health practitioners and scholars. In addition to an overview of definitions, causes and processes of trafficking, the article highlights mental health consequences of trafficking along with suggestions for treatment of survivors. Directions for counseling services,…

  13. Health effects of employment: a systematic review of prospective studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Noordt, Maaike; IJzelenberg, Helma; Droomers, Mariël; Proper, Karin I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to systematically summarise the literature on the health effects of employment. A search for prospective studies investigating the effect of employment on health was executed in several electronic databases, and references of selected publications were checked.

  14. Maori Identification, Alcohol Behaviour and Mental Health: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbett, Erin; Clarke, Dave

    2010-01-01

    The impact of Maori identification on alcohol behaviour and mental health and has been neglected in the psychological literature. This paper consists of a review of literature on the history of alcohol use in New Zealand and its impact on indigenous Maori, on their cultural identity and on their mental health. Previous research has been primarily…

  15. A systematic review of health effects of electronic cigarettes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, Charlotta; Døssing, Martin

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To provide a systematic review of the existing literature on health consequences of vaporing of electronic cigarettes (ECs). METHODS: Search in: PubMed, EMBASE and CINAHL. INCLUSION CRITERIA: Original publications describing a health-related topic, published before 14 August 2014. PRISMA...

  16. Evidence for Busines Intelligence in Health Care: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Liz; Roudsari, Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This paper outlines a systematic literature review undertaken to establish current evidence regarding the impact of Business Intelligence (BI) on health system decision making and organizational performance. The review also examined BI implementation factors contributing to these constructs. Following the systematic review, inductive content analysis was used to categorize themes within the eight articles identified. This study demonstrated there is little evidence based literature focused on BI impact on organizational decision making and performance within health care. There was evidence found that BI does improve decision making. Implementation success was found to be dependent on several factors, many of which relate to broader organizational culture and readiness.

  17. Nursing challenges for universal health coverage: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Cabral Schveitzer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives to identify nursing challenges for universal health coverage, based on the findings of a systematic review focused on the health workforce' understanding of the role of humanization practices in Primary Health Care. Method systematic review and meta-synthesis, from the following information sources: PubMed, CINAHL, Scielo, Web of Science, PsycInfo, SCOPUS, DEDALUS and Proquest, using the keyword Primary Health Care associated, separately, with the following keywords: humanization of assistance, holistic care/health, patient centred care, user embracement, personal autonomy, holism, attitude of health personnel. Results thirty studies between 1999-2011. Primary Health Care work processes are complex and present difficulties for conducting integrative care, especially for nursing, but humanizing practices have showed an important role towards the development of positive work environments, quality of care and people-centered care by promoting access and universal health coverage. Conclusions nursing challenges for universal health coverage are related to education and training, to better working conditions and clear definition of nursing role in primary health care. It is necessary to overcome difficulties such as fragmented concepts of health and care and invest in multidisciplinary teamwork, community empowerment, professional-patient bond, user embracement, soft technologies, to promote quality of life, holistic care and universal health coverage.

  18. Online Technologies for Health Information and Education: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Harkiran K; Gill, Navkiranjit; Young, Sean D

    2013-04-01

    There is a growing body of research focused on the use of social media and Internet technologies for health education and information sharing. The authors reviewed literature on this topic, with a specific focus on the benefits and concerns associated with using online social technologies as health education and communication tools. Studies suggest that social media technologies have the potential to safely and effectively deliver health education, if privacy concerns are addressed. Utility of social media-based health education and communication will improve as technology developers and public health officials determine ways to improve information accuracy and address privacy concerns.

  19. Mobile technology in health information systems - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X-Y; Zhang, P-Y

    2016-05-01

    Mobile technology is getting involved in every sphere of life including medical health care. There has been an immense upsurge in mobile phone-based health innovations these days. The expansion of mobile phone networks and the proliferation of inexpensive mobile handsets have made the digital information and communication technology capabilities very handy for the people to exploit if for any utility including health care. The mobile phone based innovations are able to transform weak and under performing health information system into more modern and efficient information system. The present review article will enlighten all these aspects of mobile technology in health care.

  20. A Comprehensive Review of Serious Games in Health Professions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Ricciardi

    2014-01-01

    learner oriented approach and providing a stealth mode of teaching. In some fields it represents an ideal instrument for continuous health professions education also in terms of costs because it is cheaper than traditional training methods that use cadavers or mannequins. In this paper we make a scoping review of serious games developed for health professions and health related fields in order to understand if they are useful tools for health related fields training. Many papers confirmed that serious gaming is a useful technology that improves learning and skills development for health professionals.

  1. Conflicts between reindeer herding and an expanding caribou herd in Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg L. Finstad

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The reindeer industry has existed in Alaska since 1892. This industry has largely been concentrated on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska because suitable habitat has been available and caribou have been absent here for over 100 years. Until recently, reindeer meat and velvet antler production consistently generated millions of dollars in revenue critical to the economies of rural Alaskan communities. From 1976 to 1996 the Western Arctic Caribou Herd (WACH increased from about 75 000 to 463 000 animals. Concurrently, seasonal range use of the WACH shifted westward onto traditional reindeer ranges of the Seward Peninsula. Reindeer herders lost 75-100% of their herds through commingling and out¬migration with wild caribou. This loss of over 12 000 reindeer represents a potential economic value of 13 million dollars. Sustainable meat and velvet antler production and the economies of western Alaskan are likely to be affected by these changes.

  2. Reproductive performance in a select sample of dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, James D; Skidmore, Andrew

    2013-02-01

    Sixteen herds were selected from a pool of 64 herds nominated by consultants for participation in a national survey to demonstrate excellence in reproductive performance. For inclusion in the survey, herds had to have comprehensive records in a farm computer database or participate in a Dairy Herd Improvement Association record system and have superior reproductive performance as judged by the herd advisor. Herd managers were asked to fill out a questionnaire to describe their reproductive management practices and provide herd records for data analysis. Reproductive analysis was based on individual cow records for active and cull dairy cows that calved during the calendar year 2010. Breeding records by cow were used to calculate indices for insemination rate (IR), conception rate (CR), pregnancy rate (PR), and culling. Herds ranged in size from 262 to 6,126 lactating and dry cows, with a mean of 1,654 [standard deviation (SD) 1,494] cows. Mean days to first insemination (DFS) was 71.2d (SD 4.7d), and IR for first insemination was 86.9%. Mean days between inseminations were 33.4d (SD 3.1d), and 15.4% of insemination intervals were greater than 48 d (range: 7.2 to 21.5%). First-service conception rate was 44.4% (SD 4.8%) across all herds and ranged from 37.5 to 51.8%. Mean PR was 32.0% (SD 3.9%) with a range of 26.5 to 39.4%. Lactation cull rate was 32.2% (SD 12.4%) with a range from 13.6 to 58.1%. Compared with mean data and SD for herds in the Raleigh Dairy Herd Improvement Association system, mean indices for these herds ranked them in the 99 th percentile for IR (using heat detection rate as comparison), 99 th percentile for PR, the bottom 18.6 percentile for DFS, and around the 50th percentile for CR. This suggests that excellent herd reproductive performance was associated with reproductive management that resulted in high insemination rates combined with average CR. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  3. Review: Maternal health and the placental microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelzer, Elise; Gomez-Arango, Luisa F; Barrett, Helen L; Nitert, Marloes Dekker

    2017-06-01

    Over the past decade, the role of the microbiome in regulating metabolism, immune function and behavior in humans has become apparent. It has become clear that the placenta is not a sterile organ, but rather has its own endogenous microbiome. The composition of the placental microbiome is distinct from that of the vagina and has been reported to resemble the oral microbiome. Compared to the gut microbiome, the placental microbiome exhibits limited microbial diversity. This review will focus on the current understanding of the placental microbiota in normal healthy pregnancy and also in disease states including preterm birth, chorioamnionitis and maternal conditions such as obesity, gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. Factors known to alter the composition of the placental microbiota will be discussed in the final part of this review. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. [A systematic review of working hours and mental health burden].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujino, Yoshihisa; Horie, Seichi; Hoshuyama, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Takao; Tanaka, Yayoi

    2006-07-01

    There is growing concern over the possible increase in mental health problems among Japanese workers. This trend is generally regarded as a reflection of Japan's prolonged economic depression and changes in working environment. In fact, claims for compensation for industrial accidents related to mental health diseases have been rapidly increasing in recent years. Working hours, personal-relationships, support from supervisors/co-workers, job demand, job control, and payment are known to affect workers mental health. In 2004, the Government announced a guideline to combat overwork and mental health problems at work places. This guideline articulates that long overtime working is a major indicator, and workers who work over 100 h overtime in a month should be encouraged to see an occupational physician. This guideline takes into account the practicalities of occupational health at work places and the empiric knowledge that long working hours might associate with workers mental health status. It may be reasonable to assume that long working hours affect workers health status both psychologically and physiologically, interacting with a variety of occupational factors, particularly job stress. However, the association between working hours and workers mental health status has not been fully clarified. The present article aimed to provide a systematic review of the association between working hours and mental health problems. The authors conducted a systematic review of the published literature on the association between working hours and mental health problems using PubMed. Of 131 abstracts and citations reviewed, 17 studies met the predefined criteria. Ten of these are longitudinal studies, and the others are cross-sectional studies. Seven of the 17 studies report statistically significant associations between working hours and mental health problems, while the others report no association. In addition, comparison among these studies is difficult because a variety of

  5. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Broers; Thierry Favrod-Coune

    2010-01-01

    Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effect...

  6. The health and wellbeing needs of veterans: a rapid review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Candice; Morello, Andrea; Venning, Anthony; Redpath, Paula; Lawn, Sharon

    2017-12-29

    For the majority of serving members, life in the military has a positive effect on wellbeing. However, the type, intensity and duration of service, along with the transition from fulltime military to civilian life, may have a negative effect on veterans' wellbeing. Such negative consequences, alongside the growing veteran population, indicate the need for greater exploration of veterans' physical, mental and social wellbeing. The current paper reports on the findings of a rapid review of the literature on the health and wellbeing needs of veterans, commissioned by the Australian Department of Veterans' Affairs to inform future programs and services. The databases Embase, Medline, Cinahl, PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane Database were searched for systematic reviews reporting on veterans' physical, mental and social wellbeing published in English in peer-reviewed journals. A total of 21 systematic reviews were included. The reviews reported on a range of mental, physical and social health problems affecting veterans. While there was limited information on prevalence rates of physical, mental and social health problems in veterans compared to civilian populations, the reviews demonstrated the interconnection between these domains and the effect of demographic and military service factors. A key finding of the review is the interconnection of the mental, physical, and social health of veterans, highlighting the importance that an integrated approach to veterans' wellbeing is adopted. It is suggested that understanding key factors, such as demographic factors and factors relating to military service, can support improved service provision for veterans.

  7. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  8. Participative mental health consumer research for improving physical health care: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Ewart, Stephanie B; Platania-Phung, Chris; Stanton, Robert

    2016-10-01

    People with mental illness have a significantly lower life expectancy and higher rates of chronic physical illnesses than the general population. Health care system reform to improve access and quality is greatly needed to address this inequity. The inclusion of consumers of mental health services as co-investigators in research is likely to enhance service reform. In light of this, the current paper reviews mental health consumer focussed research conducted to date, addressing the neglect of physical health in mental health care and initiatives with the aim of improving physical health care. The international literature on physical healthcare in the context of mental health services was searched for articles, including mental health consumers in research roles, via Medline, CINAHL and Google Scholar, in October 2015. Four studies where mental health consumers participated as researchers were identified. Three studies involved qualitative research on barriers and facilitators to physical health care access, and a fourth study on developing technologies for more effective communication between GPs and patients. This review found that participatory mental health consumer research in physical health care reform has only become visible in the academic literature in 2015. Heightened consideration of mental health consumer participation in research is required by health care providers and researchers. Mental health nurses can provide leadership in increasing mental health consumer research on integrated care directed towards reducing the health gap between people with and without mental illness. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  9. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza - a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Vlaenderen, Ilse; Van Bellinghen, Laure-Anne; Meier, Genevieve; Nautrup, Barbara Poulsen

    2013-01-22

    Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children) was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1) for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy (i.e. children); and (2) for other age groups not targeted (e

  10. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza – a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Methods Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. Results The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children) was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. Conclusions This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1) for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy (i.e. children); and (2

  11. An approximation of herd effect due to vaccinating children against seasonal influenza – a potential solution to the incorporation of indirect effects into static models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Vlaenderen Ilse

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect herd effect from vaccination of children offers potential for improving the effectiveness of influenza prevention in the remaining unvaccinated population. Static models used in cost-effectiveness analyses cannot dynamically capture herd effects. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to allow herd effect associated with vaccinating children against seasonal influenza to be incorporated into static models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of influenza vaccination. Methods Two previously published linear equations for approximation of herd effects in general were compared with the results of a structured literature review undertaken using PubMed searches to identify data on herd effects specific to influenza vaccination. A linear function was fitted to point estimates from the literature using the sum of squared residuals. Results The literature review identified 21 publications on 20 studies for inclusion. Six studies provided data on a mathematical relationship between effective vaccine coverage in subgroups and reduction of influenza infection in a larger unvaccinated population. These supported a linear relationship when effective vaccine coverage in a subgroup population was between 20% and 80%. Three studies evaluating herd effect at a community level, specifically induced by vaccinating children, provided point estimates for fitting linear equations. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the target population for vaccination (children was slightly less conservative than a previously published equation for herd effects in general. The fitted linear equation for herd protection in the non-target population was considerably less conservative than the previously published equation. Conclusions This method of approximating herd effect requires simple adjustments to the annual baseline risk of influenza in static models: (1 for the age group targeted by the childhood vaccination strategy

  12. Health Impacts of the Great Recession: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Falconi, April; Downing, Janelle

    2016-03-01

    The severity, sudden onset, and multipronged nature of the Great Recession (2007-2009) provided a unique opportunity to examine the health impacts of macroeconomic downturn. We comprehensively review empirical literature examining the relationship between the Recession and mental and physical health outcomes in developed nations. Overall, studies reported detrimental impacts of the Recession on health, particularly mental health. Macro- and individual-level employment- and housing-related sequelae of the Recession were associated with declining fertility and self-rated health, and increasing morbidity, psychological distress, and suicide, although traffic fatalities and population-level alcohol consumption declined. Health impacts were stronger among men and racial/ethnic minorities. Importantly, strong social safety nets in some European countries appear to have buffered those populations from negative health effects. This literature, however, still faces multiple methodological challenges, and more time may be needed to observe the Recession's full health impact. We conclude with suggestions for future work in this field.

  13. Basic income guarantee: a review of implications for oral health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-An; Quiñonez, Carlos

    2018-12-01

    To: a) Familiarize readers with the concept of a basic income guarantee (BIG) and its different forms; b) Consider how BIG could improve oral health and decrease oral health disparities; c) Motivate readers to advocate for the evaluation of oral health outcomes in BIG experiments. Published articles and book chapters that have analyzed and reviewed data from past BIG pilot projects were examined for their findings on health and socioeconomic outcomes. Our findings suggest various areas and mechanisms whereby BIG can influence oral health-related outcomes, whether through impacts on work, illness and injury, education, a social multiplier effect, expenditure behavior, and/or mental illness and other health outcomes. Our findings illustrate the importance of assessing oral health-related outcomes in future BIG pilot projects. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  14. The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities—umbrella review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannish Naik

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The economic determinants of health have been widely recognised as crucial factors affecting health; however, to date, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to summarise these factors and the ways in which they can influence health. We conceptualise the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, regulation from institutions, markets, finance, labour, the public-private balance as well as production and distributional effects, which collectively impact on health through the effect of moderators. This protocol details the methods for an umbrella review to explore the macro-economic factors, strategies, policies and interventions that affect health outcomes and health inequalities. Methods We will identify relevant systematic reviews using search terms derived from the Journal of Economic Literature classification. Reviews will be included if they meet the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects criteria for systematic reviews. Reviews of studies with and without controls will be included; both association and intervention studies will be included. Primary outcomes will include but are not limited to morbidity, mortality, prevalence and incidence of conditions and life expectancy. Secondary outcomes will include health inequalities by gender, ethnicity or socio-economic status. Six databases will be searched using tailored versions of our piloted search strategy to locate relevant reviews. Data will be extracted using a standardized pro forma, and the findings will be synthesized into a conceptual framework to address our review aim. Discussion Our umbrella review protocol provides a robust method to systematically appraise the evidence in this field, using new conceptual models derived specifically to address the study question. This will yield important information for policymakers, practitioners and researchers at the local, national and international level. It will also help set the future

  15. Consideration of health inequalities in systematic reviews: a mapping review of guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maden, Michelle

    2016-11-28

    Given that we know that interventions shown to be effective in improving the health of a population may actually widen the health inequalities gap while others reduce it, it is imperative that all systematic reviewers consider how the findings of their reviews may impact (reduce or increase) on the health inequality gap. This study reviewed existing guidance on incorporating considerations of health inequalities in systematic reviews in order to examine the extent to which they can help reviewers to incorporate such issues. A mapping review was undertaken to identify guidance documents that purported to inform reviewers on whether and how to incorporate considerations of health inequalities. Searches were undertaken in Medline, CINAHL and The Cochrane Library Methodology Register. Review guidance manuals prepared by international organisations engaged in undertaking systematic reviews, and their associated websites were scanned. Studies were included if they provided an overview or discussed the development and testing of guidance for dealing with the incorporation of considerations of health inequalities in evidence synthesis. Results are summarised in narrative and tabular forms. Twenty guidance documents published between 2009 and 2016 were included. Guidance has been produced to inform considerations of health inequalities at different stages of the systematic review process. The Campbell and Cochrane Equity Group have been instrumental in developing and promoting such guidance. Definitions of health inequalities and guidance differed across the included studies. All but one guidance document were transparent in their method of production. Formal methods of evaluation were reported for six guidance documents. Most of the guidance was operationalised in the form of examples taken from published systematic reviews. The number of guidance items to operationalise ranges from 3 up to 26 with a considerable overlap noted. Adhering to the guidance will require more

  16. Defining the Pen Islands Caribou Herd of southern Hudson Bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth F. Abraham

    1998-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe the Pen Islands Herd of caribou, the largest aggregation of caribou in Ontario (it also occupies a portion of northeastern Manitoba. Photographic counts showed the herd had a minimum population of 2300 in 1979, 4660 in 1986, 7424 in 1987 and 10 798 in 1994. Throughout the 1980s, the Pen Islands caribou exhibited population behaviour similar to migratory barren-ground caribou herds, although morphology suggests they are woodland caribou or possibly a mixture of subspecies. The herd had well-defined traditional tundra calving grounds, formed nursery groups and large mobile post-calving aggregations, and migrated over 400 km between tundra summer habitats and boreal forest winter habitats. Its migration took it into three Canadian jurisdictions (Ontario, Manitoba, Northwest Territories and it was important to residents of both Manitoba and Ontario. It is clear that the herd should be managed as a migratory herd and the critical importance of both the coastal and variable large winter ranges should be noted in ensuring the herd's habitat needs are secure.

  17. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Karen; Anies, Maria; Folb, Barbara L; Zallman, Leah

    2015-01-01

    With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net) was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial) to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase access to health care for undocumented immigrants, providing novel insurance options, expanding safety net services, training providers to better care for immigrant populations, and educating undocumented immigrants on navigating the system. There are numerous barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants. These vary by country and frequently change. Despite concerns that access to health care attracts

  18. Raisins in human health: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Restani Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has increased significantly. Raisins are often evaluated negatively from the nutritional point of view, mainly for their high sugar content. On the other hand, some in vitroand in vivostudies have suggested that raisins could have healthy effects due to their positive phytochemical profile. The aim of this work was the collection of scientific studies performed in humans to assess critically the health-promoting effects of raisins, as a part of the normal/Mediterranean diet. In most cases, the beneficial effects of raisins have been assessed in intervention studies focused on cardiovascular area, diabetes and oral health, where a decrease in postprandial glycemia and insulinemia both in diabetic and healthy subjects has been observed. The positive effects were generally evident after a short-term consumption of about 70 g/die of raisins in comparison to a similar quantity of snacks or glucose solution. Surprisingly, some positive findings were shown in oral health. On these bases several findings support the suitability of raisins as a source of healthy compounds for human diet, but limits in the data published till now clearly support the need of new specifically designed trials.

  19. Gender issues in reproductive health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adinma, Echendu D; Adinma, Brian-D J I

    2011-01-01

    Gender, for its impact on virtually every contemporary life issue, can rightly be regarded as a foremost component of reproductive health. Reproductive health basically emphasises on people and their rights to sexuality, reproduction, and family planning, and the information to actualize these right, which has been inextricably linked to development at the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo, Egypt, in 1994. Women's sexual and reproductive rights became recognised as universal human right, violations of which occur in some reproductive health areas including gender concerns. Gender inequality and inequity encompass gender based violence as well as gender discrimination which cuts across the life cycle of the woman; attitudes, religious and cultural practices of various nations; and issues related to employment, economy, politics, and development. The redress of gender inequality is a collective responsibility of nations and supranational agencies. Nations should adopt a framework hinged on three pedestals--legal, institutional and policy, employing the three recommended approaches of equal treatment, positive action, and gender mainstreaming.

  20. Survey of facility and management characteristics of large, Upper Midwest dairy herds clustered by Dairy Herd Improvement records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotzman, R L; Döpfer, D; Foy, M R; Hess, J P; Nordlund, K V; Bennett, T B; Cook, N B

    2015-11-01

    A survey of management practices was conducted to investigate potential associations with groupings of herds formed by cluster analysis (CA) of Dairy Herd Improvement (DHI) data of 557 Upper Midwest herds of 200 cows or greater. Differences in herd management practices were identified between the groups, despite underlying similarities; for example, freestall housing and milking in a parlor. Group 6 comprised larger herds with a high proportion of primiparous cows and most frequently utilized practices promoting increased production [e.g., 84.4% used recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST)], decreased lameness (e.g., 96.9% used routine hoof trimming for cows), and improved efficiency in reproduction [e.g., 93.8% synchronized the first breeding in cows (SYNCH)] and labor (e.g., mean ± SD, 67 ± 19 cows per 50-h per week full-time equivalent worker). Group 1 had the best mean DHI performances and followed most closely group 6 for the rate of adoption of intensive management practices while tending to outperform group 6 despite a generally smaller mean herd size (e.g., 42.3 ± 3.6 kg vs. 39.9 ± 3.6 kg of energy-corrected milk production; 608 ± 352 cows vs. 1,716 ± 1,405 cows). Group 2 were smaller herds with relatively high levels of performance that used less intensive management (e.g., 100% milked twice daily) and less technology (33.3 vs. 73.0% of group 1 used rbST). Group 4 were smaller but poorer-performing herds with low turnover and least frequently used intensive management practices (e.g., 39.1% SYNCH; 30.4% allowed mature, high-producing cows access to pasture). Group 5 used modern technologies and practices associated with improved production, yet had the least desirable mean DHI performance of all 6 groups. This group had the lowest proportion of deep loose-bedded stalls (only 52.2% used sand bedding) and the highest proportion (34.8%) of herds not using routine hoof trimming. The survey of group 3 herds did not reveal strong trends in management. The

  1. Review of mental health promotion interventions in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Michelle; Svirydzenka, Nadzeya; Adams, Sarah; Dogra, Nisha

    2018-05-11

    The prevalence of mental disorders amongst children and adolescents is an increasing global problem. Schools have been positioned at the forefront of promoting positive mental health and well-being through implementing evidence-based interventions. The aim of this paper is to review current evidence-based research of mental health promotion interventions in schools and examine the reported effectiveness to identify those interventions that can support current policy and ensure that limited resources are appropriately used. The authors reviewed the current state of knowledge on school mental health promotion interventions globally. Two major databases, SCOPUS and ERIC were utilised to capture the social science, health, arts and humanities, and education literature. Initial searches identified 25 articles reporting on mental health promotion interventions in schools. When mapped against the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 10 studies were included and explored. Three of these were qualitative and seven were quantitative. A range of interventions have been tested for mental health promotion in schools in the last decade with variable degrees of success. Our review demonstrates that there is still a need for a stronger and broader evidence base in the field of mental health promotion, which should focus on both universal work and targeted approaches to fully address mental health in our young populations.

  2. Educating the Public Health Workforce: A Scoping Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghua Tao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this scoping review was to identify and characterize the recent literature pertaining to the education of the public health workforce worldwide. The importance of preparing a public health workforce with sufficient capacity and appropriate capabilities has been recognized by major organizations around the world (1. Champions for public health note that a suitably educated workforce is essential to the delivery of public health services, including emergency response to biological, manmade, and natural disasters, within countries and across the globe. No single repository offers a comprehensive compilation of who is teaching public health, to whom, and for what end. Moreover, no international consensus prevails on what higher education should entail or what pedagogy is optimal for providing the necessary education. Although health agencies, public or private, might project workforce needs, the higher level of education remains the sole responsibility of higher education institutions. The long-term goal of this study is to describe approaches to the education of the public health workforce around the world by identifying the peer-reviewed literature, published primarily by academicians involved in educating those who will perform public health functions. This paper reports on the first phase of the study: identifying and categorizing papers published in peer-reviewed literature between 2000 and 2015.

  3. BOOK REVIEW - OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH FOR HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VARIOUS AUTHORS

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This compendium of essays by 30 authors is a contribution to the Malaysian ever growing storehouse of medical publications. It is a worthwhile project for the Malaysian Medical Association to have undertaken to publish this long awaited book, because the content of the book involves the care of its own members. The health of the healthcare providers is often taken for granted while carrying out their duties of a doctor. They forget their own health and they expose themselves to the risk of disease every day of their lives. This book, with twenty-two chapters, covers in detail the occupational concerns of health care professionals. The chapters outline the common pitfalls in the healthcare system into which the professionals may fall into. All health care facilities are high risk venues for which not sufficient preventive systems are in place. The various risk factors are highlighted by the different authors both from the point of view of the professional and the patient. In support of preventive efforts the authors refer to the various statutory requirements in place. In spite of the provisions, the authors cite many instances of diseases and disasters the professional suffer from and are exposed to daily. This book will be of use both not only to the student of occupational health but also to every healthcare professional. It raises the awareness of personal protection and prevention since the chance of disaster awaits every morning. The dictum of “Physician, heal thyself” may come too late if this book does not evoke caution every day. It is well written with cases documenting poor infrastructure requirements to carry out their duties in a safe and efficient manner. References are well documented by all the authors to inspire further work in this area. Associate Professor Dr Jayakumar comes from the backgrounds of both academic and corporate sectors and therefore contributes his wealth of knowledge and experience while Associate Professor

  4. The macro-economic determinants of health and health inequalities-umbrella review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Yannish; Baker, Peter; Walker, Ian; Tillmann, Taavi; Bash, Kristin; Quantz, Darryl; Hillier-Brown, Frances; Bambra, Clare

    2017-11-03

    The economic determinants of health have been widely recognised as crucial factors affecting health; however, to date, no comprehensive review has been undertaken to summarise these factors and the ways in which they can influence health. We conceptualise the economy as a complex system made up of underlying approaches, regulation from institutions, markets, finance, labour, the public-private balance as well as production and distributional effects, which collectively impact on health through the effect of moderators. This protocol details the methods for an umbrella review to explore the macro-economic factors, strategies, policies and interventions that affect health outcomes and health inequalities. We will identify relevant systematic reviews using search terms derived from the Journal of Economic Literature classification. Reviews will be included if they meet the Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects criteria for systematic reviews. Reviews of studies with and without controls will be included; both association and intervention studies will be included. Primary outcomes will include but are not limited to morbidity, mortality, prevalence and incidence of conditions and life expectancy. Secondary outcomes will include health inequalities by gender, ethnicity or socio-economic status. Six databases will be searched using tailored versions of our piloted search strategy to locate relevant reviews. Data will be extracted using a standardized pro forma, and the findings will be synthesized into a conceptual framework to address our review aim. Our umbrella review protocol provides a robust method to systematically appraise the evidence in this field, using new conceptual models derived specifically to address the study question. This will yield important information for policymakers, practitioners and researchers at the local, national and international level. It will also help set the future research agenda in this field and guide the development of

  5. Consumer health information seeking in social media: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuehua; Zhang, Jin

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this literature review was to summarise current research regarding how consumers seek health-related information from social media. Primarily, we hope to reveal characteristics of existing studies investigating the health topics that consumers have discussed in social media, ascertaining the roles social media have played in consumers' information-seeking processes and discussing the potential benefits and concerns of accessing consumer health information in social media. The Web of Science Core Collection database was searched for existing literature on consumer health information seeking in social media. The search returned 214 articles, of which 21 met the eligibility criteria following review of full-text documents. Between 2011 and 2016, twenty-one studies published explored various topics related to consumer information seeking in social media. These ranged from online discussions on specific diseases (e.g. diabetes) to public health concerns (e.g. pesticide residues). Consumers' information needs vary depending on the health issues of interest. Benefits of health seeking on social media, in addition to filling a need for health information, include the social and emotional support health consumers gain from peer-to-peer interactions. These benefits, however, are tempered by concerns of information quality and authority and lead to decreased consumer engagement. © 2017 Health Libraries Group.

  6. Mental health recovery: A review of the peer-reviewed published literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Sini; Munro, Ian; Taylor, Beverley Joan; Griffiths, Debra

    The concept of mental health recovery promotes collaborative partnership among consumers, carers and service providers. However views on mental health recovery are less explored among carers and service providers. The aim of this review was to analyse contemporary literature exploring views of mental health consumers, carers and service providers in relation to their understanding of the meaning of mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery. The literature review questions were: How is mental health recovery and factors influencing mental health recovery viewed by consumers, carers and service providers? What are the differences and similarities in those perceptions? How can the outcomes and recommendations inform the Australian mental health practices? A review of the literature used selected electronic databases and specific search terms and supplemented with manual searching. Twenty-six studies were selected for review which included qualitative, mixed method, and quantitative approaches and a Delphi study. The findings indicated that the concept of mental health recovery is more explored among consumers and is seldom explored among carers and service providers. The studies suggested that recovery from mental illness is a multidimensional process and the concept cannot be defined in rigid terms. In order to achieve the best possible care, the stakeholders require flexible attitudes and openness to embrace the philosophy.

  7. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacker K

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Karen Hacker,1,2 Maria Anies,2 Barbara L Folb,2,3 Leah Zallman4–6 1Allegheny County Health Department, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 2Graduate School of Public Health, 3Health Sciences Library System, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 4Institute for Community Health, Cambridge, MA, USA; 5Cambridge Health Alliance, Cambridge, MA, USA; 6Harvard School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: With the unprecedented international migration seen in recent years, policies that limit health care access have become prevalent. Barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants go beyond policy and range from financial limitations, to discrimination and fear of deportation. This paper is aimed at reviewing the literature on barriers to health care for undocumented immigrants and identifying strategies that have or could be used to address these barriers. To address study questions, we conducted a literature review of published articles from the last 10 years in PubMed using three main concepts: immigrants, undocumented, and access to health care. The search yielded 341 articles of which 66 met study criteria. With regard to barriers, we identified barriers in the policy arena focused on issues related to law and policy including limitations to access and type of health care. These varied widely across countries but ultimately impacted the type and amount of health care any undocumented immigrant could receive. Within the health system, barriers included bureaucratic obstacles including paperwork and registration systems. The alternative care available (safety net was generally limited and overwhelmed. Finally, there was evidence of widespread discriminatory practices within the health care system itself. The individual level focused on the immigrant’s fear of deportation, stigma, and lack of capital (both social and financial to obtain services. Recommendations identified in the papers reviewed included advocating for policy change to increase

  8. eHealth for Patient Engagement: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barello, Serena; Triberti, Stefano; Graffigna, Guendalina; Libreri, Chiara; Serino, Silvia; Hibbard, Judith; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    eHealth interventions are recognized to have a tremendous potential to promote patient engagement. To date, the majority of studies examine the efficacy of eHealth in enhancing clinical outcomes without focusing on patient engagement in its specificity. This paper aimed at reviewing findings from the literature about the use of eHealth in engaging patients in their own care process. We undertook a comprehensive literature search within the peer-reviewed international literature. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. eHealth interventions reviewed were mainly devoted to foster only partial dimensions of patient engagement (i.e., alternatively cognitive, emotional or behavioral domains related to healthcare management), thus failing to consider the complexity of such an experience. This also led to a great heterogeneity of technologies, assessed variables and achieved outcomes. This systematic review underlines the need for a more holistic view of patient needs to actually engage them in eHealth interventions and obtaining positive outcomes. In this sense, patient engagement constitute a new frontiers for healthcare models where eHealth could maximize its potentialities.

  9. Review The mental health of children orphaned by AIDS: a review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reviews research on the mental health and psychological outcomes of children who are orphaned by AIDS. Studies are limited, scattered and often unpublished. The review focuses on research which is quantitative and based on primary research with uninfected children who are parentally bereaved by AIDS.

  10. Usefulness of systematic review search strategies in finding child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boluyt, Nicole; Tjosvold, Lisa; Lefebvre, Carol; Klassen, Terry P.; Offringa, Martin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity and precision of existing search strategies for retrieving child health systematic reviews in MEDLINE using PubMed. DESIGN: Filter (diagnostic) accuracy study. We identified existing search strategies for systematic reviews, combined them with a filter that

  11. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mats Målqvist

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective: The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design: Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results: Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion: Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a

  12. Ethnic minority health in Vietnam: a review exposing horizontal inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Målqvist, Mats; Hoa, Dinh Thi Phuong; Liem, Nguyen Thanh; Thorson, Anna; Thomsen, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Background Equity in health is a pressing concern and reaching disadvantaged populations is necessary to close the inequity gap. To date, the discourse has predominately focussed on reaching the poor. At the same time and in addition to wealth, other structural determinants that influence health outcomes exist, one of which is ethnicity. Inequities based on group belongings are recognised as ‘horizontal’, as opposed to the more commonly used notion of ‘vertical’ inequity based on individual characteristics. Objective The aim of the present review is to highlight ethnicity as a source of horizontal inequity in health and to expose mechanisms that cause and maintain this inequity in Vietnam. Design Through a systematic search of available academic and grey literature, 49 publications were selected for review. Information was extracted on: a) quantitative measures of health inequities based on ethnicity and b) qualitative descriptions explaining potential reasons for ethnicity-based health inequities. Results Five main areas were identified: health-care-seeking and utilization, maternal and child health, nutrition, infectious diseases, and oral health and hygiene. Evidence suggests the presence of severe health inequity in health along ethnic lines in all these areas. Research evidence also offers explanations derived from both external and internal group dynamics to this inequity. It is reported that government policies and programs appear to be lacking in culturally adaptation and sensitivity, and examples of bad attitudes and discrimination from health staff toward minority persons were identified. In addition, traditions and patriarchal structures within ethnic minority groups were seen to contribute to the maintenance of harmful health behaviors within these groups. Conclusion Better understandings of the scope and pathways of horizontal inequities are required to address ethnic inequities in health. Awareness of ethnicity as a determinant of health, not

  13. Invited review: Changes in the dairy industry affecting dairy cattle health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkema, H W; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Kastelic, J P; Lam, T J G M; Luby, C; Roy, J-P; LeBlanc, S J; Keefe, G P; Kelton, D F

    2015-11-01

    The dairy industry in the developed world has undergone profound changes over recent decades. In this paper, we present an overview of some of the most important recent changes in the dairy industry that affect health and welfare of dairy cows, as well as the science associated with these changes. Additionally, knowledge gaps are identified where research is needed to guide the dairy industry through changes that are occurring now or that we expect will occur in the future. The number of farms has decreased considerably, whereas herd size has increased. As a result, an increasing number of dairy farms depend on hired (nonfamily) labor. Regular professional communication and establishment of farm-specific protocols are essential to minimize human errors and ensure consistency of practices. Average milk production per cow has increased, partly because of improvements in nutrition and management but also because of genetic selection for milk production. Adoption of new technologies (e.g., automated calf feeders, cow activity monitors, and automated milking systems) is accelerating. However, utilization of the data and action lists that these systems generate for health and welfare of livestock is still largely unrealized, and more training of dairy farmers, their employees, and their advisors is necessary. Concurrently, to remain competitive and to preserve their social license to operate, farmers are increasingly required to adopt increased standards for food safety and biosecurity, become less reliant on the use of antimicrobials and hormones, and provide assurances regarding animal welfare. Partly because of increasing herd size but also in response to animal welfare regulations in some countries, the proportion of dairy herds housed in tiestalls has decreased considerably. Although in some countries access to pasture is regulated, in countries that traditionally practiced seasonal grazing, fewer farmers let their dairy cows graze in the summer. The proportion of

  14. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Bouzid

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. METHODS AND FINDINGS: For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  15. The effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the health impact of climate change: a systematic review of systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Maha; Hooper, Lee; Hunter, Paul R

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is likely to be one of the most important threats to public health in the coming years. Yet despite the large number of papers considering the health impact of climate change, few have considered what public health interventions may be of most value in reducing the disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions to reduce the disease burden of high priority climate sensitive diseases. For each disease, we performed a systematic search with no restriction on date or language of publication on Medline, Web of Knowledge, Cochrane CENTRAL and SCOPUS up to December 2010 to identify systematic reviews of public health interventions. We retrieved some 3176 records of which 85 full papers were assessed and 33 included in the review. The included papers investigated the effect of public health interventions on various outcome measures. All interventions were GRADE assessed to determine the strength of evidence. In addition we developed a systematic review quality score. The interventions included environmental interventions to control vectors, chemoprophylaxis, immunization, household and community water treatment, greening cities and community advice. For most reviews, GRADE showed low quality of evidence because of poor study design and high heterogeneity. Also for some key areas such as floods, droughts and other weather extremes, there are no adequate systematic reviews of potential public health interventions. In conclusion, we found the evidence base to be mostly weak for environmental interventions that could have the most value in a warmer world. Nevertheless, such interventions should not be dismissed. Future research on public health interventions for climate change adaptation needs to be concerned about quality in study design and should address the gap for floods, droughts and other extreme weather events that pose a risk to health.

  16. Wine and Cardiovascular Health: A Comprehensive Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Sohaib; Alexander, Bryce; Baranchuk, Adrian

    2017-10-10

    Alcoholic beverages have been consumed for thousands of years, attracting great human interest for social, personal, and religious occasions. In addition, they have long been debated to confer cardioprotective benefits. The French Paradox is an observation of a low prevalence of ischemic heart disease, with high intakes of saturated fat, a phenomenon accredited to the consumption of red wine. Although many epidemiological investigations have supported this view, others have attributed it to beer or spirits, with many suggesting that the drink type is not important. Although excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages is commonly regarded to be detrimental to cardiovascular health, there is a debate as to whether light-to-moderate intake is cardioprotective. Although there is extensive epidemiological support for this drinking pattern, a consensus has not been reached. On the basis of published work, we describe the composition of wine and the effects of constituent polyphenols on chronic cardiovascular diseases. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Mental health and abortion: review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, P G; Wickett, A R

    1989-11-01

    This survey of studies which relate to the emotional sequelae of induced abortion, draws attention to the need for more long-term, in-depth prospective studies. The literature to this point finds no psychiatric indications for abortion, and no satisfactory evidence that abortion improves the psychological state of those not mentally ill; abortion is contra-indicated when psychiatric disease is present, as mental ill-health has been shown to be worsened by abortion. Recent studies are turning up an alarming rate of post-abortion complications such as P.I.D., and subsequent infertility. The emotional impact of these complications needs to be studied. Other considerations looked at are the long-term demographic implications of abortion on demand and the effect on the medical professions.

  18. Social Capital and Health: A Review of Prospective Multilevel Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    Background This article presents an overview of the concept of social capital, reviews prospective multilevel analytic studies of the association between social capital and health, and discusses intervention strategies that enhance social capital. Methods We conducted a systematic search of published peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed database and categorized studies according to health outcome. Results We identified 13 articles that satisfied the inclusion criteria for the review. In general, both individual social capital and area/workplace social capital had positive effects on health outcomes, regardless of study design, setting, follow-up period, or type of health outcome. Prospective studies that used a multilevel approach were mainly conducted in Western countries. Although we identified some cross-sectional multilevel studies that were conducted in Asian countries, including Japan, no prospective studies have been conducted in Asia. Conclusions Prospective evidence from multilevel analytic studies of the effect of social capital on health is very limited at present. If epidemiologic findings on the association between social capital and health are to be put to practical use, we must gather additional evidence and explore the feasibility of interventions that build social capital as a means of promoting health. PMID:22447212

  19. Mental health consumer participation in education: a structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arblaster, Karen; Mackenzie, Lynette; Willis, Karen

    2015-10-01

    Consumer participation in design, delivery and evaluation of occupational therapy educational programs is a recently introduced requirement for accreditation. It aligns with the principle of recovery, which underpins Australian mental health policy. Graduates' capabilities for recovery-oriented practice are thought to be enhanced through learning from consumers' lived experience. This structured literature review evaluates the current evidence for mental health consumer participation in health professional education to inform occupational therapy educators. Searches were completed in five online databases, one journal and published reading lists on the topic. Studies were included if they addressed mental health consumer participation in health professional education programs, were published in peer reviewed journals between 2000 and 2014 and were in English. Articles were critically reviewed, and analysed for key findings related to stages of the educational process and recovery-oriented practice capabilities. An emerging body of evidence for consumer participation in mental health education was identified. Studies are characterised by a lack of quality and a low to medium level of evidence. Findings relate to design, planning, delivery and evaluation of education as well as to most aspects of recovery-oriented practice. Emphases on exploratory research and proximal outcomes, and a reliance on published outcome measurement instruments designed for other purposes are key limitations in this body of evidence. This study identifies a weak evidence base for the requirement for consumer participation in occupational therapy programs, specifically related to mental health curricula. A research agenda is proposed in response. © 2015 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  20. Ethical considerations in sexual health research: A narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Shirmohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is an assumption that sexual health research has great influence on the quality of human life through elevating sexual health standards, and their results will eliminate the burden of sexual health challenges on family relationships. The aim of this study was to review ethical considerations in sexual health research. Materials and Methods: This narrative review was conducted between January 1990 and December 2017 based on the five-step approach of York University. The keywords used to search for the studies included ethical issues, research, sexual health, reproductive health, and sensitive topics. The language of the literatures was English and the search process was performed on PubMed, Elsevier, Ovid, Springer, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, SAGE Publishing, ProQuest, WHO website, Kinsey Confidential, and Worldsexology. Results: After assessing the quality and eligibility of 94 articles, 13 were selected. The results of the present study showed that the most important ethical considerations were protecting the confidentiality and privacy of participants, obtaining informed consent, and paying attention to vulnerable people. Conclusions: The review of literature exhibited several considerations that sexual health researchers are faced with. In order to manage these considerations, the researcher should have sufficient understanding of them. The important matter is that strategies to manage these challenges should be completely rational and practical according to each context. These strategies can also be applied in other societies with great similarities in their context.

  1. Clinical placements in mental health: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happell, Brenda; Gaskin, Cadeyrn J; Byrne, Louise; Welch, Anthony; Gellion, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Gaining experience in clinical mental health settings is central to the education of health practitioners. To facilitate the ongoing development of knowledge and practice in this area, we performed a review of the literature on clinical placements in mental health settings. Searches in Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, Medline and PsycINFO databases returned 244 records, of which 36 met the selection criteria for this review. Five additional papers were obtained through scanning the reference lists of those papers included from the initial search. The evidence suggests that clinical placements may have multiple benefits (e.g. improving students' skills, knowledge, attitudes towards people with mental health issues and confidence, as well as reducing their fears and anxieties about working in mental health). The location and structure of placements may affect outcomes, with mental health placements in non-mental health settings appearing to have minimal impact on key outcomes. The availability of clinical placements in mental health settings varies considerably among education providers, with some students completing their training without undertaking such structured clinical experiences. Students have generally reported that their placements in mental health settings have been positive and valuable experiences, but have raised concerns about the amount of support they received from education providers and healthcare staff. Several strategies have been shown to enhance clinical placement experiences (e.g. providing students with adequate preparation in the classroom, implementing learning contracts and providing clinical supervision). Educators and healthcare staff need to work together for the betterment of student learning and the healthcare professions.

  2. A review of UK housing policy: ideology and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J

    2005-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to review UK public health policy, with a specific reference to housing as a key health determinant, since its inception in the Victorian era to contemporary times. This paper reviews the role of social and private housing policy in the development of the UK public health movement, tracing its initial medical routes through to the current socio-economic model of public health. The paper establishes five distinct ideologically and philosophically driven eras, placing public health and housing within liberal (Victorian era), state interventionist (post World War 1; post World War 2), neoliberal (post 1979) and "Third Way" (post 1997) models, showing the political perspective of policy interventions and overviewing their impact on public health. The paper particularly focuses on the contemporary model of public health since the Acheson Report, and how its recommendations have found their way into policy, also the impact on housing practice. Public health is closely related to political ideology, whether driven by the State, individual or partnership arrangements. The current political system, the Third Way, seeks to promote a sustainable "social contract" between citizens and the State, public, private and voluntary organizations in delivering community-based change in areas where health inequalities can be most progressively and successfully addressed.

  3. Work motivation in health care: a scoping literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perreira, Tyrone A; Innis, Jennifer; Berta, Whitney

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this scoping literature review was to examine and summarize the factors, context, and processes that influence work motivation of health care workers. A scoping literature review was done to answer the question: What is known from the existing empirical literature about factors, context, and processes that influence work motivation of health care workers? This scoping review used the Arksey and O'Malley framework to describe and summarize findings. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were developed to screen studies. Relevant studies published between January 2005 and May 2016 were identified using five electronic databases. Study abstracts were screened for eligibility by two reviewers. Following this screening process, full-text articles were reviewed to determine the eligibility of the studies. Eligible studies were then evaluated by coding findings with descriptive labels to distinguish elements that appeared pertinent to this review. Coding was used to form groups, and these groups led to the development of themes. Twenty-five studies met the eligibility criteria for this literature review. The themes identified were work performance, organizational justice, pay, status, personal characteristics, work relationships (including bullying), autonomy, organizational identification, training, and meaningfulness of work. Most of the research involved the use of surveys. There is a need for more qualitative research and for the use of case studies to examine work motivation in health care organizations. All of the studies were cross-sectional. Longitudinal research would provide insight into how work motivation changes, and how it can be influenced and shaped. Several implications for practice were identified. There is a need to ensure that health care workers have access to training opportunities, and that autonomy is optimized. To improve work motivation, there is a need to address bullying and hostile behaviours in the workplace. Addressing the factors that

  4. Cycling and bone health: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olmedillas Hugo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass. Methods A scientific literature search on studies discussing bone mass and bone metabolism in cyclists was performed to collect all relevant published material up to April 2012. Descriptive, cross-sectional, longitudinal and interventional studies were all reviewed. Inclusion criteria were met by 31 studies. Results Heterogeneous studies in terms of gender, age, data source, group of comparison, cycling level or modality practiced among others factors showed minor but important differences in results. Despite some controversial results, it has been observed that adult road cyclists participating in regular training have low bone mineral density in key regions (for example, lumbar spine. Conversely, other types of cycling (such as mountain biking, or combination with other sports could reduce this unsafe effect. These results cannot yet be explained by differences in dietary patterns or endocrine factors. Conclusions From our comprehensive survey of the current available literature it can be concluded that road cycling does not appear to confer any significant osteogenic benefit. The cause of this may be related to spending long hours in a weight-supported position on the bike in combination with the necessary enforced recovery time that involves a large amount of time sitting or lying supine, especially at the competitive level.

  5. Review of Social and Organizational Issues in Health Information Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Kuziemsky, Craig E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This paper reviews organizational and social issues (OSIs) in health information technology (HIT). Methods A review and synthesis of the literature on OSIs in HIT was conducted. Results Five overarching themes with respect to OSIs in HIT were identified and discussed: scope and frameworks for defining OSIs in HIT, context matters, process immaturity and complexity, trade-offs will happen and need to be discussed openly, and means of studying OSIs in HIT. Conclusions There is a wide...

  6. Periodontal health during clear aligners treatment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, Gabriele; Parrini, Simone; Castroflorio, Tommaso; Deregibus, Andrea; Debernardi, Cesare L

    2015-10-01

    Clear aligner treatment (CAT) has been cited as a safe and comfortable orthodontic procedure for adult patients. However, the available evidence is scarce. To perform a systematic review of the existing literature in order to assess periodontal health during CAT. Pubmed, Pubmed Central, National Library of Medicine's Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical trials, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, Google Scholar, and LILACS were searched from January 1945 to September 2014 to identify all peer-reviewed papers potentially relevant to the review. After duplicate selection and extraction procedures, the risk of bias was assessed according to the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination criteria, and a 3-point grading system, as described by the Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU), was used to rate the methodological quality of the selected papers. A PICOS table was used for data extraction. Five relevant articles were selected from the 1247 identified articles. The level of evidence was moderate for all the studies. A significant improvement of the periodontal health indexes was revealed, in particular when CAT was compared to fixed appliances. No periodontal CAT adverse effects were observed in the selected studies. Periodontal health indexes were significantly improved during CAT. The results of this review should be interpreted with some caution because of the number, quality, and heterogeneity of the included studies. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. A rapid review of consumer health information needs and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Imogen; Corsini, Nadia; Peters, Micah D J; Eckert, Marion

    2017-09-01

    This rapid review summarizes best available evidence on consumers' needs and preferences for information about healthcare, with a focus on the Australian context. Three questions are addressed: 1) Where do consumers find and what platform do they use to access information about healthcare? 2) How do consumers use the healthcare information that they find? 3) About which topics or subjects do consumers need healthcare information? A hierarchical approach was adopted with evidence first sought from reviews then high quality studies using Medline (via PubMed), CINAHL, Embase, the JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports, the Campbell Collaboration Library of Systematic Reviews, EPPI-Centre, and Epistemonikos. Twenty-eight articles were included; four systematic reviews, three literature reviews, thirteen quantitative studies, six qualitative studies, and two mixed methods studies. Consumers seek health information at varying times along the healthcare journey and through various modes of delivery. Complacency with historical health information modes is no longer appropriate and flexibility is essential to suit growing consumer demands. Health information should be readily available in different formats and not exclusive to any single medium. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Low health literacy and evaluation of online health information: a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diviani, Nicola; van den Putte, Bas; Giani, Stefano; van Weert, Julia Cm

    2015-05-07

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in consumer online health information seeking. The quality of online health information, however, remains questionable. The issue of information evaluation has become a hot topic, leading to the development of guidelines and checklists to design high-quality online health information. However, little attention has been devoted to how consumers, in particular people with low health literacy, evaluate online health information. The main aim of this study was to review existing evidence on the association between low health literacy and (1) people's ability to evaluate online health information, (2) perceived quality of online health information, (3) trust in online health information, and (4) use of evaluation criteria for online health information. Five academic databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Communication and Mass-media Complete) were systematically searched. We included peer-reviewed publications investigating differences in the evaluation of online information between people with different health literacy levels. After abstract and full-text screening, 38 articles were included in the review. Only four studies investigated the specific role of low health literacy in the evaluation of online health information. The other studies examined the association between educational level or other skills-based proxies for health literacy, such as general literacy, and outcomes. Results indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) are negatively related to the ability to evaluate online health information and trust in online health information. Evidence on the association with perceived quality of online health information and use of evaluation criteria is inconclusive. The findings indicate that low health literacy (and related skills) play a role in the evaluation of online health information. This topic is therefore worth more scholarly attention. Based on the results of this review

  9. Emotional labour in mental health nursing: An integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Karen-Leigh; Hercelinskyj, Gylo; Giandinoto, Jo-Ann

    2017-06-01

    Emotional labour is the effort consumed by suppressing one's own emotions to care for others effectively while also caring for oneself. Mental health nurses are required to engage in effective therapeutic interactions in emotionally-intense situations. The aim of the present integrative systematic review was to investigate the emotional labour of mental health work and how this manifested, the impacts, and the ways to mitigate these impacts. In June 2016, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses methodology, a systematic search of the bibliographic databases was undertaken to identify relevant literature. Screening, data extraction, and synthesis were performed by three reviewers. The inclusion criteria included any original research that investigated the emotional work of mental health nurses. We identified a total of 20 papers to be included in this review. Thematic synthesis of the findings revealed three emergent themes: emotional labour and caring, emotional exhaustion, and self-protection (expressed as emotional intelligence). Emotional labour, emotional exhaustion, and emotional intelligence were considered to be intrinsically linked, where they were both the influencing factor for burnout and a contributor to attrition. The results highlighted that emotional labour could inspire the development and personal growth of emotional intelligence in mental health nurses. In light of these findings, recommendations for clinical practice were considered; they included supportive work environments, involving nurses in shared decision-making, and the provision of ongoing professional development opportunities that facilitate the development of emotional intelligence and resilience. © 2017 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Patient involvement in health care decision making: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Shaghayegh; Hamzehgardeshi, Leila; Hessam, Somayeh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2014-01-01

    Patient participation means involvement of the patient in decision making or expressing opinions about different treatment methods, which includes sharing information, feelings and signs and accepting health team instructions. Given the importance of patient participation in healthcare decision making which empowers patients and improves services and health outcomes, this study was performed to review previous studies on patient participation in healthcare decision making. To prepare this narrative review article, researchers used general and specific search engines, as well as textbooks addressing this subject for an in-depth study of patient involvement in healthcare decision-making. As a result, 35 (out of 100 relevant) articles and also two books were selected for writing this review article. BASED ON THE REVIEW OF ARTICLES AND BOOKS, TOPICS WERE DIVIDED INTO SIX GENERAL CATEGORIES: definition of participation, importance of patient participation, factors influencing participation of patients in healthcare decisions, method of patient participation, tools for evaluating participation, and benefits and consequences of patient participation in health care decision-making. IN MOST STUDIES, FACTORS INFLUENCING PATIENT PARTICIPATION CONSISTED OF: factors associated with health care professionals such as doctor-patient relationship, recognition of patient's knowledge, allocation of sufficient time for participation, and also factors related to patients such as having knowledge, physical and cognitive ability, and emotional connections, beliefs, values and their experiences in relation to health services.

  11. Critical Review of Dual Diagnosis Training for Mental Health Professionals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinderup, Pernille; Thylstrup, Birgitte; Hesse, Morten

    2016-01-01

    To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training, ...... of dual diagnosis training programs for mental health professionals should involve control groups, validated measures, follow-ups, and patient outcomes.......To review evidence on the effects of training programs in dual diagnosis treatment for mental health professionals. Three databases were searched. Included studies were evaluated by an adapted version of Kirkpatrick’s Training Evaluation Model, which evaluates participant perception of training...... level showed mixed results. Training mental health professionals in dual diagnosis treatment may have a positive effect on professional competencies and clinical practice. Any conclusion regarding the overall training effect is premature due to limitations in study designs. Future studies on the effects...

  12. Regeneration and health: a structured, rapid literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, G; Hearty, W; Taulbut, M; Mitchell, R; Dryden, R; Collins, C

    2017-07-01

    To identify and synthesise what is known about the impacts of regeneration on health, health inequalities and their socio-economic determinants. Rapid, structured literature review. A rapid, structured approach was undertaken to identifying relevant studies involving a search of peer-reviewed literature databases, an Internet search to identify relevant grey literature, and a review of articles citing two key systematic reviews. The identified citations were screened, critically appraised according to the research design and narratively synthesised. Of the 1382 identified citations, 46 were screened as relevant to the review and included in the synthesis. Fifteen citations were reviews but most of the evidence identified or included within the reviews was of medium or low quality due to a lack of longitudinal follow-up, low response rates or attrition. The evidence base on the impacts of regeneration is generally not of high quality and is prone to bias. However, it is theorised as being an important means of addressing the socio-economic determinants of health. Housing refurbishment (generally, and for specific improvements) seems likely to lead to small improvements in health, whereas rehousing and mixed-tenure approaches have less clear impacts on health and carry risks of disruption to social networks and higher rents. Changes in the social composition of communities (gentrification) is a common outcome of regeneration and some 'partnership' approaches to regeneration have been shown to have caused difficulties within communities. The evidence base for regeneration activities is limited but they have substantial potential to contribute to improving population health. Better quality evidence is available for there being positive health impacts from housing-led regeneration programmes involving refurbishment and specific housing improvements. There is also some evidence of the potential harms of regeneration activities, including social stratification

  13. Population dynamics of the Kaminuriak caribou herd, 1968 - 1985

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas C. Heard

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The Kaminuraik caribou herd apparently declined from about 120 000 animals in 1950 to 63 000 in 1968. Beginning in 1968 documentation of herd trend was based on the estimate of the number of breeding (pregnant and post-partum females on the calving ground during the birth peak. It appeared as if we understood the basic population processes responsible for the decline when we correctly predicted a drop from 14 800 breeding females in 1977 to 13 000 in 1980. However a three-fold increase, to 41 000 breeding females in 1982, and continued growth thereafter, was unanticipated. Most of that increase must have resulted from an immigration of cows to the herd's traditional calving ground around Kaminuriak Lake, although increased birth rates, and increased survival rates also contributed to herd growth. Immigrant cows probably came from the northeastern mainland of the NWT

  14. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najafizada, Said Ahmad Maisam; Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Labonté, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Afghanistan has a high maternal mortality rate of 400 per 100,000 live births. Although direct causes of maternal morbidity and mortality in Afghanistan include hemorrhage, obstructed labor, infection, high blood pressure, and unsafe abortion, the high burden of diseases responsible for maternal mortality arises in large part due to social determinants of health. The focus of this literature review is to examine the impact of various social determinants of health on maternal health in Afghanistan, filling an important gap in the existing literature. This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O'Malley's framework of (1) defining the question, (2) searching the literature, (3) assessing the studies, (4) synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5) summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care) is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations' long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  15. Future Research in Health Information Technology: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmat, Morteza; Ayatollahi, Haleh; Maleki, Mohammad Reza; Saghafi, Fatemeh

    2017-01-01

    Currently, information technology is considered an important tool to improve healthcare services. To adopt the right technologies, policy makers should have adequate information about present and future advances. This study aimed to review and compare studies with a focus on the future of health information technology. This review study was completed in 2015. The databases used were Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest, Ovid Medline, and PubMed. Keyword searches were used to identify papers and materials published between 2000 and 2015. Initially, 407 papers were obtained, and they were reduced to 11 papers at the final stage. The selected papers were described and compared in terms of the country of origin, objective, methodology, and time horizon. The papers were divided into two groups: those forecasting the future of health information technology (seven papers) and those providing health information technology foresight (four papers). The results showed that papers related to forecasting the future of health information technology were mostly a literature review, and the time horizon was up to 10 years in most of these studies. In the health information technology foresight group, most of the studies used a combination of techniques, such as scenario building and Delphi methods, and had long-term objectives. To make the most of an investment and to improve planning and successful implementation of health information technology, a strategic plan for the future needs to be set. To achieve this aim, methods such as forecasting the future of health information technology and offering health information technology foresight can be applied. The forecasting method is used when the objectives are not very large, and the foresight approach is recommended when large-scale objectives are set to be achieved. In the field of health information technology, the results of foresight studies can help to establish realistic long-term expectations of the future of health information

  16. Public health workforce research in review: a 25-year retrospective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Tracy M; Boulton, Matthew L

    2012-05-01

    The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a systematic review of public health workforce literature in fall 2010. This paper reviews public health workforce articles published from 1985 to 2010 that support development of a public health workforce research agenda, and address four public health workforce research themes: (1) diversity; (2) recruitment, retention, separation, and retirement; (3) education, training, and credentialing; and (4) pay, promotion, performance, and job satisfaction. PubMed, ERIC, and Web of Science databases were used to search for articles; Google search engine was used to identify gray literature. The study used the following inclusion criteria: (1) articles written in English published in the U.S.; (2) the main theme(s) of the article relate to at least one of the four public health workforce research themes; and (3) the document focuses on the domestic public health workforce. The literature suggests that the U.S. public health workforce is facing several urgent priorities that should be addressed, including: (1) developing an ethnically/racially diverse membership to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse nation; (2) recruiting and retaining highly trained, well-prepared employees, and succession planning to replace retirees; (3) building public health workforce infrastructure while also confronting a major shortage in the public health workforce, through increased education, training, and credentialing; and (4) ensuring competitive salaries, opportunities for career advancement, standards for workplace performance, and fostering organizational cultures which generate high levels of job satisfaction for effective delivery of services. Additional research is needed in all four thematic areas reviewed to develop well-informed, evidence-based strategies for effectively addressing critical issues facing the public health workforce. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  17. Health Promotion and Health Behaviors of Diverse Ethnic/Racial Women Cosmetologists: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Thelusma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Women from diverse ethnic/racial backgrounds have higher chronic disease mortality rates when compared to White non-Hispanic women. Community-based programs, such as beauty salons, have been used to reach diverse ethnic/racial women, yet little is known about diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists' involvement in health promotion and their health behaviors, which is the purpose of this review. The growing beauty salon health promotion literature indicates that their roles in these studies have been varied, not only as health promoters but also as recruiters, facilitators, and in general major catalysts for investigator-initiated studies. However, the review also identified a major void in the literature in that there were few studies on health behaviors of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists, especially African American women cosmetologists. Recommendations include increasing the capacity of diverse ethnic/racial women cosmetologists as community health leaders and investigating their health status, knowledge, attitudes, and practices.

  18. Flooding and Mental Health: A Systematic Mapping Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Background Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. Objective To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. Methods We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). Results The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders—post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Limitations Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Conclusions Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. Implications We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical

  19. Flooding and mental health: a systematic mapping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Ana; Black, John; Jones, Mairwen; Wilson, Leigh; Salvador-Carulla, Luis; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Black, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Floods are the most common type of global natural disaster. Floods have a negative impact on mental health. Comprehensive evaluation and review of the literature are lacking. To systematically map and review available scientific evidence on mental health impacts of floods caused by extended periods of heavy rain in river catchments. We performed a systematic mapping review of published scientific literature in five languages for mixed studies on floods and mental health. PUBMED and Web of Science were searched to identify all relevant articles from 1994 to May 2014 (no restrictions). The electronic search strategy identified 1331 potentially relevant papers. Finally, 83 papers met the inclusion criteria. Four broad areas are identified: i) the main mental health disorders-post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and anxiety; ii] the factors associated with mental health among those affected by floods; iii) the narratives associated with flooding, which focuses on the long-term impacts of flooding on mental health as a consequence of the secondary stressors; and iv) the management actions identified. The quantitative and qualitative studies have consistent findings. However, very few studies have used mixed methods to quantify the size of the mental health burden as well as exploration of in-depth narratives. Methodological limitations include control of potential confounders and short-term follow up. Floods following extreme events were excluded from our review. Although the level of exposure to floods has been systematically associated with mental health problems, the paucity of longitudinal studies and lack of confounding controls precludes strong conclusions. We recommend that future research in this area include mixed-method studies that are purposefully designed, using more rigorous methods. Studies should also focus on vulnerable groups and include analyses of policy and practical responses.

  20. Identifying Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Search Terminology: A Systematic Review of Health Systematic Reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph G L Lee

    Full Text Available Research on the health of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT populations can provide important information to address existing health inequalities. Finding existing research in LGBT health can prove challenging due to the plethora of terminology used. We sought to describe existing search strategies and to identify more comprehensive LGBT search terminology. We iteratively created a search string to identify systematic reviews and meta-analyses about LGBT health and implemented it in Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, and PsycINFO databases on May 28-29, 2015. We hand-searched the journal LGBT Health. Inclusion criteria were: systematic reviews and meta-analyses that addressed LGBT health, used systematic searching, and used independent coders for inclusion. The published search terminology in each record and search strings provided by authors on request were cross-referenced with our original search to identify additional terminology. Our search process identified 19 systematic reviews meeting inclusion criteria. The number of search terms used to identify LGBT-related records ranged from 1 to 31. From the included studies, we identified 46 new search terms related to LGBT health. We removed five search terms as inappropriate and added five search terms used in the field. The resulting search string included 82 terms. There is room to improve the quality of searching and reporting in LGBT health systematic reviews. Future work should attempt to enhance the positive predictive value of LGBT health searches. Our findings can assist LGBT health reviewers in capturing the diversity of LGBT terminology when searching.

  1. Evaluation of Coxiella burnetii status in dairy cattle herds with bulk-tank milk positive by ELISA and PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, A; Barandika, J F; Hurtado, A; García-Pérez, A L

    2014-04-01

    Bulk-tank milk (BTM) samples are frequently used to evaluate the health status of dairy livestock. A large-scale investigation carried out in BTM samples from dairy cattle herds from a Q fever-endemic region in Northern Spain revealed a high degree of exposure to Coxiella burnetii. This study was aimed at assessing the value of BTM samples analysis as an indicator of the C. burnetii status in dairy cattle herds. Three herds with BTM samples positive for C. burnetii by ELISA and PCR were selected, and blood, faeces and individual milk and BTM samples were analysed by serology and PCR. In spite of the high antibodies titres found in BTM samples, only one of the three farms presented an active infection by C. burnetii, as revealed by the presence of bacterial DNA in vaginal mucus and in environmental samples collected in the calving area, a seroprevalence around 40% in heifers and the seroconversion rate observed in cows. Results obtained indicated that the analysis of BTM samples is a good epidemiological tool at the population level that can be used to discriminate between seropositive and seronegative herds, but at the herd level, additional tests are necessary to evaluate whether Q fever is a potential problem in the farm. When Q fever is suspected in a cattle herd, sera from a small group of 1- to 3-year-old animals need to be analysed to investigate recent contact with C. burnetii. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Prevalence and herd-level risk factors for bovine tuberculosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Pessôa Silva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonosis with worldwide distribution. Its control has a direct impact on public health and livestock production. This study estimated the prevalence of infected herds and adult bovines and evaluated risk factors associated with the presence of tuberculosis within herds in the state of Paraná. The state was divided in seven livestock regions and independent sampling was performed. A total of 1,419 farms were sampled and 16,045 animals were tested using the intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin diagnostic test. The apparent and estimated prevalence rates in farms and adult bovine animals were 2.15% (95% CI: 1.31-3.00 and 0.42% (95% CI: 0.04-0.81, respectively. It was not possible to state with 95% confidence that the disease prevalence in any region was significantly different from that in other regions. There were no positive animals in the western region, and the prevalence of positive herds and animals in the other regions ranged from 1.03% to 3.89% and 0.17% to 1.08%, respectively. The logistic regression model identified larger herd size (OR = 2.4 and mechanical cmilking (OR = 5.18 as risk factors associated with the presence of bovine tuberculosis. The combination of low prevalence with risk factors associated to larger herds and more intensive dairy farming, renders the state of Paraná a good candidate for the implementation of industry-based free-herd accreditation schemes and makes a case for planning risk-based surveillance targeted at major dairy basins.

  3. The evalution of reproduction parametres in chosen herd of sheep

    OpenAIRE

    BENEŠOVÁ, Kristýna

    2009-01-01

    It has been observed the breed herd of Texel sheep in the foothills area of Orlické mountains in the year 2005-2008. The base of herd was consisted of 374 ewes, 575 lambs and 6 rams in total. These parametres of reproduction - conception, fertility, rearing, empty ewes, abortions, lambing, stillborn, death after born, were monitored at ewes. For the parametres of reproduction at ewes were found significant effects of ewe´s age and ram´s line.

  4. Research culture in allied health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Donna; McKinstry, Carol; Cotchett, Matthew; Williams, Cylie; Haines, Terry

    2016-01-01

    Research evidence is required to guide optimal allied health practice and inform policymakers in primary health care. Factors that influence a positive research culture are not fully understood, and nor is the impact of a positive research culture on allied health professionals. The aim of this systematic review was to identify factors that affect allied health research culture and capacity. An extensive search of 11 databases was conducted in June 2015. Studies were included if they were published in English, had full-text availability and reported research findings relating to allied health professions. Study quality was evaluated using the McMaster Critical Review Forms. Fifteen studies were eligible for inclusion. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity between studies. Allied health professionals perceive that their individual research skills are lower in comparison to their teams and organisation. Motivators for conducting research for allied health professionals include developing skills, increasing job satisfaction and career advancement. Barriers include a lack of time, limited research skills and other work roles taking priority. Multilayered strategies, such as collaborations with external partners and developing research leadership positions, aimed at addressing barriers and enablers, are important to enhance allied health research culture and capacity.

  5. Review: Animal health and sustainable global livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, B D; Robinson, T P; Grace, D C

    2018-04-10

    This paper discusses the sustainability of livestock systems, emphasising bidirectional relations with animal health. We review conventional and contrarian thinking on sustainability and argue that in the most common approaches to understanding sustainability, health aspects have been under-examined. Literature review reveals deep concerns over the sustainability of livestock systems; we recognise that interventions are required to shift to more sustainable trajectories, and explore approaches to prioritising in different systems, focusing on interventions that lead to better health. A previously proposed three-tiered categorisation of 'hot spots', 'cold spots' and 'worried well' animal health trajectories provides a mental model that, by taking into consideration the different animal health status, animal health risks, service response needs and key drivers in each system, can help identify and implement interventions. Combining sustainability concepts with animal health trajectories allows for a richer analysis, and we apply this to three case studies drawn from North Africa and the Middle East; Bangladesh; and the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We conclude that the quest for sustainability of livestock production systems from the perspective of human and animal health is elusive and difficult to reconcile with the massive anticipated growth in demand for livestock products, mainly in low- and middle-income countries, as well as the aspirations of poor livestock keepers for better lives. Nevertheless, improving the health of livestock can contribute to health sustainability both through reducing negative health impacts of livestock and increasing efficiency of production. However, the choice of the most appropriate options must be under-pinned by an understanding of agro-ecology, economy and values. We argue that a new pillar of One Health should be added to the three traditional sustainability pillars of economics, society and environment when addressing

  6. Oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Aguilar-Cordero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The oral health of pregnant women depends on the knowledge, attitudes and behaviors learned prior to pregnancy. Research shows that the most frequent and specific problem encountered during this period, which continues during lactation, is gestational gingivitis, that is, inflammation of the gums. Therefore, the knowledge that the pregnant woman has about these alterations is essential, not only to prevent them, but for the consequences that can have during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum. Aim: To analyze the main studies on the level of oral health knowledge of pregnant women. Method: The systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA guidelines. We have selected 18 studies that analyze the subject matter. Results: The studies reviewed did not present similar samples at the time of assessing the level of knowledge of the oral health of pregnant women. This can create problems comparing studies with each other. The issue addressed to measure the knowledge of pregnant women served to determine this discernment, and thus orient the research towards those aspects that presented difficulties. Conclusions: All of the studies reviewed show that the level of knowledge of pregnant women about their oral health is regular. This result that the surveys show, is not validated by a unified protocol, this means that there is no unanimity when verifying the knowledge of pregnant women, in relation to their oral health, as a health problem in general.

  7. Family support programs and adolescent mental health: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn ES

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emily S Kuhn, Robert D Laird Department of Psychology, University of New Orleans, New Orleans, LA, USA Abstract: Family support programs aim to improve parent wellbeing and parenting as well as adolescent mental and behavioral health by addressing the needs of parents of adolescents experiencing or at risk for mental health problems. Family support programs can be part of the treatment for adolescents diagnosed with mental or behavioral health problems, or family support programs can be delivered as prevention programs designed to prevent the onset or escalation of mental or behavioral health problems. This review discusses the rationale for family support programs and describes the range of services provided by family support programs. The primary focus of the review is on evaluating the effectiveness of family support programs as treatments or prevention efforts delivered by clinicians or peers. Two main themes emerged from the review. First, family support programs that included more forms of support evidenced higher levels of effectiveness than family support programs that provided fewer forms of support. Discussion of this theme focuses on individual differences in client needs and program adaptions that may facilitate meeting diverse needs. Second, family support prevention programs appear to be most effective when serving individuals more in need of mental and behavioral health services. Discussion of this theme focuses on the intensity versus breadth of the services provided in prevention programs. More rigorous evaluations of family support programs are needed, especially for peer-delivered family support treatments. Keywords: intervention, parent, mental and behavioral health

  8. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe-A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-12-02

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO₂ were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no

  9. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Wang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI, were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined

  10. Air Quality Strategies on Public Health and Health Equity in Europe—A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Zhong, Buqing; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Zhang, Fengying; Pilot, Eva; Li, Yonghua; Yang, Linsheng; Wang, Wuyi; Krafft, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Air pollution is an important public health problem in Europe and there is evidence that it exacerbates health inequities. This calls for effective strategies and targeted interventions. In this study, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the effectiveness of strategies relating to air pollution control on public health and health equity in Europe. Three databases, Web of Science, PubMed, and Trials Register of Promoting Health Interventions (TRoPHI), were searched for scientific publications investigating the effectiveness of strategies on outdoor air pollution control, public health and health equity in Europe from 1995 to 2015. A total of 15 scientific papers were included in the review after screening 1626 articles. Four groups of strategy types, namely, general regulations on air quality control, road traffic related emission control interventions, energy generation related emission control interventions and greenhouse gas emission control interventions for climate change mitigation were identified. All of the strategies reviewed reported some improvement in air quality and subsequently in public health. The reduction of the air pollutant concentrations and the reported subsequent health benefits were more significant within the geographic areas affected by traffic related interventions. Among the various traffic related interventions, low emission zones appeared to be more effective in reducing ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter levels. Only few studies considered implications for health equity, three out of 15, and no consistent results were found indicating that these strategies could reduce health inequity associated with air pollution. Particulate matter (particularly fine particulate matter) and NO2 were the dominant outdoor air pollutants examined in the studies in Europe in recent years. Health benefits were gained either as a direct, intended objective or as a co-benefit from all of the strategies examined, but no consistent

  11. Economics methods in Cochrane systematic reviews of health promotion and public health related interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDaid David

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Provision of evidence on costs alongside evidence on the effects of interventions can enhance the relevance of systematic reviews to decision-making. However, patterns of use of economics methods alongside systematic review remain unclear. Reviews of evidence on the effects of interventions are published by both the Cochrane and Campbell Collaborations. Although it is not a requirement that Cochrane or Campbell Reviews should consider economic aspects of interventions, many do. This study aims to explore and describe approaches to incorporating economics methods in a selection of Cochrane systematic reviews in the area of health promotion and public health, to help inform development of methodological guidance on economics for reviewers. Methods The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews was searched using a search strategy for potential economic evaluation studies. We included current Cochrane reviews and review protocols retrieved using the search that are also identified as relevant to health promotion or public health topics. A reviewer extracted data which describe the economics components of included reviews. Extracted data were summarised in tables and analysed qualitatively. Results Twenty-one completed Cochrane reviews and seven review protocols met inclusion criteria. None incorporate formal economic evaluation methods. Ten completed reviews explicitly aim to incorporate economics studies and data. There is a lack of transparent reporting of methods underpinning the incorporation of economics studies and data. Some reviews are likely to exclude useful economics studies and data due to a failure to incorporate search strategies tailored to the retrieval of such data or use of key specialist databases, and application of inclusion criteria designed for effectiveness studies. Conclusion There is a need for consistency and transparency in the reporting and conduct of the economics components of Cochrane reviews, as

  12. Success and failure of reindeer herding in Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Cuyler

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Animal husbandry is a recent innovation in Greenland, specifically reindeer husbandry is less than 50 years old. Reindeer husbandry was first established in mid-west Greenland and later in southern Greenland. The Greenland hunter tradition and culture is, however, still dominant in many communities. During the 1980s and 1990s, the incompatibility of these two traditions resulted in the failure of reindeer husbandry in mid-west Greenland. There were neither herding nor seasonal herd movements. Animals remained year round on the winter range, which was destroyed as lichens were trampled every summer. Without seasonal herd movements both sustainable range use and control of the herd were lost. Today, there are just two semi-domestic reindeer herds left, and both are in southern Greenland. One herd is commercially successful, and the other is under development. In mid-west Greenland, semi-domestic reindeer husbandry officially ended in 1998, and a hunt was initiated to remove the remaining population. Possibly, by the year 2000 any animals left in this region will be considered wild caribou.

  13. Workplace bullying in the Australian health context: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Sharlene; Travaglia, Joanne

    2017-05-15

    Purpose During the past decade, there has been increased attention into bullying behaviours in workplaces. Research to date has varied in design, the definition of what constitutes bullying behaviour, as well as the methods used to collect data and measure bullying incidence and prevalence. Nonetheless, studies demonstrate that bullying is a significant issue, which warrants an increased research focus to develop greater understanding of the concept, its effects and implications in, and for, the workplace. The purpose of this paper is to focus on capturing a range of international and Australian literature regarding workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. As a result, this paper identified the gaps in the literature when expanded specifically to an Australian health context. Design/methodology/approach The purpose of this review is to summarise the existing literature, both internationally and in Australia which examines workplace bullying behaviours in a health context from a management perspective. This describes the review of the literature on workplace bullying in a health context undertaken from January to April 2014. The "Preferred Reporting Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" method was used to structure the review, which covered a wide range of literature from databases including MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL and InformIT, as well as reports, and grey literature. Findings The review included 62 studies that met the inclusion criteria and reported either: factors contributing to workplace bullying, at least one significant example of workplace bullying behaviour or the impact of workplace bullying behaviours in a health context. Originality/value There is limited data on workplace bullying behaviours in an Australian health context. The literature supports there is value in future research to develop consistent definitions, policies, procedures and frameworks, which could help to prevent or address workplace bullying

  14. Do nurses' personal health behaviours impact on their health promotion practice? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Muireann; Wills, Jane; Sykes, Susie

    2017-11-01

    There is a growing expectation in national and international policy and from professional bodies that nurses be role models for healthy behaviours, the rationale being that there is a relationship between nurses' personal health and the adoption of healthier behaviours by patients. This may be from patients being motivated by, and modelling, the visible healthy lifestyle of the nurse or that nurses are more willing to promote the health of their patients by offering public health or health promotion advice and referring the patient to support services. An integrated systematic review was conducted to determine if nurses' personal health behaviour impacted on (1) their health promotion practices, and (2) patient responses to a health promotion message. Medline, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and PsycINFO databases were searched. A narrative synthesis was conducted. 31 studies were included in the review. No consistent associations were noted between nurses' weight, alcohol use, or physical activity level and their health promotion practice, although smoking appeared to negatively impact on the likelihood of discussing and engaging in cessation counselling. Nurses who reported confidence and skills around health promotion practice were more likely to raise lifestyle issues with patients, irrespective of their own personal health behaviours. The two studies included in the review that examined patient responses noted that the perceived credibility of a public health message was not enhanced by being delivered by a nurse who reported adopting healthy behaviours. Although it is assumed that nurses' personal health behaviour influences their health promotion practice, there is little evidence to support this. The assertion in health care policy that nurses should be role models for healthy behaviours assumes a causal relationship between their health behaviours and the patient response and adoption of public health messages that is not borne out by the research evidence. Copyright

  15. mHealth Interventions for Health System Strengthening in China: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka

    2017-01-01

    Background With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. Objective The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. Methods We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. Results A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. Conclusions We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth

  16. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Adrián; Toral, Raúl; San Miguel, Maxi

    2015-01-01

    We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  17. Markets, Herding and Response to External Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Carro

    Full Text Available We focus on the influence of external sources of information upon financial markets. In particular, we develop a stochastic agent-based market model characterized by a certain herding behavior as well as allowing traders to be influenced by an external dynamic signal of information. This signal can be interpreted as a time-varying advertising, public perception or rumor, in favor or against one of two possible trading behaviors, thus breaking the symmetry of the system and acting as a continuously varying exogenous shock. As an illustration, we use a well-known German Indicator of Economic Sentiment as information input and compare our results with Germany's leading stock market index, the DAX, in order to calibrate some of the model parameters. We study the conditions for the ensemble of agents to more accurately follow the information input signal. The response of the system to the external information is maximal for an intermediate range of values of a market parameter, suggesting the existence of three different market regimes: amplification, precise assimilation and undervaluation of incoming information.

  18. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Fornias Machado de Rezende

    Full Text Available 1 To synthesize the current observational evidence for the association between sedentary behavior and health outcomes using information from systematic reviews. 2 To assess the methodological quality of the systematic reviews found.Medline; Excerpta Medica (Embase; PsycINFO; and Web of Science were searched for reviews published up to September 2013. Additional publications were provided by Sedentary Behaviour Research Network members. The methodological quality of the systematic reviews was evaluated using recommended standard criteria from AMSTAR. For each review, improper use of causal language in the description of their main results/conclusion was evaluated. Altogether, 1,044 review titles were identified, 144 were read in their entirety, and 27 were included. Based on the systematic reviews with the best methodological quality, we found in children and adolescents, strong evidence of a relationship between time spent in sedentary behavior and obesity. Moreover, moderate evidence was observed for blood pressure and total cholesterol, self-esteem, social behavior problems, physical fitness and academic achievement. In adults, we found strong evidence of a relationship between sedentary behavior and all-cause mortality, fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. In addition, there is moderate evidence for incidence rates of ovarian, colon and endometrial cancers.This overview based on the best available systematics reviews, shows that sedentary behavior may be an important determinant of health, independently of physical activity. However, the relationship is complex because it depends on the type of sedentary behavior and the age group studied. The relationship between sedentary behavior and many health outcomes remains uncertain; thus, further studies are warranted.

  19. [Identification of health outcome indicators in Primary Care. A review of systematic reviews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olry de Labry Lima, A; García Mochón, L; Bermúdez Tamayo, C

    Outcome measures are being widely used by health services to assess the quality of health care. It is important to have a battery of useful performance indicators with high validity and feasibility. Thus, the objective of this study is to perform a review of reviews in order to identify outcome indicators for use in Primary Care. A review of systematic reviews (umbrella review) was carried out. The following databases were consulted: MedLine, EMBASE, and CINAHL, using descriptors and free terms, limiting searches to documents published in English or Spanish. In addition, a search was made for free terms in different web pages. Those reviews that offered indicators that could be used in the Primary Care environment were included. This review included a total of 5 reviews on performance indicators in Primary Care, which consisted of indicators in the following areas or clinical care processes: in osteoarthritis, chronicity, childhood asthma, clinical effectiveness, and prescription safety indicators. A total of 69 performance indicators were identified, with the percentage of performance indicators ranging from 0% to 92.8%. None of the reviews identified performed an analysis of the measurement control (feasibility or sensitivity to change of indicators). This paper offers a set of 69 performance indicators that have been identified and subsequently validated and prioritised by a panel of experts. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Control of mycobacterium bovis infection in two sika deer herds in ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partridge Tom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a number of countries, tuberculosis (due to infection with Mycobacterium bovis is a significant health problem of captive deer. This paper describes outbreaks of bovine tuberculosis in sika deer (Cervus nippon on two farms in Ireland and the methods used to control the disease. On Farm A, infection was first detected during 1993. The infection was eradicated using a programme of test and removal, in association with segregation of young animals. A second outbreak (also due to infection with M. bovis, but a different RFLP profile was detected in 2002. In the latter outbreak, infection was particularly prevalent in two groups of young deer. M. bovis with the same RFLP profile was also isolated in a badger found dead on the farm. Control was achieved by test and removal in association with herd management changes. In Herd B, infection was first detected in 1995, and subsequently eradicated using test and removal alone. In Herd A, re-infection remains an ongoing risk. Control rather than eradication of infection may more realistic in the short-to medium-term.

  1. Herd Immunity to Ebolaviruses Is Not a Realistic Target for Current Vaccination Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart G. Masterson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The recent West African Ebola virus pandemic, which affected >28,000 individuals increased interest in anti-Ebolavirus vaccination programs. Here, we systematically analyzed the requirements for a prophylactic vaccination program based on the basic reproductive number (R0, i.e., the number of secondary cases that result from an individual infection. Published R0 values were determined by systematic literature research and ranged from 0.37 to 20. R0s ≥ 4 realistically reflected the critical early outbreak phases and superspreading events. Based on the R0, the herd immunity threshold (Ic was calculated using the equation Ic = 1 − (1/R0. The critical vaccination coverage (Vc needed to provide herd immunity was determined by including the vaccine effectiveness (E using the equation Vc = Ic/E. At an R0 of 4, the Ic is 75% and at an E of 90%, more than 80% of a population need to be vaccinated to establish herd immunity. Such vaccination rates are currently unrealistic because of resistance against vaccinations, financial/logistical challenges, and a lack of vaccines that provide long-term protection against all human-pathogenic Ebolaviruses. Hence, outbreak management will for the foreseeable future depend on surveillance and case isolation. Clinical vaccine candidates are only available for Ebola viruses. Their use will need to be focused on health-care workers, potentially in combination with ring vaccination approaches.

  2. Social networks of professionals in health care organizations: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasselli, Stefano

    2014-12-01

    In this article, we provide an overview of social network research in health care, with a focus on social interactions between professionals in organizations. We begin by introducing key concepts defining the social network approach, including network density, centrality, and brokerage. We then review past and current research on the antecedents of health care professionals' social networks-including demographic attributes, professional groups, and organizational arrangements-and their consequences-including satisfaction at work, leadership, behaviors, knowledge transfer, diffusion of innovation, and performance. Finally, we examine future directions for social network research in health care, focusing on micro-macro linkages and network dynamics. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Cow- and herd-level risk factors for on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, M Q; Reneau, J K; Chester-Jones, H; Chebel, R C; Endres, M I

    2015-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe on-farm mortality and to investigate cow- and herd-level risk factors associated with on-farm mortality in Midwest US dairy herds using lactation survival analysis. We analyzed a total of approximately 5.9 million DHIA lactation records from 10 Midwest US states from January 2006 to December 2010. The cow-level independent variables used in the models were first test-day milk yield, milk fat percent, milk protein percent, fat-to-protein ratio, milk urea nitrogen, somatic cell score, previous dry period, previous calving interval, stillbirth, calf sex, twinning, calving difficulty, season of calving, parity, and breed. The herd-level variables included herd size, calving interval, somatic cell score, 305-d mature-equivalent milk yield, and herd stillbirth percentage. Descriptive analysis showed that overall cow-level mortality rate was 6.4 per 100 cow-years and it increased from 5.9 in 2006 to 6.8 in 2010. Mortality was the primary reason of leaving the herd (19.4% of total culls) followed by reproduction (14.6%), injuries and other (14.0%), low production (12.3%), and mastitis (10.5%). Risk factor analysis showed that increased hazard for mortality was associated with higher fat-to-protein ratio (>1.6 vs. 1 to 1.6), higher milk fat percent, lower milk protein percent, cows with male calves, cows carrying multiple calves, higher milk urea nitrogen, increasing parity, longer previous calving interval, higher first test-day somatic cell score, increased calving difficulty score, and breed (Holstein vs. others). Decreased hazard for mortality was associated with higher first test-day milk yield, higher milk protein, and shorter dry period. For herd-level factors, increased hazard for mortality was associated with increased herd size, increased percentage of stillbirths, higher somatic cell score, and increased herd calving interval. Cows in herds with higher milk yield had lower mortality hazard. Results of the study

  4. Fuel poverty and human health: A review of recent evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddell, Christine, E-mail: c.liddell@ulster.ac.u [School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT53 8BZ (United Kingdom); Morris, Chris [School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT53 8BZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The health impacts of tackling fuel poverty are reviewed, drawing primarily on large-scale studies completed in the last 10 years. Although physical health effects on adults appear to be modest, caregivers and children perceive significant impacts on children's respiratory health. There also appear to be significant effects on the physical health of infants, particularly on weight gain and susceptibility to illness. Mental health effects on adults emerge as significant in most studies, as do mental health impacts on adolescents. Mental health effects on children have, as yet, never been systematically assessed. Whilst several studies are methodologically rigorous, with some also based on very large samples, methodological problems remain. In future evaluations of health impacts, clinical outcomes could be more comprehensively augmented with measures that extend beyond physical health. These include measures reflecting quality of life, changes in patterns of social engagement and daily routine, and their concomitant impacts on mental wellbeing, Such measures may provide more rounded insights into the potential health impacts of tackling fuel poverty and-equally as important for policy and practice-the processes by which these impacts become manifest.

  5. Fuel poverty and human health A review of recent evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liddell, Christine; Morris, Chris [School of Psychology, University of Ulster, Cromore Road, Coleraine BT53 8BZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-15

    The health impacts of tackling fuel poverty are reviewed, drawing primarily on large-scale studies completed in the last 10 years. Although physical health effects on adults appear to be modest, caregivers and children perceive significant impacts on children's respiratory health. There also appear to be significant effects on the physical health of infants, particularly on weight gain and susceptibility to illness. Mental health effects on adults emerge as significant in most studies, as do mental health impacts on adolescents. Mental health effects on children have, as yet, never been systematically assessed. Whilst several studies are methodologically rigorous, with some also based on very large samples, methodological problems remain. In future evaluations of health impacts, clinical outcomes could be more comprehensively augmented with measures that extend beyond physical health. These include measures reflecting quality of life, changes in patterns of social engagement and daily routine, and their concomitant impacts on mental wellbeing, Such measures may provide more rounded insights into the potential health impacts of tackling fuel poverty and - equally as important for policy and practice - the processes by which these impacts become manifest. (author)

  6. Return on investment of public health interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Rebecca; Anwar, Elspeth; Collins, Brendan; Cookson, Richard; Capewell, Simon

    2017-08-01

    Public sector austerity measures in many high-income countries mean that public health budgets are reducing year on year. To help inform the potential impact of these proposed disinvestments in public health, we set out to determine the return on investment (ROI) from a range of existing public health interventions. We conducted systematic searches on all relevant databases (including MEDLINE; EMBASE; CINAHL; AMED; PubMed, Cochrane and Scopus) to identify studies that calculated a ROI or cost-benefit ratio (CBR) for public health interventions in high-income countries. We identified 2957 titles, and included 52 studies. The median ROI for public health interventions was 14.3 to 1, and median CBR was 8.3. The median ROI for all 29 local public health interventions was 4.1 to 1, and median CBR was 10.3. Even larger benefits were reported in 28 studies analysing nationwide public health interventions; the median ROI was 27.2, and median CBR was 17.5. This systematic review suggests that local and national public health interventions are highly cost-saving. Cuts to public health budgets in high income countries therefore represent a false economy, and are likely to generate billions of pounds of additional costs to health services and the wider economy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Fuel poverty and human health: A review of recent evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liddell, Christine; Morris, Chris

    2010-01-01

    The health impacts of tackling fuel poverty are reviewed, drawing primarily on large-scale studies completed in the last 10 years. Although physical health effects on adults appear to be modest, caregivers and children perceive significant impacts on children's respiratory health. There also appear to be significant effects on the physical health of infants, particularly on weight gain and susceptibility to illness. Mental health effects on adults emerge as significant in most studies, as do mental health impacts on adolescents. Mental health effects on children have, as yet, never been systematically assessed. Whilst several studies are methodologically rigorous, with some also based on very large samples, methodological problems remain. In future evaluations of health impacts, clinical outcomes could be more comprehensively augmented with measures that extend beyond physical health. These include measures reflecting quality of life, changes in patterns of social engagement and daily routine, and their concomitant impacts on mental wellbeing, Such measures may provide more rounded insights into the potential health impacts of tackling fuel poverty and-equally as important for policy and practice-the processes by which these impacts become manifest.

  8. The role of academic health centres in building equitable health systems: a systematic review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelman, Alexandra; Taylor, Judy; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Topp, Stephanie M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Academic health centres (AHCs) are complex organisations often defined by their ‘tripartite’ mission: to achieve high standards of clinical care, undertake clinical and laboratory research and educate health professionals. In the last decade, AHCs have moved away from what was a dominant focus on high impact (clinical) interventions for individuals, towards a more population-oriented paradigm requiring networked institutions and responsiveness to a range of issues including distribution of health outcomes and health determinants. Reflective of this paradigm shift is a growing interest in the role of AHCs in addressing health disparities and improving health system equity. This protocol outlines a systematic review that seeks to synthesise and critically appraise the current state of evidence on the role of AHCs in contributing to equitable health systems locally and globally. Methods and analysis Electronic searches will be conducted on a pilot list of bibliographic databases, including Google Scholar, Scopus, MEDLINE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, ERIC, ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, Cochrane Library, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Campbell Library and A+ Education, from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2016. Apart from studies reporting clinical interventions or trials, all types of published peer-reviewed and grey literature will be included in the review. The single screening method will be employed in selecting studies, with two additional reviewers consulted where allocation is unclear. Quality and relevance appraisal utilising Joanna Briggs Institute critical appraisal tools will follow data extraction to a preprepared template. Thematic synthesis will be undertaken to develop descriptive themes and inform analysis. Ethics and dissemination As the review is focused on the analysis of secondary data, it does not require ethics approval. The results of the study will be disseminated through articles in peer-reviewed journals and trade publications as

  9. Peer review at the Health Information and Libraries Journal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Maria J

    2014-12-01

    At its best, peer review can mean receiving constructive feedback to help you make the most of your writing. At the Health Information and Libraries Journal, we strive to make the peer review a positive process for both authors and referees. We adopt a process of double-blind peer review. To receive two reviews in a timely manner, three referees are initially invited for each article submitted. The referees are asked to submit their review noting errors, areas of ambiguity or clarification required before the editor and editorial team consider the manuscript ready for publication. As with most journals, it's unlikely that your writing will be accepted in its original form; a typical outcome will be for a recommendation for major or minor revisions. This is good! It means the editorial team has seen something of likely interest to their readership and wants to help you develop it to a publishable standard. There can be a surprising amount of development and change in a manuscript from original submission through to publication. While you may be experienced in your field, you may not have much experience of writing for publication. As a referee, you get an intriguing insight into the shape of manuscripts in their original form. © 2014 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2014 Health Libraries Journal.

  10. Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Health-related doctoral distance education programmes: A review of ethical scholarship considerations. ... Universities should encourage and support supervisors and students to publish research findings in academic journals and to present these at conferences. However, communities that participated in a research project ...

  11. Family Support in Children's Mental Health: A Review and Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoagwood, Kimberly E.; Cavaleri, Mary A.; Olin, S. Serene; Burns, Barbara J.; Slaton, Elaine; Gruttadaro, Darcy; Hughes, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    A comprehensive review of structured family support programs in children's mental health was conducted in collaboration with leadership from key national family organizations. The goals were to identify typologies of family support services for which evaluation data existed and identify research gaps. Over 200 programs were examined; 50 met…

  12. Physician leadership in e-health? A systematic literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijser, Wouter Alexander; Smits, Jacco Gerardus Wilhelmus Leonardus; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste P.M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective “physician e-leadership” (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and

  13. Records of performance and sanitary status from a dairy cattle herd in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio E. F. Cruz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, the emphasis on the health of dairy cows has changed from an individual to a herd level. In this scenario, the role played by the recording system and its interpretation by veterinarians has gained primordial importance. The records of productive and reproductive performance and of sanitary status from a southern Brazilian dairy cattle herd have been presented and discussed. The period of study was 2000-2009. Mean values per lactation period were 349D 8436M 290F 275P 201SCS (D: days in lactation, M: kg of milk yield, F: kg of fat, P: kg of protein and SCS: somatic cell score in 1000 cells/ml of milk. Major indexes of reproductive efficiency included age at first calving (31 months, services per conception (2.1, intercalving interval (428 days, calving to conception interval (146 days, mean annual rates of parturitions (76.2%, fetal losses (9.8-19.0%, and stillbirths (3.6%, apart of voluntary waiting period (94 days. Main information on sanitary status of the herd was associated with the mean prevalence of common disorders of dairy cattle such as anaplasmosis (29.8%, mastitis (27.8%, digital diseases (26.3%, ovarian cysts (21.3%, placental retention (19.7%, postpartum uterine infections (10.6%, and calf diarrhea (23.7% and pneumonia (16.8%, among others. In addition, culling reasons (low reproductive performance [56.3%] and udder/mastitis problems [33.6%], causes of cattle deaths (anaplasmosis [16.4%] and leukosis [11.4], and the impact of cattle diseases such as tuberculosis, leukosis, and neosporosis on the herd have also been presented and succinctly discussed. Numbers between brackets represent rates accumulated in the 10-year period.

  14. Novel approaches to assess the quality of fertility data stored in dairy herd management software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, K; Waegeman, W; Opsomer, G; Van Ranst, B; De Koster, J; Van Eetvelde, M; Hostens, M

    2017-05-01

    Scientific journals and popular press magazines are littered with articles in which the authors use data from dairy herd management software. Almost none of such papers include data cleaning and data quality assessment in their study design despite this being a very critical step during data mining. This paper presents 2 novel data cleaning methods that permit identification of animals with good and bad data quality. The first method is a deterministic or rule-based data cleaning method. Reproduction and mutation or life-changing events such as birth and death were converted to a symbolic (alphabetical letter) representation and split into triplets (3-letter code). The triplets were manually labeled as physiologically correct, suspicious, or impossible. The deterministic data cleaning method was applied to assess the quality of data stored in dairy herd management from 26 farms enrolled in the herd health management program from the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Ghent University, Belgium. In total, 150,443 triplets were created, 65.4% were labeled as correct, 17.4% as suspicious, and 17.2% as impossible. The second method, a probabilistic method, uses a machine learning algorithm (random forests) to predict the correctness of fertility and mutation events in an early stage of data cleaning. The prediction accuracy of the random forests algorithm was compared with a classical linear statistical method (penalized logistic regression), outperforming the latter substantially, with a superior receiver operating characteristic curve and a higher accuracy (89 vs. 72%). From those results, we conclude that the triplet method can be used to assess the quality of reproduction data stored in dairy herd management software and that a machine learning technique such as random forests is capable of predicting the correctness of fertility data. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Herd immunity to Newcastle disease virus in broiler flocks in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Anat; Berman, Elyakum M

    2017-08-01

    Due to the ongoing need to protect poultry from virulent Newcastle disease virus, all commercial poultry flocks in Israel are vaccinated according to a defined programme using a combination of live and inactivated vaccines. The vaccination protocol for broilers during the years of the study comprised a live vaccine administered by spray on the day of hatching, inactivated vaccine by subcutaneous injection at 10-12 days of age, and another live vaccine given by aerosol at 17-21 days of age. A cross-sectional study was designed in order to examine the influence of herd immunity on the risk of Newcastle disease outbreak in broiler flocks. The study was based on the extensive field data kept in the Poultry Health Laboratories database. The results of serology tests employing haemagglutination inhibition for Newcastle disease virus were analysed and crossed with the list of flocks that had been diagnosed with ND in the years 2007-2014. At the peak of induced immunization (fifth week of growth), 87.5% of the tested flocks had achieved herd immunity (≥85% of birds in the flock with an HI titre ≥4). Based on a logistic regression model, the odds ratio for ND in flocks without herd immunity was 3.7 (95% CI 1.8-7.3, P-value < 0.001). The higher the percentage of birds with low HI titres the higher the risk of ND outbreak. Under field conditions, herd immunity is an important indicator for the risk of ND outbreak.

  16. Invited review: Genetics and claw health: Opportunities to enhance claw health by genetic selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routine recording of claw health status at claw trimming of dairy cattle have been established in several countries, providing valuable data for genetic evaluation. In this review, issues related to genetic evaluation of claw health are examined, data sources, trait definitions and data validation p...

  17. Social Determinants of Maternal Health in Afghanistan: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Ahmad Maisam Najafizada

    2017-03-01

    Methods: This narrative review was conducted using Arksey and O’Malley’s framework of (1 defining the question, (2 searching the literature, (3 assessing the studies, (4 synthesizing selected evidence in context, and (5 summarizing potential programmatic implication of the context. We searched Medline, CABI global health database, and Google Scholar for relevant publications. Results: A total of 38 articles/reports were included in this review. We found that social determinants such as maternal education, sociocultural practices, and social infrastructure have a significant impact on maternal health. Health care may be the immediate determinant, but it is influenced by other determinants that must be addressed in order to alleviate the burden on health care, as well as to achieve long-term reduction in maternal mortality. Conclusion: Because of the importance of social factors for maternal health outcomes, committed involvement of multiple government sectors (i.e. education, labor and social affairs, information and culture, transport and rural development among others, alongside health care is the long-term solution to the maternal health problems in Afghanistan. National and international organizations’ long-term commitment to social investment such as education, local economy, cultural change, and social infrastructure is recommended for Afghanstan and globally.

  18. Factors affecting allied health faculty job satisfaction: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romig, Barbara; O'Sullivan Maillet, Julie; Denmark, Robert M

    2011-01-01

    Evidence in the literature suggests job satisfaction can make a difference in keeping qualified workers on the job, but little research has been conducted focusing specifically on allied health faculty. In order to attract and retain top quality faculty, colleges and universities should understand the variables impacting faculty satisfaction and develop a plan to enhance satisfaction. An integrative literature review (CINHAL, ERIC, Journal of Allied Health, Chronicle of Higher Education, Research in Higher Education, and current books on job satisfaction) of faculty job satisfaction and dissatisfaction produced a variety of publications presenting the key determinants of job satisfaction by allied health faculty in the United States. The purpose of the analysis was to examine the various factors that influence job satisfaction, especially by allied health faculty, in institutions of higher education in the U.S. The procedure used for this analysis consisted of reviewing allied health and higher education faculty studies to identify factors influencing job satisfaction, research questions, sample size reported, instruments used for measurement of job satisfaction, and job satisfaction results. While the theoretical models of allied health and higher education faculty job satisfaction exist separately in the literature, their remarkable similarities permit the prospect of a contemporary framework of the essential components of job satisfaction. Potential opportunities for continuing research on the personal and professional variables impacting job satisfaction of allied health faculty and similar disciplines are presented.

  19. Child language interventions in public health: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cesaro, Bruna Campos; Gurgel, Léia Gonçalves; Nunes, Gabriela Pisoni Canedo; Reppold, Caroline Tozzi

    2013-01-01

    Systematically review the literature on interventions in children's language in primary health care. One searched the electronic databases (January 1980 to March 2013) MEDLINE (accessed by PubMed), Scopus, Lilacs and Scielo. The search terms used were "child language", "primary health care", "randomized controlled trial" and "intervention studies" (in English, Portuguese and Spanish). There were included any randomized controlled trials that addressed the issues child language and primary health care. The analysis was based on the type of language intervention conducted in primary health care. Seven studies were included and used intervention strategies such as interactive video, guidance for parents and group therapy. Individuals of both genders were included in the seven studies. The age of the children participant in the samples of the articles included in this review ranged from zero to 11 years. These seven studies used approaches that included only parents, parents and children or just children. The mainly intervention in language on primary health care, used in randomized controlled trials, involved the use of interactional video. Several professionals, beyond speech and language therapist, been inserted in the language interventions on primary health care, demonstrating the importance of interdisciplinary work. None of the articles mentioned aspects related to hearing. There was scarcity of randomized controlled trials that address on language and public health, either in Brazil or internationally.

  20. Public health ethics theory: review and path to convergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lisa M

    2012-01-01

    Public health ethics is a nascent field, emerging over the past decade as an applied field merging concepts of clinical and research ethics. Because the "patient" in public health is the population rather than the individual, existing principles might be weighted differently, or there might be different ethical principles to consider. This paper reviewed the evolution of public health ethics, the use of bioethics as its model, and the proposed frameworks for public health ethics through 2010. Review of 13 major public health ethics frameworks published over the past 15 years yields a wide variety of theoretical approaches, some similar foundational values, and a few similar operating principles. Coming to a consensus on the reach, purpose, and ends of public health is necessary if we are to agree on what ethical underpinnings drive us, what foundational values bring us to these underpinnings, and what operating principles practitioners must implement to make ethical decisions. If public health is distinct enough from clinical medicine to warrant its own set of ethical and philosophical underpinnings, then a decision must be made as to whether a single approach is warranted or we can tolerate a variety of equal but different perspectives. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  1. A review of physical and mental health in homeless persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, W H

    2001-01-01

    To review the physical and mental status in homeless people. A MEDLINE database search covering 5 decades was supplemented by tracing back through references from existing review work. Over 200 articles were extracted, and 106 were selected for review. Homeless persons suffer frequently from physical health problems like tuberculosis, asthma, bronchitis, HIV infection, and as a consequence, they run an increased risk for premature mortality. The prevalence of mental disorders among homeless individuals varies from 80-95% in the USA, Australia, Canada, Norway, and Germany to 25-33% in Ireland and Spain. The most prominent mental disorders among the homeless, which vary from country to country, are depression, affective disorders, substance abuse, psychotic disorders, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. Homelessness is a major public health problem that should have our special interest.

  2. CAUSES OF DISPOSAL OF MURRAH BUFFALO FROM AN ORGANISED HERD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Taraphder

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study comprised of 602 disposal records of adult Murrah buffaloes , spread over a period of 16 years from 1985 to 2000 at NDRI, Karnal, Haryana. Analysed data showed that the reproductive problems (38.62, low milk production (24.01 and udder problems (22.76 were the three major reasons of culling in adult Murrah buffaloes . The culling of cows due to involuntary reason (reproductive problems, udder problems and locomotive disorders accounted for nearly 63.68 percent of total culling in Murrah buffaloes in the NDRI herd. The data revealed that maximum mortality occurred due to digestive problems accounting for 30.89 percent followed by cardio-vascular problems (26.02 percent, respiratory problems (21.14 percent, parasitic problems (8.13 percent and uro-genital problems (5.69 percent. The results showed that there is a scope for further improvement in production and reproductive efficiency through better monitoring of reproduction and udder health status of the buffaloes. The high involuntary culling rate not only makes the dairy enterprises economically less profitable but also reduces the genetic improvement by lowering the selection differential for milk production.

  3. Impact of organisational change on mental health: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamberger, Simon Grandjean; Vinding, Anker Lund; Larsen, Anelia; Nielsen, Peter; Fonager, Kirsten; Nielsen, René Nesgaard; Ryom, Pia; Omland, Øyvind

    2012-08-01

    Although limited evidence is available, organisational change is often cited as the cause of mental health problems. This paper provides an overview of the current literature regarding the impact of organisational change on mental health. A systematic search in PUBMED, PsychInfo and Web of Knowledge combining MeSH search terms for exposure and outcome. The criterion for inclusion was original data on exposure to organisational change with mental health problems as outcome. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies were included. We found in 11 out of 17 studies, an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems was observed, with a less provident association in the longitudinal studies. Based on the current research, this review cannot provide sufficient evidence of an association between organisational change and elevated risk of mental health problems. More studies of long-term effects are required including relevant analyses of confounders.

  4. Reviewing model application to support animal health decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Alexander; Salman, Mo; Thulke, Hans-Hermann

    2011-04-01

    Animal health is of societal importance as it affects human welfare, and anthropogenic interests shape decision making to assure animal health. Scientific advice to support decision making is manifold. Modelling, as one piece of the scientific toolbox, is appreciated for its ability to describe and structure data, to give insight in complex processes and to predict future outcome. In this paper we study the application of scientific modelling to support practical animal health decisions. We reviewed the 35 animal health related scientific opinions adopted by the Animal Health and Animal Welfare Panel of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Thirteen of these documents were based on the application of models. The review took two viewpoints, the decision maker's need and the modeller's approach. In the reviewed material three types of modelling questions were addressed by four specific model types. The correspondence between tasks and models underpinned the importance of the modelling question in triggering the modelling approach. End point quantifications were the dominating request from decision makers, implying that prediction of risk is a major need. However, due to knowledge gaps corresponding modelling studies often shed away from providing exact numbers. Instead, comparative scenario analyses were performed, furthering the understanding of the decision problem and effects of alternative management options. In conclusion, the most adequate scientific support for decision making - including available modelling capacity - might be expected if the required advice is clearly stated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Workplace mental health: An international review of guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memish, Kate; Martin, Angela; Bartlett, Larissa; Dawkins, Sarah; Sanderson, Kristy

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to determine the quality and comprehensiveness of guidelines developed for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace. An integrated approach that combined expertise from medicine, psychology, public health, management, and occupational health and safety was identified as a best practice framework to assess guideline comprehensiveness. An iterative search strategy of the grey literature was used plus consultation with experts in psychology, public health, and mental health promotion. Inclusion criteria were documents published in English and developed specifically for employers to detect, prevent, and manage mental health problems in the workplace. A total of 20 guidelines met these criteria and were reviewed. Development documents were included to inform quality assessment. This was performed using the AGREE II rating system. Our results indicated that low scores were often due to a lack of focus on prevention and rather a focus on the detection and treatment of mental health problems in the workplace. When prevention recommendations were included they were often individually focused and did not include practical tools or advice to implement. An inconsistency in language, lack of consultation with relevant population groups in the development process and a failure to outline and differentiate between the legal/minimum requirements of a region were also observed. The findings from this systematic review will inform translation of scientific evidence into practical recommendations to prevent mental health problems within the workplace. It will also direct employers, clinicians, and policy-makers towards examples of best-practice guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A strain-, cow-, and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in dairy cattle herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gussmann, Maya; Kirkeby, Carsten; Græsbøll, Kaare; Farre, Michael; Halasa, Tariq

    2018-07-14

    Intramammary infections (IMI) in dairy cattle lead to economic losses for farmers, both through reduced milk production and disease control measures. We present the first strain-, cow- and herd-specific bio-economic simulation model of intramammary infections in a dairy cattle herd. The model can be used to investigate the cost-effectiveness of different prevention and control strategies against IMI. The objective of this study was to describe a transmission framework, which simulates spread of IMI causing pathogens through different transmission modes. These include the traditional contagious and environmental spread and a new opportunistic transmission mode. In addition, the within-herd transmission dynamics of IMI causing pathogens were studied. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of input parameters on model predictions. The results show that the model is able to represent various within-herd levels of IMI prevalence, depending on the simulated pathogens and their parameter settings. The parameters can be adjusted to include different combinations of IMI causing pathogens at different prevalence levels, representing herd-specific situations. The model is most sensitive to varying the transmission rate parameters and the strain-specific recovery rates from IMI. It can be used for investigating both short term operational and long term strategic decisions for the prevention and control of IMI in dairy cattle herds. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Review of Maritime Health research gab in latin America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Olaf Chresten

    for research in this part of the world. Materials and Methods PubMed, Google Scholar, SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online, Pan American Journal of Public Health, Medicina Maritima and other relevant journals in Latin America in the Spanish and English languages were searched. Results 57 peer......-reviewed articles on fishermen´s health and safety and none for the seafarers were included. Brazil counted for the main part n =39, while each of the other countries had 0-4 studies. The study objectives include occupational injuries, divers disease, skin diseases, hearing loss and other issues. The cross......Background So far the maritime health and safety research for seafarers and fishermen mainly comes from the industrial developed countries with sparse contributions from the developing countries. The aim was to give an overview of the peer reviewed research in Latin America to point out the needs...

  8. Review of health effects models for Level 3 PSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hee; Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seok Jung [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Many international organizations have developed health risk models. Especially, as radiation-induced cancer is an important part among health effects, development has been focused on cancer risk model. This paper reviewed the cancer risk models of international agencies; United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), National Academy of Sciences (NAS) and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). Moreover, as pre-research for improving the health risk model in Korea, this paper analyzed the three methodologies and specific details in modeling. International agencies have developed radiation-induced cancer risk model reflecting the recent A-bomb survivor LSS data. This paper reviewed the recent cancer risk model of UNSCEAR, NAS and ICRP. All three models were based on ERR and EAR model in the form of a multiplication of dose-response model and modification function. Lifetime risk was calculated as a function of exposure age and gender.

  9. Health warning messages on tobacco products: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, David

    2011-09-01

    To review evidence on the impact of health warning messages on tobacco packages. Articles were identified through electronic databases of published articles, as well as relevant 'grey' literature using the following keywords: health warning, health message, health communication, label and labelling in conjunction with at least one of the following terms: smoking, tobacco, cigarette, product, package and pack. Relevant articles available prior to January 2011 were screened for six methodological criteria. A total of 94 original original articles met inclusion criteria, including 72 quantitative studies, 16 qualitative studies, 5 studies with both qualitative and qualitative components, and 1 review paper: Canada (n=35), USA (n=29) Australia (n=16), UK (n=13), The Netherlands (n=3), France (n=3), New Zealand (n=3), Mexico (n=3), Brazil (n=2), Belgium (n=1), other European countries (n=10), Norway (n=1), Malaysia (n=1) and China (n=1). The evidence indicates that the impact of health warnings depends upon their size and whereas obscure text-only warnings appear to have little impact, prominent health warnings on the face of packages serve as a prominent source of health information for smokers and non-smokers, can increase health knowledge and perceptions of risk and can promote smoking cessation. The evidence also indicates that comprehensive warnings are effective among youth and may help to prevent smoking initiation. Pictorial health warnings that elicit strong emotional reactions are significantly more effective. Health warnings on packages are among the most direct and prominent means of communicating with smokers. Larger warnings with pictures are significantly more effective than smaller, text-only messages.

  10. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walzer S

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Stefan Walzer,1,2 Daniel Droeschel,1,3 Mark Nuijten,4 Hélène Chevrou-Séverac5 1MArS Market Access and Pricing Strategy GmbH, Weil am Rhein, Germany; 2State University Baden-Wuerttemberg, Loerrach, Germany; 3Riedlingen University, SRH FernHochschule, Riedlingen, Germany; 4Ars Accessus Medica BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 5Nestlé Health Science, Vevey, Switzerland Background: Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. Methods: A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Results: Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly

  11. [Social constructionism in primary health care: an integrative review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadoná, Eliane; Scarparo, Helena

    2015-09-01

    This study sets out to analyze scientific articles in order to investigate how researchers in the area of Social Constructionism define "health" in Primary Health Care. An integrative review of the literature was conducted along with a decision to concentrate on those works with narrative experiences and research studies. The database researched was the Brazilian Virtual Health Library, with experiences in the scope of Primary Health Care. The effectiveness of this step resulted in 12 articles. Data were analyzed and discussed based on the perspectives of social constructionism, which generated two central themes. They were: citizenship exercises - promoting health in collective spaces; health practices - overcoming the dichotomies and absolute truths. This study revealed the relevance of the notion of shared responsibility on meanings of health contained in the texts analyzed. The researchers claim that it is possible to expand health practices into collective action to facilitate ongoing dialogue between health users and workers. However, the dominance of biomedical discourse is criticized by the researchers, because that paradigm still promotes practices of care focused on illness.

  12. The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia: Health System Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milevska Kostova, Neda; Chichevalieva, Snezhana; Ponce, Ninez A; van Ginneken, Ewout; Winkelmann, Juliane

    2017-05-01

    This analysis of the health system of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia reviews recent developments in organization and governance, health financing, health care provision, health reforms and health system performance. The country has made important progress during its transition from a socialist system to a market-based system, particularly in reforming the organization, financing and delivery of health care and establishing a mix of private and public providers. Though total health care expenditure has risen in absolute terms in recent decades, it has consistently fallen as share of GDP, and high levels of private health expenditure remain. Despite this, the health of the population has improved over the last decades, with life expectancy and mortality rates for both adults and children reaching similar levels to those in ex-communist EU countries, though death rates caused by unhealthy behaviour remain high. Inheriting a large health infrastructure, good public health services and well-distributed health service coverage after independence in 1991, the country re-built a social health insurance system with a broad benefit package. Primary care providers were privatized and new private hospitals were allowed to enter the market. In recent years, the country reformed the organization of care delivery to better incorporate both public and private providers in an integrated system. Significant efficiency gains were reached with a pioneering health information system that has reduced waiting times and led to a better coordination of care. This multi-modular e-health system has the potential to further reduce existing inefficiencies and to generate evidence for assessment and research. Despite this progress, satisfaction with health care delivery is very mixed with low satisfaction levels with public providers. The public hospital sector in particular is characterized by inefficient organization, financing and provision of health care; and many professionals

  13. Health promotion training in dental and oral health degrees: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracksley-O'Grady, Stacey A; Dickson-Swift, Virginia A; Anderson, Karen S; Gussy, Mark G

    2015-05-01

    Dental diseases are a major burden on health; however, they are largely preventable. Dental treatment alone will not eradicate dental disease with a shift to prevention required. Prevention of dental diseases is a role of dental professionals, with most countries having formalized health promotion competencies for dental and oral health graduates. In spite of this, there may be minimal health promotion being undertaken in clinical practice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to conduct a scoping review to identify some published studies on health promotion training in dental and oral health degrees. Key search terms were developed and used to search selected databases, which identified 84 articles. Four articles met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the review. Of these studies, the type of oral health promotion tasks and instructions received before the tasks varied. However, for all studies the health promotion content was focused on health education. In terms of evaluation of outcomes, only two studies evaluated the health promotion content using student reflections. More good-quality information on health promotions training is needed to inform practice.

  14. Simulation Models for Socioeconomic Inequalities in Health: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niko Speybroeck

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The emergence and evolution of socioeconomic inequalities in health involves multiple factors interacting with each other at different levels. Simulation models are suitable for studying such complex and dynamic systems and have the ability to test the impact of policy interventions in silico. Objective: To explore how simulation models were used in the field of socioeconomic inequalities in health. Methods: An electronic search of studies assessing socioeconomic inequalities in health using a simulation model was conducted. Characteristics of the simulation models were extracted and distinct simulation approaches were identified. As an illustration, a simple agent-based model of the emergence of socioeconomic differences in alcohol abuse was developed. Results: We found 61 studies published between 1989 and 2013. Ten different simulation approaches were identified. The agent-based model illustration showed that multilevel, reciprocal and indirect effects of social determinants on health can be modeled flexibly. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the review, we discuss the utility of using simulation models for studying health inequalities, and refer to good modeling practices for developing such models. The review and the simulation model example suggest that the use of simulation models may enhance the understanding and debate about existing and new socioeconomic inequalities of health frameworks.

  15. Health benefits of Kung Fu: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Tracey Wai Man; Kohn, Michael; Chow, Chin Moi; Singh, Maria Fiatarone

    2008-10-01

    The Chinese martial arts (Kung Fu) have existed for centuries and are generally accepted as being beneficial for health without much empirical data. The aim of this systematic review was to assess the health effects of "hard" Kung Fu styles by performing electronic and manual searches of the literature. The aspects of health and the Kung Fu style examined varied between most studies; in some cases, the martial art group consisted of practitioners of other martial art styles also. Of 2103 references identified, only nine papers were eligible and reviewed. All were observational studies, observing a range of health aspects possibly related to Kung Fu training or performance. Our findings suggest that there is no evidence that Kung Fu practice is associated with the prevention or treatment of any health condition. However, as a moderate- to high-intensity form of aerobic exercise, it may confer benefits similar to those attributed to other aerobic training modalities. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested in clinical trials. Physiological benefits (e.g., aerobic capacity and bone density) may be associated with long-term Kung Fu practice. Future research in this area should adopt experimental designs, clearly identifying eligibility criteria, testing and training protocols, and include health-related outcomes and documentation of adverse events, to advance knowledge in this field.

  16. Systematic review of pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Debora Lee; Jerman, Petra; Silvério Marques, Sara; Koita, Kadiatou; Purewal Boparai, Sukhdip Kaur; Burke Harris, Nadine; Bucci, Monica

    2018-02-23

    Early detection of and intervention in childhood adversity has powerful potential to improve the health and well-being of children. A systematic review was conducted to better understand the pediatric health outcomes associated with childhood adversity. PubMed, PsycArticles, and CINAHL were searched for relevant articles. Longitudinal studies examining various adverse childhood experiences and biological health outcomes occurring prior to age 20 were selected. Mental and behavioral health outcomes were excluded, as were physical health outcomes that were a direct result of adversity (i.e. abusive head trauma). Data were extracted and risk of bias was assessed by 2 independent reviewers. After identifying 15940 records, 35 studies were included in this review. Selected studies indicated that exposure to childhood adversity was associated with delays in cognitive development, asthma, infection, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. Studies on household dysfunction reported an effect on weight during early childhood, and studies on maltreatment reported an effect on weight during adolescence. Maternal mental health issues were associated with elevated cortisol levels, and maltreatment was associated with blunted cortisol levels in childhood. Furthermore, exposure to childhood adversity was associated with alterations of immune and inflammatory response and stress-related accelerated telomere erosion. Childhood adversity affects brain development and multiple body systems, and the physiologic manifestations can be detectable in childhood. A history of childhood adversity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of developmental delay, asthma, recurrent infections requiring hospitalization, somatic complaints, and sleep disruption. The variability in children's response to adversity suggests complex underlying mechanisms and poses a challenge in the development of uniform diagnostic guidelines. More large longitudinal studies are needed to better

  17. Frameworks to assess health systems governance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyone, Thidar; Smith, Helen; van den Broek, Nynke

    2017-06-01

    Governance of the health system is a relatively new concept and there are gaps in understanding what health system governance is and how it could be assessed. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to describe the concept of governance and the theories underpinning as applied to health systems; and to identify which frameworks are available and have been applied to assess health systems governance. Frameworks were reviewed to understand how the principles of governance might be operationalized at different levels of a health system. Electronic databases and web portals of international institutions concerned with governance were searched for publications in English for the period January 1994 to February 2016. Sixteen frameworks developed to assess governance in the health system were identified and are described. Of these, six frameworks were developed based on theories from new institutional economics; three are primarily informed by political science and public management disciplines; three arise from the development literature and four use multidisciplinary approaches. Only five of the identified frameworks have been applied. These used the principal-agent theory, theory of common pool resources, North's institutional analysis and the cybernetics theory. Governance is a practice, dependent on arrangements set at political or national level, but which needs to be operationalized by individuals at lower levels in the health system; multi-level frameworks acknowledge this. Three frameworks were used to assess governance at all levels of the health system. Health system governance is complex and difficult to assess; the concept of governance originates from different disciplines and is multidimensional. There is a need to validate and apply existing frameworks and share lessons learnt regarding which frameworks work well in which settings. A comprehensive assessment of governance could enable policy makers to prioritize solutions for problems identified

  18. Nursing competency standards in primary health care: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Stephens, Moira; Bryce, Julianne; Foley, Elizabeth; Ashley, Christine

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports an integrative review of the literature on nursing competency standards for nurses working in primary health care and, in particular, general practice. Internationally, there is growing emphasis on building a strong primary health care nursing workforce to meet the challenges of rising chronic and complex disease. However, there has been limited emphasis on examining the nursing workforce in this setting. Integrative review. A comprehensive search of relevant electronic databases using keywords (e.g. 'competencies', 'competen*' and 'primary health care', 'general practice' and 'nurs*') was combined with searching of the Internet using the Google scholar search engine. Experts were approached to identify relevant grey literature. Key websites were also searched and the reference lists of retrieved sources were followed up. The search focussed on English language literature published since 2000. Limited published literature reports on competency standards for nurses working in general practice and primary health care. Of the literature that is available, there are differences in the reporting of how the competency standards were developed. A number of common themes were identified across the included competency standards, including clinical practice, communication, professionalism and health promotion. Many competency standards also included teamwork, education, research/evaluation, information technology and the primary health care environment. Given the potential value of competency standards, further work is required to develop and test robust standards that can communicate the skills and knowledge required of nurses working in primary health care settings to policy makers, employers, other health professionals and consumers. Competency standards are important tools for communicating the role of nurses to consumers and other health professionals, as well as defining this role for employers, policy makers and educators. Understanding the content

  19. Barriers to Electronic Health Record Adoption: a Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Clemens Scott; Kristof, Caitlin; Jones, Beau; Mitchell, Erica; Martinez, Angelica

    2016-12-01

    Federal efforts and local initiatives to increase adoption and use of electronic health records (EHRs) continue, particularly since the enactment of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act. Roughly one in four hospitals not adopted even a basic EHR system. A review of the barriers may help in understanding the factors deterring certain healthcare organizations from implementation. We wanted to assemble an updated and comprehensive list of adoption barriers of EHR systems in the United States. Authors searched CINAHL, MEDLINE, and Google Scholar, and accepted only articles relevant to our primary objective. Reviewers independently assessed the works highlighted by our search and selected several for review. Through multiple consensus meetings, authors tapered articles to a final selection most germane to the topic (n = 27). Each article was thoroughly examined by multiple authors in order to achieve greater validity. Authors identified 39 barriers to EHR adoption within the literature selected for the review. These barriers appeared 125 times in the literature; the most frequently mentioned barriers were regarding cost, technical concerns, technical support, and resistance to change. Despite federal and local incentives, the initial cost of adopting an EHR is a common existing barrier. The other most commonly mentioned barriers include technical support, technical concerns, and maintenance/ongoing costs. Policy makers should consider incentives that continue to reduce implementation cost, possibly aimed more directly at organizations that are known to have lower adoption rates, such as small hospitals in rural areas.

  20. Noise and health in vulnerable groups: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene van Kamp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerable or susceptible groups are mentioned in most reviews and documents regarding noise and health. But only a few studies address this issue in a concrete and focused way. Groups at risk most often mentioned in the literature are children, the elderly, the chronically ill and people with a hearing impairment. The other categories encountered are those of sensitive persons, shiftworkers, people with mental illness (e.g., schizophrenia or autism, people suffering from tinnitus, and fetuses and neonates. The mechanism for this vulnerability has not been clearly described and relevant research has seldom focused on the health effects of noise in these groups in an integrated manner. This paper summarizes the outcomes and major conclusions of a systematic, qualitative review of studies over the past 5 years. This review was prepared for the 10 th Conference on Noise as a Public Health Problem (ICBEN, 2011. Evidence is reviewed describing effects, groups assumed to be at risk, and mechanisms pertaining to noise sensitivity and learned helplessness.

  1. Religion, spirituality, and health: a review and update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Harold G

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes research prior to 2010 and more recent research on religion, spirituality, and health, including some of the latest work being done by research teams at Columbia University, Harvard University, Duke University, and other academic medical centers. First, terms such as religion, humanism, and spirituality are defined. Second, based on his research team's previous systematic review of quantitative studies published in the peer-reviewed literature prior to 2010, the author discusses the findings from that research on the effects of religion and spirituality (R/S) on (1) mental health-well-being, purpose in life, hope, optimism, self-esteem, depression, anxiety, suicide, and substance abuse; (2) health behaviors-exercise, diet, cigarette smoking, and risky sexual activity; and (3) physical health-coronary artery disease, cancer, and all-cause mortality. Third, the author examines the latest research on the prevalence of spiritual needs among individuals with serious or terminal medical illnesses, the consequences of ignoring those needs, and the results of clinical trials that have examined the effects of spiritual assessments by physicians. Finally, the author reviews the research currently being conducted at Duke University on the efficacy of religious cognitive-behavioral therapies and on the effects of religious involvement on telomere length in stressed caregivers. Resources are provided that will assist seasoned researchers and clinicians who might be interested in doing research in this novel and expanding area of whole-person medicine.

  2. The Sexual Health of Transgender Men: A Scoping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Riley, Erin; Rogers, Erin; Suarez, Nicolas; Metheny, Nick; Senda, Jonathan; Saylor, Kate M; Bauermeister, José A

    There is a general paucity of research concerning the sexual health of transgender individuals, and most existing research focuses on transgender women. A scoping review concerning the sexual health of transgender men was conducted to identify gaps in the literature and to highlight opportunities for future research and intervention. A comprehensive search of seven databases was conducted. The Joanna Briggs Institute Reviewers' Manual was used as a framework. Some 7,485 articles were initially identified using a search strategy applied to seven online databases: 54 articles were identified as relevant to the research questions and reviewed in detail; of those, 33 were included in the final analysis. Studies were conceptualized into four broad themes: sexual behaviors, sexual identity, sexual pleasure and sexual function, and transactional sex. Besides an overall lack of research, existing studies were often characterized by small convenience samples that do not allow for generalization to the larger population of transgender men. Significant gaps in the literature regarding sexual coercion, sexual and intimate partner violence, and relationship quality and functioning among transgender men exist. There is a need to improve the scope and depth of research examining the sexual health of this population, especially concerning sexual risk behaviors and structural barriers to sexual health care access.

  3. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Broers

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy, nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder. Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance.

  4. The Health Effect of Psychostimulants: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Broers, Barbara

    2010-07-22

    Prevalence of psychostimulant use is high, and raising in several countries. Nicotine is the legal stimulant causing the most important public health impact. Cocaine ranks among the most used illicit substances after cannabis. Stimulant medications are frequently misused. Psychostimulants can lead to addiction, have physical, psychological and social health consequences and can induce a great disease burden. The aim of the present article is to provide a literature review on the health effects of stimulants as potential drugs of abuse. It will cover essentially cocaine, amphetamines and its derivatives (including methamphetamines and 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, ecstasy), nicotine, caffeine and khat, and touch upon the issues of prescribed substances (anti-depressants, weight control medications, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medications, hypersomniac disorder). Their pharmacology, addictive potential, health consequences and treatment will be discussed. We used Medline for the literature review from 1990 to the date of this review, and mention the findings of human and animal studies (the latter only if they are of clinical relevance).

  5. Maritime health: a review with suggestions for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLachlan, Malcolm; Kavanagh, Bill; Kay, Alison

    2012-01-01

    International maritime health has largely developed within the sphere of occupational health services and international health problems. We reviewed publications in the journal International Maritime Health from 2000 to 2010 to establish the coverage of the journal and the scope of research in maritime health. We identified six thematic categories: healthcare access, delivery and integration; telehealth; non-communicable diseases and physical health problems; communicable diseases; psychological functioning and health; and safety-related issues. We describe the research within these themes and report on their publication prominence. We also analyse the research in terms of its geographical focus, the population groups addressed and the research methodologies used. We suggest a broadening of maritime research to include randomised controlled trials, longitudinal studies and more qualitative research; more research addressing the context for non-European seafarers; and research on seafarers spouses and family supports and obligations. We also recommend more research on psychosocial and cultural issues and on telehealth, as well as the development of a stronger systems perspective for promoting maritime health.

  6. Home foreclosure, health, and mental health: a systematic review of individual, aggregate, and contextual associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander C Tsai

    Full Text Available The U.S. foreclosure crisis intensified markedly during the Great Recession of 2007-09, and currently an estimated five percent of U.S. residential properties are more than 90 days past due or in the process of foreclosure. Yet there has been no systematic assessment of the effects of foreclosure on health and mental health.I applied systematic search terms to PubMed and PsycINFO to identify quantitative or qualitative studies about the relationship between home foreclosure and health or mental health. After screening the titles and abstracts of 930 publications and reviewing the full text of 76 articles, dissertations, and other reports, I identified 42 publications representing 35 unique studies about foreclosure, health, and mental health. The majority of studies (32 [91%] concluded that foreclosure had adverse effects on health or mental health, while three studies yielded null or mixed findings. Only two studies examined the extent to which foreclosure may have disproportionate impacts on ethnic or racial minority populations.Home foreclosure adversely affects health and mental health through channels operating at multiple levels: at the individual level, the stress of personally experiencing foreclosure was associated with worsened mental health and adverse health behaviors, which were in turn linked to poorer health status; at the community level, increasing degradation of the neighborhood environment had indirect, cross-level adverse effects on health and mental health. Early intervention may be able to prevent acute economic shocks from eventually developing into the chronic stress of foreclosure, with all of the attendant benefits this implies for health and mental health status. Programs designed to encourage early return of foreclosed properties back into productive use may have similar health and mental health benefits.

  7. Health visitor education for today's Britain: Messages from a narrative review of the health visitor literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mary; Whittaker, Karen A; Cowley, Sarah; Ezhova, Ivanka; Maben, Jill

    2016-09-01

    This paper draws on a narrative review of the literature, commissioned to support the Health Visitor Implementation Plan, and aimed at identifying messages about the knowledge, skills, and abilities needed by health visitors to work within the current system of health care provision. The scoping study and narrative review used three complementary approaches: a broad search, a structured search, and a seminal paper search to identify empirical papers from the health visitor literature for review. The key inclusion criteria were messages of relevance for practice. 378 papers were reviewed. These included empirical papers from the United Kingdom (UK) from 2004 to February 2012, older research identified in the seminal paper search and international literature from 2000 to January 2016. The review papers were read by members of the multidisciplinary research team which included health visitor academics, social scientists, and a clinical psychologist managed the international literature. Thematic content analysis was used to identify main messages. These were tabulated and shared between researchers in order to compare emergent findings and to confirm dominant themes. The analysis identified an 'orientation to practice' based on salutogenesis (health creation), human valuing (person-centred care), and viewing the person in situation (human ecology) as the aspirational core of health visitors' work. This was realised through home visiting, needs assessment, and relationship formation at different levels of service provision. A wide range of knowledge, skills, and abilities were required, including knowledge of health as a process and skills in engagement, building trust, and making professional judgments. These are currently difficult to impart within a 45week health visitor programme and are facilitated through ad hoc post-registration education and training. The international literature reported both similarities and differences between the working practices of health

  8. Organizational climate and employee mental health outcomes: A systematic review of studies in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronkhorst, Babette; Tummers, Lars; Steijn, Bram; Vijverberg, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the high prevalence of mental health problems among health care workers has given rise to great concern. The academic literature suggests that employees' perceptions of their work environment can play a role in explaining mental health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of the literature in order to answer the following two research questions: (1) how does organizational climate relate to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations and (2) which organizational climate dimension is most strongly related to mental health outcomes among employees working in health care organizations? Four search strategies plus inclusion and quality assessment criteria were applied to identify and select eligible studies. As a result, 21 studies were included in the review. Data were extracted from the studies to create a findings database. The contents of the studies were analyzed and categorized according to common characteristics. Perceptions of a good organizational climate were significantly associated with positive employee mental health outcomes such as lower levels of burnout, depression, and anxiety. More specifically, our findings indicate that group relationships between coworkers are very important in explaining the mental health of health care workers. There is also evidence that aspects of leadership and supervision affect mental health outcomes. Relationships between communication, or participation, and mental health outcomes were less clear. If health care organizations want to address mental health issues among their staff, our findings suggest that organizations will benefit from incorporating organizational climate factors in their health and safety policies. Stimulating a supportive atmosphere among coworkers and developing relationship-oriented leadership styles would seem to be steps in the right direction.

  9. 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan; Leon, Gloria; Dimsdale, Joel; Balkin, Thomas; Bono, Joyce; Caldwell, John; Joiner, Thomas; Paulus, Martin; Zaccaro, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 Behavioral Health and Performance (BHP) Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met for a site visit in Houston, TX on December 17 - 18, 2014. The SRP reviewed the updated research plan for the Risk of Performance Errors Due to Fatigue Resulting from Sleep Loss, Circadian Desynchronization, Extended Wakefulness, and Work Overload (Sleep Risk) and also received a status update on the Risk of Adverse Behavioral Conditions and Psychiatric Disorders (BMed Risk) and the Risk of Performance Decrements Due to Inadequate Cooperation, Coordination, Communication, and Psychosocial Adaptation within a Team (Team Risk).

  10. Meditation, Health and Scientific Investigations: Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Cynthia Vieira Sanches; Lima, Manuela Garcia; Ladeia, Ana Marice

    2017-04-01

    A growing number of people are seeking health recovery treatments with a holistic approach to the human being. Meditation is a mental training capable of producing connection between the mind, body and spirit. Its practice helps people to achieve balance, relaxation and self-control, in addition to the development of consciousness. At present, meditation is classified as a complementary and integrative technique in the area of health. The purpose of this review of the literature was to describe what meditation is, its practices and effects on health, demonstrated by consistent scientific investigations. Recently, the advances in researches with meditation, the discovery of its potential as an instrument of self-regulation of the human body and its benefits to health have shown that it is a consistent alternative therapy when associated with conventional medical treatments.

  11. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  12. Nurse practitioner caseload in primary health care: Scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Misener, Ruth; Kilpatrick, Kelley; Donald, Faith; Bryant-Lukosius, Denise; Rayner, Jennifer; Valaitis, Ruta; Carter, Nancy; Miller, Patricia A; Landry, Véronique; Harbman, Patricia; Charbonneau-Smith, Renee; McKinlay, R James; Ziegler, Erin; Boesveld, Sarah; Lamb, Alyson

    2016-10-01

    To identify recommendations for determining patient panel/caseload size for nurse practitioners in community-based primary health care settings. Scoping review of the international published and grey literature. The search included electronic databases, international professional and governmental websites, contact with experts, and hand searches of reference lists. Eligible papers had to (a) address caseload or patient panels for nurse practitioners in community-based primary health care settings serving an all-ages population; and (b) be published in English or French between January 2000 and July 2014. Level one testing included title and abstract screening by two team members. Relevant papers were retained for full text review in level two testing, and reviewed by two team members. A third reviewer acted as a tiebreaker. Data were extracted using a structured extraction form by one team member and verified by a second member. Descriptive statistics were estimated. Content analysis was used for qualitative data. We identified 111 peer-reviewed articles and grey literature documents. Most of the papers were published in Canada and the United States after 2010. Current methods to determine panel/caseload size use large administrative databases, provider work hours and the average number of patient visits. Most of the papers addressing the topic of patient panel/caseload size in community-based primary health care were descriptive. The average number of patients seen by nurse practitioners per day varied considerably within and between countries; an average of 9-15 patients per day was common. Patient characteristics (e.g., age, gender) and health conditions (e.g., multiple chronic conditions) appear to influence patient panel/caseload size. Very few studies used validated tools to classify patient acuity levels or disease burden scores. The measurement of productivity and the determination of panel/caseload size is complex. Current metrics may not capture

  13. Physician leadership in e-health? A systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijser, Wouter; Smits, Jacco; Penterman, Lisanne; Wilderom, Celeste

    2016-07-04

    Purpose This paper aims to systematically review the literature on roles of physicians in virtual teams (VTs) delivering healthcare for effective "physician e-leadership" (PeL) and implementation of e-health. Design/methodology/approach The analyzed studies were retrieved with explicit keywords and criteria, including snowball sampling. They were synthesized with existing theoretical models on VT research, healthcare team competencies and medical leadership. Findings Six domains for further PeL inquiry are delineated: resources, task processes, socio-emotional processes, leadership in VTs, virtual physician-patient relationship and change management. We show that, to date, PeL studies on socio-technical dynamics and their consequences on e-health are found underrepresented in the health literature; i.e. no single empirical, theoretic or conceptual study with a focus on PeL in virtual healthcare work was identified. Research limitations/implications E-health practices could benefit from organization-behavioral type of research for discerning effective physicians' roles and inter-professional relations and their (so far) seemingly modest but potent impact on e-health developments. Practical implications Although best practices in e-health care have already been identified, this paper shows that physicians' roles in e-health initiatives have not yet received any in-depth study. This raises questions such as are physicians not yet sufficiently involved in e-health? If so, what (dis)advantages may this have for current e-health investments and how can they best become involved in (leading) e-health applications' design and implementation in the field? Originality/value If effective medical leadership is being deployed, e-health effectiveness may be enhanced; this new proposition needs urgent empirical scrutiny.

  14. Health effects and wind turbines: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopper, Loren D; Ollson, Christopher A

    2011-09-14

    Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure levels are not measured. What both types of studies

  15. Health effects and wind turbines: A review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ollson Christopher A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wind power has been harnessed as a source of power around the world. Debate is ongoing with respect to the relationship between reported health effects and wind turbines, specifically in terms of audible and inaudible noise. As a result, minimum setback distances have been established world-wide to reduce or avoid potential complaints from, or potential effects to, people living in proximity to wind turbines. People interested in this debate turn to two sources of information to make informed decisions: scientific peer-reviewed studies published in scientific journals and the popular literature and internet. Methods The purpose of this paper is to review the peer-reviewed scientific literature, government agency reports, and the most prominent information found in the popular literature. Combinations of key words were entered into the Thomson Reuters Web of KnowledgeSM and the internet search engine Google. The review was conducted in the spirit of the evaluation process outlined in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Results Conclusions of the peer reviewed literature differ in some ways from those in the popular literature. In peer reviewed studies, wind turbine annoyance has been statistically associated with wind turbine noise, but found to be more strongly related to visual impact, attitude to wind turbines and sensitivity to noise. To date, no peer reviewed articles demonstrate a direct causal link between people living in proximity to modern wind turbines, the noise they emit and resulting physiological health effects. If anything, reported health effects are likely attributed to a number of environmental stressors that result in an annoyed/stressed state in a segment of the population. In the popular literature, self-reported health outcomes are related to distance from turbines and the claim is made that infrasound is the causative factor for the reported effects, even though sound pressure

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF A HEALTH TECHNOLOGY: A SCOPING REVIEW.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polisena, Julie; De Angelis, Gino; Kaunelis, David; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2018-06-13

    The Health Technology Expert Review Panel is an advisory body to Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) that develops recommendations on health technology assessments (HTAs) for nondrug health technologies using a deliberative framework. The framework spans several domains, including the environmental impact of the health technology(ies). Our research objective was to identify articles on frameworks, methods or case studies on the environmental impact assessment of health technologies. A literature search in major databases and a focused gray literature search were conducted. The main search concepts were HTA and environmental impact/sustainability. Eligible articles were those that described a conceptual framework or methods used to conduct an environmental assessment of health technologies, and case studies on the application of an environmental assessment. From the 1,710 citations identified, thirteen publications were included. Two articles presented a framework to incorporate environmental assessment in HTAs. Other approaches described weight of evidence practices and comprehensive and integrated environmental impact assessments. Central themes derived include transparency and repeatability, integration of components in a framework or of evidence into a single outcome, data availability to ensure the accuracy of findings, and familiarity with the approach used. Each framework and methods presented have different foci related to the ecosystem, health economics, or engineering practices. Their descriptions suggested transparency, repeatability, and the integration of components or of evidence into a single outcome as their main strengths. Our review is an initial step of a larger initiative by CADTH to develop the methods and processes to address the environmental impact question in an HTA.

  17. The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Vikram

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The application of mobile computing and communication technology is rapidly expanding in the fields of health care and public health. This systematic review will summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving health and health service outcomes (M-health around the world. Findings To be included in the review interventions must aim to improve or promote health or health service use and quality, employing any mobile computing and communication technology. This includes: (1 interventions designed to improve diagnosis, investigation, treatment, monitoring and management of disease; (2 interventions to deliver treatment or disease management programmes to patients, health promotion interventions, and interventions designed to improve treatment compliance; and (3 interventions to improve health care processes e.g. appointment attendance, result notification, vaccination reminders. A comprehensive, electronic search strategy will be used to identify controlled studies, published since 1990, and indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, or the UK NHS Health Technology Assessment database. The search strategy will include terms (and synonyms for the following mobile electronic devices (MEDs and a range of compatible media: mobile phone; personal digital assistant (PDA; handheld computer (e.g. tablet PC; PDA phone (e.g. BlackBerry, Palm Pilot; Smartphone; enterprise digital assistant; portable media player (i.e. MP3 or MP4 player; handheld video game console. No terms for health or health service outcomes will be included, to ensure that all applications of mobile technology in public health and health services are identified. Bibliographies of primary studies and review articles meeting the inclusion criteria will be searched manually to identify further eligible studies. Data on objective and self-reported outcomes and study quality will

  18. The effectiveness of M-health technologies for improving health and health services: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Free, Caroline; Phillips, Gemma; Felix, Lambert; Galli, Leandro; Patel, Vikram; Edwards, Philip

    2010-10-06

    The application of mobile computing and communication technology is rapidly expanding in the fields of health care and public health. This systematic review will summarise the evidence for the effectiveness of mobile technology interventions for improving health and health service outcomes (M-health) around the world. To be included in the review interventions must aim to improve or promote health or health service use and quality, employing any mobile computing and communication technology. This includes: (1) interventions designed to improve diagnosis, investigation, treatment, monitoring and management of disease; (2) interventions to deliver treatment or disease management programmes to patients, health promotion interventions, and interventions designed to improve treatment compliance; and (3) interventions to improve health care processes e.g. appointment attendance, result notification, vaccination reminders.A comprehensive, electronic search strategy will be used to identify controlled studies, published since 1990, and indexed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Global Health, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, or the UK NHS Health Technology Assessment database. The search strategy will include terms (and synonyms) for the following mobile electronic devices (MEDs) and a range of compatible media: mobile phone; personal digital assistant (PDA); handheld computer (e.g. tablet PC); PDA phone (e.g. BlackBerry, Palm Pilot); Smartphone; enterprise digital assistant; portable media player (i.e. MP3 or MP4 player); handheld video game console. No terms for health or health service outcomes will be included, to ensure that all applications of mobile technology in public health and health services are identified. Bibliographies of primary studies and review articles meeting the inclusion criteria will be searched manually to identify further eligible studies. Data on objective and self-reported outcomes and study quality will be independently extracted by two review

  19. Health implications of new-age technologies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgrami, Zaid; McLAUGHLIN, Laura; Milanaik, Ruth; Adesman, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    New-age technologies are ubiquitous in the lives of adolescents. Recent trends in media use suggest that adolescents are spending more time than ever engaging with technologies, and are able to do so in virtually all settings at any time. Given that new-age technologies are so heavily integrated within the daily life of adolescents, the health risks and benefits they offer must be closely examined. In this systematic review, we present recent literature related to the implications of new-age technologies on adolescent health. A total of 94 articles published since 2006 were collected using PubMed and Google Scholar on the most popular new-age technologies among adolescents: the internet, television, cell phones, and video games. The current body of research highlights several health risks related to these technologies. Nearly all have the potential for addiction, which can result in other symptoms and impair one's daily life. Excessive use can affect several components of health, such as quality of sleep, body composition, and mental well-being, and certain practices (viewing pornography, sexting) can lead to risky sexual behaviors. However, the technologies discussed in the present review also have tremendous potential to promote adolescent health. Pediatricians must educate parents and patients on how to safely use technology to minimize the potentially harmful outcomes.

  20. Family social capital and health - a systematic review and redirection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Elena Carrillo; Kawachi, Ichiro; Romani, Jordi Riera

    2017-01-01

    The level (or scale) at which social capital can be conceptualised and measured ranges potentially from the macro-level (regional or country level), to the meso-level (neighbourhoods, workplaces, schools), down to the individual level. However, one glaring gap in the conceptualisation of social capital within the empirical literature has been the level of the family. Our aim in this review is to examine the family as the 'missing level' in studies on social capital and health. To do so, we conducted a systematic review on the use and measurement of this notion in the health literature, with the final intention of articulating a direction for future research in the field. Our findings are consistent with the notion that family social capital is multidimensional and that its components have distinct effects on health outcomes. Further investigation is needed to understand the mechanisms through which family social capital is related to health, as well as determining the most valid ways to measure family social capital. © 2016 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.

  1. A review of m-health in medical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Chandrashan Mahendra; Chakrabarti, Rahul

    2015-02-01

    The increasing capabilities of camera-equipped mobile phones have led to a growing body of evidence regarding their use in medical imaging across a broad range of medical specialties. This article reviews the current evidence for the use of mobile health (m-health) in medical imaging. We performed a structured review of the published literature regarding m-health in medical imaging using the Medline, PubMed, and Web of Science databases (January 2002-August 2013). The two authors independently extracted data regarding type of specialty, purpose, and study design of publications. In total, 235 articles were identified. The majority of studies were case reports or noncomparative product validation studies. The greatest volume of publications originated in the fields of radiology (21%), dermatology (15%), laboratory techniques (15%), and plastic surgery (12%). Among these studies, m-health was used as diagnostic aids, for patient monitoring, and to improve communication between health practitioners. With the growing use of mobile phones for medical imaging, considerations need to be given to informed consent, privacy, image storage and transfer, and guidelines for healthcare workers and patients. There are several novel uses of mobile devices for medical imaging that show promise across a variety of areas and subspecialties of healthcare. Currently, studies are mostly exploratory in nature. To validate these devices, studies with higher methodological rigor are required.

  2. Public Health Literature Review of Fragile X Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspa, Melissa; Wheeler, Anne C; Riley, Catharine

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this systematic literature review is to describe what is known about fragile X syndrome (FXS) and to identify research gaps. The results can be used to help inform future public health research and provide pediatricians with up-to-date information about the implications of the condition for individuals and their families. An electronic literature search was conducted, guided by a variety of key words. The search focused on 4 areas of both clinical and public health importance: (1) the full mutation phenotype, (2) developmental trajectories across the life span, (3) available interventions and treatments, and (4) impact on the family. A total of 661 articles were examined and 203 were included in the review. The information is presented in the following categories: developmental profile (cognition, language, functional skills, and transition to adulthood), social-emotional profile (cooccurring psychiatric conditions and behavior problems), medical profile (physical features, seizures, sleep, health problems, and physiologic features), treatment and interventions (educational/behavioral, allied health services, and pharmacologic), and impact on the family (family environment and financial impact). Research gaps also are presented. The identification and treatment of FXS remains an important public health and clinical concern. The information presented in this article provides a more robust understanding of FXS and the impact of this complex condition for pediatricians. Despite a wealth of information about the condition, much work remains to fully support affected individuals and their families. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Moving health promotion communities online: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Naomi; Beekhuyzen, Jenine; Kendall, Elizabeth; Wolski, Malcom

    There is a need to enhance the effectiveness and reach of complex health promotion initiatives by providing opportunities for diverse health promotion practitioners and others to interact in online settings. This paper reviews the existing literature on how to take health promotion communities and networks into online settings. A scoping review of relevant bodies of literature and empirical evidence was undertaken to provide an interpretive synthesis of existing knowledge on the topic. Sixteen studies were identified between 1986 and 2007. Relatively little research has been conducted on the process of taking existing offline communities and networks into online settings. However, more research has focused on offline (i.e. not mediated via computer networks); 'virtual' (purely online with no offline interpersonal contact); and 'multiplex' communities (i.e. those that interact across both online and offline settings). Results are summarised under three themes: characteristics of communities in online and offline settings; issues in moving offline communities online, and designing online communities to match community needs. Existing health promotion initiatives can benefit from online platforms that promote community building and knowledge sharing. Online e-health promotion settings and communities can successfully integrate with existing offline settings and communities to form 'multiplex' communities (i.e. communities that operate fluently across both online and offline settings).

  4. Health economic analyses in medical nutrition: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walzer, Stefan; Droeschel, Daniel; Nuijten, Mark; Chevrou-Séverac, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Medical nutrition is a specific nutrition category either covering specific dietary needs and/or nutrient deficiency in patients or feeding patients unable to eat normally. Medical nutrition is regulated by a specific bill in Europe and in the US, with specific legislation and guidelines, and is provided to patients with special nutritional needs and indications for nutrition support. Therefore, medical nutrition products are delivered by medical prescription and supervised by health care professionals. Although these products have existed for more than 2 decades, health economic evidence of medical nutrition interventions is scarce. This research assesses the current published health economic evidence for medical nutrition by performing a systematic literature review related to health economic analysis of medical nutrition. A systematic literature search was done using standard literature databases, including PubMed, the Health Technology Assessment Database, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database. Additionally, a free web-based search was conducted using the same search terms utilized in the systematic database search. The clinical background and basis of the analysis, health economic design, and results were extracted from the papers finally selected. The Drummond checklist was used to validate the quality of health economic modeling studies and the AMSTAR (A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews) checklist was used for published systematic reviews. Fifty-three papers were identified and obtained via PubMed, or directly via journal webpages for further assessment. Thirty-two papers were finally included in a thorough data extraction procedure, including those identified by a "gray literature search" utilizing the Google search engine and cross-reference searches. Results regarding content of the studies showed that malnutrition was the underlying clinical condition in most cases (32%). In addition, gastrointestinal disorders (eg

  5. Why herd size matters - mitigating the effects of livestock crashes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Warg Næss

    Full Text Available Analysing the effect of pastoral risk management strategies provides insights into a system of subsistence that have persevered in marginal areas for hundreds to thousands of years and may shed light into the future of around 200 million households in the face of climate change. This study investigated the efficiency of herd accumulation as a buffer strategy by analysing changes in livestock holdings during an environmental crisis in the Saami reindeer husbandry in Norway. We found a positive relationship between: (1 pre- and post-collapse herd size; and (2 pre-collapse herd size and the number of animals lost during the collapse, indicating that herd accumulation is an effective but costly strategy. Policies that fail to incorporate the risk-beneficial aspect of herd accumulation will have a limited effect and may indeed fail entirely. In the context of climate change, official policies that incorporate pastoral risk management strategies may be the only solution for ensuring their continued existence.

  6. Courtship herding in the fiddler crab Uca elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Martin J; Hemmi, Jan M

    2008-12-01

    Male and female animals are not always complicit during reproduction, giving rise to coercion. One example of a system that is assumed to involve sexual coercion is the mate herding behaviour of fiddler crabs: males push females towards the home burrow with the goal of forcing copulation at the burrow entrance. We recorded and analysed in detail the courtship behaviour of a North Australian species of fiddler crab Uca elegans. Courtship was composed of four main phases: broadcast waving, outward run, herding and at burrow display. During interactions males produced claw-waving displays which were directed posteriorly towards the female and which varied in timing and structure depending on the courtship phase. We suggest that courtship herding in U. elegans is driven primarily by mate choice for the following reasons, (1) females can evade herding, (2) no other reproductive strategies were observed, (3) males broadcast their presence and accompany courtship with conspicuous claw waves, and (4) the behaviour ends with the female leading the male into the home burrow. As an alternative function for herding in U. elegans we suggest that the behaviour represents a form of courtship guiding, in which males direct complicit females to the correct home burrow.

  7. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ITS HEALTH CONSEQUENCES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD1. VDD is a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries, including India2. It is highly prevalent across all age groups. Vitamin D (VD is a prehormone that humans obtain from foods and dietary supplements and by endogenous skin synthesis from7-dehydrocholesterol with sunlight exposure3. The present article reviews the etiology of VDD, physiological functions, sources, health consequences and prevalence of VDD in different regions of India.

  8. VITAMIN D DEFICIENCY AND ITS HEALTH CONSEQUENCES – A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Jyoti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The world is currently facing an unrecognized and untreated pandemic of Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD1. VDD is a significant public health problem in both developed and developing countries, including India2. It is highly prevalent across all age groups. Vitamin D (VD is a prehormone that humans obtain from foods and dietary supplements and by endogenous skin synthesis from7-dehydrocholesterol with sunlight exposure3. The present article reviews the etiology of VDD, physiological functions, sources, health consequences and prevalence of VDD in different regions of India.

  9. Generalized herd effects and vaccine evaluation: impact of live influenza vaccine on off-target bacterial colonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    Interactions between pathogens and commensal microbes are major contributors to health and disease. Infectious diseases however are most often considered independent, viewed within a one-host one-pathogen paradigm and, by extension, the interventions used to treat and prevent them are measured and evaluated within this same paradigm. Vaccines, especially live vaccines, by stimulating immune responses or directly interacting with other microbes can alter the environment in which they act, with effects that span across pathogen species. Live attenuated infl uenza vaccines for example, while safe, increase upper respiratory tract bacterial carriage density of important human commensal pathogens like Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus. Further, by altering the ecological niche and dynamics of phylogenetically distinct microbes within the host, vaccines may unintentionally affect transmission of non-vaccine targeted pathogens. Thus, vaccine effects may span across species and across scales, from the individual to the population level. In keeping with traditional vaccine herd-effects that indirectly protect even unvaccinated individuals by reducing population prevalence of vaccine-targeted pathogens, we call these cross-species cross-scale effects "generalized herd-effects". As opposed to traditional herd-effects, "generalized" relaxes the assumption that the effect occurs at the level of the vaccine-target pathogen and "herd effect" implies, as usual, that the effects indirectly impact the population at large, including unvaccinated bystanders. Unlike traditional herd-effects that decrease population prevalence of the vaccine-target, generalized herd-effects may decrease or increase prevalence and disease by the off-target pathogen. LAIV, for example, by increasing pneumococcal density in the upper respiratory tract of vaccine recipients, especially children, may increase pneumococcal transmission and prevalence, leading to excess pneumococcal invasive

  10. Calf management practices and associations with herd-level morbidity and mortality on beef cow-calf operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, C F; Fick, L J; Pajor, E A; Barkema, H W; Jelinski, M D; Windeyer, M C

    2016-03-01

    .0%. Stillbirths and mortality from 7 days to weaning decreased non-linearly with herd size. Factors related to calving season, herd size, interventions at calving, colostrum management and castration impacted herd-level morbidity and mortality. However, effect size was generally small and causation cannot be determined with a cross-sectional study design. This study identifies several common health management practices associated with calfhood morbidity and mortality that should be further investigated to establish evidence-based management strategies to improve the health and survival of beef calves.

  11. Health literacy screening instruments for eHealth applications: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A; Currie, Leanne M; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K; Stone, Patricia W

    2012-06-01

    To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms "health", "literacy", "computer-based," and "psychometrics". All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in seven different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments' content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Using Multiple Types of Studies in Systematic Reviews of Health Care Interventions – A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care

  13. Effective elements of school health promotion across behavioral domains: a systematic review of reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Louk WH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most school health education programs focus on a single behavioral domain. Integrative programs that address multiple behaviors may be more efficient, but only if the elements of change are similar for these behaviors. The objective of this study was to examine which effective elements of school health education are similar across three particular behavioral domains. Methods A systematic review of reviews of the effectiveness of school-based health promotion programs was conducted for the domains of substance abuse, sexual behavior, and nutrition. The literature search spanned the time period between 1995 and October 2006 and included three databases, websites of review centers and backward search. Fifty-five reviews and meta-analyses met predetermined relevance and publication criteria and were included. Data was extracted by one reviewer and checked by a second reviewer. A standardized data extraction form was used, with detailed attention to effective elements pertaining to program goals, development, content, methods, facilitator, components and intensity. Two assessors rated the quality of reviews as strong, moderate or weak. We included only strong and moderate reviews in two types of analysis: one based on interpretation of conflicting results, the other on a specific vote-counting rule. Results Thirty six reviews were rated strong, 6 moderate, and 13 weak. A multitude of effective elements was identified in the included reviews and many elements were similar for two or more domains. In both types of analysis, five elements with evidence from strong reviews were found to be similar for all three domains: use of theory; addressing social influences, especially social norms; addressing cognitive-behavioral skills; training of facilitators; and multiple components. Two additional elements had positive results in all domains with the rule-based method of analysis, but had inconclusive results in at least one domain with

  14. Mobile health in China: a review of research and programs in medical care, health education, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpman, David W

    2013-01-01

    There are nearly 1 billion mobile phone subscribers in China. Health care providers, telecommunications companies, technology firms, and Chinese governmental organizations use existing mobile technology and social networks to improve patient-provider communication, promote health education and awareness, add efficiency to administrative practices, and enhance public health campaigns. This review of mobile health in China summarizes existing clinical research and public health text messaging campaigns while highlighting potential future areas of research and program implementation. Databases and search engines served as the primary means of gathering relevant resources. Included material largely consists of scientific articles and official reports that met predefined inclusion criteria. This review includes 10 reports of controlled studies that assessed the use of mobile technology in health care settings and 17 official reports of public health awareness campaigns that used text messaging. All source material was published between 2006 and 2011. The controlled studies suggested that mobile technology interventions significantly improved an array of health care outcomes. However, additional efforts are needed to refine mobile health research and better understand the applicability of mobile technology in China's health care settings. A vast potential exists for the expansion of mobile health in China, especially as costs decrease and increasingly sophisticated technology becomes more widespread.

  15. Prayer and health: review, meta-analysis, and research agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Kevin S; Spielmans, Glen I

    2007-08-01

    This article reviews the empirical research on prayer and health and offers a research agenda to guide future studies. Though many people practice prayer and believe it affects their health, scientific evidence is limited. In keeping with a general increase in interest in spirituality and complementary and alternative treatments, prayer has garnered attention among a growing number of behavioral scientists. The effects of distant intercessory prayer are examined by meta-analysis and it is concluded that no discernable effects can be found. The literature regarding frequency of prayer, content of prayer, and prayer as a coping strategy is subsequently reviewed. Suggestions for future research include the conduct of experimental studies based on conceptual models that include precise operationally defined constructs, longitudinal investigations with proper measure of control variables, and increased use of ecological momentary assessment techniques.

  16. A review on child and maternal health status of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. M. Mahmudur Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Child and maternal nutritional and health status is a very much concerning issue of Bangladesh. To summarize the specific conditions of Bangladeshi child and maternal health and related issues. This is a descriptive review and overall analysis and description of the literature was done regarding child and maternal health of the general population living in Bangladesh. The evidence reflected that infant, child, and maternal mortality in Bangladesh have declined gradually at least over the past years. It is found that infant mortality 2 times, child mortality 6 times, and under five mortality rates 3 times declined comparatively than the last two decades but it is noted that maternal assassination circumstance has not declined. Knowledge on child and maternal health carries an important role in education. Health knowledge index significantly improve child and maternal health although differentially. It is obvious that poverty is one of the root causes that have led to a high child and maternal mortalities and morbidities faced by the people of Bangladesh. The requirement for socio economic relief for those living in rural Bangladesh remains one of the core issues. Recently, Bangladesh is successfully declining the total number of childhood and nutrition related mortalities despites various complexities, but maternal health status is not improving at the same pace. Nongovernment and government funded organizations and policymakers should come forward for running some effective programs to conquer the situation completely in Bangladesh.

  17. Reviewing and reforming policy in health enterprise information security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sostrom, Kristen; Collmann, Jeff R.

    2001-08-01

    Health information management policies usually address the use of paper records with little or no mention of electronic health records. Information Technology (IT) policies often ignore the health care business needs and operational use of the information stored in its systems. Representatives from the Telemedicine & Advanced Technology Research Center, TRICARE and Offices of the Surgeon General of each Military Service, collectively referred to as the Policies, Procedures and Practices Work Group (P3WG), examined military policies and regulations relating to computer-based information systems and medical records management. Using a system of templates and matrices created for the purpose, P3WG identified gaps and discrepancies in DoD and service compliance with the proposed Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) Security Standard. P3WG represents an unprecedented attempt to coordinate policy review and revision across all military health services and the Office of Health Affairs. This method of policy reform can identify where changes need to be made to integrate health management policy and IT policy in to an organizational policy that will enable compliance with HIPAA standards. The process models how large enterprises may coordinate policy revision and reform across broad organizational and work domains.

  18. Gender relations and health research: a review of current practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The importance of gender in understanding health practices and illness experiences is increasingly recognized, and key to this work is a better understanding of the application of gender relations. The influence of masculinities and femininities, and the interplay within and between them manifests within relations and interactions among couples, family members and peers to influence health behaviours and outcomes. Methods To explore how conceptualizations of gender relations have been integrated in health research a scoping review of the existing literature was conducted. The key terms gender relations, gender interactions, relations gender, partner communication, femininities and masculinities were used to search online databases. Results Through analysis of this literature we identified two main ways gender relations were integrated in health research: a as emergent findings; and b as a basis for research design. In the latter, gender relations are included in conceptual frameworks, guide data collection and are used to direct data analysis. Conclusions Current uses of gender relations are typically positioned within intimate heterosexual couples whereby single narratives (i.e., either men or women are used to explore the influence and/or impact of intimate partner gender relations on health and illness issues. Recommendations for advancing gender relations and health research are discussed. This research has the potential to reduce gender inequities in health.

  19. A systematic review of gamification in e-Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardi, Lamyae; Idri, Ali; Fernández-Alemán, José Luis

    2017-07-01

    Gamification is a relatively new trend that focuses on applying game mechanics to non-game contexts in order to engage audiences and to inject a little fun into mundane activities besides generating motivational and cognitive benefits. While many fields such as Business, Marketing and e-Learning have taken advantage of the potential of gamification, the digital healthcare domain has also started to exploit this emerging trend. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding gamified e-Health applications. A systematic literature review was therefore conducted to explore the various gamification strategies employed in e-Health and to address the benefits and the pitfalls of this emerging discipline. A total of 46 studies from multiple sources were then considered and thoroughly investigated. The results show that the majority of the papers selected reported gamification and serious gaming in health and wellness contexts related specifically to chronic disease rehabilitation, physical activity and mental health. Although gamification in e-Health has attracted a great deal of attention during the last few years, there is still a dearth of valid empirical evidence in this field. Moreover, most of the e-Health applications and serious games investigated have been proven to yield solely short-term engagement through extrinsic rewards. For gamification to reach its full potential, it is therefore necessary to build e-Health solutions on well-founded theories that exploit the core experience and psychological effects of game mechanics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeyi Olusoji

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Objective of the study was to assess the effects of strategies to integrate targeted priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems on patient health outcomes and health system effectiveness and thus to compare integrated and non-integrated health programmes. Methods Systematic review using Cochrane methodology of analysing randomised trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. We defined specific strategies to search PubMed, CENTRAL and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group register, considered studies published from January 1998 until September 2008, and tracked references and citations. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility, with an additional arbiter as needed, and extracted information on outcomes: primary (improved health, financial protection, and user satisfaction and secondary (improved population coverage, access to health services, efficiency, and quality using standardised, pre-piloted forms. Two reviewers in the final stage of selection jointly assessed quality of all selected studies using the GRADE criteria. Results Of 8,274 citations identified 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the benefits of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in Tanzania and Bangladesh, showing improved care management and higher utilisation of health facilities at no additional cost. Eight studies focused on integrated delivery of mental health and substance abuse services in the United Kingdom and United States of America. Integrated service delivery resulted in better clinical outcomes and greater reduction of substance abuse in specific sub-groups of patients, with no significant difference found overall. Quality of care, patient satisfaction, and treatment engagement were higher in integrated delivery models. Conclusions Targeted priority population health interventions we identified led to improved health

  1. Integration of priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atun, Rifat; de Jongh, Thyra E; Secci, Federica V; Ohiri, Kelechi; Adeyi, Olusoji; Car, Josip

    2011-10-10

    Objective of the study was to assess the effects of strategies to integrate targeted priority population, health and nutrition interventions into health systems on patient health outcomes and health system effectiveness and thus to compare integrated and non-integrated health programmes. Systematic review using Cochrane methodology of analysing randomised trials, controlled before-and-after and interrupted time series studies. We defined specific strategies to search PubMed, CENTRAL and the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group register, considered studies published from January 1998 until September 2008, and tracked references and citations. Two reviewers independently agreed on eligibility, with an additional arbiter as needed, and extracted information on outcomes: primary (improved health, financial protection, and user satisfaction) and secondary (improved population coverage, access to health services, efficiency, and quality) using standardised, pre-piloted forms. Two reviewers in the final stage of selection jointly assessed quality of all selected studies using the GRADE criteria. Of 8,274 citations identified 12 studies met inclusion criteria. Four studies compared the benefits of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses in Tanzania and Bangladesh, showing improved care management and higher utilisation of health facilities at no additional cost. Eight studies focused on integrated delivery of mental health and substance abuse services in the United Kingdom and United States of America. Integrated service delivery resulted in better clinical outcomes and greater reduction of substance abuse in specific sub-groups of patients, with no significant difference found overall. Quality of care, patient satisfaction, and treatment engagement were higher in integrated delivery models. Targeted priority population health interventions we identified led to improved health outcomes, quality of care, patient satisfaction and access to care

  2. Measuring Religiousness in Health Research: Review and Critique

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Daniel E.; Meador, Keith G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2008-01-01

    Although existing measures of religiousness are sophisticated, no single approach has yet emerged as a standard. We review the measures of religiousness most commonly used in the religion and health literature with particular attention to their limitations, suggesting that vigilance is required to avoid over-generalization. After placing the development of these scales in historical context, we discuss measures of religious attendance, private religious practice, and intrinsic/extrinsic relig...

  3. Adverse health effects associated with Islamic fasting -A literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Nania Mohamed Pakkir Maideen; Aََََbdurazak Jumale; Rajkapoor Balasubramaniam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Millions of Muslims across the world observe Islamic fasting during the holy month of Ramadan, as well as the other specific dates in the lunar calendar year. While fasting during this month, Muslims refrain from eating or drinking from dawn to dusk. Islamic fasting is similar to alternate day fasting (ADF) since it incorporates an average of 12 hours of fasting and 12 hours of feasting periods. This present review study is aimed to find out the common adverse health effects ass...

  4. Public health interventions and behaviour change: reviewing the grey literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, H; Hardiker, N R; McGrath, M; McQuarrie, C

    2012-01-01

    This study identified and reviewed grey literature relating to factors facilitating and inhibiting effective interventions in three areas: the promotion of mental health and well-being, the improvement of food and nutrition, and interventions seeking to increase engagement in physical activity. Sourcing, reviewing and analysis of relevant grey literature. Evidence was collected from a variety of non-traditional sources. Thirty-six pieces of documentary evidence across the three areas were selected for in-depth appraisal and review. A variety of approaches, often short-term, were used both as interventions and outcome measures. Interventions tended to have common outcomes, enabling the identification of themes. These included improvements in participant well-being as well as identification of barriers to, and promoters of, success. Most interventions demonstrated some positive impact, although some did not. This was particularly the case for more objective measures of change, such as physiological measurements, particularly when used to evaluate short-term interventions. Objective health measurement as part of an intervention may act as a catalyst for future behaviour change. Time is an important factor that could either promote or impede the success of interventions for both participants and facilitators. Likewise, the importance of involving all stakeholders, including participants, when planning health promoting interventions was established as an important indicator of success. Despite its limited scope, this review suggests that interventions can be more efficient and effective. For example, larger-scale, longer-term interventions could be more efficient, whilst outcomes relating to the implementation and beyond could provide a clearer picture of effectiveness. Additionally, interventions and evaluations must be flexible, evolve in partnership with local communities, and reflect local need and context. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health

  5. Population health and urban form : a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-11-01

    A review examining the links between public health and living spaces was presented. The aim of the review was to explore whether different urban forms created communities that encouraged healthy living and resulted in a healthier population as well as to suggest avenues and approaches for further research of the subject in British Columbia. The historical links between public health and community planning were examined. A conceptual model of the linkages of urban form and population health was developed and used to identify ways in which urban form and population health are linked. Areas of concern include vehicle emissions, water quality and heat build-up as well as noise pollution. Issues concerning health inequalities related to income and access to health services were examined, as well as the role that urban form plays as a barrier to physical activity. Findings indicated that there is a strong correlation between urban form and health. Lower density urban forms that require a vehicle generated more miles travelled by car with more traffic crashes and higher risks to pedestrians and cyclists. A growing body of evidence has indicated that community contacts are scarcer in low density areas. In addition, low density dwellers seemed to have higher stress levels. Car dependent lifestyles had negative impacts on children's play, growth and development. Urban forms which promoted a range of housing options in terms of affordability, tenure and type allowed people to remain within their neighbourhoods. Disadvantaged groups fared better in denser areas where there were more public facilities. 62 refs. 1 tab., 2 figs

  6. Health Literacy Screening Instruments for eHealth Applications: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sarah A.; Currie, Leanne M.; Bakken, Suzanne; Vawdrey, David K.; Stone, Patricia W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To systematically review current health literacy (HL) instruments for use in consumer-facing and mobile health information technology screening and evaluation tools. Design The databases, PubMed, OVID, Google Scholar, Cochrane Library and Science Citation Index, were searched for health literacy assessment instruments using the terms “health”, “literacy”, “computer-based,” and “psychometrics”. All instruments identified by this method were critically appraised according to their reported psychometric properties and clinical feasibility. Results Eleven different health literacy instruments were found. Screening questions, such as asking a patient about his/her need for assistance in navigating health information, were evaluated in 7 different studies and are promising for use as a valid, reliable, and feasible computer-based approach to identify patients that struggle with low health literacy. However, there was a lack of consistency in the types of screening questions proposed. There is also a lack of information regarding the psychometric properties of computer-based health literacy instruments. Limitations Only English language health literacy assessment instruments were reviewed and analyzed. Conclusions Current health literacy screening tools demonstrate varying benefits depending on the context of their use. In many cases, it seems that a single screening question may be a reliable, valid, and feasible means for establishing health literacy. A combination of screening questions that assess health literacy and technological literacy may enable tailoring eHealth applications to user needs. Further research should determine the best screening question(s) and the best synthesis of various instruments’ content and methodologies for computer-based health literacy screening and assessment. PMID:22521719

  7. Clinical mastitis in Macedonian dairy herds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trajčev M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the determination of the occurrence and prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk on three dairy farms. A one year study on a total of 1031 black-white breed cows with a total of 1267 lactations was performed. Each dairy farm implemented a different technology of rearing and was of different herd size (farm A - tie-stalls, 162 cows; farm B - loose-housing system with open shed and deep bedding, 357 dairy cows; and farm C - loosehousing system with enclosed shed, 512 cows. Clinical mastitis in cows was detected by clinical examination of the udder and determination of abnormalities in the milk. To distinguish two consecutive cases of clinical mastitis within the same lactation a time period of nine days was used. Annual prevalence rate of clinical mastitis for the entire population of cows was 34.13% on cow level, and 30.07% on lactation level. There was a high prevalence rate of clinical mastitis in primiparous cows, 21.43%, 40.77% and 12.55%, on farms A, B and C, respectively. Lactation incident risk for cows on farm A was 25.00%, farm B 95.58% and farm C 21.49%. The prevalence of clinical mastitis and lactation incidence risk tended to increase with increasing parity. The annual lactation risk for the entire population of cows was 45.86%. All indicators for the determination of the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy farms, which were observed during the research, showed the greatest values on farm B. Most of the cows manifested one (68.24% or two (18.63% cases of clinical mastitis during lactation. There was a long period in lactation until the appearance of the first case of clinical mastitis (112.21 ± 92.04 days. Generally, clinical mastitis was registered during the whole period of the survey, with some fluctuations between different seasons. The method of GLM (General Linear Model, univariate procedure, was used to analyze associations between the incidence of clinical mastitis and

  8. Cisplatin-Associated Ototoxicity: A Review for the Health Professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Paken

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin is an effective drug used in the treatment of many cancers, yet its ototoxic potential places cancer patients, exposed to this drug, at risk of hearing loss, thus negatively impacting further on a patient’s quality of life. It is paramount for health care practitioners managing such patients to be aware of cisplatin’s ototoxic properties and the clinical signs to identify patients at risk of developing hearing loss. English peer-reviewed articles from January 1975 to July 2015 were assessed from PubMed, Science Direct, and Ebscohost. Seventy-nine articles and two books were identified for this review, using MeSH terms and keywords such as “ototoxicity”, “cisplatin”, “hearing loss”, and “ototoxicity monitoring”. This review provides an up-to-date overview of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity, namely, its clinical features, incidence rates, and molecular and cellular mechanisms and risk factors, to health care practitioners managing the patient with cancer, and highlights the need for a team-based approach to complement an audiological monitoring programme to mitigate any further loss in the quality of life of affected patients, as there is currently no otoprotective agent recommended routinely for the prevention of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity. It also sets the platform for effective dialogue towards policy formulation and strengthening of health systems in developing countries.

  9. Cisplatin-Associated Ototoxicity: A Review for the Health Professional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paken, Jessica; Govender, Cyril D; Pillay, Mershen; Sewram, Vikash

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin is an effective drug used in the treatment of many cancers, yet its ototoxic potential places cancer patients, exposed to this drug, at risk of hearing loss, thus negatively impacting further on a patient's quality of life. It is paramount for health care practitioners managing such patients to be aware of cisplatin's ototoxic properties and the clinical signs to identify patients at risk of developing hearing loss. English peer-reviewed articles from January 1975 to July 2015 were assessed from PubMed, Science Direct, and Ebscohost. Seventy-nine articles and two books were identified for this review, using MeSH terms and keywords such as "ototoxicity", "cisplatin", "hearing loss", and "ototoxicity monitoring". This review provides an up-to-date overview of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity, namely, its clinical features, incidence rates, and molecular and cellular mechanisms and risk factors, to health care practitioners managing the patient with cancer, and highlights the need for a team-based approach to complement an audiological monitoring programme to mitigate any further loss in the quality of life of affected patients, as there is currently no otoprotective agent recommended routinely for the prevention of cisplatin-associated ototoxicity. It also sets the platform for effective dialogue towards policy formulation and strengthening of health systems in developing countries.

  10. Haze and health impacts in ASEAN countries: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakreshnan, Logaraj; Aghamohammadi, Nasrin; Fong, Chng Saun; Bulgiba, Awang; Zaki, Rafdzah Ahmad; Wong, Li Ping; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam

    2018-01-01

    Seasonal haze episodes and the associated inimical health impacts have become a regular crisis among the ASEAN countries. Even though many emerging experimental and epidemiological studies have documented the plausible health effects of the predominating toxic pollutants of haze, the consistency among the reported findings by these studies is poorly understood. By addressing such gap, this review aimed to critically highlight the evidence of physical and psychological health impacts of haze from the available literature in ASEAN countries. Systematic literature survey from six electronic databases across the environmental and medical disciplines was performed, and 20 peer-reviewed studies out of 384 retrieved articles were selected. The evidence pertaining to the health impacts of haze based on field survey, laboratory tests, modelling and time-series analysis were extracted for expert judgement. In specific, no generalization can be made on the reported physical symptoms as no specific symptoms recorded in all the reviewed studies except for throat discomfort. Consistent evidence was found for the increase in respiratory morbidity, especially for asthma, whilst the children and the elderly are deemed to be the vulnerable groups of the haze-induced respiratory ailments. A consensual conclusion on the association between the cardiovascular morbidity and haze is unfeasible as the available studies are scanty and geographically limited albeit of some reported increased cases. A number of modelling and simulation studies demonstrated elevating respiratory mortality rates due to seasonal haze exposures over the years. Besides, evidence on cancer risk is inconsistent where industrial and vehicular emissions are also expected to play more notable roles than mere haze exposure. There are insufficient regional studies to examine the association between the mental health and haze. Limited toxicological studies in ASEAN countries often impede a comprehensive understanding of

  11. Workplace health promotion for older workers: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poscia, Andrea; Moscato, Umberto; La Milia, Daniele Ignazio; Milovanovic, Sonja; Stojanovic, Jovana; Borghini, Alice; Collamati, Agnese; Ricciardi, Walter; Magnavita, Nicola

    2016-09-05

    Aging of the workforce is a growing problem. As workers age, their physical, physiological and psychosocial capabilities change. Keeping older workers healthy and productive is a key goal of European labor policy and health promotion is a key to achieve this result. Previous studies about workplace health promotion (WHP) programs are usually focused on the entire workforce or to a specific topic. Within the framework of the EU-CHAFEA ProHealth65+ project, this paper aims to systematically review the literature on WHP interventions specifically targeted to older workers (OWs). This systematic review was conducted by making a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, The Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PsychINFO databases. Search terms included ageing (and synonyms), worker (and synonyms), intervention (and synonyms), and health (and synonyms). The search was limited to papers in English or Italian published between January, 1(st) 2000 and May, 31(st) 2015. Relevant references in the selected articles were also analyzed. Of the 299 articles initially identified as relating to the topic, 18 articles met the inclusion criteria. The type, methods and outcome of interventions in the WHP programs retrieved were heterogenous, as was the definition of the age at which a worker is considered to be 'older'. Most of the available studies had been conducted on small samples for a limited period of time. Our review shows that, although this issue is of great importance, studies addressing WHP actions for OWs are few and generally of poor quality. Current evidence fails to show that WHP programs improve the work ability, productivity or job retention of older workers. In addition, there is limited evidence that WHP programs are effective in improving lifestyles and concur to maintain the health and well-being of older workers. There is a need for future WHP programs to be well-designed so that the effectiveness and cost-benefit of workplace interventions can be

  12. Technical indicators of financial performance in the dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Erling Lundager; Østergaard, Søren; Krogh, Mogens Agerbo

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was used to predict the long-term financial performance related to the technical performance of dairy herds. The indicators addressed were derived from data collected routinely in the herd. They indicated technical performance that can be affected by the farmer...... or the consultant, and they were derived from expected cause-effect relations between technical performance and financial performance at the herd level. The study included the indicators shape of lactation curve, reproduction efficiency, heifer management, variation between cows in lactation curve persistency...... cow was analyzed as the measure of financial performance. The potential effects of the selected indicators on the gross margin were estimated by means of an ANOVA. The final model allowed estimation of the financial value of specific changes within the key performance indicators. This study indicated...

  13. mHealth Interventions in Low-Income Countries to Address Maternal Health: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaci, Daniela; Chaudhri, Simran; Vasan, Ashwin

    The wide availability and relative simplicity of mobile phones make them a promising instrument for delivering a variety of health-related interventions. Mobile health (mHealth) interventions have been tested in a variety of health delivery areas, but research has been restricted to pilot and small studies with limited generalizability. The aim of this review was to explore the current evidence on the use of mHealth for maternal health interventions in low- and low middle-income countries. Peer-reviewed papers were identified from Medline/PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library via a combination of search terms. Quantitative or mixed-methods papers published in the English language between January 2000 and July 2015 were included. Three hundred and seventy papers were found in the literature search. We assessed the full text of 57 studies, and included 19 in the review. Study designs included were 5 randomized controlled trials, 9 before and after comparisons, 1 study with endline assessment only, 3 postintervention assessments, and 1 cohort study. Quality assessment elucidated 9 low-quality, 5 moderate, and 5 high studies. Five studies supported the use of mobile phones for data collection, 3 for appointment reminders, and 4 for both appointment reminders and health promotion. Six studies supported the use of mHealth for provider-to-provider communication and 1 for clinical management. Studies demonstrated promise for the use of mHealth in maternal health; however, much of the evidence came from low- and moderate-quality studies. Pilot and small programs require more rigorous testing before allocating resources to scaling up this technology. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools framework: a Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Rebecca; Bonell, Christopher; Jones, Hayley; Pouliou, Theodora; Murphy, Simon; Waters, Elizabeth; Komro, Kelli; Gibbs, Lisa; Magnus, Daniel; Campbell, Rona

    2015-02-12

    Healthy children achieve better educational outcomes which, in turn, are associated with improved health later in life. The World Health Organization's Health Promoting Schools (HPS) framework is a holistic approach to promoting health and educational attainment in school. The effectiveness of this approach has not yet been rigorously reviewed. We searched 20 health, education and social science databases, and trials registries and relevant websites in 2011 and 2013. We included cluster randomised controlled trials. Participants were children and young people aged four to 18 years attending schools/colleges. HPS interventions had to include the following three elements: input into the curriculum; changes to the school's ethos or environment; and engagement with families and/or local communities. Two reviewers identified relevant trials, extracted data and assessed risk of bias. We grouped studies according to the health topic(s) targeted. Where data permitted, we performed random-effects meta-analyses. We identified 67 eligible trials tackling a range of health issues. Few studies included any academic/attendance outcomes. We found positive average intervention effects for: body mass index (BMI), physical activity, physical fitness, fruit and vegetable intake, tobacco use, and being bullied. Intervention effects were generally small. On average across studies, we found little evidence of effectiveness for zBMI (BMI, standardized for age and gender), and no evidence for fat intake, alcohol use, drug use, mental health, violence and bullying others. It was not possible to meta-analyse data on other health outcomes due to lack of data. Methodological limitations were identified including reliance on self-reported data, lack of long-term follow-up, and high attrition rates. This Cochrane review has found the WHO HPS framework is effective at improving some aspects of student health. The effects are small but potentially important at a population level.

  15. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. PURPOSE: To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. STUDY SELECTION: Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. DATA EXTRACTION: Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. DATA SYNTHESIS: Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. LIMITATIONS: While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. CONCLUSIONS: The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for

  16. Interventions to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kenneth; Hoti, Kreshnik; Hughes, Jeffery D; Emmerton, Lynne M

    2014-01-01

    Health information on the Internet is ubiquitous, and its use by health consumers prevalent. Finding and understanding relevant online health information, and determining content reliability, pose real challenges for many health consumers. To identify the types of interventions that have been implemented to assist health consumers to find reliable online health information, and where possible, describe and compare the types of outcomes studied. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and Cochrane Library databases; WorldCat and Scirus 'gray literature' search engines; and manual review of reference lists of selected publications. Publications were selected by firstly screening title, abstract, and then full text. Seven publications met the inclusion criteria, and were summarized in a data extraction form. The form incorporated the PICOS (Population Intervention Comparators Outcomes and Study Design) Model. Two eligible gray literature papers were also reported. Relevant data from included studies were tabulated to enable descriptive comparison. A brief critique of each study was included in the tables. This review was unable to follow systematic review methods due to the paucity of research and humanistic interventions reported. While extensive, the gray literature search may have had limited reach in some countries. The paucity of research on this topic limits conclusions that may be drawn. The few eligible studies predominantly adopted a didactic approach to assisting health consumers, whereby consumers were either taught how to find credible websites, or how to use the Internet. Common types of outcomes studied include knowledge and skills pertaining to Internet use and searching for reliable health information. These outcomes were predominantly self-assessed by participants. There is potential for further research to explore other avenues for assisting health consumers to find reliable online health information, and to assess outcomes via objective measures.

  17. mHealth Interventions for Health System Strengthening in China: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Maoyi; Zhang, Jing; Luo, Rong; Chen, Shi; Petrovic, Djordje; Redfern, Julie; Xu, Dong Roman; Patel, Anushka

    2017-03-16

    With rapidly expanding infrastructure in China, mobile technology has been deemed to have the potential to revolutionize health care delivery. There is particular promise for mobile health (mHealth) to positively influence health system reform and confront the new challenges of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to systematically review existing mHealth initiatives in China, characterize them, and examine the extent to which mHealth contributes toward the health system strengthening in China. Furthermore, we also aimed to identify gaps in mHealth development and evaluation. We systematically reviewed the literature from English and Chinese electronic database and trial registries, including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, China National Knowledge of Infrastructure (CNKI), and World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We used the English keywords of mHealth, eHealth, telemedicine, telehealth, mobile phone, cell phone, text messaging, and China, as well as their corresponding Chinese keywords. All articles using mobile technology for health care management were included in the study. A total of 1704 articles were found using the search terms, and eventually 72 were included. Overall, few high quality interventions were identified. Most interventions were found to be insufficient in scope, and their evaluation was of inadequate rigor to generate scalable solutions and provide reliable evidence of effectiveness. Most interventions focused on text messaging for consumer education and behavior change. There were a limited number of interventions that addressed health information management, health workforce issues, use of medicines and technologies, or leadership and governance from a health system perspective. We provide four recommendations for future mHealth interventions in China that include the need for the development, evaluation and trials examining integrated mHealth interventions to guide the development of future mHealth

  18. Primary health care research in Bolivia: systematic review and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Francisco N; Leys, Mart; Mérida, Hugo E Rivera; Guzmán, Giovanni Escalante

    2016-02-01

    Bolivia is currently undergoing a series of healthcare reforms centred around the Unified Family, Community and Intercultural Health System (SAFCI), established in 2008 and Law 475 for Provision of Comprehensive Health Services enacted in 2014 as a first step towards universal health coverage. The SAFCI model aims to establish an intercultural, intersectoral and integrated primary health care (PHC) system, but there has not been a comprehensive analysis of effective strategies towards such an end. In this systematic review, we analyse research into developing PHC in Bolivia utilizing MEDLINE, the Virtual Health Library and grey literature from Pan American Health Organization/World Health Organization's internal