WorldWideScience

Sample records for review series sphingolipids

  1. Critical Role of the Sphingolipid Pathway in Stroke: a Review of Current Utility and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Na; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya; Xi, Guohua

    2016-10-01

    Sphingolipids are a series of cell membrane-derived lipids which act as signaling molecules and play a critical role in cell death and survival, proliferation, recognition, and migration. Sphingosine-1-phosphate acts as a key signaling molecule and regulates lymphocyte trafficking, glial cell activation, vasoconstriction, endothelial barrier function, and neuronal death pathways which plays a critical role in numerous neurological conditions. Stroke is a second leading cause of death all over the world and effective therapies are still in great demand, including ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke as well as poststroke repair. Significantly, sphingolipid activities change after stroke and correlate with stroke outcome, which has promoted efforts to testify whether the sphingolipid pathway could be a novel therapeutic target in stroke. The sphingolipid metabolic pathway, the connection between the pathway and stroke, as well as therapeutic interventions to manipulate the pathway to reduce stroke-induced brain injury are discussed in this review.

  2. Sphingolipid trafficking - Sorted out?

    OpenAIRE

    van Meer, G.; Burger, K.N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of intracellular membrane traffic have traditionally focused on the protein components of membranes, but what about lipids? Recent findings have drawn attention to the transport of one type of lipid, the sphingolipids. Their unique physical properties may allow them to aggregate into microdomains in membranes that concentrate sphingolipids into specific transport pathways. Gerrit van Meer and Koert Burger consider here the routes of sphingolipid biosynthesis and transport, and the rol...

  3. Plant sphingolipids: decoding the enigma of the Sphinx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pata, Mickael O; Hannun, Yusuf A; Ng, Carl K-Y

    2010-02-01

    Sphingolipids are a ubiquitous class of lipids present in a variety of organisms including eukaryotes and bacteria. In the last two decades, research has focused on characterizing the individual species of this complex family of lipids, which has led to a new field of research called 'sphingolipidomics'. There are at least 500 (and perhaps thousands of) different molecular species of sphingolipids in cells, and in Arabidopsis alone it has been reported that there are at least 168 different sphingolipids. Plant sphingolipids can be divided into four classes: glycosyl inositol phosphoceramides (GIPCs), glycosylceramides, ceramides, and free long-chain bases (LCBs). Numerous enzymes involved in plant sphingolipid metabolism have now been cloned and characterized, and, in general, there is broad conservation in the way in which sphingolipids are metabolized in animals, yeast and plants. Here, we review the diversity of sphingolipids reported in the literature, some of the recent advances in our understanding of sphingolipid metabolism in plants, and the physiological roles that sphingolipids and sphingolipid metabolites play in plant physiology.

  4. Nitric oxide-sphingolipid interplays in plant signalling: a new enigma from the Sphinx?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle eGuillas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO emerged as one of the major signalling molecules operating during plant development and plant responses to its environment. Beyond the identification of the direct molecular targets of NO, a series of studies considered its interplay with other actors of signal transduction and the integration of nitric oxide into complex signalling networks. Beside the close relationships between NO and calcium or phosphatidic acid signalling pathways that are now well-established, recent reports paved the way for interplays between NO and sphingolipids. This mini-review summarises our current knowledge of the influence NO and sphingolipids might exert on each other in plant physiology. Based on comparisons with examples from the animal field, it further indicates that, although sphingolipid-NO interplays are common features in signalling networks of eukaryotic cells, the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets significantly differ.

  5. Taming the sphinx: Mechanisms of cellular sphingolipid homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D K; Fröhlich, F; Farese, R V; Walther, T C

    2016-08-01

    Sphingolipids are important structural membrane components of eukaryotic cells, and potent signaling molecules. As such, their levels must be maintained to optimize cellular functions in different cellular membranes. Here, we review the current knowledge of homeostatic sphingolipid regulation. We describe recent studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have provided insights into how cells sense changes in sphingolipid levels in the plasma membrane and acutely regulate sphingolipid biosynthesis by altering signaling pathways. We also discuss how cellular trafficking has emerged as an important determinant of sphingolipid homeostasis. Finally, we highlight areas where work is still needed to elucidate the mechanisms of sphingolipid regulation and the physiological functions of such regulatory networks, especially in mammalian cells. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The cellular lipid landscape edited by Tim P. Levine and Anant K. Menon. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Sphingolipid biosynthesis in man and microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Peter J; Dunn, Teresa M; Campopiano, Dominic J

    2018-06-04

    A new review covering up to 2018Sphingolipids are essential molecules that, despite their long history, are still stimulating interest today. The reasons for this are that, as well as playing structural roles within cell membranes, they have also been shown to perform a myriad of cell signalling functions vital to the correct function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Indeed, sphingolipid disregulation that alters the tightly-controlled balance of these key lipids has been closely linked to a number of diseases such as diabetes, asthma and various neuropathologies. Sphingolipid biogenesis, metabolism and regulation is mediated by a large number of enzymes, proteins and second messengers. There appears to be a core pathway common to all sphingolipid-producing organisms but recent studies have begun to dissect out important, species-specific differences. Many of these have only recently been discovered and in most cases the molecular and biochemical details are only beginning to emerge. Where there is a direct link from classic biochemistry to clinical symptoms, a number a drug companies have undertaken a medicinal chemistry campaign to try to deliver a therapeutic intervention to alleviate a number of diseases. Where appropriate, we highlight targets where natural products have been exploited as useful tools. Taking all these aspects into account this review covers the structural, mechanistic and regulatory features of sphingolipid biosynthetic and metabolic enzymes.

  7. Sphingolipids in macroautophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieu, Grégory; Scarlatti, Francesca; Sala, Giusy; Carpentier, Stéphane; Levade, Thierry; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Botti, Joëlle; Codogno, Patrice

    2008-01-01

    Sphingolipids are constituents of biological membranes. Ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) also act as second messengers and are part of a rheostat system, in which ceramide promotes cell death and growth arrest, and S1P induces proliferation and maintains cell survival. As macroautophagy is a lysosomal catabolic mechanism involved in determining the duration of the lifetime of cells, we raised the question of its regulation by sphingolipid messengers. Using chemical and genetic methods, we have shown by GFP-LC3 staining and analysis of the degradation of long-lived proteins that both ceramide and S1P stimulate autophagy.

  8. Sphingolipid trafficking - Sorted out?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.; Burger, K.N.J.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of intracellular membrane traffic have traditionally focused on the protein components of membranes, but what about lipids? Recent findings have drawn attention to the transport of one type of lipid, the sphingolipids. Their unique physical properties may allow them to aggregate into

  9. Sphingolipid metabolism diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas; Sandhoff, Konrad

    2006-12-01

    Human diseases caused by alterations in the metabolism of sphingolipids or glycosphingolipids are mainly disorders of the degradation of these compounds. The sphingolipidoses are a group of monogenic inherited diseases caused by defects in the system of lysosomal sphingolipid degradation, with subsequent accumulation of non-degradable storage material in one or more organs. Most sphingolipidoses are associated with high mortality. Both, the ratio of substrate influx into the lysosomes and the reduced degradative capacity can be addressed by therapeutic approaches. In addition to symptomatic treatments, the current strategies for restoration of the reduced substrate degradation within the lysosome are enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), cell-mediated therapy (CMT) including bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and cell-mediated "cross correction", gene therapy, and enzyme-enhancement therapy with chemical chaperones. The reduction of substrate influx into the lysosomes can be achieved by substrate reduction therapy. Patients suffering from the attenuated form (type 1) of Gaucher disease and from Fabry disease have been successfully treated with ERT.

  10. Orm family proteins mediate sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breslow, David K; Collins, Sean R; Bodenmiller, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    a conserved complex with serine palmitoyltransferase, the first and rate-limiting enzyme in sphingolipid production. We also define a regulatory pathway in which phosphorylation of Orm proteins relieves their inhibitory activity when sphingolipid production is disrupted. Changes in ORM gene expression...... or mutations to their phosphorylation sites cause dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolism. Our work identifies the Orm proteins as critical mediators of sphingolipid homeostasis and raises the possibility that sphingolipid misregulation contributes to the development of childhood asthma....

  11. Autophagy in the light of sphingolipid metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harvald, Eva Bang; Olsen, Anne Sofie Braun; Færgeman, Nils J.

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of cellular homeostasis requires tight and coordinated control of numerous metabolic pathways, which are governed by interconnected networks of signaling pathways and energy-sensing regulators. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradation pathway by which the cell self-digests its own components......, has over the past decade been recognized as an essential part of metabolism. Autophagy not only rids the cell of excessive or damaged organelles, misfolded proteins, and invading microorganisms, it also provides nutrients to maintain crucial cellular functions. Besides serving as essential structural...... moieties of biomembranes, lipids including sphingolipids are increasingly being recognized as central regulators of a number of important cellular processes, including autophagy. In the present review we describe how sphingolipids, with special emphasis on ceramides and sphingosine-1-phosphate, can act...

  12. The Role of Sphingolipids on Innate Immunity to Intestinal Salmonella Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fu-Chen

    2017-08-07

    Salmonella spp. remains a major public health problem for the whole world. To reduce the use of antimicrobial agents and drug-resistant Salmonella , a better strategy is to explore alternative therapy rather than to discover another antibiotic. Sphingolipid- and cholesterol-enriched lipid microdomains attract signaling proteins and orchestrate them toward cell signaling and membrane trafficking pathways. Recent studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity against infecting pathogens. It is therefore mandatory to exploit the role of the membrane sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia infected by this pathogen. In the present review, we focus on the role of sphingolipids in the innate immunity of intestinal epithelia against Salmonella infection, including adhesion, autophagy, bactericidal effect, barrier function, membrane trafficking, cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression. The intervention of sphingolipid-enhanced foods to make our life healthy or pharmacological agents regulating sphingolipids is provided at the end.

  13. Genetic determinants of circulating sphingolipid concentrations in European populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A Hicks

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids have essential roles as structural components of cell membranes and in cell signalling, and disruption of their metabolism causes several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. Increasingly, variants within a few of the genes that encode enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism are being associated with complex disease phenotypes. Direct experimental evidence supports a role of specific sphingolipid species in several common complex chronic disease processes including atherosclerotic plaque formation, myocardial infarction (MI, cardiomyopathy, pancreatic beta-cell failure, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Therefore, sphingolipids represent novel and important intermediate phenotypes for genetic analysis, yet little is known about the major genetic variants that influence their circulating levels in the general population. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS between 318,237 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and levels of circulating sphingomyelin (SM, dihydrosphingomyelin (Dih-SM, ceramide (Cer, and glucosylceramide (GluCer single lipid species (33 traits; and 43 matched metabolite ratios measured in 4,400 subjects from five diverse European populations. Associated variants (32 in five genomic regions were identified with genome-wide significant corrected p-values ranging down to 9.08x10(-66. The strongest associations were observed in or near 7 genes functionally involved in ceramide biosynthesis and trafficking: SPTLC3, LASS4, SGPP1, ATP10D, and FADS1-3. Variants in 3 loci (ATP10D, FADS3, and SPTLC3 associate with MI in a series of three German MI studies. An additional 70 variants across 23 candidate genes involved in sphingolipid-metabolizing pathways also demonstrate association (p = 10(-4 or less. Circulating concentrations of several key components in sphingolipid metabolism are thus under strong genetic control, and variants in these loci can be

  14. Neuronal sphingolipidoses: Membrane lipids and sphingolipid activator proteins regulate lysosomal sphingolipid catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhoff, Konrad

    2016-11-01

    Glycosphingolipids and sphingolipids of cellular plasma membranes (PMs) reach luminal intra-lysosomal vesicles (LVs) for degradation mainly by pathways of endocytosis. After a sorting and maturation process (e.g. degradation of sphingomyelin (SM) and secretion of cholesterol), sphingolipids of the LVs are digested by soluble enzymes with the help of activator (lipid binding and transfer) proteins. Inherited defects of lipid-cleaving enzymes and lipid binding and transfer proteins cause manifold and fatal, often neurodegenerative diseases. The review summarizes recent findings on the regulation of sphingolipid catabolism and cholesterol secretion from the endosomal compartment by lipid modifiers, an essential stimulation by anionic membrane lipids and an inhibition of crucial steps by cholesterol and SM. Reconstitution experiments in the presence of all proteins needed, hydrolase and activator proteins, reveal an up to 10-fold increase of ganglioside catabolism just by the incorporation of anionic lipids into the ganglioside carrying membranes, whereas an additional incorporation of cholesterol inhibits GM2 catabolism substantially. It is suggested that lipid and other low molecular modifiers affect the genotype-phenotype relationship observed in patients with lysosomal diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  15. Sphingolipid Organization in the Plasma Membrane and the Mechanisms That Influence It.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Sphingolipids are structural components in the plasma membranes of eukaryotic cells. Their metabolism produces bioactive signaling molecules that modulate fundamental cellular processes. The segregation of sphingolipids into distinct membrane domains is likely essential for cellular function. This review presents the early studies of sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membranes of mammalian cells that shaped the most popular current model of plasma membrane organization. The results of traditional imaging studies of sphingolipid distribution in stimulated and resting cells are described. These data are compared with recent results obtained with advanced imaging techniques, including super-resolution fluorescence detection and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). Emphasis is placed on the new insight into the sphingolipid organization within the plasma membrane that has resulted from the direct imaging of stable isotope-labeled lipids in actual cell membranes with high-resolution SIMS. Super-resolution fluorescence techniques have recently revealed the biophysical behaviors of sphingolipids and the unhindered diffusion of cholesterol analogs in the membranes of living cells are ultimately in contrast to the prevailing hypothetical model of plasma membrane organization. High-resolution SIMS studies also conflicted with the prevailing hypothesis, showing sphingolipids are concentrated in micrometer-scale membrane domains, but cholesterol is evenly distributed within the plasma membrane. Reductions in cellular cholesterol decreased the number of sphingolipid domains in the plasma membrane, whereas disruption of the cytoskeleton eliminated them. In addition, hemagglutinin, a transmembrane protein that is thought to be a putative raft marker, did not cluster within sphingolipid-enriched regions in the plasma membrane. Thus, sphingolipid distribution in the plasma membrane is dependent on the cytoskeleton, but not on favorable interactions with

  16. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

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    Seyedjamal Zolhavarieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  17. A review of subsequence time series clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolhavarieh, Seyedjamal; Aghabozorgi, Saeed; Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies.

  18. A Review of Subsequence Time Series Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Ying Wah

    2014-01-01

    Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332

  19. A view on sphingolipids and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolter, Thomas

    2011-09-01

    Sphingolipid and glycosphingolipid levels and expression of sphingolipid metabolizing enzymes are altered in a variety of diseases or in response to drug treatment. Inherited defects of enzymes and other proteins required for the lysosomal degradation of these lipids lead to human sphingolipidoses. Also genetic defects that affect sphingolipid biosynthesis are known. Although the molecular details are often far from clear, (glyco)sphingolipids have been implicated to play a role in atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, cancer, and infections by pathogens. More general aspects of selected diseases are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Sphingolipids and plant defense/disease: the "death" connection and beyond

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    Robert eBerkey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids comprise a major class of structural materials and lipid signaling molecules in all eukaryotic cells. Over the past two decades, there has been a phenomenal growth in the study of sphingolipids (i.e. sphingobiology at an average rate of >1000 research articles per year. Sphingolipid studies in plants, though accounting for only a small fraction (~6% of the total number of publications, have also enjoyed proportionally rapid growth in the past decade. Concomitant with the growth of sphingobiology, there has also been tremendous progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of plant innate immunity. In this review, we (i cross examine and analyze the major findings that establish and strengthen the intimate connections between sphingolipid metabolism and plant programmed cell death (PCD associated with plant defense or disease; (ii highlight and compare key bioactive sphingolipids involved in the regulation of plant PCD and possibly defense; (iii discuss the potential role of sphingolipids in polarized membrane/protein trafficking and formation of lipid rafts as subdomains of cell membranes in relation to plant defense; and (iv where possible, attempt to identify potential parallels for immunity-related mechanisms involving sphingolipids across kingdoms.

  1. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

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    Simon A. Young

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions.

  2. Sphingolipid and Ceramide Homeostasis: Potential Therapeutic Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Simon A.; Mina, John G.; Denny, Paul W.; Smith, Terry K.

    2012-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous in eukaryotic cells where they have been attributed a plethora of functions from the formation of structural domains to polarized cellular trafficking and signal transduction. Recent research has identified and characterised many of the key enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism and this has led to a heightened interest in the possibility of targeting these processes for therapies against cancers, Alzheimer's disease, and numerous important human pathogens. In this paper we outline the major pathways in eukaryotic sphingolipid metabolism and discuss these in relation to disease and therapy for both chronic and infectious conditions. PMID:22400113

  3. Nitric oxide-sphingolipid interplays in plant signalling: a new enigma from the Sphinx?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillas, Isabelle; Puyaubert, Juliette; Baudouin, Emmanuel

    2013-09-12

    Nitric oxide (NO) emerged as one of the major signaling molecules operating during plant development and plant responses to its environment. Beyond the identification of the direct molecular targets of NO, a series of studies considered its interplay with other actors of signal transduction and the integration of NO into complex signaling networks. Beside the close relationships between NO and calcium or phosphatidic acid signaling pathways that are now well-established, recent reports paved the way for interplays between NO and sphingolipids (SLs). This mini-review summarizes our current knowledge of the influence NO and SLs might exert on each other in plant physiology. Based on comparisons with examples from the animal field, it further indicates that, although SL-NO interplays are common features in signaling networks of eukaryotic cells, the underlying mechanisms and molecular targets significantly differ.

  4. Everybody needs sphingolipids, right! Mining for new drug targets in protozoan sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G M; Denny, P W

    2018-02-01

    Sphingolipids (SLs) are an integral part of all eukaryotic cellular membranes. In addition, they have indispensable functions as signalling molecules controlling a myriad of cellular events. Disruption of either the de novo synthesis or the degradation pathways has been shown to have detrimental effects. The earlier identification of selective inhibitors of fungal SL biosynthesis promised potent broad-spectrum anti-fungal agents, which later encouraged testing some of those agents against protozoan parasites. In this review we focus on the key enzymes of the SL de novo biosynthetic pathway in protozoan parasites of the Apicomplexa and Kinetoplastidae, outlining the divergence and interconnection between host and pathogen metabolism. The druggability of the SL biosynthesis is considered, alongside recent technology advances that will enable the dissection and analyses of this pathway in the parasitic protozoa. The future impact of these advances for the development of new therapeutics for both globally threatening and neglected infectious diseases is potentially profound.

  5. Making Sense of the Yeast Sphingolipid Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megyeri, Márton; Riezman, Howard; Schuldiner, Maya; Futerman, Anthony H

    2016-12-04

    Sphingolipids (SL) and their metabolites play key roles both as structural components of membranes and as signaling molecules. Many of the key enzymes and regulators of SL metabolism were discovered using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and based on the high degree of conservation, a number of mammalian homologs were identified. Although yeast continues to be an important tool for SL research, the complexity of SL structure and nomenclature often hampers the ability of new researchers to grasp the subtleties of yeast SL biology and discover new modulators of this intricate pathway. Moreover, the emergence of lipidomics by mass spectrometry has enabled the rapid identification of SL species in yeast and rendered the analysis of SL composition under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions readily amenable. However, the complex nomenclature of the identified species renders much of the data inaccessible to non-specialists. In this review, we focus on parsing both the classical SL nomenclature and the nomenclature normally used during mass spectrometry analysis, which should facilitate the understanding of yeast SL data and might shed light on biological processes in which SLs are involved. Finally, we discuss a number of putative roles of various yeast SL species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Membrane domains and polarized trafficking of sphingolipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maier, O; Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    The plasma membrane of polarized cells consists of distinct domains, the apical and basolateral membrane that are characterized by a distinct lipid and protein content. Apical protein transport is largely mediated by (glyco)sphingolipid-cholesterol enriched membrane microdomains, so called rafts. In

  7. Altered Leukocyte Sphingolipid Pathway in Breast Cancer

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    Larissa P. Maia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipid metabolism pathway is essential in membrane homeostasis, and its dysfunction has been associated with favorable tumor microenvironment, disease progression, and chemotherapy resistance. Its major components have key functions on survival and proliferation, with opposing effects. We have profiled the components of the sphingolipid pathway on leukocytes of breast cancer (BC patients undergoing chemotherapy treatment and without, including the five sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P receptors, the major functional genes, and cytokines, in order to better understand the S1P signaling in the immune cells of these patients. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first characterization of the sphingolipid pathway in whole blood of BC patients. Skewed gene profiles favoring high SPHK1 expression toward S1P production during BC development was observed, which was reversed by chemotherapy treatment, and reached similar levels to those found in healthy donors. Such levels were also correlated with high levels of TNF-α. Our data revealed an important role of the sphingolipid pathway in immune cells in BC with skewed signaling of S1P receptors, which favored cancer development even under chemotherapy, and may probably be a trigger of cancer resistance. Thus, these molecules must be considered as a target pathway for combined BC therapeutics.

  8. Ortner's syndrome: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vijayalakshmi; Herle, Adarsha; Mohammed, Navisha; Thahir, Muhammad

    2011-01-01

    More than a century ago, Ortner described a case of cardiovocal syndrome wherein he attributed a case of left vocal fold immobility to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve by a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis. Since then, the term Ortner's syndrome has come to encompass any nonmalignant, cardiac, intrathoracic process that results in embarrassment of either recurrent laryngeal nerve-usually by stretching, pulling, or compression; and causes vocal fold paralysis. Not surprisingly, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, with its longer course around the aortic arch, is more frequently involved than the right nerve, which passes around the subclavian artery. To discuss the pathogenesis of hoarseness resulting from cardiovascular disorders involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve along with the findings of literature review. This paper reports a series of four cases of Ortner's syndrome occurring due to different causes. Case study. Ortner's syndrome could be a cause of hoarseness of voice in patients with cardiovascular diseases. Although hoarseness of voice is frequently encountered in the Otolaryngology outpatient department, cardiovascular- related hoarseness is an unusual presentation. Indirect laryngoscopy should be routinely performed in all cases of heart disease.

  9. The role of sphingolipids in neuronal plasticity of the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnino, Sandro; Prinetti, Alessandro

    2016-05-01

    This Editorial highlights a study by Müller et al. in which the authors suggest a new sphingolipid-dependent mechanism for behavioral extinction. Their study should be considered in the broad perspective of sphingolipid metabolic pathways and traffic (depicted in the graphic). Read the highlighted article 'A sphingolipid mechanism for behavioral extinction' on page 589. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  10. Sphingolipids and Lipoproteins in Health and Metabolic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Walsh, Meghan T; Hammad, Samar M; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2017-07-01

    Sphingolipids are structurally and functionally diverse molecules with significant physiologic functions and are found associated with cellular membranes and plasma lipoproteins. The cellular and plasma concentrations of sphingolipids are altered in several metabolic disorders and may serve as prognostic and diagnostic markers. Here we discuss various sphingolipid transport mechanisms and highlight how changes in cellular and plasma sphingolipid levels contribute to cardiovascular disease, obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Understanding of the mechanisms involved in intracellular transport, secretion, and extracellular transport may provide novel information that might be amenable to therapeutic targeting for the treatment of various metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Polarized sphingolipid transport from the subapical compartment : Evidence for distinct sphingolipid domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    1999-01-01

    In polarized HepG2 cells, the sphingolipids glucosylceramide and sphingomyelin (SM), transported along the reverse transcytotic pathway, are sorted in subapical compartments (SACs), and subsequently targeted to either apical or basolateral plasma membrane domains, respectively. In the present study,

  12. Adult intussusception: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Shenoy, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    AIM To identify factors differentiating pathologic adult intussusception (AI) from benign causes and the need for an operative intervention. Current evidence available from the literature is discussed. METHODS This is a case series of eleven patients over the age of 18 and a surgical consultation for ?Intussusception? at a single veteran?s hospital over a five-year period (2011-2016). AI was diagnosed on computed tomography (CT) scan and or flexible endoscopy (colonoscopy). Surgical referrals...

  13. Abnormal islet sphingolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Laurits J; Krogvold, Lars; Hasselby, Jane P

    2018-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis....... Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we...... diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1...

  14. Translational Aspects of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Renal Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Abou Daher

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids, long thought to be passive components of biological membranes with merely a structural role, have proved throughout the past decade to be major players in the pathogenesis of many human diseases. The study and characterization of several genetic disorders like Fabry’s and Tay Sachs, where sphingolipid metabolism is disrupted, leading to a systemic array of clinical symptoms, have indeed helped elucidate and appreciate the importance of sphingolipids and their metabolites as active signaling molecules. In addition to being involved in dynamic cellular processes like apoptosis, senescence and differentiation, sphingolipids are implicated in critical physiological functions such as immune responses and pathophysiological conditions like inflammation and insulin resistance. Interestingly, the kidneys are among the most sensitive organ systems to sphingolipid alterations, rendering these molecules and the enzymes involved in their metabolism, promising therapeutic targets for numerous nephropathic complications that stand behind podocyte injury and renal failure.

  15. Macrophage sphingolipids are essential for the entry of mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Gopinath; Jafurulla, Md; Kumar, G Aditya; Raghunand, Tirumalai R; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2018-07-01

    Mycobacteria are intracellular pathogens that can invade and survive within host macrophages. Mycobacterial infections remain a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, with serious concerns of emergence of multi and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. While significant advances have been made in identifying mycobacterial virulence determinants, the detailed molecular mechanism of internalization of mycobacteria into host cells remains poorly understood. Although several studies have highlighted the crucial role of sphingolipids in mycobacterial growth, persistence and establishment of infection, the role of sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria into host cells is not known. In this work, we explored the role of host membrane sphingolipids in the entry of Mycobacterium smegmatis into J774A.1 macrophages. Our results show that metabolic depletion of sphingolipids in host macrophages results in a significant reduction in the entry of M. smegmatis. Importantly, the entry of Escherichia coli into host macrophages under similar conditions remained invariant, implying the specificity of the requirement of sphingolipids in mycobacterial entry. To the best of our knowledge, our results constitute the first report demonstrating the role of host macrophage sphingolipids in the entry of mycobacteria. Our results could help in the development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting sphingolipid-mediated entry of mycobacteria into host cells. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The GARP complex is required for cellular sphingolipid homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fröhlich, Florian; Petit, Constance; Kory, Nora

    2015-01-01

    (GARP) complex, which functions in endosome-to-Golgi retrograde vesicular transport, as a critical player in sphingolipid homeostasis. GARP deficiency leads to accumulation of sphingolipid synthesis intermediates, changes in sterol distribution, and lysosomal dysfunction. A GARP complex mutation...... analogous to a VPS53 allele causing progressive cerebello-cerebral atrophy type 2 (PCCA2) in humans exhibits similar, albeit weaker, phenotypes in yeast, providing mechanistic insights into disease pathogenesis. Inhibition of the first step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis is sufficient to mitigate many...

  17. Cholesterol, sphingolipids, and glycolipids: What do we know about their role in raft-like membranes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rog, T.; Vattulainen, I.

    2014-01-01

    Lipids rafts are considered to be functional nanoscale membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, characteristic in particular of the external leaflet of cell membranes. Lipids, together with membrane-associated proteins, are therefore considered to form nanoscale units with pote......Lipids rafts are considered to be functional nanoscale membrane domains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids, characteristic in particular of the external leaflet of cell membranes. Lipids, together with membrane-associated proteins, are therefore considered to form nanoscale units...... with potential specific functions. Although the understanding of the structure of rafts in living cells is quite limited, the possible functions of rafts are widely discussed in the literature, highlighting their importance in cellular functions. In this review, we discuss the understanding of rafts that has...... emerged based on recent atomistic and coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation studies on the key lipid raft components, which include cholesterol, sphingolipids, glycolipids, and the proteins interacting with these classes of lipids. The simulation results are compared to experiments when possible...

  18. Abnormal islet sphingolipid metabolism in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Laurits J; Krogvold, Lars; Hasselby, Jane P; Kaur, Simranjeet; Claessens, Laura A; Russell, Mark A; Mathews, Clayton E; Hanssen, Kristian F; Morgan, Noel G; Koeleman, Bobby P C; Roep, Bart O; Gerling, Ivan C; Pociot, Flemming; Dahl-Jørgensen, Knut; Buschard, Karsten

    2018-04-18

    Sphingolipids play important roles in beta cell physiology, by regulating proinsulin folding and insulin secretion and in controlling apoptosis, as studied in animal models and cell cultures. Here we investigate whether sphingolipid metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of human type 1 diabetes and whether increasing the levels of the sphingolipid sulfatide would prevent models of diabetes in NOD mice. We examined the amount and distribution of sulfatide in human pancreatic islets by immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and electron microscopy. Transcriptional analysis was used to evaluate expression of sphingolipid-related genes in isolated human islets. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and a T cell proliferation assay were used to identify type 1 diabetes related polymorphisms and test how these affect cellular islet autoimmunity. Finally, we treated NOD mice with fenofibrate, a known activator of sulfatide biosynthesis, to evaluate the effect on experimental autoimmune diabetes development. We found reduced amounts of sulfatide, 23% of the levels in control participants, in pancreatic islets of individuals with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes, which were associated with reduced expression of enzymes involved in sphingolipid metabolism. Next, we discovered eight gene polymorphisms (ORMDL3, SPHK2, B4GALNT1, SLC1A5, GALC, PPARD, PPARG and B4GALT1) involved in sphingolipid metabolism that contribute to the genetic predisposition to type 1 diabetes. These gene polymorphisms correlated with the degree of cellular islet autoimmunity in a cohort of individuals with type 1 diabetes. Finally, using fenofibrate, which activates sulfatide biosynthesis, we completely prevented diabetes in NOD mice and even reversed the disease in half of otherwise diabetic animals. These results indicate that islet sphingolipid metabolism is abnormal in type 1 diabetes and suggest that modulation may represent a novel therapeutic approach. The RNA expression data is

  19. Disruption of Sphingolipid Biosynthesis Blocks Phagocytosis of Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fikadu G Tafesse

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability of phagocytes to clear pathogens is an essential attribute of the innate immune response. The role of signaling lipid molecules such as phosphoinositides is well established, but the role of membrane sphingolipids in phagocytosis is largely unknown. Using a genetic approach and small molecule inhibitors, we show that phagocytosis of Candida albicans requires an intact sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway. Blockade of serine-palmitoyltransferase (SPT and ceramide synthase-enzymes involved in sphingolipid biosynthesis- by myriocin and fumonisin B1, respectively, impaired phagocytosis by phagocytes. We used CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing to generate Sptlc2-deficient DC2.4 dendritic cells, which lack serine palmitoyl transferase activity. Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells exhibited a stark defect in phagocytosis, were unable to bind fungal particles and failed to form a normal phagocytic cup to engulf C. albicans. Supplementing the growth media with GM1, the major ganglioside present at the cell surface, restored phagocytic activity of Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells. While overall membrane trafficking and endocytic pathways remained functional, Sptlc2-/- DC2.4 cells express reduced levels of the pattern recognition receptors Dectin-1 and TLR2 at the cell surface. Consistent with the in vitro data, compromised sphingolipid biosynthesis in mice sensitizes the animal to C. albicans infection. Sphingolipid biosynthesis is therefore critical for phagocytosis and in vivo clearance of C. albicans.

  20. Maxillary double lip: A case series with review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vela D Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Double lip is a rare dental anomaly affecting either upper or lower lip or concurrently. It may be congenital or acquired. This deformity can affect the facial esthetics as it gets exaggerated while speaking, smiling, or chewing food. When it interferes with speech, double lip may cause potential functional problems. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on double lip and present a case series of maxillary double lip.

  1. Tumor PDT-associated immune response: relevance of sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Merchant, Soroush; Separovic, Duska M.

    2010-02-01

    Sphingolipids have become recognized as essential effector molecules in signal transduction with involvement in various aspects of cell function and death, immune response and cancer treatment response. Major representatives of sphingolipids family, ceramide, sphingosine and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have attracted interest in their relevance to tumor response to photodynamic therapy (PDT) because of their roles as enhancers of apoptosis, mediators of cell growth and vasculogenesis, and regulators of immune response. Our recent in vivo studies with mouse tumor models have confirmed that PDT treatment has a pronounced impact on sphingolipid profile in the targeted tumor and that significant advances in therapeutic gain with PDT can be attained by combining this modality with adjuvant treatment with ceramide analog LCL29.

  2. Adult Craniopharyngioma: Case Series, Systematic Review, and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandurand, Charlotte; Sepehry, Amir Ali; Asadi Lari, Mohammad Hossein; Akagami, Ryojo; Gooderham, Peter

    2017-12-18

    The optimal therapeutic approach for adult craniopharyngioma remains controversial. Some advocate for gross total resection (GTR), while others advocate for subtotal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (STR + XRT). To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis assessing the rate of recurrence in the follow-up of 3 yr in adult craniopharyngioma stratified by extent of resection and presence of adjuvant radiotherapy. MEDLINE (1946-July 1, 2016) and EMBASE (1980-June 30, 2016) were systematically reviewed. From1975 to 2013, 33 patients were treated with initial surgical resection for adult onset craniopharyngioma at our center and were reviewed for inclusion in this study. Data from 22 patients were available for inclusion as a case series in the systematic review. Eligible studies (n = 21) were identified from the literature in addition to a case series of our institutional experience. Three groups were available for analysis: GTR, STR + XRT, and STR. The rates of recurrence were 17%, 27%, and 45%, respectively. The risk of developing recurrence was significant for GTR vs STR (odds ratio [OR]: 0.24, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.15-0.38) and STR + XRT vs STR (OR: 0.20, 95% CI: 0.10-0.41). Risk of recurrence after GTR vs STR + XRT did not reach significance (OR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.33-1.24, P = .18). This is the first and largest systematic review focusing on the rate of recurrence in adult craniopharyngioma. Although the rates of recurrence are favoring GTR, difference in risk of recurrence did not reach significance. This study provides guidance to clinicians and directions for future research with the need to stratify outcomes per treatment modalities. Copyright © 2017 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  3. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-01-01

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  4. Two new sphingolipids from the leaves of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-09-12

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  5. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  6. Sphingolipid trafficking and protein sorting in epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slimane, TA; Hoekstra, D

    2002-01-01

    Sphingolipids represent a minor, but highly dynamic subclass of lipids in all eukaryotic cells. They are involved in functions that range from structural protection to signal transduction and protein sorting, and participate in lipid raft assembly. In polarized epithelial cells, which display an

  7. Preanalytical Biases in the Measurement of Human Blood Sphingolipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Brunkhorst

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Dysregulation of blood sphingolipids is an emerging topic in clinical science. The objective of this study was to determine preanalytical biases that typically occur in clinical and translational studies and that influence measured blood sphingolipid levels. Therefore, we collected blood samples from four healthy male volunteers to investigate the effect of storage conditions (time, temperature, long-term storage, freeze–thaw cycles, blood drawing (venous or arterial sampling, prolonged venous compression, and sample preparation (centrifugation, freezing on sphingolipid levels measured by LC-MS/MS. Our data show that sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P and sphinganine 1-phosphate (SA1P were upregulated in whole blood samples in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Increased centrifugation at higher speeds led to lower amounts of S1P and SA1P. All other preanalytical biases did not significantly alter the amounts of S1P and SA1P. Further, in almost all settings, we did not detect differences in (dihydroceramide levels. In summary, besides time-, temperature-, and centrifugation-dependent changes in S1P and SA1P levels, sphingolipids in blood remained stable under practically relevant preanalytical conditions.

  8. Complex modulation of peptidolytic activity of cathepsin D by sphingolipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žebrakovská, Iva; Máša, Martin; Srp, Jaroslav; Horn, Martin; Vávrová, K.; Mareš, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 1811, č. 12 (2011), s. 1097-1104 ISSN 1388-1981 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : sphingolipid * phospholipid * inhibition * activation * cathepsin D * enzyme regulation Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 5.269, year: 2011

  9. Serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathiraja, P; Dhar, S; Haldar, K

    2013-01-01

    Minimal uterine serous cancer (MUSC) or serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (EIC) has been described by many different names since 1998. There have been very few cases reported in literature since EIC/MUSC was recognized as a separate entity. The World health Organization (WHO) Classification favors the term serous EIC. Although serous EIC is confined to the uterine endometrium at initial histology diagnosis, a significant number of patients could have distal metastasis at diagnosis, without symptoms. Serous EIC is considered as being the precursor of uterine serous cancer (USC), but pure serous EIC also has an aggressive behavior similar to USC. It is therefore prudent to have an accurate diagnosis and appropriate surgical staging. There are very few published articles in literature that discuss the pure form of serous EIC. The aim of this series is to share our experience and review evidence for optimum management of serous EIC. We report a series of five women treated in our institute in the last 3 years. We reviewed the relevant literature on serous EIC and various management strategies, to recommend best clinical practice. Pure serous EIC is a difficult histopathological diagnosis, which requires ancillary immunohistochemical staining. It can have an aggressive clinical behavior with early recurrence and poor survival. Optimum surgical staging, with appropriate adjuvant treatment, should be discussed when treating these patients

  10. SPHINGOLIPID-DEPENDENT FUSION OF SEMLIKI FOREST VIRUS WITH CHOLESTEROL-CONTAINING LIPOSOMES REQUIRES BOTH THE 3-HYDROXYL GROUP AND THE DOUBLE-BOND OF THE SPHINGOLIPID BACKBONE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    CORVER, J; MOESBY, L; ERUKULLA, RK; REDDY, KC; BITTMAN, R; WILSCHUT, J

    Low-pH-induced membrane fusion of Semliki Forest virus (SFV) in a model system is mediated by sphingolipids in the target membrane; ceramide is the sphingolipid minimally required (J. L. Nieva, R. Bron, J. Corver, and J. Wilschut, EMBO J. 13:2797-2804, 1994). Here, using various ceramide analogs, we

  11. Paediatric nasopharyngeal rhabdomyosarcoma: a case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healy, J.N.; Borg, M.F.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue tumour in children, with the head and neck region accounting for 35-40% of cases. Nasopharyngeal RMSs tend to grow rapidly and invade adjacent structures. Both the intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma studies and the European Studies have established that the ideal management of this disease is multimodal, using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. This case series examines the role of radiotherapy in the management of paediatric nasopharyngeal RMSs, with particular reference to long-term morbidity and disease-free survival. The cases of five children with nasopharyngeal RMS were reviewed and a systematic review of the literature contained in the PubMed databases was conducted to establish 24 individually detailed cases. Management in all patients was multimodal, using a combination of chemotherapy, radiotherapy as well as surgery. External beam radiotherapy is an integral component of treatment for nasopharyngeal RMSs. With more patients surviving for longer periods, more long-term sequelae of radiotherapy have been reported. Complications include sensorineural deafness, endocrine manifestations following radiation of the pituitary gland, cranial nerve palsies, second malignancies within the radiation field, cataract formation, retinopathy and growth disturbance. Morbidity from radiotherapy may be considerable and depends on the field and dose of radiation. Current advances in radiotherapy are aimed at improving the rate of tumour control and reducing such complications. Recent improvements in imaging and conformal techniques have the potential to reduce the morbidity associated with radiotherapy in this cohort.

  12. Sphingolipids in human synovial fluid--a lipidomic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Krystyna Kosinska

    Full Text Available Articular synovial fluid (SF is a complex mixture of components that regulate nutrition, communication, shock absorption, and lubrication. Alterations in its composition can be pathogenic. This lipidomic investigation aims to quantify the composition of sphingolipids (sphingomyelins, ceramides, and hexosyl- and dihexosylceramides and minor glycerophospholipid species, including (lysophosphatidic acid, (lysophosphatidylglycerol, and bis(monoacylglycerophosphate species, in the SF of knee joints from unaffected controls and from patients with early (eOA and late (lOA stages of osteoarthritis (OA, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA. SF without cells and cellular debris from 9 postmortem donors (control, 18 RA, 17 eOA, and 13 lOA patients were extracted to measure lipid species using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry--directly or coupled with hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography. We provide a novel, detailed overview of sphingolipid and minor glycerophospholipid species in human SF. A total of 41, 48, and 50 lipid species were significantly increased in eOA, lOA, and RA SF, respectively when compared with normal SF. The level of 21 lipid species differed in eOA SF versus SF from lOA, an observation that can be used to develop biomarkers. Sphingolipids can alter synovial inflammation and the repair responses of damaged joints. Thus, our lipidomic study provides the foundation for studying the biosynthesis and function of lipid species in health and most prevalent joint diseases.

  13. Diphtheria toxin translocation across cellular membranes is regulated by sphingolipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilsberg, Bjorn; Hanada, Kentaro; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2005-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin is translocated across cellular membranes when receptor-bound toxin is exposed to low pH. To study the role of sphingolipids for toxin translocation, both a mutant cell line lacking the first enzyme in de novo sphingolipid synthesis, serine palmitoyltransferase, and a specific inhibitor of the same enzyme, myriocin, were used. The serine palmitoyltransferase-deficient cell line (LY-B) was found to be 10-15 times more sensitive to diphtheria toxin than the genetically complemented cell line (LY-B/cLCB1) and the wild-type cell line (CHO-K1), both when toxin translocation directly across the plasma membrane was induced by exposing cells with surface-bound toxin to low pH, and when the toxin followed its normal route via acidified endosomes into the cytosol. Toxin binding was similar in these three cell lines. Furthermore, inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase activity by addition of myriocin sensitized the two control cell lines (LY-B/cLCB1 and CHO-K1) to diphtheria toxin, whereas, as expected, no effect was observed in cells lacking serine palmitoyltransferase (LY-B). In conclusion, diphtheria toxin translocation is facilitated by depletion of membrane sphingolipids

  14. The way we view cellular (glyco)sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoetzl, Sandra; Sprong, Hein; van Meer, Gerrit

    2007-11-01

    Mammalian cells synthesize ceramide in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and convert this to sphingomyelin and complex glycosphingolipids on the inner, non-cytosolic surface of Golgi cisternae. From there, these lipids travel towards the outer, non-cytosolic surface of the plasma membrane and all membranes of the endocytic system, where they are eventually degraded. At the basis of the selective, anterograde traffic out of the Golgi lies the propensity of the sphingolipids to self-aggregate with cholesterol into microdomains termed 'lipid rafts'. At the plasma membrane surface these rafts are thought to function as the scaffold for various types of (glyco) signaling domains of different protein and lipid composition that can co-exist on one and the same cell. In the past decade, various unexpected findings on the sites where sphingolipid-mediated events occur have thrown a new light on the localization and transport mechanisms of sphingolipids. These findings are largely based on biochemical experiments. Further progress in the field is hampered by a lack of morphological techniques to localize lipids with nanometer resolution. In the present paper, we critically evaluate the published data and discuss techniques and potential improvements.

  15. The Impact of Cholesterol, DHA, and Sphingolipids on Alzheimer’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus O. W. Grimm

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder currently affecting over 35 million people worldwide. Pathological hallmarks of AD are massive amyloidosis, extracellular senile plaques, and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles accompanied by an excessive loss of synapses. Major constituents of senile plaques are 40–42 amino acid long peptides termed β-amyloid (Aβ. Aβ is produced by sequential proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP. APP processing and Aβ production have been one of the central scopes in AD research in the past. In the last years, lipids and lipid-related issues are more frequently discussed to contribute to the AD pathogenesis. This review summarizes lipid alterations found in AD postmortem brains, AD transgenic mouse models, and the current understanding of how lipids influence the molecular mechanisms leading to AD and Aβ generation, focusing especially on cholesterol, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, and sphingolipids/glycosphingolipids.

  16. Synthesis of a Panel of Carbon-13-Labelled (Glyco)Sphingolipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, Patrick; Gold, Henrik; Mirzaian, Mina; Ferraz, Maria J.; Lutteke, Ginger; van den Berg, Richard J. B. H. N.; van den Elst, Hans; Lugtenburg, Johan; van der Marel, Gijsbert A.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.; Codee, Jeroen D. C.; Overkleeft, Herman S.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of a focussed library of sphingolipids differing in the number and position of C-13 labels is described. The synthesised sphingolipids differ in substitution at both the sphingosine amine (either palmitoylated or unmodified) and the sphingosine primary hydroxyl (unmodified or

  17. Review article: Methodology for the 'rapid review' series on musculoskeletal injuries in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Kirsten; McPhee, Megan; Bell, Anthony; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Russell, Trevor

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015. The search was repeated consistently for each topic area (injuries of the foot and ankle, knee, hand and wrist, elbow, shoulder, lumbar spine and cervical spine). English-language primary studies, systematic reviews and guidelines that were published in the last 10 years and addressed acute musculoskeletal injury management were considered for inclusion. Data extraction of each included article was conducted, followed by a quality appraisal. The extracted data from each article was synthesised to group similar evidence together. For each rapid review, the evidence has been organised in a way that a clinician can direct their attention to a specific component of the clinical cycle of care in the ED, such as the assessment, diagnostic tests, management and follow-up considerations from ED. The series of rapid reviews are designed to foster evidence-based practice within the ED, targeting the injuries most commonly presenting. The reviews provide clinicians in EDs with rapid access to the best current evidence, which has been synthesised and organised to assist decision-making. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Academic Primer Series: Key Papers About Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarris, Lalena M; Gottlieb, Michael; Scott, Kevin; Sampson, Christopher; Rose, Emily; Chan, Teresa M; Ilgen, Jonathan

    2017-06-01

    Peer review, a cornerstone of academia, promotes rigor and relevance in scientific publishing. As educators are encouraged to adopt a more scholarly approach to medical education, peer review is becoming increasingly important. Junior educators both receive the reviews of their peers, and are also asked to participate as reviewers themselves. As such, it is imperative for junior clinician educators to be well-versed in the art of peer reviewing their colleagues' work. In this article, our goal was to identify and summarize key papers that may be helpful for faculty members interested in learning more about the peer-review process and how to improve their reviewing skills. The online discussions of the 2016-17 Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program included a robust discussion about peer review, which highlighted a number of papers on that topic. We sought to augment this list with further suggestions by guest experts and by an open call on Twitter for other important papers. Via this process, we created a list of 24 total papers on the topic of peer review. After gathering these papers, our authorship group engaged in a consensus-building process incorporating Delphi methods to identify the papers that best described peer review, and also highlighted important tips for new reviewers. We found and reviewed 24 papers. In our results section, we present our authorship group's top five most highly rated papers on the topic of peer review. We also summarize these papers with respect to their relevance to junior faculty members and to faculty developers. We present five key papers on peer review that can be used for faculty development for novice writers and reviewers. These papers represent a mix of foundational and explanatory papers that may provide some basis from which junior faculty members might build upon as they both undergo the peer-review process and act as reviewers in turn.

  19. Review of Worcestershire On-line Fabric Type Series website

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Nenk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of archaeological ceramics is advanced through the creation and development of regional and national pottery type-series, which contain samples of each type of pottery identified from a particular area or region. Pottery researchers working in any period, from prehistoric to post-medieval, require access to such type-series, and to their associated data, in order to be able to advance the identification of all types of pottery, not only those types produced in the local area, but those produced in surrounding regions, as well as those imported from abroad. The publication of such type-series, as well as their accessibility to researchers, is essential if the information they contain is to be disseminated. The development of the Worcestershire On-Line Fabric Type Series is the first stage in a remarkable project designed to make the complete fabric and form type series for Worcestershire ceramics accessible on the internet. As part of the Historic Environment Record for Worcestershire, formerly the Sites and Monuments Record, it is designed to improve access to finds and environmental data, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating research. Funded by Worcestershire County Council as part of its commitment to e-government, it is being developed by Worcestershire County Council Archaeology Service with OxfordArchDigital. It is one of a proposed series of on-line specialist resources (to include, for example, clay pipes, environmental archaeology, flint tools, historic buildings, which are also designed to stand alone as research tools. The ceramics website is the first part of Pottery in Perspective, a web-based project to provide information on the pottery used and made in Worcestershire from prehistory to c. 1900AD.

  20. Book Review: "Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hidden Markov Models for Time Series: An Introduction using R. by Walter Zucchini and Iain L. MacDonald. Chapman & Hall (CRC Press), 2009. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/saaj.v10i1.61717 · AJOL African Journals Online.

  1. Methodology Series Module 6: Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2016-01-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have become an important of biomedical literature, and they provide the "highest level of evidence" for various clinical questions. There are a lot of studies - sometimes with contradictory conclusions - on a particular topic in literature. Hence, as a clinician, which results will you believe? What will you tell your patient? Which drug is better? A systematic review or a meta-analysis may help us answer these questions. In addition, it may also help us understand the quality of the articles in literature or the type of studies that have been conducted and published (example, randomized trials or observational studies). The first step it to identify a research question for systematic review or meta-analysis. The next step is to identify the articles that will be included in the study. This will be done by searching various databases; it is important that the researcher should search for articles in more than one database. It will also be useful to form a group of researchers and statisticians that have expertise in conducting systematic reviews and meta-analysis before initiating them. We strongly encourage the readers to register their proposed review/meta-analysis with PROSPERO. Finally, these studies should be reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis checklist.

  2. Isolated gingival overgrowths: A review of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti Raizada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinicians are often intrigued by the varied manifestations of the gingival tissue. Gingival overgrowth is a common clinical finding and most of them represent a reactive hyperplasia as a direct result of plaque-related inflammatory gingival disease. These types of growth generally respond to good plaque control, removal of the causative irritants, and conservative tissue management. This case series highlights three different cases of localized gingival overgrowth and its management with emphasis on the importance of patient awareness and motivation.

  3. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis: A case series and review of literatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Rezai

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a rare immune mediated and demyelinating disease of the central nervous system that usually affects children. It is a monophasic disorder related with multifocal neurologic symptoms. In this paper, we report seven cases of Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in pediatrics in addition; a review of literatures is presented.

  4. Acoustical Environments. Educational Facilities Review Series Number 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, Alan M.

    This review surveys documents and journal articles previously announced in RIE and CIJE that deal with the principles and techniques of sound transmission and control, particularly as they relate to school environments. School planners and administrators are advised that excessive acoustical insulation costs may be avoided by early decisions…

  5. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma: case series literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Esha; Chakki, Arunkumar Bhimashankar; Nagaral, Sharanbasappa Chandrashekar; Ganji, Kiran Kumar

    2013-01-01

    THE CONCEPT OF FIBROOSSEOUS LESIONS OF BONE HAS EVOLVED OVER THE LAST SEVERAL DECADES AND NOW INCLUDES TWO MAJOR ENTITIES: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a relatively rare tumour classified between fibroosseous lesions. It predominantly affects adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence between 10 and 19 yrs. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is a central neoplasm of bone as well as periodontium which has caused considerable controversy because of confusion regarding terminology and the criteria for its diagnosis. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is odontogenic in origin, whereas ossifying fibroma is of bony origin. Lesions histologically similar to peripheral ossifying fibroma have been given various names in existing literature. Therefore, we present and discuss in this paper a series of cases of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma emphasizing the differential diagnosis.

  6. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakar, B.

    2010-01-01

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  7. Jugular foramen meningiomas. Review of the major surgical series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, B [Faculty of Medicine, Kirikkale Univ., Kirikkale (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    Primary jugular foramen meningiomas are uncommon, with 96 previous cases published between 1992 and 2007. Exact location and extent of tumor were determined on the basis of radiologic and operative findings and used to develop a staging system. The mean age of patients was 39.4 years. The lesion was located on the right in 14 patients and on the left in 11 patients. The series identified 23 males and 58 females. The most common presenting clinical symptoms were hearing loss and tinnitus. Most clinical findings were middle ear mass and neck mass. Most meningiomas were World Health Organization grade I. The most common postoperative complications were lower cranial nerve paresis and facial nerve paresis. Surgical planning should consider that meningiomas usually invade the dura mater, cranial nerves, and surrounding bone. The surgeon should carefully collect detailed data about the tumor, and consult an otolaryngologist preoperatively for lower cranial nerve functions and hearing levels.(author)

  8. Regulation of stem-cell mediated host immunity by the sphingolipid ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Regulation of stem-cell mediated host immunity by the sphingolipid pathway ... in the generation of mature immune cells and the functioning of the surrounding ... methods with human cells and genetically engineered mice to examine how the ...

  9. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Demirkan (Ayşe); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia); P. Ugocsai (Peter); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); G. Liebisch (Gerhard); J.F. Wilson (James); A. Johansson (Åsa); I. Rudan (Igor); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A.V. Kirichenko (Anatoly); A.C.J.W. Janssens (Cécile); R.C. Jansen (Ritsert); C. Gnewuch (Carsten); I. Domingues (Inês); C. Pattaro (Cristian); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Jonasson (Inger); O. Polasek (Ozren); I.V. Zorkoltseva (Irina); A. Hofman (Albert); L.C. Karssen (Lennart); M.V. Struchalin (Maksim); J. Floyd (Jamie); W. Igl (Wilmar); Z. Biloglav (Zrinka); L. Broer (Linda); A. Pfeufer (Arne); I. Pichler (Irene); S. Campbell (Susan); G. Zaboli (Ghazal); I. Kolcic (Ivana); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); N. Hastie (Nick); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); L. Franke (Lude); C.S. Franklin (Christopher); V. Vitart (Veronique); C.P. Nelson (Christopher P.); M. Preuss (Michael); J.C. Bis (Joshua); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); N. Franceschini (Nora); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); T.I. Axenovich (Tatiana); B.A. Oostra (Ben); T. Meitinger (Thomas); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); C. Hayward (Caroline); A.F. Wright (Alan); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); H. Campbell (Harry); G. Schmitz (Gerd)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractPhospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological,

  10. Sphingolipid topology and the dynamic organization and function of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meer, Gerrit; Hoetzl, Sandra

    2010-05-03

    When acquiring internal membranes and vesicular transport, eukaryotic cells started to synthesize sphingolipids and sterols. The physical differences between these and the glycerophospholipids must have enabled the cells to segregate lipids in the membrane plane. Localizing this event to the Golgi then allowed them to create membranes of different lipid composition, notably a thin, flexible ER membrane, consisting of glycerolipids, and a sturdy plasma membrane containing at least 50% sphingolipids and sterols. Besides sorting membrane proteins, in the course of evolution the simple sphingolipids obtained key positions in cellular physiology by developing specific interactions with (membrane) proteins involved in the execution and control of signaling. The few signaling sphingolipids in mammals must provide basic transmission principles that evolution has built upon for organizing the specific regulatory pathways tuned to the needs of the different cell types in the body. Copyright 2009 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Glaucoma Surgery in Pregnancy: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Razeghinejad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus.

  12. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu

    2011-01-01

    Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components...

  13. Inhibition of Sphingolipid Metabolism Enhances Resveratrol Chemotherapy in Human Gastric Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Kyong-Oh; Park, Nam-Young; Seo, Cho-Hee; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Oh, Ki-Wan; Hong, Jin-Tae; Han, Sang-Kil; Lee, Yong-Moon

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a chemopreventive agent, is rapidly metabolized in the intestine and liver via glucuronidation. Thus, the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol limits its efficacy. To improve efficacy, the activity of resveratrol was investigated in the context of sphingolipid metabolism in human gastric cancer cells. Diverse sphingolipid metabolites, including dihydroceramides (DHCer), were tested for their ability to induce resveratrol cytotoxicity. Exposure to resveratrol (100 ?M) for 24 hr induced...

  14. Fiber Specific Changes in Sphingolipid Metabolism in Skeletal Muscles of Hyperthyroid Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chabowski, A.; ?endzian-Piotrowska, M.; Mik?osz, A.; ?ukaszuk, B.; Kurek, K.; G?rski, J.

    2013-01-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) are well known modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin pathway. However, studies regarding downstream effects of T3 on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle are scarce. In the present work we sought to investigate the effects of hyperthyroidism on the activity of the key enzymes of ceramide metabolism as well as the content of fundamental sphingolipids. Based on fiber/metabolic differences, we chose three different skeletal muscles, ...

  15. Autoimmune pancreatitis: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakov, Rada; DePasquale, Joseph R; Elfarra, Hossam; Spira, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AuP) is a chronic pancreatic inflammation secondary to an underlying autoimmune mechanism. After early reports of a particular type of pancreatitis associated with hypergammaglobulinemia, others asserted that there is an autoimmune mechanism involved in some patients with chronic pancreatitis. In 1995 AuP was first described as a distinct clinical entity. Since then, there have been many documented cases of AuP in Japan, and now, perhaps due to increased awareness, more cases are being reported in Europe and the United States. Herein we present our experience with 3 cases of AuP and we review the relevant literature. These 3 cases demonstrate the difficulties that exist in making the diagnosis of AuP and the impact that the diagnosis can have on patient management.

  16. Thematic review series: glycerolipids. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V

    2008-11-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases.

  17. Remote Iliac Artery Endarterectomy: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekken, Joost A; de Boer, Sanne W; van der Sluijs, Rogier; Jongsma, Hidde; de Vries, Jean-Paul P M; Fioole, Bram

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the long-term results of remote iliac artery endarterectomy (RIAE) in 2 vascular referral centers and review existing literature. A retrospective analysis was conducted of 109 consecutive patients (mean age 64.2±10.7 years; 72 men) who underwent 113 RIAE procedures for lower limb ischemia from January 2004 to August 2015 at 2 vascular centers. The majority of limbs (82, 72.6%) had TASC II D lesions (31 TASC II C). Primary outcome measures were primary, assisted primary, and secondary patency. A comprehensive literature search was performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases to identify all English-language studies published after 1990 reporting the results of RIAE. Technical success was achieved in 95 (84.1%) of the 113 procedures. The complication rate was 13.7%, and 30-day mortality was 0%. At 5 years, primary patency was 78.2%, assisted primary patency was 83.4%, and secondary patency was 86.7%. Hemodynamic success was obtained in 91.7% of patients, and clinical improvement was observed in 95.2%. Freedom from major amputation was 94.7% at 5 years. The systematic review comprised 6 studies including 419 RIAEs, and pooled data showed results similar to the current study. For external iliac artery occlusions extending into the common femoral artery, RIAE appears to be a valuable hybrid treatment option. It combines acceptable morbidity and low mortality with good long-term patency. It has some advantages over an open surgical iliofemoral bypass or complete endovascular revascularization and could be the best treatment option in selected cases.

  18. Imported brucellosis: A case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; Chamorro-Tojeiro, Sandra; Pérez-Molina, Jose-Antonio; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is one of the main neglected zoonotic diseases. Several factors may contribute to the epidemiology of brucellosis. Imported cases, mainly in travellers but also in recently arrived immigrants, and cases associated with imported products, appear to be infrequently reported. Cases of brucellosis diagnosed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe were described and a review of the literature on imported cases and cases associated with contaminated imported products was performed. Most imported cases were associated with traditional risk factors such as travel/consumption of unpasteurized dairy products in endemic countries. Cases associated with importation of food products or infected animals also occurred. Although a lower disease incidence of brucellosis has been reported in developed countries, a higher incidence may still occur in specific populations, as illustrated by cases in Hispanic patients in the USA and in Turkish immigrants in Germany. Imported brucellosis appears to present with similar protean manifestations and both classical and infrequent modes of acquisition are described, leading on occasions to mis-diagnoses and diagnostic delays. Importation of Brucella spp. especially into non-endemic areas, or areas which have achieved recent control of both animal and human brucellosis, may have public health repercussions and timely recognition is essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Review of Some Aspects of Robust Inference for Time Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-09-01

    REVIEW OF SOME ASPECTSOF ROBUST INFERNCE FOR TIME SERIES by Ad . Dougla Main TE "iAL REPOW No. 63 Septermber 1984 Department of Statistics University of ...clear. One cannot hope to have a good method for dealing with outliers in time series by using only an instantaneous nonlinear transformation of the data...AI.49 716 A REVIEWd OF SOME ASPECTS OF ROBUST INFERENCE FOR TIME 1/1 SERIES(U) WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE DEPT OF STATISTICS R D MARTIN SEP 84 TR-53

  20. Occurrence of bioactive sphingolipids in meat and fish products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellgren, Lars

    2001-01-01

    /neutral glycolipids varied from 1 to 2.9, while in poultry this ratio varied between 5.2 to 19.2 and in red meat it varied from 1.6 to 8.3. The fatty acid composition of sphingomyelin in fish was dominated by C24:1 (Delta (9)) or C22:1 (Delta (9)), while C16:0 and C18:0 were the dominating sphingomyelin species....... Therefore we investigated the contents of sphingomyelin and neutral glycosphingolipids in commonly consumed meat and fish products. Sphingomyelin and glycosphingolipids were found in all foodstuffs studied. The total amount varied between 118 +/- 17 nmol/g (cod) to 589 +/- 39 nmol/g (chicken leg). Generally......, lower amounts of sphingolipids were determined in fish meat than in red meat and poultry, while poultry was the richest source of this class of lipids. However, fish meat contained a relatively high content of neutral glycolipids compared with other types of meat. Thus, in fish the ratio sphingomyelin...

  1. Success in Implementation of a Resident In-Service Examination Review Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcucci, Jessica A.; Hyer, J. Madison; Bruner, Evelyn T.; Lewin, David N.; Batalis, Nicholas I.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: Primary pathology board certification has been correlated with senior resident in-service examination (RISE) performance. We describe our success with an annual, month-long review series. Methods: Aggregate program RISE performance data were gathered for 3 years prior to and 3 years following initiation of the review series. In addition, mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 Clinical Knowledge scores for residents participating in each RISE examination were obtained to control for incoming knowledge and test-taking ability. Linear models were used to evaluate differences in average RISE performance prior to and following the initiation of the review series in addition to controlling for relevant covariates. Results: Significant improvement was noted in the grand total, anatomic pathology section average, clinical pathology section average, and transfusion medicine section. Although not statistically significant, improvement was noted on the cytopathology and clinical chemistry sections. There was no significant difference in scores in hematopathology, molecular pathology, and the special topics section average. In addition, improvement in primary pathology board certification rates was also noted. Conclusions: Institution of a month-long RISE review series demonstrated improved overall performance within our training program. The success could easily be replicated in any training program without significant disruption to an annual didactic series. PMID:28340222

  2. Success in Implementation of a Resident In-Service Examination Review Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forcucci, Jessica A; Hyer, J Madison; Bruner, Evelyn T; Lewin, David N; Batalis, Nicholas I

    2017-04-01

    Primary pathology board certification has been correlated with senior resident in-service examination (RISE) performance. We describe our success with an annual, month-long review series. Aggregate program RISE performance data were gathered for 3 years prior to and 3 years following initiation of the review series. In addition, mean United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 1 and 2 Clinical Knowledge scores for residents participating in each RISE examination were obtained to control for incoming knowledge and test-taking ability. Linear models were used to evaluate differences in average RISE performance prior to and following the initiation of the review series in addition to controlling for relevant covariates. Significant improvement was noted in the grand total, anatomic pathology section average, clinical pathology section average, and transfusion medicine section. Although not statistically significant, improvement was noted on the cytopathology and clinical chemistry sections. There was no significant difference in scores in hematopathology, molecular pathology, and the special topics section average. In addition, improvement in primary pathology board certification rates was also noted. Institution of a month-long RISE review series demonstrated improved overall performance within our training program. The success could easily be replicated in any training program without significant disruption to an annual didactic series. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  3. Temporal changes in sphingolipids and systemic insulin sensitivity during the transition from gestation to lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Eduardo Rico

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin action develops naturally during the peripartum to ensure maternal nutrient delivery to the fetus and neonate. However, increased insulin resistance can facilitate excessive lipolysis which in turn promotes metabolic disease in overweight dairy cattle. Increased fatty acid availability favors the accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide and is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, however, the relationship between sphingolipid metabolism and insulin resistance during the peripartum remains largely unknown. Our objectives were to characterize temporal responses in plasma and tissue sphingolipids in lean and overweight peripartal cows and to establish the relationships between sphingolipid supply and lipolysis, hepatic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin action. Twenty-one multiparous lean and overweight Holstein cows were enrolled in a longitudinal study spanning the transition from gestation to lactation (d -21 to 21, relative to parturition. Plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were obtained, and sphingolipids were profiled using LC/MS/MS. Insulin sensitivity was assessed utilizing intravenous insulin and glucose challenges. Our results demonstrated the following: first, insulin resistance develops postpartum concurrently with increased lipolysis and hepatic lipid accumulation; second, ceramides and glycosylated ceramides accumulate during the transition from gestation to lactation and are further elevated in overweight cows; third, ceramide accrual is associated with lipolysis and liver lipid accumulation, and C16:0- and C24:0-ceramide are inversely associated with systemic insulin sensitivity postpartum; fourth, plasma sphingomyelin, a potential source of ceramides reaches a nadir at parturition and is closely associated with feed intake; fifth, select sphingomyelins are lower in the plasma of overweight cows during the peripartal period. Our results demonstrate that dynamic changes occur in

  4. Temporal changes in sphingolipids and systemic insulin sensitivity during the transition from gestation to lactation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, J. Eduardo; Saed Samii, Sina; Mathews, Alice T.; Lovett, Jacqueline; Haughey, Norman J.; McFadden, Joseph W.

    2017-01-01

    Reduced insulin action develops naturally during the peripartum to ensure maternal nutrient delivery to the fetus and neonate. However, increased insulin resistance can facilitate excessive lipolysis which in turn promotes metabolic disease in overweight dairy cattle. Increased fatty acid availability favors the accumulation of the sphingolipid ceramide and is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, however, the relationship between sphingolipid metabolism and insulin resistance during the peripartum remains largely unknown. Our objectives were to characterize temporal responses in plasma and tissue sphingolipids in lean and overweight peripartal cows and to establish the relationships between sphingolipid supply and lipolysis, hepatic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin action. Twenty-one multiparous lean and overweight Holstein cows were enrolled in a longitudinal study spanning the transition from gestation to lactation (d -21 to 21, relative to parturition). Plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle samples were obtained, and sphingolipids were profiled using LC/MS/MS. Insulin sensitivity was assessed utilizing intravenous insulin and glucose challenges. Our results demonstrated the following: first, insulin resistance develops postpartum concurrently with increased lipolysis and hepatic lipid accumulation; second, ceramides and glycosylated ceramides accumulate during the transition from gestation to lactation and are further elevated in overweight cows; third, ceramide accrual is associated with lipolysis and liver lipid accumulation, and C16:0- and C24:0-ceramide are inversely associated with systemic insulin sensitivity postpartum; fourth, plasma sphingomyelin, a potential source of ceramides reaches a nadir at parturition and is closely associated with feed intake; fifth, select sphingomyelins are lower in the plasma of overweight cows during the peripartal period. Our results demonstrate that dynamic changes occur in peripartal sphingolipids

  5. Self-enhancement of hepatitis C virus replication by promotion of specific sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Hirata

    Full Text Available Lipids are key components in the viral life cycle that affect host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV infection on sphingolipid metabolism, especially on endogenous SM levels, and the relationship between HCV replication and endogenous SM molecular species. We demonstrated that HCV induces the expression of the genes (SGMS1 and 2 encoding human SM synthases 1 and 2. We observed associated increases of both total and individual sphingolipid molecular species, as assessed in human hepatocytes and in the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM fraction in which HCV replicates. SGMS1 expression had a correlation with HCV replication. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis with a hepatotropic serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT inhibitor, NA808, suppressed HCV-RNA production while also interfering with sphingolipid metabolism. Further, we identified the SM molecular species that comprise the DRM fraction and demonstrated that these endogenous SM species interacted with HCV nonstructural 5B polymerase to enhance viral replication. Our results reveal that HCV alters sphingolipid metabolism to promote viral replication, providing new insights into the formation of the HCV replication complex and the involvement of host lipids in the HCV life cycle.

  6. Self-enhancement of hepatitis C virus replication by promotion of specific sphingolipid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Yuichi; Ikeda, Kazutaka; Sudoh, Masayuki; Tokunaga, Yuko; Suzuki, Akemi; Weng, Leiyun; Ohta, Masatoshi; Tobita, Yoshimi; Okano, Ken; Ozeki, Kazuhisa; Kawasaki, Kenichi; Tsukuda, Takuo; Katsume, Asao; Aoki, Yuko; Umehara, Takuya; Sekiguchi, Satoshi; Toyoda, Tetsuya; Shimotohno, Kunitada; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Nishijima, Masahiro; Taguchi, Ryo; Kohara, Michinori

    2012-01-01

    Lipids are key components in the viral life cycle that affect host-pathogen interactions. In this study, we investigated the effect of HCV infection on sphingolipid metabolism, especially on endogenous SM levels, and the relationship between HCV replication and endogenous SM molecular species. We demonstrated that HCV induces the expression of the genes (SGMS1 and 2) encoding human SM synthases 1 and 2. We observed associated increases of both total and individual sphingolipid molecular species, as assessed in human hepatocytes and in the detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) fraction in which HCV replicates. SGMS1 expression had a correlation with HCV replication. Inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis with a hepatotropic serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) inhibitor, NA808, suppressed HCV-RNA production while also interfering with sphingolipid metabolism. Further, we identified the SM molecular species that comprise the DRM fraction and demonstrated that these endogenous SM species interacted with HCV nonstructural 5B polymerase to enhance viral replication. Our results reveal that HCV alters sphingolipid metabolism to promote viral replication, providing new insights into the formation of the HCV replication complex and the involvement of host lipids in the HCV life cycle.

  7. Establishment of HeLa cell mutants deficient in sphingolipid-related genes using TALENs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Yamaji

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are essential components in eukaryotes and have various cellular functions. Recent developments in genome-editing technologies have facilitated gene disruption in various organisms and cell lines. We here show the disruption of various sphingolipid metabolic genes in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by using transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs. A TALEN pair targeting the human CERT gene (alternative name COL4A3BP encoding a ceramide transport protein induced a loss-of-function phenotype in more than 60% of HeLa cells even though the cell line has a pseudo-triploid karyotype. We have isolated several loss-of-function mutant clones for CERT, UGCG (encoding glucosylceramide synthase, and B4GalT5 (encoding the major lactosylceramide synthase, and also a CERT/UGCG double-deficient clone. Characterization of these clones supported previous proposals that CERT primarily contributes to the synthesis of SM but not GlcCer, and that B4GalT5 is the major LacCer synthase. These newly established sphingolipid-deficient HeLa cell mutants together with our previously established stable transfectants provide a 'sphingolipid-modified HeLa cell panel,' which will be useful to elucidate the functions of various sphingolipid species against essentially the same genomic background.

  8. The prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe: Review of a series of meta-analyses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, M.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, M.J.; Alink, L.R.A.; van IJzendoorn, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    In this review, we combine and compare the results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical and emotional abuse and physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 551 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research

  9. Evaluation of sphingolipids in Wistar rats treated to prolonged and single oral doses of fumonisin b₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M; Almeida, Adriana P; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB(1). Prolonged exposure to FB(1) caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB(1). Animals receiving a single dose of FB(1) presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio.

  10. Newly identified essential amino acid residues affecting ^8-sphingolipid desaturase activity revealed by site-directed mutagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to identify amino acid residues crucial for the enzymatic activity of ^8-sphingolipid desaturases, a sequence comparison was performed among ^8-sphingolipid desaturases and ^6-fatty acid desaturase from various plants. In addition to the known conserved cytb5 (cytochrome b5) HPGG motif and...

  11. Sphingolipids in Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia; Results from an International Multicenter Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kitty G Snoek

    Full Text Available Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a severe congenital anomaly with significant mortality and morbidity, for instance chronic lung disease. Sphingolipids have shown to be involved in lung injury, but their role in the pathophysiology of chronic lung disease has not been explored. We hypothesized that sphingolipid profiles in tracheal aspirates could play a role in predicting the mortality/ development of chronic lung disease in congenital diaphragmatic hernia patients. Furthermore, we hypothesized that sphingolipid profiles differ between ventilation modes; conventional mechanical ventilation versus high-frequency oscillation.Sphingolipid levels in tracheal aspirates were determined at days 1, 3, 7 and 14 in 72 neonates with congenital diaphragmatic hernia, born after > 34 weeks gestation at four high-volume congenital diaphragmatic hernia centers. Data were collected within a multicenter trial of initial ventilation strategy (NTR 1310.36 patients (50.0% died or developed chronic lung disease, 34 patients (47.2% by stratification were initially ventilated by conventional mechanical ventilation and 38 patients (52.8% by high-frequency oscillation. Multivariable logistic regression analysis with correction for side of the defect, liver position and observed-to-expected lung-to-head ratio, showed that none of the changes in sphingolipid levels were significantly associated with mortality /development of chronic lung disease. At day 14, long-chain ceramides 18:1 and 24:0 were significantly elevated in patients initially ventilated by conventional mechanical ventilation compared to high-frequency oscillation.We could not detect significant differences in temporal sphingolipid levels in congenital diaphragmatic hernia infants with mortality/development of chronic lung disease versus survivors without development of CLD. Elevated levels of ceramides 18:1 and 24:0 in the conventional mechanical ventilation group when compared to high

  12. Change detection using landsat time series: A review of frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhe

    2017-08-01

    The free and open access to all archived Landsat images in 2008 has completely changed the way of using Landsat data. Many novel change detection algorithms based on Landsat time series have been developed We present a comprehensive review of four important aspects of change detection studies based on Landsat time series, including frequencies, preprocessing, algorithms, and applications. We observed the trend that the more recent the study, the higher the frequency of Landsat time series used. We reviewed a series of image preprocessing steps, including atmospheric correction, cloud and cloud shadow detection, and composite/fusion/metrics techniques. We divided all change detection algorithms into six categories, including thresholding, differencing, segmentation, trajectory classification, statistical boundary, and regression. Within each category, six major characteristics of different algorithms, such as frequency, change index, univariate/multivariate, online/offline, abrupt/gradual change, and sub-pixel/pixel/spatial were analyzed. Moreover, some of the widely-used change detection algorithms were also discussed. Finally, we reviewed different change detection applications by dividing these applications into two categories, change target and change agent detection.

  13. Complexity testing techniques for time series data: A comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Ling; Lv, Huiling; Yang, Fengmei; Yu, Lean

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A literature review of complexity testing techniques for time series data is provided. • Complexity measurements can generally fall into fractality, methods derived from nonlinear dynamics and entropy. • Different types investigate time series data from different perspectives. • Measures, applications and future studies for each type are presented. - Abstract: Complexity may be one of the most important measurements for analysing time series data; it covers or is at least closely related to different data characteristics within nonlinear system theory. This paper provides a comprehensive literature review examining the complexity testing techniques for time series data. According to different features, the complexity measurements for time series data can be divided into three primary groups, i.e., fractality (mono- or multi-fractality) for self-similarity (or system memorability or long-term persistence), methods derived from nonlinear dynamics (via attractor invariants or diagram descriptions) for attractor properties in phase-space, and entropy (structural or dynamical entropy) for the disorder state of a nonlinear system. These estimations analyse time series dynamics from different perspectives but are closely related to or even dependent on each other at the same time. In particular, a weaker self-similarity, a more complex structure of attractor, and a higher-level disorder state of a system consistently indicate that the observed time series data are at a higher level of complexity. Accordingly, this paper presents a historical tour of the important measures and works for each group, as well as ground-breaking and recent applications and future research directions.

  14. Is autophagy the key mechanism by which the sphingolipid rheostat controls the cell fate decision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavieu, Gregory; Scarlatti, Francesca; Sala, Giusy; Levade, Thierry; Ghidoni, Riccardo; Botti, Joëlle; Codogno, Patrice

    2007-01-01

    Sphingolipids are major constituents of biological membrane and some of them behave as second messengers involved in the cell fate decision. Ceramide and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) constitute a rheostat system in which ceramide promotes cell death and S1P increases cell survival. We have shown that both sphingolipids are able to trigger autophagy with opposing outcomes on cell survival. Here we discuss and speculate on the diverging functions of the autophagic pathways induced by ceramide and S1P, respectively.

  15. A Case Series and Review of Bacillus Cereus Endocarditis from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinathan, Anusha; Kumar, Anil; Sen, Amitabh C; Sudha, Srisruthy; Varma, Praveen; Gs, Sunil; Eapen, Malini; Dinesh, Kavitha R

    2018-01-01

    Bacillus cereus is a gram positive bacilli found commonly in the soil and environment. It is a bacteria rarely associated with endocarditis. Intravenous drug abuse, presence of valvular defects, pacemakers, immunodeficiency are some of the known risk factors for B.cereus endocarditis. We present here a case series of two patients with B.cereus endocarditis along with a review of the literature. This is the first report of B.cereus endocarditis from India to the best of our knowledge.

  16. Application of the Allan Variance to Time Series Analysis in Astrometry and Geodesy: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkin, Zinovy

    2016-04-01

    The Allan variance (AVAR) was introduced 50 years ago as a statistical tool for assessing the frequency standards deviations. For the past decades, AVAR has increasingly been used in geodesy and astrometry to assess the noise characteristics in geodetic and astrometric time series. A specific feature of astrometric and geodetic measurements, as compared with clock measurements, is that they are generally associated with uncertainties; thus, an appropriate weighting should be applied during data analysis. In addition, some physically connected scalar time series naturally form series of multidimensional vectors. For example, three station coordinates time series X, Y, and Z can be combined to analyze 3-D station position variations. The classical AVAR is not intended for processing unevenly weighted and/or multidimensional data. Therefore, AVAR modifications, namely weighted AVAR (WAVAR), multidimensional AVAR (MAVAR), and weighted multidimensional AVAR (WMAVAR), were introduced to overcome these deficiencies. In this paper, a brief review is given of the experience of using AVAR and its modifications in processing astrogeodetic time series.

  17. Transport and sorting of sphingolipids in polarized cells : the involvement of the sub-apical compartment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJzendoorn, Sven Christian David van

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this thesis has provided a novel insight into the process of sphingolipid transport and sorting in polarized cells. We have used HepG2 cells as a model system to study polarized traffic in hepatic cells. Under specific culture conditions, HepG2 cells acquire a polarized

  18. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirkan, Ayşe; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ugocsai, Peter

    2012-01-01

    , and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034) on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM), 9 ceramides (CER), 57...

  19. Sphingolipids as a new factor in the pathomechanism of preeclampsia - Mass spectrometry analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karol Charkiewicz

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyse a panel of 11 sphingolipids in plasma and three blood fractions (platelet-poor plasma, platelets and red blood cells of women with mild preeclampsia.We recruited 21 women between 25-40 weeks gestation with diagnosed mild preeclampsia to the study group and 36 healthy women with uncomplicated pregnancies, who corresponded with the study group according to gestational age, to the control group. To assess the concentration of 11 sphingolipids in the blood plasma and blood fractions, we used ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC/MS/MS.We showed a significant increase in the concentration of eight sphingolipids in the plasma of women with preeclampsia in comparison to the control group: Sph (p = 0.0032, S1P (p = 0.0289, C20-Cer (p < 0.0001, C18-Cer (p < 0.0001, C16-Cer (p = 0.012, C18:1-Cer (p = 0.003, C22-Cer (p = 0.0071, and C24:1-Cer (p = 0.0085.We showed that selected sphingolipids, especially C20-Cer and C18-Cer, are totally new factors in the pathomechanism of PE and that these bioactive lipids may play an important role in apoptosis and autophagy.

  20. Sphingolipid topology and the dynamic organization and function of membrane proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068570368; Hoetzl, S.

    2010-01-01

    When acquiring internal membranes and vesicular transport, eukaryotic cells started to synthesize sphingolipids and sterols. The physical differences between these and the glycerophospholipids must have enabled the cells to segregate lipids in the membrane plane. Localizing this event to the Golgi

  1. Low serum sphingolipids in children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Patricia Henríquez-Henríquez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most prevalent neuropsychiatric condition in childhood. ADHD is a multifactorial trait with a strong genetic component. One neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that ADHD is associated with a lag in brain maturation. Sphingolipids are essential for brain development and neuronal functioning, but their role in ADHD pathogenesis is unexplored. We hypothesized that serum sphingolipid levels distinguish ADHD patients from unaffected subjects. Methods: We characterized serum sphingolipid profiles of ADHD patients and two control groups: non-affected relatives and non-affected subjects without a family history of ADHD. Sphingolipids were measured by LC-MS/MS in 77 participants (28 ADHD patients, 28 related controls and 21 unrelated controls. ADHD diagnosis was based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV-TR. Diagnostic criteria were assessed by 2 independent observers. Groups were compared by parametrical statistics. Results: Serum sphingomyelins C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C24:1, ceramide C24:0 and deoxy-ceramide C24:1 were significantly decreased in ADHD patients at 20-30% relative reductions. In our sample, decreased serum sphingomyelin levels distinguished ADHD patients with 79% sensitivity and 78% specificity. Conclusions: Our results showed lower levels of all major serum sphingomyelins in ADHD. These findings may reflect brain maturation and affect neuro-functional pathways characteristic for ADHD.

  2. Renal transplant lithiasis: analysis of our series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stravodimos, Konstantinos G; Adamis, Stefanos; Tyritzis, Stavros; Georgios, Zavos; Constantinides, Constantinos A

    2012-01-01

    Renal transplant lithiasis represents a rather uncommon complication. Even rare, it can result in significant morbidity and a devastating loss of renal function if obstruction occurs. We present our experience with graft lithiasis in our series of renal transplantations and review the literature regarding the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and current therapeutic strategies in the management of renal transplant lithiasis. In a retrospective analysis of a consecutive series of 1525 renal transplantations that were performed between January 1983 and March 2007, 7 patients were found to have allograft lithiasis. In five cases, the calculi were localized in the renal unit, and in two cases, in the ureter. A review in the English language was also performed of the Medline and PubMed databases using the keywords renal transplant lithiasis, donor-gifted lithiasis, and urological complications after kidney transplantation. Several retrospective studies regarding the incidence, etiology, as well as predisposing factors for graft lithiasis were reviewed. Data regarding the current therapeutic strategies for graft lithiasis were also evaluated, and outcomes were compared with the results of our series. Most studies report a renal transplant lithiasis incidence of 0.4% to 1%. In our series, incidence of graft lithiasis was 0.46% (n=7). Of the seven patients, three were treated via percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PCNL); in three patients, shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) was performed; and in a single case, spontaneous passage of a urinary calculus was observed. All patients are currently stone free but still remain under close urologic surveillance. Renal transplant lithiasis requires vigilance, a high index of suspicion, prompt recognition, and management. Treatment protocols should mimic those for solitary kidneys. Minimally invasive techniques are available to remove graft calculi. Long-term follow-up is essential to determine the outcome, as well as to prevent recurrence.

  3. Management of odontogenic cysts by endonasal endoscopic techniques: A systematic review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Michael J; Luong, Amber; Yao, William C; Citardi, Martin J

    2018-01-01

    Odontogenic cysts and tumors of the maxilla may be amendable to management by endonasal endoscopic techniques, which may reduce the morbidity associated with open procedures and avoid difficult reconstruction. To perform a systematic review that evaluates the feasibility and outcomes of endoscopic techniques in the management of different odontogenic cysts. A case series of our experience with these minimally invasive techniques was assembled for insight into the technical aspects of these procedures. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used to identify English-language studies that reported the use of endoscopic techniques in the management of odontogenic cysts. Several medical literature data bases were searched for all occurrences in the title or abstract of the terms "odontogenic" and "endoscopic" between January 1, 1950, and October 1, 2016. Publications were evaluated for the technique used, histopathology, complications, recurrences, and the follow-up period. A case series of patients who presented to a tertiary rhinology clinic and who underwent treatment of odontogenic cysts by an endoscopic technique was included. A systematic review identified 16 case reports or series that described the use of endoscopic techniques for the treatment of odontogenic cysts, including 45 total patients. Histopathologies encountered were radicular (n = 16) and dentigerous cysts (n = 10), and keratocystic odontogenic tumor (n = 12). There were no reported recurrences or major complications for a mean follow-up of 29 months. A case series of patients in our institution identified seven patients without recurrence for a mean follow-up of 10 months. Endonasal endoscopic treatment of various odontogenic cysts are described in the literature and are associated with effective treatment of these lesions for an average follow-up period of >2 years. These techniques have the potential to reduce morbidity associated with the resection of these

  4. Current relevance of fungal and trypanosomatid glycolipids and sphingolipids: studies defining structures conspicuously absent in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio K. Takahashi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, glycosphingolipids have been attracting attention due to their role on biological systems as second messengers or modulators of signal transduction, affecting several events, which range from apoptosis to regulation of the cell cycle. In pathogenic fungi, glycolipids are expressed in two classes: neutral monohexosylceramides (glucosyl-or galactosylceramide and acidic glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (the latter class carries longer glycan chains. It is worth to mention that monohexosylceramides exhibit significant structural differences in their lipid moieties compared to their mammalian counterparts, whereas the glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides exhibit remarkable structural differences in their carbohydrate moieties in comparison to mammal glycosphingolipids counterpart. We observed that glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides are capable of promoting immune response in infected humans. In addition, inhibiting fungal glycosphingolipid biosynthetic pathways leads to an inhibition of colony formation, spore germination, cell cycle, dimorphism and hyphal growth. Other pathogens, such as trypanosomatids, also present unique glycolipids, which may have an important role for the parasite development and/or disease establishment. Regarding host-pathogen interaction, cell membrane rafts, which are enriched in sphingolipids and sterols, participate in parasite/fungal infection. In this review, it is discussed the different biological roles of (glyco (sphingolipids of pathogenic/opportunistic fungi and trypanosomatids.Recentemente, glicoesfingolipídeos têm atraído atenção devido ao seu papel na biologia celular como segundo-mensageiro ou moduladores da transdução de sinal, afetando vários eventos, desde apoptose até a regulação do ciclo celular. Em fungos patogênicos, existem duas classes de glicolipídeos: monohexosil ceramidas neutras (glucosil-ou galactosilceramida e glicosilinositol fosforilceramidas (os quais apresentam

  5. A review of the behaviour of U-238 series radionuclides in soils and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, N; Pérez-Sánchez, D; Thorne, M C

    2013-01-01

    The U-238 series of radionuclides is of relevance in a variety of environmental contexts ranging from the remediation of former uranium mining and milling facilities to the deep geological disposal of solid radioactive wastes. Herein, we review what is known concerning the behaviour of radionuclides from the U-238 decay chain in soils and plants. This review is intended to provide a single comprehensive source of information to anyone involved in undertaking environmental impact assessment studies relating to this decay chain. Conclusions are drawn relating to values and ranges of distribution coefficients appropriate to uranium, thorium, radium, lead and polonium in different soil types and under various environmental conditions. Similarly, conclusions are drawn relating to plant:soil concentration ratios for these elements for different plant and soil types, and consideration is given to the distribution of these elements within plants following both root uptake and foliar application. (review)

  6. Dissociative sensibility disorders - A retrospective case series and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Peter; Erlacher, Rahel

    2018-01-01

    Dissociative disorders present a huge challenge in clinical settings. In contrast to other dissociative symptoms, dissociative sensibility disorders are rarely focused on. To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of dissociative sensibility disorders in children and adolescents, and to review the use of diagnostic procedures. For the review, a literature search used Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubPsych (to 02/2015) and the reference lists of the studies identified. Screening of titles and abstracts; full-text assessment by two reviewers. The original case series was identified by using the local data register. Two reviewers independently reviewed the data and, if they agreed on the relevance, extracted the data. In the original case series, data were extracted retrospectively from the records. Sixteen studies and seven case reports were identified, including 931 cases with dissociative disorders. In 210 cases the patient suffered either from a single sensibility disorder or predominantly from sensibility disorders. We identified thirteen further cases in our cohort. In both groups there was female predominance; the mean age of manifestation was early adolescence. The timing of admissions was variable. In approximately 50% of cases a premorbid stressful life event could be identified. Over 75% of cases had a good prognosis with complete resolution. Retrospective character of our own data collection, partially missing differentiation between the subgroups of dissociative disorders in the reviewed studies. There is no uniform procedure for diagnostic work-up. The overall short-term prognosis is good. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypothalamic-pituitary sarcoidosis with vision loss and hypopituitarism: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Jeremy; Esper, Gregory J; Ioachimescu, Adriana

    2016-02-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) neurosarcoidosis (NS) accounts for 0.5 % cases of sarcoidosis and 1 % of HP masses. Correlative data on endocrine and neurological outcomes is lacking. Retrospective case series and literature review of presentation, treatment and outcome of HP NS. Our series includes 4 men, ages 34-59, followed for a median of 7.3 years (range 1.5-17). All had optic neuropathy, multiple pituitary hormone abnormalities (PHAs) and other organ involvement by sarcoidosis (lung, sino-nasal, brain/spine and facial nerve). Two patients had central diabetes insipidus and one impaired thirst with polydipsia. After treatment with high-dose glucocorticoids, optic neuropathy improved in one case and stabilized in the others. After treatment, HP lesions improved radiologically, but PHAs persisted in all cases. Review of four published series on HP NS in addition to ours yielded 46 patients, age 37 ± 11.8 years, 65 % male. PHAs consisted of anterior hypopituitarism (LH/FSH 88.8 %, TSH 67.4 %, GH 50.0 %, ACTH 48.8 %), hyperprolactinemia (48.8 %) and diabetes insipidus (65.2 %). PHAs were the first sign of disease in 54.3 % patients. Vision problems occurred in 28.3 % patients, but optic neuropathy was not well documented in previous series. Most patients (93.5 %) received high-dose glucocorticoids followed by taper; 50 % also received other immunomodulators, including methotrexate, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclosporine, azathioprine, infliximab and hydrochloroquine. Only 13 % patients showed improvement in PHAs. All-cause mortality was 8.7 %. HP NS is a serious disease requiring multidisciplinary treatment and lifelong follow-up. Prospective multicentric studies are needed to determine a more standardized approach to HP NS and outline predictors of disease outcome.

  8. Review of current GPS methodologies for producing accurate time series and their error sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiaoxing; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel; Yu, Kegen; Hua, Xianghong; Jiang, Weiping

    2017-05-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an important tool to observe and model geodynamic processes such as plate tectonics and post-glacial rebound. In the last three decades, GPS has seen tremendous advances in the precision of the measurements, which allow researchers to study geophysical signals through a careful analysis of daily time series of GPS receiver coordinates. However, the GPS observations contain errors and the time series can be described as the sum of a real signal and noise. The signal itself can again be divided into station displacements due to geophysical causes and to disturbing factors. Examples of the latter are errors in the realization and stability of the reference frame and corrections due to ionospheric and tropospheric delays and GPS satellite orbit errors. There is an increasing demand on detecting millimeter to sub-millimeter level ground displacement signals in order to further understand regional scale geodetic phenomena hence requiring further improvements in the sensitivity of the GPS solutions. This paper provides a review spanning over 25 years of advances in processing strategies, error mitigation methods and noise modeling for the processing and analysis of GPS daily position time series. The processing of the observations is described step-by-step and mainly with three different strategies in order to explain the weaknesses and strengths of the existing methodologies. In particular, we focus on the choice of the stochastic model in the GPS time series, which directly affects the estimation of the functional model including, for example, tectonic rates, seasonal signals and co-seismic offsets. Moreover, the geodetic community continues to develop computational methods to fully automatize all phases from analysis of GPS time series. This idea is greatly motivated by the large number of GPS receivers installed around the world for diverse applications ranging from surveying small deformations of civil engineering structures (e

  9. Genetic basis of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism: a case series and a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontikides, Nikolaos; Karras, Spyridon; Kaprara, Athina; Anagnostis, Panagiotis; Mintziori, Gesthimani; Goulis, Dimitrios G; Memi, Eleni; Krassas, Gerasimos

    2014-07-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is a heterogeneous clinical entity. In the clinical setting, the diagnosis and management of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism (FIHP) and other familial hyperparathyroidism (FHPT) forms continue to rely on clinical, laboratory, and histological findings, with careful examination of the family. In this article, we report a case series of FIHP in a four-generation Greek family, with no identifiable gene mutations. Clinical approach and long-term follow-up are discussed and a narrative review of the genetic basis of this entity has been performed.

  10. Mucormycosis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheen Z. Abidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare and often fatal invasive fungal infection mostly seen in immune-compromised individuals. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary, so that effective preemptive therapy can be started, as timely intervention is crucial. In this series we present three cases of invasive mucormycosis in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease that had received therapy with immunomodulators prior to the infection. All three had varied clinical manifestations. We also review the literature of invasive mucormycosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

  11. Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with circulating phospho- and sphingolipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Demirkan

    Full Text Available Phospho- and sphingolipids are crucial cellular and intracellular compounds. These lipids are required for active transport, a number of enzymatic processes, membrane formation, and cell signalling. Disruption of their metabolism leads to several diseases, with diverse neurological, psychiatric, and metabolic consequences. A large number of phospholipid and sphingolipid species can be detected and measured in human plasma. We conducted a meta-analysis of five European family-based genome-wide association studies (N = 4034 on plasma levels of 24 sphingomyelins (SPM, 9 ceramides (CER, 57 phosphatidylcholines (PC, 20 lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC, 27 phosphatidylethanolamines (PE, and 16 PE-based plasmalogens (PLPE, as well as their proportions in each major class. This effort yielded 25 genome-wide significant loci for phospholipids (smallest P-value = 9.88×10(-204 and 10 loci for sphingolipids (smallest P-value = 3.10×10(-57. After a correction for multiple comparisons (P-value<2.2×10(-9, we observed four novel loci significantly associated with phospholipids (PAQR9, AGPAT1, PKD2L1, PDXDC1 and two with sphingolipids (PLD2 and APOE explaining up to 3.1% of the variance. Further analysis of the top findings with respect to within class molar proportions uncovered three additional loci for phospholipids (PNLIPRP2, PCDH20, and ABDH3 suggesting their involvement in either fatty acid elongation/saturation processes or fatty acid specific turnover mechanisms. Among those, 14 loci (KCNH7, AGPAT1, PNLIPRP2, SYT9, FADS1-2-3, DLG2, APOA1, ELOVL2, CDK17, LIPC, PDXDC1, PLD2, LASS4, and APOE mapped into the glycerophospholipid and 12 loci (ILKAP, ITGA9, AGPAT1, FADS1-2-3, APOA1, PCDH20, LIPC, PDXDC1, SGPP1, APOE, LASS4, and PLD2 to the sphingolipid pathways. In large meta-analyses, associations between FADS1-2-3 and carotid intima media thickness, AGPAT1 and type 2 diabetes, and APOA1 and coronary artery disease were observed. In conclusion, our

  12. Uranium and thorium decay series radionuclides in human and animal foodchains - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linsalata, P.

    1994-01-01

    Human exposures along plant and animal pathways to isotopes of U, Th, Ra, Pb, and Po are reviewed. The range and variability of intakes among human populations resulting from dietary sources are presented. Also discussed are the sources of intake among fare animals reared for consumption. Under most circumstances, the soil-plant-human pathway is the predominant route of intake for humans and livestock. Radionuclide distributions within livestock and human tissues, and the transfer factors used to model intakes along various food chain pathways an summarized. Bone is the major site of deposition in livestock and humans. Where possible, summary data and conclusions from previous reviews are considered along with some notable gaps in the data base for natural series radionuclides. 67 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Anesthesia for left ventricular assist device insertion: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, David; Donaldson, Emilie; Falterman, Jason; Bates, Michael

    2011-01-01

    From October 2008 to June 2010, a total of 42 patients had the HeartMate II left ventricular assist device inserted surgically at Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans, LA. A retrospective electronic record review was conducted on this series of patients to analyze elements of perioperative anesthetic care, including general anesthetic care, echocardiographic considerations, and blood product usage. Etomidate was used to induce anesthesia for 34 of 42 patients (81%) in this series, with an average dose of 16.5 mg (±6 mg). The average intraoperative fentanyl dose was 1,318 µg (±631 µg). On average, patients were extubated 91 hours (±72 hours) after arrival to the intensive care unit and left on day 9 (±5 days). The average left ventricular ejection fraction of the patients in this series was 13% (±5%). Sixteen patients were evaluated as having severe right-heart dysfunction preoperatively. Two of 42 patients required surgical closure of echocardiographically identified patent foramen ovale. Twelve of 42 patients underwent surgical correction of tricuspid regurgitation. On average, 3 units (±2.6 units) of fresh frozen plasma were transfused intraoperatively and 10 units postoperatively. Intraoperative red blood cell usage averaged 1.1 units (maximum, 7 units), with an average 9.3 units administered in the first 48 hours postoperatively.

  14. Volatile anesthetics for status asthmaticus in pediatric patients: a comprehensive review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrié, Sabrina; Anderson, Thomas Anthony

    2015-05-01

    Status asthmaticus is an acute, intractable asthma attack refractory to standard interventions that can lead to progressive respiratory failure. Successful management requires a fundamental understanding of the disease process, its clinical presentation, and proper evaluation. Treatment must be instituted early and is aimed at reversing the airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and hyper-reactivity that often lead to lower airway obstruction, impaired ventilation, and oxygenation. Most patients are effectively treated with standard therapy including beta2-adrenergic agonists and corticosteroids. Others necessitate adjunctive therapies and escalation to noninvasive ventilation or intubation. We will review the pathophysiology, evaluation, and treatment options for pediatric patients presenting with status asthmaticus with a particular focus on refractory status asthmaticus treated with volatile anesthetics. In addition, we include a proven approach to the management of these patients in the critical care setting, which requires close coordination between critical care and anesthesia providers. We present a case series of three patients, two of which have the longest reported cases of continuous isoflurane use in status asthmaticus. This series was obtained from a retrospective chart review and highlights the efficacy of the volatile anesthetic, isoflurane, in three pediatric patients with refractory life-threatening status asthmaticus. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Liver Damage Associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb.: A Systematic Review of Case Reports and Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Lei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To summarize the characteristics and analysis of relevant factors and to give references for prevention and further study of liver damage associated with Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. (HSW, we provide a systematic review of case reports and case series about liver damage associated with HSW. Methods. An extensive search of 6 medical databases was performed up to June 2014. Case reports and case series involving liver damage associated with HSW were included. Results. This review covers a total of 450 cases in 76 articles. HSW types included raw and processed HSW decoction pieces and many Chinese patent medicines that contain HSW. Symptoms of liver damage occur mostly a month or so after taking the medicine, mainly including jaundice, fatigue, anorexia, and yellow or tawny urine. Of the 450 patients, two cases who received liver transplantation and seven who died, the remaining 441 cases recovered or had liver function improvement after discontinuing HSW products and conservative care. Conclusion. HSW causes liver toxicity and may cause liver damage in different degrees and even lead to death; most of them are much related to long-term and overdose of drugs. Liver damage associated with HSW is reversible, and, after active treatment, the majority can be cured. People should be alert to liver damage when taking HSW preparations.

  16. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate...ol. 2007 Feb;147(2):199-207. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-lik... immunity. PubmedID 17223959 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulat

  17. Membrane organization determines barrier properties of endothelial cells and short-chain sphingolipid-facilitated doxorubicin influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hell, A J; Klymchenko, A; Gueth, D M; van Blitterswijk, W J; Koning, G A; Verheij, M

    2014-09-01

    The endothelial lining and its outer lipid membrane are the first major barriers drug molecules encounter upon intravenous administration. Our previous work identified lipid analogs that counteract plasma membrane barrier function for a series of amphiphilic drugs. For example, short-chain sphingolipids (SCS), like N-octanoyl-glucosylceramide, effectively elevated doxorubicin accumulation in tumor cells, both in vitro and in vivo, and in endothelial cells, whereas other (normal) cells remained unaffected. We hypothesize here that local membrane lipid composition and the degree of lipid ordering define SCS efficacy in individual cells. To this end, we study the differential effect of SCS on bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) in its confluent versus proliferative state, as a model system. While their (plasma membrane) lipidome stays remarkably unaltered when BAECs reach confluency, their lipids segregate to form apical and basolateral domains. Using probe NR12S, we reveal that lipids in the apical membrane are more condensed/liquid-ordered. SCS preferentially attenuate the barrier posed by these condensed membranes and facilitate doxorubicin influx in these particular membrane regions. We confirm these findings in MDCK cells and artificial membranes. In conclusion, SCS-facilitated drug traversal acts on condensed membrane domains, elicited by confluency in resting endothelium. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of ORMDL proteins, guardians of cellular sphingolipids, in asthma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paulenda, Tomáš; Dráber, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 7 (2016), s. 918-930 ISSN 0105-4538 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-00703S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-09807S; GA ČR(CZ) GBP302/12/G101 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : asthma * cellular membranes * endoplasmic * reticulum * ORMDL3 * sphingolipids Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.361, year: 2016

  19. Sphingolipid Metabolism Correlates with Cerebrospinal Fluid Beta Amyloid Levels in Alzheimer’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonteh, Alfred N.; Ormseth, Cora; Chiang, Jiarong; Cipolla, Matthew; Arakaki, Xianghong; Harrington, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a) total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b) levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c) three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but not impaired

  20. Sphingolipid metabolism correlates with cerebrospinal fluid Beta amyloid levels in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred N Fonteh

    Full Text Available Sphingolipids are important in many brain functions but their role in Alzheimer's disease (AD is not completely defined. A major limit is availability of fresh brain tissue with defined AD pathology. The discovery that cerebrospinal fluid (CSF contains abundant nanoparticles that include synaptic vesicles and large dense core vesicles offer an accessible sample to study these organelles, while the supernatant fluid allows study of brain interstitial metabolism. Our objective was to characterize sphingolipids in nanoparticles representative of membrane vesicle metabolism, and in supernatant fluid representative of interstitial metabolism from study participants with varying levels of cognitive dysfunction. We recently described the recruitment, diagnosis, and CSF collection from cognitively normal or impaired study participants. Using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, we report that cognitively normal participants had measureable levels of sphingomyelin, ceramide, and dihydroceramide species, but that their distribution differed between nanoparticles and supernatant fluid, and further differed in those with cognitive impairment. In CSF from AD compared with cognitively normal participants: a total sphingomyelin levels were lower in nanoparticles and supernatant fluid; b levels of ceramide species were lower in nanoparticles and higher in supernatant fluid; c three sphingomyelin species were reduced in the nanoparticle fraction. Moreover, three sphingomyelin species in the nanoparticle fraction were lower in mild cognitive impairment compared with cognitively normal participants. The activity of acid, but not neutral sphingomyelinase was significantly reduced in the CSF from AD participants. The reduction in acid sphingomylinase in CSF from AD participants was independent of depression and psychotropic medications. Acid sphingomyelinase activity positively correlated with amyloid β42 concentration in CSF from cognitively normal but

  1. Glycosylation of inositol phosphorylceramide sphingolipids is required for normal growth and reproduction in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tartaglio, Virginia [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Rennie, Emilie A. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Center for Plant Science Innovation and Dept. of Biochemistry; Cahoon, Rebecca [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Center for Plant Science Innovation and Dept. of Biochemistry; Wang, George [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Baidoo, Edward [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Mortimer, Jennifer C. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Cahoon, Edgar B. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). Center for Plant Science Innovation and Dept. of Biochemistry; Scheller, Henrik V. [Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant and Microbial Biology

    2016-09-19

    Sphingolipids are a major component of plant plasma membranes and endomembranes, and mediate a diverse range of biological processes. Study of the highly glycosylated glycosyl inositol phosphorylceramide (GIPC) sphingolipids has been slow as a result of challenges associated with the extractability of GIPCs, and their functions in the plant remain poorly characterized. We recently discovered an Arabidopsis GIPC glucuronosyltransferase, INOSITOL PHOSPHORYLCERAMIDE GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE 1 (IPUT1), which is the first enzyme in the GIPC glycosylation pathway. Plants homozygous for the iput1 loss-of-function mutation were unobtainable, and so the developmental effects of reduced GIPC glucuronosylation could not be analyzed in planta. Using a pollen-specific rescue construct, we have here isolated homozygous iput1 mutants. The iput1 mutants show severe dwarfism, compromised pollen tube guidance, and constitutive activation of salicyclic acid-mediated defense pathways. The mutants also possess reduced GIPCs, increased ceramides, and an increased incorporation of short-chain fatty acids and dihydroxylated bases into inositol phosphorylceramides and GIPCs. The assignment of a direct role for GIPC glycan head groups in the impaired processes in iput1 mutants is complicated by the vast compensatory changes in the sphingolipidome; however, our results reveal that the glycosylation steps of GIPC biosynthesis are important regulated components of sphingolipid metabolism. In conclusion, this study corroborates previously suggested roles for GIPC glycans in plant growth and defense, suggests important role s for them in reproduction and demonstrates that the entire sphingolipidome is sensitive to their status.

  2. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westhuizen, Liana van der; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B 1 (FB 1 ) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB 1 containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB 1 dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB 1 treatment in the control rats was significantly (P 1 initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB 1 treatment, the initiation effected by FB 1 was less (P 1 initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P 1 treatment. Although, the FB 1 -induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)

  3. A conserved signaling network monitors delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Jesse; Dephoure, Noah; Horecka, Ira; Gygi, Steven; Kellogg, Douglas

    2017-10-01

    In budding yeast, cell cycle progression and ribosome biogenesis are dependent on plasma membrane growth, which ensures that events of cell growth are coordinated with each other and with the cell cycle. However, the signals that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth are poorly understood. Here we used proteome-wide mass spectrometry to systematically discover signals associated with membrane growth. The results suggest that membrane trafficking events required for membrane growth generate sphingolipid-dependent signals. A conserved signaling network appears to play an essential role in signaling by responding to delivery of sphingolipids to the plasma membrane. In addition, sphingolipid-dependent signals control phosphorylation of protein kinase C (Pkc1), which plays an essential role in the pathways that link the cell cycle and ribosome biogenesis to membrane growth. Together these discoveries provide new clues as to how growth--dependent signals control cell growth and the cell cycle. © 2017 Clarke et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. TOR Complex 2-Ypk1 Signaling Maintains Sphingolipid Homeostasis by Sensing and Regulating ROS Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad J. Niles

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are produced during normal metabolism and can function as signaling molecules. However, ROS at elevated levels can damage cells. Here, we identify the conserved target of rapamycin complex 2 (TORC2/Ypk1 signaling module as an important regulator of ROS in the model eukaryotic organism, S. cerevisiae. We show that TORC2/Ypk1 suppresses ROS produced both by mitochondria as well as by nonmitochondrial sources, including changes in acidification of the vacuole. Furthermore, we link vacuole-related ROS to sphingolipids, essential components of cellular membranes, whose synthesis is also controlled by TORC2/Ypk1 signaling. In total, our data reveal that TORC2/Ypk1 act within a homeostatic feedback loop to maintain sphingolipid levels and that ROS are a critical regulatory signal within this system. Thus, ROS sensing and signaling by TORC2/Ypk1 play a central physiological role in sphingolipid biosynthesis and in the maintenance of cell growth and viability.

  5. Fiber specific changes in sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscles of hyperthyroid rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabowski, A; Zendzian-Piotrowska, M; Mikłosz, A; Łukaszuk, B; Kurek, K; Górski, J

    2013-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (T3, T4) are well known modulators of different cellular signals including the sphingomyelin pathway. However, studies regarding downstream effects of T3 on sphingolipid metabolism in skeletal muscle are scarce. In the present work we sought to investigate the effects of hyperthyroidism on the activity of the key enzymes of ceramide metabolism as well as the content of fundamental sphingolipids. Based on fiber/metabolic differences, we chose three different skeletal muscles, with diverse fiber compositions: soleus (slow-twitch oxidative), red (fast-twitch oxidative-glycolytic) and white (fast-twitch glycolytic) section of gastrocnemius. We demonstrated that T3 induced accumulation of sphinganine, ceramide, sphingosine, as well as sphingomyelin, mostly in soleus and in red, but not white section of gastrocnemius. Concomitantly, the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase and acid/neutral ceramidase was increased in more oxidative muscles. In conclusion, hyperthyroidism induced fiber specific changes in the content of sphingolipids that were relatively more related to de novo synthesis of ceramide rather than to its generation via hydrolysis of sphingomyelin.

  6. Pregnancy and radiotherapy : management options for minimising risk, case series and comprehensive literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luis, S. A.; Christie, D. R. H.; Peres, M. H.; Kaminski, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: This article reviews the efficacy and safety of radiotherapy in patients with cancer who are pregnant. Our review provided extended follow-up results in nine cases, presents a technical discussion on measures taken to minimise foetal radiation exposure and provides a comprehensive summary of the literature. Nine patients who received radiotherapy while pregnant are described. The clinical presentation and outcomes of these and 100 additional cases identified on a systematic literature review are presented. Comparisons of scattered radiation doses from three linear accelerators are presented. The average maternal follow-up in our series was 8.9 years with one patient having a recurrence of their astrocytoma. In terms of foetal outcome, there were one death in utero, one elective termination of pregnancy and one on which no data were available. Six children, on whom long-term follow-up (average 10.3 years) was obtainable, were in good health. Overall, there had been 109 cases of radiotherapy in pregnancy that met our search criteria with 13 adverse outcomes and a median follow-up of 37 months. Comparisons of three linear accelerators demonstrated significant differences in the amount of scattered radiation to the abdominal surface. In summary radiotherapy during pregnancy can be associated with a significant number of adverse outcomes. While it may be difficult for a patient not to attribute these effects to radiotherapy, it is also difficult to define the mechanisms by which radiotherapy would have caused them, if that were the case.

  7. Plasma and ovarian tissue sphingolipids profiling in patients with advanced ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paweł; Bodnar, Lubomir; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Świderska, Magdalena; Chabowski, Adrian

    2017-10-01

    The role of lipids in carcinogenesis through induction of abnormal cell lines in the human body is currently undisputable. Based on the literature, bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and are involved in the metastatic process. The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of selected sphingolipids in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC, FIGO III/IV, high grade ovarian cancer). Seventy-four patients with ovarian cancer were enrolled. Plasma concentrations of C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer were assessed by LC/MS/MS. The content of tissue sphingolipids was measured using a UHPLC/MS/MS. Plasma concentration of 3 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer and C18-Cer was significantly elevated in women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to control group (P=0.031; 0.022; 0.020; respectively). There were increases in concentration of 5 ceramides: C16-Cer, C18:1-Cer, C18-Cer, C24:1-Cer, C24-Cer (P=0.025; 0.049; 0.032; 0.005; 0.013, respectively) and S1P (P=0.004) in ovarian tissue of women with advanced ovarian cancer compared to healthy individuals. Importantly, significantly higher risk of ovarian cancer when the plasma concentration of C16-Cer>311.88ng/100μl (AUC: 0.76, P=0.0261); C18:1-Cer>4.75ng/100μl (AUC: 0.77, P=0.0160) and C18-Cer>100.76ng/100μl (AUC:0.77, P=0.0136) was noticed. Bioactive sphingolipids play an essential role in the development and progression of cancer and they also take part in the process of metastasizing. This study suggests that some sphingolipids can be used as potential biomarkers of advanced ovarian cancer and that they can play an important role in the pathogenesis of this disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Delayed diagnosis of post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum: A multicenter case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawaa Almukhtar

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pyoderma gangrenosum is a chronic neutrophilic dermatosis which can occur following trauma or surgery and can mimic infection. Surgical intervention can lead to progression of disease. Presentation of cases: This case series describes 3 cases of post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum with delayed diagnosis from two large medical centers. Discussion: Epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical and histopathologic presentation, and management of post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum are discussed with a review of the literature. Conclusion: Post-surgical pyoderma gangrenosum (PSPG can mimic ulcerative disorders including bacterial infection. The diagnosis should be suspected in post-operative wounds with negative bacterial cultures which progress despite broad-spectrum antibiotics and surgical debridement. Recognizing the clinical features of PSPG is fundamental to prevent severe destruction and deformity. Keywords: Post-surgical, Pyoderma gangrenosum, Necrotizing fasciitis, Case report

  9. Natural-Series Radionuclides in Traditional Aboriginal Foods in Tropical Northern Australia: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Martin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation.

  10. Adverse effects of aromatherapy: a systematic review of case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posadzki, Paul; Alotaibi, Amani; Ernst, Edzard

    2012-01-01

    This systematic review was aimed at critically evaluating the evidence regarding the adverse effects associated with aromatherapy. Five electronic databases were searched to identify all relevant case reports and case series. Forty two primary reports met our inclusion criteria. In total, 71 patients experienced adverse effects of aromatherapy. Adverse effects ranged from mild to severe and included one fatality. The most common adverse effect was dermatitis. Lavender, peppermint, tea tree oil and ylang-ylang were the most common essential oils responsible for adverse effects. Aromatherapy has the potential to cause adverse effects some of which are serious. Their frequency remains unknown. Lack of sufficiently convincing evidence regarding the effectiveness of aromatherapy combined with its potential to cause adverse effects questions the usefulness of this modality in any condition.

  11. Male lupus: a diagnosis often delayed--a case series and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ambrose, N L

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an auto-immune disease that is characterised by autoantibody production. Male lupus is rare, apart from at either end of the age spectrum. AIM: In this series, we review the histories of six male lupus patients attending our service. RESULTS: Our patients presented in middle age and tended to develop haematological abnormalities, renal involvement and neurological manifestations which preceded the onset of their skin and joint complaints. Our patients accrued damage rapidly and overall did badly. They tended to respond sub-optimally to standard treatments. These cases highlight the need an increased awareness that male SLE patients present with a wide variety of symptoms, and that they accrue damage quickly. There is a need for timely diagnosis and appropriate initiation of treatment. This may help avoid preventable organ damage and increase the survival of men with SLE.

  12. Engineering report : technical review of the GPSI model G3000 series multi-sensor controller system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, S.; Campbell, I. [Gas Protection Systems Inc., Maple Ridge, BC (Canada)

    2001-12-01

    The Enviro Sentry 24/7 model G3002 remote computer was developed by Gas Production Services Inc. (GPSI). This low cost Universal Detector/Controller consists of a stand-alone, scalable network connected to a daisy-chain topology. M. Collyer reviewed the capabilities of the GPSI model G3000 series multi-sensor controller system from an engineering perspective and presented an independent opinion on its performance and operation. Its evaluation was based on a randomly selected production unit supplied by GPSI. M. Collyer used widely used industry principles, electronic laboratory testing methods, prepared schematic diagrams, and presented operator ratings. The strength of the system's viability in the global market is that its use is not constrained by regulations or standards of any country, province, state or region. It can be used to provide solutions for air quality, protection and energy management. In particular, the G3000 series provides continuous protection and intelligent management in combustible gas detection; seismic risk mitigation; toxic gas early detection; air quality management; and, energy conservation. 1 tab.

  13. Omalizumab for atopic dermatitis: case series and a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Jesper Grønlund; Agner, Tove; Sand, Carsten; Thomsen, Simon Francis

    2017-01-01

    Omalizumab is a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting the high-affinity Fc receptor of IgE, registered for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria and severe allergic asthma. We present a case series of nine patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) treated off-label with omalizumab and a systematic review of the existing literature. Patients were selected consecutively from a tertiary dermatological referral center during a 5-year period. All patients were treated with omalizumab at a starting dose of 300 mg subcutaneously every 4 weeks. Systematic literature searches were performed in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrials.gov to identify any study (case reports, case series, and controlled trials) evaluating the effect of treatment with omalizumab in AD. Based on physicians' assessment, 50% of our patients had a good or excellent response to treatment with omalizumab; a further 12.5% had a moderate response, while 37.5% experienced no response or deterioration of symptoms during treatment. Treatment was generally well tolerated. Twenty-six studies with a median of four patients each (range 1-21), comprising 174 patients, were included in the systematic review. Summed over all studies, a total of 129 patients (74.1%) experienced a beneficial effect of treatment ranging from little to complete response. Omalizumab appears to be a safe and well tolerated, however expensive, treatment with some clinical benefit in patients with severe recalcitrant AD. Recommendation for use in clinical practice awaits evidence from larger randomized controlled trials. © 2016 The International Society of Dermatology.

  14. Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments: a series of 31 cases and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yongtao

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A case series for ganglion cyst of the cruciate ligament with MRI findings, clinical presentation, and management options along with review of literature is presented. Methods Of 8663 consecutive patients referred for knee MR imaging, 31 were diagnosed with ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments, including 21 men and 10 women of ages 12 to 73 years (mean: 37. A review of charts revealed that knee pain was the chief complaint in all cases. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst was performed in 11 patients. Results MRI proved to be a valuable tool in diagnosing and deciding management of these cases. All 11 patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment were symptom-free on a minimum follow-of one year. Conclusion Cyst formation associated with cruciate ligament of the knee is an infrequent cause of knee pain. MR imaging was important in confirming the cyst lesions and provided useful information prior to arthroscopy. Arthroscopic debridement of ganglion cyst produced excellent outcome without recurrence. This study describes the pertinent MRI and intraoperative findings of ganglion cyst.

  15. 46 XX karyotype during male fertility evaluation; case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Majzoub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Forty-six XX disorder of sex development is an uncommon medical condition observed at times during the evaluation of a man′s fertility. The following is a case series and literature review of phenotypically normal men diagnosed with this karyotype. Our goal is to comprehend the patients′ clinical presentation as well as their laboratory results aiming to explore options available for their management. A formal literature review through PubMed and MEDLINE databases was performed using "46 XX man" as a word search. A total of 55 patients, including those conveyed in this article were diagnosed with a 46 XX karyotype during their fertility evaluation. The patients′ mean age ± s.d. was 34 ± 10 years and their mean height ± s.d. was 166 ± 6.5 cm. Overall, they presented with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. Sexual dysfunction, reduced hair distribution, and gynecomastia were reported in 20% (4/20, 25.8% (8/31, and 42% (13/31 of the patients, respectively. The SRY gene was detected in 36 (83.7% and was absent in the remaining seven (16.3% patients. We found that a multidisciplinary approach to management is preferred in 46 XX patients. Screening for remnants of the mullerian ducts and for malignant transformation in dysgenetic gonads is imperative. Hypogonadism should be addressed, while fertility options are in vitro fertilization with donor sperm or adoption.

  16. Importance of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in olfactory neuroblastoma treatment: Series report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Ricardo; Gonzalez-Compta, Xavier; Cisa, Enric; Cruellas, Francesc; Torres, Alberto; Rovira, Aleix; Manos, Manel

    2017-10-20

    Olfactory neuroblastoma (ONB) is a rare entity that constitutes less than 5% of nasosinusal malignancies. Mainstream treatment consists in surgical resection+/-adjuvant radiotherapy. By exposing results observed with apparition of new therapeutic options as neoadjuvant chemotherapy, the objective is to evaluate a series and a review of the current literature. A retrospective review was conducted including patients diagnosed and followed-up for ONB from 2008 to 2015 in our institution. 9 patients were included. Mean follow-up of 52.5 months (range 10-107). Kadish stage: A, 1 patient (11.1%) treated with endoscopic surgery; B, 2 patients (22.2%) treated with endoscopic surgery (one of them received adjuvant radiotherapy); C, 6 patients (66.7%), 4 patients presented intracranial extension and were treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiotherapy. The other 2 patients presented isolated orbital extension, treated with radical surgery (endoscopic or craniofacial resection) plus radiotherapy. The 5-year disease free and overall survival observed was 88.9%. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy could be an effective treatment for tumor reduction, improving surgical resection and reducing its complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  17. CKD hotspots around the world: where, why and what the lessons are. A CKJ review series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ortiz, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that has had the highest increase in the last 20 years. The increasing CKD burden occurs in the context of lack of access of most of the world population to adequate healthcare and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. CKD hotspots are defined as countries, region, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD. Analysis of CKD hotspots has the potential to provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease and to improve the life expectancy of the affected communities. Examples include ethnicities such as African Americans in the USA or Aboriginals in Australia, regions such as certain Balkan valleys or Central America and even groups of people sharing common activities or interests such as young women trying to lose weight in Belgium. The study of these CKD hotspots has identified underlying genetic factors, such as ApoL1 gene variants, environmental toxins, such as aristolochic acid and socioeconomic factors leading to nutritional deprivation and inflammation/infection. The CKD hotspots series of CKJ reviews will explore the epidemiology and causes in CKD hotspots, beginning with Australian Aboriginals in this issue. An online map of CKD hotspots around the world will feature the reviewed hotspots, highlighting known or suspected causes as well as ongoing projects to unravel the cause and providing a directory of public health officials, physicians and basic scientists involved in these efforts. Since the high prevalence of CKD in a particular region or population may only be known to local physicians, we encourage readers to propose further CKD hotspots to be reviewed.

  18. Q fever in Spain: Description of a new series, and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alende-Castro, Vanesa; Macía-Rodríguez, Cristina; Novo-Veleiro, Ignacio; García-Fernández, Xana; Treviño-Castellano, Mercedes; Rodríguez-Fernández, Sergio; González-Quintela, Arturo

    2018-03-01

    Forms of presentation of Q fever vary widely across Spain, with differences between the north and south. In the absence of reported case series from Galicia (north-west Spain), this study sought to describe a Q-fever case series in this region for the first time, and conduct a systematic review to analyse all available data on the disease in Spain. Patients with positive serum antibodies to Coxiella burnetii from a single institution over a 5-year period (January 2011-December 2015) were included. Patients with phase II titres above 1/128 (or documented seroconversion) and compatible clinical criterial were considered as having Q fever. Patients with clinical suspicion of chronic Q-fever and IgG antibodies to phase I-antigen of over 1/1024, or persistently high levels six months after treatment were considered to be cases of probable chronic Q-fever. Systematic review: We conducted a search of the Pubmed/Medline database using the terms: Q Fever OR Coxiella burnetii AND Spain. Our search yielded a total of 318 studies: 244 were excluded because they failed to match the main criteria, and 41 were discarded due to methodological problems, incomplete information or duplication. Finally, 33 studies were included. A total of 155 patients, all of them from Galicia, with positive serological determination were located during the study period; 116 (75%) were deemed to be serologically positive patients without Q fever and the remaining 39 (25%) were diagnosed with Q fever. A potential exposure risk was found in 2 patients (5%). The most frequent form of presentation was pneumonia (87%), followed by isolated fever (5%), diarrhoea (5%) and endocarditis (3%). The main symptoms were headache (100%), cough (77%) and fever (69%). A trend to a paucisymptomatic illness was observed in women. Hospital admission was required in 37 cases, and 6 patients died while in hospital. Only 2 patients developed chronic Q-fever. Systematic review: Most cases were sporadic, mainly presented

  19. Volterra-series-based nonlinear system modeling and its engineering applications: A state-of-the-art review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, C. M.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.

    2017-03-01

    Nonlinear problems have drawn great interest and extensive attention from engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most real systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. To model and analyze nonlinear systems, many mathematical theories and methods have been developed, including Volterra series. In this paper, the basic definition of the Volterra series is recapitulated, together with some frequency domain concepts which are derived from the Volterra series, including the general frequency response function (GFRF), the nonlinear output frequency response function (NOFRF), output frequency response function (OFRF) and associated frequency response function (AFRF). The relationship between the Volterra series and other nonlinear system models and nonlinear problem solving methods are discussed, including the Taylor series, Wiener series, NARMAX model, Hammerstein model, Wiener model, Wiener-Hammerstein model, harmonic balance method, perturbation method and Adomian decomposition. The challenging problems and their state of arts in the series convergence study and the kernel identification study are comprehensively introduced. In addition, a detailed review is then given on the applications of Volterra series in mechanical engineering, aeroelasticity problem, control engineering, electronic and electrical engineering.

  20. Sphingolipids: Key Regulators of Apoptosis and Pivotal Players in Cancer Drug Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Giussani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance elicited by cancer cells still constitutes a huge problem that frequently impairs the efficacy of both conventional and novel molecular therapies. Chemotherapy usually acts to induce apoptosis in cancer cells; therefore, the investigation of apoptosis control and of the mechanisms used by cancer cells to evade apoptosis could be translated in an improvement of therapies. Among many tools acquired by cancer cells to this end, the de-regulated synthesis and metabolism of sphingolipids have been well documented. Sphingolipids are known to play many structural and signalling roles in cells, as they are involved in the control of growth, survival, adhesion, and motility. In particular, in order to increase survival, cancer cells: (a counteract the accumulation of ceramide that is endowed with pro-apoptotic potential and is induced by many drugs; (b increase the synthesis of sphingosine-1-phosphate and glucosylceramide that are pro-survivals signals; (c modify the synthesis and the metabolism of complex glycosphingolipids, particularly increasing the levels of modified species of gangliosides such as 9-O acetylated GD3 (αNeu5Ac(2-8αNeu5Ac(2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer or N-glycolyl GM3 (αNeu5Ac (2-3βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer and de-N-acetyl GM3 (NeuNH(2βGal(1-4βGlc(1-1Cer endowed with anti-apoptotic roles and of globoside Gb3 related to a higher expression of the multidrug resistance gene MDR1. In light of this evidence, the employment of chemical or genetic approaches specifically targeting sphingolipid dysregulations appears a promising tool for the improvement of current chemotherapy efficacy.

  1. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Biji; Jacobson, Jeffrey R.; Berdyshev, Evgeny; Huang, Yong; Sun, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Yutong; Gerhold, Lynnette M.; Siegler, Jessica; Evenoski, Carrie; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Tong; Zaidi, Rafe; Moreno-Vinasco, Liliana; Bittman, Robert; Chen, Chin Tu; LaRiviere, Patrick J.; Sammani, Saad; Lussier, Yves A.; Dudek, Steven M.; Natarajan, Viswanathan; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Garcia, Joe G. N.

    2011-01-01

    Clinically significant radiation-induced lung injury (RILI) is a common toxicity in patients administered thoracic radiotherapy. Although the molecular etiology is poorly understood, we previously characterized a murine model of RILI in which alterations in lung barrier integrity surfaced as a potentially important pathobiological event and genome-wide lung gene mRNA levels identified dysregulation of sphingolipid metabolic pathway genes. We hypothesized that sphingolipid signaling components serve as modulators and novel therapeutic targets of RILI. Sphingolipid involvement in murine RILI was confirmed by radiation-induced increases in lung expression of sphingosine kinase (SphK) isoforms 1 and 2 and increases in the ratio of ceramide to sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and dihydro-S1P (DHS1P) levels in plasma, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and lung tissue. Mice with a targeted deletion of SphK1 (SphK1−/−) or with reduced expression of S1P receptors (S1PR1+/−, S1PR2−/−, and S1PR3−/−) exhibited marked RILI susceptibility. Finally, studies of 3 potent vascular barrier-protective S1P analogs, FTY720, (S)-FTY720-phosphonate (fTyS), and SEW-2871, identified significant RILI attenuation and radiation-induced gene dysregulation by the phosphonate analog, fTyS (0.1 and 1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk) and to a lesser degree by SEW-2871 (1 mg/kg i.p., 2×/wk), compared with those in controls. These results support the targeting of S1P signaling as a novel therapeutic strategy in RILI.—Mathew, B., Jacobson, J. R., Berdyshev, E., Huang, Y., Sun, X., Zhao, Y., Gerhold, L. M., Siegler, J., Evenoski, C., Wang, T., Zhou, T., Zaidi, R., Moreno-Vinasco, L., Bittman, R., Chen, C. T., LaRiviere, P. J., Sammani, S., Lussier, Y. A., Dudek, S. M., Natarajan, V., Weichselbaum, R. R., Garcia, J. G. N. Role of sphingolipids in murine radiation-induced lung injury: protection by sphingosine 1-phosphate analogs. PMID:21712494

  2. Ophiamides A-B, new potent urease inhibitory sphingolipids from Heliotropium ophioglossum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Sadiqa; Ansari, Nida Hassan; Fatima, Itrat; Malik, Abdul; Afza, Nighat; Iqbal, Lubna; Lateef, Mehreen

    2012-07-01

    Ophiamides A (1) and B (2), two new sphingolipids have been isolated from the n-hexane subfraction of the MeOH extract of the whole plant of Heliotropium ophioglossum along with glycerol monopalmitate (3) and β-sitosterol 3-O-β-D: -glucoside (4) reported for the first time from this species. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques including MS and 2D-NMR spectroscopy. Both the compounds 1 and 2 showed potent inhibitory activity against the enzyme urease.

  3. Evaluation of Sphingolipids in Wistar Rats Treated to Prolonged and Single Oral Doses of Fumonisin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direito, Glória M.; Almeida, Adriana P.; Aquino, Simone; dos Reis, Tatiana Alves; Pozzi, Claudia Rodrigues; Corrêa, Benedito

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate sphingolipid levels (sphingosine-So and sphinganine-Sa) and to compare the Sa/So ratio in liver, serum and urine of Wistar rats after prolonged administration (21 days) of fumonisin B1 (FB1). In parallel, the kinetics of sphingolipid elimination in urine was studied in animals receiving a single dose of FB1. Prolonged exposure to FB1 caused an increase in Sa levels in urine, serum and liver. The most marked effect on sphingolipid biosynthesis was observed in animals treated with the highest dose of FB1. Animals receiving a single dose of FB1 presented variations in Sa and So levels and in the Sa/So ratio. PMID:19333435

  4. Actin filaments and microtubules are involved in different membrane traffic pathways that transport sphingolipids to the apical surface of polarized HepG2 cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zegers, MMP; Zaal, KJM; van Ijzendoorn, SCD; Klappe, K; Hoekstra, D

    In polarized HepG2 hepatoma cells, sphingolipids are transported to the apical, bile canalicular membrane by two different transport routes, as revealed with fluorescently tagged sphingolipid analogs. One route involves direct, transcytosis-independent transport of Golgi-derived glucosylceramide and

  5. Bartonella and intraocular inflammation: a series of cases and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalogeropoulos C

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Chris Kalogeropoulos1, Ioannis Koumpoulis1, Andreas Mentis2, Chrisavgi Pappa1, Paraskevas Zafeiropoulos1, Miltiadis Aspiotis11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece; 2Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, GreecePurpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis.Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature.Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62. Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%, vitritis in two eyes (14.2%, neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%, focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%, disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%, and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%. Most of the patients (70% did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis.Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the

  6. Paediatric abdominal tuberculosis in developed countries: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delisle, Megan; Seguin, Jade; Zeilinski, David; Moore, Dorothy L

    2016-03-01

    To provide an insight into the presentation, diagnosis and management of paediatric abdominal tuberculosis (TB) in developed countries. The records of all children at the Montreal Children's Hospital (MCH) admitted with abdominal TB between 1990 and 2014 were reviewed. An automated and manual literature search from 1946 to 2014 was performed. (1) CASE SERIES: six cases were identified at the MCH. All were male between 5 and 17 years of age. All were from populations known to have high rates of TB (aboriginal, immigrant). Three underwent major surgical interventions and three underwent ultrasound (US) or CT aspiration or biopsy for diagnosis. (2) LITERATURE REVIEW: 29 male (64%) and 16 female subjects (36%) aged between 14 months and 18 years were identified, including the MCH patients. All patients except one were from populations with a high incidence of TB. Most presented with a positive tuberculin skin test (90%), abdominal pain (76%), fever (71%) and weight loss (68%). On imaging, 22 (49%) were classified with gastrointestinal TB with colonic wall irregularity (41%) and 19 (42%) with peritoneal TB with ascites (68%). A positive culture was obtained in 33 (73%) patients. Three cases used CT- or US-guided aspiration or biopsy to obtain tissue samples. A surgical intervention was performed in 34 (76%) children; 13 (38%) of these were for diagnosis. Diagnosis based on clinical features (abdominal pain, fever and weight loss) and CT- or US-guided aspiration or biopsy may encourage physicians to adopt a more conservative approach to abdominal TB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  7. Klatskin-mimicking lesions--a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrascu, Traian; Ionescu, Mihnea; Ciurea, Silviu; Herlea, Vlad; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel

    2010-01-01

    Obstruction of the hepatic hilum in patients without prior surgery is generally due to hilar adenocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor). However, not all the hilar strictures are malignant. Although uncommon, benign strictures of the proximal bile duct should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of Klatskin tumors, since the incidence could reach up to 25% of patients with presumed Klatskin tumor diagnosis. This group of benign proximal bile duct strictures (Klatskin-mimicking lesions) is usually represented by segmental fibrosis and non-specific chronic inflammation. The clinical and imaging features can not differentiate between benign and malignant strictures. Herein, we present a case series of three patients with benign proximal bile duct strictures (representing 4.1% of 73 patients resected with presumptive preoperative diagnosis of Klatskin tumor) and literature review. There are presented the clinical and biochemical features, imaging preoperative workup, surgical treatment and histological analysis of the specimen, along with postoperative outcome. For benign strictures of the hilum limited resections are curative. However, despite new diagnosis tools developed in the last years, patients with hilar obstructions still require unnecessary extensive resections due to impossibility of excluding the malignancy. In all cases of proximal bile duct obstruction presumed malignant, they should be managed accordingly, even with the risk of over-treatment for some benign lesions.

  8. Statistical Analysis of fMRI Time-Series: A Critical Review of the GLM Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M Monti

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a General Linear Model (GLM approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.

  9. Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava: a case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Wee Choen; Doyle, Terry; Stringer, Mark D

    2013-11-01

    Left-sided and duplicate inferior vena cava (IVC) are two major anatomical variants within the spectrum of IVC malformations, both of which are developmental abnormalities of the supracardinal veins. Four clinical cases are described to highlight the computed tomographic appearances of these vascular malformations and provide novel data on venous dimensions. A systematic review of the recent literature (2000-2011) was conducted focusing on the anatomy, demographics, and associated pathology (congenital and acquired) of isolated left-sided and duplicate IVC. A total of 73 relevant articles were retrieved, consisting of case reports and small case series. The prevalence of left-sided IVC is about 0.1-0.4% and that for duplicate IVC about 0.3-0.4%; both anomalies show a slight male preponderance. In each condition, there are documented variations in the course and tributaries of the IVC. The clinical importance of these anomalies lies in three principal areas: the potential for misdiagnosis on imaging; technical difficulties during retroperitoneal surgery (particularly abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and live donor nephrectomy); and their significance in relation to the etiology and management of venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) Induces Lamellar Separation and Alters Sphingolipid Metabolism of In Vitro Cultured Hoof Explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisinger, Nicole; Dohnal, Ilse; Nagl, Veronika; Schaumberger, Simone; Schatzmayr, Gerd; Mayer, Elisabeth

    2016-03-24

    One of the most important hoof diseases is laminitis. Yet, the pathology of laminitis is not fully understood. Different bacterial toxins, e.g. endotoxins or exotoxins, seem to play an important role. Additionally, ingestion of mycotoxins, toxic secondary metabolites of fungi, might contribute to the onset of laminitis. In this respect, fumonsins are of special interest since horses are regarded as species most susceptible to this group of mycotoxins. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) on primary isolated epidermal and dermal hoof cells, as well as on the lamellar tissue integrity and sphingolipid metabolism of hoof explants in vitro. There was no effect of FB₁ at any concentration on dermal or epidermal cells. However, FB₁ significantly reduced the separation force of explants after 24 h of incubation. The Sa/So ratio was significantly increased in supernatants of explants incubated with FB₁ (2.5-10 µg/mL) after 24 h. Observed effects on Sa/So ratio were linked to significantly increased sphinganine concentrations. Our study showed that FB₁ impairs the sphingolipid metabolism of explants and reduces lamellar integrity at non-cytotoxic concentrations. FB₁ might, therefore, affect hoof health. Further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary to elucidate the effects of FB₁ on the equine hoof in more detail.

  11. Synthesis and processing of sphingolipid activator protein-2 (SAP-2) in cultured human fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, S.; Wenger, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Sphingolipid activator proteins (SAP) are relatively small molecular weight proteins that stimulate the enzymatic hydrolysis of sphingolipids in the presence of specific lysosomal hydrolases. SAP-2 has previously been demonstrated to activate the hydrolysis of glucosylceramide, galactosylceramide, and, possibly, sphingomyelin. Using monospecific rabbit antibodies against human spleen SAP-2, the synthesis and processing of SAP-2 were studied in cultured human fibroblasts. When [ 35 S]methionine was presented in the medium to control human cells for 4 h, five major areas of radiolabeling were found. These had apparent molecular weights of 73,000, 68,000, 50,000, 12,000, and 9000. Further studies indicated that the major extracellular product in normal cells given NH4Cl along with the [ 35 S]methionine and in medium from cultures from patients with I cell disease had an apparent molecular weight of 73,000. The Mr = 68,000 and 73,000 species can be converted to a species with an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 by the action of endoglycosidase F. After labeling cells for 1 h followed by a 1-h chase, the Mr = 12,000 and 9000 species appear. Treatment of the immunoprecipitated mixture with endoglycosidase F resulted in conversion of these species to one band with an apparent molecular weight of 7600. These studies indicate that this relatively low molecular weight protein is rapidly synthesized from a relatively large molecular weight highly glycosylated precursor

  12. A sphingolipid-dependent diffusion barrier confines ER stress to the yeast mother cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Lori; Caudron, Fabrice; Denoth-Lippuner, Annina; Boettcher, Barbara; Buvelot Frei, Stéphanie; Snapp, Erik Lee; Barral, Yves

    2014-01-01

    In many cell types, lateral diffusion barriers compartmentalize the plasma membrane and, at least in budding yeast, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, the molecular nature of these barriers, their mode of action and their cellular functions are unclear. Here, we show that misfolded proteins of the ER remain confined into the mother compartment of budding yeast cells. Confinement required the formation of a lateral diffusion barrier in the form of a distinct domain of the ER-membrane at the bud neck, in a septin-, Bud1 GTPase- and sphingolipid-dependent manner. The sphingolipids, but not Bud1, also contributed to barrier formation in the outer membrane of the dividing nucleus. Barrier-dependent confinement of ER stress into the mother cell promoted aging. Together, our data clarify the physical nature of lateral diffusion barriers in the ER and establish the role of such barriers in the asymmetric segregation of proteotoxic misfolded proteins during cell division and aging. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01883.001 PMID:24843009

  13. Comparative effects of fumonisins on sphingolipid metabolism and toxicity in ducks and turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benlasher, Emad; Geng, Xiuyu; Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh Xuan; Tardieu, Didier; Bailly, Jean-Denis; Auvergne, Alain; Guerre, Philippe

    2012-03-01

    Fumonisins (FBs) are mycotoxins that are found worldwide in maize and maize products. Their main toxic effects have been well characterized in poultry, but differences between species have been demonstrated. Ducks appeared very sensitive to toxicity, whereas turkeys are more resistant. At the same time, alterations of sphingolipid metabolism, with an increase of the concentration of the free sphinganine (Sa) in serum and liver, have been demonstrated in the two species, but the link between the toxicity of FBs and Sa accumulation remains difficult to interpret. The aim of the present work was to compare the effects of FBs (10 mg FB1 + FB2/kg body weight) on sphingolipid metabolism in ducks and turkeys. Growth, feed consumption, and serum biochemistry were also investigated to evaluate toxicity. The main results showed that FBs increased Sa concentrations in liver and serum in ducks and turkeys, but these accumulations were not directly correlated with toxicity. Sa accumulation was higher in the livers of turkeys than in ducks, whereas Sa levels were higher in the sera of ducks than in turkeys. Hepatic toxicity was more pronounced in ducks than in turkeys and accompanied a decrease of body weight and an increase of serum biochemistry in ducks but not in turkeys. So, although FBs increase Sa concentration in the livers of both species, this effect is not directly proportional to toxicity. The mechanisms of FB toxicity and/or the mechanisms of protection of ducks and turkeys to the Sa accumulation within the liver remain to be established.

  14. Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT experience in Victoria, Australia: A case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quynh Le

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT is a metabolic disorder resulting from a deficiency of hepatic enzyme uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase (UROD. UROD deficiency results in the accumulation of porphyrins, which are phototoxic and hepatotoxic. PCT patients are at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma. Aims We aim to describe a series of PCT patients presenting to a tertiary center over 35-year period from the 1980s to December 2015 and review current literature to date on PCT, with a focus on PCT management. Methods A search of the center’s dermatology department and biochemistry database were performed to identify patients diagnosed with PCT. Demographic data, underlying risk factors and management details were obtained. Statistical tests were performed to identify any possible association between the variables of interest. Results 34 patients were included in this study. Mean age of diagnosis was 48 years and there was no gender difference. 12 patients had Hepatitis C infection, 25 had excessive alcohol consumption, 13 had hereditary haemochromatosis. Eight patients developed oestrogen-associated or hormonal replacement therapy (HRT induced PCT. 33 patients (97 per cent responded to venesection. Six (18 per cent patients were prescribed hydroxychloroquine, either alone or concurrently with venesection. They all achieved remission. Average duration of follow up is 13 years. One patient developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Conclusion Our study has reinforced venesection as an effective treatment for PCT. Low dose hydroxychloroquine can be used in patients where venesection is contraindicated or not tolerated. General measures such as alcohol abstinence, visible violet light protection and trauma avoidance are recommended.

  15. Primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, S; Margiotta, D P; Navarini, L; Pierro, L; Pantano, I; Riccardi, A; Afeltra, A; Valentini, G

    2017-12-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statins have been suggested to play a prophylactic role of cardiovascular events. This study is devoted to reviewing the literature on the topic and assessing the effects of these drugs in preventing a first cardiovascular event in a two-centre Italian series. Methods A PubMed search on cardiovascular prevention in systemic lupus erythematosus was performed. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus patients admitted to two centres from 2000-2015, who at admission had not experienced any cardiovascular event, were investigated. Aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statin use, and the occurrence of any cardiovascular event, were recorded at each visit. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional, disease-related cardiovascular risk factors and of each of the three drugs in the occurrence of new cardiovascular events. Results The literature search produced conflicting results. Two hundred and ninety-one systemic lupus erythematosus patients were included in the study and followed for a median of eight years. During follow-up, 16 cardiovascular events occurred. At multivariate analysis, taking aspirin (hazard ratio: 0.24) and hydroxychloroquine for more than five years (hazard ratio: 0.27) reduced, while antiphospholipid antibody positivity (hazard ratio: 4.32) increased, the risk of a first cardiovascular event. No effect of statins emerged. Conclusion Our study confirms an additive role of aspirin and hydroxychloroquine in the primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The lack of any detected effect in previous reports may depend on the design of studies and their short follow-up period.

  16. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Pasteurella multocida: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honnorat, Estelle; Seng, Piseth; Savini, Hélène; Pinelli, Pierre-Olivier; Simon, Fabrice; Stein, Andreas

    2016-08-20

    Pasteurella multocida is a well-recognized zoonotic agent following dog or cat bites or scratches. Nevertheless, prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida are rarely reported. We report here a series of six cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida managed at a referral centre for the treatment of bone and joint infection in southern France. We also reviewed the 26 cases reported in literature. The mean age of our cases was 74 years [±8.2, range 63-85]. In majority of our cases (5 cases) were associated with knee prostheses and one case with a hip prosthesis. Most of cases occurred after cat or dog scratches or licks or contact. Diagnoses of prosthetic joint infection caused by P. multocida were made by positive cultures of surgical biopsies or needle aspiration. Mean time delay between prosthetic joint implantation and infection onset was 7.6 years (±5.12 years, range 2-17). Local inflammation, which occurred in all six cases, was the most frequent clinical symptom, followed by pain in five cases, fever and swollen joints in four cases, and a fistula with purulent discharge inside the wound in two cases. The mean time of antibiotic therapy was 8 months. Surgical treatment with prosthesis removal was performed in three cases. Six of our cases were in remission without apparent relapse at 3 years after end of treatment. Prosthetic joint infections caused by P. multocida usually occur after animal scratches or bites, but can occasionally occur after a short animal lick. These infections are usually resulting from a contiguous infection and localized in the knee. An early antibiotic therapy after surgical debridement could avoid prosthetic withdrawal, notably in elderly patients. Patients with prosthetic joints should be warned that animals are potential sources of serious infection and urgent medical advice should be sought if they are bitten or scratched.

  17. (Glyco)sphingolipids are sorted in sub-apical compartments in HepG2 cells : A role for non-Golgi-related intracellular sites in the polarized distribution of (glyco)sphingolipids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van IJzendoorn, SCD; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    In polarized HepG2 cells, the fluorescent sphingolipid analogues of glucosylceramide (C-6-NBD-GlcCer) and sphingomyelin (C-6-NBD-SM) display a preferential localization at the apical and basolateral domain, respectively, which is expressed during apical to basolateral transcytosis of the lipids (van

  18. Structure and mechanism of calmodulin binding to a signaling sphingolipid reveal new aspects of lipid-protein interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Erika; Harmat, Veronika; Tóth, Judit; Vértessy, Beáta G.; Módos, Károly; Kardos, József; Liliom, Károly

    2010-01-01

    Lipid-protein interactions are rarely characterized at a structural molecular level due to technical difficulties; however, the biological significance of understanding the mechanism of these interactions is outstanding. In this report, we provide mechanistic insight into the inhibitory complex formation of the lipid mediator sphingosylphosphorylcholine with calmodulin, the most central and ubiquitous regulator protein in calcium signaling. We applied crystallographic, thermodynamic, kinetic, and spectroscopic approaches using purified bovine calmodulin and bovine cerebral microsomal fraction to arrive at our conclusions. Here we present 1) a 1.6-Å resolution crystal structure of their complex, in which the sphingolipid occupies the conventional hydrophobic binding site on calmodulin; 2) a peculiar stoichiometry-dependent binding process: at low or high protein-to-lipid ratio calmodulin binds lipid micelles or a few lipid molecules in a compact globular conformation, respectively, and 3) evidence that the sphingolipid displaces calmodulin from its targets on cerebral microsomes. We have ascertained the specificity of the interaction using structurally related lipids as controls. Our observations reveal the structural basis of selective calmodulin inhibition by the sphingolipid. On the basis of the crystallographic and biophysical characterization of the calmodulin–sphingosylphosphorylcholine interaction, we propose a novel lipid-protein binding model, which might be applicable to other interactions as well.—Kovacs, E., Harmat, V., Tóth, J., Vértessy, B. G., Módos, K., Kardos, J., Liliom, K. Structure and mechanism of calmodulin binding to a signaling sphingolipid reveal new aspects of lipid-protein interactions. PMID:20522785

  19. The safety of electroconvulsive therapy and lithium in combination: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Tamara J; Rasmussen, Keith G

    2005-09-01

    Early reports cautioned against the combination of lithium and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), citing risk of excessive cognitive disturbance, prolonged apnea, and spontaneous seizures. However, recent case series with larger numbers of patients indicate that the combination may be used safely and with optimal efficacy in certain clinical circumstances. In this report, we describe 12 patients in whom the combination of lithium and ECT was deemed safe. We also provide a comprehensive review of published literature and provide detailed recommendations for clinical practice.

  20. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in pregnancy: A systematic review and case series from Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenichnaya, Natalia Yurievna; Leblebicioglu, Hakan; Bozkurt, Ilkay; Sannikova, Irina Viktorovna; Abuova, Gulzhan Narkenovna; Zhuravlev, Andrey Sergeevich; Barut, Sener; Shermetova, Mutabar Bekovna; Fletcher, Tom E

    2017-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is acute viral infection and a major emerging infectious diseases threat, affecting a large geographical area. There is no proven antiviral therapy and it has a case fatality rate of 4-30%. The natural history of disease and outcomes of CCHF in pregnant women is poorly understood. To systematically review the characteristics of CCHF in pregnancy, and report a case series of 8 CCHF cases in pregnant women from Russia, Kazakhstan and Turkey. A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement protocol. PubMed, SCOPUS, Science Citation Index (SCI) were searched for reports published between January 1960 and June 2016. Two independent reviewers selected and reviewed studies and extracted data. Thirty-four cases of CCHF in pregnancy were identified, and combined with the case series data, 42 cases were analyzed. The majority of cases originated in Turkey (14), Iran (10) and Russia (6). There was a maternal mortality of 14/41(34%) and fetal/neonatal mortality of in 24/41 cases (58.5%). Hemorrhage was associated with maternal (p=0.009) and fetal/neonatal death (p<0.0001). There was nosocomial transmission to 38 cases from 6/37 index pregnant cases. Cases of CCHF in pregnancy are rare, but associated with high rates of maternal and fetal mortality, and nosocomial transmission. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. The sphingolipid long-chain base-Pkh1/2-Ypk1/2 signaling pathway regulates eisosome assembly and turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Guangzuo; Gruhler, Albrecht; Liu, Ying

    2008-01-01

    Eisosomes are recently described fungal structures that play roles in the organization of the plasma membrane and endocytosis. Their major protein components are Pil1 and Lsp1, and previous studies showed that these proteins are phosphorylated by the sphingolipid long-chain base-activated Pkh1...... that phosphorylation is critical for eisosome organization. We also found that eisosomes are dynamic structures and disassemble when the Ypk protein kinases, which are activated by the sphingolipid-Pkh signaling pathway, are inactivated or when the sphingolipid signal is pharmacologically blocked with myriocin. We...

  2. Serum profiling of healthy aging identifies phospho- and sphingolipid species as markers of human longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoliu, Ivan; Scherer, Max; Beguelin, Fiona; DaSilva, Laeticia; Mari, Daniela; Salvioli, Stefano; Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Capri, Miriam; Bucci, Laura; Ostan, Rita; Garagnani, Paolo; Monti, Daniela; Biagi, Elena; Brigidi, Patrizia; Kussmann, Martin; Rezzi, Serge; Franceschi, Claudio; Collino, Sebastiano

    2014-01-01

    As centenarians well represent the model of healthy aging, there are many important implications in revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms behind such successful aging. By combining NMR metabonomics and shot-gun lipidomics in serum we analyzed metabolome and lipidome composition of a group of centenarians with respect to elderly individuals. Specifically, NMR metabonomics profiling of serum revealed that centenarians are characterized by a metabolic phenotype distinct from that of elderly subjects, in particular regarding amino acids and lipid species. Shot- gun lipidomics approach displays unique changes in lipids biosynthesis in centenarians, with 41 differently abundant lipid species with respect to elderly subjects. These findings reveal phospho/sphingolipids as putative markers and biological modulators of healthy aging, in humans. Considering the particular actions of these metabolites, these data are suggestive of a better counteractive antioxidant capacity and a well-developed membrane lipid remodelling process in the healthy aging phenotype.

  3. Segregation of sphingolipids and sterols during formation of secretory vesicles at the trans-Golgi network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemm, Robin W; Ejsing, Christer S.; Surma, Michal A

    2009-01-01

    The trans-Golgi network (TGN) is the major sorting station in the secretory pathway of all eukaryotic cells. How the TGN sorts proteins and lipids to generate the enrichment of sphingolipids and sterols at the plasma membrane is poorly understood. To address this fundamental question in membrane...... trafficking, we devised an immunoisolation procedure for specific recovery of post-Golgi secretory vesicles transporting a transmembrane raft protein from the TGN to the cell surface in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using a novel quantitative shotgun lipidomics approach, we could demonstrate that TGN...... than the late Golgi membrane, as measured by C-Laurdan spectrophotometry, strongly suggests that lipid rafts play a role in the TGN-sorting machinery....

  4. Neurochemical Metabolomics Reveals Disruption to Sphingolipid Metabolism Following Chronic Haloperidol Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClay, Joseph L; Vunck, Sarah A; Batman, Angela M; Crowley, James J; Vann, Robert E; Beardsley, Patrick M; van den Oord, Edwin J

    2015-09-01

    Haloperidol is an effective antipsychotic drug for treatment of schizophrenia, but prolonged use can lead to debilitating side effects. To better understand the effects of long-term administration, we measured global metabolic changes in mouse brain following 3 mg/kg/day haloperidol for 28 days. These conditions lead to movement-related side effects in mice akin to those observed in patients after prolonged use. Brain tissue was collected following microwave tissue fixation to arrest metabolism and extracted metabolites were assessed using both liquid and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (MS). Over 300 unique compounds were identified across MS platforms. Haloperidol was found to be present in all test samples and not in controls, indicating experimental validity. Twenty-one compounds differed significantly between test and control groups at the p < 0.05 level. Top compounds were robust to analytical method, also being identified via partial least squares discriminant analysis. Four compounds (sphinganine, N-acetylornithine, leucine and adenosine diphosphate) survived correction for multiple testing in a non-parametric analysis using false discovery rate threshold < 0.1. Pathway analysis of nominally significant compounds (p < 0.05) revealed significant findings for sphingolipid metabolism (p = 0.015) and protein biosynthesis (p = 0.024). Altered sphingolipid metabolism is suggestive of disruptions to myelin. This interpretation is supported by our observation of elevated N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate in the haloperidol-treated mice (p = 0.004), a marker previously associated with demyelination. This study further demonstrates the utility of murine neurochemical metabolomics as a method to advance understanding of CNS drug effects.

  5. 4-Hydroxynonenal Contributes to Angiogenesis through a Redox-Dependent Sphingolipid Pathway: Prevention by Hydralazine Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Camaré

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The neovascularization of atherosclerotic lesions is involved in plaque development and may contribute to intraplaque hemorrhage and plaque fragilization and rupture. Among the various proangiogenic agents involved in the neovascularization process, proatherogenic oxidized LDLs (oxLDLs contribute to the formation of tubes via the generation of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P, a major mitogenic and proangiogenic sphingolipid mediator. In this study, we investigated whether 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE, an aldehydic lipid oxidation product abundantly present in oxLDLs, contributes to their proangiogenic properties. Immunofluorescence analysis of human atherosclerotic lesions from carotid endarterectomy showed the colocalization of HNE-adducts with CD31, a marker of endothelial cells, suggesting a close relationship between 4-HNE and neovessel formation. In vitro, low 4-HNE concentration (0.5–1 µM elicited the formation of tubes by human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1, whereas higher concentrations were not angiogenic. The formation of tubes by 4-HNE involved the generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of the sphingolipid pathway, namely, the neutral type 2 sphingomyelinase and sphingosine kinase-1 (nSMase2/SK-1 pathway, indicating a role for S1P in the angiogenic signaling of 4-HNE. Carbonyl scavengers hydralazine and bisvanillyl-hydralazone inhibited the nSMase2/SK1 pathway activation and the formation of tubes on Matrigel® evoked by 4-HNE. Altogether, these results emphasize the role of 4-HNE in the angiogenic effect of oxLDLs and point out the potential interest of pharmacological carbonyl scavengers to prevent the neovascularization process.

  6. Interrupted time series analysis in drug utilization research is increasing: systematic review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandoc, Racquel; Burden, Andrea M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M

    2015-08-01

    To describe the use and reporting of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and reference lists to identify English language articles through to December 2013 that used interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We tabulated the number of studies by publication year and summarized methodological detail. We identified 220 eligible empirical applications since 1984. Only 17 (8%) were published before 2000, and 90 (41%) were published since 2010. Segmented regression was the most commonly applied interrupted time series method (67%). Most studies assessed drug policy changes (51%, n = 112); 22% (n = 48) examined the impact of new evidence, 18% (n = 39) examined safety advisories, and 16% (n = 35) examined quality improvement interventions. Autocorrelation was considered in 66% of studies, 31% reported adjusting for seasonality, and 15% accounted for nonstationarity. Use of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research has increased, particularly in recent years. Despite methodological recommendations, there is large variation in reporting of analytic methods. Developing methodological and reporting standards for interrupted time series analysis is important to improve its application in drug utilization research, and we provide recommendations for consideration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Radiotherapy in fascial fibromatosis: a case series, literature review and considerations for treatment of early-stage disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenfell, Solveig; Borg, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Palmar and plantar fascial fibromatoses are benign hyperproliferative disorders of the deep fascia of the palm and sole. This study seeks to examine the role of radiotherapy in the management of fascial fibromatosis. Six consecutive cases of early-stage fascial fibromatosis treated with radiotherapy at the Adelaide Radiotherapy Centre between July 2008 and May 2011 were analysed. The results of the case series were compared with a systematic review of the literature. All six cases regressed or showed a reduction of symptoms following radiotherapy. Treatment was well tolerated with minor toxicities. Median follow-up for the case series was 38.5 months. The systematic review identified seven studies describing the use of radiotherapy as primary treatment for fascial fibromatosis between 1946 and 2013. The literature indicates that radiotherapy can prevent disease progression and improve symptoms for early-stage disease, with low likelihood of significant toxicities. Early results from our case series are consistent with the literature, showing that radiotherapy can provide an effective management option for patients with early-stage fascial fibromatosis, and justify consideration of radiotherapy as a primary treatment for early-stage disease.

  8. Identification of Two Suppressors of CSG2 Calcium Sensitivity, SCS7 and SUR2, as Genes Encoding Hydroxylases of the Sphingolipid Biosynthetic Pathway of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haak, Dale A

    1997-01-01

    .... The biochemical significance of much of this structural variability is not well understood. The sphingolipids of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae undergo the a-hydroxylation of the very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA...

  9. Profiling of Plasma Metabolites Suggests Altered Mitochondrial Fuel Usage and Remodeling of Sphingolipid Metabolism in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Jun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Discussion: DKD is associated with altered fuel substrate use and remodeling of sphingolipid metabolism in T2DM with DKD. Associations of albuminuria and impaired filtration function with distinct metabolomic signatures suggest different pathophysiology underlying these 2 manifestations of DKD.

  10. Oral Granular Cell Tumor: Report of Case Series and a Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karakostas Panayiotis

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: The present analysis focuses on examining a case series of eight patients diagnosed with a granular cell tumor located in the oral cavity. Case series: The patients’ clinical states were thoroughly studied, along with the histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations findings. Their surgical treatment and postoperative course are also within the scope of this analysis. Numerous histogenesis theories and the appropriate tumor treatment are mentioned within the article being always in accordance with the relative literature. Conclusions: Oral granular cell tumor is a benign oral disease of possible neural origin commonly located on the tongue. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In any case, histological and immunohistochemical examination confirm both the clinical diagnosis and the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Unusual root canal morphology of mandibular second premolars: A case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehal Sonarkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular second premolars (MSPs have varied anatomy ranging from 1 to 3 roots and 1–5 canals. Successful endodontic treatment is achieved by proper access opening, cleaning, and shaping and three-dimensional obturation. This case series describes five cases in which MSPs have been diagnosed with aberrant canal system. The Case 1 and 5 has one root with Vertucci's Type V canal configuration. The Case 2 has two roots with two canals, the Case 3 has one root with Vertucci's Type IV canal configuration, whereas the Case 4 has three roots with three canals. This case series also describes a classification for describing the root configuration. The clinical implications of this paper are first to reach at appropriate diagnosis of canal system using diagnostic aids (angulated radiographs and dental operating microscope. Second, to use advanced endodontic instruments for achieving successful endodontic therapy (NiTi rotary instruments.

  12. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  13. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Jagadish; Dhoom Singh Mehta; P Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral mani...

  14. Vertebral artery dissection in hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugalingam, Renuka; Reza Pour, Nina; Chuah, Siang Chye; Vo, Thi Mong; Beran, Roy; Hennessy, Annemarie; Makris, Angela

    2016-07-16

    Arterial dissection is a rare complication of pregnancy and puerperium. There have been reports of aortic, coronary and cervical artery dissection in association with preeclampsia, however, vertebral artery dissection is rarely reported particularly in the antenatal setting in the presence of a Hypertensive Disorder of Pregnancy (HDP).The general annual incidence of symptomatic spontaneous cervicocephalic arterial dissection is 0.0026 % and a data registry reported that 2.4 % of these occurred in the post-partum period. The actual incidence of vertebral artery dissection in HDP is unknown as the current literature consists of case series and reports only with most documenting adverse outcomes. Given the presence of collateral circulation, unilateral vertebral artery dissections may go unrecognised and may be more common than suspected. We present a case series of four patients with vertebral artery dissection in association with HDP, two of which occurred in the antenatal setting and two in the post-partum setting. All our patients had favourable outcome with no maternal neurological deficit and live infants. Our discussion covers the proposed pathophysiology of vertebral artery dissection in HDP and the management of it. Our case series highlights the need to consider VAD an important differential diagnosis when assessing pregnant women with headache and neck pain particularly in the context of HDP.

  15. Serious adverse events after HPV vaccination: a critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79–653) [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] . The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.

  16. AHRQ series on complex intervention systematic reviews-paper 7: PRISMA-CI elaboration and explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Butler, Mary; Chang, Christine; Viswanathan, Meera; Pigott, Terri; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Complex interventions are widely used in health care, public health, education, criminology, social work, business, and welfare. They have increasingly become the subject of systematic reviews and are challenging to effectively report. The Complex Interventions Methods Workgroup developed an extension to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses for Complex Interventions (PRISMA-CI). Following the EQUATOR Network guidance for Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis extensions, this Explanation and Elaboration (EE) document accompanies the PRISMA-CI checklist to promote consistency in reporting of systematic reviews of complex interventions. The EE document explains the meaning and rationale for each unique PRISMA-CI checklist item and provides examples to assist systematic review authors in operationalizing PRISMA-CI guidance. The Complex Interventions Workgroup developed PRISMA-CI as an important start toward increased consistency in reporting of systematic reviews of complex interventions. Because the field is rapidly expanding, the Complex Interventions Methods Workgroup plans to re-evaluate periodically for the need to add increasing specificity and examples as the field matures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Suture Anchor Fixation for Fifth Metatarsal Tuberosity Avulsion Fractures: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Choon Chiet; Nag, Kushal; Yeow, Huifen; Lin, Adrian Zhigao; Tan, Ken Jin

    2018-05-17

    Fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fractures are common. Despite good outcomes with nonoperative treatment, acute fractures with displacement, intra-articular involvement, comminution, or painful nonunion have been reported to benefit from early open reduction and internal fixation, especially in athletes. No consensus has been reached regarding the best surgical fixation technique. We present a case series of 4 patients with displaced fifth metatarsal tuberosity avulsion fractures and an innovative technique of fixation for the tuberosity avulsion fractures using a suture anchor. Copyright © 2018 The American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pigmented villonodular synovitis of the temporomandibular joint with intracranial extension: A case series and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaee, Michael; Oh, Taemin; Sun, Matthew Z; Parsa, Andrew T; McDermott, Michael W; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Bloch, Orin

    2015-08-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane. PVNS generally affects large joints but occasionally involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), with occasional extension into the middle cranial fossa. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with PVNS along with a focused literature review. Patients with PVNS of the TMJ treated at the University of California - San Francisco from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed. A PubMed search was performed to identify additional cases. Five patients underwent surgical resection, with 1 recurrence at 61 months. A literature review identified 58 patients, 19 of which had intracranial involvement. Interestingly, intracranial extension was more common in men. Intracranial extension was not associated with an increased rate of recurrence. PVNS of the TMJ is a rare entity associated with excellent outcomes, even with intracranial extension. Management should consist of maximal resection, with radiotherapy reserved for extensive or recurrent lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Breast as an unusual site of metastasis- series of 3 cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar, Ashwin K; Shashidhar, K; S, Krishna Murthy; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-09-01

    Background and objectives Metastasis to the breast from extra mammary sites is uncommon with an incidence ranging from 1.2 to 2 % in clinical reports. Approximately 300 cases of breast metastasis from extra mammary sites have been reported, mostly in small series or as a single case report. Gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma metastasising to the breast is also very rare and only 30 cases have been reported in the literature. Metastatic deposits within the breast may be difficult to distinguish from primary breast carcinoma. Radiological features and immunohistochemistry especially for steroid hormone receptors (ER/PR) and expression of gross cystic disease fluid protein (GCDFP) and presence of other immunohistochemistry protein factors in breast metastasis which are specific to primary site may be helpful in differentiating these two conditions. Materials and methods In this series of 3 cases of breast as an unusual site of metastasis, we present different cases of adenocarcinoma of stomach, sigmoid colon and kidney with metastasis to the breast and discuss the differential diagnosis and management plans. Conclusion In conclusion, secondary tumors to the breast are rare and thus differentiating primary tumors from metastatic breast carcinoma is important for rational and optimum therapy and avoidance of unnecessary radical surgery. Palpable breast lump without typical radiological signs of primary breast carcinoma in patients with known primary should be suspected of representing metastasis.

  20. Adenovirus urethritis and concurrent conjunctivitis: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Olivia Louise; Samuel, Mannampallil Itty; Sudhanva, Malur; Ellis, Joanna; Taylor, Chris

    2015-03-01

    We present eight cases and review the literature of concurrent urethritis and conjunctivitis where adenovirus was identified as the causative pathogen. The focus of this review concerns the identification of specific sexual practices, symptoms, signs and any serotypes that seem more commonly associated with such adenovirus infections. We discuss the seasonality of adenovirus infection and provide practical advice for clinicians to give to the patient. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Osteoid osteoma masquerading tubercular arthritis or osteomyelitis on MRI: Case series and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jatinder Pal; Srivastava, Smita; Singh, Dharmendra

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans for osteoid osteoma could be misleading and can be misinterpreted as tuberculosis, especially when used as the principal modality of investigation. We retrospectively reviewed cases presenting to our institute for second opinion and selected six cases that were referred to our institute with a provisional diagnosis of tubercular arthritis or osteomyelitis and were identified to have osteoid osteoma. We reviewed the literature on typical and atypical clinical and radiological presentations of osteoid osteoma depending upon their location and present radiological features on MRI that should alert the radiologists toward a correct diagnosis

  2. Epileptic Electroencephalography Profile Associates with Attention Defects in Children with Fragile X Syndrome: review and case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Cowley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and a variant of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The FXS population is quite heterogeneous with respect to comorbidities, which implies the need for a personalized medicine approach, relying on biomarkers or endophenotypes to guide treatment. There is evidence that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG endophenotype-guided treatments can support increased clinical benefit by considering the patient’s neurophysiological profile. We describe a case series of 11 children diagnosed with FXS, aged one to 14 years, mean 4.6 years. Case data are based on longitudinal clinically-observed reports by attending physicians for comorbid symptoms including awake and asleep EEG profiles. We tabulate the comorbid EEG symptoms in this case series, and relate them to the literature on EEG endophenotypes and associated treatment options. The two most common endophenotypes in the data were diffuse slow oscillations and epileptiform EEG, which have been associated with attention and epilepsy respectively. This observation agrees with reported prevalence of comorbid behavioral symptoms for FXS. In this sample of FXS children, attention problems were found in 37% (4 of 11, and epileptic seizures in 45% (5 of 11. Attention problems were found to associate with the epilepsy endophenotype. From the synthesis of this case series and literature review, we argue that the evidence-based personalized treatment approach, exemplified by neurofeedback, could benefit FXS children by focusing on observable, specific characteristics of comorbid disease symptoms.

  3. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: lumboperitoneal shunts versus ventriculoperitoneal shunts--case series and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abubaker, Khalid

    2011-02-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the treatment of IIH by neuronavigation-assisted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with programmable valves as compared to lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts.

  4. Review of the Series "Disease of the Year 2011: Toxoplasmosis" Pathophysiology of Toxoplasmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subauste, C.S.; Ajzenberg, D.; Kijlstra, A.

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of chronic parasitic infection in the world. This protozoan can cause retino-choroiditis in newborns and in adults, both immunocompetent and immunodeficient. This disease tends to be recurrent and can lead to severe visual impairment. The authors review current

  5. DMPD: Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immunity. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances i...147(2):217-26. (.png) (.svg) (.html) (.csml) Show Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: r...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inund

  6. Lung abscess due to Streptococcus pneumoniae: a case series and brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolini, Antonello; Cilloniz, Catia; Senarega, Renata; Ferraioli, Gianluca; Barlascini, Cornelius

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobes used to be the most common cause of community-acquired lung abscess, and Streptococcus species used to be the second most common cause. In recent years, this has been changing. Klebsiella pneumoniae is now an increasing cause of community- acquired lung abscess, but Streptococcus species continue to be major pathogens. Necrotizing pneumonia has generally been regarded as a rare complication of pneumococcal infection in adults. Type 3 Streptococcus pneumoniae was the single most common type implicated in necrosis; however, many other serotypes were implicated. This entity predominately infects children, but is present also in adults. Lung abscess in adults due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is not common. In this regard we present a case series of pulmonary cavitation due to Streptococcus pneumoniae and discuss the possible pathogenic mechanism of the disease.

  7. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagadish, Rekha; Mehta, Dhoom Singh; Jagadish, P

    2012-04-01

    Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient's informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.

  8. Oral and periodontal manifestations associated with systemic sclerosis: A case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Jagadish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient′s informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.

  9. Photodynamic therapy for mycosis fungoides: a case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Hunger

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycosis fungoides (MF is the most common form of cutaneous T cell lymphoma. In early stages of the disease, topical therapeutic approaches like steroids, chemotherapy, phototherapy or spot radiation therapy are most commonly used. Photodynamic therapy (PDT is widely executed in the treatment of actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. The effective use of PDT for early forms of MF has been previously demonstrated in a series of cases. In this instance, the treatment of MF (n = 6, 11 lesions with methyl alanine PDT (MAL-PDT in 73% of the treated lesions showed a complete response. Within the timeframe of 25-51 months, no recurrence of the successfully treated lesions was observed, on the contrary some of the patients developed new lesions on different sites. Hence, this case study shows that patients having a single or few MF lesions can be successfully treated by PDT.

  10. Acute hypopituitarism complicating Russell's viper envenomation: case series and systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopala, S; Thabah, M M; Ariga, K K; Gopalakrishnan, M

    2015-09-01

    Chronic hypopituitarism following Russell viper envenomation (RVE) is a rare but well-recognized syndrome. The clinical features, associations, management and outcomes of RVE associated-acute hypopituitarism (AHP) are not well described. To describe the clinical features, intensive care unit (ICU) management and outcomes of a series of patients with RVE-AHP and identify the clinical associations of RVE-AHP. We describe a series of patients with prospectively identified AHP related to RVE and describe our findings comparing RVE with and without AHP and a systematic search of literature on AHP related to RVE. We identified nine cases of AHP related to RVE. Unexplained hypoglycemia (100%) and hypotension (66.7%) were the most common findings at presentation. AHP occurred after a median of 9 (range, 2-14) days after severe envenomation and was associated with multi-organ dysfunction, lower platelet counts, more bleeding and transfusions when compared to patients with RVE alone. The presence of clinically defined capillary leak syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation and mortality were not different from those without AHP. Our systematic search yielded 12 cases of AHP related to RVE; data on associated clinical manifestations, therapy and ASV administration were not available in most reports. AHP is a very rare complication of RVE. Unexplained hypoglycemia and hypotension should prompt evaluation for AHP in RVE. AHP is associated with severe RVE, multi-organ dysfunction, bleeding and need for transfusion. Prompt treatment with steroids may reduce mortality related to AHP in RVE. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Identification of a New Class of Antifungals Targeting the Synthesis of Fungal Sphingolipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Visesato; Rella, Antonella; Farnoud, Amir M.; Singh, Ashutosh; Munshi, Mansa; Bryan, Arielle; Naseem, Shamoon; Konopka, James B.; Ojima, Iwao; Bullesbach, Erika; Ashbaugh, Alan; Linke, Michael J.; Cushion, Melanie; Collins, Margaret; Ananthula, Hari Krishna; Sallans, Larry; Desai, Pankaj B.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.; Fothergill, Annette W.; Kirkpatrick, William R.; Patterson, Thomas; Wong, Lai Hong; Sinha, Sunita; Giaever, Guri; Nislow, Corey; Flaherty, Patrick; Pan, Xuewen; Cesar, Gabriele Vargas; de Melo Tavares, Patricia; Frases, Susana; Miranda, Kildare; Rodrigues, Marcio L.; Luberto, Chiara; Nimrichter, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent estimates suggest that >300 million people are afflicted by serious fungal infections worldwide. Current antifungal drugs are static and toxic and/or have a narrow spectrum of activity. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of new antifungal drugs. The fungal sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) is critical in promoting virulence of a variety of human-pathogenic fungi. In this study, we screened a synthetic drug library for compounds that target the synthesis of fungal, but not mammalian, GlcCer and found two compounds [N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-2-methylbenzohydrazide (BHBM) and its derivative, 3-bromo-N′-(3-bromo-4-hydroxybenzylidene) benzohydrazide (D0)] that were highly effective in vitro and in vivo against several pathogenic fungi. BHBM and D0 were well tolerated in animals and are highly synergistic or additive to current antifungals. BHBM and D0 significantly affected fungal cell morphology and resulted in the accumulation of intracellular vesicles. Deep-sequencing analysis of drug-resistant mutants revealed that four protein products, encoded by genes APL5, COS111, MKK1, and STE2, which are involved in vesicular transport and cell cycle progression, are targeted by BHBM. PMID:26106079

  12. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  13. The role of hydroxychloroquine in the treatment of lichen planopilaris: A retrospective case series and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nic Dhonncha, E; Foley, C C; Markham, T

    2017-05-01

    A variety of systemic agents are used to treat lichen planopilaris (LPP) with a limited evidence base. The aim of our study was to retrospectively review the response rate to and tolerability of hydroxychloroquine in a cohort of patients with LPP in an effort to add to the evidence base for its use. Twenty-three patients with a clinical and histopathological diagnosis of LPP who had been treated with hydroxychloroquine for their disease in a single center were identified. A retrospective review of these patients' medical records was performed and physician rated response was documented. Complete response was observed in 61% of our patients, and a further 9% of patients demonstrated partial response. Thirteen percent of patients withdrew from treatment because of suspected adverse effects. Our sample size was small, and data was collected retrospectively. We found hydroxychloroquine to be a reasonable therapeutic choice in LPP. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gastrointestinal metastasis from primary lung cancer. Case series and systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balla, Andrea; D Subiela, José; Bollo, Jesús; Martínez, Carmen; Rodriguez Luppi, Carlos; Hernández, Pilar; Pascual-González, Yuliana; Quaresima, Silvia; M Targarona, Eduard

    2018-04-01

    Aim of the present study is to report clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients treated in authors' hospital for GI metastasis from primary lung cancer, and to report and analyse the same data concerning patients retrieved from a systematic literature review. We performed a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data, and a systematic review using the Meta-analysis Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines. Ninety-one patients were included, 5 patients from the authors' hospital and 86 through PubMed database using the keywords "intestinal metastasis" AND "lung cancer". The median time between primary lung cancer diagnosis and GI metastasis diagnosis was 2 months and the median overall survival was 4 months. This group of patients present a poor prognosis and the gold standard treatment is not defined. None of the reported treatments had a significant impact on survival. Copyright © 2018 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Wrist Tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium bovis Infection: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Derviş Güner, MD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Tuberculosis infections are still one of the most important public health problems among developing countries. Musculoskeletal involvement represents 10–15% of all extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis is usually misdiagnosed as nonspecific tenosynovitis. To avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment, it is important to be alert for mycobacterial infections. This article presents 3 patients with wrist tenosynovitis, which was caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. The article also includes review of the literature.

  16. Wrist Tenosynovitis due to Mycobacterium bovis Infection: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Mehmet Derviş; Bektaş, Umut; Akmeşe, Ramazan; Armangil, Mehmet; Ay, Şadan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Tuberculosis infections are still one of the most important public health problems among developing countries. Musculoskeletal involvement represents 10–15% of all extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis is usually misdiagnosed as nonspecific tenosynovitis. To avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment, it is important to be alert for mycobacterial infections. This article presents 3 patients with wrist tenosynovitis, which was caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. The article also includes review of the literature. PMID:25587496

  17. Clinico-pathologic spectrum of accessory axillary breast; case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Bello

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accessory breast and the diseases affecting these aberrant breast tissues are relatively uncommon, and with variable prevalence among different populations. These are commonly located in the axilla, chest wall, and vulva. The most common disease in these tissues is carcinoma; however, other benign neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions do occur. In this review, we present a clinicopathologic analysis of all the consecutive cases seen in a major referral teaching hospital over a period spanning 10 years (2006–2015.

  18. Congenital Treves' field transmesenteric hernia in children: A case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuta Saka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernia is abdominal visceral herniation through a congenital or acquired mesenteric defect. Treves' field is the area of terminal ileal mesentery circumscribed by the ileocolic artery and its last ileal branch. It is very susceptible to congenital defects. To clarify the clinical course of congenital Treves' field transmesenteric hernia (cTFTH, we retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases and conducted a literature review. Five consecutive pediatric cTFTH cases (one male, four females underwent emergency laparotomy at our institutions from April 2009 and December 2014. We analyzed their demographics, preoperative findings, surgical procedures, and outcomes, along with a literature review. Abdominal plain X-ray showed displaced intestinal gas with gas paucity in the center of the abdomen in two cases and diffusely increased intestinal gas in two others. Abdominal computed tomography (CT in four cases showed intestinal loop clusters, mesenteric vessel changes, small-bowel obstruction, and ascites. All cases underwent emergency laparotomy for ileal resection with ileocecal valve preservation. Simultaneous anastomoses were performed in four cases; the remaining case underwent ileostomy because of prematurity. Although one case needed reoperation for postoperative bowel obstruction, all patients survived. Literature review of pediatric cTFTH showed a high frequency of necrosis (70.5% and mortality (26.5%. Among pediatric cTFTH cases, 67.6% were aged <5 years. Mesenteric defect was <5 cm in 70% cases. We should be aware of the clinical importance and radiological features of pediatric cTFTH. Abdominal CT may provide useful information.

  19. Anesthetic and Obstetric Management of Syringomyelia During Labor and Delivery: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Gráinne Patricia; Wasade, Vibhangini S; Murphy, Kellie E; Balki, Mrinalini

    2017-09-01

    Syringomyelia is a rare, slowly progressive neurological condition characterized by the presence of a syrinx within the spinal cord. Consensus regarding the safest mode of delivery and anesthetic management in patients with syringomyelia remains controversial and presents management dilemmas. This study reviews the cases of syringomyelia at our institution and provides a systematic review of the literature to guide decisions regarding labor and delivery management. A retrospective review of cases at our hospital from 2002 to 2014 and a systematic review of the literature from 1946 to 2014 were undertaken. Hospital records and electronic databases were interrogated using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision codes and the keywords "syringomyelia," "syringobulbia," and "pregnancy." Data regarding demographics, diagnosis, radiology reports, neurological symptoms, mode of delivery, anesthetic management, and maternal-fetal outcomes were collected. We collected and analyzed data on a total of 43 pregnancies in 39 patients. The most common location for syrinx was in the cervicothoracic region (41.9%). The large majority of patients (n = 34; 87%) demonstrated signs and symptoms associated with syringomyelia before delivery. Syringomyelia associated with Arnold Chiari malformation was documented in 49% (n = 21) cases. General anesthesia was the most commonly used (n = 21/30, 70%) anesthetic technique for cesarean delivery. The majority (n = 9/13, 69%) of patients had an epidural sited for labor analgesia. There were no maternal or neonatal complications associated with neuraxial anesthesia; however, 3 cases (14%) raised concerns regarding general anesthesia including difficult intubation, transient worsening of neurological symptoms postpartum, and prolonged muscle paralysis after atracurium. Despite concerns regarding aggravation of the syrinx with vaginal delivery, this mode of delivery has never caused any documented long-term worsening of neurological

  20. Identifying management competencies for health care executives: review of a series of Delphi studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    2000-01-01

    This analysis reviews a selected body of research that identifies the essential areas of management expertise required of future health care executives. To ensure consistency, six studies are analyzed, utilizing the Delphi technique, to query a broad spectrum of experts in different fields and sites of health care management. The analysis identifies a number of management competencies, i.e., managerial capabilities, which current and aspiring health care executives, in various settings and with differing educational backgrounds, should possess to enhance the probability of their success in current and future positions of responsibility. In addition, this review identifies the skills (technical expertise), knowledge (facts and principles) and abilities (physical, mental or legal power) required to support achievement of these competencies. Leadership and resource management, including cost and finance dimensions, are the highest-rated requisite management competencies. The dominant skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) are related to interpersonal skills. The lowest-rated SKAs are related to job-specific, technical skills. Recommendations include the review of this research by formal and continuing education programs to determine the content of their courses and areas for future research. Similarly, current health care executives should assess this research to assist in identifying competency gaps. Lastly, this analysis recommends that the Delphi technique, as a valid and replicable methodology, be applied toward the study of non-executive health care managers, e.g., students, clinicians, mid-level managers and integrated systems administrators, to determine their requisite management competencies and SKAs.

  1. Dysregulations in circulating sphingolipids associate with disease activity indices in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checa, A; Idborg, H; Zandian, A; Sar, D Garcia; Surowiec, I; Trygg, J; Svenungsson, E; Jakobsson, P-J; Nilsson, P; Gunnarsson, I; Wheelock, C E

    2017-09-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of clinical and renal disease activity with circulating sphingolipids in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Methods We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 27 sphingolipids in plasma from 107 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 23 controls selected using a design of experiment approach. We investigated the associations between sphingolipids and two disease activity indices, the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Damage was scored according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index. Renal activity was evaluated with the British Island Lupus Activity Group index. The effects of immunosuppressive treatment on sphingolipid levels were evaluated before and after treatment in 22 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active disease. Results Circulating sphingolipids from the ceramide and hexosylceramide families were increased, and sphingoid bases were decreased, in systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls. The ratio of C 16:0 -ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate was the best discriminator between patients and controls, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.77. The C 16:0 -ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate ratio was associated with ongoing disease activity according to the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, but not with accumulated damage according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Levels of C 16:0 - and C 24:1 -hexosylceramides were able to discriminate patients with current versus inactive/no renal involvement. All dysregulated sphingolipids were normalized after immunosuppressive treatment. Conclusion We provide evidence that sphingolipids are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus and associated

  2. Subacute motor neuron hyperexcitability with mercury poisoning: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhibin; Zhang, Xingwen; Cui, Fang; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan

    2014-01-01

    Motor neuron hyperexcitability (MNH) indicates a disorder characterized by an ectopic motor nerve discharge on electromyogram (EMG). Here, we present a series of three cases of subacute MNH with mercury poisoning. The first case showed hyperhidrosis, insomnia, generalied myokymia, cramps, tremor, weight loss, and myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges, followed by encephalopathy with confusion, hallucinations, and memory decrease. The second case was similar to the former but without encephalopathic features. The third case showed widespread fasciculation, fatigue, insomnia, weight loss, and autonomic dysfunction, including constipation, micturition difficulty, and impotence, with multiple fibrillation, unstable fasciculation, widened motor neuron potential, and an incremental response at high-rate stimulation in repetitive nerve stimulation. Based on the symptoms, the three cases were diagnosed as Morvan's syndrome, Isaacs' syndrome, and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with ALS-like syndrome, respectively. Mercury poisoning in the three cases was confirmed by analysis of blood and urine samples. All cases recovered several months after chelation therapy and were in good condition at follow-up. Very few cases of MNH linked with mercury exposure have been reported in the literature. The mechanism of mercury-induced MNH may be associated with ion channel dysfunction. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Inflammatory myoglandular colorectal polyps: a series of seven cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becheanu, G; Gheorghe, C; Dumbravă, M; Serban-Barbu, V; Diculescu, M

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory myoglandular polyp is an unusual but distinct, non-neoplastic type of colorectal polyp, commonly with a distal localization at the recto-sigmoidian level. It was first described in 1992 by Nakamura and his colleagues and it is considered to have few particular histological features. We report a series of seven cases (two male and five female patients) of myoglandular polyps with different localization from 15 to 40 cm from anus. Only four out of seven cases presented with rectal bleeding, the others polyps we incidentally discovered. The polyps varied between 4 and 30 mm in the maximum diameter. Grossly, they had firm consistency and smooth reddish surface. Histological examination of the specimens revealed hyperplastic glands with occasional cystic dilatation, proliferation of smooth muscle with no regular distribution, a variable amount of granulation tissue (usually minimal) and no evidence of epithelial dysplasia. All the lesions were removed endoscopically without any complications. Inflammatory myoglandular polyps are distinct histopathological entities, with insufficiently investigated pathogenesis that can include local trauma, mucosal prolapse or ischemia. Being benign they can be removed endoscopically, surgical treatment being reserved in selected cases.

  4. [Complicated jejunoileal diverticular disease: a 12 cases' serie and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Marcano, Aylhin Joana; Ramia, José Manuel; De la Plaza Llamas, Roberto; Alonso, Soledad; Gonzales Aguilar, Johnny David; Kühnhardt Barrantes, Andree Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    To perform a retrospective analysis of a series of complicated JID (jejunoileal diverticulitis) cases surgically treated in our service during the period from 2002 to 2015. We treated 12 cases of jejunoileal complicated diverticulosis. 7 women and 5 men. The mean age was 76 years. The clinical presentation in all cases was acute abdominal pain, one with gastrointestinal bleeding. All cases had leukocytosis, neutrophilia and increased acute phase reactants. All patients underwent emergency abdominal CT. In 11 cases, there was consistency between imaging studies and surgical findings. Diverticula were located: jejunum (9) and ileum (3). Urgent exploratory laparotomy was always done and findings were: diverticular perforation with peritonitis (7 cases), diverticular perforation with abscess (4 cases) and in one case an ischemic area with diverticular perforation after embolization. Intestinal resection and anastomosis was performed in all cases. There were no patients, in which the diagnosis of diverticulosis jejunoileal was previously known. Complications were: Clavien I (2), Clavien IIIa (1), Clavien IVb (1), Clavien V (1). Jejunoileal diverticulitis is a rare entity, usually the first sign of onset of diverticular disease not previously known. Abdominal CT is of great diagnostic value. Resection of the affected segment is the treatment of choice.

  5. Problems in Translating Figures of Speech: A Review of Persian Translations of Harry Potter Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Masroor

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.

  6. Renal involvement in MELAS syndrome - a series of 5 cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidowsky, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Maxime; Glowacki, François; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Devaux, Jean-Philippe; de Sainte Foy, Celia Lessore; Provot, François; Gheerbrant, Jean-Dominique; Hummel, Aurelie; Hazzan, Marc; Dracon, Michel; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Copin, Marie-Christine; Noël, Christian; Buob, David

    2013-12-01

    Renal dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a potential clinical feature of mitochondrial cytopathies such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lacticacidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Five cases of MELAS syndrome with renal involvement from 4 unrelated families are presented in this case series. Three of the 5 patients had a history of maternally-inherited diabetes and/or deafness. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and arteriolar hyaline thickening were the most striking findings on renal biopsy. In addition to clinical presentation with the typical symptoms of MELAS syndrome, genetic testing in these patients identified the A3243G point mutation in the tRNALeu gene of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was thus considered to be unequivocal. The incidence of kidney disease in MELAS syndrome may be underestimated although a study is required to investigate this hypothesis. As the A3243G mtDNA mutation leads to a progressive adult-onset form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), screening for the MELAS A3243G mtDNA mutation should therefore be performed especially in patients with maternally-inherited diabetes or hearing loss presenting with FSGS.

  7. Modern management of pyogenic hepatic abscess: a case series and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heneghan, Helen M

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Pyogenic hepatic abscesses are relatively rare, though untreated are uniformly fatal. A recent paradigm shift in the management of liver abscesses, facilitated by advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology, has decreased mortality rates. The aim of this study was to review our experience in managing pyogenic liver abscess, review the literature in this field, and propose guidelines to aid in the current management of this complex disease. METHODS: Demographic and clinical details of all patients admitted to a single institution with liver abscess over a 5 year period were reviewed. Clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment, morbidity and mortality data were collated. RESULTS: Over a 5 year period 11 patients presented to a single institution with pyogenic hepatic abscess (55% males, mean age 60.3 years). Common clinical features at presentation were non-specific constitutional symptoms and signs. Aetiology was predominantly gallstones (45%) or diverticular disease (27%). In addition to empiric antimicrobial therapy, all patients underwent radiologically guided percutaneous drainage of the liver abscess at diagnosis and only 2 patients required surgical intervention, including one 16-year old female who underwent hemi-hepatectomy for a complex and rare Actinomycotic abscess. There were no mortalities after minimum follow-up of one year. CONCLUSIONS: Pyogenic liver abscesses are uncommon, and mortality has decreased over the last two decades. Antimicrobial therapy and radiological intervention form the mainstay of modern treatment. Surgical intervention should be considered for patients with large, complex, septated or multiple abscesses, underlying disease or in whom percutaneous drainage has failed.

  8. Plasma membrane proteins Slm1 and Slm2 mediate activation of the AGC kinase Ypk1 by TORC2 and sphingolipids in S. cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Brad J; Powers, Ted

    2012-10-15

    The PH domain-containing proteins Slm1 and Slm2 were originally identified as substrates of the rapamycin-insensitive TOR complex 2 (TORC2) and as mediators of signaling by the lipid second messenger phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI4,5P2) in budding yeast S. cerevisiae. More recently, these proteins have been identified as critical effectors that facilitate phosphorylation and activation of the AGC kinases Ypk1 and Ypk2 by TORC2. Here, we review the molecular basis for this regulation as well as place it within the context of recent findings that have revealed Slm1/2 and TORC2-dependent phosphorylation of Ypk1 is coupled to the biosynthesis of complex sphingolipids and to their levels within the plasma membrane (PM) as well as other forms of PM stress. Together, these studies reveal the existence of an intricate homeostatic feedback mechanism, whereby the activity of these signaling components is linked to the biosynthesis of PM lipids according to cellular need.

  9. Hydroxycut hepatotoxicity: A case series and review of liver toxicity from herbal weight loss supplements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim

    2008-01-01

    Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.

  10. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: lumboperitoneal shunts versus ventriculoperitoneal shunts--case series and literature review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Abubaker, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the treatment of IIH by neuronavigation-assisted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with programmable valves as compared to lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 25 patients treated for IIH between 2001 and 2009. Age, sex, clinical presentation, methods of treatment and failure rates were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-two per cent were treated initially with LP shunts. Failure rate was 11% in this group. Neuronavigation-assisted VP shunts were used to treat 28%. In this group, the failure rate was 14%. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that both LP shunts and VP shuts are effective in controlling all the clinical manifestations of IIH in the immediate postoperative period. Failure rates are slightly higher for VP shunts (14%) than LP shunts (11%). However, revision rates are higher with LP shunts (60%) than with VP shunts (30%).

  11. Manifestations of gastrointestinal plasmablastic lymphoma: a case series with literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Lynette; Nguyen, Johnny; Zhou, Jun; Jaglal, Michael; Sokol, Lubomir; Messina, Jane L; Coppola, Domenico; Zhang, Ling

    2014-09-07

    Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with limited studies reported. We reviewed the clinical histories and pathology of four patients with GI PBL at our institute and similar case reports published in peer-reviewed journals. In our first case, a 40 year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive male presented with a hemorrhoid-like sensation, and was diagnosed with PBL via biopsy of a rectal mass. The second case involves a 65 year-old healthy male with bloody diarrhea who was found to have PBL in a resected sigmoid mass. The third patient was a 41 year-old male with a history of Crohn's disease who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. A small intestinal mass (PBL) was removed. The fourth patient was a 65-year-old male who was found PBL after surgical resection of bowel for his florid Crohn's disease. He later developed secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical outcome was very poor in 3 out of 4 patients as reported in the literature. One patient survived chemotherapy followed by autologous transplant. The prototypical clinical presentation and variations of PBL can help create a more comprehensive differential diagnosis for GI tumors and establish an appropriate therapeutic guideline.

  12. Localized lymphedema (elephantiasis): a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Song; Tran, Tien Anh; Jones, David M; Meyer, Dale R; Ross, Jeffrey S; Fisher, Hugh A; Carlson, John Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Lymphedema typically affects a whole limb. Rarely, lymphedema can present as a circumscribed plaque or an isolated skin tumor. To describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics and etiologic factors of localized lymphedema. Case-control study of skin biopsy and excision specimens histologically diagnosed with lymphedema and presenting as a localized skin tumor identified during a 4-year period. We identified 24 cases of localized lymphedema presenting as solitary large polyps (11), solid or papillomatous plaques (7), pendulous swellings (4), or tumors mimicking sarcoma (2). Patients were 18 females and 6 males with a mean age of 41 years (range 16-74). Anogenital involvement was most frequent (75%)--mostly vulva (58%), followed by eyelid (13%), thigh (8%) and breast (4%). Causative factors included injury due to trauma, surgery or childbirth (54%), chronic inflammatory disease (rosacea, Crohn's disease) (8%), and bacterial cellulitis (12%). Eighty-five percent of these patients were either overweight (50%) or obese (35%). Compared with a series of 80 patients with diffuse lymphedema, localized lymphedema patients were significantly younger (41 vs. 62 years old, p = 0.0001), had no history of cancer treatment (0% vs. 18%, p = 0.03), and had an injury to the affected site (54% vs. 6%, p = 0.0001). Histologically, all cases exhibited dermal edema, fibroplasia, dilated lymphatic vessels, uniformly distributed stromal cells and varying degrees of papillated epidermal hyperplasia, inflammatory infiltrates and hyperkeratosis. Tumor size significantly and positively correlated with history of cellulitis, obesity, dense inflammatory infiltrates containing abundant plasma cells, and lymphoid follicles (p elephantiasis.

  13. Percutaneous Intramedullary Screw Fixation of Distal Fibula Fractures: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukachov, Vladimir V; Birnie, Merel F N; Dingemans, Siem A; de Jong, Vincent M; Schepers, Tim

    The current reference standard for unstable ankle fractures is open reduction and internal fixation using a plate and lag screws. This approach requires extensive dissection and wound complications are not uncommon. The use of intramedullary screw fixation might overcome these issues. The aim of our study was to provide an overview of the published data regarding intramedullary screw fixation of fibula fractures combined with a small consecutive case series. We performed a search of published studies to identify the studies in which fibula fractures were treated with percutaneous intramedullary screw fixation. Additionally, all consecutive patients treated for an unstable ankle fracture in a level 1 trauma center using an intramedullary screw were retrospectively included. The literature search identified 6 studies with a total of 180 patients. Wound infection was seen in 1 patient (0.6%), anatomic reduction was achieved in 168 patients (93.3%), and a loss of reduction was seen in 2 patients (1.1%). Implant removal was deemed necessary in 3 patients (1.7%) and nonunion was seen is 2 patients (1.1%). A total of 11 patients, in whom no wound complications occurred, were included in our study. The follow-up duration was a minimum of 12 months. A secondary dislocation was seen in 1 patient, and delayed union was observed after 7.5 months in 1 other patient. In conclusion, intramedullary screw fixation is a safe and adequate method to use for fibula fractures, with a low risk of wound complications. Additional research regarding functional outcome is warranted. Copyright © 2017 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Chagasic megacolon and large bowel neoplasms: case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxwel Capsy Boga Ribeiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear association between chagasic megaesophagus and the esophageal cancer. On the other hand, the association between chagasic megacolon and intestinal neoplasm is uncommon. There are only a few cases described in literature. We selected two cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma associated with adenoma from 2000 to 2011, which are added to the four patients already described by this group. The mean age of the patients, was 68.5 years. Both had been submitted to surgical resection of the neoplasm. Survival rates ranged and were directly related to tumor staging at the time of diagnosis. In this context, we report our case series and reviwed the corresponding literature, especially the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this rare association.Há uma clara associação entre megaesôfago por doença de Chagas e o câncer esofágico. Ao contrário, tal relação, entre megacólon chagásico e neoplasias do intestino grosso é, reconhecidamente, incomum. Existem poucos casos relatados na literatura. Destacamos, entre 2000 e 2011, dois casos, sendo ambos adenocarcinomas colorretais e associados a adenomas, que se somam aos outros quatro já descritos por este grupo. A média de idade dos pacientes, foi de 68,5 anos. Todos foram submetidos à ressecção cirúrgica da neoplasia. A sobrevida foi variável e diretamente relacionada ao estádio do tumor no momento do diagnóstico. Dentro desse contexto, relatamos essa série de casos e revisamos a literatura correlata, com relação aos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos dessa rara associação.

  15. Endoscopic Endonasal Approach in Skull Base Chondrosarcoma Associated with Maffucci Syndrome: Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Furlan, André; Balsalobre, Leonardo; Vellutini, Eduardo A S; Stamm, Aldo C

    2016-01-01

    Maffucci syndrome is a nonhereditary disorder in which patients develop multiple enchondromas and cutaneous, visceral, or soft tissue hemangiomas. The potential malignant progression of enchondroma into a secondary chondrosarcoma is a well-known fact. Nevertheless, chondrosarcoma located at the skull base in patients with Maffuci syndrome is a very rare condition, with only 18 cases reported in the literature. We report 2 other cases successfully treated through an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach and discuss the condition based on the literature review. Skull base chondrosarcoma associated with Maffucci syndrome is a rare condition. The disease cannot be cured, therefore surgical treatment should be performed in symptomatic patients aiming for maximal tumor resection with function preservation. The endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and reliable alternative for the management of these tumors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Endogenous Endophthalmitis in Patients with MRSA Septicemia: A Case Series and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoy, Shailaja Bhat; Thotakura, Meena; Kamath, Yogish; Bekur, Ragini

    2016-10-01

    To report the presentation, predisposing factors, clinical features and outcome in 6 eyes of 3 patients with endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) septicaemia. Retrospective review of case records of 3 patients who were treated for endogenous endophthalmitis secondary to MRSA septicaemia in a tertiary referral institution. All three patients had systemic predisposition to endogenous endophthalmitis (diabetes, urosepsis). Two patients presented within 1 week of onset of visual symptoms and the third after 3 months. Blood culture was positive for MRSA in all patients. Visual and anatomical improvement was noted in two patients who presented early. The third patient's visual outcome despite early treatment with intravitreal antibiotics and vitrectomy was not satisfactory. Endogenous endophthalmitis by MRSA is a rare but serious condition. Early and specific therapy based on reliable detection of the underlying microorganism is needed for good anatomical and functional outcome.

  17. Bupivacaine drug-induced liver injury: a case series and brief review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chintamaneni, Preethi; Stevenson, Heather L; Malik, Shahid M

    2016-08-01

    Bupivacaine is an established and efficacious anesthetic that has become increasingly popular in postoperative pain management. However, there is limited literature regarding the potential for bupivacaine-induced delayed liver toxicity. Describe cholestasis as a potential adverse reaction of bupivacaine infusion into a surgical wound. Retrospective review of patients' medical records. We report the cases of 3 patients with new onset of cholestatic injury after receiving bupivacaine infusion for postoperative herniorrhaphy pain management. All patients had negative serologic workups for other causes of liver injury. All patients achieved eventual resolution of their liver injury. Bupivacaine-induced liver injury should be on the differential of individuals presenting with jaundice and cholestasis within a month of infusion via a surgically placed catheter of this commonly used anesthetic. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mucoceles of the oral cavity: a large case series (1994-2008) and a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Re Cecconi, Dario; Achilli, Antonio; Tarozzi, Marco; Lodi, Giovanni; Demarosi, Federica; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio

    2010-07-01

    Evaluating data of patients affected by oral mucoceles, examined at the Unit of Oral Medicine and Pathology of the University of Milan between January 1994 and December 2008. Concise review on oral mucoceles and analysis of the clinical files of patients who underwent excisional biopsy (patient age, medical history, diagnosis, date and site of the biopsy, histopathological diagnosis and recurrences if any). During the period June 1994-December 2008, 158 mucoceles were observed (93 males and 65 females), with the most frequent site being the lower lip (53%) (p=0.001 by Fisher's test). The mean age of the patients was 31.9 years, with a peak of occurrence in the first four decades of life (75%). Mucoceles are lesions commonly seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lips.

  19. Endodontic applications of cone beam computed tomography: case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesc Abella

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a relatively new method that produces three-dimensional (3D information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissue, with a lower effective radiation dose than traditional CT scans. Specific endodontic applications for CBCT are being identified as the use of this technology becomes more common. CBCT has great potential to become a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing endodontic problems, as well as for assessing root fractures, apical periodontitis, resorptions, perforations, root canal anatomy and the nature of the alveolar bone topography around teeth. This article aims to review cone beam technology and its advantages over CT scans and conventional radiography, to illustrate current and future clinical applications in endodontic practice, and to highlight areas of further research of CBCT in endodontics. Specific case examples illustrate how treatment planning has changed with the images obtained with CBCT technology compared with only periapical radiography.

  20. Demyelinating syndrome in SLE: review of different disease subtypes and report of a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chessa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Demyelinating syndrome (DS is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE (1% with high clinical heterogeneity and potentially severe prognosis. It can represent a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for clinicians. A recent study described 5 different patterns of demyelinating disease presentation, characterised by specific clinical, laboratory and brain and spine magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities: 1 neuromyelitis optica; 2 neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders; 3 DS prevalently involving the brain; 4 DS prevalently involving the brainstem; 5 clinically isolated syndrome. In this review we briefly discuss typical characteristics of each DS presentation in SLE and we describe 5 illustrative clinical cases, one for each subset of DS, considering both diagnostic and therapeutic options.

  1. Recurrent Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Dilemmas and Success with Pharmacological Therapies. Case Series and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Almadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes three difficult cases of recurrent bleeding from obscure causes, followed by a review of the pitfalls and pharmacological management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. All three patients underwent multiple investigations. An intervening complicating diagnosis or antiplatelet drugs may have compounded long-term bleeding in two of the cases. A bleeding angiodysplasia was confirmed in one case but was aggravated by the need for anticoagulation. After multiple transfusions and several attempts at endoscopic management in some cases, long-acting octreotide was associated with decreased transfusion requirements and increased hemoglobin levels in all three cases, although other factors may have contributed in some. In the third case, however, the addition of low-dose thalidomide stopped bleeding for a period of at least 23 months.

  2. Acral lentiginous melanoma of the foot and ankle: A case series and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acland Katharine

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM is an uncommon, cutaneous malignant tumour which may arise on the foot. Its relative rarity, atypical appearance and late presentation frequently serve as poor prognostic indicators. Methods At a tertiary skin tumour centre, a retrospective review was undertaken of all patients diagnosed with the tumour at the level of ankle or below. Results Over a six year period, 27 cases (20 female, 7 male were identified with positive histology confirming the disease. The age ranged from 35–96 years of age (mean 62.7 years. The majority of the cohort were white (59% with plantar lesions (62%. 33% of patients were initially were diagnosed incorrectly. The average time taken from the point of recognition, by the patient, to the lesion being correctly diagnosed was around 13.5 months. Conclusion Earlier diagnosis of ALM requires education at both a patient and practitioner level.

  3. Incontinentia pigmenti--ophthalmological observation of a series of cases and review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Doherty, M

    2012-02-01

    AIM: The aims of this study were to make an inventory of the disease in Ireland, to acquire better knowledge of the relationship between genetic makeup and phenotypic ocular presentation and, finally, through literature review and personal experience, to establish clear guidelines on best practice in the management of children with this rare condition both in terms of screening and follow-up. METHODS: All patients who attended the dermatology and genetic clinic in Our Lady\\'s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) were contacted and invited to attend the eye clinic for ocular assessment. Children who were already attending the ophthalmic services before commencement of the study had their charts reviewed for assessment. RESULTS: 11 of 19 patients agreed to attend the clinic for ocular assessment. Of these patients, nine had genetic testing. The mean age of the patients at the examination was 8 years (3 months to 29 years). In 10 patients, IP was the result of a spontaneous mutation, whereas the condition was inherited from an affected mother in one patient. Of the 11 patients with IP, 5 have visually significant ocular findings (47%). We describe the case history of four of these children briefly to outline the severity of this condition. CONCLUSION: Our patients had a significant percentage of ocular abnormalities (47%). We have outlined an examination schedule for patients with and without retinal pathology and recommend fluorescein angiography in patients with retinal pathology to fully determine the extent of ischaemia. Like other studies, early treatment with peripheral retinal photocoagulation to reduce the risk of retinal detachment is recommended in this study.

  4. Radiofrequency Ablation in Coccydynia: A Case Series and Comprehensive, Evidence-Based Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yian; Huang-Lionnet, Julie H Y; Cohen, Steven P

    2017-06-01

    Coccydynia is a condition with a multitude of different causes, characterized by ill-defined management. There are multiple prospective studies, including several controlled trials, that have evaluated conservative therapies. Additionally, a plethora of observational studies have assessed coccygectomy, but few studies have reported results for nonsurgical interventional procedures. In this report, we describe the treatment results of 12 patients who received conventional or pulsed radiofrequency for coccydynia and systematically review the literature on management. We performed a retrospective data analysis evaluating patients who underwent pulsed or conventional radiofrequency treatment at Johns Hopkins Hospital and Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. A comprehensive literature review was also performed to contextualize these results. The mean age of patients treated was 50.25 years (SD = 11.20 years, range = 32-72 years), with the mean duration of symptoms being 3.6 years (SD = 3.36 years, range 1-10 years). There were 10 males and two females in this cohort. Among patients who received radiofrequency treatment, the average benefit was 55.5% pain relief (SD = 30.33%, range = 0-100%). Those who underwent conventional (vs pulsed radiofrequency) and who received prognostic blocks were more likely to experience a positive outcome. There were two cases of neuritis, which resolved spontaneously after several weeks. Radiofrequency ablation of the sacrococcygeal nerves may serve as a useful treatment option for patients with coccydynia who have failed more conservative measures. Further research into this therapeutic approach and its benefit for coccydynia should incorporate a control group for comparison. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  5. Metabolic and Subjective Results Review of the Integrated Suit Test Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcross, J.R.; Stroud, L.C.; Klein, J.; Desantis, L.; Gernhardt, M.L.

    2009-01-01

    Crewmembers will perform a variety of exploration and construction activities on the lunar surface. These activities will be performed while inside an extravehicular activity (EVA) spacesuit. In most cases, human performance is compromised while inside an EVA suit as compared to a crewmember s unsuited performance baseline. Subjects completed different EVA type tasks, ranging from ambulation to geology and construction activities, in different lunar analog environments including overhead suspension, underwater and 1-g lunar-like terrain, in both suited and unsuited conditions. In the suited condition, the Mark III (MKIII) EVA technology demonstrator suit was used and suit pressure and suit weight were parameters tested. In the unsuited conditions, weight, mass, center of gravity (CG), terrain type and navigation were the parameters. To the extent possible, one parameter was varied while all others were held constant. Tests were not fully crossed, but rather one parameter was varied while all others were left in the most nominal setting. Oxygen consumption (VO2), modified Cooper-Harper (CH) ratings of operator compensation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured for each trial. For each variable, a lower value correlates to more efficient task performance. Due to a low sample size, statistical significance was not attainable. Initial findings indicate that suit weight, CG and the operational environment can have a large impact on human performance during EVA. Systematic, prospective testing series such as those performed to date will enable a better understanding of the crucial interactions of the human and the EVA suit system and their environment. However, work remains to be done to confirm these findings. These data have been collected using only unsuited subjects and one EVA suit prototype that is known to fit poorly on a large demographic of the astronaut population. Key findings need to be retested using an EVA suit prototype better suited to a

  6. Sphingolipid base modifying enzymes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus): cloning and characterization of a C4-hydroxylase gene and a new paralogous Δ8-desaturase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, Antonio J; Martínez-Force, Enrique; Garcés, Rafael; Salas, Joaquín J

    2011-05-15

    Sphingolipids are components of plant cell membranes that participate in the regulation of important physiological processes. Unlike their animal counterparts, plant sphingolipids are characterized by high levels of base C4-hydroxylation. Moreover, desaturation at the Δ8 position predominates over the Δ4 desaturation typically found in animal sphingolipids. These modifications are due to the action of C4-hydroxylases and Δ8-long chain base desaturases, and they are important for complex sphingolipids finally becoming functional. The long chain bases of sunflower sphingolipids have high levels of hydroxylated and unsaturated moieties. Here, a C4-long chain base hydroxylase was functionally characterized in sunflower plant, an enzyme that could complement the sur2Δ mutation when heterologously expressed in this yeast mutant deficient in hydroxylation. This hydroxylase was ubiquitously expressed in sunflower, with the highest levels found in the developing cotyledons. In addition, we identified a new Δ8-long base chain desaturase gene that displays strong homology to a previously reported desaturase gene. This desaturase was also expressed in yeast and was able to change the long chain base composition of the transformed host. We studied the expression of this desaturase and compared it with that of the other isoform described in sunflower. The desaturase form studied in this paper displayed higher expression levels in developing seeds. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Methods of staining and visualization of sphingolipid enriched and non-enriched plasma membrane regions of Arabidopsis thaliana with fluorescent dyes and lipid analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blachutzik Jörg O

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sterols and Sphingolipids form lipid clusters in the plasma membranes of cell types throughout the animal and plant kingdoms. These lipid domains provide a medium for protein signaling complexes at the plasma membrane and are also observed to be principal regions of membrane contact at the inception of infection. We visualized different specific fluorescent lipophilic stains of the both sphingolipid enriched and non-sphingolipid enriched regions in the plasma membranes of live protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana. Results Lipid staining protocols for several fluorescent lipid analogues in plants are presented. The most emphasis was placed on successful protocols for the single and dual staining of sphingolipid enriched regions and exclusion of sphingolipid enriched regions on the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana protoplasts. A secondary focus was placed to ensure that these staining protocols presented still maintain cell viability. Furthermore, the protocols were successfully tested with the spectrally sensitive dye Laurdan. Conclusion Almost all existing staining procedures of the plasma membrane with fluorescent lipid analogues are specified for animal cells and tissues. In order to develop lipid staining protocols for plants, procedures were established with critical steps for the plasma membrane staining of Arabidopsis leaf tissue and protoplasts. The success of the plasma membrane staining protocols was additionally verified by measurements of lipid dynamics by the fluorescence recovery after photobleaching technique and by the observation of new phenomena such as time dependent lipid polarization events in living protoplasts, for which a putative physiological relevance is suggested.

  8. Antipsychotic dose escalation as a trigger for Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS: literature review and case series report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langan Julie

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background “Neuroleptic malignant syndrome” (NMS is a potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to any medication which affects the central dopaminergic system. Between 0.5% and 1% of patients exposed to antipsychotics develop the condition. Mortality rates may be as high as 55% and many risk factors have been reported. Although rapid escalation of antipsychotic dose is thought to be an important risk factor, to date it has not been the focus of a published case series or scientifically defined. Description We aimed to identify cases of NMS and review risk factors for its development with a particular focus on rapid dose escalation in the 30 days prior to onset. A review of the literature on rapid dose escalation was undertaken and a pragmatic definition of “rapid dose escalation” was made. NMS cases were defined using DSM-IV criteria and systematically identified within a secondary care mental health service. A ratio of titration rate was calculated for each NMS patient and “rapid escalators” and “non rapid escalators” were compared. 13 cases of NMS were identified. A progressive mean dose increase 15 days prior to the confirmed episode of NMS was observed (241.7 mg/day during days 1–15 to 346.9 mg/day during days 16–30 and the mean ratio of dose escalation for NMS patients was 1.4. Rapid dose escalation was seen in 5/13 cases and non rapid escalators had markedly higher daily cumulative antipsychotic dose compared to rapid escalators. Conclusions Rapid dose escalation occurred in less than half of this case series (n = 5, 38.5%, although there is currently no consensus on the precise definition of rapid dose escalation. Cumulative antipsychotic dose – alongside other known risk factors - may also be important in the development of NMS.

  9. Micronodular thymic neoplasms: case series and literature review with emphasis on the spectrum of differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mneimneh, Wadad S; Gökmen-Polar, Yesim; Kesler, Kenneth A; Loehrer, Patrick J; Badve, Sunil

    2015-11-01

    We report nine cases of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and one case of micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia from our institution. For a better understanding of these rare tumors, clinical records, and histological features of these cases were reviewed, with detailed review of additional 64 literature cases of micronodular thymic neoplasms. The joint analysis identified 64 cases of micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and 9 cases of micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia. Both groups revealed slight male predilection, with male:female ratio of 1.3:1 and 5:4, and occurred at >40 years of age, with a mean of 64 (41-83) and 62 (42-78) years, respectively. Myasthenia gravis was noted in 3/64 (5%) and 1/9 (11%) patients, respectively. Other systemic, disimmune, or hematologic disorders were noted in 6/64 (9%) and 1/9 (11%) patients, respectively. Components of conventional thymoma were reported in 11/64 (17%) micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia, with transitional morphology between the two components in most of them. Cellular morphology was predominantly spindle in micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia when specified (30/43), and epithelioid in micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia (6/9), and cytological atypia was more encountered in the latter. Dedifferentiation/transformation from micronodular thymoma with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia to micronodular thymic carcinoma with lymphoid hyperplasia seems to occur in a small subset of cases. Three cases of micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia were described with co-existent low-grade B-cell lymphomas. Follow-up data were available for 30 micronodular thymomas with lymphoid B-cell hyperplasia and 6 micronodular thymic carcinomas with lymphoid hyperplasia, with a mean of 47 (0.2-180) months and 23 (3-39) months, respectively. Patients were alive without disease, except for five

  10. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F.; Koenig, Mary Kay; Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu

    2016-01-01

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  11. The neuroimaging of Leigh syndrome: case series and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F. [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Koenig, Mary Kay [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mitochondrial Center of Excellence Leigh Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Houston, TX (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)

  12. Surgical Management of Renal Hyperparathyroidism: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mircea Neagoe Radu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT occurs most commonly in the setting of chronic renal failure (CRF being frequently referred to as “renal” hyperparathyroidism The “classical” medical treatment with oral calcium and vitamin D supplementation is generally sufficient to lower parathyroid hormone levels in the majority of these patients. However, we frequently encounter cases of severe refractory sHPT, a state in which even recently available therapeutic agents, i.e. calcimimetics, new phosphate binders, vitamin D analogues, remain inefficient, thus parathyroidectomy and/or renal transplant becoming necessary. Three types of surgeries have been proposed in sHPT: two of them are grouped as remnant-conserving techniques, i.e. subtotal parathyroidectomy (sPtx and total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation (tPtx+AT, the third one being total parathyroidectomy without autotransplantation (tPtx. There was a continuous debate concerning the best surgical approach in renal hyperparathyroidism, starting very soon after those techniques were described; without pretending to solve these controversies, this paper aims to review the surgical treatment options in sHPT, based on our 5-year experience in dealing with the disease.

  13. Mycotic pseudoaneurysms complicating renal transplantation: a case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardou Polytimi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Kidney transplantation can be complicated by infection and subsequent development of mycotic aneurysm, endangering the survival of the graft and the patient. Management of this condition in five cases is discussed, accompanied by a review of the relevant literature. Case presentations Five patients, three men 42-, 67- and 57-years-old and two women 55- and 21-years-old (mean age of 48 years, all Caucasians, developed a mycotic aneurysm in the region of the anastomosis between renal graft artery and iliac axes. Four patients presented with systemic fever and iliac fossa pain and one presented with hemorrhagic shock. Morphologic investigation by color doppler ultrasonography revealed a pseudoaneurysm at the anastomotic site. A combination of antibiotic therapy, surgery and interventional procedures was required as all kidney transplants had to be removed. No recurrence was recorded during the follow-up period. Conclusions A high index of suspicion is required for the timely diagnosis of a mycotic aneurysm; aggressive treatment with cover stents and/or surgical excision is necessary in order to prevent potentially fatal complications.

  14. BCG-osis after BCG vaccination in immunocompromised children: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Shahmohammadi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG developed by Albert Calmette and Camille Guerin in France between 1908 and 1921 contained a live attenuated strain of Mycobacterium bovis and was administered worldwide to prevent tuberculosis. BCG vaccination is also administered at birth to all the newborns in Iran. Disseminated BCG infection after BCG vaccination is rare. Here in, we report 2 new cases of disseminated BCGinfection and review 15 additional cases identified from our previous retrospective study during a 5-year period from 2005-2010. All of these reported patients were vaccinated. Impaired immunity was detected in 10 cases (59% including severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic granulomatous disease, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, combined variable immunodeficiency, and HIV infection. Response to therapy was poor among those patients with immune deficiencies, but the overall mortality rate was 32.3%. Disseminated BCG infection is a rare but devastating complication of vaccination. Immune-compromised children are at high risk of developing BCG related complications including regional BCG-itis or disseminated disease; BCG-osis.

  15. The Association of Salvia divinorum and Psychotic Disorders: A Review of the Literature and Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri

    2015-01-01

    The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.

  16. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Granulicatella adiacens: a case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quénard, Fanny; Seng, Piseth; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Fenollar, Florence; Stein, Andreas

    2017-06-23

    Bone and joint infection involving Granulicatella adiacens is rare, and mainly involved in cases of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. Here we report three cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that were successfully treated with surgery and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. We also review the two cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that are reported in the literature. Not all five cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by G. adiacens were associated with bacteremia or infectious endocarditis. Dental care before the onset of infection was observed in two cases. The median time delay between arthroplasty implantation and the onset of infection was of 4 years (ranging between 2 and 10 years). One of our cases was identified with 16srRNA gene sequencing, one case with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and one case with both techniques. Two literature cases were diagnosed by 16srRNA gene sequencing. All five cases were cured after surgery including a two-stage prosthesis exchange in three cases, a one-stage prosthesis exchange in one case, and debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis in one case, and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. Prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens is probably often dismissed due to difficult culture or misdiagnosis, in particular in the cases of polymicrobial infection. Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis associated with prolonged antimicrobial treatment (≥ 8 weeks) should be considered as a treatment strategy for prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens.

  17. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on nutrition and metabolism research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Stein, T Peter; Habold, Caroline; Coxam, Veronique; O' Gorman, Donal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Nutrition has multiple roles during space flight from providing sufficient nutrients to meet the metabolic needs of the body and to maintain good health, to the beneficial psychosocial aspects related to the meals. Nutrition is central to the functioning of the body; poor nutrition compromises all the physiological systems. Nutrition is therefore likely to have a key role in counteracting the negative effects of space flight (e.g., radiation, immune deficits, oxidative stress, and bone and muscle loss). As missions increase in duration, any dietary/nutritional deficiencies will become progressively more detrimental. Moreover, it has been recognized that the human diet contains, in addition to essential macronutrients, a complex array of naturally occurring bioactive micronutrients that may confer significant long-term health benefits. It is therefore critical that astronauts be adequately nourished during missions. Problems of nutritional origin are often treatable by simply providing the appropriate nutrients and adequate recommendations. This review highlights six key issues that have been identified as space research priorities in nutrition field: in-flight energy balance; altered feeding behavior; development of metabolic stress; micronutrient deficiency; alteration of gut microflora; and altered fluid and electrolytes balance. For each of these topics, relevance for space exploration, knowledge gaps and proposed investigations are described. Finally, the nutritional questions related to bioastronautics research are very relevant to multiple ground-based-related health issues. The potential spin-offs are both interesting scientifically and potentially of great clinical importance.

  18. Towards human exploration of space: The THESEUS review series on immunology research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique J-F; Grimm, Daniela; Montano, Nicola; Praun, Siegfried; Roozendaal, Benno; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Ullrich, Oliver; Choukèr, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer. These recommendations should contribute to improve our knowledge about spaceflight effects on the immune system and the development of countermeasures that, beyond astronauts, could have a societal impact.

  19. Ultrasonography of occipital arteries to diagnose giant cell arteritis: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnell, Jonathan; Tiivas, Carl; Perkins, Phillip; Blake, Tim; Saravana, Shanmugam; Dubey, Shirish

    2018-02-01

    We describe four cases of giant cell arteritis (GCA) that presented with occipital headache in the last 6 months. Typical ultrasound features of GCA were found in the occipital arteries which helped to confirm the diagnosis. One patient had already suffered significant visual loss by the time the diagnosis was made, reflecting the similarity in prognosis to the more typical GCA patients. These cases prompted a review of the literature to evaluate the evidence regarding the use of occipital artery ultrasonography in the investigation of GCA. We searched PubMed, Google Scholar and Web of Science and identified 17 papers but only four of these were relevant studies. The studies available show that typical features of GCA can be detected in the occipital arteries using ultrasonography. They also suggest that ultrasonography can detect changes in the occipital arteries when temporal arteries are not involved. However, occipital artery abnormalities were less common than temporal artery abnormalities in GCA. We advocate maintaining a high index of suspicion for GCA in patients presenting with atypical features, such as occipital headache. Ultrasonography has a vital role to play in the diagnosis of these patients. We recommend priority imaging of the affected area to facilitate prompt and accurate diagnosis of GCA, especially when atypical vessels are involved.

  20. Reversible Cerebral Vasoconstriction Syndrome in Pediatrics: A Case Series and Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Samantha W; Fryer, Robert H

    2017-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a transient vasculopathy associated with severe headaches and stroke. In most cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome, there is a precipitating event or trigger, such as pregnancy, serotonin agonist treatment or illicit drug use. The authors present 2 pediatric cases of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome and review the previous 11 pediatric cases in the literature. In many instances, the clinical and radiographic features are similar in both pediatric and adult cases. In the pediatric group, reported potential triggers include trauma (1/13), exercise (2/13), water to the face (3/13), hypertension (3/13), and medication or substance use (4/13). One surprising difference is that 11 out of 13 pediatric patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome are male while most cases in adults are female. Many of the pediatric patients with reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome were treated with a calcium channel blocker and the overall outcome of pediatric reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome was good, with most patients experiencing a full recovery.

  1. Coronary artery aneurysms in acute coronary syndrome: case series, review, and proposed management strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem

    2014-06-01

    Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.

  2. MRP- and BCL-2-mediated drug resistance in human SCLC: effects of apoptotic sphingolipids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadian, M; Leroux, M E; Auzenne, E; Ghosh, S C; Farquhar, D; Evans, R; Spohn, W; Zou, Y; Klostergaard, J

    2009-10-01

    Multidrug-resistance-associated protein (MRP) and BCL-2 contribute to drug resistance expressed in SCLC. To establish whether MRP-mediated drug resistance affects sphingolipid (SL)-induced apoptosis in SCLC, we first examined the human SCLC cell line, UMCC-1, and its MRP over-expressing, drug-resistant subline, UMCC-1/VP. Despite significantly decreased sensitivity to doxorubicin (Dox) and to the etoposide, VP-16, the drug-selected line was essentially equally as sensitive to treatment with exogenous ceramide (Cer), sphingosine (Sp) or dimethyl-sphingosine (DMSP) as the parental line. Next, we observed that high BCL-2-expressing human H69 SCLC cells, that were approximately 160-fold more sensitive to Dox than their combined BCL-2 and MRP-over-expressing (H69AR) counterparts, were only approximately 5-fold more resistant to DMSP. Time-lapse fluorescence microscopy of either UMCC cell line treated with DMSP-Coumarin revealed comparable extents and kinetics of SL uptake, further ruling out MRP-mediated effects on drug uptake. DMSP potentiated the cytotoxic activity of VP-16 and Taxol, but not Dox, in drug-resistant UMCC-1/VP cells. However, this sensitization did not appear to involve DMSP-mediated effects on the function of MRP in drug export; nor did DMSP strongly shift the balance of pro-apoptotic Sps and anti-apoptotic Sp-1-Ps in these cells. We conclude that SL-induced apoptosis markedly overcomes or bypasses MRP-mediated drug resistance relevant to SCLC and may suggest a novel therapeutic approach to chemotherapy for these tumors.

  3. Nucleotide sequence of cloned cDNA for human sphingolipid activator protein 1 precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, N.N.; Wenger, D.A.; O'Brien, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Two cDNA clones encoding prepro-sphingolipid activator protein 1 (SAP-1) were isolated from a λ gt11 human hepatoma expression library using polyclonal antibodies. These had inserts of ≅ 2 kilobases (λ-S-1.2 and λ-S-1.3) and both were both homologous with a previously isolated clone (λ-S-1.1) for mature SAP-1. The authors report here the nucleotide sequence of the longer two EcoRI fragments of S-1.2 and S-1.3 that were not the same and the derived amino acid sequences of mature SAP-1 and its prepro form. The open reading frame encodes 19 amino acids, which are colinear with the amino-terminal sequence of mature SAP-1, and extends far beyond the predicted carboxyl terminus of mature SAP-1, indicating extensive carboxyl-terminal processing. The nucleotide sequence of cDNA encoding prepro-SAP-1 includes 1449 bases from the assigned initiation codon ATG at base-pair 472 to the stop codon TGA at base-pair 1921. The first 23 amino acids coded after the initiation ATG are characteristic of a signal peptide. The calculated molecular mass for a polypeptide encoded by 1449 bases is ≅ 53 kDa, in keeping with the reported value for pro-SAP-1. The data indicate that after removal of the signal peptide mature SAP-1 is generated by removing an additional 7 amino acids from the amino terminus and ≅ 373 amino acids from the carboxyl terminus. One potential glycosylation site was previously found in mature SAP-1. Three additional potential glycosylation sites are present in the processed carboxyl-terminal polypeptide, which they designate as P-2

  4. Update on the management of pineal cysts: Case series and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berhouma, M; Ni, H; Delabar, V; Tahhan, N; Memou Salem, S; Mottolese, C; Vallee, B

    2015-01-01

    The natural history of pineal cysts still remains unclear. Incidental pineal cysts have become more common which raises the question of their management. Symptomatic pineal cysts may require a surgical solution but therapeutic indications have not yet been clearly established. From 1986 to 2012, 26 patients with pineal cysts were identified. Their medical records were retrospectively assessed focusing on the initial symptoms, imaging characteristics of the cyst, management strategy, operative technique and their complications, as well as the latest follow-up. A systematic review of the literature is also presented. Twenty-six patients with pineal cysts were identified. The mean age was 23.5 years ranging from 7 to 49 years. Symptoms included intracranial hypertension with obstructive hydrocephalus in 18 cases and oculomotor anomalies in 12 cases. Two adult cases presented with non-specific headaches and did not require surgery. Twenty patients were operated via a suboccipital transtentorial approach with total removal of the cyst in 70% of the cases, while the remaining 4 cases were treated with an intraventricular endoscopic marsupialization associating a third ventriculostomy. Four patients required a preoperative ventriculo-peritoneal shunt due to life-threatening obstructive hydrocephalus. Overall, peri-operative mortality was nil. In the two non-operated patients, the cyst remained stable and no recurrences were observed in all operated patients with a mean follow-up of 144 months. In the majority of incidental pineal cysts, a clinical and imaging follow-up is sufficient but occasionally not required especially in adults as very rare cases of increase in size have been reported. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  5. Cervical necrosis after chemoradiation for cervical cancer: case series and literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawaz, Ziad Simon; Barkati, Maroie; Beauchemin, Marie-Claude; Sauthier, Philippe; Gauthier, Philippe; Nguyen, Thu Van

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the management of cervical necrosis (CN) following radiotherapy (RT) and the impact of smoking status. This rare complication mimics a neoplastic recurrence, and causes concern among attending physicians. Between July 2008 and March 2013, 5 women on 285 with localized cervical cancer had a CN following RT. Patients were treated with concomitant chemoradiation. The medical records were reviewed to abstract demographic and clinical information until March 2013. 1.75% (95% confidence interval: 0.23 to 3.28%) developed CN. All patients were smokers with a mean of 19.5 pack-years (range: 7.5-45 pack-years). All patients were treated with weekly Cisplatin chemotherapy and external beam radiation to the pelvis, 45 Gy in 25 fractions. Four patients received an extra boost with a median dose of 7.2 Gy (range: 5.4-10 Gy). All patients had intracavitary brachytherapy (range: 27.9 to 30 Gy). Clinical presentation was similar for all the cases: vaginal discharge associated with pain. Mean time for time post-radiation therapy to necrosis was 9.3 months (range: 2.2-20.5 months). Standard workup was done to exclude cancer recurrence: biopsies and radiologic imaging. Conservative treatment was performed with excellent results. Resolution of the necrosis was complete after a few months (range: 1 to 4 months). Median follow-up until March 2013 was 19 months. All the patients were alive with no clinical evidence of disease. This study, the largest to date, shows that conservative management of CN after RT is effective, and should be attempted. This complication is more common in smokers, and counseling intervention should result in fewer complications of CN

  6. Poly Implants Prosthèse Breast Implants: A Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Doron; Hadad, Eran; Wiser, Itay; Wolf, Omer; Itzhaki Shapira, Ortal; Fucks, Shir; Heller, Lior

    2018-01-01

    Silicone breast implants from the French manufacturer Poly Implants Prosthèse (PIP) were recalled from the European market after the French regulator has revealed the implants contain non-medical-grade silicone filler. In December 2011, following a large increase in reported rupture rate and a possible cancer risk, the French Ministry of Health recommended consideration of the PIP explantation, regardless of their condition. In 2012, the Israel Ministry of Health recommended to replace the implants only upon suspected implant rupture. The aims of this study were to characterize breast-augmented Israeli patients with PIP implants, compare their outcomes with those of breast-augmented patients with different implant types, and review the current PIP literature. Breast-augmented patients who underwent an elective breast implant exchange in Israel between January 2011 and January 2017 were included in the study. Data were collected from electronic and physical medical files. There were 73 breast-augmented female patients with 146 PIP breast implants included in this study. Average implant age was 6.7 ± 2.79 years. Mean implant size was 342.8 ± 52.9 mL. Fourteen women (19 implants [16%]) had a high-grade capsular contracture (Baker grade 3-4). During exchange, 28 implants were found to be ruptured (19.2%). Less than 10 years following breast augmentation, PIP implants demonstrated higher rupture rate compared with other implants. Our data are comparable to overall available rupture rate. Among patients with definitive rupture diagnosis, an elective implant removal should be recommended. In cases of undamaged implants, plastic surgeons should also seriously consider PIP implant explantation. When the patient does not desire to remove the implant, an annual physical examination and breast ultrasound are recommended, beginning a year after augmentation.

  7. Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy after fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy: A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Seiichiro; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Komori, Azusa; Sugiyama, Keiji; Narita, Yukiya; Taniguchi, Hiroya; Ura, Takashi; Ando, Masashi; Sato, Yozo; Yamaura, Hidekazu; Inaba, Yoshitaka; Ishihara, Makoto; Tanaka, Tsutomu; Tajika, Masahiro; Muro, Kei

    2017-06-01

    Acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy induced by fluoropyrimidines (FPs) is a rare complication. Its pathophysiology remains unclear, especially given the currently used regimens, including intermediate-doses of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) or oral FP agents. We aimed to characterize the clinical manifestations in cancer patients who developed hyperammonemic encephalopathy after receiving FP-based chemotherapy.We retrospectively reviewed 1786 patients with gastrointestinal or primary-unknown cancer who received FP-based regimens between 2007 and 2012. Eleven patients (0.6%) developed acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy. The incidence according to the administered anticancer drugs were as follows: 5-FU (8 of 1176, 0.7%), S-1 (1 of 679, 0.1%), capecitabine (2 of 225, 0.9%), and tegafur-uracil (UFT) (0 of 39, 0%). Ten patients (90.9%) had at least 1 aggravating factor, including infection, dehydration, constipation, renal dysfunction, and muscle loss. All the 10 patients met the definition of sarcopenia. Median time to the onset of hyperammonemic encephalopathy in the cycle was 3 days (range: 2-21). Three patients (27.3%) developed encephalopathy during the first cycle of the regimen and the remaining 8 patients during the second or more cycles. Seven patients (63.6%) had received at least 1 other FP-containing regimen before without episodes of encephalopathy.All patients recovered soon after immediate discontinuation of chemotherapy and supportive therapies, such as hydration, infusion of branched-chain amino acids, and oral lactulose intake, with a median time to recovery of 2 days (range: encephalopathy due to S-1 monotherapy, received modified FOLFOX-6 therapy without encephalopathy later.FP-associated acute hyperammonemic encephalopathy is extremely rare, but a possible event at any time and even during the administration of oral FP agents. Particular attention is warranted when giving FP-based therapy for patients with aggravating factors, such as sarcopenia. This

  8. Audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i. Case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Jiménez, Gloria; Mazón Gutiérrez, Ángel; Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Valle San Román, Natalia; Martín Laez, Rubén; Morales Angulo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Chiari malformation is an alteration of the base of the skull with herniation through the foramen magnum of the brain stem and cerebellum. Although the most common presentation is occipital headache, the association of audio-vestibular symptoms is not rare. The aim of our study was to describe audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i (CM-I). We performed a retrospective observational study of patients referred to our unit during the last 5 years. We also carried out a literature review of audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in this disease. There were 9 patients (2 males and 7 females), with an average age of 42.8 years. Five patients presented a Ménière-like syndrome; 2 cases, a recurrent vertigo with peripheral features; one patient showed a sudden hearing loss; and one case suffered a sensorineural hearing loss with early childhood onset. The most common audio-vestibular symptom indicated in the literature in patients with CM-I is unsteadiness (49%), followed by dizziness (18%), nystagmus (15%) and hearing loss (15%). Nystagmus is frequently horizontal (74%) or down-beating (18%). Other audio-vestibular signs and symptoms are tinnitus (11%), aural fullness (10%) and hyperacusis (1%). Occipital headache that increases with Valsalva manoeuvres and hand paresthesias are very suggestive symptoms. The appearance of audio-vestibular manifestations in CM-I makes it common to refer these patients to neurotologists. Unsteadiness, vertiginous syndromes and sensorineural hearing loss are frequent. Nystagmus, especially horizontal and down-beating, is not rare. It is important for neurotologists to familiarise themselves with CM-I symptoms to be able to consider it in differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  9. Alloplastic mandibular reconstruction: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current century case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadr-Eshkevari, Pooyan; Rashad, Ashkan; Vahdati, Seyed Aliakbar; Garajei, Ata; Bohluli, Behnam; Maurer, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Alloplastic mandibular reconstruction remains insufficiently predictable, with no systematic reviews to assess its scope and limitations. The PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases were searched for English study reports, published in the current century, of mere alloplastic surgical reconstruction of mandibular ablative defects. In 14 articles, there were 944 patients, with a median age of 58.7 years (interquartile range, 53.2 to 62 years); 58.7 percent (interquartile range, 66.7 to 78.6 percent) were male. Cases of squamous cell carcinoma per study constituted 93.5 percent (interquartile range, 81.5 to 100 percent). Defects were mostly lateral (Boyd classification) (60.5 percent; interquartile range, 56.2 to 62 percent) and received mostly conventional bridging plates (in 64.3 percent of the studies) and pedicled flaps (45.3 percent; interquartile range, 37.1 to 58.3 percent); 60.7 percent (interquartile range, 53.5 to 58.8 percent) received adjuvant therapy. At 32-month follow-up, the complication and failure rates were 40.1 percent (interquartile range, 26.7 to 58.6 percent) and 30.8 percent (interquartile range, 11.7 to 48.1 percent), respectively. The overall survival rate was 55 percent (interquartile range, 27.8 to 74 percent). Radiotherapy seemed to be a relative risk factor for complications (1.387; p = 0.014) and plate loss (1.585; p = 0.006). Crossing the midline seemed to be a relative risk factor for plate exposure (1.533; p = 0.000) and overall complications (1.385; p = 0.002). The results should be generalized cautiously. Alloplastic reconstructive surgery faces a remarkable lack of evidence. Relatively high complication and failure rates are areas of further concern.

  10. Disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis in hepatocyte nodules: selective proliferative stimulus induced by fumonisin B{sub 1}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westhuizen, Liana van der; Gelderblom, Wentzel C.A.; Shephard, Gordon S; Swanevelder, Sonja

    2004-07-15

    In order to investigate the role of sphingolipid disruption in the cancer promoting potential of fumonisin B{sub 1} (FB{sub 1}) in the development of hepatocyte nodules, male Fischer 344 rats were subjected to cancer initiation (FB{sub 1} containing diet or diethylnitrosamine (DEN) by i.p. injection) and promotion (2-acetylaminofluorene with partial hepatectomy, 2-AAF/PH) treatments followed by a secondary FB{sub 1} dietary regimen. Sphinganine (Sa) and sphingosine (So) levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography in control, surrounding and nodular liver tissues of the rats. The disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis by the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment in the control rats was significantly (P<0.05) enhanced by the 2-AAF/PH cancer promotion treatment. The nodular and surrounding Sa levels returned to baseline following FB{sub 1} initiation and 2-AAF/PH promotion. When comparing the groups subjected to the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment, the initiation effected by FB{sub 1} was less (P<0.01) sensitive to the accumulation of Sa in the nodular and surrounding tissues than DEN initiation and the 2-AAF/PH control treatment. In contrast, the So level of FB{sub 1} initiation was marginally increased in the nodules compared to the surrounding liver after 2-AAF/PH promotion and significantly (P<0.05) higher with the secondary FB{sub 1} treatment. Although, the FB{sub 1}-induced hepatocyte nodules were not resistant to the disruption of sphingolipid biosynthesis, the nodular So levels were increased and might provide a selective growth stimulus possibly induced by bio-active sphingoid intermediates such as sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P)

  11. Invasive cervical resorption and the oro-facial cleft patient: a review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Mahony, A; McNamara, C; Ireland, A; Sandy, J; Puryer, J

    2017-05-12

    Introduction Invasive cervical resorption (ICR) has an unknown aetiology, yet it exhibits very aggressive behaviour compared with typical external root resorption, posing a high risk of tooth loss.Aim To investigate the number of patients at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department with an oro-facial cleft who experienced ICR and to identify any possible aetiological factors.Materials and method A retrospective investigation of all oro-facial cleft patients treated at the Dublin Cleft Prosthodontic Department, St James's Hospital, Dublin. All patients' clinical and radiological records were reviewed. Patients where tooth loss became inevitable due to Class 4 ICR were analysed.Results From 588 oro-facial cleft patients, 14 (2.38%) patients with ICR were identified. Of these eight (57%) were female and six (43%) were male. Mean age at diagnosis was 28 years (range = 16-49 years). Cleft type: six (42.1%) unilateral cleft lip and palate, eight (57.9%) bilateral cleft lip and palate. Seventeen ICR affected teeth in total, with eleven (65%) maxillary central incisors, two (12%) maxillary lateral incisors, four (23%) maxillary canines, and one (7%) central, lateral and canine affected. Some, (N = 10, 71.4%) presented with ICR resulting in immediate tooth loss. Other patients (N = 4, 28.6%) developed ICR during or following prosthodontic treatment at the Cleft Centre. Tooth loss for this cohort, though not immediate, was inevitable. All had undergone fixed orthodontic appliance treatment and twelve had received dento-alveolar bone grafts. A number (N = 7, 50%) had undergone osteotomy, two (14%) had received night guard vital dental whitening and one had a history of trauma.Conclusions ICR, given its aggressive nature and ill-understood aetiology, poses significant treatment challenges. The most severe form of ICR (Class 4) leads inevitably to tooth loss. The slow-moderate progression of ICR may explain the late presentation found in this study, reinforcing the importance

  12. Clinical outcome of pediatric collagenous gastritis: case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijaz, Nadia Mazen; Septer, Seth Steven; Degaetano, James; Attard, Thomas Mario

    2013-03-07

    Collagenous gastritis (CG) is characterized by patchy subepithelial collagen bands. Effective treatment and the clinical and histological outcome of CG in children are poorly defined. The aim of this study is to summarize the published literature on the clinical outcome and response to therapy of pediatric CG including two new cases. We performed a search in Pubmed, OVID for related terms; articles including management and clinical and/or endo-histologic follow up information were included and abstracted. Reported findings were pooled in a dedicated database including the corresponding data extracted from chart review in our patients with CG. Twenty-four patients were included (17 females) with a mean age of 11.7 years. The clinical presentation included iron deficiency anemia and dyspepsia. The reported duration of follow up (in 18 patients) ranged between 0.2-14 years. Despite most subjects presenting with anemia including one requiring blood transfusion, oral iron therapy was only documented in 12 patients. Other treatment modalities were antisecretory measures in 13 patients; proton pump inhibitors (12), or histamine-2 blockers (3), sucralfate (5), prednisolone (6), oral budesonide in 3 patients where one received it in fish oil and triple therapy (3). Three (13%) patients showed no clinical improvement despite therapy; conversely 19 out of 22 were reported with improved symptoms including 8 with complete symptom resolution. Spontaneous clinical resolution without antisecretory, anti-inflammatory or gastroprotective agents was noted in 5 patients (4 received only supplemental iron). Follow up endo-histopathologic data (17 patients) included persistent collagen band and stable Mononuclear cell infiltrate in 12 patients with histopathologic improvement in 5 patients. Neither collagen band thickness nor mononuclear cell infiltrate correlated with clinical course. Intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia were reported (1) raising the concern of long

  13. A case series and a review of the literature on foreign modelling agent reaction: an emerging problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Villarreal, Ashley A; Asz-Sigall, Daniel; Gutiérrez-Mendoza, Daniela; Serena, Thomas E; Lozano-Platonoff, Adriana; Sanchez-Cruz, Lourdes Y; Toussaint-Caire, Sonia; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith; López-García, Lirio A; Cárdenas-Sánchez, Andrea; Contreras-Ruiz, José

    2017-06-01

    Foreign modelling agent reactions (FMAR) are the result of the injection of unapproved high-viscosity fluids with the purpose of cosmetic body modelling. Its consequences lead to ulceration, disfigurement and even death, and it has reached epidemic proportions in several regions of the world. We describe a series of patients treated for FMARs in a specialised wound care centre and a thorough review of the literature. A retrospective chart review was performed from January 1999 to September 2015 of patients who had been injected with non-medical foreign agents and who developed cutaneous ulceration needing treatment at the dermatology wound care centre. This study involved 23 patients whose ages ranged from 22 to 67 years with higher proportion of women and homosexual men. The most commonly injected sites were the buttocks (38·5%), legs (18%), thighs (15·4%) and breasts (11·8%). Mineral oil (39%) and other unknown substances (30·4%) were the most commonly injected. The latency period ranged from 1 week to 17 years. Complications included several skin changes such as sclerosis and ulceration as well as systemic complications. FMAR is a severe syndrome that may lead to deadly complications, and is still very common in Latin America. © 2016 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Sandfly fever in Afghanistan-a sometimes overlooked disease of military importance: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, John W; Flood, Daniel T; Orr, Nicholas H; Constantineau, Jason A; Caviness, James W

    2017-01-01

    Sandfly fever, sometimes known as pappataci fever or Phlebotomus fever, is a vector transmitted viral illness with a history of affecting naïve military formations that travel through or fight in areas in which the infection is endemic. We present a series of 4 hospitalized cases of sandfly fever (2 presumptive, 2 laboratory confirmed) that were admitted to a Role 3 hospital in Afghanistan for evaluation and treatment following medical evacuation from a forward area for marked fevers and malaise. Laboratory evaluation of these cases was significant for leukopenia and thrombocytopenia, consistent with historical descriptions of sandfly fever. In the correct geographic and clinical setting, the finding of mild leukopenia among a cluster of febrile patients should prompt the clinician to at least consider a diagnosis of sandfly fever. A cluster investigation conducted by preventive medicine personnel identified numerous other presumed cases of sandfly fever in this forward special operations camp. Response efforts emphasized enforcement of standard vector-borne disease control measures by operational leadership in order to limit effect on tactical operations. We review historical instances of sandfly fever affecting military operations, and present a review of clinical presentation, transmission, management, and prevention.

  15. Cranial epidural hematomas: A case series and literature review of this rare complication associated with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jennifer; Rathore, Nisha; Lee, Pearlene; LeBlanc, Zachary; Lebensburger, Jeffrey; Meier, Emily Riehm; Kwiatkowski, Janet L

    2017-03-01

    Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) may experience many complications of the central nervous system (CNS) including stroke, silent cerebral infarcts, and neuropsychological deficits. Cranial epidural hematoma is a rare but potentially serious complication. Case series of cranial epidural hematomas in children with SCD from three different institutions is considered, along with a literature review of cranial epidural hematomas in this population. Seven children with SCD with cranial epidural hematomas were identified from three different institutions. All patients were male and the age at presentation ranged from 10 to 18 years. Two patients presented with headache (28.6%), while the rest had no neurologic symptoms at presentation. Four patients required urgent neurosurgical intervention (57.1%) and one patient died (14.3%). A literature review identified 18 additional cases of cranial epidural hematomas in children with SCD. Of these, treatment ranged from supportive care to neurosurgical intervention. Twelve patients completely recovered (66.7%), one patient had long-term cognitive impairment (5.6%), and four patients died (22.2%). Combined with our data, cranial epidural hematomas have a mortality rate of 20.0%. Although rare, cranial epidural hematoma can be fatal and should be considered in patients with acute neurological symptoms. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel and glutamic acid decarboxylase in psychosis: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and case series.

    OpenAIRE

    Grain, Rosemary; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon; Malik, Steffi; LeMince, Anne; Nicholson, Timothy R; Murray, Robin M; Gaughran, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been reported in some cases of psychosis. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate their prevalence in people with psychosis and report a case series of VGKC-complex antibodies in refractory psychosis. Only five studies presenting prevalence rates of VGKC seropositivity in psychosis were identified, in addition to our case series, with an overall prevale...

  17. Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) in psychosis: A systematic review, meta-analysis and case series.

    OpenAIRE

    Lally*, John; Grain*, Rosemary; Stubbs, Brendon; Malik, Steffi; LeMince, Anne; Nicholson, Timothy RJ; Murray, Robin MacGregor; Gaughran, Fiona Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been reported in some cases of psychosis. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate their prevalence in people with psychosis and report a case series of VGKC-complex antibodies in refractory psychosis. Only five studies presenting prevalence rates of VGKC seropositivity in psychosis were identified, in addition to our case series, with an overall prevale...

  18. Intrasylvian/Intracerebral Hematomas Associated with Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: A Single-Center Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yupeng; Hu, Quan; Xue, Hao; Zhang, Mingran; Shen, Jie; Deng, Lin; Liu, Qinglin; Li, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms usually lead to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and several cases have shown concomitant intrasylvian or intracerebral hematomas. The objective of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic characteristics with their different outcomes. The charts of 30 consecutive patients with ruptured MCA aneurysm-related intracranial hematoma were retrospectively reviewed. These patients were dichotomized into an intrasylvian hematoma (ISH) group and an intracerebral hematoma (ICH) group by the presence of intrahematomal contrast-enhancing vessel; for patients under open surgery, hematoma type was further confirmed by intraoperative observation. The characteristics were compared between these 2 groups (ie, age, gender, history of hypertension, history of smoking, systolic pressure at admission, hematoma volume, size and side of aneurysms, the angle between the pointing direction of the aneurysm and the MCA trunk [denoted as α], middle line shifting, treatment modality, and outcome). All the angles are measured in the anterior-posterior projection. In our series, only hematoma volume, the angle α, and the middle line shift showed statistical significance regarding prognosis between 2 hematoma groups. An angle α between 109.0°and 216.0° is associated with ISH, whereas aneurysm with an angle beyond this range indicates ICH. In our series, patients in the ICH group had a larger hematoma volume compared with the ISH patients (33.3 ± 17.6 vs. 11.5 ± 10.5; P = 0.002). There exists no statistical difference regarding prognosis between these 2 groups, even although there is a trend toward worse recovery for patients in the ISH group (Glasgow Outcome Scale score, 3.0 ± 1.3 vs. 3.8 ± 1.9; P = 0.07). In our series, the prognosis of patients with ICH was worse than that of patients with ISH. Early discrimination of these 2 types of hematoma helps to predict future outcome; an angle (between the pointing direction of

  19. A combined fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and 2-photon microscopy approach to re-evaluate the properties of sphingolipid domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Sandra N; Fernandes, Fábio; Fedorov, Alexander; Futerman, Anthony H; Silva, Liana C; Prieto, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to provide further insight about the interplay between important signaling lipids and to characterize the properties of the lipid domains formed by those lipids in membranes containing distinct composition. To this end, we have used a combination of fluorescence spectroscopy, confocal and two-photon microscopy and a stepwise approach to re-evaluate the biophysical properties of sphingolipid domains, particularly lipid rafts and ceramide (Cer)-platforms. By using this strategy we were able to show that, in binary mixtures, sphingolipids (Cer and sphingomyelin, SM) form more tightly packed gel domains than those formed by phospholipids with similar acyl chain length. In more complex lipid mixtures, the interaction between the different lipids is intricate and is strongly dictated by the Cer-to-Chol ratio. The results show that in quaternary phospholipid/SM/Chol/Cer mixtures, Cer forms gel domains that become less packed as Chol is increased. Moreover, the extent of gel phase formation is strongly reduced in these mixtures, even though Cer molar fraction is increased. These results suggest that in biological membranes, lipid domains such as rafts and ceramide platforms, might display distinctive biophysical properties depending on the local lipid composition at the site of the membrane where they are formed, further highlighting the potential role of membrane biophysical properties as an underlying mechanism for mediating specific biological processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Case Series Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    open registry

    Complications noted were: nausea (17.50%) and vomiting (3.5%), pain at injection site (15.5%), chills/shivering ... sitting position will result in a block of the sacral nerve roots .... through a wide bore needle and right hip wedge to displace the ...

  1. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Haruka; Ryan, Katie Rose; Ohta, Yuji; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG). Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required. PMID:28890847

  2. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripette, Julien; Murakami, Haruka; Ryan, Katie Rose; Ohta, Yuji; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2017-01-01

    Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1) identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2) clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3) quantifying this effect. A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term "Wii-Fit." Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC) and time-up-and-go test (TUG). A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training ( N = 55). This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data ( N = 25). For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.

  3. The contribution of Nintendo Wii Fit series in the field of health: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tripette

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1 identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2 clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3 quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC and time-up-and-go test (TUG. Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55. This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25. For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.

  4. Severe bleeding complications other than intracranial hemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelhorst, Dian; Kamphuis, Marije M; de Kloet, Liselotte C; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    The most feared bleeding complication in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, FNAIT may also lead to other severe bleeding problems. The aim was to analyze this spectrum and evaluate the occurrence of severe hemorrhages other than ICH in fetuses or neonates with FNAIT. A retrospective chart analysis of cases of FNAIT presenting with severe bleeding complications other than ICH at our institution from 1990 to 2015 was conducted. Additionally, a review of the literature was performed to identify case reports and case series on FNAIT presenting with extracranial hemorrhage. Of 25 fetuses or neonates with severe bleeding due to FNAIT, three had isolated severe internal organ hemorrhage other than ICH, two pulmonary hemorrhages and one gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Two of these three neonates died due to this bleeding. Eighteen cases of extracranial bleeding complications as a first presentation of FNAIT were found in the literature, including ocular, gastrointestinal, spinal cord, pulmonary, renal, subgaleal, and genitourinary hemorrhages. Bleeding complications other than ICH may be more extensive, and the presentation of FNAIT may have a greater spectrum than previously described. A high index of suspicion on the possible diagnosis of FNAIT with any bleeding complication in a fetus or neonate may enable adequate diagnostics, adequate treatment, and appropriate follow-up in future pregnancies, as is especially relevant for FNAIT. © 2016 AABB.

  5. Use of asenapine as add-on therapy in the treatment of bipolar disorder: a comprehensive review and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Cremaschi, Laura; Palazzo, Maria Carlotta; Spagnolin, Gregorio; Cattaneo, Alma; Grancini, Benedetta; Maggi, Matteo; Altamura, Alfredo Carlo

    2014-09-01

    Several randomized controlled trials (RCTs), conducted in schizophrenic and bipolar patients, have documented the efficacy and tolerability of asenapine as monotherapy both for short- and long-term treatment. However, evidence on its augmentative use is more limited and related to the manic/mixed phase of bipolar disorder (BD). The present article reviews augmentative asenapine efficacy and safety/tolerability in the treatment of BD. It also includes some original cases of bipolar patients treated with add-on asenapine in the short- and long-term. To date, only a single RCT with manic/mixed patients with partial response to mood-stabilizer monotherapy supports the efficacy and safety/tolerability of augmentative asenapine to lithium/valproate, both in acute and long-term treatment. Additionally, two case reports confirm the overall effectiveness of augmentative asenapine to clozapine and valproate. Our case series, consisting of 4 bipolar patients treated with adjunctive asenapine to mood stabilizers and atypical antipsychotics - with treatment duration ranging from 1 to 14 months - provided clinical results that are consistent with literature data. Taken as a whole, available evidence seems to support the efficacy and safety of adjunctive asenapine in bipolar patients, though additional studies with active comparators are requested to confirm the current body of evidence.

  6. Necrotizing fasciitis: case series and review of the literature on clinical and medico-legal diagnostic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Paolo; Viero, Alessia; Viel, Guido; Giordano, Renzo; Raniero, Dario; Kusstatscher, Stefano; Giraudo, Chiara; Cecchetto, Giovanni; Montisci, Massimo

    2018-04-07

    Necrotizing fasciitis (NF) is a life-threatening infection of soft tissues spreading along the fasciae to the surrounding musculature, subcutaneous fat and overlying skin areas that can rapidly lead to septic shock and death. Due to the pandemic increase of medical malpractice lawsuits, above all in Western countries, the forensic pathologist is frequently asked to investigate post-mortem cases of NF in order to determine the cause of death and to identify any related negligence and/or medical error. Herein, we review the medical literature dealing with cases of NF in a post-mortem setting, present a case series of seven NF fatalities and discuss the main ante-mortem and post-mortem diagnostic challenges of both clinical and forensic interests. In particular, we address the following issues: (1) origin of soft tissue infections, (2) micro-organisms involved, (3) time of progression of the infection to NF, (4) clinical and histological staging of NF and (5) pros and cons of clinical and laboratory scores, specific forensic issues related to the reconstruction of the ideal medical conduct and the evaluation of the causal value/link of any eventual medical error.

  7. The Benefits of Peer Review and a Multisemester Capstone Writing Series on Inquiry and Analysis Skills in an Undergraduate Thesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, K F; Morales, V; Nelson, M; Weaver, P F; Toledo, A; Godde, K

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the introduction of a four-course writing-intensive capstone series and improvement in inquiry and analysis skills of biology senior undergraduates. To measure the impact of the multicourse write-to-learn and peer-review pedagogy on student performance, we used a modified Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education rubric for Inquiry and Analysis and Written Communication to score senior research theses from 2006 to 2008 (pretreatment) and 2009 to 2013 (intervention). A Fisher-Freeman-Halton test and a two-sample Student's t test were used to evaluate individual rubric dimensions and composite rubric scores, respectively, and a randomized complete block design analysis of variance was carried out on composite scores to examine the impact of the intervention across ethnicity, legacy (e.g., first-generation status), and research laboratory. The results show an increase in student performance in rubric scoring categories most closely associated with science literacy and critical-thinking skills, in addition to gains in students' writing abilities. © 2016 K. F. Weaver et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  8. Mesenchymal-to-endothelial transition in Kaposi sarcoma: a histogenetic hypothesis based on a case series and literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gurzu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have been conducted regarding Kaposi sarcoma (KS, its histogenesis still remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to analyze the immunophenotype of Kaposi sarcoma and to present a hypothesis about the histogenesis of this tumor, based on a case series and a review of relevant literature. METHODS: In 15 cases of KSs diagnosed during 2000-2011, the clinicopathological features were correlated with the immunoexpression of c-Kit, SMA, CD34, CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, COX-2, c-KIT, smooth muscle antigen (SMA, and stem cell surface marker CD105. RESULTS: Both CD105 and c-KIT rate of the spindle-shaped tumor cell positivity increased in parallel to the pathological stage. All cases displayed CD105 and weak c-KIT positivity in the endothelial cells. SMA, VEGF, and COX-2 were focally expressed in all cases. CD34 marked both endothelium and spindle-shaped tumor cells. No c-KIT expression was noticed in KS of the internal organs. CONCLUSIONS: KS seems to be a variant of myofibroblastic tumors that originates from the viral modified pluripotent mesenchymal cells of the connective tissue transformed in spindle-shaped KS cells, followed by a mesenchymal-endothelial transition and a myofibroblastic-like differentiation. This paper mailnly showed that KS cannot be considered a pure vascular tumor.

  9. Bronchiole alveolar carcinoma: biological profile, clinicopathologic presentation, evaluation and treatment. Literature review and national series of 26 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vázquez, A.; Terzieff, V.

    2004-01-01

    B. Objective: To study the biological profile, clinic pathologic presentation of BAC, characterized by a peculiar evolutionary behavior, study and treatment. P Methodology: Literature review national and international communication based on 26 cases clinical studied and treated in our midst. Results: The BAC behaves as a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of origin peripheral, typically linked to the Airborne spread to bilateral intrapulmonary cell its three forms: a clear cells and mucous secreting alveolar type II. Present day not considered characteristic of BAC nodal dissemination or hematologic level in the absence of type IV collagenase secretion by tumor cells. It is of no destroying, in one or more cell layers, the bronchiole alveolar septa. Its origin is discussed single or multicenter, while some authors establish etiological factors from benign diseases that can evolve into this neoplasm. It may or may not be linked smoking, presenting clinically in three forms: uni nodular, multi nodular and sclerosing, is studied by CT, FBC generally negative cytological aspiration, puncture or biopsy. It is treated by curative treatment with surgery alone, Rt, Qt and this study the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors with apparent antitumor activity in BAC Conclusions Some authors present it as a different adenocarcinoma to other CBPNPC, especially in its advanced form multi nodular. Biological tests set for it that his understanding is confirmed. In its evolution can indiferenciarse to infiltrantres forms characteristic of other adenocarcinomas, particularly in the form sclerosing. this fact biological can explain the emergence of mixed tumors with extensive BAC component together another adenocarcinoma. We believe that there is insufficient evidence at present to say that this is a different from the rest of the CBPNCP adenocarcinoma, although studies biological-genetic of this point to gather evidence for this difference. characteristically FBC is usually negative

  10. Extensive sphingolipid depletion does not affect lipid raft integrity or lipid raft localization and efflux function of the ABC transporter MRP1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klappe, Karin; Dijkhuis, Anne-Jan; Hummel, Ina; van Dam, Annie; Ivanova, Pavlina T.; Milne, Stephen B.; Myers, David S.; Brown, H. Alex; Permentier, Hjalmar; Kok, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    We show that highly efficient depletion of sphingolipids in two different cell lines does not abrogate the ability to isolate Lubrol-based DRMs (detergent-resistant membranes) or detergent-free lipid rafts from these cells. Compared with control, DRM/detergent-free lipid raft fractions contain equal

  11. Immunology in the clinic review series; focus on type 1 diabetes and viruses: the enterovirus link to type 1 diabetes: critical review of human studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stene, L C; Rewers, M

    2012-01-01

    OTHER THEMES PUBLISHED IN THIS IMMUNOLOGY IN THE CLINIC REVIEW SERIES Metabolic diseases, host responses, cancer, autoinflammatory diseases, allergy. The hypothesis that under some circumstances enteroviral infections can lead to type 1 diabetes (T1D) was proposed several decades ago, based initially on evidence from animal studies and sero-epidemiology. Subsequently, enterovirus RNA has been detected more frequently in serum of patients than in control subjects, but such studies are susceptible to selection bias and reverse causality. Here, we review critically recent evidence from human studies, focusing on longitudinal studies with potential to demonstrate temporal association. Among seven longitudinal birth cohort studies, the evidence that enterovirus infections predict islet autoimmunity is quite inconsistent in our interpretation, due partially, perhaps, to heterogeneity in study design and a limited number of subjects studied. An association between enterovirus and rapid progression from autoimmunity to T1D was reported by one longitudinal study, but although consistent with evidence from animal models, this novel observation awaits replication. It is possible that a potential association with initiation and/or progression of islet autoimmunity can be ascribed to a subgroup of the many enterovirus serotypes, but this has still not been investigated properly. There is a need for larger studies with frequent sample intervals and collection of specimens of sufficient quality and quantity for detailed characterization of enterovirus. More research into the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses and enterovirus immunity in human populations is also warranted. Ultimately, this knowledge may be used to devise strategies to reduce the risk of T1D in humans. PMID:22385232

  12. Treatment of thoracolumbar burst fractures with variable screw placement or Isola instrumentation and arthrodesis: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvine, Gregory F; Swain, James M; Asher, Marc A; Burton, Douglas C

    2004-08-01

    The controversy of burst fracture surgical management is addressed in this retrospective case study and literature review. The series consisted of 40 consecutive patients, index included, with 41 fractures treated with stiff, limited segment transpedicular bone-anchored instrumentation and arthrodesis from 1987 through 1994. No major acute complications such as death, paralysis, or infection occurred. For the 30 fractures with pre- and postoperative computed tomography studies, spinal canal compromise was 61% and 32%, respectively. Neurologic function improved in 7 of 14 patients (50%) and did not worsen in any. The principal problem encountered was screw breakage, which occurred in 16 of the 41 (39%) instrumented fractures. As we have previously reported, transpedicular anterior bone graft augmentation significantly decreased variable screw placement (VSP) implant breakage. However, it did not prevent Isola implant breakage in two-motion segment constructs. Compared with VSP, Isola provided better sagittal plane realignment and constructs that have been found to be significantly stiffer. Unplanned reoperation was necessary in 9 of the 40 patients (23%). At 1- and 2-year follow-up, 95% and 79% of patients were available for study, and a satisfactory outcome was achieved in 84% and 79%, respectively. These satisfaction and reoperation rates are consistent with the literature of the time. Based on these observations and the loads to which implant constructs are exposed following posterior realignment and stabilization of burst fractures, we recommend that three- or four-motion segment constructs, rather than two motion, be used. To save valuable motion segments, planned construct shortening can be used. An alternative is sequential or staged anterior corpectomy and structural grafting.

  13. Transient Diabetes Insipidus After Discontinuation of Vasopressin in Neurological Intensive Care Unit Patients: Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Orthognathic Surgery in Patients With Congenital Myopathies and Congenital Muscular Dystrophies: Case Series and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezak, Brett J; Arce, Kevin A; Jacob, Adam; Van Ess, James

    2016-03-01

    This case series examined preoperative findings and the surgical, anesthetic, and postoperative management of 6 patients with congenital myopathies (CMs) and congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) treated at a tertiary medical institution with orthognathic surgery over 15 years to describe pertinent considerations for performing orthognathic surgery in these complex patients. According to the institutional review board-approved protocol, chart records were reviewed for all orthognathic surgical patients with a clinical, genetic, or muscle biopsy-proved diagnosis of CM or CMD. Six patients (5 male, 1 female) qualified, and they were treated by 4 surgeons in the division of oral and maxillofacial surgery from 1992 through 2007. Average age was 19.5 years at the time of orthognathic surgery. Five patients had Class III malocclusions and 1 patient had Class II malocclusion. All 6 patients had apertognathia with lip incompetence. Nasoendotracheal intubation with a difficulty of 0/3 (0=easiest, 3=most difficult) was performed in all cases. Routine induction and maintenance anesthetics, including halogenated agents and nondepolarizing muscle relaxants, were administered without malignant hyperthermia. All 6 patients underwent Le Fort level osteotomies; 4 also had mandibular setback surgery with or without balancing mandibular inferior border osteotomies. Five patients required planned intensive care unit care postoperatively (average, 18.4 days; range, 4 to 65 days). Postoperative respiratory complications resulting in major blood oxygen desaturations occurred in 5 patients; 4 of these patients required reintubation during emergency code response. Five patients required extended postoperative intubation (average, 4.2 days; range, 3 to 6 days) and ventilatory support. Average hospital length of stay was 21.8 days (range, 6 to 75 days). Average postoperative follow-up interval was 29.8 weeks (range, 6 to 128 weeks). Patients with CMs or CMDs often have characteristic

  15. Failure of the inflatable penile prosthesis due to abnormal folding of a low-profile reservoir – A selected case from an overall series and systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Alejandro Navarrete

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case from a running series of inflatable penile prosthesis failure due to improper folding of the Conceal™ reservoir. The Conceal™ Low-Profile reservoir gained popularity due to claims of improved cosmesis and ease of implantation. As the number of patients receiving this and other low-profile reservoirs increases, it is imperative to review and document any novel complications. While the Conceal™ reservoir may be preferred in ectopic placement, it may be more prone to fluid lockout facilitated by conformational change. Our review did not identify prior reports of improper folding, which we believe is unique to these low-profile reservoirs.

  16. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  17. Considering Teaching Excellence in Higher Education: 2007-2013. A Literature Review since the CHERI Report 2007. HEA Research Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Vicky; Fisk, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This research review explores both the research and the grey literature on university teaching excellence with a specific remit to update an earlier review, "Excellence in Teaching and Learning: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy". Little, B., et al (2007) The two main aims are: (1) to suggest further areas of…

  18. Acute traumatic rupture of the patellar tendon in pediatric population: Case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali Yousef, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Rosenfeld, Scott

    2017-11-01

    Intact knee extensor mechanism is required for the normal function of the lower extremity. Patellar tendon rupture is a relatively rare injury with peak age incidence around 40 years and usually occurs midsubstance. The occurrence of pure patellar tendon rupture without bony avulsion is an extremely rare injury in the pediatric population with few cases reported in the literature with limited information regarding frequency, complications, and outcomes in children. However, due to increased participation in sports and high-energy recreational activities during childhood, the frequency of such injuries has progressively increased. To evaluate the frequency of pediatric patellar tendon rupture injuries and describe the radiological findings, treatment modalities, and outcome of such injuries. Demographic and clinical data on a series of patients who sustained patellar tendon rupture were reviewed. These data included age at time of injury, sex, laterality, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, complications, presence or absence of Osgood-Schlatter disease, diagnostic imaging such as plain radiographs and magnetic resonance images (MRI), surgical technique, method of fixation, period of postoperative immobilization, total duration of physiotherapy, time to return to sports activities and follow-up duration. Insall-Salvati ratio was calculated on the preoperative lateral x-ray. The functional outcome was evaluated with regard to final knee active range of motion (AROM), manual quadriceps muscle testing, and presence or the absence of terminal extension lag. Clinical outcome rating using knee society score (KSS) was performed and functional outcome was further classified according to the calculated score. Five male patients with patellar tendon rupture (7%) were identified among 71 pediatric patients who sustained acute traumatic injury of the knee extensor mechanism. The mean age at the time of injury was 13.6 years (range: 12-15 years). The injury occurred in

  19. 19q13.12 microdeletion syndrome fibroblasts display abnormal storage of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the endo-lysosomal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kexin; van der Spoel, Aarnoud; Castiglioni, Claudia; Gale, Sarah; Fujiwara, Hideji; Ory, Daniel S; Ridgway, Neale D

    2018-06-01

    Microdeletions in 19q12q13.12 cause a rare and complex haploinsufficiency syndrome characterized by intellectual deficiency, developmental delays, and neurological movement disorders. Variability in the size and interval of the deletions makes it difficult to attribute the complex clinical phenotype of this syndrome to an underlying gene(s). As an alternate approach, we examined the biochemical and metabolic features of fibroblasts from an affected individual to derive clues as to the molecular basis for the syndrome. Immunofluorescence and electron microscopy of affected fibroblasts revealed an abnormal endo-lysosomal compartment that was characterized by rapid accumulation of lysosomotropic dyes, elevated LAMP1 and LAMP2 expression and vacuoles containing membrane whorls, common features of lysosomal lipid storage disorders. The late endosomes-lysosomes (LE/LY) of affected fibroblasts accumulated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and displayed reduced cholesterol esterification and increased de novo cholesterol synthesis, indicative of defective cholesterol transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. Affected fibroblasts also had increased ceramide and sphingolipid mass, altered glycosphingolipid species and accumulation of a fluorescent lactosylceramide probe in LE/LY. Autophagosomes also accumulated in affected fibroblasts because of decreased fusion with autolysosomes, a defect associated with other lysosomal storage diseases. Attempts to correct the cholesterol/sphingolipid storage defect in fibroblasts with cyclodextrin, sphingolipid synthesis inhibitors or by altering ion transport were unsuccessful. Our data show that 19q13.12 deletion fibroblasts have abnormal accumulation of cholesterol and sphingolipids in the endo-lysosomal system that compromises organelle function and could be an underlying cause of the clinical features of the syndrome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Mature teratoma in association with neural tube defect (occipital encephalocele): series of four cases and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nishant; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Kakkar, Aanchal; Sharma, Meher Chand; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Both occipital encephalocele and teratomas are midline congenital malformations. Encephalocele is a form of neural tube defect in which there is a congenital defect of the cranium through which occurs a protrusion of brain matter or meninges, while teratoma is a tumor derived from all three germ layers. The association between occipital encephalocele and teratoma has not been reported to date. In the present study, the authors present a series of four such cases. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Ischemic Gastritis: A Multicenter Case Series of a Rare Clinical Entity and a Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwir, Saleh; Shaukat, Aasma; Mesa, Hector; Colbach, Christine; Dambowy, Paul; Shaw, Michael

    2016-10-01

    To report a case series of ischemic gastritis and discuss its etiology, management, and associated mortality according to our results and the published English literature. Ischemic gastritis is rare, given the rich blood supply of the stomach. It has been reported in isolated case reports and small case series. Most cases are vascular in origin and associated with a high mortality. Pathology databases from 3 hospitals affiliated with the University of Minnesota Medical School were searched for cases of ischemic gastritis in the last 10 years. Patients' demographics, clinical course, and 1-month and 1-year mortalities were collected from electronic medical records. A total of 12 patients were identified (age range, 32.1 to 83.2), the largest series reported to date. The presenting symptom was gastrointestinal bleeding (8), abdominal pain (2), nausea (1), and symptomatic anemia (1). The etiology included postinterventional radiology embolization (2), hemodynamic changes in the setting of celiac axis stenosis (2), vasculitis (1), systemic hypotension (1), and unknown (6). Treatment included steroid therapy, revascularization by interventional radiology, surgery, or supportive treatment. Thirty-day and 1-year mortalities were 33% and 41%, respectively. Ischemic gastritis is rare, but associated with a high mortality. Evaluation for treatable etiologies should be sought and corrected if present.

  2. Clarifying the distinction between case series and cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies: potential impact on body of evidence and workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Mathes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distinguishing cohort studies from case series is difficult. We propose a conceptualization of cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies. The main aim of this conceptualization is to clarify the distinction between cohort studies and case series. We discuss the potential impact of the proposed conceptualization on the body of evidence and workload. All studies with exposure-based sampling gather multiple exposures (with at least two different exposures or levels of exposure and enable calculation of relative risks that should be considered cohort studies in systematic reviews, including non-randomized studies. The term “enables/can” means that a predefined analytic comparison is not a prerequisite (i.e., the absolute risks per group and/or a risk ratio are provided. Instead, all studies for which sufficient data are available for reanalysis to compare different exposures (e.g., sufficient data in the publication are classified as cohort studies. There are possibly large numbers of studies without a comparison for the exposure of interest but that do provide the necessary data to calculate effect measures for a comparison. Consequently, more studies could be included in a systematic review. Therefore, on the one hand, the outlined approach can increase the confidence in effect estimates and the strengths of conclusions. On the other hand, the workload would increase (e.g., additional data extraction and risk of bias assessment, as well as reanalyses.

  3. Holmium:YAG Laser Ablation for the Management of Lower Urinary Tract Foreign Bodies Following Incontinence Surgery: A Case Series and Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garson; Mamut, Adiel; Martin, Paul; Welk, Blayne

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the outcomes associated with the endoscopic removal of foreign bodies (such as mesh or permanent suture) in the lower urinary tract after female stress incontinence surgery with the Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG) laser, and to systematically review the literature on this topic. A retrospective chart review of 18 consecutive women found to have mesh or suture exposure was performed. All patients underwent Ho:YAG laser ablation. A systematic review was performed to identify literature addressing the endoscopic management of mesh/suture exposure after stress incontinence surgery. Between November 2011 and February 2016, 18 women underwent Ho:YAG laser ablation of exposed mesh or suture. Presenting symptoms included lower urinary tract symptoms, pelvic pain, incontinence, or recurrent urinary tract infections. Thirteen women had a previous synthetic midurethral sling and five had a prior retropubic suspension. The median age was 58 years (interquartile range [IQR] 50-60) and median follow-up was 2 years (IQR 1-2). Four patients (22%) had residual mesh after the first procedure, requiring a repeat endoscopic procedure. Only one patient had a small amount of asymptomatic residual mesh on cystoscopy after the final procedure. Only minor postoperative complications were observed. Eight patients had stress incontinence and four underwent operative treatment for this. In our systematic review, we identified 16 case series, which described a total of 158 patients. Women most commonly presented with voiding symptoms or incontinence. Based on the synthesis of these data, repeat procedures were necessary in 16% and vesicovaginal fistula occurred in 2%. Recurrent/persistent stress incontinence was present in 20%, and of these patients, 3/4 underwent a new stress incontinence procedure. Both our case series and the systematic review of the literature demonstrated that endoscopic treatment of lower urinary tract foreign bodies after stress

  4. AHRQ series on complex intervention systematic reviews-paper 6: PRISMA-CI extension statement and checklist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guise, Jeanne-Marie; Butler, Mary E; Chang, Christine; Viswanathan, Meera; Pigott, Terri; Tugwell, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Complex interventions are widely used in health systems, public health, education, and communities and are increasingly the subject of systematic reviews. Oversimplification and inconsistencies in reporting about complex interventions can limit the usability of review findings. Although guidance exists to ensure that reports of individual studies and systematic reviews adhere to accepted scientific standards, their design-specific focus leaves important reporting gaps relative to complex interventions in health care. This paper provides a stand-alone extension to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) reporting tool for complex interventions-PRISMA-CI-to help authors, publishers, and readers understand and apply to systematic reviews of complex interventions. PRISMA-CI development followed the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research Network guidance for extensions and focused on adding or modifying only essential items that are truly unique to complex interventions and are not covered by broader interpretation of current PRISMA guidance. PRISMA-CI provides an important structure and guidance for systematic reviews and meta-analyses for the highly prevalent and dynamic field of complex interventions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses: part 6 of a series on evaluation of scientific publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressing, Meike; Blettner, Maria; Klug, Stefanie J

    2009-07-01

    Because of the rising number of scientific publications, it is important to have a means of jointly summarizing and assessing different studies on a single topic. Systematic literature reviews, meta-analyses of published data, and meta-analyses of individual data (pooled reanalyses) are now being published with increasing frequency. We here describe the essential features of these methods and discuss their strengths and weaknesses. This article is based on a selective literature search. The different types of review and meta-analysis are described, the methods used in each are outlined so that they can be evaluated, and a checklist is given for the assessment of reviews and meta-analyses of scientific articles. Systematic literature reviews provide an overview of the state of research on a given topic and enable an assessment of the quality of individual studies. They also allow the results of different studies to be evaluated together when these are inconsistent. Meta-analyses additionally allow calculation of pooled estimates of an effect. The different types of review and meta-analysis are discussed with examples from the literature on one particular topic. Systematic literature reviews and meta-analyses enable the research findings and treatment effects obtained in different individual studies to be summed up and evaluated.

  6. Combining chemical genomics screens in yeast to reveal spectrum of effects of chemical inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaever Guri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single genome-wide screens for the effect of altered gene dosage on drug sensitivity in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide only a partial picture of the mechanism of action of a drug. Results Using the example of the tumor cell invasion inhibitor dihydromotuporamine C, we show that a more complete picture of drug action can be obtained by combining different chemical genomics approaches – analysis of the sensitivity of ρ0 cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, drug-induced haploinsufficiency, suppression of drug sensitivity by gene overexpression and chemical-genetic synthetic lethality screening using strains deleted of nonessential genes. Killing of yeast by this chemical requires a functional mitochondrial electron-transport chain and cytochrome c heme lyase function. However, we find that it does not require genes associated with programmed cell death in yeast. The chemical also inhibits endocytosis and intracellular vesicle trafficking and interferes with vacuolar acidification in yeast and in human cancer cells. These effects can all be ascribed to inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by dihydromotuporamine C. Conclusion Despite their similar conceptual basis, namely altering drug sensitivity by modifying gene dosage, each of the screening approaches provided a distinct set of information that, when integrated, revealed a more complete picture of the mechanism of action of a drug on cells.

  7. Critical Role for Very-Long Chain Sphingolipids in Invariant Natural Killer T Cell Development and Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saroha, Ashish; Pewzner-Jung, Yael; Ferreira, Natalia S; Sharma, Piyush; Jouan, Youenn; Kelly, Samuel L; Feldmesser, Ester; Merrill, Alfred H; Trottein, François; Paget, Christophe; Lang, Karl S; Futerman, Anthony H

    2017-01-01

    The role of sphingolipids (SLs) in the immune system has come under increasing scrutiny recently due to the emerging contributions that these important membrane components play in regulating a variety of immunological processes. The acyl chain length of SLs appears particularly critical in determining SL function. Here, we show a role for very-long acyl chain SLs (VLC-SLs) in invariant natural killer T ( i NKT) cell maturation in the thymus and homeostasis in the liver. Ceramide synthase 2-null mice, which lack VLC-SLs, were susceptible to a hepatotropic strain of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, which is due to a reduction in the number of i NKT cells. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated that hematopoietic-derived VLC-SLs are essential for maturation of i NKT cells in the thymus, whereas parenchymal-derived VLC-SLs are crucial for i NKT cell survival and maintenance in the liver. Our findings suggest a critical role for VLC-SL in i NKT cell physiology.

  8. A hybrid mathematical modeling approach of the metabolic fate of a fluorescent sphingolipid analogue to predict cancer chemosensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Mora, J A; Kop-Montero, M; Quirós-Fernández, I; Quiros, S; Crespo-Mariño, J L; Mora-Rodríguez, R A

    2018-04-13

    Sphingolipid (SL) metabolism is a complex biological system that produces and transforms ceramides and other molecules able to modulate other cellular processes, including survival or death pathways key to cell fate decisions. This signaling pathway integrates several types of stress signals, including chemotherapy, into changes in the activity of its metabolic enzymes, altering thereby the cellular composition of bioactive SLs. Therefore, the SL pathway is a promising sensor of chemosensitivity in cancer and a target hub to overcome resistance. However, there is still a gap in our understanding of how chemotherapeutic drugs can disturb the SL pathway in order to control cellular fate. We propose to bridge this gap by a systems biology approach to integrate i) a dynamic model of SL analogue (BODIPY-FL fluorescent-sphingomyelin analogue, SM-BOD) metabolism, ii) a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) of the fluorescence features to identify how the SL pathway senses the effect of chemotherapy and iii) a fuzzy logic model (FLM) to associate SL composition with cell viability by semi-quantitative rules. Altogether, this hybrid model approach was able to predict the cell viability of double experimental perturbations with chemotherapy, indicating that the SL pathway is a promising sensor to design strategies to overcome drug resistance in cancer. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Chlamydia trachomatis intercepts Golgi-derived sphingolipids through a Rab14-mediated transport required for bacterial development and replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahí Capmany

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation.

  10. Chlamydia trachomatis intercepts Golgi-derived sphingolipids through a Rab14-mediated transport required for bacterial development and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, Anahí; Damiani, María Teresa

    2010-11-22

    Chlamydia trachomatis are obligate intracellular bacteria that survive and replicate in a bacterial-modified phagosome called inclusion. As other intracellular parasites, these bacteria subvert the phagocytic pathway to avoid degradation in phagolysosomes and exploit trafficking pathways to acquire both energy and nutrients essential for their survival. Rabs are host proteins that control intracellular vesicular trafficking. Rab14, a Golgi-related Rab, controls Golgi to endosomes transport. Since Chlamydia establish a close relationship with the Golgi apparatus, the recruitment and participation of Rab14 on inclusion development and bacteria growth were analyzed. Time course analysis revealed that Rab14 associated with inclusions by 10 h post infection and was maintained throughout the entire developmental cycle. The recruitment was bacterial protein synthesis-dependent but independent of microtubules and Golgi integrity. Overexpression of Rab14 dominant negative mutants delayed inclusion enlargement, and impaired bacteria replication as determined by IFU. Silencing of Rab14 by siRNA also decreased bacteria multiplication and infectivity. By electron microscopy, aberrant bacteria were observed in cells overexpressing the cytosolic negative Rab14 mutant. Our results showed that Rab14 facilitates the delivery of sphingolipids required for bacterial development and replication from the Golgi to chlamydial inclusions. Novel anti-chlamydial therapies could be developed based on the knowledge of how bacteria subvert host vesicular transport events through Rabs manipulation.

  11. The new philosophy of psychiatry: its (recent) past, present and future: a review of the Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim

    2007-01-01

    There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.

  12. Diagnosis and Management of Transplanted Kidney Extrarenal Pseudoaneurysms: A Series of Four Cases and a Review of the Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fananapazir, Ghaneh, E-mail: fananapazir@ucdavis.edu [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Hannsun, Gemmy [University of California Sacramento Medical Center, School of Medicine (United States); Wright, Luke A.; Corwin, Michael T. [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Troppmann, Christoph [University of California Davis Medical Center, Department of Surgery (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Extrarenal pseudoaneurysms of transplanted kidneys are very rare but can have devastating consequences. In the past, these extrarenal pseudoaneurysms have often led to graft loss as well as significant morbidity and mortality. The role of advanced diagnostic imaging studies and of modern radiologic interventional management has not been studied. In this case series, we present four cases of extrarenal pseudoaneurysms of transplanted kidneys, describe the clinical scenarios and imaging that led to the angiographic diagnosis, and discuss the various endovascular and surgical approaches to management.

  13. Elevated human chorionic gonadotropin levels in patients with chronic kidney disease: Case series and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Soni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.

  14. An uncommon clinical feature of IAN injury after third molar removal: a delayed paresthesia case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgonovo, Andrea; Bianchi, Albino; Marchetti, Andrea; Censi, Rachele; Maiorana, Carlo

    2012-05-01

    After an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, the onset of altered sensation usually begins immediately after surgery. However, it sometimes begins after several days, which is referred to as delayed paresthesia. The authors considered three different etiologies that likely produce inflammation along the nerve trunk and cause delayed paresthesia: compression of the clot, fibrous reorganization of the clot, and nerve trauma caused by bone fragments during clot organization. The aim of this article was to evaluate the etiology of IAN delayed paresthesia, analyze the literature, present a case series related to three different causes of this pathology, and compare delayed paresthesia with the classic immediate symptomatic paresthesia.

  15. Infinite series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschman, Isidore Isaac

    2014-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students presents a rigorous approach that also emphasizes applications. Encompassing more than the usual amount of material on the problems of computation with series, the treatment offers many applications, including those related to the theory of special functions. Numerous problems appear throughout the book.The first chapter introduces the elementary theory of infinite series, followed by a relatively complete exposition of the basic properties of Taylor series and Fourier series. Additional subjects include series of functions and the app

  16. Lansoprazole-induced microscopic colitis: an increasing problem? Results of a prospecive case-series and systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurso, Gabriele; Marignani, Massimo; Attilia, Fabio; Milione, Massimo; Colarossi, Cristina; Zampaletta, Costantino; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco

    2011-05-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC), comprising lymphocytic and collagenous colitis (LC, CC), causes chronic diarrhoea. Lansoprazole can cause MC. Likelihood criteria defining the causative relationship between drugs and MC have not been applied to lansoprazole, nor has lansoprazole-related-MC been characterized. To analyse a series of lansoprazole-related MC cases, and characterize lansoprazole-related CC and LC. Cases were diagnosed over 23 months and causal relationship evaluated by established likelihood criteria. A systematic Medline search was conducted and publications analysed. Eight patients had lansoprazole-related MC. In all cases chronological and causality likelihood scores supported lansoprazole causative role. Discontinuation determined resolution without further treatment. Twenty-five cases of lansoprazole-related MC from 10 publications were grouped with the present series, and differences between CC and LC analysed. CC cases had more macroscopic alterations at colonoscopy (72.2 vs. 6.6%; p=0.0002). Time between lansoprazole start and symptoms onset was longer for CC (median 60 vs. 28 days; p=0.03). Peculiar features of lansoprazole-related CC were described through the analysis of a newly diagnosed lansoprazole-related MC series in which the causative role of lansoprazole was for the first time defined by established likelihood criteria, and by pooled evaluation with other cases retrieved by a systematic literature review. Copyright © 2010 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Quasi-experimental study designs series-paper 8: identifying quasi-experimental studies to inform systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanville, Julie; Eyers, John; Jones, Andrew M; Shemilt, Ian; Wang, Grace; Johansen, Marit; Fiander, Michelle; Rothstein, Hannah

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews the available evidence and guidance on methods to identify reports of quasi-experimental (QE) studies to inform systematic reviews of health care, public health, international development, education, crime and justice, and social welfare. Research, guidance, and examples of search strategies were identified by searching a range of databases, key guidance documents, selected reviews, conference proceedings, and personal communication. Current practice and research evidence were summarized. Four thousand nine hundred twenty-four records were retrieved by database searches, and additional documents were obtained by other searches. QE studies are challenging to identify efficiently because they have no standardized nomenclature and may be indexed in various ways. Reliable search filters are not available. There is a lack of specific resources devoted to collecting QE studies and little evidence on where best to search. Searches to identify QE studies should search a range of resources and, until indexing improves, use strategies that focus on the topic rather than the study design. Better definitions, better indexing in databases, prospective registers, and reporting guidance are required to improve the retrieval of QE studies and promote systematic reviews of what works based on the evidence from such studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical and oral findings in an Afro-Brazilian family with Gorlin-Goltz syndrome: case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Pierro, Viviane Santos; Marins, Marcello Roter; Borges de Oliveira, Renata Cabral; Cortezzi, Wladimir; Janini, Maria Elisa; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2015-01-01

    Gorlin-Goltz syndrome (GGS) seems to be unusual in black persons. The authors present an Afro-Brazilian family case report of GGS. The main complaint of the index case was a painless swelling of the left mandible, which was diagnosed as an odontogenic keratocyst. Further classical features of the Syndrome were present in this patient. Other two family members were diagnosed as cases of GGS and one of them presented 11 clinical findings characteristic of the syndrome. From the three cases reported, two of them presented five major diagnostic criteria for the GGS, and the diagnosis was only made because of an oral complaint. This case series emphasizes the importance of carefully examining the patient and close relatives for signs of GGS, even if they belong to an ethnic group in which this diagnosis is unusual. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Ectopic Oral Tonsillar Tissue: A Case Series with Bilateral and Solitary Presentations and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic tonsil is defined as tonsillar tissue that develops in areas outside of the four major tonsil groups: the palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils. The occurrence of tonsillar tissue in the oral cavity in ectopic locations, its prevalence, and its developmental mechanisms that belong to its formation remain unclear. In this report, we describe a rare case of bilateral symmetric ectopic oral tonsillar tissue located at the ventral surface of the tongue along with two solitary cases arising from the floor of the mouth. The role of immune system and its aberrant response leading to ectopic deposits desires further studies. As an ectopic tonsil may simulate a benign soft tissue tumor, this case series highlights the importance of this entity in our clinical differential diagnosis of oral soft tissue masses.

  20. Multivariable and Bayesian Network Analysis of Outcome Predictors in Acute Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Review of a Pure Surgical Series in the Post-International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zador, Zsolt; Huang, Wendy; Sperrin, Matthew; Lawton, Michael T

    2018-06-01

    Following the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT), evolving treatment modalities for acute aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) has changed the case mix of patients undergoing urgent surgical clipping. To update our knowledge on outcome predictors by analyzing admission parameters in a pure surgical series using variable importance ranking and machine learning. We reviewed a single surgeon's case series of 226 patients suffering from aSAH treated with urgent surgical clipping. Predictions were made using logistic regression models, and predictive performance was assessed using areas under the receiver operating curve (AUC). We established variable importance ranking using partial Nagelkerke R2 scores. Probabilistic associations between variables were depicted using Bayesian networks, a method of machine learning. Importance ranking showed that World Federation of Neurosurgical Societies (WFNS) grade and age were the most influential outcome prognosticators. Inclusion of only these 2 predictors was sufficient to maintain model performance compared to when all variables were considered (AUC = 0.8222, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7646-0.88 vs 0.8218, 95% CI: 0.7616-0.8821, respectively, DeLong's P = .992). Bayesian networks showed that age and WFNS grade were associated with several variables such as laboratory results and cardiorespiratory parameters. Our study is the first to report early outcomes and formal predictor importance ranking following aSAH in a post-ISAT surgical case series. Models showed good predictive power with fewer relevant predictors than in similar size series. Bayesian networks proved to be a powerful tool in visualizing the widespread association of the 2 key predictors with admission variables, explaining their importance and demonstrating the potential for hypothesis generation.

  1. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamendi, Harriet; Zhou, Ying; Crosby, Meredith; Keirstead, Natalie; Snow, Debra; Bentley, Patricia; Patel, Nilaben; Barthlow, Herbert; Luo, Wenli; Dragan, Yvonne; Bialecki, Russell

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  2. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmar Igl

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. Objective . To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. Study design . We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS based on reindeer herding (TLS group with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group. The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, triglycerides (TG, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. Results . The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥240 mg/dl, as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. Conclusions . The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  3. Animal source food intake and association with blood cholesterol, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids in a northern Swedish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igl, Wilmar; Kamal-Eldin, Afaf; Johansson, Asa; Liebisch, Gerhard; Gnewuch, Carsten; Schmitz, Gerd; Gyllensten, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    The high intake of game meat in populations with a subsistence-based diet may affect their blood lipids and health status. To examine the association between diet and circulating levels of blood lipid levels in a northern Swedish population. We compared a group with traditional lifestyle (TLS) based on reindeer herding (TLS group) with those from the same area with a non-traditional lifestyle (NTLS) typical of more industrialized regions of Sweden (NTLS group). The analysis was based on self-reported intake of animal source food (i.e. non-game meat, game meat, fish, dairy products and eggs) and the serum blood level of a number of lipids [total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), triglycerides (TG), glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids]. The TLS group had higher cholesterol, LDL and HDL levels than the reference group. Of the TLS group, 65% had cholesterol levels above the threshold for increased risk of coronary heart disease (≥ 240 mg/dl), as compared to 38% of the NTLS group. Self-reported consumption of game meat was positively associated with TC and LDL. The high game meat consumption of the TLS group is associated with increased cholesterol levels. High intake of animal protein and fat and low fibre is known to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, but other studies of the TLS in northern Sweden have shown comparable incidences of cardiovascular disease to the reference (NTLS) group from the same geographical area. This indicates that factors other than TC influence disease risk. One such possible factor is dietary phospholipids, which are also found in high amounts specifically in game meat and have been shown to inhibit cholesterol absorption.

  4. Doxorubicin: Comparison between 3-h continuous and bolus intravenous administration paradigms on cardio-renal axis, mitochondrial sphingolipids and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamendi, Harriet, E-mail: harriet_kamendi@kandih.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Zhou, Ying, E-mail: yingzhou526@gmail.com [Oncology Innovative Medicines and Early Development, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Crosby, Meredith, E-mail: Meredith.crosby@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Keirstead, Natalie, E-mail: Nkeirstead@alnylam.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Snow, Debra, E-mail: Debra.snow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bentley, Patricia, E-mail: patricia.bentley@abbvie.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Patel, Nilaben, E-mail: patelnilaben@yahoo.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Barthlow, Herbert, E-mail: Herbert.barthlow@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Luo, Wenli, E-mail: Wenli.luo@astrazeneca.com [Discovery Sciences, Innovative Medicines, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Dragan, Yvonne, E-mail: Yvonne.P.Dragan@takeda.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States); Bialecki, Russell, E-mail: russell.bialecki@astrazeneca.com [Drug Safety and Metabolism, AstraZeneca, Waltham, MA 02451 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent and effective broad-spectrum anthracycline antitumor agent, but its clinical usefulness is restricted by cardiotoxicity. This study compared pharmacokinetic, functional, structural and biochemical effects of single dose DOX bolus or 3-h continuous iv infusion (3-h iv) in the Han–Wistar rat to characterize possible treatment-related differences in drug safety over a 72 h observation period. Both DOX dosing paradigms significantly altered blood pressure, core body temperature and QA interval (indirect measure of cardiac contractility); however, there was no recovery observed in the bolus iv treatment group. Following the 3-h iv treatment, blood pressures and QA interval normalized by 36 h then rose above baseline levels over 72 h. Both treatments induced biphasic changes in heart rate with initial increases followed by sustained decreases. Cardiac injury biomarkers in plasma were elevated only in the bolus iv treatment group. Tissue cardiac injury biomarkers, cardiac mitochondrial complexes I, III and V and cardiac mitochondrial sphingolipids were decreased only in the bolus iv treatment group. Results indicate that each DOX dosing paradigm deregulates sinus rhythm. However, slowing the rate of infusion allows for functional compensation of blood pressure and may decrease the likelihood of cardiac myocyte necrosis via a mechanism associated with reduced mitochondrial damage. - Highlights: • Despite damaging cardiomyocytes, continuous iv doxorubicin improves cardiovascular outcomes. • This study supports administration of doxorubicin via slow continuous iv infusion limits acute cardio-toxicity. • This study supports use of metabolomic-derived lipid biomarkers for improved quantification of cardiovascular risk. • This study supports systems-based physiological approach to generate a data that can greatly inform risk assessments.

  5. Application of Lean Principles to Neurosurgical Procedures: The Case of Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery, a Literature Review and Pilot Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jesse J; Raskin, Jeffrey S; Hardaway, Fran; Holste, Katherine; Brown, Sarah; Raslan, Ahmed M

    2018-03-14

    Delivery of higher value healthcare is an ultimate government and public goal. Improving efficiency by standardization of surgical steps can improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and lead to higher value healthcare. Lean principles and methodology have improved timeliness in perioperative medicine; however, process mapping of surgery itself has not been performed. To apply Plan/Do/Study/Act (PDSA) cycles methodology to lumbar posterior instrumented fusion (PIF) using lean principles to create a standard work flow, identify waste, remove intraoperative variability, and examine feasibility among pilot cases. Process maps for 5 PIF procedures were created by a PDSA cycle from 1 faculty neurosurgeon at 1 institution. Plan, modularize PIF into basic components; Do, map and time components; Study, analyze results; and Act, identify waste. Waste inventories, spaghetti diagrams, and chartings of time spent per step were created. Procedural steps were broadly defined in order to compare steps despite the variability in PIF and were analyzed with box and whisker plots to evaluate variability. Temporal variabilities in duration of decompression vs closure and hardware vs closure were significantly different (P = .003). Variability in procedural step duration was smallest for closure and largest for exposure. Wastes including waiting and instrument defects accounted for 15% and 66% of all waste, respectively. This pilot series demonstrates that lean principles can standardize surgical workflows and identify waste. Though time and labor intensive, lean principles and PDSA methodology can be applied to operative steps, not just the perioperative period.

  6. Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma in chronic areca nut chewing Indian women: Case series and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttagi, Sidramesh Shivanand; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Gaikwad, Rohith; Singh, Bikramjit; Pawar, Prashant

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut's deleterious effects. Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.

  7. The Role of the Very Long Posterior Tibial Artery Flap following Severe Lower Limb Trauma: Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leela Sayed, MBChB

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Summary: With advancing techniques, knowledge, and training, the decision to salvage a lower limb following severe trauma is becoming ever more popular and successful. However, in cases where amputation is inevitable due to extensive injury or infection, we encourage the use of the very long posterior tibial artery (VLPTA flap when the sole of the foot and posterior tibial neurovasculature are intact. We report 3 patients who underwent below-knee amputation and reconstruction using the VLPTA flap. A literature review was also performed to identify the outcomes and any complications associated with VLPTA flap.

  8. Prosthetic rehabilitation of oral submucous fibrosis patients: A systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    Full Text Available Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF is an insidious chronic condition characterized by restricted mouth opening. Prosthetic rehabilitation is challenging for OSF patients as obtaining a good impression requires adequate mouth opening. The aim of the present review is to systematically present the data from case reports published in the English-language literature.A comprehensive search of the literature databases (PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar along with the references of published articles on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients published to date was conducted. Keywords included a combination of 'Oral submucous fibrosis', 'prosthesis', 'dentures' and/or 'restricted mouth opening'. Citations from selected references and bibliographic linkages taken from similar cases were included in this review. The inclusion criteria selected for case reports on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients, and cases of restricted mouth opening due to causes other than OSF were excluded from the study.A total of 21 cases were identified and analysed from 17 papers published in the English-language literature. Of these, 9 cases employed the sectional denture technique, 4 cases emphasized the need-based treatment approach in which conventional methods were modified, and 4 cases used mouth exercising devices. Finally, 1 case each involved, flexible denture, oral screen prosthesis, oral stents, surgery in conjunction with dentures.Prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients is a multifaceted approach and should be patient specific, although sectional dentures have achieved the best results.

  9. Prosthetic rehabilitation of oral submucous fibrosis patients: A systematic review of published case reports and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Shankargouda; Sarode, Sachin Chakradhar; Sarode, Gargi S; Bhandi, Shilpa; Awan, Kamran Habib; Ferrari, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is an insidious chronic condition characterized by restricted mouth opening. Prosthetic rehabilitation is challenging for OSF patients as obtaining a good impression requires adequate mouth opening. The aim of the present review is to systematically present the data from case reports published in the English-language literature. A comprehensive search of the literature databases (PubMed, Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar) along with the references of published articles on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients published to date was conducted. Keywords included a combination of 'Oral submucous fibrosis', 'prosthesis', 'dentures' and/or 'restricted mouth opening'. Citations from selected references and bibliographic linkages taken from similar cases were included in this review. The inclusion criteria selected for case reports on prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients, and cases of restricted mouth opening due to causes other than OSF were excluded from the study. A total of 21 cases were identified and analysed from 17 papers published in the English-language literature. Of these, 9 cases employed the sectional denture technique, 4 cases emphasized the need-based treatment approach in which conventional methods were modified, and 4 cases used mouth exercising devices. Finally, 1 case each involved, flexible denture, oral screen prosthesis, oral stents, surgery in conjunction with dentures. Prosthetic rehabilitation in OSF patients is a multifaceted approach and should be patient specific, although sectional dentures have achieved the best results.

  10. Thematic review series: patient-oriented research. What we have learned about VLDL and LDL metabolism from human kinetics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parhofer, Klaus G; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2006-08-01

    Lipoprotein metabolism is the result of a complex network of many individual components. Abnormal lipoprotein concentrations can result from changes in the production, conversion, or catabolism of lipoprotein particles. Studies in hypolipoproteinemia and hyperlipoproteinemia have elucidated the processes that control VLDL secretion as well as VLDL and LDL catabolism. Here, we review the current knowledge regarding apolipoprotein B (apoB) metabolism, focusing on selected clinically relevant conditions. In hypobetalipoproteinemia attributable to truncations in apoB, the rate of secretion is closely linked to the length of apoB. On the other hand, in patients with the metabolic syndrome, it appears that substrate, in the form of free fatty acids, coupled to the state of insulin resistance can induce hypersecretion of VLDL-apoB. Studies in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia, familial defective apoB, and mutant forms of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 show that mutations in the LDL receptor, the ligand for the receptor, or an intracellular chaperone for the receptor are the most important determinants in regulating LDL catabolism. This review also demonstrates the variance of results within similar, or even the same, phenotypic conditions. This underscores the sensitivity of metabolic studies to methodological aspects and thus the importance of the inclusion of adequate controls in studies.

  11. Importance of an intact dura in management of compound elevated fractures; a short series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohindra, Sandeep; Singh, Harnarayan; Savardekar, Amey

    2012-01-01

    To describe compound elevated fractures (CEFs) of the skull vault, with radiological pictures, management problems and prognosticative factors. The authors describe three cases of CEFs of the cranium, their mode of injury, clinical findings, radiological images and management problems. The authors have reviewed the existing literature regarding epidemiological data, neurological status, dural breech, methods of management and final outcome, in respect of CEFs. The first case had no dural breech, the second case had completely shattered dura, with extruding brain matter from the wound, while the third case had an elevated bone flap in consequence to large extradural haematoma. The patients with intact dura had relatively favourable outcome, when compared to patients with shattered dura. Three cases are added to the existing 10 such cases described in English literature. The major cause of unfavourable outcome remains sepsis and the presence of intact dura places these cases in the relatively safe category, regarding infective complications. The authors attempt at highlighting the importance of intact dura with such an injury. The review of literature supports favourable outcomes in patients having no dural breech.

  12. Long-term Survival of Six Patients with Glioblastoma Multiforme: Case Series and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shapour Omidvari

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The median overall survival in glioblastoma multiforme is usually less than one year. Long-term survival is rare and is seen in only 3%-6% of GBM patients. The present study reports the characteristics and treatment outcomes of six cases of glioblastoma multiforme with long-term survival. A literature review is also presented.Between 1990 and 2008, 217 glioblastoma multiforme patients have been treated at our center of which six cases (four males survived for three years or longer. The mean age of the six cases was 25.7 years. All patients received postoperative radiotherapy with a mean dose of 55 gray and four patients received nitrosourea-based chemotherapy.Patients' mean survival was 5.2 years. The results of this study and review of the literature have indicated that long-term (more than three years survival is exceptional and mainly observed in younger patients with good performance status and following complete surgical tumor resection.

  13. The Role of the Distal Runoff Vessel of the Descending Branch of the Lateral Circumflex Femoral System in Anterolateral Thigh Flap Surgery: A Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiao-Qing; Zhu, Yue-Liang; Wang, Yi; Mei, Liang-Bin; Jin, Tao; Xu, Yong-Qing

    2016-01-01

    As a distal portion of the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral system (LCFS), the role of the distal runoff vessel in anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap surgery has long been overlooked. Recently, however, the distal runoff vessel has been increasingly used in many aspects of ALT flap surgery, and it has exhibited superior properties in solving some difficult problems. Fourteen ALT flaps using the distal runoff vessel of the descending branch of the LCFS for extremity defects were retrospectively reviewed, and recent reports on using the distal runoff vessel were reviewed to determine the role of this vessel in ALT flap surgery. In our series, the distal runoff vessel was used as a flow-through pattern in 10 cases, as a recombined chimeric flap in 2 cases, and as a backup vessel for flap salvage in 2 cases. All of the ALT flaps completely survived. None of the donor sites presented with additional morbidity as a result of harvesting the distal runoff vessel. In the literature review, the following are 5 other options for using the distal runoff vessel: in interposition artery and vein grafts, as the pedicle of the reverse-flow ALT flap, as the recipient vessel, to avoid twisting, and as a monitoring method. The distal runoff vessel of the descending branch of the LCFS could be used for many aspects of the ALT flap surgery, and this vessel plays an irreplaceable role in some difficult reconstruction surgeries.

  14. Severe accident mitigation strategy for the generation II PWRs in France. Some outcomes of the on-going periodic safety review of the French 1300 MWe PWR series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenerino, G.; Rahni, N.; Chevrier, P.; Dubreuil, M.; Guigueno, Y.; Raimond, E.; Bonnet, J.M. [IRSN/PSN-RES/SAG (France)

    2013-07-01

    The 3{sup rd} Periodic Safety Review of the French 1300 MWe PWRs series includes some modifications to increase their robustness in case of a severe accident. Their review is based on both deterministic and probabilistic approaches, keeping in mind that severe accidents frequencies and radiological consequences should be as low as reasonably practicable, severe accidents management strategies should be as safe as possible and the robustness of equipment used for severe accident management should be ensured. Consequently, the IRSN level 2 probabilistic safety assessment (L2 PSA) studies for the 1300 MWe reactors have been used to re-assess the results of the utility's L2 PSA and rank them to identify the containment failure modes contributing the most to the global risk. This ranking helped the review of plant modifications. Regarding strategies for accident management, the EDF management of water in the reactor cavity during a severe accident for the 1300 MWe PWRs is presented as well as the IRSN position on this strategy: this is an example where the optimal severe accident management strategy choice is not so easy to define. Regarding the robustness of equipment used for severe accident management, the interest of a diversification or redundancy of the French emergency filtered containment venting opening is one example among many others. (orig.)

  15. Case series with literature review: Surgical approach to megarectum and/or megasigmoid in children with unremitting constipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G. Glasser

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The role of surgery in treating children with functional constipation (FC is controversial, because of the efficacy of bowel management programs. This case series is comprised of failures: 43 children, spanning 25 years' practice, who had megarectosigmoid (MRS and unremitting constipation. Purpose: To determine whether these children were helped by surgery, and to contribute to formulating a standard of care for children with megarectum (MR and/or redundancy of the sigmoid colon (MS who fail medical management. Method: We describe our selection criteria and the procedures we utilized – mucosal proctectomy and endorectal pull-through (MP or sigmoidectomy (SE with colorectal anastomosis at the peritoneal reflection. The internet (social media allowed us to contact most of these patients and obtain extremely long follow-up data. Results: 30/43 patients had MP and 13/43 had SE. Follow-up was obtained in 83% MP and 70% SE patients. 60% of MP and 78% of SE patients reported regular evacuations and no soiling. 20% MP patients had occasional urgency or soiling or episodic constipation. 12% MP and 22% SE patients required antegrade continence enemas (ACE or scheduled cathartics and/or stool softeners. 4% MP had no appreciable benefit, frequent loose stools and soiling, presumably from encopresis. Conclusion: MR is characterized by diminished sensation, poor compliance and defective contractility. Patients with MR do better with MP, which effectively removes the entire rectum versus SE, where normal caliber colon is anastomosed to MR at the peritoneal reflection; furthermore, MP reliably preserves continence; whereas total proctectomy (trans-anal or trans-abdominal may cause incontinence. Keywords: Functional Constipation, Megarectum, Megarectosigmoid, Proctectomy, Sigmoidectomy

  16. Neuropsychiatric perspectives on nodding syndrome in northern Uganda: a case series study and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musisi, S; Akena, D; Nakimuli-Mpungu, E; Abbo, C; Okello, J

    2013-06-01

    Nodding Syndrome (NS), previously called Nodding Disease, is a chronic and debilitating illness affecting thousands of children aged 3-18 years in post-conflict Northern Uganda and South Sudan. Characterised by malnutrition, stunted growth, mental retardation and seizures, some researchers have designated it as epilepsy. With reports appearing in Northern Uganda in1997, NS reached epidemic proportions around 2000-2003 when people were moved into Internally Displaced People's (IDP) camps. Investigations for infections (onchocerciasis) and toxins have been inconclusive as to cause, treatment or outcome. No study has addressed the possible relationship of NS to childhood war-trauma experiences. To explore a possible relationship of exposure to prolonged war-trauma and the emergence of epidemic NS in Northern Uganda. This study was a case-series descriptive psychiatric naturalistic field observations of NS cases from homesteads in Northern Uganda and psychiatric investigations and treatment of NS cases referred to Mulago National Referral and Teaching Hospital. Detailed Psychiatric clinical evaluations and field observations revealed that NS children had been exposed to severe war-related psychological and physical trauma as well as non-specific CNS insults including untreated CNS infections/infestations and malnutrition possibly causing seizures. Many children suffered post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. NS could present as an association of childhood complex PTSD, (called Developmental Trauma Disorder), occurring in the chronically war-traumatised children of Northern Uganda, complicated by severe prolonged depression with its characteristic symptoms of psychomotor retardation, anxiety, anhedonia and anorexia. This, coupled with food shortages, resulted in malnutrition, wasting and stunted growth with severe avitaminoses. Many children had seizures. All this calls for multi-disciplinary treatment approaches.

  17. The clinical syndrome of primary tic disorder associated with dystonia: a large clinical series and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damásio, Joana; Edwards, Mark J; Alonso-Canovas, Araceli; Schwingenschuh, Petra; Kägi, Georg; Bhatia, Kailash P

    2011-03-01

    The co-occurrence of tics and dystonia as an idiopathic condition has only rarely been reported. We report a series of patients with tics and persistent dystonia, with the aim of determining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of this syndrome. Analysis of clinical database of patients with tic disorders. From our database of 224 patients with tics, 20 had co-occurrence of tics and dystonia as a primary disorder. Six patients had Tourette's syndrome, and 2 had idiopathic chronic motor/phonic tics. Twelve of the 20 had adult onset of tics (9 with motor/phonic tics and 3 with motor tics). Dystonia was focal in 12 patients (cervical most common) and segmental in 8. A sensory geste was present in 8. Mean age of tic onset and dystonia was 28.3 ± 19.7 and 40.5 ± 15.3 years, respectively. Tics preceded dystonia in 12, dystonia preceded tics in 4, and 1 patient had simultaneous onset of tics and dystonia. In 3 patients, symptoms' sequence could not be determined. Only 8 patients required treatment for their tics. Botulinum toxin was the mainstay of dystonia treatment (16 patients), whereas 6 received trihexyphenidyl. Six patients each had depression and obsessive compulsive symptoms, and 5 had attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder. We have further characterized the syndrome of a primary condition of tics associated with persistent focal/segmental dystonia. Apart from the presence of dystonia, our data suggest that these patients are differentiated from pure tic disorders by a later age of onset, lesser severity of tics, and lower frequency of associated features. Copyright © 2010 Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Failed Surgical Management of Acute Proximal Fifth Metatarsal (Jones) Fractures: A Retrospective Case Series and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granata, Jaymes D; Berlet, Gregory C; Philbin, Terrence M; Jones, Grant; Kaeding, Christopher C; Peterson, Kyle S

    2015-12-01

    Nonunion, delayed union, and refracture after operative treatment of acute proximal fifth metatarsal fractures in athletes is uncommon. This study was a failure analysis of operatively managed acute proximal fifth metatarsal fractures in healthy athletes. We identified 149 patients who underwent operative treatment for fifth metatarsal fractures. Inclusion criteria isolated skeletally mature, athletic patients under the age of 40 with a minimum of 1-year follow-up. Patients were excluded with tuberosity fractures, fractures distal to the proximal metaphyseal-diaphyseal region of the fifth metatarsal, multiple fractures or operative procedures, fractures initially treated conservatively, and medical comorbidities/risk factors for nonunion. Fifty-five patients met the inclusion/exclusion criteria. Four (7.3%) patients required a secondary operative procedure due to refracture. The average time to refracture was 8 months. All refractures were associated with bent screws and occurred in male patients who participated in professional basketball, professional volleyball, and college football. The average time for release to progressive weight-bearing was 6 weeks. Three patients were revised to a bigger size screw and went on to union. One patient was revised to the same-sized screw and required a second revision surgery for nonunion. All failures were refractures in competitive athletes who were initially treated with small diameter solid or cannulated stainless steel screws. The failures were not associated with early postoperative weight-bearing protocol. Maximizing initial fixation stiffness may decrease the late failure rate in competitive athletes. More clinical studies are needed to better understand risk factors for failure after screw fixation in the competitive, athletic population. Prognostic, Level IV: Case series. © 2015 The Author(s).

  19. The simple transverse intraosseous phalangeal suture for zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injuries: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeson, Daniel Benjamin; Evgeniou, Evgenios; Choa, Robert; Iyer, Srinivasan

    2013-05-01

    Zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injury often precludes the use of a simple core suture as a result of a distal remnant that is too short. The aim of this study was to assess the senior author's (S.I.) simple technique for reinsertion of the flexor digitorum profundus tendon. The case series consisted of 12 patients who required a primary flexor digitorum profundus repair in zone 1, with all repairs performed by the senior author. A Bruner incision was extended to the pulp to expose the base of the distal phalanx. A two-strand repair was anchored to the distal phalanx using the author's technique, which involved passing a 3-0 polypropylene suture on a straight needle through a hypodermic needle that had been drilled through the base of the distal phalanx. This provided a stable, intraosseous, internal repair, allowing a standard early active mobilization regimen. Two patients had excellent results and 10 had good results in terms of distal interphalangeal joint range of movement (mean, 57 degrees; range, 51 to 80 degrees) and Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire scores (mean, 12; range, 0 to 31.8). There were no reported tendon ruptures at the time of writing this article (range, 6 to 37 months after surgery). The authors present a technique for the repair of zone 1 flexor digitorum profundus injuries that is simple, can be performed quickly, is easily learned, and has results that compare favorably with other techniques in the literature. Furthermore, there is limited morbidity to surrounding fingertip structures. Therapeutic, IV.

  20. Review series on helminths, immune modulation and the hygiene hypothesis: the broader implications of the hygiene hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rook, Graham A W

    2009-01-01

    Man has moved rapidly from the hunter-gatherer environment to the living conditions of the rich industrialized countries. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that the resulting changed and reduced pattern of exposure to microorganisms has led to disordered regulation of the immune system, and hence to increases in certain inflammatory disorders. The concept began with the allergic disorders, but there are now good reasons for extending it to autoimmunity, inflammatory bowel disease, neuroinflammatory disorders, atherosclerosis, depression associated with raised inflammatory cytokines, and some cancers. This review discusses these possibilities in the context of Darwinian medicine, which uses knowledge of evolution to cast light on human diseases. The Darwinian approach enables one to correctly identify some of the organisms that are important for the 'Hygiene' or 'Old Friends' hypothesis, and to point to the potential exploitation of these organisms or their components in novel types of prophylaxis with applications in several branches of medicine.

  1. Imported and autochthonous leprosy presenting in Madrid (1989-2015): A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Francesca F; Fanciulli, Chiara; Pérez-Molina, José-Antonio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy remains infrequent in non-endemic areas. The objective of this study was to describe the cases of leprosy reviewed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe and to compare these findings with published data on imported leprosy. Cases of leprosy evaluated at a referral centre are described and salient features of autochthonous and imported cases are compared. A review of the literature on imported leprosy was performed. During the study period, 25 patients with leprosy were followed-up (10 were autochthonous cases and 15 were considered to be imported). Regarding imported cases, the majority were diagnosed in Latin American immigrants (10/15, 67%), mean age was 42 years, there were no differences in gender distribution, estimated average time from arrival in Spain to first visit at the unit was 3 years and from symptom onset to diagnosis was 2 years. Over 80% of imported cases had multibacillary disease and over one third of patients had been previously diagnosed with leprosy. One third had received alternate incorrect diagnoses initially, leprosy completed standard therapy and were considered cured and over one third were lost to follow-up. Leprosy remains a complex disease for healthcare professionals unfamiliar with this infection. Manifestations are polymorphic so misdiagnoses and consequent delays in diagnosis are not infrequent and may lead to resulting disabilities. Early diagnosis and management are essential to prevent sequelae and possible transmission. Improving access to health care, especially for vulnerable groups, would be necessary to advance in the control of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic review of systematic reviews of non-pharmacological interventions to treat behavioural disturbances in older patients with dementia. The SENATOR-OnTop series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraha, Iosief; Rimland, Joseph M; Trotta, Fabiana Mirella; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Petrovic, Mirko; Gudmundsson, Adalsteinn; Soiza, Roy; O'Mahony, Denis; Guaita, Antonio; Cherubini, Antonio

    2017-03-16

    To provide an overview of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). Systematic overview of reviews. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL and PsycINFO (2009-March 2015). Systematic reviews (SRs) that included at least one comparative study evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to treat BPSD. Eligible studies were selected and data extracted independently by 2 reviewers.The AMSTAR checklist was used to assess the quality of the SRs. Extracted data were synthesised using a narrative approach. 38 SRs and 129 primary studies were identified, comprising the following categories of non-pharmacological interventions: (1) sensory stimulation interventions (25 SRs, 66 primary studies) that encompassed: shiatsu and acupressure, aromatherapy, massage/touch therapy, light therapy, sensory garden and horticultural activities, music/dance therapy, dance therapy, snoezelen multisensory stimulation therapy, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation; (2) cognitive/emotion-oriented interventions (13 SRs; 26 primary studies) that included cognitive stimulation, reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, simulated presence therapy; (3) behaviour management techniques (6 SRs; 22 primary studies); (4) Multicomponent interventions (3 SR; four primary studies); (5) other therapies (5 SRs, 15 primary studies) comprising exercise therapy, animal-assisted therapy, special care unit and dining room environment-based interventions. A large number of non-pharmacological interventions for BPSD were identified. The majority of the studies had great variation in how the same type of intervention was defined and applied, the follow-up duration, the type of outcome measured, usually with modest sample size. Overall, music therapy and behavioural management techniques were effective for reducing BPSD. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  3. Spontaneous neoplasms in captive Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana): a retrospective case series (1989-2014) and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Jenny P; Donnell, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    This retrospective project summarizes the types of neoplasms identified in Virginia opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) presented to the University of Tennessee, College of Veterinary Medicine (UTCVM) postmortem service in 1989-2014 and serves as a review of the literature. Of the 85 Virginia opossums identified from the UTCVM case database, there were 17 diagnoses of neoplasia from 12 cases (14%). These cases included 8 females, 2 males, and 2 neutered males. All opossums with known ages (11 of 12) were >2 y old. Pulmonary tumors, specifically minimally invasive or lepidic-predominant adenocarcinomas, were the most common diagnosis and accounted for 53% (9 of 17) of the neoplasms. Additional tumors included acute myeloid leukemia with eosinophil maturation, hepatic hemangiosarcoma, sarcoma (unknown origin), squamous cell carcinoma, disseminated mast cell tumor, trichoblastoma, thyroid adenoma, and an osteoma. These findings serve as a reference for the types of spontaneous neoplasms in Virginia opossums; based on these findings, neoplasia should be considered as a differential in mature captive Virginia opossums.

  4. Clinical Immunology Review Series: an approach to the patient with recurrent orogenital ulceration, including Behçet's syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keogan, M T

    2009-04-01

    Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet\\'s disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter\\'s syndrome, Crohn\\'s disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet\\'s syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet\\'s disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.

  5. Mucinous Breast Cancer: a Review Study of 5 Year Experience from a Hospital-Based Series of Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitru, Adrian; Procop, Alexandru; Iliesiu, Andreea; Tampa, Mircea; Mitrache, Luminita; Costache, Mariana; Sajin, Maria; Lazaroiu, Anca; Cirstoiu, Monica

    2015-03-01

    Mucinous carcinoma (also known as colloid carcinoma) is a particular type of breast cancer characterized by the presence of extracellular mucin and is linked with a more favorable prognosis than invasive breast carcinoma of no special type. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is an uncommon form of breast tumor, often presenting as a lobulated, moderately well circumscribed mass on mammography, sonography, and MRI imaging. It accounts for 1 to 7% of all breast cancers. Pure mucinous breast carcinomas are rare and account for about 2% of all primary breast carcinomas. Metastatic disease happens at a lower rate than in other types of invasive carcinoma. We present our 5 year experience with this particular pathology in a retrospective review study. We identified 25 patients with mixed and pure mucinous breast cancer, the tumor size varied greatly from 2 to 19 cm in diameter. A subset of mixed mucinous carcinomas (8 cases) showed neuroendocrine differentiation or other associated premalignant lessions. Mucinous carcinoma of the breast is a rare entity with a favorable prognosis due to low incidence of lymph node metastases. Pure mucinous breast carcinoma has an even rare.

  6. Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (cPNETs: a systematic review and meta-analysis of case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hurtado-Pardo

    Full Text Available Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors represent 13% of all neuroendocrine tumors. The aim of this study is to analyze the phenotype and biologic behavior of resected cystic neuroendocrine tumors. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted until September 2016 using a search in Medline, Scopus, and EMBASE with the terms "cystic pancreatic endocrine neoplasm", "cystic islets tumors" and "cystic islets neoplasms". From the 795 citations recovered 80 studies reporting on 431 patients were selected. 87.1% (n = 387 were sporadic tumors and 10.3% (n = 40 corresponded to multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. Were diagnosed incidentally 44.6% (n = 135. Cytology was found to have a sensitivity of 78.5%. Were non-functional tumors 85% (n = 338, and among the functional tumors, insulinoma was the most frequent. According to the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society staging, 87.8% were limited to the pancreas (I-IIb, and 12.2% were advanced (III-IV. Disease-free survival at 5 years in stages (I-IIIa and (IIIb-IV was 91.5% and 54.2%, respectively; and was significantly lower (p = 0.0001 in functional tumors. In patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia there was a higher incidence of functional (62.5% and multifocal (28.1% tumors. Disease-free survival at 5 and 10 years was 60%. Cystic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors exhibit phenotypical characteristics which are different to those of solid neuroendocrine tumors.

  7. Surgical Management of Calcified Liver Hydatid Cyst Complicated with Thoracobiliary Fistula: A Case Series and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Sokouti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thoracobiliary fistula is a rare complication of hydatid cyst of the liver especially in the calcified form. Surgery is the only medical option. The treatment consists of radical surgical procedures in the majority of the patients. Conservative surgical treatments are performed with high mortality rate. Herein, we will describe two patients of calcified hydatid cysts of the liver whose condition becomes complicated with Thoracobiliary fistula. The first patient was treated with right thoracotomy and resection of pleural hydatid cysts. Then, were evacuated the ruptured laminated membrane and daughter cysts of infected hepatic hydatid cysts through diaphragmatic opening and sub diaphragmatic drainage of the calcified liver hydatid cyst. The second patient was also treated with right thoracotomy, resection of pulmonary hydatid cysts, evacuation of ruptured bile stained laminated membrane and daughter cysts of hepatic hydatid cysts through diaphragmatic opening and sub diaphragmatic drainage of the calcified cyst cavity. Our patients underwent conservative surgery which posed a severe risk. Both cases are discussed together with review of the literature.

  8. A systematic review of case-series studies on the effectiveness of interventions to reduce polypharmacy and its adverse consequences in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Benedetta Michelazzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aging is frequently accompanied by chronic diseases; as a consequence, older people are often exposed to polypharmacy that has been associated with negative health-consequences. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature reporting on the effectiveness of different approaches to reduce polypharmacy in the elderly. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Eligible studies were case-series reporting outcomes of interventions aimed at reducing polypharmacy and its consequences in the elderly. A quality appraisal of the studies included was performed. Results. Nineteen studies were included, of which six conducted in community setting, seven in hospital setting, and six in nursing homes. Seventeen of them were judged as moderate quality, and two of them as poor quality. The majority of the interventions were carried out by pharmacists, alone (35% or with other professionals (40%. Interventions consisted in pharmacotherapy reviews based on various tools and software; in some cases educational interventions were performed for review-performers and patients. Studies conducted in community-setting provided also a feedback to primary care physician. The outcomes included five categories: therapy’s characteristics (e.g. number of drugs, appropriate prescriptions, quality of life, health-related outcomes, costs, healthcare services’ utilization. Therapy-related outcomes were those more affected by all types of interventions. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at reviewing patients’ therapy are effective in optimizing the use of drugs, and could be considered also  in improving quality of life, healthcare costs, services’ utilization, and health-related outcomes.

  9. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  10. Dual kidney transplantation involving organs from expanded criteria donors: a review of our series and an update on current indications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Polo, J; Pamplona-Casamayor, M; Miranda-Utrera, N; González-Monte, E; Passas-Martínez, J B; Andrés Belmonte, A

    2014-12-01

    Our purpose was to review our kidney transplantation program based on the use of expanded criteria donors, and to determine current indications for dual kidney transplantation (DKT). In 1996, a program was initiated to transplant kidneys from donors of over 60 years performing single or dual transplantation. In 1996, a program was initiated to transplant kidneys from donors of over 60 years performing single or dual transplantation. DKT were performed with donors >75 and donors between 60 and 74 years of age and glomerulosclerosis of >15%. The kidneys of donors between 60 and 74 years of age and with glomerulosclerosis of 15%, taking into account donor and recipient characteristics. From 1996 to 2004, 222 SKTs and 88 DKTs were performed. Graft survival after 1 and 4 years was, respectively, 91% and 78% for SKT and 95% and 79% for DKT. In 2005, we started to perform SKT despite glomerulosclerosis being >15%, taking into account donor and recipient characteristics. From 2005 to 2011, 328 SKT and 32 DKT were performed. During this period most kidneys used for DKT were from female donors >75 years old, weighing 1 mg/dL and glomerulosclerosis of >15%. The recipients for DKT were mostly male, 75 kg. DKT from expanded criteria donors shows good outcomes. However, in many cases SKT may fulfill the need of the recipient. The archetype for DKT is an older female weighing <65 kg and the most common recipient is an overweight male who is <70 years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Retrospective Series of Regorafenib for Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Joey; Voutsadakis, Ioannis A

    2017-11-01

    Metastatic colorectal cancer is a common disease encountered in oncology practice and treatment options beyond fluoropyrimidines, irinotecan, oxaliplatin and monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) are limited. Regorafenib, a new drug that targets tyrosine kinases such as VEGF receptor as well as others, has been added recently to the armamentarium for metastatic colorectal cancer. This report analyzes the published experience with this drug in clinical practice outside of clinical trials. A literature search of major databases was performed for the identification of studies of regorafenib in metastatic colorectal cancer. Studies retained for further analysis were in English or French, describing 20 or more patients treated with regorafenib monotherapy and not part of a phase I, II or III trial. Results of the pooled analysis of retrospective studies were compared with results of the published phase III trials and a phase IIIb prospective study. Twelve publications including a total of 702 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Summary response rate was 2% [95% confidence interval (CI) =0.8-3.2%] and the disease control rate 38.14% (95% CI=32.35-43.93%). Summary survival rates were 3.34 months (95% CI=2.71-3.97 months) for progression-free and 7.27 months (95% CI=6.23-8.3 months) for overall survival. These were similar to the phase III and IIIb studies. Most common adverse effects were also consistent with those of the published phase III experience. This systematic review and meta-analysis confirmed a moderate efficacy of regorafenib in later-stage metastatic colorectal cancer in the everyday clinical practice setting outside of clinical trials. Future identification of biomarkers may aid in further tailoring of this treatment in order to obtain maximum clinical benefit. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  12. Arabidopsis dynamin-related protein 1E in sphingolipid-enriched plasma membrane domains is associated with the development of freezing tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Anzu; Tominaga, Yoko; Furuto, Akari; Kondo, Mariko; Kawamura, Yukio; Uemura, Matsuo

    2015-08-01

    The freezing tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana is enhanced by cold acclimation, resulting in changes in the compositions and function of the plasma membrane. Here, we show that a dynamin-related protein 1E (DRP1E), which is thought to function in the vesicle trafficking pathway in cells, is related to an increase in freezing tolerance during cold acclimation. DRP1E accumulated in sphingolipid and sterol-enriched plasma membrane domains after cold acclimation. Analysis of drp1e mutants clearly showed that DRP1E is required for full development of freezing tolerance after cold acclimation. DRP1E fused with green fluorescent protein was visible as small foci that overlapped with fluorescent dye-labelled plasma membrane, providing evidence that DRP1E localizes non-uniformly in specific areas of the plasma membrane. These results suggest that DRP1E accumulates in sphingolipid and sterol-enriched plasma membrane domains and plays a role in freezing tolerance development during cold acclimation. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Functional and phylogenetic evidence of a bacterial origin for the first enzyme in sphingolipid biosynthesis in a phylum of eukaryotic protozoan parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, John G; Thye, Julie K; Alqaisi, Amjed Q I; Bird, Louise E; Dods, Robert H; Grøftehauge, Morten K; Mosely, Jackie A; Pratt, Steven; Shams-Eldin, Hosam; Schwarz, Ralph T; Pohl, Ehmke; Denny, Paul W

    2017-07-21

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate, intracellular eukaryotic apicomplexan protozoan parasite that can cause fetal damage and abortion in both animals and humans. Sphingolipids are essential and ubiquitous components of eukaryotic membranes that are both synthesized and scavenged by the Apicomplexa. Here we report the identification, isolation, and analyses of the Toxoplasma serine palmitoyltransferase, an enzyme catalyzing the first and rate-limiting step in sphingolipid biosynthesis: the condensation of serine and palmitoyl-CoA. In all eukaryotes analyzed to date, serine palmitoyltransferase is a highly conserved heterodimeric enzyme complex. However, biochemical and structural analyses demonstrated the apicomplexan orthologue to be a functional, homodimeric serine palmitoyltransferase localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, phylogenetic studies indicated that it was evolutionarily related to the prokaryotic serine palmitoyltransferase, identified in the Sphingomonadaceae as a soluble homodimeric enzyme. Therefore this enzyme, conserved throughout the Apicomplexa, is likely to have been obtained via lateral gene transfer from a prokaryote. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. The effect of the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P on multipotent stromal cells--new opportunities in regenerative medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marycz, Krzysztof; Śmieszek, Agnieszka; Jeleń, Marta; Chrząstek, Klaudia; Grzesiak, Jakub; Meissner, Justyna

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and ceramide-1-phosphate (C1P) belong to a family of bioactive sphingolipids that act as important extracellular signaling molecules and chemoattractants. This study investigated the influence of S1P and C1P on the morphology, proliferation activity and osteogenic properties of rat multipotent stromal cells derived from bone marrow (BMSCs) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASCs). We show that S1P and C1P can influence mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), each in a different manner. S1P stimulation promoted the formation of cellular aggregates of BMSCs and ASCs, while C1P had an effect on the regular growth pattern and expanded intercellular connections, thereby increasing the proliferative activity. Although osteogenic differentiation of MSCs was enhanced by the addition of S1P, the effectiveness of osteoblast differentiation was more evident in BMSCs, particularly when biochemical and molecular marker levels were considered. The results of the functional osteogenic differentiation assay, which includes an evaluation of the efficiency of extracellular matrix mineralization (SEM-EDX), revealed the formation of numerous mineral aggregates in BMSC cultures stimulated with S1P. Our data demonstrated that in an appropriate combination, the bioactive sphingolipids S1P and C1P may find wide application in regenerative medicine, particularly in bone regeneration with the use of MSCs.

  15. Temporal change in deep-sea benthic ecosystems: a review of the evidence from recent time-series studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, A G; Gooday, A J; Bailey, D M; Billett, D S M; Chevaldonné, P; Colaço, A; Copley, J; Cuvelier, D; Desbruyères, D; Kalogeropoulou, V; Klages, M; Lampadariou, N; Lejeusne, C; Mestre, N C; Paterson, G L J; Perez, T; Ruhl, H; Sarrazin, J; Soltwedel, T; Soto, E H; Thatje, S; Tselepides, A; Van Gaever, S; Vanreusel, A

    2010-01-01

    Societal concerns over the potential impacts of recent global change have prompted renewed interest in the long-term ecological monitoring of large ecosystems. The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on the planet, the least accessible, and perhaps the least understood. Nevertheless, deep-sea data collected over the last few decades are now being synthesised with a view to both measuring global change and predicting the future impacts of further rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. For many years, it was assumed by many that the deep sea is a stable habitat, buffered from short-term changes in the atmosphere or upper ocean. However, recent studies suggest that deep-seafloor ecosystems may respond relatively quickly to seasonal, inter-annual and decadal-scale shifts in upper-ocean variables. In this review, we assess the evidence for these long-term (i.e. inter-annual to decadal-scale) changes both in biologically driven, sedimented, deep-sea ecosystems (e.g. abyssal plains) and in chemosynthetic ecosystems that are partially geologically driven, such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We have identified 11 deep-sea sedimented ecosystems for which published analyses of long-term biological data exist. At three of these, we have found evidence for a progressive trend that could be potentially linked to recent climate change, although the evidence is not conclusive. At the other sites, we have concluded that the changes were either not significant, or were stochastically variable without being clearly linked to climate change or climate variability indices. For chemosynthetic ecosystems, we have identified 14 sites for which there are some published long-term data. Data for temporal changes at chemosynthetic ecosystems are scarce, with few sites being subjected to repeated visits. However, the limited evidence from hydrothermal vents suggests that at fast-spreading centres such as the East Pacific Rise, vent communities are impacted on decadal scales

  16. Autoantibodies against voltage-gated potassium channel and glutamic acid decarboxylase in psychosis: A systematic review, meta-analysis, and case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain, Rosemary; Lally, John; Stubbs, Brendon; Malik, Steffi; LeMince, Anne; Nicholson, Timothy R; Murray, Robin M; Gaughran, Fiona

    2017-10-01

    Antibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) have been reported in some cases of psychosis. We conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate their prevalence in people with psychosis and report a case series of VGKC-complex antibodies in refractory psychosis. Only five studies presenting prevalence rates of VGKC seropositivity in psychosis were identified, in addition to our case series, with an overall prevalence of 1.5% (25/1720) compared to 0.7% in healthy controls (12/1753). Meta-analysis established that the pooled prevalence of GAD65 autoantibodies was 5.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.0-15.6%; I 2  = 91%; nine studies) in psychotic disorders, with a prevalence of 4.6% (95%CI: 1.2-15.9%; nine studies; I 2  = 89%) and 6.2% (95%CI: 1.2-27.0%; two studies; I 2  = 69%) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, respectively. People with psychosis were more likely to have GAD65 antibodies than controls (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95%CI: 1.28-3.92%; P = 0.005; eight studies; I 2  = 0%). Among 21 participants with treatment-resistant psychosis, none had VGKC antibodies. The prevalence of VGKC antibodies is low in psychosis. Our preliminary meta-analysis suggests that GAD autoantibodies are more common in people with psychosis than in controls, although few studies accounted for the possibility of co-existing type 1 diabetes mellitus and the clinical significance of reported GAD titers remains unclear. The paucity of studies reporting thresholds for defining GAD abnormality and rates of comorbid type 1 diabetes mellitus precludes interpretations regarding the influence of GAD antibodies on the development of psychotic disorders and may have led to an overestimate of the prevalence of GAD. Our case series fails to support the hypothesis that VGKC antibodies are linked to treatment resistance in psychosis, but the literature to date is remarkably sparse. © 2017 The

  17. Review article: Environmental heatstroke and long-term clinical neurological outcomes: A literature review of case reports and case series 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emily M; Pearce, Helen; Gabb, Genevieve M

    2018-05-31

    Global temperatures are rising; extreme environmental heat can result in adverse health effects including heatstroke. Acute effects of heat are well recognised, but there is less understanding of potential long-term adverse outcomes. Our aim was to review recent medical literature for clinical cases of environmental heatstroke with a focus on neurological outcome. Structured search strategies were designed to retrieve publications of heatstroke case reports using Ovid Medline and Embase (2000-2016). One thousand and forty-nine abstracts were identified, and after application of exclusion criteria 71 articles deemed relevant. Ninety cases were identified from 71 articles. 100% presented with acute neurological symptoms; 87.8% presented with non-neurological symptoms. 44.4% patients recovered fully, 23.3% died, 23.3% suffered convalescent or long-term neurological sequelae, and in 8.9% no long-term follow up was available. 57.1% of the patients who died or had a neurological deficit had no documented co-morbidity. Patterns of neurological deficits included 66.7% patients with motor dysfunction, 9.5% cognitive impairment, 19% both motor and cognitive impairment and 4.7% other. In total 71.4% of the impaired patients had long-term cerebellar dysfunction. Adverse long-term neurological outcomes were common in surviving patients presenting with environmental heatstroke. Permanent neurological deficits were present in 34.4% of survivors where outcome was known; many were young, healthy individuals. Cerebellar injury was common suggesting cerebellar structures are vulnerable to heat. These findings highlight that people of all ages and pre-morbid states are at risk of severe heat-related illness. In the face of climate change, effective interventions for heat-related illness, including both treatment and prevention are necessary. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  18. Case Series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calciphylaxis is prevention through rigorous control of phosphate and calcium balance. We here present two ... The authors declared no conflict of interest. Introduction. Calciphylaxis is a rare but serious disorder .... were reported to resolve the calciphylaxis lesions in a chronic renal failure patient [20]. In a series of five.

  19. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polynomials are dense in the class of continuous functions! The body of literature dealing with Fourier series has reached epic proportions over the last two centuries. We have only given the readers an outline of the topic in this article. For the full length episode we refer the reader to the monumental treatise of. A Zygmund.

  20. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    13 oct. 2017 ... This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution ... Bifocal leg fractures pose many challenges for the surgeon due to .... Dans notre serie, le taux d'infection est reste dans un.

  1. Fourier Series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The theory of Fourier series deals with periodic functions. By a periodic ..... including Dirichlet, Riemann and Cantor occupied themselves with the problem of ... to converge only on a set which is negligible in a certain sense (Le. of measure ...

  2. case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Key words: Case report, case series, concept analysis, research design. African Health Sciences 2012; (4): 557 - 562 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v12i4.25. PO Box 17666 .... According to the latest version of the Dictionary of. Epidemiology ...

  3. Cutaneous water loss and sphingolipids in the stratum corneum of house sparrows, Passer domesticus L., from desert and mesic environments as determined by reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Garcia, Agustí; Ro, Jennifer; Brown, Johnie C; Williams, Joseph B

    2008-02-01

    Because cutaneous water loss (CWL) represents half of total water loss in birds, selection to reduce CWL may be strong in desert birds. We previously found that CWL of house sparrows from a desert population was about 25% lower than that of individuals from a mesic environment. The stratum corneum (SC), the outer layer of the epidermis, serves as the primary barrier to water vapor diffusion through the skin. The avian SC is formed by layers of corneocytes embedded in a lipid matrix consisting of cholesterol, free fatty acids and two classes of sphingolipids, ceramides and cerebrosides. The SC of birds also serves a thermoregulatory function; high rates of CWL keep body temperatures under lethal limits in episodes of heat stress. In this study, we used high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure photoionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC/APPI-MS) to identify and quantify over 200 sphingolipids in the SC of house sparrows from desert and mesic populations. Principal components analysis (PCA) led to the hypotheses that sphingolipids in the SC of desert sparrows have longer carbon chains in the fatty acid moiety and are more polar than those found in mesic sparrows. We also tested the association between principal components and CWL in both populations. Our study suggested that a reduction in CWL found in desert sparrows was, in part, the result of modifications in chain length and polarity of the sphingolipids, changes that apparently determine the interactions of the lipid molecules within the SC.

  4. Applied time series analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C

    2011-01-01

    ""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…

  5. Meta-analysis and time series modeling allow a systematic review of primary HIV-1 drug-resistant prevalence in Latin America and Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Antonio Victor Campos; De Moura, Ronald Rodrigues; Da Silva, Ronaldo Celerino; Kamada, Anselmo Jiro; Guimarães, Rafael Lima; Brandão, Lucas André Cavalcanti; Coelho, Hemílio Fernandes Campos; Crovella, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Here we review the prevalence of HIV-1 primary drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean using meta-analysis as well as time-series modeling. We also discuss whether there could be a drawback to HIV/AIDS programs due to drug resistance in Latin America and Caribbean in the next years. We observed that, although some studies report low or moderate primary drug resistance prevalence in Caribbean countries, this evidence needs to be updated. In other countries, such as Brazil and Argentina, the prevalence of drug resistance appears to be rising. Mutations conferring resistance against reverse transcriptase inhibitors were the most frequent in the analyzed populations (70% of all mutational events). HIV-1 subtype B was the most prevalent in Latin America and the Caribbean, although subtype C and B/F recombinants have significant contributions in Argentina and Brazil. Thus, we suggest that primary drug resistance in Latin America and the Caribbean could have been underestimated. Clinical monitoring should be improved to offer better therapy, reducing the risk for HIV-1 resistance emergence and spread, principally in vulnerable populations, such as men who have sex with men transmission group, sex workers and intravenous drug users.

  6. CLOMIPHENE CITRATE IN THE TREATMENT OF IDIOPATHIC OR FUNCTIONAL HYPOGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM IN MEN: A CASE SERIES AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liel, Yair

    2017-03-01

    Late-onset hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (LOH) is a complex, heterogeneous entity. Whenever treatment is indicated, the endocrine literature has recommend testosterone replacement. We present our experience with clomiphene citrate treatment in patients with LOH and a review of the literature. This retrospective case series included 18 male patients with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, roughly according to the European Male Aging Study criteria for LOH, attended at an academic hospital outpatient clinic. Data were retrieved from the patients' electronic medical records. The patients' mean age (±SD) was 44.3 ± 6.3 years (range 21-67 years) referred for evaluation of low testosterone together with decreased libido, erectile dysfunction, fatigue or tiredness, anxiety, and osteoporosis. Clomiphene was initially prescribed at doses between 25 mg 3 times a week and 50 mg/day. At 6 to 8 weeks following initiation of treatment, mean basal total-testosterone increased from 7.6 ± 2.6 to 19.3 ± 5.2 nmol/L (Phypogonadism.

  7. A Lipidomics Approach to Assess the Association Between Plasma Sphingolipids and Verbal Memory Performance in Coronary Artery Disease Patients Undertaking Cardiac Rehabilitation: A C18:0 Signature for Cognitive Response to Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Mahwesh; Herrmann, Nathan; Dinoff, Adam; Mielke, Michelle M; Oh, Paul I; Shammi, Prathiba; Cao, Xingshan; Venkata, Swarajya Lakshmi Vattem; Haughey, Norman J; Lanctôt, Krista L

    2017-01-01

    Early subtle deficits in verbal memory, which may indicate early neural risk, are common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). While exercise can improve cognition, cognitive response to exercise is heterogeneous. Sphingolipids have been associated with the development and progression of CAD, and impairments in sphingolipid metabolism may play roles in neurodegeneration and in the neural adaptation response to exercise. In this study, change in plasma concentrations of sphingolipids was assessed in relation to change in verbal memory performance and in other cognitive domains among CAD subjects undertaking a 6-month cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. Patients with CAD (n = 120, mean age = 64±6 y, 84% male, years of education = 16±3) underwent CR with neuropsychological assessments and blood collected at baseline, 3-, and 6-months. Z-scores based on age, gender, and education were combined for verbal memory, visuospatial memory, processing speed, executive function, and global cognition tasks to calculate cognitive domain Z-scores. Plasma sphingolipid concentrations were measured from fasting blood samples using high performance liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Mixed models were used to identify sphingolipids significantly associated with performance in verbal memory and other cognitive domains, adjusting for potential confounders. A decrease in ceramide C18:0 concentration was significantly associated with improvement in verbal memory performance (b[SE] = -0.51 [0.25], p = 0.04), visuospatial memory (b[SE] = -0.44 [0.22], p = 0.05), processing speed (b[SE] = -0.89 [0.32], p = 0.007), and global cognition (b[SE] = -1.47 [0.59], p = 0.01) over 6 months of CR. Plasma ceramide C18:0 concentrations may be a sensitive marker of cognitive response to exercise in patients with CAD.

  8. Exposures series

    OpenAIRE

    Stimson, Blake

    2011-01-01

    Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...

  9. RUVIVAL Publication Series Volume 3

    OpenAIRE

    Behrendt, Joachim; Fröndhoff, Dario; Munoz Ardila, Andrea; Orlina, Maria Monina; Rueda Morales, Máryeluz; Schaldach, Ruth; Schaldach, Ruth; Otterpohl, Ralf

    2018-01-01

    RUVIVAL Publication Series is a compilation of literature reviews on topics concerned with the revitalisation of rural areas. RUVIVAL Publication Series is part of the e-learning project RUVIVAL and each of the three contributions in this publication is connected to further interactive multimedia material, which can be reached under www.ruvival.de. The first literature review is concerned with urine utilisation as a fertiliser in agriculture. Urine contains four important nutrients for pla...

  10. Movement and Other Neurodegenerative Syndromes in Patients with Systemic Rheumatic Diseases: A Case Series of 8 Patients and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Rikitha; Pantelyat, Alexander; Izbudak, Izlem; Birnbaum, Julius

    2015-08-01

    Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury.Seven rheumatic disease patients (5 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease patients) were referred and could be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. However, all of these patients were ultimately diagnosed as having other movement or neurodegenerative disorders. Findings inconsistent with and more expansive than Parkinson's disease included cerebellar degeneration, dystonia with an alien-limb phenomenon, and nonfluent aphasias.A notable finding was that individual patients could be affected by cooccurring movement and other neurodegenerative disorders, each of which could be exceptionally rare (ie, prevalence of ∼1:1000), and therefore with the collective probability that such disorders were merely coincidental and causally unrelated being as low as ∼1-per-billion. Whereas our review of the literature revealed that ubiquitous patterns of clinical injury were frequently associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of a widespread vasculopathy, our patients did not have such neuroimaging findings. Instead, our patients could have syndromes which phenotypically resembled paraneoplastic and other inflammatory disorders which are known to be associated with antineuronal antibodies. We similarly identified immune-mediated and inflammatory markers of injury

  11. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    10 déc. 2015 ... 5. Chandler JR, Langenbrunner DJ, Stevens ER. The Pathogenesis. Of Orbital complications in acute sinusitis. Laryngoscope. 1970. Sep; 80(9): 1414-28. PubMed | Google Scholar. 6. Hodges E, Tabbara KF. Orbital cellulitis: review of 23 cases from Saudi Arabia. Br J Ophthalmol. 1989 Mar; 73(3): 205-8.

  12. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    1 juin 2012 ... ... Ren- Xuan Guo, and Ke-Jian Guo. Adult intussusception: A retrospective review of 41 cases. World J Gastroenterol. 2009 Jul 14;15(26):3303-8. This article on PubMed. 14. Abou-Nukta F, Gutweiler J, Khaw J, Yavorek G. Giant lipoma causing a colo-colonic intussusception. Am Surg. 2007;73(4):417. This.

  13. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 sept. 2012 ... 2000;4(5):415-418. This article on PubMed. 24. Azim HA Jr, Peccatori FA, Pavlidis N. Treatment of the pregnant mother with cancer: a systematic review on the use of cytotoxic, endocrine, targeted agents and immunotherapy during pregnancy. Part I: Solid tumors. Cancer Treat Rev. 2010 Apr;36(2):101-9.

  14. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2015-01-19

    Jan 19, 2015 ... Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature. Laila Essabar1, Abdenbi Khalqallah2, Badr Sououd Benjelloun Dakhama1,&. 1Department of Paediatric Medical Emergencies of Rabat children's Hospital, Morocco, 2Laboratory of Clinical and Pathological Psychology,. Mohammed V ...

  15. Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetrayan, Jayachandran; Othman, Suhana; Victor Paulraj, Smily Jesu Priya

    2017-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness and feasibility of behavioral sleep intervention for medicated children with ADHD. Six medicated children (five boys, one girl; aged 6-12 years) with ADHD participated in a 4-week sleep intervention program. The main behavioral strategies used were Faded Bedtime With Response Cost (FBRC) and positive reinforcement. Within a case-series design, objective measure (Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children [SDSC]) and subjective measure (sleep diaries) were used to record changes in children's sleep. For all six children, significant decrease was found in the severity of children's sleep problems (based on SDSC data). Bedtime resistance and mean sleep onset latency were reduced following the 4-week intervention program according to sleep diaries data. Gains were generally maintained at the follow-up. Parents perceived the intervention as being helpful. Based on the initial data, this intervention shows promise as an effective and feasible treatment.

  16. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor; Valenzuela, Olga

    2017-01-01

    This volume of selected and peer-reviewed contributions on the latest developments in time series analysis and forecasting updates the reader on topics such as analysis of irregularly sampled time series, multi-scale analysis of univariate and multivariate time series, linear and non-linear time series models, advanced time series forecasting methods, applications in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series and high-dimensional and complex/big data time series. The contributions were originally presented at the International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2016, held in Granada, Spain, June 27-29, 2016. The series of ITISE conferences provides a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting.  It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary rese arch encompassing the disciplines of comput...

  17. DCP Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stearns

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Photo essay. A collection of Images produced by intentionally corrupting the circuitry of a Kodak DC280 2 MP digitalcamera. By rewiring the electronics of a digital camera, glitched images are produced in a manner that parallels chemically processing unexposed film or photographic paper to produce photographic images without exposure to light. The DCP Series of Digital Images are direct visualizations of data generated by a digital camera as it takes a picture. Electronic processes associated with the normal operations of the camera, which are usually taken for granted, are revealed through an act of intervention. The camera is turned inside­out through complexes of short­circuits, selected by the artist, transforming the camera from a picture taking device to a data capturing device that renders raw data (electronic signals as images. In essence, these images are snap­shots of electronic signals dancing through the camera's circuits, manually rerouted, written directly to the on­board memory device. Rather than seeing images of the world through a lens, we catch a glimpse of what the camera sees when it is forced to peer inside its own mind.

  18. Late Proximal Pedicle Hook Migration Into Spinal Canal After Posterior Correction Surgery of Scoliosis Causing Neurologic Deficit: "Proximal Junctional Scoliosis"? Case Series and a Review of the Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vereijken, I.M.P.; de Kleuver, M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design: Case series. Objectives: We describe 4 patients with proximal pedicle hook migration as a late complication (greater than 12 months postoperatively) of posterior correction surgery in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis. We studied failure mechanisms and propose strategies for revision

  19. Vitamin E γ-Tocotrienol Inhibits Cytokine-Stimulated NF-κB Activation by Induction of Anti-Inflammatory A20 via Stress Adaptive Response Due to Modulation of Sphingolipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Park, Na-Young; Jang, Yumi; Ma, Averil; Jiang, Qing

    2015-07-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in pathogenesis of inflammation and cancer. Many phytochemicals, including γ-tocotrienol (γTE), a natural form of vitamin E, have been shown to inhibit NF-κB activation, but the underlying mechanism has not been identified. In this study, we show that γTE inhibited cytokine-triggered activation of NF-κB and its upstream regulator TGF-β-activated kinase-1 in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary bone marrow-derived macrophages. In these cells, γTE induced upregulation of A20, an inhibitor of NF-κB. Knockout of A20 partially diminished γTE's anti-NF-κB effect, but γTE increased another NF-κB inhibitor, Cezanne, in A20(-/-) cells. In search of the reason for A20 upregulation, we found that γTE treatment increased phosphorylation of translation initiation factor 2, IκBα, and JNK, indicating induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analyses revealed that γTE modulated sphingolipids, including enhancement of intracellular dihydroceramides, sphingoid bases in de novo synthesis of the sphingolipid pathway. Chemical inhibition of de novo sphingolipid synthesis partially reversed γTE's induction of A20 and the anti-NF-κB effect. The importance of dihydroceramide increase is further supported by the observation that C8-dihydroceramide mimicked γTE in upregulating A20, enhancing endoplasmic reticulum stress, and attenuating TNF-triggered NF-κB activation. Our study identifies a novel anti-NF-κB mechanism where A20 is induced by stress-induced adaptive response as a result of modulation of sphingolipids, and it demonstrates an immunomodulatory role of dihydrocermides. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Upper gastrointestinal series after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for morbid obesity: effectiveness in leakage detection. a systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartararo, Giovanni; Facchiano, Enrico; Scaringi, Stefano; Liscia, Gadiel; Lucchese, Marcello

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the results of routine and selective postoperative upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) for morbid obesity in different published series to assessing its utility and cost-effectiveness. A search in PubMed's MEDLINE was performed for English-spoken articles published from January 2002 to December 2012. Keywords used were upper GI series, RYGB, and obesity. Only cases of anastomotic leaks were considered. A total of 22 studies have been evaluated, 15 recommended a selective use of postoperative UGIS. No differences in leakage detection or in clinical benefit between routine and selective approaches were found. Tachycardia and respiratory distress represent the best criteria to perform UGIS for early diagnosis of anastomotic leak after a RYGB.

  1. Summable series and convergence factors

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, Charles N

    1938-01-01

    Fairly early in the development of the theory of summability of divergent series, the concept of convergence factors was recognized as of fundamental importance in the subject. One of the pioneers in this field was C. N. Moore, the author of the book under review.... Moore classifies convergence factors into two types. In type I he places the factors which have only the property that they preserve convergence for a convergent series or produce convergence for a summable series. In type II he places the factors which not only maintain or produce convergence but have the additional property that

  2. Ortner's syndrome: case series and literature review Síndrome de Ortner: série de casos e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayalakshmi Subramaniam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available More than a century ago, Ortner described a case of cardiovocal syndrome wherein he attributed a case of left vocal fold immobility to compression of the recurrent laryngeal nerve by a dilated left atrium in a patient with mitral valve stenosis. Since then, the term Ortner's syndrome has come to encompass any nonmalignant, cardiac, intrathoracic process that results in embarrassment of either recurrent laryngeal nerve-usually by stretching, pulling, or compression; and causes vocal fold paralysis. Not surprisingly, the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, with its longer course around the aortic arch, is more frequently involved than the right nerve, which passes around the subclavian artery. OBJECTIVES: To discuss the pathogenesis of hoarseness resulting from cardiovascular disorders involving the recurrent laryngeal nerve along with the findings of literature review. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper reports a series of four cases of Ortner's syndrome occurring due to different causes. DESIGN: Case study. RESULT: Ortner's syndrome could be a cause of hoarseness of voice in patients with cardiovascular diseases. CONCLUSION: Although hoarseness of voice is frequently encountered in the Otolaryngology outpatient department, cardiovascular- related hoarseness is an unusual presentation. Indirect laryngoscopy should be routinely performed in all cases of heart disease.Há mais de um século, Ortner descreveu um caso de síndrome cardiovocal, no qual ele atribuiu um caso de imobilidade da prega vocal esquerda à compressão do nervo laríngeo recorrente causada por dilatação do átrio esquerdo em um paciente com estenose valvar mitral. Desde então, o termo Síndrome de Ortner tem sido usado para descrever qualquer condição cardíaca intratorácica não maligna que resulte no envolvimento do nervo laríngeo recorrente - geralmente por estiramento, contração ou compressão, causando paralisia vocal. Não é surpreendente que o nervo lar

  3. Structure of Sphingolipids From Sea Cucumber Cucumaria frondosa and Structure-Specific Cytotoxicity Against Human HepG2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zicai; Song, Yu; Tao, Suyuan; Cong, Peixu; Wang, Xiaoxu; Xue, Changhu; Xu, Jie

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between structure and activity, three glucocerebroside series (CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3), ceramides (CF-Cer) and long-chain bases (CF-LCB) of sea cucumber Cucumaria frondosa (C. frondosa) were isolated and evaluated in HepG2 cells. The molecular species of CFC-1, CFC-2 and CFC-3 and CF-Cer were identified using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with heated electrospray ionization coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry (RPLC-HESI-HRMS), and determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence: For the three glucocerebroside series, fatty acids (FA) were mainly saturated (18:0 and 22:0), monounsaturated (22:1, 23:1 and 24:1) and 2-hydroxyl FA (2-HFA) (23:1 h and 24:1 h), the structure of long-chain bases (LCB) were dihydroxy (d17:1, d18:1 and d18:2) and trihydroxy (t16:0 and t17:0), and the glycosylation was glucose; For CF-Cer, FA were primarily saturated (17:0) and monounsaturated (16:1 and 19:1), the structure of LCB were dihydroxy (d17:1 and d18:1), and trihydroxy (t16:0). The results of cell experiment indicated that all of three glucocerebroside series, CF-Cer and CF-LCB exhibited an inhibitory effects on cell proliferation. Moreover, CFC-3 was most effective in three glucocerebrosides to HepG-2 cell viability. The inhibition effect of CF-LCB was the strongest, and the inhibition effect of CF-Cer was much stronger than glucocerebrosides.

  4. Accumulation of sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) A and D in granular osmiophilic deposits in miniature Schnauzer dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, D N; Tyynelä, J; van Mil, H C; Westlake, V J; Jolly, R D

    1997-03-01

    The neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinoses (NCL, Batten disease) are fatal inherited neurodegenerative diseases of children characterized by retinal and brain atrophy and the accumulation of electron-dense storage bodies in cells. Mutations in different genes underlie different major forms. The infantile disease (CLN-1, McKusick 256730) is distinguished by the storage of the sphingolipid activator proteins (SAPs) A and D in distinctive granular osmiophilic deposits (GRODs). This contrasts with the other major forms, where subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase is stored in various multilamellar profiles. Ceroid-lipofuscinoses also occur in dogs, including a form in miniature Schnauzers with distinctive granular osmiophilic deposit-like storage bodies. Antisera to SAPs A and D reacted to these storage bodies in situ. The presence of SAP D was confirmed by Western blotting and of SAP A by protein sequencing. Neither subunit c of mitochondrial ATP synthase nor of vacuolar ATPase is stored. This suggests that there are two families of ceroid-lipofuscinoses, the subunit c-storing forms, and those in which SAPs A and D, and perhaps other proteins, accumulate. Further work is required to determine whether other forms with granular osmiophilic deposits belong to the latter class and the genetic relationships between them and the human infantile disease.

  5. Effects of orally administered fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), partially hydrolysed FB₁, hydrolysed FB₁ and N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) FB₁ on the sphingolipid metabolism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Irene; Nagl, Veronika; Schwartz-Zimmermann, Heidi Elisabeth; Varga, Elisabeth; Schwarz, Christiane; Slavik, Veronika; Reisinger, Nicole; Malachová, Alexandra; Cirlini, Martina; Generotti, Silvia; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Krska, Rudolf; Moll, Wulf-Dieter; Berthiller, Franz

    2015-02-01

    Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a Fusarium mycotoxin frequently occurring in maize-based food and feed. Alkaline processing like nixtamalisation of maize generates partially and fully hydrolysed FB1 (pHFB1 and HFB1) and thermal treatment in the presence of reducing sugars leads to formation of N-(1-deoxy-D-fructos-1-yl) fumonisin B1 (NDF). The toxicity of these metabolites, in particular their effect on the sphingolipid metabolism, is either unknown or discussed controversially. We produced high purity FB1, pHFB1a+b, HFB1 and NDF and fed them to male Sprague Dawley rats for three weeks. Once a week, urine and faeces samples were collected over 24 h and analysed for fumonisin metabolites as well as for the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio by validated LC-MS/MS based methods. While the latter was significantly increased in the FB1 positive control group, the Sa/So ratios of the partially and fully hydrolysed fumonisins were indifferent from the negative control group. Although NDF was partly cleaved during digestion, the liberated amounts of FB1 did not raise the Sa/So ratio. These results show that the investigated alkaline and thermal processing products of FB1 were, at the tested concentrations, non-toxic for rats, and suggest that according food processing can reduce fumonisin toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group guidance series-paper 5: methods for integrating qualitative and implementation evidence within intervention effectiveness reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Angela; Thomas, James; Cargo, Margaret; Harris, Janet; Pantoja, Tomas; Flemming, Kate; Booth, Andrew; Garside, Ruth; Hannes, Karin; Noyes, Jane

    2018-05-01

    The Cochrane Qualitative and Implementation Methods Group develops and publishes guidance on the synthesis of qualitative and mixed-method evidence from process evaluations. Despite a proliferation of methods for the synthesis of qualitative research, less attention has focused on how to integrate these syntheses within intervention effectiveness reviews. In this article, we report updated guidance from the group on approaches, methods, and tools, which can be used to integrate the findings from quantitative studies evaluating intervention effectiveness with those from qualitative studies and process evaluations. We draw on conceptual analyses of mixed methods systematic review designs and the range of methods and tools that have been used in published reviews that have successfully integrated different types of evidence. We outline five key methods and tools as devices for integration which vary in terms of the levels at which integration takes place; the specialist skills and expertise required within the review team; and their appropriateness in the context of limited evidence. In situations where the requirement is the integration of qualitative and process evidence within intervention effectiveness reviews, we recommend the use of a sequential approach. Here, evidence from each tradition is synthesized separately using methods consistent with each tradition before integration takes place using a common framework. Reviews which integrate qualitative and process evaluation evidence alongside quantitative evidence on intervention effectiveness in a systematic way are rare. This guidance aims to support review teams to achieve integration and we encourage further development through reflection and formal testing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Anti-ageing effects of a new synthetic sphingolipid (K6EAA-L12) on aged murine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Minyoung; Lee, Sanghoon; Park, Hwa-young; Youm, Jong-Kyung; Jeong, Sekyoo; Bae, Jonghwan; Kwon, Mi Jung; Park, Byeong Deog; Lee, Seung Hun; Choi, Eung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Recently, we reported on the anti-ageing effects of K6PC-5. This compound induced keratinocyte differentiation and fibroblast proliferation by increasing sphingosine-1 phosphate synthesis. We performed this study to confirm the anti-ageing effects of new synthetic products (the K6EAA series) derived from K6PC-5 through an amino group induction. Cellular responses such as differentiation, proliferation and calcium mobilization were investigated using cultured human keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Also, we measured the expressions of collagen mRNA and protein using real time RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. The K6EAA-L12 product, selected by in vitro screening, was evaluated for anti-ageing effects on intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged models of hairless mice. In the intrinsically aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 showed anti-ageing effects by activating collagen synthesis, eventually causing dermal thickening. Also, in the photo-aged skin, the dermal collagen density and dermal thickness were increased. In photo-aged murine skin, K6EAA-L12 increased stratum corneum integrity by increasing corneodesmosome density and improved the barrier recovery rate. However, there were no changes in the expressions of epidermal differentiation maker proteins. In conclusion, topical K6EAA-L12, a new synthetic K6PC-5 derivative, improves intrinsically and extrinsically (photo) aged skin by increasing the collagen density and improving the skin barrier function. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. A comprehensive lipidomic screen of pancreatic β-cells using mass spectroscopy defines novel features of glucose-stimulated turnover of neutral lipids, sphingolipids and plasmalogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma L. Pearson

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Glucose promotes lipid remodelling in pancreatic β-cells, and this is thought to contribute to the regulation of insulin secretion, but the metabolic pathways and potential signalling intermediates have not been fully elaborated. Methods: Using mass spectrometry (MS we quantified changes in approximately 300 lipid metabolites in MIN6 β-cells and isolated mouse islets following 1 h stimulation with glucose. Flux through sphingolipid pathways was also assessed in 3H-sphinganine-labelled cells using TLC. Results: Glucose specifically activates the conversion of triacylglycerol (TAG to diacylglycerol (DAG. This leads indirectly to the formation of 18:1 monoacylglycerol (MAG, via degradation of saturated/monounsaturated DAG species, such as 16:0_18:1 DAG, which are the most abundant, immediate products of glucose-stimulated TAG hydrolysis. However, 16:0-containing, di-saturated DAG species are a better direct marker of TAG hydrolysis since, unlike the 18:1-containing DAGs, they are predominately formed via this route. Using multiple reaction monitoring, we confirmed that in islets under basal conditions, 18:1 MAG is the most abundant species. We further demonstrated a novel site of glucose to enhance the conversion of ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM and galactosylceramide (GalCer. Flux and product:precursor analyses suggest regulation of the enzyme SM synthase, which would constitute a separate mechanism for localized generation of DAG in response to glucose. Phosphatidylcholine (PC plasmalogen (P species, specifically those containing 20:4, 22:5 and 22:6 side chains, were also diminished in the presence of glucose, whereas the more abundant phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogens were unchanged. Conclusion: Our results highlight 18:1 MAG, GalCer, PC(P and DAG/SM as potential contributors to metabolic stimulus-secretion coupling. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Pancreatic β-cell, Insulin

  9. Colonoscopy and Colorectal Cancer Screening in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: Review of a Series of Cases and Recommendations for Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Leonard S.; Becker, Andrew; Paraguya, Maria; Chukwu, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    Adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) frequently have comorbidities that might interfere with colonoscopy preparation and examination. In this article, the authors review their experience with colonoscopies performed from 2002 through 2010 on adults with IDD at a state institution to evaluate quality and safety of…

  10. AHRQ series paper 3: identifying, selecting, and refining topics for comparative effectiveness systematic reviews: AHRQ and the effective health-care program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Evelyn P; Lopez, Sarah A; Chang, Stephanie; Helfand, Mark; Eder, Michelle; Floyd, Nicole

    2010-05-01

    This article discusses the identification, selection, and refinement of topics for comparative effectiveness systematic reviews within the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's Effective Health Care (EHC) program. The EHC program seeks to align its research topic selection with the overall goals of the program, impartially and consistently apply predefined criteria to potential topics, involve stakeholders to identify high-priority topics, be transparent and accountable, and continually evaluate and improve processes. A topic prioritization group representing stakeholder and scientific perspectives evaluates topic nominations that fit within the EHC program (are "appropriate") to determine how "important" topics are as considered against seven criteria. The group then judges whether a new comparative effectiveness systematic review would be a duplication of existing research syntheses, and if not duplicative, if there is adequate type and volume of research to conduct a new systematic review. Finally, the group considers the "potential value and impact" of a comparative effectiveness systematic review. As the EHC program develops, ongoing challenges include ensuring the program addresses truly unmet needs for synthesized research because national and international efforts in this arena are uncoordinated, as well as engaging a range of stakeholders in program decisions while also achieving efficiency and timeliness.

  11. Return to play and performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in the National Basketball Association: surgeon case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwachukwu, Benedict U; Anthony, Shawn G; Lin, Kenneth M; Wang, Tim; Altchek, David W; Allen, Answorth A

    2017-09-01

    To investigate return to play (RTP) and functional performance after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) in National Basketball Association (NBA) players and to perform a systematic review of the literature to understand RTP after ACLR in professional basketball. NBA players undergoing ACLR between 2008 and 2014 by two surgeons were identified. RTP and performance were assessed based on a review of publically available statistics. A systematic review of the literature was performed using the MEDLINE database. Inclusion criteria were: English language, ACL surgery outcome, professional basketball and RTP outcome. We reviewed studies for RTP rates and RTP performance. Our study included 12 professional basketball players with NBA level experience. Eleven of the 12 players returned to their prior level of play. Eight of the 9 (88.9%) players actively playing in the NBA returned to play in the NBA at a mean 9.8 months. Among players returning to NBA play, during RTP season 1, mean per game statistics decreased for the following: minutes, points, rebounds, assists, steals, blocks, turnovers and personal fouls - none of these changes reached statistical significance. Player efficiency ratings significantly declined from pre-injury (12.5) to the first RTP season (7.6) (p = 0.05). By RTP season 2, player performance metrics approximated pre-injury levels and were not significantly different. Six studies met inclusion criteria; reported RTP rates ranged from 78-86%. Identified studies similarly found a decline in functional performance after RTP. There is a high rate (89%) of return to NBA play for NBA players undergoing ACLR. After RTP, however, there is a quantitative decline in initial season 1 RTP statistics with a significant decrease in player efficiency rating. By RTP season 2, performance metrics demonstrated an improvement compared to RTP season 1 but did not reach pre-injury functional performance, though performance metrics are not significantly

  12. Summation of series

    CERN Document Server

    Jolley, LB W

    2004-01-01

    Over 1,100 common series, all grouped for easy reference. Arranged by category, these series include arithmetical and geometrical progressions, powers and products of natural numbers, figurate and polygonal numbers, inverse natural numbers, exponential and logarithmic series, binomials, simple inverse products, factorials, trigonometrical and hyperbolic expansions, and additional series. 1961 edition.

  13. Methods for summing general Kapteyn series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tautz, R C [Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Lerche, I [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultaet III, Martin-Luther-Universitaet Halle, D-06099 Halle (Germany); Dominici, D, E-mail: rct@gmx.eu, E-mail: lercheian@yahoo.com, E-mail: dominicd@newpaltz.edu [Department of Mathematics, State University of New York at New Paltz, 1 Hawk Dr, New Paltz, NY 12561-2443 (United States)

    2011-09-23

    The general features and characteristics of Kapteyn series, which are a special type of series involving the Bessel function, are investigated. For many applications in physics, astrophysics and mathematics, it is crucial to have closed-form expressions in order to determine their functional structure and parametric behavior. The closed-form expressions of Kapteyn series have mostly been limited to special cases, even though there are often similarities in the approaches used to reduce the series to analytically tractable forms. The goal of this paper is to review the previous work in the area and to show that Kapteyn series can be expressed as trigonometric or gamma function series, which can be evaluated in a closed form for specific parameters. Two examples with a similar structure are given, showing the complexity of Kapteyn series. (paper)

  14. Bone autografting of the calvaria and craniofacial skeleton: historical background, surgical results in a series of 15 patients, and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artico, Marco; Ferrante, Luigi; Pastore, Francesco Saverio; Ramundo, Epimenio Orlando; Cantarelli, Davide; Scopelliti, Domenico; Iannetti, Giorgio

    2003-07-01

    Although the use of autologous bone for reconstruction of the cranial and facial skeleton underwent a partial reappraisal following the introduction of a vast range of alloplastic materials for this purpose, it has demonstrated definite advantages over the last century and, particularly, during the last decade. Fifteen patients underwent cranial and/or cranio-facial reconstruction using autologous bone grafting in the Department of Neurologic Sciences-Neurosurgery and the Division of Maxillo-Facial Surgery of the Rome "La Sapienza" University between 1987 and 1995. This group of patients consisted of 8 females and 7 males whose average age was 29.5 years (range 7.5 to 59 years, mean age 30). In all these patients cranioplasty and/or cranio-facial reconstruction had been performed to repair bone defects secondary to benign tumors or tumor-like lesions (12 cases), trauma (2 cases), or, in the remaining case, to wound infection after craniotomy for a neurosurgical operation. The results obtained in a series of 15 patients treated using this method are described with reference to the abundant data published on this topic. The mechanical, immunologic, and technical-grafting properties of autologous bone, together with its superior esthetic and psychological effects, probably make it the best material for cranioplasty.

  15. Subcutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation with inter-lead stimulation for axial neck and low back pain: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgher, Abram H; Huntoon, Marc A; Turley, Todd W; Doust, Matthew W; Stearns, Lisa J

    2012-01-01

    While pain in the extremities often responds to treatment using spinal cord stimulation (SCS), axial pain is notoriously refractory to SCS. Interest in subcutaneous peripheral nerve stimulation (SQ PNS) as an alternative to SCS has emerged, but the most appropriate electrode locations and neurostimulator programming techniques are not yet clear. A retrospective review was conducted of consecutive patients evaluated from August 2009 to December 2010 who had undergone trial of SQ PNS with inter-lead stimulation for axial spine pain. Patients proceeding to implant were followed postoperatively with routine clinical visits and a survey form at last follow-up. Ultrasound was used intraoperatively to ensure placement of electrodes at the appropriate depth in patients with larger body mass index. Primary outcome was patient-reported pain relief at last follow-up. Literature review was conducted by searching MEDLINE (1948-present) and through an unstructured review by the authors. Ten patients underwent trial of SQ PNS and six proceeded to permanent implantation. Fifty percent (3/6) of implanted patients preferred neurostimulation programming that included inter-lead stimulation ("cross-talk"). Average duration of postoperative follow-up was 4.5 months (range 2-9 months). Average patient-reported pain relief at last follow-up was 45% (range 20-80%). One patient required re-operation for migration. Patients not proceeding to implant had paresthesia coverage but no analgesia. SQ PNS is a promising therapy for axial neck and back pain based on a small cohort of patients. Ultrasound was useful to assist with electrode placement at the most appropriate depth beneath the skin. While inter-lead stimulation has been preferred by patients in published reports, we did not find it clearly influenced pain relief. Future investigations should include a randomized, controlled study design, as well as defined implantation technique and neurostimulator programming algorithms. © 2011

  16. Prune-belly syndrome: case series and review of the literature regarding early prenatal diagnosis, epidemiology, genetic factors, treatment, and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonni, Gabriele; Ida, Vito; Alessandro, Ventura; Bonasoni, Maria Paola

    2013-02-01

    Prune-belly syndrome (PBS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by deficient abdominal muscles, urinary tract malformation, and in males, cryptorchidism and has an estimated incidence of 1 in 35,000 to 1 in 50,000 live births. The syndrome might be due to severe bladder outlet obstruction or to abdominal muscle deficiency secondary to a migrational defect of the lateral mesoblast between weeks 6 and 7 of pregnancy. The current review of the medical record reports a special focus on epidemiology, genetic factors, early prenatal diagnosis clusters, treatment, and prognosis of PBS.

  17. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenhouts, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    This dictionary covers systematics, morphology, and anatomy of the Plant Kingdom, including also Fungi and Fossils. Not included are cytology, genetics, and evolution, which have been or will be treated in other volumes of the same series. As to systematics, families and higher taxa as well as many

  18. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Describes two software programs for the Apple II series and TRS-80 Models III and IV: (1) "Personal Energy Inventory" (grades 9-12, records and manages data, not considered user friendly); (2) "Energy Conservation" (grades 7-12, aids in converting and problem solving, uses drill and practice). (MVL)

  19. First results with the immediate reconstructive strategy for internal hardware exposure in non-united fractures of the distal third of the leg: case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaienti Luca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fractures of the distal third of the leg are increasingly common and are often handled by open reduction and internal fixation. Exposure and infection of internal hardware could occur, especially after high energy traumas, requiring hardware removal and delayed soft tissue reconstruction. Nevertheless immediate soft tissue reconstruction without internal hardware removal is still possible in selected patients. In this study the effectiveness and the complications of immediate soft tissue reconstruction without internal hardware removal is analyzed. Methods 13 patients, affected by internal hardware exposure in the distal leg, treated with immediate soft tissue reconstruction with pedicled flaps and hardware retention, are retrospectively analyzed, with special regard to flap survival and wound infection. Results Wound infection was observed in 10 cases before surgery and in 5 cases surgical debridement was necessary before reconstruction which was performed in a separate operative session. After reconstruction, wound dehiscence and infection occurred in 5 cases, and in 3 cases removal of internal hardware was necessary in order to achieve the complete healing of dehiscence. In one case the previous flap failed but prompt reconstruction with a sural fasciocutaneous flap was performed without hardware removal and without complications. Pre-operative infection and late reconstructive surgery are predictive for higher rates of post-operative complications (respectively p 0.018 and p 0.028. Conclusion Our approach achieved full recovery in 53.8% of the treated cases after one-step surgery, therefore reducing hospitalization and allowing early mobilization. Controlled trials are needed to confirm the effectiveness of this strategy, although the present case series shows encouraging results.

  20. Sources of error in etched-track radon measurements and a review of passive detectors using results from a series of radon intercomparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahimi, Z.-F.; Howarth, C.B.; Miles, J.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    Etched-track passive radon detectors are a well established and apparently simple technology. As with any measurement system, there are multiple sources of uncertainty and potential for error. The authors discuss these as well as good quality assurance practices. Identification and assessment of sources of error is crucial to maintain high quality standards by a measurement laboratory. These sources can be found both within and outside the radon measurement laboratory itself. They can lead to changes in track characteristics and ultimately detector response to radon exposure. Changes don't just happen during etching, but can happen during the recording or counting of etched-tracks (for example ageing and fading effects on track sensitivity, or focus and image acquisition variables). Track overlap means the linearity of response of detectors will vary as exposure increases. The laboratory needs to correct the calibration curve due to this effect if it wishes to offer detectors that cover a range of exposures likely to be observed in the field. Extrapolation of results to estimate annual average concentrations also has uncertainty associated with it. Measurement systems need to be robust, reliable and stable. If a laboratory is not actively and constantly monitoring for anomalies via internal testing, the laboratory may not become aware of a problem until some form of external testing occurs, eg an accreditation process, performance test, interlaboratory comparison exercise or when a customer has cause to query results. Benchmark standards of accuracy and precision achievable with passive detectors are discussed drawing on trends from the series of intercomparison exercises for passive radon detectors which began in 1982, organised by the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB), subsequently the Health Protection Agency (HPA).

  1. Intoxication from the novel synthetic cannabinoids AB-PINACA and ADB-PINACA: A case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenian, Patil; Darracq, Michael; Gevorkyan, Jirair; Clark, Shane; Kaye, Bryan; Brandehoff, Nicklaus P

    2018-05-15

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SC), are a novel class of designer drugs which emerged as a drug of abuse in the late 2000's. We report a case series of 6 patients who may have smoked a synthetic cannabinoid product in a remote wilderness setting. They presented with varying degrees of altered mental status, agitation, and seizures. Two were confirmed to have AB-PINACA, ADB-PINACA and their respective pentanoic acid metabolites in biological specimens via liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF/MS). Both compounds had DEA Schedule I classification at the time of case presentation, and 22 SCs are currently temporary or permanent DEA Schedule I. More than 150 SCs are known to date, and new compounds are appearing at a rapid rate on darknet and surface web e-commerce websites, marketed as "research chemicals" or "legal highs." The scale and rapidity of SC evolution make legal control and analytical detection difficult. Nontargeted testing with liquid chromatography high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS), examining both parent compounds and metabolites, is the ideal method for novel SC identification and confirmation. Due to full agonism at the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, clinical effects are more severe than marijuana, which is a partial cannabinoid receptor agonist. They include agitated delirium, lethargy and coma, seizures, tachycardia, hypertension, and hallucinations, among other findings. Treatment is primarily symptomatic and aimed at airway protection and control of agitation and seizures. SCs do not appear to be abating anytime soon and require the cooperation of law enforcement, analytical scientists, and clinicians to adequately control. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Designer Drugs and Legal Highs.' Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap for the management of long- segment ureteral defect: A case series with review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Ankur; Sinha, Rahul Janak; Jhanwar, Ankur; Prakash, Gaurav; Purkait, Bimalesh; Singh, Vishwajeet

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of ureteral stricture is showing a rising trend due to increased use of laparoscopic and upper urinary tract endoscopic procedures. Boari flap is the preferred method of repairing long- segment ureteral defects of 8-12 cm. The procedure has undergone change from classical open (transperitoneal and retroperitoneal) method to laparoscopic surgery and recently robotic surgery. Laparoscopic approach is cosmetically appealing, less morbid and with shorter hospital stay. In this case series, we report our experience of performing laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap in 3 patients. This prospective study was conducted between January 2011 December 2014. The patients with a long- segment ureteral defect who had undergone laparoscopic Boari flap reconstruction were included in the study. Outcome of laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap for the manangement of long segment ureteral defect was evaluated. The procedure was performed on 3 patients, and male to female ratio was 1:2. One patient had bilateral and other two patient had left ureteral stricture. The mean length of ureteral stricture was 8.6 cm (range 8.2-9.2 cm). The mean operative time was 206 min (190 to 220 min). The average estimated blood loss was 100 mL (range 90-110 mL) and mean hospital stay was 6 days (range 5 to 7 days). The mean follow up was 19 months (range 17-22 months). None of the patients experienced any complication related to the procedure in perioperative period. Laparoscopic ureteral reimplantation with Boari flap is safe, feasible and has excellent long term results. However, the procedure is technically challenging, requires extensive experience of intracorporeal suturing.

  3. MYCOBACTERIOSIS IN CAPTIVE PSITTACINES: A BRIEF REVIEW AND CASE SERIES IN COMMON COMPANION SPECIES (ECLECTUS RORATUS, AMAZONA ORATRIX, AND PIONITES MELANOCEPHALA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna Elizabeth; Higbie, Christine T; Nevarez, Javier G; Rademacher, Nathalie T; Tully, Thomas N

    2017-09-01

    In 2015, three psittacines were presented within 30 days, each with differing clinical signs and patient histories. A 13-yr-old male eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) was presented for weakness, depression, and acute anorexia. On presentation it was determined to have a heart murmur, severely elevated white blood cell count (93.9 10 3 /μl) with a left shift (2.8 10 3 /μl bands), and anemia (30%). Severe hepatomegaly was noted on radiographs, ultrasonography, and computed tomography. A cytological sample of the liver obtained through a fine needle aspirate revealed intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium avium. A 20-yr-old female double yellow-headed Amazon parrot (Amazona oratrix) was presented for a 1-mo history of lethargy and weight loss despite a good appetite. The parrot's total white blood cell count was 16.8 10 3 /μl and the PCV was 35%. Following its death, a necropsy revealed a generalized granulomatous condition that involved the small intestines, lungs, liver, spleen, and medullary cavities of the long bones, with intracellular acid-fast bacilli identified as Mycobacterium genavense. The third case, an 18-mo-old female black-headed caique (Pionites melanocephala), was presented with a 1-day history of lethargy and depression. On presentation, the caique had a heart murmur, distended coelom, palpable thickening of the coelomic organs, and increased lung sounds. Following the caique's death, a complete necropsy revealed mycobacteriosis of the liver, spleen, small intestines, pericardial fat, and bone marrow. The infection was identified as Mycobacterium genavense. The importance of advances in Mycobacterium spp. identification, continued presence of this organism in captive avian populations, difficulty in obtaining a definitive antemortem diagnosis, and conflicting recommendations regarding treatment are thought-provoking areas of focus in this case series.

  4. Myasthenia Gravis With Thymoma, Manifesting as AChR-Ab-Positive, Distinct Bulbar Palsy Accompanied by Dysgeusia: A Case Series and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we summarized three cases of myasthenia gravis (MG with taste disorder and describe their clinical features in detail. Three MG patients presented with significant bulbar palsy symptoms, high AChR-Ab titers, and negative MuSK-Ab, were diagnosed with thymoma. Furthermore, we observed that dysgeusia could manifest earlier than the occurrence of typical MG symptoms, even predict a MG relapse or a myasthenic crisis in the course of MG. We believe that dysgeusia is a non-motor symptom of MG, which especially exists in MG patients with thymoma and serious bulbar palsy. Therefore, being alert to this symptom may facilitate the early diagnosis of MG and judge the progress of the disease.

  5. Use of the Stone Cone for prevention of calculus retropulsion during holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy: case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Brian H; Dretler, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic lithotripsy leads to additional procedures for residual calculi. The Stone Cone (Boston Scientific, Natick, Mass., USA) is a device designed to prevent stone migration. To determine the incidence of calculus retropulsion and additional procedures after ureteroscopy with intracorporeal lithotripsy while using the Stone Cone. A retrospective review of patients with obstructing ureteral calculi who underwent ureteroscopy and holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy using the Stone Cone as a backstop over a 3-year period at an academic medical center was performed. 133 patients underwent ureteroscopy with holmium:YAG laser lithotripsy using the Stone Cone to prevent calculus retroplusion. Success was defined as no residual fragments >2 mm in size, no changes from semirigid to flexible ureteroscope, and no additional procedures. Post-operative imaging was abdominal plain radiography or computed tomography. A MEDLINE search was performed to indentify all English clinical studies of the Stone Cone. Of the 133 uses of the Stone Cone, there were 2 (1.5%) residual retropulsed fragments >2 mm which required an additional procedure. There were no changes to flexible ureteroscope secondary to stone retropulsion in 105 cases of semirigid ureteroscopy. There was no instance of ureteral obstruction from residual 2-mm fragments. There were no ureteral strictures or hydronephrosis among 91 patients with long-term follow-up imaging. A review of the literature was performed which yielded 4 clinical publications and 90 reported cases using the Stone Cone with 100% success. Two of these studies showed statistically significant improvement when compared with control patients. The Stone Cone minimized stone retropulsion during ureteroscopic laser lithotripsy. The Stone Cone offers the urologist greater certainty during ureteroscopy and may decrease the number of clinically significant residual calculi. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Congenital portosystemic venous connections and other abdominal venous abnormalities in patients with polysplenia and functionally univentricular heart disease: a case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinney, Doff B; Marx, Gerald R; Newburger, Jane W

    2011-01-01

    Published case reports suggest that congenital portosystemic venous connections (PSVC) and other abdominal venous anomalies may be relatively frequent and potentially important in patients with polysplenia syndrome. Our objective was to investigate the frequency and range of portal and other abdominal systemic venous anomalies in patients with polysplenia and inferior vena cava (IVC) interruption who underwent a cavopulmonary anastomosis procedure at our center, and to review the published literature on this topic and the potential clinical importance of such anomalies. Retrospective cohort study and literature review were used. Among 77 patients with heterotaxy, univentricular heart disease, and IVC interruption who underwent a bidirectional Glenn and/or modified Fontan procedure, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were diagnosed in 33 (43%). Bilateral superior vena cavas were present in 42 patients (55%). Despite inadequate imaging in many patients, a partial PSVC, dual IVCs, and/or renal vein anomalies were detected in 15 patients (19%). A PSVC formed by a tortuous vessel running from the systemic venous system to the extrahepatic portal vein was found in six patients (8%). Abdominal venous anomalies other than PSVC were documented in 13 patients (16%), including nine (12%) with some form of duplicated IVC system, with a large azygous vein continuing to the superior vena cava and a parallel, contralateral IVC of similar or smaller size, and seven with renal vein anomalies. In patients with a partial PSVC or a duplicate IVC that connected to the atrium, the abnormal connection allowed right-to-left shunting. PSVC and other abdominal venous anomalies may be clinically important but under-recognized in patients with IVC interruption and univentricular heart disease. In such patients, preoperative evaluation of the abdominal systemic venous system may be valuable. More data are necessary to determine whether there is a pathophysiologic connection between the

  7. Dynamic cervicomedullary cord compression and alterations in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics in children with achondroplasia: review of an 11-year surgical case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Debraj; Pressman, Barry D; Krakow, Deborah; Rimoin, David L; Danielpour, Moise

    2014-09-01

    Achondroplasia may be associated with compression at the cervicomedullary junction. Determining which patients are at greatest risk for neurological complications of cervicomedullary compression can be difficult. In the current study the authors reviewed their records to determine the incidence and clinical significance of dynamic cervicomedullary stenosis and obstruction of CSF flow along with surgical outcomes following posterior fossa decompression. The authors reviewed 34 consecutive cases involving symptomatic children with achondroplasia undergoing cervicomedullary decompression performed by a single surgeon over 11 years. Of these patients, 29 had undergone preoperative dynamic MRI of the cervicomedullary junction with cine (cinema) CSF flow studies; 13 of these patients underwent postoperative dynamic MRI studies. Clinical outcomes included changes in polysomnography, head circumference percentile, and fontanel characteristics. Radiographic outcomes included changes in dynamic spinal cord diameter, improvement in CSF flow at the foramen magnum, and change in the Evans ratio. Patients were predominantly female, with a mean age at presentation of 6.6 years and mean follow-up of 3.7 years (range 1-10 years). All patients had moderate to excellent improvement in postoperative polysomnography, slight decrease in average head circumference percentile (from 46.9th percentile to 45.7th percentile), and no subjective worsening of fontanel characteristics. The Evans ratio decreased by 2%, spinal cord diameter increased an average of 3.1 mm, 5.2 mm, and 0.2 mm in the neutral, flexed, and extended positions, respectively, and CSF flow improved qualitatively in all 3 positions. There were no postoperative infections, CSF leaks, or other major complications. None of the patients undergoing initial foramen magnum decompression performed at our medical center required reoperation. Patients with achondroplasia and symptomatic cervicomedullary compression have increased risk

  8. Therapeutic Hypothermia for Asphyxial Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Due to Drowning: A Systematic Review of Case Series and Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, K-F; Leung, Reynold; Leung, Ling-Pong

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize published evidence of the effectiveness of therapeutic hypothermia in patients with drowning-associated asphyxial out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and to explore any preliminary favorable factors in the management of therapeutic hypothermia to improve survival and neurological outcome. Drowning may result in asphyxial OHCA or hypothermic OHCA, but the former does not provide any potential neuroprotective effect as the latter may do. Electronic literature searches of Ovid Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were performed for all years from inception to July 2016. Primary studies in the form of case reports, letters to the editor, and others with higher quality are included, but guidelines, reviews, editorials, textbook chapters, conference abstracts, and nonhuman studies are excluded. Non-English articles are excluded. Relevant studies are then deemed eligible if the drowning OHCA patient's initial temperature was above 28°C, which implies asphyxial cardiac arrest, and intentional therapeutic hypothermia was instituted. Because of the narrow scope of interest and strict definition of the condition, limited studies addressed it, and no randomized controlled trials (RCT) could be selected. Thirteen studies covering 35 patients are included. No quantitative synthesis, assessment of study quality, or assessment of bias was performed. It is conjectured that extended therapeutic hypothermia of 48-72 hours might help prevent reperfusion injury during the intermediate phase of postcardiac arrest care to benefit patients of drowning-associated asphyxial OHCA, but this finding only serves as preliminary observation for future research. No conclusive recommendation could be made regarding the duration of and the time of onset of therapeutic hypothermia. Future research should put effort on RCT, particularly the effect of extended duration of 48-72 hours. Important parameters should be reported in detail. Asphyxial

  9. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-11-01

    CD-ROM REVIEW (551) Essential Physics BOOK REVIEWS (551) Collins Advanced Science: Physics, 2nd edition Quarks, Leptons and the Big Bang, 2nd edition Do Brilliantly: A2 Physics IGCSE Physics Geophysics in the UK Synoptic Skills in Advanced Physics Flash! The hunt for the biggest explosions in the universe Materials Maths for Advanced Physics

  10. Review the number of accidents in Tehran over a two-year period and prediction of the number of events based on a time-series model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teymuri, Ghulam Heidar; Sadeghian, Marzieh; Kangavari, Mehdi; Asghari, Mehdi; Madrese, Elham; Abbasinia, Marzieh; Ahmadnezhad, Iman; Gholizadeh, Yavar

    2013-01-01

    Background: One of the significant dangers that threaten people’s lives is the increased risk of accidents. Annually, more than 1.3 million people die around the world as a result of accidents, and it has been estimated that approximately 300 deaths occur daily due to traffic accidents in the world with more than 50% of that number being people who were not even passengers in the cars. The aim of this study was to examine traffic accidents in Tehran and forecast the number of future accidents using a time-series model. Methods: The study was a cross-sectional study that was conducted in 2011. The sample population was all traffic accidents that caused death and physical injuries in Tehran in 2010 and 2011, as registered in the Tehran Emergency ward. The present study used Minitab 15 software to provide a description of accidents in Tehran for the specified time period as well as those that occurred during April 2012. Results: The results indicated that the average number of daily traffic accidents in Tehran in 2010 was 187 with a standard deviation of 83.6. In 2011, there was an average of 180 daily traffic accidents with a standard deviation of 39.5. One-way analysis of variance indicated that the average number of accidents in the city was different for different months of the year (P accidents occurred in March, July, August, and September. Thus, more accidents occurred in the summer than in the other seasons. The number of accidents was predicted based on an auto-regressive, moving average (ARMA) for April 2012. The number of accidents displayed a seasonal trend. The prediction of the number of accidents in the city during April of 2012 indicated that a total of 4,459 accidents would occur with mean of 149 accidents per day during these three months. Conclusion: The number of accidents in Tehran displayed a seasonal trend, and the number of accidents was different for different seasons of the year. PMID:26120405

  11. Subcallosal artery stroke: infarction of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum. The importance of the anterior communicating artery complex. Case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meila, Dan; Saliou, Guillaume; Krings, Timo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the variable anatomy of the anterior communicating artery (AcoA) complex, three main perforating branches can be typically identified the largest of which being the subcallosal artery (ScA). We present a case series of infarction in the vascular territory of the ScA to highlight the anatomy, the clinical symptomatology, and the presumed pathophysiology as it pertains to endovascular and surgical management of vascular pathology in this region. In this retrospective multicenter case series study of patients who were diagnosed with symptomatic ScA stroke, we analyzed all available clinical records, MRI, and angiographic details. Additionally, a review of the literature is provided. We identified five different cases of ScA stroke, leading to a subsequent infarction of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum. The presumed pathophysiology in non-iatrogenic cases is microangiopathy, rather than embolic events; iatrogenic SCA occlusion can present after both surgical and endovascular treatment of AcoA aneurysms that may occur with or without occlusion of the AcoA. Stroke in the vascular territory of the ScA leads to a characteristic imaging and clinical pattern. Ischemia involves the anterior columns of the fornix and the genu of the corpus callosum, and patients present with a Korsakoff's syndrome including disturbances of short-term memory and cognitive changes. We conclude that despite its small size, the ScA is an important artery to watch out for during surgical or endovascular treatment of AcoA aneurysms.

  12. Stochastic models for time series

    CERN Document Server

    Doukhan, Paul

    2018-01-01

    This book presents essential tools for modelling non-linear time series. The first part of the book describes the main standard tools of probability and statistics that directly apply to the time series context to obtain a wide range of modelling possibilities. Functional estimation and bootstrap are discussed, and stationarity is reviewed. The second part describes a number of tools from Gaussian chaos and proposes a tour of linear time series models. It goes on to address nonlinearity from polynomial or chaotic models for which explicit expansions are available, then turns to Markov and non-Markov linear models and discusses Bernoulli shifts time series models. Finally, the volume focuses on the limit theory, starting with the ergodic theorem, which is seen as the first step for statistics of time series. It defines the distributional range to obtain generic tools for limit theory under long or short-range dependences (LRD/SRD) and explains examples of LRD behaviours. More general techniques (central limit ...

  13. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Paul J.; Lin Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y.; Alexander, Brian M.; Hacker, Fred; Marcus, Karen J.; Weiss, Stephanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women’s Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1–3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15–18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41–1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective

  14. Stereotactic Irradiation of the Postoperative Resection Cavity for Brain Metastasis: A Frameless Linear Accelerator-Based Case Series and Review of the Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Paul J., E-mail: pkelly@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States); Lin Yijie Brittany; Yu, Alvin Y. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Alexander, Brian M.; Hacker, Fred; Marcus, Karen J.; Weiss, Stephanie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber/Brigham and Women' s Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT) is the standard of care after resection of a brain metastasis. However, concern regarding possible neurocognitive effects and the lack of survival benefit with this approach has led to the use of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) to the resection cavity in place of WBRT. We report our initial experience using an image-guided linear accelerator-based frameless stereotactic system and review the technical issues in applying this technique. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the setup accuracy, treatment outcome, and patterns of failure of the first 18 consecutive cases treated at Brigham and Women's Hospital. The target volume was the resection cavity without a margin excluding the surgical track. Results: The median number of brain metastases per patient was 1 (range, 1-3). The median planning target volume was 3.49 mL. The median prescribed dose was 18 Gy (range, 15-18 Gy) with normalization ranging from 68% to 85%. In all cases, 99% of the planning target volume was covered by the prescribed dose. The median conformity index was 1.6 (range, 1.41-1.92). The SRS was delivered with submillimeter accuracy. At a median follow-up of 12.7 months, local control was achieved in 16/18 cavities treated. True local recurrence occurred in 2 patients. No marginal failures occurred. Distant recurrence occurred in 6/17 patients. Median time to any failure was 7.4 months. No Grade 3 or higher toxicity was recorded. A long interval between initial cancer diagnosis and the development of brain metastasis was the only factor that trended toward a significant association with the absence of recurrence (local or distant) (log-rank p = 0.097). Conclusions: Frameless stereotactic irradiation of the resection cavity after surgery for a brain metastasis is a safe and accurate technique that offers durable local control and defers the use of WBRT in select patients. This technique should be tested in larger prospective studies.

  15. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-associated encephalopathy: an under-recognised cause of acute encephalitis? Case series and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawshaw, Ania A; Dhasmana, Divya; Jones, Brynmor; Gabriel, Carolyn M; Sturman, Steve; Davies, Nicholas W S; Taylor, Graham P

    2018-04-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-1-associated myelopathy (HAM) is well described. Clinical features are predominantly consistent with cord pathology, though imaging and autopsy studies also demonstrate brain inflammation. In general, this is subclinical; however, six cases have previously been reported of encephalopathy in HTLV-1-infected patients, without alternative identified aetiology. We describe three further cases of encephalitis in the UK HAM cohort (n = 142), whereas the annual incidence of acute encephalitis in the general population is 0.07-12.6 per 100,000. Clinical features included reduced consciousness, fever/hypothermia, headaches, seizures, and focal neurology. Investigation showed: raised CSF protein; pleocytosis; raised CSF:peripheral blood mononuclear cell HTLV-1 proviral load ratio; and MRI either normal or showing white matter changes in brain and cord. Four of the six previous case reports of encephalopathy in HTLV-infected patients also had HAM. Histopathology, reported in three, showed perivascular predominantly CD8+ lymphocytic infiltrates in the brain. One had cerebral demyelination, and all had cord demyelination. We have reviewed the existing six cases in the literature, together with our three new cases. In all seven with HAM, the spastic paraparesis deteriorated sub-acutely preceding encephalitis. Eight of the nine were female, and four of the seven treated with steroids improved. We propose that HTLV-associated encephalopathy may be part of the spectrum of HTLV-1-induced central nervous system disease.

  16. Hydrogen peroxide ingestion associated with portal venous gas and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Loren Keith; Horowitz, B Zane; McKeown, Nathanael J

    2010-07-01

    Ingestion of concentrated hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) has been associated with venous and arterial gas embolic events, hemorrhagic gastritis, gastrointestinal bleeding, shock, and death. Although H(2)O(2) is generally considered a benign ingestion in low concentrations, case reports have described serious toxicity following high concentration exposures. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been used with success in managing patients suffering from gas embolism with and without manifestations of ischemia. Poison center records were searched from July 1999 to January 2010 for patients with H(2)O(2) exposure and HBO treatment. Cases were reviewed for the concentration of H(2)O(2), symptoms, CT scan findings of portal gas embolism, HBO treatment, and outcome. RESULTS; Eleven cases of portal gas embolism were found. Ages ranged from 4 to 89 years. All but one ingestion was accidental in nature. In 10 cases 35% H(2)O(2) was ingested and in 1 case 12% H(2)O(2) was ingested. All abdominal CT scans demonstrated portal venous gas embolism in all cases. Hyperbaric treatment was successful in completely resolving all portal venous gas bubbles in nine patients (80%) and nearly resolving them in two others. Ten patients were able to be discharged home within 1 day, and one patient had a 3.5-day length of stay. HBO was successful in resolving portal venous gas embolism from accidental concentrated H(2)O(2) ingestions.

  17. Mechanical ventilation and the total artificial heart: optimal ventilator trigger to avoid post-operative autocycling - a case series and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arabia Francisco A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many patients with end-stage cardiomyopathy are now being implanted with Total Artificial Hearts (TAHs. We have observed individual cases of post-operative mechanical ventilator autocycling with a flow trigger, and subsequent loss of autocycling after switching to a pressure trigger. These observations prompted us to do a retrospective review of all TAH devices placed at our institution between August 2007 and May 2009. We found that in the immediate post-operative period following TAH placement, autocycling was present in 50% (5/10 of cases. There was immediate cessation of autocycling in all patients after being changed from a flow trigger of 2 L/minute to a pressure trigger of 2 cm H2O. The autocycling group was found to have significantly higher CVP values than the non-autocycling group (P = 0.012. Our data suggest that mechanical ventilator autocycling may be resolved or prevented by the use of a pressure trigger rather than a flow trigger setting in patients with TAHs who require mechanical ventilation.

  18. Geometric Series via Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesman, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Infinite series is a challenging topic in the undergraduate mathematics curriculum for many students. In fact, there is a vast literature in mathematics education research on convergence issues. One of the most important types of infinite series is the geometric series. Their beauty lies in the fact that they can be evaluated explicitly and that…

  19. On the series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/pmsc/115/04/0371-0381. Keywords. Inverse binomial series; hypergeometric series; polylogarithms; integral representations. Abstract. In this paper we investigate the series ∑ k = 1 ∞ ( 3 k k ) − 1 k − n x k . Obtaining some integral representations of them, we evaluated the ...

  20. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Provides a review of both the Apple and IBM versions of ENZPACK, a software package which is designed to assist in the teaching of enzyme kinetics in courses where this topic is treated in some depth. (TW)

  1. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... The present review documents an overview of speciation mediated through behavioural ...... The Drosophila model (New York: Oxford University Press) .... second part of his big species book written from 1856–1858. (New ...

  2. Mumps orchitis in the post-vaccine era (1967-2009): a single-center series of 67 patients and review of clinical outcome and trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternavasio-de la Vega, Hugo-Guillermo; Boronat, Mauro; Ojeda, Antonio; García-Delgado, Yaiza; Angel-Moreno, Alfonso; Carranza-Rodríguez, Cristina; Bellini, Raquel; Francès, Adela; Nóvoa, Francisco Javier; Pérez-Arellano, José-Luis

    2010-03-01

    Since the introduction of the mumps vaccine, the age of appearance of mumps infection has shifted from children to adolescents and young adults, groups with a higher incidence of disease complications and sequelae. During the years 2000-2001, the Gran Canaria Island was part of an epidemic of mumps. In that period, our institution attended 67 cases of serologically confirmed acute mumps orchitis, the most serious complication of mumps infection in young postpubertal males. We conducted a descriptive and prospective study of this cohort and extensively reviewed the literature from 1967 (the year the first mumps vaccine was introduced) to 2009. Fifty-six patients were admitted because of general impairment and were treated with alpha-interferon. Sixty-six patients presented parotitis previous to orchitis (interval from parotitis to orchitis, 4.9 d). Orchitis was unilateral in 89.5% and bilateral in 10.4% of cases. More than 98% of patients had orchitis-associated fever. Nine patients had clinical and biochemical data showing acute mumps meningitis, and 11 had subclinical pancreatitis. The mean duration of symptoms was 4.6 days (range, 1-9). During the acute phase, more than 41% of the evaluated testes had a volume >25 mL. Acute hormonal disturbances were highly prevalent. These included decreased levels of testosterone and inhibin B with low or normal levels of gonadotropins in 35% of subjects, and, to our knowledge not previously reported, an atypical hormonal pattern consisting of low levels of free testosterone and inhibin B, along with increased measures of luteinizing hormone but low or normal follicle-stimulating hormone levels (11% of cases). During the follow-up period (mean, 331 d) a high incidence of sperm disturbance was found.

  3. International Work-Conference on Time Series

    CERN Document Server

    Pomares, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents selected peer-reviewed contributions from The International Work-Conference on Time Series, ITISE 2015, held in Granada, Spain, July 1-3, 2015. It discusses topics in time series analysis and forecasting, advanced methods and online learning in time series, high-dimensional and complex/big data time series as well as forecasting in real problems. The International Work-Conferences on Time Series (ITISE) provide a forum for scientists, engineers, educators and students to discuss the latest ideas and implementations in the foundations, theory, models and applications in the field of time series analysis and forecasting. It focuses on interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary research encompassing the disciplines of computer science, mathematics, statistics and econometrics.

  4. Short-term association between ambient air pollution and pneumonia in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of time-series and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Amini, Heresh; Schindler, Christian; Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with respiratory diseases in children. However, its effects on pediatric pneumonia have not been meta-analyzed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short-term association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed for indexed publications up to January 2017. Pollutant-specific excess risk percentage (ER%) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 10 (PM 10 ) and ≤2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). Results were further stratified by subgroups (children under five, emergency visits versus hospital admissions, income level of study location, and exposure period). Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The ER% per 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollutants was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.6%-2.4%) for PM 10 and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.5%-3.1%) for PM 2.5 . The corresponding values per 10 ppb increment of gaseous pollutants were 2.9% (95% CI: 0.4%-5.3%) for SO 2 , 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5%-2.8%) for O 3 , and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.4%-2.4%) for NO 2 . ER% per 1000 ppb increment of CO was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.0%-1.9%). Associations were not substantially different between subgroups. This meta-analysis shows a positive association between daily levels of ambient air pollution markers and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. However, lack of studies from low-and middle-income countries limits the quantitative generalizability given that susceptibilities to the adverse effects of air pollution may be different in those populations. The meta-regression in our analysis further demonstrated a strong effect of country income level on heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimization of ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry determination in plasma and red blood cells of four sphingolipids and their evaluation as biomarker candidates of Gaucher's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipeaux, Caroline; de Person, Marine; Burguet, Nathalie; Billette de Villemeur, Thierry; Rose, Christian; Belmatoug, Nadia; Héron, Sylvie; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Franco, Mélanie; Moussa, Fathi

    2017-11-24

    While important advances have been recently achieved in the optimization of lipid classes' separation, information on the specific determination of medium polarity lipids such as sphingolipids (SLs) in highly complex matrices remains fragmentary. In human, disorders of SL metabolism known as sphingolipidoses are a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders affecting primarily the central nervous. Early diagnosis of these conditions is of importance notably when a corrective therapy is available. The diagnosis is generally based on the determination of specific SLs in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). For instance, glucosylceramide (GL1), glucosylsphingosine (Lyso-GL1), sphingosine (Sph), and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) are proposed as relevant biomarkers for Gaucher disease (GD). Our main objective was to evaluate these biomarker candidates in a cohort of GD patients. However, most of current methods of GL1, Lyso-GL1, Sph, and S1P determination in plasma of GD patients require at least two liquid chromatographic runs. On the other hand, except for GL1 nothing is known concerning the RBC sphingolipid content. Yet, several reversed phase LC-MS methods of SLs separation and/or determination in various media with different sample preparation approaches have been proposed since 2010. Here we focused on stationary phase selection and mobile phase composition as well as on the sample preparation step to optimize and validate an UHPLC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantification of the four sphingolipids in both plasma and RBCs. A comparison between seven stationary phases including two RP18, two polar embedded RP18, and three HILIC phases shows that under our conditions polar embedded RP18 phases are the most appropriate for the separation of the four SLs, in terms of efficiency, peak symmetry, and separation time. In the same way, a comparison between a single step extraction with methanol and a liquid-liquid extraction with a mixture of methanol/methyl tert

  6. What marketing scholars should know about time series analysis : time series applications in marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horváth, Csilla; Kornelis, Marcel; Leeflang, Peter S.H.

    2002-01-01

    In this review, we give a comprehensive summary of time series techniques in marketing, and discuss a variety of time series analysis (TSA) techniques and models. We classify them in the sets (i) univariate TSA, (ii) multivariate TSA, and (iii) multiple TSA. We provide relevant marketing

  7. Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Den Hazel, H B; Kielland-Brandt, Morten; Winther, Jakob R.

    1996-01-01

    The yeast vacuole, which is equivalent to the lysosome of higher eukaryotes, is one of the best characterized degradative organelles. This review describes the biosynthesis and function of yeast vacuolar proteases. Most of these enzymes are delivered to the vacuole via the early compartments...

  8. Reviews

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1995-01-01

    This is the second volume of a revision of Tabernaemontana (Apocynaceae). The volume covers the New World species (44) and the genus Stemmadenia (10 species). This part of the revision of Tabernaemontana comes up to the high standards set in the first volume [see the review by Leenhouts, Blumea 38

  9. Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Reviews a software planetarium package called "Sky Travel." Includes two audiovisuals: "Conquest of Space" and "Windows on Science: Earth Science"; and four books: "Small Energy Sources: Choices that Work,""Stonehenge Complete,""Uneasy Careers and Intimate Lives: Women in Science…

  10. REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-03-01

    Mar 1, 2012 ... narrowing the gap between recommended treatment protocols in ... for pregnant women is complicated by the need to take into account the health and safety of both the ... meta-analysis as at July 2011 (which reviews the APR and other ... 0.82 - 3.18) and relative risk of birth defects in EFV-containing ART.

  11. Review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Review. J. Astrophys. Astr., Vol. 36, No. 4, December 2015, pp. 623–634 ..... 4000 K ≤ T ≤ 10000 K. The processes (1b) are characterized in this paper via ..... Mihajlov, A. A., Sreckovic, V. A., Ignjatovic, L. M., Klyucharev, A. N. 2012, J. Cluster.

  12. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalkman, C.; Adema, F.

    1998-01-01

    This book intends (according to the preface) to afford at once a review, a general outline of what has been accomplished, and a set of signposts for the future. It attempts to do so in three sections on Origin and Diversification of Primitive Land Plants (4 papers), Origin and Diversification of

  13. Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, de W.J.J.O.

    1994-01-01

    This review marks the appearance of Volume II, after the publication of Volume I, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, in 1990; several more volumes are expected in the future before completion of the Vascular plants as a whole. The present volume contains 73 families out of some 250-500 families which

  14. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Peacock

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Training in information technology (IT is becoming a crucial activity for virtually all organizations - a well-worn cliche. Sadly, however, it is all too often the case that training budgets are manipulated and absorbed into other 'worthy' causes. The result is that IT training is hastily passed onto junior members of a team or to postgraduate students who have had little formal training and experience of IT training. It is for these novice trainers that the '500 computer tips' will be particularly useful but it is also a highly worthwhile, accessible reference for more experienced trainers in both academic and non-academic environments. This book (one of a series of '500 Tips' from Kogan Page does not aim to give technical information about any particular software package but provides readable, understandable generic tips which have a sound pedagogical base (although this is carefully hidden.

  15. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    WE RECOMMEND Mini Hotplate A constant temperature source is a very useful thing to have Mondo Magnets Book full of magnetism experiments, both classic and new The Physics of Star Trek A book that is not just for fans of the TV series The Trouble with Physics This book explains how string theory has sidetracked physicists Tubular Spring Balance Cheap alternative to the classic newton meter is a winner From Atoms to Patterns The book of the exhibition shows physics' role in fashion Water Heater Heater and calorimeter unit is simple and effective WORTH A LOOK Building Materials Sample Pack A good idea that is not well delivered Double-glazing Kit Another cheap and straightforward idea from SEP Cosmological Enigmas This book gives a personal edge to deep-space physics HANDLE WITH CARE Spring Balance Classically designed newton meter is poorly produced WEB WATCH Gary Williams searches for physics at its most extreme

  16. Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    WE RECOMMEND Geyser Tube A simple plastic tube makes a great difference to an old trick Field Trip to the Moon This DVD postulates what the next Moon mission will be like Plutonium: A History of the World's Most Dangerous Element A fascinating account of the people and the science behind atomic bombs Solar Energy Modules A series of units ideal for use with 7-14-year-olds Photocopiable Practical Science New teaching resource is clear, straightforward and flexible Joseph Rotblat: Visionary for Peace Biography that is thorough, well-told and worth the telling WORTH A LOOK Applied Biophysics: A Molecular Approach for Physical Scientists This book explains why physics is essential to biology William's Words in Science Classroom dictionary of scientific terms can be hit and miss HANDLE WITH CARE Zero Time Space This story of quantum mechanics loses its thread in translation WEB WATCH A whizz around the pole-related science tools that are available

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Series expansions without diagrams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhanot, G.; Creutz, M.; Horvath, I.; Lacki, J.; Weckel, J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the use of recursive enumeration schemes to obtain low- and high-temperature series expansions for discrete statistical systems. Using linear combinations of generalized helical lattices, the method is competitive with diagrammatic approaches and is easily generalizable. We illustrate the approach using Ising and Potts models. We present low-temperature series results in up to five dimensions and high-temperature series in three dimensions. The method is general and can be applied to any discrete model

  19. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Barker

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available There were two copy-editing blunders in Clive Betts's review, in ALT-J 5 (3, of Shirley Fletcher's Designing Competence-Based Training, one in paragraph 2 line 1, the other in paragraph 3 line 8. The errors (the result of the Editor, Gabriel Jacobs, trying to perform a final proof of the journal at lightning speed in order to meet the printing deadline, and not of any mistake on the part of either Philip Barker or the University of Wales Press hardly affected meaning, but the fact that they appeared in a review of a book on competence makes the embarrassment all the more telling. The Editor apologizes, and thanks eagle-eyed readers. He has decided to read the book in the hope that such errors will not recur.

  20. Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilma D'Ambrosio

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the wake of the great interest raised by Maurizio Gabrieli’s review of the book Musical Networks. Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance (various authors; edited by Niall Griffith and Peter M. Todd, MA: MIT Press, Cambridge, 1999 which appeared in our last issue of Analitica, the present review section no longer follows the format used up to now but offers a survey of texts dedicated to the relationship between music analysis and technology. This decision was also made as a result of the request for more information on the subject by many of our readers. In coming issues we plan to extend this bibliography and comment on at least some of the most interesting texts published in recent years, among which we would immediately like to draw attention to the important work by Baroni, Dalmonte and Jacoboni published in 1999 (Le regole della musica. Indagine sui meccanismi della comunicazione, Torino, I Manuali EDT/SIdM, 1999.

  1. Alfven wave. DOE Critical Review Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, A.; Uberoi, C.

    1982-01-01

    This monograph deals with the properties of Alfven waves and with their application to fusion. The book is divided into 7 chapters dealing with linear properties in homogeneous and inhomogeneous plasmas. Absorption is treated by means of kinetic theory. Instabilities and nonlinear processes are treated in Chapters 1 to 6, and the closing chapter is devoted to theory and experiments in plasma heating by Alfven waves

  2. Fourier Series Optimization Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Brian

    2008-01-01

    This note discusses the introduction of Fourier series as an immediate application of optimization of a function of more than one variable. Specifically, it is shown how the study of Fourier series can be motivated to enrich a multivariable calculus class. This is done through discovery learning and use of technology wherein students build the…

  3. Visualizing the Geometric Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Albert B., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Mathematical proofs often leave students unconvinced or without understanding of what has been proved, because they provide no visual-geometric representation. Presented are geometric models for the finite geometric series when r is a whole number, and the infinite geometric series when r is the reciprocal of a whole number. (MNS)

  4. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  5. SERI Wind Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noun, R. J.

    1983-06-01

    The SERI Wind Energy Program manages the areas or innovative research, wind systems analysis, and environmental compatibility for the U.S. Department of Energy. Since 1978, SERI wind program staff have conducted in-house aerodynamic and engineering analyses of novel concepts for wind energy conversion and have managed over 20 subcontracts to determine technical feasibility; the most promising of these concepts is the passive blade cyclic pitch control project. In the area of systems analysis, the SERI program has analyzed the impact of intermittent generation on the reliability of electric utility systems using standard utility planning models. SERI has also conducted methodology assessments. Environmental issues related to television interference and acoustic noise from large wind turbines have been addressed. SERI has identified the causes, effects, and potential control of acoustic noise emissions from large wind turbines.

  6. Case Series Investigations in Cognitive Neuropsychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Myrna F.; Dell, Gary S.

    2011-01-01

    Case series methodology involves the systematic assessment of a sample of related patients, with the goal of understanding how and why they differ from one another. This method has become increasingly important in cognitive neuropsychology, which has long been identified with single-subject research. We review case series studies dealing with impaired semantic memory, reading, and language production, and draw attention to the affinity of this methodology for testing theories that are expressed as computational models and for addressing questions about neuroanatomy. It is concluded that case series methods usefully complement single-subject techniques. PMID:21714756

  7. Time series modeling, computation, and inference

    CERN Document Server

    Prado, Raquel

    2010-01-01

    The authors systematically develop a state-of-the-art analysis and modeling of time series. … this book is well organized and well written. The authors present various statistical models for engineers to solve problems in time series analysis. Readers no doubt will learn state-of-the-art techniques from this book.-Hsun-Hsien Chang, Computing Reviews, March 2012My favorite chapters were on dynamic linear models and vector AR and vector ARMA models.-William Seaver, Technometrics, August 2011… a very modern entry to the field of time-series modelling, with a rich reference list of the current lit

  8. Divergent Perturbation Series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslov, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    Various perturbation series are factorially divergent. The behavior of their high-order terms can be determined by Lipatov's method, which involves the use of instanton configurations of appropriate functional integrals. When the Lipatov asymptotic form is known and several lowest order terms of the perturbation series are found by direct calculation of diagrams, one can gain insight into the behavior of the remaining terms of the series, which can be resummed to solve various strong-coupling problems in a certain approximation. This approach is demonstrated by determining the Gell-Mann-Low functions in φ 4 theory, QED, and QCD with arbitrary coupling constants. An overview of the mathematical theory of divergent series is presented, and interpretation of perturbation series is discussed. Explicit derivations of the Lipatov asymptotic form are presented for some basic problems in theoretical physics. A solution is proposed to the problem of renormalon contributions, which hampered progress in this field in the late 1970s. Practical perturbation-series summation schemes are described both for a coupling constant of order unity and in the strong-coupling limit. An interpretation of the Borel integral is given for 'non-Borel-summable' series. Higher order corrections to the Lipatov asymptotic form are discussed

  9. Analysing Stable Time Series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Robert

    1997-01-01

    We describe how to take a stable, ARMA, time series through the various stages of model identification, parameter estimation, and diagnostic checking, and accompany the discussion with a goodly number...

  10. Multivariate Time Series Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multivariate Time-Series (MTS) are ubiquitous, and are generated in areas as disparate as sensor recordings in aerospace systems, music and video streams, medical...

  11. Historical Climatology Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Historical Climatology Series (HCS) is a set of climate-related publications published by NOAA's National Climatic Data Center beginning in 1978. HCS is...

  12. Long time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisdal, H.; Holmqvist, E.; Hyvärinen, V.

    Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the......Awareness that emission of greenhouse gases will raise the global temperature and change the climate has led to studies trying to identify such changes in long-term climate and hydrologic time series. This report, written by the...

  13. On Sums of Numerical Series and Fourier Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavao, H. Germano; de Oliveira, E. Capelas

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a class of trigonometric functions whose corresponding Fourier series, on a conveniently chosen interval, can be used to calculate several numerical series. Particular cases are presented and two recent results involving numerical series are recovered. (Contains 1 note.)

  14. Data Mining Smart Energy Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janina POPEANGA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of smart metering technology the amount of energy data will increase significantly and utilities industry will have to face another big challenge - to find relationships within time-series data and even more - to analyze such huge numbers of time series to find useful patterns and trends with fast or even real-time response. This study makes a small review of the literature in the field, trying to demonstrate how essential is the application of data mining techniques in the time series to make the best use of this large quantity of data, despite all the difficulties. Also, the most important Time Series Data Mining techniques are presented, highlighting their applicability in the energy domain.

  15. The Vietnamese in America. In America Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Paul

    The history of Vietnamese immigration to the United States is traced, and contributions Vietnamese immigrants have made to the United States are reviewed in this book which is part of a series for children. Most Vietnamese immigrants came in the wake of the Vietnam War, making them among the recent immigrants to the United States. Determination,…

  16. On modeling panels of time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThis paper reviews research issues in modeling panels of time series. Examples of this type of data are annually observed macroeconomic indicators for all countries in the world, daily returns on the individual stocks listed in the S&P500, and the sales records of all items in a

  17. 25 years of time series forecasting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gooijer, J.G.; Hyndman, R.J.

    2006-01-01

    We review the past 25 years of research into time series forecasting. In this silver jubilee issue, we naturally highlight results published in journals managed by the International Institute of Forecasters (Journal of Forecasting 1982-1985 and International Journal of Forecasting 1985-2005). During

  18. The Elusive Neutrino, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Jeremy

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. The discovery of the neutrino and the research involving this important elementary particle of matter is discussed. The introductory section reviews topics basic…

  19. Visual time series analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a platform which supplies an easy-to-handle, interactive, extendable, and fast analysis tool for time series analysis. In contrast to other software suits like Maple, Matlab, or R, which use a command-line-like interface and where the user has to memorize/look-up the appropriate...... commands, our application is select-and-click-driven. It allows to derive many different sequences of deviations for a given time series and to visualize them in different ways in order to judge their expressive power and to reuse the procedure found. For many transformations or model-ts, the user may...... choose between manual and automated parameter selection. The user can dene new transformations and add them to the system. The application contains efficient implementations of advanced and recent techniques for time series analysis including techniques related to extreme value analysis and filtering...

  20. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... member of our patient care team. Managing Your Arthritis Managing Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression ...

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  2. Time Series Momentum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moskowitz, Tobias J.; Ooi, Yao Hua; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    We document significant “time series momentum” in equity index, currency, commodity, and bond futures for each of the 58 liquid instruments we consider. We find persistence in returns for one to 12 months that partially reverses over longer horizons, consistent with sentiment theories of initial...... under-reaction and delayed over-reaction. A diversified portfolio of time series momentum strategies across all asset classes delivers substantial abnormal returns with little exposure to standard asset pricing factors and performs best during extreme markets. Examining the trading activities...

  3. Predicting chaotic time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, J.D.; Sidorowich, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    We present a forecasting technique for chaotic data. After embedding a time series in a state space using delay coordinates, we ''learn'' the induced nonlinear mapping using local approximation. This allows us to make short-term predictions of the future behavior of a time series, using information based only on past values. We present an error estimate for this technique, and demonstrate its effectiveness by applying it to several examples, including data from the Mackey-Glass delay differential equation, Rayleigh-Benard convection, and Taylor-Couette flow

  4. Danish television drama series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Hans-Peter; Krogager, Stinne Gunder Strøm

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, Danish television drama series have become an internationally acclaimed export success. This article analyses the development on the domestic market lying behind this international recognition. A change in production dogmas has formed the characteristics of these successful Danish...... the characteristics of these productions and the development of their audience profiles across age, gender and educational level....

  5. Composition: Unity - Diversity series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Unity-Diversity series are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it...

  6. Series, Prof. George William

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1984 Honorary. Series, Prof. George William. Date of birth: 22 February 1920. Date of death: 2 January 1995. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. 29th Mid-year meeting. Posted on 19 January 2018. The 29th Mid-year meeting of the Academy will be held ...

  7. On the series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 4. On the Series ∑ k = 1 ∞ ( 3 k k ) − 1 k − n x k. Necdet Batir. Volume 115 Issue 4 November 2005 pp 371- ... Author Affiliations. Necdet Batir1. Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Yüzüncü Yil University, 65080 Van, Turkey ...

  8. Simple Hofmeister series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2009-01-01

    Hofmeister, or lyotropic, series date back to 1888, when the founder arranged a large number of electrolytes in sequences with respect to their effectiveness salting out egg white. Since then the name has been applied to various phenomena involving ion specificity. In order to isolate effects

  9. Introduction to time series analysis and forecasting

    CERN Document Server

    Montgomery, Douglas C; Kulahci, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""…[t]he book is great for readers who need to apply the methods and models presented but have little background in mathematics and statistics."" -MAA Reviews Thoroughly updated throughout, Introduction to Time Series Analysis and Forecasting, Second Edition presents the underlying theories of time series analysis that are needed to analyze time-oriented data and construct real-world short- to medium-term statistical forecasts.    Authored by highly-experienced academics and professionals in engineering statistics, the Second Edition features discussions on both

  10. Historia de las series

    OpenAIRE

    Cascajosa Virino, Concepción

    2017-01-01

    Reseña: Historia de las series de Toni de la Torre: la gran impostura Durante mucho tiempo los profesores de cine en España se han quejado (amargamente y en privado) de la recurrencia en la bibliografía de los trabajos de sus estudiantes de los libros de un autor conocido por la escasa calidad de sus textos, cuyos vistosos títulos garantizan que acaben en las estanterías de las bibliotecas universitarias. Es muy propio de la cultura española hacer duras aseveraciones en foros irrelevantes y, ...

  11. Infinite sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Knopp, Konrad

    1956-01-01

    One of the finest expositors in the field of modern mathematics, Dr. Konrad Knopp here concentrates on a topic that is of particular interest to 20th-century mathematicians and students. He develops the theory of infinite sequences and series from its beginnings to a point where the reader will be in a position to investigate more advanced stages on his own. The foundations of the theory are therefore presented with special care, while the developmental aspects are limited by the scope and purpose of the book. All definitions are clearly stated; all theorems are proved with enough detail to ma

  12. Tattoo reaction: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneer Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Tattoo is going to be a very common practice especially among young people and we are witnessing a gradual increase of numerous potential complications to tattoo placement which are often seen by physicians, but generally unknown to the public. The most common skin reactions to tattoo include a transient acute inflammatory reaction due to trauma of the skin with needles and medical complications such as superficial and deep local infections, systemic infections, allergic contact dermatitis, photodermatitis, granulomatous and lichenoid reactions, and skin diseases localized on tattooed area (eczema, psoriasis, lichen, and morphea. In this series we present three cases of tattoo reaction.

  13. Murderers: a personal series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, N

    1979-01-27

    One hundred people who were accused either of murder (70 persons) or of attempted murder (30 persons) in Queensland were personally examined by the writer. The methods, motives, and ways of prevention of homicide are discussed. A considerable preportion of murderers in this series were either mentally ill or severely emotionally disturbed at the time the crime was committed, and at least one in 10 of these murders could have been prevented. It is recommended that the treatment and assessment of potentially violent psychotic patients should be undertaken more carefully, and that the antipsychiatrist campaigns for the freedom of the individual should be tempered with a consideration for public safety.

  14. Square summable power series

    CERN Document Server

    de Branges, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This text for advanced undergraduate and graduate students introduces Hilbert space and analytic function theory, which is centered around the invariant subspace concept. The book's principal feature is the extensive use of formal power series methods to obtain and sometimes reformulate results of analytic function theory. The presentation is elementary in that it requires little previous knowledge of analysis, but it is designed to lead students to an advanced level of performance. This is achieved chiefly through the use of problems, many of which were proposed by former students. The book's

  15. Introduction to Time Series Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Kitagawa, Genshiro

    2010-01-01

    In time series modeling, the behavior of a certain phenomenon is expressed in relation to the past values of itself and other covariates. Since many important phenomena in statistical analysis are actually time series and the identification of conditional distribution of the phenomenon is an essential part of the statistical modeling, it is very important and useful to learn fundamental methods of time series modeling. Illustrating how to build models for time series using basic methods, "Introduction to Time Series Modeling" covers numerous time series models and the various tools f

  16. Antiderivative Series for Differentiable Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Roy M.

    2004-01-01

    A series defining the antiderivative of an n th order differentiable function is defined. This series provides an explicit expression for the second part of the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and can facilitate the establishment of new antiderivative functions.

  17. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  18. Mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation in the trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase TER gene involved in fatty acid elongation impairs the enzyme activity and stability, leading to change in sphingolipid profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kensuke; Ohno, Yusuke; Sassa, Takayuki; Taguchi, Ryo; Çalışkan, Minal; Ober, Carole; Kihara, Akio

    2013-12-20

    Very long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs, chain length >C20) exist in tissues throughout the body and are synthesized by repetition of the fatty acid (FA) elongation cycle composed of four successive enzymatic reactions. In mammals, the TER gene is the only gene encoding trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase, which catalyzes the fourth reaction in the FA elongation cycle. The TER P182L mutation is the pathogenic mutation for nonsyndromic mental retardation. This mutation substitutes a leucine for a proline residue at amino acid 182 in the TER enzyme. Currently, the mechanism by which the TER P182L mutation causes nonsyndromic mental retardation is unknown. To understand the effect of this mutation on the TER enzyme and VLCFA synthesis, we have biochemically characterized the TER P182L mutant enzyme using yeast and mammalian cells transfected with the TER P182L mutant gene and analyzed the FA elongation cycle in the B-lymphoblastoid cell line with the homozygous TER P182L mutation (TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line). We have found that TER P182L mutant enzyme exhibits reduced trans-2-enoyl-CoA reductase activity and protein stability, thereby impairing VLCFA synthesis and, in turn, altering the sphingolipid profile (i.e. decreased level of C24 sphingomyelin and C24 ceramide) in the TER(P182L/P182L) B-lymphoblastoid cell line. We have also found that in addition to the TER enzyme-catalyzed fourth reaction, the third reaction in the FA elongation cycle is affected by the TER P182L mutation. These findings provide new insight into the biochemical defects associated with this genetic mutation.

  19. Population. Headline Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Valerie K.

    Useful as background reading or secondary classroom material, this pamphlet reviews several dimensions of world population growth and control. The first of seven chapters, World Population Growth: Past, Present and Future, discusses some of the reasons for the greatly accelerated growth since 1950, and points out that even significantly rapid…

  20. Computer Series, 115.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, James P., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Reviewed are six computer programs which may be useful in teaching college level chemistry. Topics include dynamic data storage in FORTRAN, "KC?DISCOVERER," pH of acids and bases, calculating percent boundary surfaces for orbitals, and laboratory interfacing with PT Nomograph for the Macintosh. (CW)

  1. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Corner / Patient Webcasts / Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series This series of five videos ... Your Arthritis Managing Chronic Pain and Depression in Arthritis Nutrition & Rheumatoid Arthritis Arthritis and Health-related Quality of Life ...

  2. Harmonic Series Meets Fibonacci Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongwei; Kennedy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The terms of a conditionally convergent series may be rearranged to converge to any prescribed real value. What if the harmonic series is grouped into Fibonacci length blocks? Or the harmonic series is arranged in alternating Fibonacci length blocks? Or rearranged and alternated into separate blocks of even and odd terms of Fibonacci length?

  3. Globe: Lecture series

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The LHC: an accelerator of science This series of lectures is all about understanding the scientific and technological challenges of the phenomenal LHC project and assessing its innovations through their everyday applications. Come and take a sneak preview of the LHC! Communicate: the Grid, a computer of global dimensions François Grey, head of communication in CERN’s Information Technology Department How will it be possible for the 15 million billion bytes of data generated by the LHC every year to be handled and stored by a computer that doesn’t have to be the size of a skyscraper? The computer scientists have the answer: the Grid, which will harness the power of tens of thousands of computers all over the world by creating a network of computers and making them operate as one. >>> Lectures are free and require no specialist knowledge. In french. 
 >>> By reservation only: tel. +41 (0)22 767 76 76

  4. Report of the review of the safety improvement programme for South Ukraine NPP units 1 and 2 and to identify the safety issues of ''small series'' WWER-1000 NPPs. South Ukraine Yuzhnoukrainsk, Nikolaev Region Ukraine, 8 to 19 July 1996. Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastin, S.; Hoehn, J.; Lin, C.; Taylor, R.; Benitez, F.; Dale, H.; Mueller, B.; Rieg, C.Y.

    1996-10-01

    According to the Ukrainian request the purpose of the IAEA experts' mission was to review the safety improvement programme for South Ukraine NPP Units 1 and 2 in order to advise on the completeness and adequacy of safety improvements implemented and/or proposed. Another purpose of the mission was to identify major design and operational deficiencies as a basis to compile a consolidated list of generic safety issues for the units of the 'small series'' of WWER-1000 reactors (''Issue Book for ''small series'' WWER-1000 NPPs). Conclusions and recommendations from the IAEA mission are based on the combined expertise of the international group of experts who composed the team. They are intended to assist national authorities and plant operators who have the sole responsibilities for the regulation and safe operation. tabs

  5. Courseware Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John S.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews software package consisting of three programs designed to give students practice on V=IR calculations for series, parallel, and network electric circuits. Indicates that the package for Apple II microcomputers is very good for individual practice and that graphics are useful in teaching students how to draw circuits. (JN)

  6. ACADEMIC TRAINING LECTURE SERIES

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    3, 4, 5, 6, 7 February 2003 from 10.00 to 12.00 hrs - Auditorium, bldg. 500 Searching for Supersymmetry at the LHC by F. Gianotti, CERN-EP and G. Ridolfi, Univ. di Genova, Italy We will review the general motivations for proposing non-standard descriptions of fundamental interactions. We will give a simple and pedagogical presentation of the theoretical foundations of Supersymmetry, and we will describe the main features of a realistic supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. We will present the phenomenology expected in several motivated scenarios. We will then review the present status of the experimental searches for Supersymmetry at LEP and Tevatron, and discuss prospects at future machines with emphasis on the LHC. We will outline the search strategies and the analysis methods, and compare the sensitivity and reach of the various machines.

  7. From Networks to Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Yutaka; Ikeguchi, Tohru; Shigehara, Takaomi

    2012-10-01

    In this Letter, we propose a framework to transform a complex network to a time series. The transformation from complex networks to time series is realized by the classical multidimensional scaling. Applying the transformation method to a model proposed by Watts and Strogatz [Nature (London) 393, 440 (1998)], we show that ring lattices are transformed to periodic time series, small-world networks to noisy periodic time series, and random networks to random time series. We also show that these relationships are analytically held by using the circulant-matrix theory and the perturbation theory of linear operators. The results are generalized to several high-dimensional lattices.

  8. Kleptomania: a case series

    OpenAIRE

    Saluja, Bharat; Chan, Lai Gwen; Dhaval, Dani

    2014-01-01

    Kleptomania is an enigmatic condition and is among the very few psychiatric disorders in which crime is medicalised and used as a legal defence. The scientific literature on kleptomania is scarce. Early literature and recent studies have shown a female preponderance, with an early age of onset of stealing in people with comorbid personality disorder(s). In a retrospective review of the case notes of theft offenders who had forensic psychiatric evaluations performed in a one-year period in 201...

  9. Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aim and Scope. The scope of the Indian Academy of Sciences Conference Series is to publish invited and peer reviewed original research, review, perspective, and commentary articles arising from presentations at select and topical Scientific Conferences. Upto four issues are published a year, each edited in consultation ...

  10. [Scimitar syndrome: a case series].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo González, Carlos; Karam Bechara, José; Sáenz Gómez, Jessica; Siegert Olivares, Augusto; Jamaica Balderas, Lourdes

    Scimitar syndrome is a rare and complex congenital anomaly of the lung with multiple variables and is named for its resemblance to the classical radiological crooked sword. Its defining feature is the anomalous pulmonary drainage. It is associated with various cardiothoracic malformations and a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. Nine patients diagnosed with scimitar syndrome found in the database of Hospital Infantil de México between 2009 and 2013 were reviewed. Demographic records, clinical status and hemodynamic parameters reported were collected. This case series called attention to certain differences between our group of patients and those reported in the international literature. Patients were predominantly female and were diagnosed between 1 and 20 months of life. All were asymptomatic at the time of the study. Half of the patients had a history of respiratory disease and all patients had with pulmonary hypertension. Surgical management was required in on-third of the patient group. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  11. The Surtsey Magma Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, C Ian; Jakobsson, Sveinn P; White, James D L; Michael Palin, J; Bush-Marcinowski, Tim

    2015-06-26

    The volcanic island of Surtsey (Vestmannaeyjar, Iceland) is the product of a 3.5-year-long eruption that began in November 1963. Observations of magma-water interaction during pyroclastic episodes made Surtsey the type example of shallow-to-emergent phreatomagmatic eruptions. Here, in part to mark the 50(th) anniversary of this canonical eruption, we present previously unpublished major-element whole-rock compositions, and new major and trace-element compositions of sideromelane glasses in tephra collected by observers and retrieved from the 1979 drill core. Compositions became progressively more primitive as the eruption progressed, with abrupt changes corresponding to shifts between the eruption's four edifices. Trace-element ratios indicate that the chemical variation is best explained by mixing of different proportions of depleted ridge-like basalt, with ponded, enriched alkalic basalt similar to that of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone; however, the systematic offset of Surtsey compositions to lower Nb/Zr than other Vestmannaeyjar lavas indicates that these mixing end members are as-yet poorly contained by compositions in the literature. As the southwestern-most volcano in the Vestmannaeyjar, the geochemistry of the Surtsey Magma Series exemplifies processes occurring within ephemeral magma bodies on the extreme leading edge of a propagating off-axis rift in the vicinity of the Iceland plume.

  12. Modelling bursty time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajna, Szabolcs; Kertész, János; Tóth, Bálint

    2013-01-01

    Many human-related activities show power-law decaying interevent time distribution with exponents usually varying between 1 and 2. We study a simple task-queuing model, which produces bursty time series due to the non-trivial dynamics of the task list. The model is characterized by a priority distribution as an input parameter, which describes the choice procedure from the list. We give exact results on the asymptotic behaviour of the model and we show that the interevent time distribution is power-law decaying for any kind of input distributions that remain normalizable in the infinite list limit, with exponents tunable between 1 and 2. The model satisfies a scaling law between the exponents of interevent time distribution (β) and autocorrelation function (α): α + β = 2. This law is general for renewal processes with power-law decaying interevent time distribution. We conclude that slowly decaying autocorrelation function indicates long-range dependence only if the scaling law is violated. (paper)

  13. `Indoor` series vending machines; `Indoor` series jido hanbaiki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensui, T.; Kida, A. [Fuji Electric Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Okumura, H. [Fuji Denki Reiki Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-07-10

    This paper introduces three series of vending machines that were designed to match the interior of an office building. The three series are vending machines for cups, paper packs, cans, and tobacco. Among the three series, `Interior` series has a symmetric design that was coated in a grain pattern. The inside of the `Interior` series is coated by laser satin to ensure a sense of superior quality and a refined style. The push-button used for product selection is hot-stamped on the plastic surface to ensure the hair-line luster. `Interior Phase II` series has a bay window design with a sense of superior quality and lightness. The inside of the `Interior Phase II` series is coated by laser satin. `Interior 21` series is integrated with the wall except the sales operation panel. The upper and lower dress panels can be detached and attached. The door lock is a wire-type structure with high operativity. The operation block is coated by titanium color. The dimensions of three series are standardized. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. From Fourier Series to Rapidly Convergent Series for Zeta(3)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheufens, Ernst E

    2011-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions on this such ......The article presents a mathematical study which investigates the exact values of the Riemann zeta (ζ) function. It states that exact values can be determined from Fourier series for periodic versions of even power functions. It notes that using power series for logarithmic functions...

  15. Time Series with Long Memory

    OpenAIRE

    西埜, 晴久

    2004-01-01

    The paper investigates an application of long-memory processes to economic time series. We show properties of long-memory processes, which are motivated to model a long-memory phenomenon in economic time series. An FARIMA model is described as an example of long-memory model in statistical terms. The paper explains basic limit theorems and estimation methods for long-memory processes in order to apply long-memory models to economic time series.

  16. Kleptomania: a case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Bharat; Chan, Lai Gwen; Dhaval, Dani

    2014-01-01

    Kleptomania is an enigmatic condition and is among the very few psychiatric disorders in which crime is medicalised and used as a legal defence. The scientific literature on kleptomania is scarce. Early literature and recent studies have shown a female preponderance, with an early age of onset of stealing in people with comorbid personality disorder(s). In a retrospective review of the case notes of theft offenders who had forensic psychiatric evaluations performed in a one-year period in 2010 at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, we found three patients who were diagnosed with kleptomania. In this report, we describe the pertinent clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, as well as the diagnostic issues of kleptomania in relation to the three cases. PMID:25630329

  17. Kleptomania: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saluja, Bharat; Chan, Lai Gwen; Dhaval, Dani

    2014-12-01

    Kleptomania is an enigmatic condition and is among the very few psychiatric disorders in which crime is medicalised and used as a legal defence. The scientific literature on kleptomania is scarce. Early literature and recent studies have shown a female preponderance, with an early age of onset of stealing in people with comorbid personality disorder(s). In a retrospective review of the case notes of theft offenders who had forensic psychiatric evaluations performed in a one-year period in 2010 at the Institute of Mental Health, Singapore, we found three patients who were diagnosed with kleptomania. In this report, we describe the pertinent clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, as well as the diagnostic issues of kleptomania in relation to the three cases.

  18. The Assessment of Psychopathology and Behavioral Problems in Children: A Review of Scales Suitable for Epidemiological and Clinical Research (1967-1979). Mental Health Service System Reports, Series AN: Epidemiology, No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orvaschel, Helen; And Others

    Forty-four scales are described that access psychopathology and/or behavior problems in children (under 18 years of age). Excluded are tests of intelligence, intellectual functioning, brain development, cognitive development, perception, and projective tests. Scales included in this review are suitable for clinical and epidemiological research,…

  19. APOE epsilon4 and Alzheimer's disease: positive association in a Colombian clinical series and review of the Latin-American studies Asociación positiva entre APOE épsilon4 y demencia de Alzheimer en una serie clinica en Bogotá (Colombia y revision de los estudios latinoamericanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine Jacquier

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: As the strength of the association between the APOE epsilon4 allele and Alzheimer's disease (AD varies across ethnic groups, we studied if there was such an association in Colombian patients. METHOD: We performed apolipoprotein E (APOE genotyping in a clinical sample of 83 unrelated AD patients, predominantly late-onset (>65 yrs including familial ( n =30 and sporadic AD cases (n= 53 diagnosed according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and assessed by a multi-disciplinary team. Control subjects (n = 44 had no significant cognitive impairment by medical interview and neuro-psychological testing. RESULTS: We found a high association (OR= 5.1 95%CI 1.9 -13.6 between APOE epsilon4 and AD, in this series with predominantly late-onset cases with familial aggregation in 24 cases (28.9%. A significant negative association was found between epsilon2 and AD (OR= 0.2 95% CI 0.05-0.75. CONCLUSION: Further population-based surveys in Colombia are warranted to precise a possible dose effect of APOE epsilon4.OBJETIVO: Como la fortaleza de la asociación entre el alelo épsilon4 del gen APOE y la enfermedad de Alzheimer (EA difiere entre grupos étnicos, quisimos evaluar si esta asociación existe en pacientes colombianos. MÉTODOS: Realizamos una genotipificación para el gen de la apolipoproteina E (APOE en una muestra clínica de 83 pacientes con EA no relacionados, de inicio predominantemente tardío (> 65 años, incluyendo casos familiares (n=30 y esporádicos (n=53 diagnosticados según los criterios del NINCDS-ADRDA y evaluados por un equipo multi-disciplinario. Los sujetos control (n= 44 no presentaban deterioro cognoscitivo de acuerdo con la entrevista médica y la evaluación neuropsicológica. RESULTADOS: Hallamos una alta asociación (OR= 5.1; IC95% 1.9- 13.6 entre APOE épsilon4 y EA en la serie de casos de inicio tardío y con agregación familiar en 24 sujetos (28.9%. Una asociación negativa, estadísticamente significativa, fue encontrada

  20. Classroom Issues with Series Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Jawad; Euler, Russell

    2005-01-01

    We find infinite series in calculus to be one of the most confusing topics our students encounter. In this note, we look at some issues that our students find difficult or ambiguous involving the Ratio Test, the Root Test, and also the Alternating Series Test. We offer some suggestions and some examples, which could be a supplement to the set of…

  1. Convergence of a Catalan Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Thomas; Gao, Zhenguang

    2012-01-01

    This article studies the convergence of the infinite series of the reciprocals of the Catalan numbers. We extract the sum of the series as well as some related ones, illustrating the power of the calculus in the study of the Catalan numbers.

  2. Forecasting Cryptocurrencies Financial Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catania, Leopoldo; Grassi, Stefano; Ravazzolo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the predictability of cryptocurrencies time series. We compare several alternative univariate and multivariate models in point and density forecasting of four of the most capitalized series: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple and Ethereum. We apply a set of crypto–predictors and rely...

  3. Clinical and cytogenetic features of pediatric dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2)-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias: a Nordic series of 24 cases and review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forestier, Erik; Gauffin, Fredrika; Andersen, Mette K

    2008-01-01

    Although dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2) is a characteristic abnormality in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP ALL), little is known about its clinical impact or the type and frequency of additional aberrations it may occur together with. We here review the clinical and cytogene......Although dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2) is a characteristic abnormality in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemias (BCP ALL), little is known about its clinical impact or the type and frequency of additional aberrations it may occur together with. We here review the clinical...... a mediastinal mass at diagnosis. Risk group stratification was nonstandard risk in 79%. The event-free survival and overall survival at 5 years for the 24 Nordic cases was 0.62 and 0.82, respectively. Thus, although relapses are quite common, postrelapse treatment of many patients is successful....

  4. From Taylor series to Taylor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, Martin

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the background of Taylor series methods and the utilization of the differential algebraic structure is given, and various associated techniques are reviewed. The conventional Taylor methods are extended to allow for a rigorous treatment of bounds for the remainder of the expansion in a similarly universal way. Utilizing differential algebraic and functional analytic arguments on the set of Taylor models, arbitrary order integrators with rigorous remainder treatment are developed. The integrators can meet pre-specified accuracy requirements in a mathematically strict way, and are a stepping stone towards fully rigorous estimates of stability of repetitive systems

  5. Director`s series on proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, K.C.; Price, M.E. [eds.

    1994-12-27

    The Director`s Series on Proliferation is an occasional publication of essays on the topics of nuclear, chemical, biological, and missile proliferation. The seven papers presented in this issue cover the following topics: Should the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) be amended?; NPT extension - Legal and procedural issues; An Indonesian view of NPT review conference issues; The treaty of Tlatelolco and the NPT - Tools for peace and development; Perspectives on cut-off, weapons dismantlement, and security assurances; Belarus and NPT challenges; A perspective on the chemical weapons convention - Lessons learned from the preparatory commission.

  6. From Taylor series to Taylor models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berz, M.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of the background of Taylor series methods and the utilization of the differential algebraic structure is given, and various associated techniques are reviewed. The conventional Taylor methods are extended to allow for a rigorous treatment of bounds for the remainder of the expansion in a similarly universal way. Utilizing differential algebraic and functional analytic arguments on the set of Taylor models, arbitrary order integrators with rigorous remainder treatment are developed. The integrators can meet pre-specified accuracy requirements in a mathematically strict way, and are a stepping stone towards fully rigorous estimates of stability of repetitive systems. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  7. Time series analysis time series analysis methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, Tata Subba; Rao, C R

    2012-01-01

    The field of statistics not only affects all areas of scientific activity, but also many other matters such as public policy. It is branching rapidly into so many different subjects that a series of handbooks is the only way of comprehensively presenting the various aspects of statistical methodology, applications, and recent developments. The Handbook of Statistics is a series of self-contained reference books. Each volume is devoted to a particular topic in statistics, with Volume 30 dealing with time series. The series is addressed to the entire community of statisticians and scientists in various disciplines who use statistical methodology in their work. At the same time, special emphasis is placed on applications-oriented techniques, with the applied statistician in mind as the primary audience. Comprehensively presents the various aspects of statistical methodology Discusses a wide variety of diverse applications and recent developments Contributors are internationally renowened experts in their respect...

  8. Reviews in fluorescence 2007

    CERN Document Server

    Lakowicz, Joseph R; Geddes, Chris D

    2009-01-01

    This fourth volume in the Springer series summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough for professional researchers, yet also appealing to a wider audience of scientists in related fields.

  9. Fourier series and orthogonal polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Dunham

    2004-01-01

    This text for undergraduate and graduate students illustrates the fundamental simplicity of the properties of orthogonal functions and their developments in related series. Starting with a definition and explanation of the elements of Fourier series, the text follows with examinations of Legendre polynomials and Bessel functions. Boundary value problems consider Fourier series in conjunction with Laplace's equation in an infinite strip and in a rectangle, with a vibrating string, in three dimensions, in a sphere, and in other circumstances. An overview of Pearson frequency functions is followe

  10. Time series with tailored nonlinearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Räth, C.; Laut, I.

    2015-10-01

    It is demonstrated how to generate time series with tailored nonlinearities by inducing well-defined constraints on the Fourier phases. Correlations between the phase information of adjacent phases and (static and dynamic) measures of nonlinearities are established and their origin is explained. By applying a set of simple constraints on the phases of an originally linear and uncorrelated Gaussian time series, the observed scaling behavior of the intensity distribution of empirical time series can be reproduced. The power law character of the intensity distributions being typical for, e.g., turbulence and financial data can thus be explained in terms of phase correlations.

  11. Models for dependent time series

    CERN Document Server

    Tunnicliffe Wilson, Granville; Haywood, John

    2015-01-01

    Models for Dependent Time Series addresses the issues that arise and the methodology that can be applied when the dependence between time series is described and modeled. Whether you work in the economic, physical, or life sciences, the book shows you how to draw meaningful, applicable, and statistically valid conclusions from multivariate (or vector) time series data.The first four chapters discuss the two main pillars of the subject that have been developed over the last 60 years: vector autoregressive modeling and multivariate spectral analysis. These chapters provide the foundational mater

  12. What sugar next? Dimerization of sphingolipid glycosyltransferases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meer, G.

    2001-01-01

    One of the great riddles of glycobiology is the function of the glycosphingolipids. Their vital role is clear from the fact that the lack only of subsets of glycosphingolipids results in premature death (1). Hundreds of glycosphingolipids populate the surface of mammalian cells. These may serve a

  13. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and what other conditions are associated with RA. Learning more about your condition will allow you to ... Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic Arthritis 101 2010 E.S.C.A.P.E. Study Patient Update Transitioning ...

  14. Clustering of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, Pierpaolo; Cappelli, Carmela; Di Lallo, Dario; Massari, Riccardo

    2013-05-01

    This paper addresses the topic of classifying financial time series in a fuzzy framework proposing two fuzzy clustering models both based on GARCH models. In general clustering of financial time series, due to their peculiar features, needs the definition of suitable distance measures. At this aim, the first fuzzy clustering model exploits the autoregressive representation of GARCH models and employs, in the framework of a partitioning around medoids algorithm, the classical autoregressive metric. The second fuzzy clustering model, also based on partitioning around medoids algorithm, uses the Caiado distance, a Mahalanobis-like distance, based on estimated GARCH parameters and covariances that takes into account the information about the volatility structure of time series. In order to illustrate the merits of the proposed fuzzy approaches an application to the problem of classifying 29 time series of Euro exchange rates against international currencies is presented and discussed, also comparing the fuzzy models with their crisp version.

  15. "Feeling" Series and Parallel Resistances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Robert A.

    1993-01-01

    Equipped with drinking straws and stirring straws, a teacher can help students understand how resistances in electric circuits combine in series and in parallel. Follow-up suggestions are provided. (ZWH)

  16. Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Body Weight in Osteoarthritis Educational Videos for Patients Rheumatoid Arthritis Educational Video Series Psoriatic Arthritis 101 ... Patient to an Adult Rheumatologist Drug Information for Patients Arthritis Drug Information Sheets Benefits and Risks of ...

  17. Uranium series disequilibrium: Concepts and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanovich, M.

    1994-01-01

    During the past four decades it has been recognized that natural disruption of the U and Th decay chains, resulting in the separation of parent and daughter nuclides, occurs as a consequence of geochemical processes acting in the near-surface environment. This realization has lead to a rapid growth in the application of the naturally occurring radioactive disequilibria diversifying broadly to touch upon a wide spectrum of problems in earth sciences. This paper is a brief review of the subject and addresses a number of issues concerning (1) physico-chemical processes responsible for fractionation of radionuclides in the decay series, (2) the range of observed radioactive disequilibrium in nature, (3) implications in terms of relative mobilities of U, Th, Ra and their daughters in the geosphere, and (4) examples of the application of these concepts to studies of paleoclimate, dating of old groundwaters, and rock/water interaction processes. This review concludes that the concept of radioactive disequilibrium in naturally occurring decay series is a powerful isotopic tool with applications in both terrestrial and marine environments over timescales of up to one million years. (orig.)

  18. Relationship of frontal plane rotation of first metatarsal to proximal articular set angle and hallux alignment in patients undergoing tarsometatarsal arthrodesis for hallux abducto valgus: a case series and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Paul; Feilmeier, Mindi; Kauwe, Merrell; Hirschi, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Rotation of the first metatarsal, as a component of hallux abducto valgus, is rarely discussed and is not addressed as a component of most hallux valgus corrective procedures. We believe frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal to be an integral component of hallux abducto valgus deformity (the "third plane of deformity") and believe de-rotation is necessary for complete deformity correction. We observed the change in angular measurements commonly used in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformity in patients who underwent a modified lapidus procedure. We measured the intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, proximal articular set angle, and tibial sesamoid position on weightbearing radiographs of 25 feet in 24 patients who had undergone tarsal metatarsal corrective arthrodesis and lateral capsular release. Specific attention was given to reduction of the frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal during correction. Our results showed a change in the angular measurements observed by 4 investigators as follows. The mean change in the intermetatarsal angle was 10.1° (p hallux abductus angle was 17.8° (p valgus, or everted position of the first metatarsal, was noted as a component of the hallux abducto valgus deformity in our patient population and was corrected by varus rotation or inversion of the metatarsal. We also reviewed the current literature related to anatomic changes in the first ray in the patient with hallux valgus deformity and reviewed our hypothesis regarding the reduction in the proximal articular set angle, which we believe to be related to frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal, resulting in a radiographic artifact. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Omega test series - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, C.P.

    2001-01-01

    The United States Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) has supported a series of high explosive calibration experiments that were conducted in the Degelen Mountain area of the Semipalatinsk Test Site (STS) in the Republic of Kazakhstan (ROK). This paper will provide an overview of the second and third tests of this series which have been designated Omega-2 and Omega-3. Omega-2 was conducted on Saturday, September 25, 1999 and Omega-3 on Saturday, July 29, 2000. (author)

  20. Forecasting Cryptocurrencies Financial Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Catania, Leopoldo; Grassi, Stefano; Ravazzolo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies the predictability of cryptocurrencies time series. We compare several alternative univariate and multivariate models in point and density forecasting of four of the most capitalized series: Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ripple and Ethereum. We apply a set of crypto–predictors and rely on Dynamic Model Averaging to combine a large set of univariate Dynamic Linear Models and several multivariate Vector Autoregressive models with different forms of time variation. We find statistical si...