Bendixen, Emøke; Danielsen, Marianne; Hollung, Kristin
in large-scale operations, with the aim to obtain animal products for human consumption. Hence, understanding the biological traits that impact yield and quality of these products is the specific aim of much biological experimentation. However, most of the data gathered from experiments on e.g. swine......In agricultural sciences as in all other areas of life science, the implementation of proteomics and other post-genomic tools is an important step towards more detailed understanding of the complex biological systems that control physiology and pathology of living beings. Farm animals are raised...... and cattle are relevant not only for farm animal sciences, but also for adding to our understanding of complex biological mechanisms of health and disease in humans. The aim of this review is to present an overview of the specific topics of interest within farm animal proteomics, and to highlight some...
Hernández-Núñez, Jónathan; Valdés-Yong, Magel
The study of proteomics could explain many aspects of obstetric disorders. We undertook this review with the aim of assessing the utility of proteomics in the specialty of obstetrics. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, BVS Bireme, and SciELO, using various search terms with the assistance of a librarian. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, and systematic review articles published until October 2014 in the English or Spanish language, and evaluated their quality and the internal validity of the evidence provided. Two reviewers extracted the data independently, then both researchers simultaneously revised the data later, to arrive at a consensus. The search retrieved 1,158 papers, of which 965 were excluded for being duplicates, not relevant, or unrelated studies. A further 86 papers were excluded for being guidelines, protocols, or case reports, along with another 64 that did not contain relevant information, leaving 43 studies for inclusion. Many of these studies showed the utility of proteomic techniques for prediction, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, monitoring, and prognosis of pre-eclampsia, perinatal infection, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and ectopic pregnancy. Proteomic techniques have enormous clinical significance and constitute an invaluable weapon in the management of obstetric disorders that increase maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. PMID:25926758
Full Text Available Although radiotherapy is generally effective in the treatment of major nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC, this treatment still makes approximately 20% of patients radioresistant. Therefore, the identification of blood or biopsy biomarkers that can predict the treatment response to radioresistance and that can diagnosis early stages of NPC would be highly useful to improve this situation. Proteomics is widely used in NPC for searching biomarkers and comparing differentially expressed proteins. In this review, an overview of proteomics with different samples related to NPC and common proteomics methods was made. In conclusion, identical proteins are sorted as follows: Keratin is ranked the highest followed by such proteins as annexin, heat shock protein, 14-3-3σ, nm-23 protein, cathepsin, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, enolase, triosephosphate isomerase, stathmin, prohibitin, and vimentin. This ranking indicates that these proteins may be NPC-related proteins and have potential value for further studies.
Full Text Available Jónathan Hernández-Núñez,1 Magel Valdés-Yong21Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Alberto Fernández-Valdés, Santa Cruz del Norte, Mayabeque, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Luis Díaz Soto, Habana del Este, La Habana, CubaAbstract: The study of proteomics could explain many aspects of obstetric disorders. We undertook this review with the aim of assessing the utility of proteomics in the specialty of obstetrics. We searched the electronic databases of MEDLINE, EBSCOhost, BVS Bireme, and SciELO, using various search terms with the assistance of a librarian. We considered cohort studies, case-control studies, case series, and systematic review articles published until October 2014 in the English or Spanish language, and evaluated their quality and the internal validity of the evidence provided. Two reviewers extracted the data independently, then both researchers simultaneously revised the data later, to arrive at a consensus. The search retrieved 1,158 papers, of which 965 were excluded for being duplicates, not relevant, or unrelated studies. A further 86 papers were excluded for being guidelines, protocols, or case reports, along with another 64 that did not contain relevant information, leaving 43 studies for inclusion. Many of these studies showed the utility of proteomic techniques for prediction, pathophysiology, diagnosis, management, monitoring, and prognosis of pre-eclampsia, perinatal infection, premature rupture of membranes, preterm birth, intrauterine growth restriction, and ectopic pregnancy. Proteomic techniques have enormous clinical significance and constitute an invaluable weapon in the management of obstetric disorders that increase maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.Keywords: proteomic techniques, obstetrics, diagnosis, prediction
Teh, Ying Wah
Clustering of subsequence time series remains an open issue in time series clustering. Subsequence time series clustering is used in different fields, such as e-commerce, outlier detection, speech recognition, biological systems, DNA recognition, and text mining. One of the useful fields in the domain of subsequence time series clustering is pattern recognition. To improve this field, a sequence of time series data is used. This paper reviews some definitions and backgrounds related to subsequence time series clustering. The categorization of the literature reviews is divided into three groups: preproof, interproof, and postproof period. Moreover, various state-of-the-art approaches in performing subsequence time series clustering are discussed under each of the following categories. The strengths and weaknesses of the employed methods are evaluated as potential issues for future studies. PMID:25140332
Dam, Svend; Stougaard, Jens
proteomics data. Two characteristics of legumes are the high seed protein level and the nitrogen fixing symbiosis. Thus, the majority of the proteomics studies in Lotus have been performed on seed/pod and nodule/root tissues in order to create proteome reference maps and to enable comparative analyses within...... Lotus tissues or toward similar tissues from other legume species. More recently, N-glycan structures and compositions have been determined from mature Lotus seeds using glycomics and glycoproteomics, and finally, phosphoproteomics has been employed...... and annotated Lotus japonicus (Lotus) genome has been essential for obtaining high-quality protein identifications from proteomics studies. Furthermore, additional genomics and transcriptomics studies from several Lotus species/ecotypes support putative gene structures and these can be further supported using...
Wan, Huafang; Cui, Yixin; Ding, Yijuan; Mei, Jiaqin; Dong, Hongli; Zhang, Wenxin; Wu, Shiqi; Liang, Ying; Zhang, Chunyu; Li, Jiana; Xiong, Qing; Qian, Wei
Understanding the regulation of lipid metabolism is vital for genetic engineering of canola (Brassica napus L.) to increase oil yield or modify oil composition. We conducted time-series analyses of transcriptomes and proteomes to uncover the molecular networks associated with oil accumulation and dynamic changes in these networks in canola. The expression levels of genes and proteins were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after pollination (WAP). Our results show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids is a dominant cellular process from 2 to 6 WAP, while the degradation mainly happens after 6 WAP. We found that genes in almost every node of fatty acid synthesis pathway were significantly up-regulated during oil accumulation. Moreover, significant expression changes of two genes, acetyl-CoA carboxylase and acyl-ACP desaturase, were detected on both transcriptomic and proteomic levels. We confirmed the temporal expression patterns revealed by the transcriptomic analyses using quantitative real-time PCR experiments. The gene set association analysis show that the biosynthesis of fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids are the most significant biological processes from 2-4 WAP and 4-6 WAP, respectively, which is consistent with the results of time-series analyses. These results not only provide insight into the mechanisms underlying lipid metabolism, but also reveal novel candidate genes that are worth further investigation for their values in the genetic engineering of canola. PMID:28119706
Tølbøll, Trine Højgaard; Danscher, Anne Mette; Andersen, Pia Haubro;
different proteins were identified, with 146 proteins available for identification in C, 279 proteins in D and 269 proteins in L. A functional annotation of the identified proteins was obtained using the on-line Blast2GO tool. Three hundred and sixteen of the identified proteins could be subsequently...... grouped manually to one or more of five major functional groups related to metabolism, cell structure, immunity, apoptosis and angiogenesis. These were chosen to represent basic cell functions and biological processes potentially involved in the pathogenesis of CHD. The LC–MS/MS-based proteomic analysis...
Proteome analysis is a complex and dynamic process that encompasses several analytical platforms ... cellular processes, which in turn affect ..... chemical synthesis of new targeted ..... biomarkers: relevant issues on study design & technical.
Nicolaou, Orthodoxia; Kousios, Andreas; Hadjisavvas, Andreas; Lauwerys, Bernard; Sokratous, Kleitos; Kyriacou, Kyriacos
Advances in mass spectrometry technologies have created new opportunities for discovering novel protein biomarkers in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We performed a systematic review of published reports on proteomic biomarkers identified in SLE patients using mass spectrometry-based proteomics and highlight their potential disease association and clinical utility. Two electronic databases, MEDLINE and EMBASE, were systematically searched up to July 2015. The methodological quality of studies included in the review was performed according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines. Twenty-five studies were included in the review, identifying 241 SLE candidate proteomic biomarkers related to various aspects of the disease including disease diagnosis and activity or pinpointing specific organ involvement. Furthermore, 13 of the 25 studies validated their results for a selected number of biomarkers in an independent cohort, resulting in the validation of 28 candidate biomarkers. It is noteworthy that 11 candidate biomarkers were identified in more than one study. A significant number of potential proteomic biomarkers that are related to a number of aspects of SLE have been identified using mass spectrometry proteomic approaches. However, further studies are required to assess the utility of these biomarkers in routine clinical practice.
Duran-Ortiz, Silvana; Brittain, Alison L; Kopchick, John J
Growth hormone (GH) is a protein that is known to stimulate postnatal growth, counter regulate insulin's action and induce expression of insulin-like growth factor-1. GH exerts anabolic or catabolic effects depending upon on the targeted tissue. For instance, GH increases skeletal muscle and decreases adipose tissue mass. Our laboratory has spent the past two decades studying these effects, including the effects of GH excess and depletion, on the proteome of several mouse and human tissues. This review first discusses proteomic techniques that are commonly used for these types of studies. We then examine the proteomic differences found in mice with excess circulating GH (bGH mice) or mice with disruption of the GH receptor gene (GHR(-/-)). We also describe the effects of increased and decreased GH action on the proteome of adult patients with either acromegaly, GH deficiency or patients after short-term GH treatment. Finally, we explain how these proteomic studies resulted in the discovery of potential biomarkers for GH action, particularly those related with the effects of GH on aging, glucose metabolism and body composition.
Vidova, Veronika; Spacil, Zdenek
Mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics have achieved a near-complete proteome coverage in humans and in several other organisms, producing a wealth of information stored in databases and bioinformatics resources. Recent implementation of selected/multiple reaction monitoring (SRM/MRM) technology in targeted proteomics introduced the possibility of quantitatively follow-up specific protein targets in a hypothesis-driven experiment. In contrast to immunoaffinity-based workflows typically used in biological and clinical research for protein quantification, SRM/MRM is characterized by high selectivity, large capacity for multiplexing (approx. 200 proteins per analysis) and rapid, cost-effective transition from assay development to deployment. The concept of SRM/MRM utilizes triple quadrupole (QqQ) mass analyzer to provide inherent reproducibility, unparalleled sensitivity and selectivity to efficiently differentiate isoforms, post-translational modifications and mutated forms of proteins. SRM-like targeted acquisitions such as parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) are pioneered on high resolution/accurate mass (HR/AM) platforms based on the quadrupole-orbitrap (Q-orbitrap) mass spectrometer. The expansion of HR/AM also caused development in data independent acquisition (DIA). This review presents a step-by-step tutorial on development of SRM/MRM protein assay intended for researchers without prior experience in proteomics. We discus practical aspects of SRM-based quantitative proteomics workflow, summarize milestones in basic biological and medical research as well as recent trends and emerging techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schiffer, E; Mischak, H; Zimmerli, L U
Aging is closely related to the onset of chronic diseases, such as coronary artery disease, diabetic nephropathy or different types of malignancies, reflecting the demand for novel biomarkers to manage theses diseases. The analysis of the human proteome for biomarkers has made considerable advances in the last years. We describe the main technological approaches taken, their advantages and disadvantages. We will review the different clinical sources of material and attempt to highlight the different challenges and approaches associated with these. Age-related changes in the proteome have been described and were found to be highly similar to changes associated with chronic diseases. We will give several examples on the successful application of proteomics in the diagnosis, prognosis and therapy of these chronic diseases. A boost in disease-related proteomic information is expected in the very near future, and will also result in its broad clinical application. However, this view appears to be dependent on the strict adherence to proper technological/analytical parameters, correct statistics, and large databases that allow comparison of datasets provided by different scientists. Clearly, the proteome is by far too complex to be tackled by one laboratory on its own. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Callaghan, T; Porter, M A; Callaghan, Thomas; Mucha, Peter J.; Porter, Mason A.
We discuss individual components of the college football Bowl Championship Series, compare with a simple algorithm defined by random walks on a biased graph, attempt to predict whether the proposed changes will truly lead to increased BCS bowl access for non-BCS schools, and conclude by arguing that the true problem with the BCS Standings lies not in the computer algorithms, but rather in misguided addition.
Dasouki, Majed; Jawdat, Omar; Almadhoun, Osama; Pasnoor, Mamatha; McVey, April L; Abuzinadah, Ahmad; Herbelin, Laura; Barohn, Richard J; Dimachkie, Mazen M
Pompe disease is a rare multi-systemic metabolic myopathy caused by autosomal recessive mutations in the acidic alpha glucosidase (GAA) gene. Significant progress had been made in the diagnosis and management of patients with Pompe disease. Here, we describe our experience with 12 patients with various forms of Pompe disease including 4 potentially pathogenic, novel GAA variants. We also review the recent the recent advances in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of individuals with Pompe disease.
ALAOUI-JAMALI Moulay A.; XU Ying-jie
The progress in the understanding of cancer progression and early detection has been slow and frustrating due to the complex multifactorial nature and heterogeneity of the cancer syndrome. To date, no effective treatment is available for advanced cancers, which remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Clearly, there is urgent need to unravel novel biomarkers for early detection.Most of the functional information of the cancer-associated genes resides in the proteome. The later is an exceptionally complex biological system involving several proteins that function through posttranslational modifications and dynamic intermolecular collisions with partners. These protein complexes can be regulated by signals emanating from cancer cells, their surrounding tissue microenvironment, and/or from the host. Some proteins are secreted and/or cleaved into the extracellular milieu and may represent valuable serum biomarkers for diagnosis purpose. It is estimated that the cancer proteome may include over 1.5million proteins as a result of posttranslational processing and modifications. Such complexity clearly highlights the need for ultra-high resolution proteomic technology for robust quantitative protein measurements and data acquisition. This review is to update the current research efforts in high-resolution proteomic technology for discovery and monitoring cancer biomarkers.
Ibáñez, Clara; Simó, Carolina; García-Cañas, Virginia; Cifuentes, Alejandro, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Castro-Puyana, María
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Foodomics allows studying food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. •CE-MS plays a crucial role as analytical platform to carry out omics studies. •CE-MS applications for food metabolomics, proteomics and peptidomics are presented. -- Abstract: In the current post-genomic era, Foodomics has been defined as a discipline that studies food and nutrition through the application of advanced omics approaches. Foodomics involves the use of genomics, transcriptomics, epigenetics, proteomics, peptidomics, and/or metabolomics to investigate food quality, safety, traceability and bioactivity. In this context, capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) has been applied mainly in food proteomics, peptidomics and metabolomics. The aim of this review work is to present an overview of the most recent developments and applications of CE-MS as analytical platform for Foodomics, covering the relevant works published from 2008 to 2012. The review provides also information about the integration of several omics approaches in the new Foodomics field.
Zheng Jie [Division of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Sugrue, Richard J. [Division of Molecular and Cell Biology, School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore); Tang Kai, E-mail: email@example.com [Division of Chemical Biology and Biotechnology, School of Biological Science, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551 (Singapore)
plant have been studied using this approach. As more virus and host genomes are being sequenced, MS-based proteomics is becoming an indispensable tool for virology. In this paper, we provide a brief review of the current technologies and their applications in studying selected viruses and hosts.
case series of five patient's along with the review of literature is presented here. Keywords: ... underwent a renal transplant biopsy to ascertain the cause of ... A 16-year-old male presented in March 2002 with a fever of unknown origin and splenomegaly. ... There was no evidence of tuft necrosis/crescent formation or.
Vela D Desai
Full Text Available Double lip is a rare dental anomaly affecting either upper or lower lip or concurrently. It may be congenital or acquired. This deformity can affect the facial esthetics as it gets exaggerated while speaking, smiling, or chewing food. When it interferes with speech, double lip may cause potential functional problems. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on double lip and present a case series of maxillary double lip.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm Birth (PTB is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS are at high risk of PTB. There is a need for research studies to investigate the mechanisms linking PCOS and PTB, to facilitate screening, and develop novel preventative strategies. OBJECTIVE: To list all the proteomic biomarkers of PTB and integrate this list with the PCOS biomarker database to identify commonly expressed biomarkers of the two conditions. SEARCH STRATEGY: A systematic review of PTB biomarkers and update of PCOS biomarker database. All eligible published studies on proteomic biomarkers for PTB and PCOS identified through various databases were evaluated. SELECTION CRITERIA: For the identification of the relevant studies, the following search terms were used: "proteomics", "proteomic", "preterm birth", "preterm labour", "proteomic biomarker" and "polycystic ovary syndrome". This search was restricted to humans only DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A database on proteomic biomarkers for PTB was created while an already existing PCOS biomarker database was updated. The two databases were integrated and biomarkers that were co-expressed in both women with PCOS and PTB were identified and investigated. RESULTS: A panel of six proteomic biomarkers was similarly differentially expressed in women with PTB and women with PCOS compared to their respective controls (normal age-matched women in the case of PCOS studies and women with term pregnancy in the case of PTB studies. These biomarkers include Pyruvate kinase M1/M2, Vimentin, Fructose bisphosphonate aldolase A, Heat shock protein beta-1, Peroxiredoxin-1 and Transferrin. CONCLUSIONS: These proteomic biomarkers (Pyruvate kinase M1/M2, Vimentin, Fructose bisphosphonate aldolase A, Heat shock protein beta-1, Peroxiredoxin-1 and Transferrin can be potentially used to better understand the pathophysiological mechanisms linking PCOS and PTB. This would help to
Vivek Bhakta Mathema; Kesara Na-Bangchang
Malaria remains as one of the significant health threat to people living in countries throughout tropical and subtropical zones. Proteomic studies of Plasmodium, the protozoan causing malaria, is essential for understanding its cellular structure, growth stage-specific expression of protein metabolites and complex interaction with host. In-depth knowledge of the pathogen is required for identification of novel biomarkers that can be utilized to develop diagnostic tests and therapeutic antimalarial drugs. The alarming rise in drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium has created an urgent need to identify new targets for drug development that can act by obstructing life cycle of this parasite. In the present review, we briefly discuss on role of various biomarkers including Plasmodium-associated aldolase, histidine-rich proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for diagnosis of malaria. Here we also summarize the present and future prospects of currently used techniques in proteomic approaches such as two dimensional gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) for diagnosis and potential identification of novel proteins for malaria research.
Kersey, Paul; Bower, Lawrence; Morris, Lorna; Horne, Alan; Petryszak, Robert; Kanz, Carola; Kanapin, Alexander; Das, Ujjwal; Michoud, Karine; Phan, Isabelle; Gattiker, Alexandre; Kulikova, Tamara; Faruque, Nadeem; Duggan, Karyn; Mclaren, Peter; Reimholz, Britt; Duret, Laurent; Penel, Simon; Reuter, Ingmar; Apweiler, Rolf
Integr8 is a new web portal for exploring the biology of organisms with completely deciphered genomes. For over 190 species, Integr8 provides access to general information, recent publications, and a detailed statistical overview of the genome and proteome of the organism. The preparation of this analysis is supported through Genome Reviews, a new database of bacterial and archaeal DNA sequences in which annotation has been upgraded (compared to the original submission) through the integration of data from many sources, including the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Database, the UniProt Knowledgebase, InterPro, CluSTr, GOA and HOGENOM. Integr8 also allows the users to customize their own interactive analysis, and to download both customized and prepared datasets for their own use. Integr8 is available at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/integr8.
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in a...
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Proteomics Core is the central resource for mass spectrometry based proteomics within the NHLBI. The Core staff help collaborators design proteomics experiments in...
Full Text Available Purpose: To increase the awareness of longus colli tendinitis (LCT among spine specialists and to present a practical overview of diagnostic and treatment options, so that unnecessary interventions are avoided. Five sample cases from a German spine center will also be presented. Methods: Literature review and case series. A PubMed search was performed in May 2015, and the articles found were reviewed for clinical presentation, investigations, and treatment. The frequency of publication of LCT cases and the specialty of journals were also noted. Recent cases treated in our institution were also reviewed. The clinical findings, investigations, and therapeutic interventions were summarized. Results: The PubMed search from May 2015 found 104 articles, published over 51 years, on the topic of LCT. Only four were published in spine journals. A review of this literature yielded a total of 242 cases. The classic clinical triad included neck pain, limitation of movements, and swallowing complaints. C-reactive Protein (CRP values were available in 21 cases (mean 23.66 mg/dL. A contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT scan was the best diagnostic modality. LCT is usually a self-limiting condition, but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs may help alleviate discomfort. Five cases of LCT were diagnosed and treated in our center over the past three years. Conclusions: LCT, which is uncommon and has non-specific symptoms, is often referred to spine centers. Spine specialists should be aware of its clinical presentation and radiographic findings in order to avoid unnecessary interventions. The condition is self-limiting and can be treated conservatively.
Lee, Ko-Chao; Lu, Chien-Chang; Hu, Wan-Hsiang; Lin, Shung-Eing; Chen, Hong-Hwa
Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms make diagnosis of amebiasis difficult. Certain colonoscopic findings predict amebic colitis while others suggest different diagnoses. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic capability of colonic evaluation of amebiasis. We retrospectively reviewed data of all amebiasis cases admitted to our institution between 2003 and 2012. Cases were diagnosed by clinical presentation, laboratory examinations, and colonoscopy with biopsy and microscopic examination. Patients were stratified as right-sided colitis and proctosigmoiditis. A systematic review was conducted by searching Medline, Cochrane, EMBASE, and Google Scholar using key words amebiasis, amebic colitis, amebic proctosigmoiditis, colonoscopy, and Entamoeba histolytica. Data were extracted from articles meeting the inclusion criteria. Colonoscopic findings were described and studies were assessed for quality. The current series included 20 patients (5 male, 15 female, median age 51), 7 with amebic liver abscess and 13 with amebic colitis. Colonoscopic findings of right-sided colitis included aphthae or erosions, ulcers, exudates, or edematous swollen mucosa in cecum, and findings for proctosigmoiditis were edematous swollen mucosa with bloody exudate. In 25 studies, colonoscopic findings of 41 patients (36 male, 5 female, median age 43.39 years) included mainly ulcers in the cecum and rectum, ulcerated mass, and edematous mucosa; and in fewer patients, submucosal invasion suggestive of colon cancer, bleeding ulcers, proctitis, and ulcers with aphthae in rectum. Colonic evaluation of suspected amebiasis is of diagnostic value when accompanied by biopsy and microscopic identification of Entamoeba species. Colonoscopic manifestations vary between right-sided colitis and proctosigmoiditis.
Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk; Deutch, Søren Rasmussen; Svendsen, Susanne Wulff
Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics – the comprehensive study of protein composition - in tendon research. Materials and Methods We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies) and III (13 of 14), metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (6 of 12), -9 (7 of 7), -13 (4 of 7), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 (4 of 7), and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7), and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12). Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro. Conclusions Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins) that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus
Maria Hee Jung Sejersen
Full Text Available Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies, and to evaluate perspectives of proteomics--the comprehensive study of protein composition--in tendon research.We conducted a systematic search of the literature published between 1 January 1990 and 18 December 2012 in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. We included studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue.We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy. Most of the included studies quantified prespecified mRNA molecules and proteins using polymerase chain reactions and immunoassays, respectively. There was a tendency towards an increase of collagen I (11 of 15 studies and III (13 of 14, metalloproteinase (MMP-1 (6 of 12, -9 (7 of 7, -13 (4 of 7, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP-1 (4 of 7, and vascular endothelial growth factor (4 of 7, and a decrease in MMP-3 (10 of 12. Fourteen proteomics studies of tendon tissues/cells failed inclusion, mostly because they were conducted in animals or in vitro.Based on methods, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although proteomics technologies may be a way to identify protein profiles (including non-prespecified proteins that characterise specific tendon disorders or stages of tendinopathy. Thus, our results suggested an untapped potential for
Del Chierico, F; Petrucca, A; Vernocchi, P; Bracaglia, G; Fiscarelli, E; Bernaschi, P; Muraca, M; Urbani, A; Putignani, L
The application of proteomics to translational and clinical microbiology is one of the most advanced frontiers in the management and control of infectious diseases and in the understanding of complex microbial systems within human fluids and districts. This new approach aims at providing, by dedicated bioinformatic pipelines, a thorough description of pathogen proteomes and their interactions within the context of human host ecosystems, revolutionizing the vision of infectious diseases in biomedicine and approaching new viewpoints in both diagnostic and clinical management of the patient. Indeed, in the last few years, many laboratories have matured a series of advanced proteomic applications, aiming at providing individual proteome charts of pathogens, with respect to their morph and/or cell life stages, antimicrobial or antimycotic resistance profiling, epidemiological dispersion. Herein, we aim at reviewing the current state-of-the-art on proteomic protocols designed and set-up for translational and diagnostic microbiological purposes, from axenic pathogens' characterization to microbiota ecosystems' full description. The final goal is to describe applications of the most common MALDI-TOF MS platforms to advanced diagnostic issues related to emerging infections, increasing of fastidious bacteria, and generation of patient-tailored phylotypes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.
Silvana Duran-Ortiz; Alison L Brittain; John J Kopchick
.... For instance, GH increases skeletal muscle and decreases adipose tissue mass. Our laboratory has spent the past two decades studying these effects, including the effects of GH excess and depletion, on the proteome of several mouse and human tissues...
Full Text Available The increase of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE poses a worldwide and serious health threat. Although new antibiotics, such as daptomycin and linezolid, have been developed for the treatment of infections of Gram-positive pathogens, the emergence of daptomycin-resistant and linezolid-resistant strains during therapy has now increased clinical treatment failures. In the past few years, studies using quantitative proteomic methods have provided a considerable progress in understanding antibiotic resistance mechanisms. In this review, to understand the resistance mechanisms to four clinically important antibiotics (methicillin, vancomycin, linezolid, and daptomycin used in the treatment of Gram-positive pathogens, we summarize recent advances in studies on resistance mechanisms using quantitative proteomic methods, and also examine proteins playing an important role in the bacterial mechanisms of resistance to the four antibiotics. Proteomic researches can identify proteins whose expression levels are changed in the resistance mechanism to only one antibiotic, such as LiaH in daptomycin resistance and PrsA in vancomycin resistance, and many proteins simultaneously involved in resistance mechanisms to various antibiotics. Most of resistance-related proteins, which are simultaneously associated with resistance mechanisms to several antibiotics, play important roles in regulating bacterial envelope biogenesis or compensating for the fitness cost of antibiotic resistance. Therefore,
Yarris, Lalena M; Gottlieb, Michael; Scott, Kevin; Sampson, Christopher; Rose, Emily; Chan, Teresa M; Ilgen, Jonathan
Peer review, a cornerstone of academia, promotes rigor and relevance in scientific publishing. As educators are encouraged to adopt a more scholarly approach to medical education, peer review is becoming increasingly important. Junior educators both receive the reviews of their peers, and are also asked to participate as reviewers themselves. As such, it is imperative for junior clinician educators to be well-versed in the art of peer reviewing their colleagues' work. In this article, our goal was to identify and summarize key papers that may be helpful for faculty members interested in learning more about the peer-review process and how to improve their reviewing skills. The online discussions of the 2016-17 Academic Life in Emergency Medicine (ALiEM) Faculty Incubator program included a robust discussion about peer review, which highlighted a number of papers on that topic. We sought to augment this list with further suggestions by guest experts and by an open call on Twitter for other important papers. Via this process, we created a list of 24 total papers on the topic of peer review. After gathering these papers, our authorship group engaged in a consensus-building process incorporating Delphi methods to identify the papers that best described peer review, and also highlighted important tips for new reviewers. We found and reviewed 24 papers. In our results section, we present our authorship group's top five most highly rated papers on the topic of peer review. We also summarize these papers with respect to their relevance to junior faculty members and to faculty developers. We present five key papers on peer review that can be used for faculty development for novice writers and reviewers. These papers represent a mix of foundational and explanatory papers that may provide some basis from which junior faculty members might build upon as they both undergo the peer-review process and act as reviewers in turn.
Almeida, A M; Bassols, A; Bendixen, E; Bhide, M; Ceciliani, F; Cristobal, S; Eckersall, P D; Hollung, K; Lisacek, F; Mazzucchelli, G; McLaughlin, M; Miller, I; Nally, J E; Plowman, J; Renaut, J; Rodrigues, P; Roncada, P; Staric, J; Turk, R
Animal production and health (APH) is an important sector in the world economy, representing a large proportion of the budget of all member states in the European Union and in other continents. APH is a highly competitive sector with a strong emphasis on innovation and, albeit with country to country variations, on scientific research. Proteomics (the study of all proteins present in a given tissue or fluid - i.e. the proteome) has an enormous potential when applied to APH. Nevertheless, for a variety of reasons and in contrast to disciplines such as plant sciences or human biomedicine, such potential is only now being tapped. To counter such limited usage, 6 years ago we created a consortium dedicated to the applications of Proteomics to APH, specifically in the form of a Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) Action, termed FA1002--Proteomics in Farm Animals: www.cost-faproteomics.org. In 4 years, the consortium quickly enlarged to a total of 31 countries in Europe, as well as Israel, Argentina, Australia and New Zealand. This article has a triple purpose. First, we aim to provide clear examples on the applications and benefits of the use of proteomics in all aspects related to APH. Second, we provide insights and possibilities on the new trends and objectives for APH proteomics applications and technologies for the years to come. Finally, we provide an overview and balance of the major activities and accomplishments of the COST Action on Farm Animal Proteomics. These include activities such as the organization of seminars, workshops and major scientific conferences, organization of summer schools, financing Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) and the generation of scientific literature. Overall, the Action has attained all of the proposed objectives and has made considerable difference by putting proteomics on the global map for animal and veterinary researchers in general and by contributing significantly to reduce the East-West and North-South gaps
Proteomics is the study of proteins and their interactions in a cell. With the completion of the Human Genome Project, the emphasis is shifting to the protein compliment of the human organism. Because proteome reflects more accurately on the dynamic state of a cell, tissue, or organism, much is expected from proteomics to yield better disease markers for diagnosis and therapy monitoring. The advent of proteomics technologies for global detection and quantitation of proteins creates new opportunities and challenges for those seeking to gain greater understanding of diseases. High-throughput proteomics technologies combining with advanced bioinformatics are extensively used to identify molecular signatures of diseases based on protein pathways and signaling cascades. Mass spectrometry plays a vital role in proteomics and has become an indispensable tool for molecular and cellular biology. While the potential is great, many challenges and issues remain to be solved, such as mining low abundant proteins and integration of proteomics with genomics and metabolomics data. Nevertheless, proteomics is the foundation for constructing and extracting useful knowledge to biomedical research. In this review, a snapshot of contemporary issues in proteomics technologies is discussed.
Full Text Available Background. Comprehensive analysis of proteome differentially expressed in response to surgery or drug treatment is useful to understand biological responses to dispensed interventions. Here we investigated expression changes in sera of patients who suffered from calcific aortic stenosis (CAS, before and after surgery for aortic valve replacement. Materials and Methods. Sera obtained before and after surgery with depletion of highly abundant proteins were analyzed with iTRAQ labeling followed by nanoLC-MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS. Results. Fifty-one proteins shared in five patients were identified with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera. Finally, 16 proteins that show statistically significant levels in patients’ sera compared with those in control sera (P<0.05 were identified. Most of the identified proteins were positive acute-phase proteins. Among three proteins other than acute-phase proteins, we confirmed increased levels of antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein in postsurgical sera by Western blot analysis using other CAS patients’ sera. Furthermore, antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein were not found among proteins with differential levels in postsurgical and presurgical sera of patients with aortic aneurysms that we identified in a previous study. Conclusions. The results indicated that antithrombin-III and zinc-α-2-glycoprotein would become unique monitoring proteins for evaluating pathophysiological and biochemical processes occurring before and after surgery for CAS.
Full Text Available The study of archaeological ceramics is advanced through the creation and development of regional and national pottery type-series, which contain samples of each type of pottery identified from a particular area or region. Pottery researchers working in any period, from prehistoric to post-medieval, require access to such type-series, and to their associated data, in order to be able to advance the identification of all types of pottery, not only those types produced in the local area, but those produced in surrounding regions, as well as those imported from abroad. The publication of such type-series, as well as their accessibility to researchers, is essential if the information they contain is to be disseminated. The development of the Worcestershire On-Line Fabric Type Series is the first stage in a remarkable project designed to make the complete fabric and form type series for Worcestershire ceramics accessible on the internet. As part of the Historic Environment Record for Worcestershire, formerly the Sites and Monuments Record, it is designed to improve access to finds and environmental data, with the aim of encouraging and facilitating research. Funded by Worcestershire County Council as part of its commitment to e-government, it is being developed by Worcestershire County Council Archaeology Service with OxfordArchDigital. It is one of a proposed series of on-line specialist resources (to include, for example, clay pipes, environmental archaeology, flint tools, historic buildings, which are also designed to stand alone as research tools. The ceramics website is the first part of Pottery in Perspective, a web-based project to provide information on the pottery used and made in Worcestershire from prehistory to c. 1900AD.
Sherif; Elsobky; Ashley; M; Crane; Michael; Margolis; Teresia; A; Carreon; Sanjoy; K; Bhattacharya
Proteins have important functional roles in the body, which can be altered in disease states. The eye is a complex organ rich in proteins; in particular, the anterior eye is very sophisticated in function and is most commonly involved in ophthalmic diseases. Proteomics, the large scale study of proteins, has greatly impacted our knowledge and understanding of gene function in the post-genomic period. The most significant breakthrough in proteomics has been mass spectrometric identification of proteins, which extends analysis far beyond the mere display of proteins that classical techniques provide. Mass spectrometry functions as a "mass analyzer" which simplifies the identification and quantification of proteins extracted from biological tissue. Mass spectrometric analysis of the anterior eye proteome provides a differential display for protein comparison of normal and diseased tissue. In this article wepresent the key proteomic findings in the recent literature related to the cornea, aqueous humor, trabecular meshwork, iris, ciliary body and lens. Through this we identified unique proteins specific to diseases related to the anterior eye.
Jones, Andrew R; Hubbard, Simon J
This book is part of the Methods in Molecular Biology series, and provides a general overview of computational approaches used in proteome research. In this chapter, we give an overview of the scope of the book in terms of current proteomics experimental techniques and the reasons why computational approaches are needed. We then give a summary of each chapter, which together provide a picture of the state of the art in proteome bioinformatics research.
Kolte, Abhay P; Kolte, Rajshri A; Shrirao, Tushar S
Intraoral fibrous overgrowths of the soft tissues are relatively common and may be benign reactive or neoplastic lesions. A series of 10 lesions is presented which included pyogenic granuloma, fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma. Almost all the lesions occurred in the second and third decades and were present in the anterior segment of the jaws, with a distinct female predilection. Majority of these lesions were asymptomatic and the patients reported for treatment only due to the discomfort during function. Histopathologic examinations were done for diagnosis of these lesions. Surgical excision along with removal of causative irritants remains the treatment of choice. The extent of excision should depend on the severity of the lesion, as some of these lesions have a tendency for recurrence. All the patients in this series were closely followed up for a period of 2 years and showed no signs of recurrence.
Abhay P Kolte
Full Text Available Intraoral fibrous overgrowths of the soft tissues are relatively common and may be benign reactive or neoplastic lesions. A series of 10 lesions is presented which included pyogenic granuloma, fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma. Almost all the lesions occurred in the second and third decades and were present in the anterior segment of the jaws, with a distinct female predilection. Majority of these lesions were asymptomatic and the patients reported for treatment only due to the discomfort during function. Histopathologic examinations were done for diagnosis of these lesions. Surgical excision along with removal of causative irritants remains the treatment of choice. The extent of excision should depend on the severity of the lesion, as some of these lesions have a tendency for recurrence. All the patients in this series were closely followed up for a period of 2 years and showed no signs of recurrence.
Kolte, Abhay P.; Rajshri A Kolte; Shrirao, Tushar S.
Intraoral fibrous overgrowths of the soft tissues are relatively common and may be benign reactive or neoplastic lesions. A series of 10 lesions is presented which included pyogenic granuloma, fibroma and peripheral ossifying fibroma. Almost all the lesions occurred in the second and third decades and were present in the anterior segment of the jaws, with a distinct female predilection. Majority of these lesions were asymptomatic and the patients reported for treatment only due to the discomf...
NCI's Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research authored a review of the current state of clinical proteomics in the peer-reviewed Journal of Proteome Research. The review highlights outcomes from the CPTC program and also provides a thorough overview of the different technologies that have pushed the field forward. Additionally, the review provides a vision for moving the field forward through linking advances in genomic and proteomic analysis to develop new, molecularly targeted interventions.
Full Text Available Clinicians are often intrigued by the varied manifestations of the gingival tissue. Gingival overgrowth is a common clinical finding and most of them represent a reactive hyperplasia as a direct result of plaque-related inflammatory gingival disease. These types of growth generally respond to good plaque control, removal of the causative irritants, and conservative tissue management. This case series highlights three different cases of localized gingival overgrowth and its management with emphasis on the importance of patient awareness and motivation.
Akins, Paul T.; Axelrod, Yekaterina K; Ji, Cheng; Ciporen, Jeremy N.; Arshad, Syed T.; Hawk, Mark W.; Guppy, Kern H.
Background: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) can cause elevated intracranial pressure, hemorrhagic venous infarct, and cortical subarachnoid hemorrhage. We present a case series and literature review to illustrate that CVST can also present with subdural hematoma (SDH). Case Description: Chart review was completed on a retrospective case series of CVST with spontaneous SDH. We also conducted a literature search. Over a 6 year interval, three patients with CVST and SDH were admitted to ...
Baas, Alan M.
This review surveys documents and journal articles previously announced in RIE and CIJE that deal with climate control, integrated thermal and luminous systems, total energy systems, and current trends in school air conditioning. The literature cited indicates that selection of thermal systems must take into account longterm operating costs in…
Verma, Esha; Chakki, Arunkumar Bhimashankar; Nagaral, Sharanbasappa Chandrashekar; Ganji, Kiran Kumar
THE CONCEPT OF FIBROOSSEOUS LESIONS OF BONE HAS EVOLVED OVER THE LAST SEVERAL DECADES AND NOW INCLUDES TWO MAJOR ENTITIES: fibrous dysplasia and ossifying fibroma. Peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma is a relatively rare tumour classified between fibroosseous lesions. It predominantly affects adolescents and young adults, with peak prevalence between 10 and 19 yrs. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is a central neoplasm of bone as well as periodontium which has caused considerable controversy because of confusion regarding terminology and the criteria for its diagnosis. The cemento-ossifying fibroma is odontogenic in origin, whereas ossifying fibroma is of bony origin. Lesions histologically similar to peripheral ossifying fibroma have been given various names in existing literature. Therefore, we present and discuss in this paper a series of cases of peripheral cemento-ossifying fibroma emphasizing the differential diagnosis.
Full Text Available Childhood-onset epilepsy has a varied presentation and may have different etiological factors. A multiaxial diagnostic approach should be used before making treatment and management decisions for any individual patient. It is widely accepted that distinction among primary psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and nonepileptic seizures is a challenge for physicians. This case series demonstrated the identification of three atypical presentations of seizures in children on the basis of detailed history taking and electroencephalogram findings, despite having normal findings in neurological examination and magnetic resonance imaging. We report three rare cases of atypical presentation in epilepsy in patients with symptoms of episodic hallucinations, rage attacks, and secondary enuresis. Clinically, the diagnosis of epilepsy can be strengthened by paying sufficient attention to detailed history and symptom spectrum of partial epilepsy.
J. Harris Ricardo
Full Text Available El odontoma es el tumor odontogénico más frecuente en cavidad oral, compuesto por una mezcla de células odontogénicas formando dentina y esmalte, presenta células y tejidos normales pero de estructura defectuosa, estos tejidos se encuentran en el área del cuerpo donde se presenta su crecimiento, al examen radiográfico se puede presentar imágenes radiopacas como un gran número de dientes rudimentarios llamados dentículos, en este caso se conoce como odontoma compuesto o presentarse imagen radiopaca como conglomeraciones amorfas, recibiendo el nombre de odontoma complejo. Su etiología se le relaciona con restos paradentales de Malassez, procesos inflamatorios, traumatismos, se le asocia en algunos casos con el quiste odontogénico calcificante, son asintomáticos, producen retención dentaria. El tratamiento es quirúrgico y su recurrencia es baja. Se reporta serie de casos que acudieron al servicio de estomatología y cirugía oral de la Universidad de Cartagena con impresión diagnostica de odontoma, se realizaron los procedimientos quirúrgicos confirmando los diagnósticos con los reportes histopatológicos.Odontoma is the most frequent odontogenic tumor in oral cavity, comprising a mixture of odontogenic cells forming dentin and enamel. It shows cells and normal tissues but in abnormal structure. These tissues are located in the area of the body where it presents its growth. Under radiographic examination may be radiopaque images as a large number of rudimentary teeth called denticles, in this case is known as compound odontoma or presented as conglomerates amorphous radiopaque image, receiving the name of complex odontoma. Its etiology is related to remnants of Malassez paradontals, inflammatory processes. Trauma is sometimes associated with calcifying odontogenic cyst. Generally are asymptomatic, produce tooth retention. Treatment is surgical and recurrence is low. Is reported in the present paper a number of cases that went to
Universities UK, 2014
This factsheet, the second in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of Catapult centres and how universities engage with them, with reference to the recommendations of the second Hauser review into the future of the Catapult network. The factsheet draws on a review of existing literature as well as the perspectives of businesses,…
This article--the first in the Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) Review Essays Series--reviews the literature concerning education-abroad opportunities for community college students. The article examines the benefits accrued to students through overseas study, briefly notes the history of education-abroad programs, and summarizes…
This article--the first in the Council for the Study of Community Colleges (CSCC) Review Essays Series--reviews the literature concerning education-abroad opportunities for community college students. The article examines the benefits accrued to students through overseas study, briefly notes the history of education-abroad programs, and summarizes…
Universities UK, 2014
This factsheet, the second in a series on innovation and growth, provides an overview of Catapult centres and how universities engage with them, with reference to the recommendations of the second Hauser review into the future of the Catapult network. The factsheet draws on a review of existing literature as well as the perspectives of businesses,…
Razeghinejad, Mohammad Reza; Masoumpour, Masoumeh; Eghbal, Mohammad Hossein; Myers, Jonathan S.; Moster, Marlene R.
Glaucoma management in pregnant patients is a real challenge, especially when the glaucoma is not controlled with medications. We report the results of 6 incisional glaucoma surgeries for the management of medically uncontrolled glaucoma patients during pregnancy. This retrospective, case series was conducted on the 6 eyes of 3pregnant patients with uncontrolled glaucoma using maximum tolerable medications. Details of the glaucoma surgical management of these patients as well as their postoperative care and pregnancy and clinical outcomes on longitudinal follow-up are discussed. All 3 patients had juvenile open-angle glaucoma and were on various anti-glaucoma medications, including oral acetazolamide. The first case described underwent trabeculectomy without antimetabolites in both eyes because of uncontrolled intraocular pressure with topical medications. The surgery was done with topical lidocaine jelly and subconjunctival lidocaine during the second and third trimesters. The second patient had an Ahmed valve implantation in both eyes during the second and third trimesters because of uncontrolled IOP with topical medications and no response to selective laser trabeculoplasty. Surgery was done with topical tetracaine and subconjunctival and sub-Tenon’s lidocaine. The third case had a Baerveldt valve implantation under general anesthesia in the second trimester. In selected pregnant glaucoma patients with medically uncontrolled intraocular pressure threatening vision, incisional surgery may lead to good outcomes for the patient with no risk for the fetus. PMID:27582594
Vertigan, A E; Theodoros, D G; Gibson, P G; Winkworth, A L
Chronic cough (CC) can be refractory to medical treatment and newer strategies are required for these patients. Behaviour modification therapies are a potential approach for management of cough that does not respond to medical management. Behaviour modification therapy for CC involves an individually tailored programme teaching individuals to increase control over cough symptoms and includes education, specific strategies to suppress the cough, vocal hygiene training and psychoeducational counselling. Several case series have described speech pathology treatment for CC and a recent randomized control trial has demonstrated a significant improvement in symptoms. Possible mechanisms for this improvement include reduced cough reflex sensitivity, increased voluntary control of the cough and reduced stimulation of cough receptors. Respiratory retraining used by physiotherapists may also have potential for use in CC. The validity of psychological therapeutic approaches to CC rests on concepts of CC as a disorder with a psychogenic component, and the ability of cognitive therapies to modify the cough pathway. This work outlines current literature into behavioural management of CC and suggests new directions for practice and research in adults with this condition.
Wei, Ping; Lu, Hai-Wen; Jiang, Sen; Fan, Li-Chao; Li, Hui-Ping; Xu, Jin-Fu
Abstract Pulmonary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (PLCH) is a rare disease with insidious onset and nonspecific manifestations. The objective of this article was to characterize the clinical manifestations and features of PLCH by retrospectively analyzing clinical data of patients with PLCH in addition to simultaneous review of literature. A retrospective analysis was conducted on clinical data of patients with PLCH (n = 7), whose conditions were diagnosed by biopsy from pulmonary tissue (n = 6) or enlarged lymph nodes in the neck (n = 1) and confirmed by PLCH typical radiological features on computed tomography (CT) scan, between January 2001 and September 2012 at the Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China. The review of published reports was made to further emphasize the clinical manifestation and radiological features of PLCH. Long history of cigarette smoking was found in 6 patients. Two patients had recurrent pneumothorax and the other 2 had pulmonary arterial hypertension (World Health Organization group 5 pulmonary hypertension), diagnosed through ultrasonic cardiogram. The nodular shadows were revealed by chest CT scan in 5 patients, cystic shadows in 5 patients, and reticular shadows in 2 patients, as major manifestations, respectively; most of the lesions were located in the middle or upper segments of the lung. The obvious shrank of lesion was found in 1 patient after completely quitting smoking. The pathogenesis of PLCH might be closely associated with smoking. The cystic or nodular lesion was the typical radiological features. Further prospective studies with large sample size are required to further validate the study results and understand the clinical characteristics of PLCH to avoid misdiagnosis. PMID:25415669
Liu, Jun-ming; Zhao, Qi; Yin, Ze-peng; Xu, Chen-xi; Wang, Quan-hua; Dai, Shao-jun
Heat stress is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and productivity. In recent years, proteomic investigations provide more information for understanding the sophisticated heat-responsive molecular mechanism in plants at systematic biological level. The heat-responsive proteomic patterns in several plants, i. e., model plants (Arabidopsis thaliana), staple food crops (soybean, rice and wheat), heat-tolerant plants (Agrostis stolonifera, Portulaca oleracea, and Carissa spinarum), grapevine, Populus euphratica, Medicago sativa, and Pinellia ternate, were reported. A total of 838 heat-responsive proteins have been identified in these studies. Among them, 534 proteins were induced and the expression of 304 proteins was reduced in plants under heat stress. In this paper, the diverse protein patterns in plants under various heat stress conditions (30-45 °C for 0-10 d) were analyzed integratively. This provided new evidences and clues for further interpreting the signaling and metabolic pathways, e.g., signaling, stress and defense, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, transcription, protein synthesis and fate, membrane and transport, in heat-responsive networks, and laid a foundation for a holistic understanding of the molecular regulatory mechanism in plants in response to heat stress.
The techniques of proteomics (high resolution two-dimensional electrophoresis and protein characterisation) are widely used for microbiological research to analyse global protein synthesis as an indicator of gene expression. The rapid progress in microbial proteomics has been achieved through the wide availability of whole genome sequences for a number of bacterial groups. Beyond providing a basic understanding of microbial gene expression, proteomics has also played a role in medical areas of microbiology. Progress has been made in the use of the techniques for investigating the epidemiology and taxonomy of human microbial pathogens, the identification of novel pathogenic mechanisms and the analysis of drug resistance. In each of these areas, proteomics has provided new insights that complement genomic-based investigations. This review describes the current progress in these research fields and highlights some of the technical challenges existing for the application of proteomics in medical microbiology. The latter concern the analysis of genetically heterogeneous bacterial populations and the integration of the proteomic and genomic data for these bacteria. The characterisation of the proteomes of bacterial pathogens growing in their natural hosts remains a future challenge.
Bowler, Russell P; Ellison, Misoo C; Reisdorph, Nichole
Proteomics is the study of the entire protein complement of the genome (the proteome) in a biological system. Proteomic studies require a multidisciplinary approach and have only been practical with the convergence of technical and methodologic improvements including the following: advances in mass spectrometry and genomic sequencing that now permit the identification and relative quantization of small amounts (femtomole) of nearly any single protein; new methods in gel electrophoresis that allow the detection of subtle changes in protein expression, including posttranslational modifications; automation and miniaturization that permit high-throughput analysis of clinical samples; and new bioinformatics and computational methods that facilitate analysis and interpretation of the abundant data that are generated by proteomics experiments. This convergence makes proteomics studies practical for pulmonary researchers using BAL fluid, lung tissue, blood, and exhaled breath condensates, and will facilitate the research of complex, multifactorial lung diseases such as acute lung injury and COPD. This review describes how proteomics experiments are conducted and interpreted, their limitations, and how proteomics has been used in clinical pulmonary medicine.
Bhuiyan, Z H; Khan, S A; Tawhid, M H; Islam, M F
Penile fracture is an uncommon Urological emergency. In flaccid state it allows significant degree of deformation without any injury to the vital structures but in erected state it is vulnerable to blunt injury. The tumescent corpora cavernosa may have got injured due to nonphysiological bending of penile shaft. The true incidence of penile fracture is not known even in western countries. It is either under reported or hidden for potential social embracement. We have reviewed all of our cases of penile fracture and has been conducted a retrospective study in the Department of Urology, Bangladesh Medical College, Dhaka. The study period was from October 2001 to January 2006. The sample size was 23. All patients have got classical history of penile fracture. The time between the onset of symptom and seeking of medical care ranges from 02 hours to 07 days. The diagnosis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination only. All the patients were underwent surgery. The potency was well preserved in all of our patients. The local tissue healing process is better among the patients, reported earlier. The overall result is excellent.
Maximo, Claudia; Olalla Saad, Sara T; Thome, Eleonora; Queiroz, Ana Maria Mach; Lobo, Clarisse; Ballas, Samir K
In this study, we describe four new patients with sickle cell disease who had limb amputations. Two of the patients had sickle cell anemia [Hb S (HBB: c.20A > T) (β(S)/β(S))] with refractory leg ulcers that required amputations. The third patient had sickle cell trait with an extensive leg ulcer that was associated with epidermoid carcinoma. The fourth patient had amputations of both forearms and feet due to a misdiagnosis of dactylitis. Review of the literature showed that the indications for amputations in sickle cell disease included three distinct categories: mythical beliefs, therapeutic and malpractice. All therapeutic amputations were for severely painful, large, recalcitrant leg ulcers that failed non-interventional therapies. Amputation resulted in pain relief and better quality of life. Phantom neuropathic pain was not a major issue post-operatively. It was absent, transient or well controlled with antidepressants. Limb function was restored post-amputation with prosthetic artificial limbs, wheelchairs or crutches. Malpractice amputations were due to misdiagnosis or to cryotherapy by exposing the painful limb to ice water resulting in thrombosis, gangrene and amputation. We strongly suggest that leg amputations should be considered in the management of certain patients with severe extensive refractory leg ulcers, and topical cryotherapy should never be used to manage sickle cell pain.
Pischetsrieder, Monika; Baeuerlein, Rainer
The proteome is the totality of proteins present in a biological sample. In contrast to the static genome, the proteome is highly dynamic, influenced by the genome and many external factors, such as the state of development, tissue type, metabolic state, and various interactions. Thus, the proteome reflects very closely the biological (and chemical) processes occurring in a system. For proteome analysis, gel based and shotgun methods are most widely applied. Because of the potential to generate a systematic view of protein composition and biological as well as chemical interactions, the application of proteome analysis in food science is steadily growing. This tutorial review introduces several fields in food science, where proteomics has been successfully applied: analysis of food composition, safety assessment of genetically modified food, the search for marker proteins for food authentication, identification of food allergens, systematic analysis of the physiological activity of food, analysis of the effects of processing on food proteins and the improvement of food quality.
Siddiq, Abu Bakar; Hossain, Shawkat; Uddin, Mohammad Moin; Jahan, Israt; Khasru, Moshiur Rahman; Haider, Neaz Mahmud; Rasker, Johannes J.
Aims To describe a series of piriformis syndrome patient among Bangladesh people with literature review. Methods Consecutive 31 piriformis syndrome patients were enrolled. Besides history and clinical examination, piriformis muscle thickness was also measured with diagnostic ultrasound (3.5 MHZ). M
Sean M Lang
Full Text Available Aortic complications occur rarely after pediatric orthotopic heart transplantation, but are typically accompanied by catastrophic events. We describe the three cases of major aortic complications in our experience of 329 pediatric heart transplants. This case series and review highlight the important risk factors for aortic complications after heart transplantation.
Takáč, Tomáš; Šamajová, Olga; Šamaj, Jozef
Significant improvements of protein extraction, separation, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics nurtured advancements of proteomics during the past years. The usefulness of proteomics in the investigation of biological problems can be enhanced by integration with other experimental methods from cell biology, genetics, biochemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology and other omics approaches including transcriptomics and metabolomics. This review aims to summarize current trends integrating cell biology and proteomics in plant science. Cell biology approaches are most frequently used in proteomic studies investigating subcellular and developmental proteomes, however, they were also employed in proteomic studies exploring abiotic and biotic stress responses, vesicular transport, cytoskeleton and protein posttranslational modifications. They are used either for detailed cellular or ultrastructural characterization of the object subjected to proteomic study, validation of proteomic results or to expand proteomic data. In this respect, a broad spectrum of methods is employed to support proteomic studies including ultrastructural electron microscopy studies, histochemical staining, immunochemical localization, in vivo imaging of fluorescently tagged proteins and visualization of protein-protein interactions. Thus, cell biological observations on fixed or living cell compartments, cells, tissues and organs are feasible, and in some cases fundamental for the validation and complementation of proteomic data. Validation of proteomic data by independent experimental methods requires development of new complementary approaches. Benefits of cell biology methods and techniques are not sufficiently highlighted in current proteomic studies. This encouraged us to review most popular cell biology methods used in proteomic studies and to evaluate their relevance and potential for proteomic data validation and enrichment of purely proteomic analyses. We also provide examples of
Xiaoyan Huang; Jiahao Sha
Proteomic technologies have undergone significant development in recent years, which has led to extensive advances in protein research. Currently, proteomic approaches have been applied to many scientific areas, including basic research, various disease and malignant tumour diagnostics, biomarker discovery and other therapeutic applications. In addition, proteomics-driven research articles examining reproductive biology and medicine are becoming increasingly common. The key challenge for this field is to move from lists of identified proteins to obtaining biological information regarding protein function. The present article reviews the available scientific literature related to spermatogenesis. In addition, this study uses two-dimensional electrophoresis mass spectrometry (2DE-MS) and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS to construct a series of proteome profiles describing spermatogenesis. This large-scale identification of proteins provides a rich resource for elucidating the mechanisms underlying male fertility and infertility.
Davies, Mark A. [MARAD Co. Ltd., Washington, DC (United States); Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The OC-Series graphite irradiation creep experiments were conducted in the early 1970s in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at ORNL. The OC Series consisted of 5 experiments, Capsules 1, 3 and 5 were irradiated at 900°C and Capsules 2 and 4 were irradiated at 600°C. Each capsule contained four columns of specimens, two loaded in compression and two un-loaded. The loaded columns had specimens of different diameter to generate two stress levels, 13.8 MPa and 20.7 MPa. Some of the data from these experiments were presented in extended abstracts at a Carbon Conference (Kennedy et al, 1977: Kennedy and Eatherly, 1979). The data presented some challenges to the accepted approach to irradiation induced creep in graphite adopted in the UK, specifically lateral creep strain behaviour and the effect of irradiation induced creep strain on material properties, e.g. CTE and Poisson’s Ratio. A recent review of irradiation induced creep (Davies & Bradford, 2004) included an anlaysis of the available OC-series data (Mobasheran, 1990) and led to a request to ORNL for an examination of the original OC-Series dataset. An initial search of the ORNL archive revealed additional data from the OC-Series experiment including previously unknown irradiation annealing experiments. This report presents a re-analysis of the available data from the OC-Series archive.
Davies, Mark A. [MARAD Co. Ltd., Washington, DC (United States); Burchell, Timothy D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
The OC-Series graphite irradiation creep experiments were conducted in the early 1970s in the Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) at ORNL. The OC Series consisted of 5 experiments, Capsules 1, 3 and 5 were irradiated at 900°C and Capsules 2 and 4 were irradiated at 600°C. Each capsule contained four columns of specimens, two loaded in compression and two un-loaded. The loaded columns had specimens of different diameter to generate two stress levels, 13.8 MPa and 20.7 MPa. Some of the data from these experiments were presented in extended abstracts at a Carbon Conference (Kennedy et al, 1977: Kennedy and Eatherly, 1979). The data presented some challenges to the accepted approach to irradiation induced creep in graphite adopted in the UK, specifically lateral creep strain behaviour and the effect of irradiation induced creep strain on material properties, e.g. CTE and Poisson’s Ratio. A recent review of irradiation induced creep (Davies & Bradford, 2004) included an anlaysis of the available OC-series data (Mobasheran, 1990) and led to a request to ORNL for an examination of the original OC-Series dataset. An initial search of the ORNL archive revealed additional data from the OC-Series experiment including previously unknown irradiation annealing experiments. This report presents a re-analysis of the available data from the OC-Series archive.
Shitrit, David; Amital, Anat; Peled, Nir; Raviv, Yael; Medalion, Benjamin; Saute, Milton; Kramer, Mordechai R
The use of lung transplantation (LTX) to treat respiratory failure because of scleroderma is controversial. We present our experience, review the current literature, and suggest specific criteria for LTX in scleroderma. Of the 174 patients who underwent LTX at our center, seven (4%) had scleroderma-associated respiratory failure. A MEDLINE search of the English literature was performed for studies of LTX in patients with scleroderma between 1986 and 2006. A Kaplan-Meier survival curve was calculated over the time of the studies. The MEDLINE search yielded one large review and four small case series. The small case series were included in the review. The review and our series yield a total of 54 patients. Mean patient age was 47.1 yr; 59.3% were female. Pre-operative lung data were available for 24 patients: 22 (92%) had pulmonary fibrosis and 17 (71%) had pulmonary hypertension. Most patients (69%) underwent single-lung transplantation. Mean forced expiratory volume at one s after LTX was 67% (range 56-87%). There was no difference in infection and rejection rates between the patients with scleroderma and other LTX recipients. The two- and five-yr survival rates were 72% and 55%, respectively. LTX is a valid option in well-selected patients with scleroderma and pulmonary fibrosis, yielding good pulmonary function and acceptable morbidity and mortality.
Nielsen, Christoffer T; Østergaard, Ole; Rasmussen, Niclas S; Jacobsen, Søren; Heegaard, Niels H H
Subcellular microvesicles (MVs) have attracted increasing interest during the past decades. While initially considered as inert cellular debris, several important roles for MVs in physiological homeostasis, cancer, cardiovascular, and autoimmune diseases have been uncovered. Although still poorly understood, MVs are involved in trafficking of information from cell-to-cell, and are implicated in the regulation of immunity, thrombosis, and coagulation. Different subtypes of extracellular MVs exist. This review focuses on the cell membrane-derived shedded MVs (ranging in size from 200 to 1000 nm) typically termed microparticles (MPs). The numbers and particularly the composition of MPs appear to reflect the state of their parental cells and MPs may therefore carry great potential as clinical biomarkers which can be elucidated and developed by proteomics in particular. Determination of the identity of the specific proteins and their quantities, i.e. the proteome, in complex samples such as MPs enables an in-depth characterization of the phenotypical changes of the MPs during disease states. At present, only a limited number of proteomic studies of circulating MPs have been carried out in healthy individuals and disease populations. Interestingly, these studies indicate that a small set of MP-proteins, in particular, overexpression of galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) distinguish MPs in patients with venous thromboembolism and the systemic autoimmune disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). G3BP is important in cell-cell adhesion, clearance, and intercellular signaling. MPs overexpressing G3BP may thus be involved in thrombosis and hemostasis, vascular inflammation, and autoimmunity, further favoring G3BP as a marker of "pathogenic" MPs. MPs expressing G3BP may also hold a potential as biomarkers in other conditions such as cancer and chronic viral infections. This review highlights the methodology and results of the proteome studies behind these discoveries and
Lukas, R V; Mata-Machado, N A; Nicholas, M K; Salgia, R; Antic, T; Villaflor, V M
The aim of this study was to more clearly define the clinical course of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. A single institution retrospective case series was conducted. Additionally, a systematic review of the literature was performed. We present a large case series (n = 7) of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis due to esophageal cancer. Our case series and systematic review of the literature report similar findings. In our series, we report a predominance of male patients (86%) with adenocarcinoma histology (77%). Variable onset of leptomeningeal involvement of esophageal cancer in relation to the original diagnosis of the primary disease (5 months to 3 years and 11 weeks) was noted. Disease progresses quickly and overall survival is poor, measured in weeks (2.5-16 weeks) from the diagnosis of leptomeningeal involvement. Four of our patients initiated whole-brain radiation therapy with only two completing the course prior to clinical deterioration. Our patient with the longest survival (16 weeks) received intrathecal topotecan and oral temozolomide. Leptomeningeal carcinomatosis secondary to esophageal cancer has a poor prognosis. A clearly beneficial treatment modality is lacking.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed.
Khurshid, Zohaib; Zohaib, Sana; Najeeb, Shariq; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Rehman, Rabia; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur
Applications of proteomics tools revolutionized various biomedical disciplines such as genetics, molecular biology, medicine, and dentistry. The aim of this review is to highlight the major milestones in proteomics in dentistry during the last fifteen years. Human oral cavity contains hard and soft tissues and various biofluids including saliva and crevicular fluid. Proteomics has brought revolution in dentistry by helping in the early diagnosis of various diseases identified by the detection of numerous biomarkers present in the oral fluids. This paper covers the role of proteomics tools for the analysis of oral tissues. In addition, dental materials proteomics and their future directions are discussed. PMID:27187379
Lippolis, J D; Reinhardt, T A
Proteomics holds significant promise as a method for advancing animal science research. The use of this technology in animal science is still in its infancy. The ability of proteomics to simultaneously identify and quantify potentially thousands of proteins is unparalleled. In this review, we will discuss basic principles of doing a proteomic experiment. In addition, challenges and limitations of proteomics will be considered, stressing those that are unique to animal sciences. The current proteomic research in animal sciences will be discussed, and the potential uses for this technology will be highlighted.
Quero, Sara; Párraga-Niño, Noemí; García-Núñez, Marian; Sabrià, Miquel
Infectious diseases have a high incidence in the population, causing a major impact on global health. In vitro culture of microorganisms is the first technique applied for infection diagnosis which is laborious and time consuming. In recent decades, efforts have been focused on the applicability of "Omics" sciences, highlighting the progress provided by proteomic techniques in the field of infectious diseases. This review describes the management, processing and analysis of biological samples for proteomic research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.
Iimure, Takashi; Kihara, Makoto; Sato, Kazuhiro
Proteome analysis provides a way to identify proteins related to the quality traits of beer. A number of protein species in beer and wort have been identified by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with enzyme digestion such as trypsin, followed by mass spectrometry analyses and/or liquid chromatography mass/mass spectrometry. In addition, low molecular weight polypeptides in beer have been identified by the combination of non-enzyme digestion and mass analyses. These data sets of various molecular weight polypeptides (i.e., proteomes) provide a platform for analyzing protein functions in beer. Several novel proteins related to beer quality traits such as foam stability and haze formation have been identified by analyzing these proteomes. Some of the proteins have been applied to the development of efficient protein or DNA markers for trait selection in malting barley breeding. In this chapter, recent proteome studies of beer and wort are reviewed, and the methods and protocols of beer and wort proteome analysis are described.
Germanovich, Andrew; Ferrante, Francis Michael
Mechanical chest wall pain is a common presenting complaint in the primary care office, emergency room, and specialty clinic. Diagnostic testing is often expensive due to similar presenting symptoms that may involve the heart or lungs. Since the chest wall biomechanics are poorly understood by many clinicians, few effective treatments are offered to patients with rib-related acute pain, which may lead to chronic pain. This case series and literature review illustrates biomechanics involved in the pathogenesis of rib-related chest wall pain and suggests an effective multi-modal treatment plan using interventional techniques with emphasis on manual manipulative techniques. Case series and literature review. Pain clinic in an academic medical center. This is a case series of 3 patients diagnosed with painful rib syndrome using osteopathic palpatory physical examination techniques. Ultrasound-guided intercostal nerve blocks were followed by manual manipulation of mechanically displaced ribs as a part of our multi-modal treatment plan. A review of the literature was undertaken to clarify nomenclature used in the description of rib-related pain, to describe the biomechanics involved in the pathogenesis of mechanical rib pain, and to illustrate the use of effective manual manipulation techniques. This review is introductory and not a complete review of all manual or interventional pain management techniques applicable to the treatment of mechanical rib-related pain. Manual diagnostic and therapeutic skills can be learned by physicians to treat biomechanically complex rib-related chest wall pain in combination with interventional image-guided techniques. Pain physicians should learn certain basic manual manipulation skills both for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Weber, Peter; Erlacher, Rahel
Dissociative disorders present a huge challenge in clinical settings. In contrast to other dissociative symptoms, dissociative sensibility disorders are rarely focused on. To identify the clinical characteristics and outcomes of dissociative sensibility disorders in children and adolescents, and to review the use of diagnostic procedures. For the review, a literature search used Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and PubPsych (to 02/2015) and the reference lists of the studies identified. Screening of titles and abstracts; full-text assessment by two reviewers. The original case series was identified by using the local data register. Two reviewers independently reviewed the data and, if they agreed on the relevance, extracted the data. In the original case series, data were extracted retrospectively from the records. Sixteen studies and seven case reports were identified, including 931 cases with dissociative disorders. In 210 cases the patient suffered either from a single sensibility disorder or predominantly from sensibility disorders. We identified thirteen further cases in our cohort. In both groups there was female predominance; the mean age of manifestation was early adolescence. The timing of admissions was variable. In approximately 50% of cases a premorbid stressful life event could be identified. Over 75% of cases had a good prognosis with complete resolution. Retrospective character of our own data collection, partially missing differentiation between the subgroups of dissociative disorders in the reviewed studies. There is no uniform procedure for diagnostic work-up. The overall short-term prognosis is good. Copyright © 2017 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Uter, Wolfgang; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Frosch, Peter; Giménez-Arnau, Ana; John, Swen M; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Lidén, Carola; White, Ian R; Duus Johansen, Jeanne
Many key ingredients of hair cosmetics (in particular, dyes, bleaches, and hair-styling agents) are potent (strong to extreme) contact allergens. Some heterogeneity is apparent from published results concerning the range of allergens for which patch testing is important. The objective of the present review was to collect information on the current practice of using 'hair cosmetic series', and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning consumer/professional exposure and regulatory aspects to finally derive a recommendation for a 'European hair cosmetic series'. The methods involved (i) a survey targeting all members of the COST action 'StanDerm' (TD1206) consortium, (ii) analysis of data in the database of the European Surveillance System on Contact Allergies (ESSCA), and (iii) literature review. Information from 19 European countries was available, partly from national networks, and partly from one or several departments of dermatology or, occasionally, occupational medicine. Apart from some substances being tested only in single departments, a broad overlap regarding 'important' allergens was evident. Some of the substances are no longer permitted for use in cosmetics (Annex II of the Cosmetics Regulation). An up-to-date 'European hair cosmetics series', as recommended in the present article, should (i) include broadly used and/or potent contact allergens, (ii) eliminate substances of only historical concern, and (iii) be continually updated as new evidence emerges.
Full Text Available Proteomics helps to understand the basic biological processes critical to normal cellular functions as well as the development of diseases. It identifies the essential components of these processes and exploits these components as targets in the development of new methods to prevent or treat diseases. Proteomics, although in an infancy stage in India, has the potential to complement and further enlarge the wealth of information in medicine, especially in the field of cancer. This article reviews the recent progress in proteomic techniques and their applications in the field of obstetrics and gynecology.
Fredolini, Claudia; Byström, Sanna; Pin, Elisa; Edfors, Fredrik; Tamburro, Davide; Iglesias, Maria Jesus; Häggmark, Anna; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Uhlen, Mathias; Nilsson, Peter; Schwenk, Jochen M
Aiming at clinical studies of human diseases, antibody-assisted assays have been applied to biomarker discovery and toward a streamlined translation from patient profiling to assays supporting personalized treatments. In recent years, integrated strategies to couple and combine antibodies with mass spectrometry-based proteomic efforts have emerged, allowing for novel possibilities in basic and clinical research. Described in this review are some of the field's current and emerging immunocapture approaches from an affinity proteomics perspective. Discussed are some of their advantages, pitfalls and opportunities for the next phase in clinical and translational proteomics.
Kulkarni, Ranganath R; Ramdurg, Santosh I; Bairy, Bhavya K
Disulfiram (DSF) is one of the recommended aids in the management of selected patients with alcohol dependence. Hypertension (HTN) as an adverse effect of DSF therapy is less understood. In our prospective case series of 7 subjects with co-morbid alcohol and nicotine dependence, a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible grade 1-3 HTN within 1-6 weeks of initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of HTN was noted. Challenges and strategies surrounding diagnosis and treatment along with mean change and percentage rise in blood pressure are described. Literature review and clinical description of case series may suggest neurobiological role in its causation. HTN may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy, especially in co-morbid alcohol and nicotine-dependent patients. Awareness amongst clinicians may render better health care delivery to subjects with alcohol dependence.
Ranganath R Kulkarni
Full Text Available Disulfiram (DSF is one of the recommended aids in the management of selected patients with alcohol dependence. Hypertension (HTN as an adverse effect of DSF therapy is less understood. In our prospective case series of 7 subjects with co-morbid alcohol and nicotine dependence, a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible grade 1-3 HTN within 1-6 weeks of initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of HTN was noted. Challenges and strategies surrounding diagnosis and treatment along with mean change and percentage rise in blood pressure are described. Literature review and clinical description of case series may suggest neurobiological role in its causation. HTN may be a clinically significant, dose-dependent, and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy, especially in co-morbid alcohol and nicotine-dependent patients. Awareness amongst clinicians may render better health care delivery to subjects with alcohol dependence.
He, Xiaoxing; Montillet, Jean-Philippe; Fernandes, Rui; Bos, Machiel; Yu, Kegen; Hua, Xianghong; Jiang, Weiping
The Global Positioning System (GPS) is an important tool to observe and model geodynamic processes such as plate tectonics and post-glacial rebound. In the last three decades, GPS has seen tremendous advances in the precision of the measurements, which allow researchers to study geophysical signals through a careful analysis of daily time series of GPS receiver coordinates. However, the GPS observations contain errors and the time series can be described as the sum of a real signal and noise. The signal itself can again be divided into station displacements due to geophysical causes and to disturbing factors. Examples of the latter are errors in the realization and stability of the reference frame and corrections due to ionospheric and tropospheric delays and GPS satellite orbit errors. There is an increasing demand on detecting millimeter to sub-millimeter level ground displacement signals in order to further understand regional scale geodetic phenomena hence requiring further improvements in the sensitivity of the GPS solutions. This paper provides a review spanning over 25 years of advances in processing strategies, error mitigation methods and noise modeling for the processing and analysis of GPS daily position time series. The processing of the observations is described step-by-step and mainly with three different strategies in order to explain the weaknesses and strengths of the existing methodologies. In particular, we focus on the choice of the stochastic model in the GPS time series, which directly affects the estimation of the functional model including, for example, tectonic rates, seasonal signals and co-seismic offsets. Moreover, the geodetic community continues to develop computational methods to fully automatize all phases from analysis of GPS time series. This idea is greatly motivated by the large number of GPS receivers installed around the world for diverse applications ranging from surveying small deformations of civil engineering structures (e
Spectral library searching has become a mature method to identify tandem mass spectra in proteomics data analysis. This review provides a comprehensive overview of available spectral library search engines and highlights their distinct features. Additionally, resources providing spectral libraries are summarized and tools presented that extend experimental spectral libraries by simulating spectra. Finally, spectrum clustering algorithms are discussed that utilize the same spectrum-to-spectrum matching algorithms as spectral library search engines and allow novel methods to analyse proteomics data.
Schey, Kevin L.; Luther, J. Matthew; Rose, Kristie L
Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitat...
Guillén Astete, Carlos; Aranda García, Yolanda; de la Casa Resino, Cristina; Carpena Zafrilla, María; Braña Cardeñosa, Adela; Roldan Moll, Fernando; Carballo, César; Zea Mendoza, Antonio
Infectious arthritis is a medical emergency whose prognosis, in terms of general morbidity and the final functionality of the joint, depends on rapid diagnosis and treatment. The sternoclavicular joint is an area of low prevalence of this type of arthritis, although its frequency is often concentrated in immunosuppressed patients, users of parenteral drugs or after traumatic events. We present a series of 5 microbiologically documented cases of sternoclavicular septic arthritis, 3 of which occurred in immunocompetent patients, and a short review of this pathology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Maheen Z. Abidi
Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare and often fatal invasive fungal infection mostly seen in immune-compromised individuals. A high index of clinical suspicion is necessary, so that effective preemptive therapy can be started, as timely intervention is crucial. In this series we present three cases of invasive mucormycosis in patients with underlying inflammatory bowel disease that had received therapy with immunomodulators prior to the infection. All three had varied clinical manifestations. We also review the literature of invasive mucormycosis in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.
Tao Cui, MD
Conclusion: Complications involving urologic prosthesis reservoirs, although rare, can have serious implications for patients. A high index of suspicion and familiarity with treatment options is required in order to allow timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Patients with prior major abdominal surgeries seem to be more prone to intestinal complications of reservoirs and warrant special concern. Cui T, Terlecki R, and Mirzazadeh M. Infrequent reservoir‐related complications of urologic prosthetics: A case series and literature review. Sex Med 2015;3:334–338.
Laway, Bashir Ahmad; Bhat, Javid Rasool; Mir, Shahnaz Ahmad; Khan, Raja Sultan Zaman; Lone, Mohd Iqbal; Zargar, Abdul Hamid
Reports of pancytopenia in patients with Sheehan's syndrome are rare, because the disorder is not commonly seen in western countries. A case series of pancytopenia in three patients of Sheehan's syndrome is presented. Three women aged 22, 30, and 34 years developed Sheehan's syndrome preceded by post partum hemorrhage. During investigations, they were found to have pancytopenia with hypocellular marrow. Treatment with thyroxine and glucocorticoids resulted in complete recovery after attaining euthyroid and eucortisolemic state. Review of literature revealed the rarity of the disorder, with only four cases reported so far. Multiple anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies in Sheehan's syndrome are responsible for pancytopenia; replacement of thyroid and cortisol hormones results in complete recovery.
Kienzl-Wagner, Katrin; Pratschke, Johann; Brandacher, Gerald
Proteomics has emerged as a powerful tool in clinical biomarker research. In the field of transplantation, proteomics aims not only at developing noninvasive tools for immune monitoring and identifying biomarkers of allograft rejection but also to gain mechanistic insights into the pathophysiology of an alloimmune response and hence defining new therapeutic targets. A basic knowledge of proteomic technology is a prerequisite to appreciate the complex data generated and required for critical evaluation/interpretation of proteomic-driven studies. This review provides an overview of proteomic approaches and its underlying concepts and discusses the advantages, clinical implications, challenges, and limitations of this exciting modality in transplantation.
Nanda, Tavish; Rasool, Nailyn; Callahan, Alison B; Stamper, Robert L; Odel, Jeffrey G
Systemic absorption and central nervous system (CNS) penetration of timolol drops are a well-studied phenomenon, resulting in common side effects such as bradycardia, bronchospasm, fatigue, and confusion. More serious CNS side effects, such as psychosis and depression, however, are rarely attributed to eye drops. We report a case series in which patients developed visual hallucinations secondary to topical ocular timolol use. This study is a case series and review of the literature. Four patients with glaucoma developed visual hallucinations while using topical timolol. The patients were all elderly, caucasian females with associated CNS pathology. All patients had resolution of symptoms upon discontinuation and a positive retrial test to confirm the association. The rarity of this side effect and its anecdotal predilection for elderly, caucasian females with underlying neurological dysfunction, may involve a yet unknown predisposition or hypersensitivity to beta blocker action, such as blood brain barrier disruption leading to increased susceptibility to the medication. This case series highlights an important, although rare, side effect of this medication which clinicians should be aware of especially when using it in elderly patients who may have coexisting CNS pathology. It is important that this side effect be recognized and appropriately managed to prevent otherwise unnecessary investigations and treatment.
Schröder, Bernd A; Wrocklage, Christian; Hasilik, Andrej; Saftig, Paul
Lysosomes are organelles of eukaryotic cells that are critically involved in the degradation of macromolecules mainly delivered by endocytosis and autophagocytosis. Degradation is achieved by more than 60 hydrolases sequestered by a single phospholipid bilayer. The lysosomal membrane facilitates interaction and fusion with other compartments and harbours transport proteins catalysing the export of catabolites, thereby allowing their recycling. Lysosomal proteins have been addressed in various proteomic studies that are compared in this review regarding the source of material, the organelle/protein purification scheme, the proteomic methodology applied and the proteins identified. Distinguishing true constituents of an organelle from co-purifying contaminants is a central issue in subcellular proteomics, with additional implications for lysosomes as being the site of degradation of many cellular and extracellular proteins. Although many of the lysosomal hydrolases were identified by classical biochemical approaches, the knowledge about the protein composition of the lysosomal membrane has remained fragmentary for a long time. Using proteomics many novel lysosomal candidate proteins have been discovered and it can be expected that their functional characterisation will help to understand functions of lysosomes at a molecular level that have been characterised only phenomenologically so far and to generally deepen our understanding of this indispensable organelle.
Guggisberg, Kelly; Jordan, Richard C.K.
Objective Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare B cell neoplasm that has only recently been defined as a distinct entity. Because of its rarity and histological similarities with other small cell lymphomas, the microscopic diagnosis of MCL may be challenging. This is particularly true within the oral cavity where other lymphomas are more frequent. To date, few cases of MCL presenting within the oral cavity have been reported. Study Design We present 2 new cases of MCL presenting within the oral cavity and systematically reviewed 7 other cases of MCL reported in the English language literature. Historical cases were reviewed and available data regarding morphology, special stains, demographics, clinical presentation, radiographic findings, management and outcome were extracted. Data from our current series was then compared with the earlier published literature. Results To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest reviewed series of MCL within the oral cavity totaling 9 cases. The features of our cases, including histology, clinical presentation and outcome, are consistent with the 7 previously reported cases. The majority of oral MCLs occur in an older male population and a high proportion occur on the palate. Conclusion We conclude that MCL of the oral cavity is an uncommon diagnosis. Most oral MCLs occur in an elderly male population and have a possible predilection for the palate. The microscopic diagnosis can be challenging given its similar appearance to other small cell lymphomas requiring a comprehensive immunohistochemical panel for the accurate diagnosis. Like MCL occurring in other sites in the body, the prognosis and outcome of oral MCL appears to be poor. PMID:19880332
Bigelow, Diana J.; Qian, Weijun
An essential first step in the understanding disease and environmental perturbations is the early and quantitative detection of the increased levels of the inflammatory marker nitrotyrosine, as compared with its endogenous levels within the tissue or cellular proteome. Thus, methods that successfully address a proteome-wide quantitation of nitrotyrosine and related oxidative modifications can provide early biomarkers of risk and progression of disease as well as effective strategies for therapy. Multidimensional separations LC coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has, in recent years, significantly expanded our knowledge of human (and mammalian model system) proteomes including some nascent work in identification of post-translational modifications. In the following review, we discuss the application of LC-MS/MS for quantitation and identification of nitrotyrosine-modified proteins within the context of complex protein mixtures presented in mammalian proteomes.
Zufferey, Anne; Fontana, Pierre; Reny, Jean-Luc; Nolli, Severine; Sanchez, Jean-Charles
Platelets are small cell fragments, produced by megakaryocytes, in the bone marrow. They play an important role in hemostasis and diverse thrombotic disorders. They are therefore primary targets of antithrombotic therapies. They are implicated in several pathophysiological pathways, such as inflammation or wound repair. In blood circulation, platelets are activated by several pathways including subendothelial matrix and thrombin, triggering the formation of the platelet plug. Studying their proteome is a powerful approach to understand their biology and function. However, particular attention must be paid to different experimental parameters, such as platelet quality and purity. Several technologies are involved during the platelet proteome processing, yielding information on protein identification, characterization, localization, and quantification. Recent technical improvements in proteomics combined with inter-disciplinary strategies, such as metabolomic, transcriptomics, and bioinformatics, will help to understand platelets biological mechanisms. Therefore, a comprehensive analysis of the platelet proteome under different environmental conditions may contribute to elucidate complex processes relevant to platelet function regarding bleeding disorders or platelet hyperreactivity and identify new targets for antiplatelet therapy.
Kacerovsky, Marian; Lenco, Juraj; Musilova, Ivana
This review aimed to identify, synthesize, and analyze the findings of studies on proteomic biomarkers for spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Three electronic databases (Medline, Embase, and Scopus) were searched for studies in any language reporting the use of proteomic biomarkers for PTB published...
Full Text Available This paper gives a review of available information on natural-series radionuclides in traditional Aboriginal foods of northern Australia. Research on this topic has been carried out primarily for radiological impact assessment purposes in relation to uranium mining activities in the region. Many of the studies have concentrated on providing purely concentration data or concentration ratios, although more detailed uptake studies have been undertaken for freshwater mussels, turtles, and water lilies. The most-studied radionuclides are 238U and 226Ra. However, dose estimates based on current data highlight the importance of 210Po, particularly for the natural (nonmining-related dose. Data on uptake by terrestrial flora and fauna are scarce in comparison with aquatic organisms, and this knowledge gap will need to be addressed in relation to planning for uranium minesite rehabilitation.
Ambrose, N L
INTRODUCTION: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an auto-immune disease that is characterised by autoantibody production. Male lupus is rare, apart from at either end of the age spectrum. AIM: In this series, we review the histories of six male lupus patients attending our service. RESULTS: Our patients presented in middle age and tended to develop haematological abnormalities, renal involvement and neurological manifestations which preceded the onset of their skin and joint complaints. Our patients accrued damage rapidly and overall did badly. They tended to respond sub-optimally to standard treatments. These cases highlight the need an increased awareness that male SLE patients present with a wide variety of symptoms, and that they accrue damage quickly. There is a need for timely diagnosis and appropriate initiation of treatment. This may help avoid preventable organ damage and increase the survival of men with SLE.
Kathariya, Rahul; Pradeep, A R
Gingival melanin pigmentation occurs in all races of mankind. Although clinical melanin pigmentation does neither present itself as a medical problem nor a disease entity, it is a major esthetic concern for many people, especially Asians. Esthetic gingival depigmentation procedures can be performed in such patients with excellent results. This case series presents a split mouth de-epithelization procedure using popular surgical techniques such as scalpel, bur abrasion or electrosurgery. These techniques were successfully used to treat gingival hyperpigmentation. Although we found that electrosurgery increased the efficacy of our work, giving a cleaner and neater work field, it required a lot of precision. In contrast, scalpel de-epithelization was easy and technique-friendly, giving excellent results and patient satisfaction. However, the cases are being followed-up to study the factors affecting the rate and length of time required for repigmentation and to study the repigmentation patterns. This case series also reviews the advantages and disadvantages of various techniques available for depigmentation, and reiterates that the scalpel technique still serves as a gold standard for depigmentation.
Cramer, Holger; Krucoff, Carol; Dobos, Gustav
While yoga is gaining increased popularity in North America and Europe, its safety has been questioned in the lay press. The aim of this systematic review was to assess published case reports and case series on adverse events associated with yoga. Medline/Pubmed, Scopus, CAMBase, IndMed and the Cases Database were screened through February 2013; and 35 case reports and 2 case series reporting a total of 76 cases were included. Ten cases had medical preconditions, mainly glaucoma and osteopenia. Pranayama, hatha yoga, and Bikram yoga were the most common yoga practices; headstand, shoulder stand, lotus position, and forceful breathing were the most common yoga postures and breathing techniques cited. Twenty-seven adverse events (35.5%) affected the musculoskeletal system; 14 (18.4%) the nervous system; and 9 (11.8%) the eyes. Fifteen cases (19.7%) reached full recovery; 9 cases (11.3%) partial recovery; 1 case (1.3%) no recovery; and 1 case (1.3%) died. As any other physical or mental practice, yoga should be practiced carefully under the guidance of a qualified instructor. Beginners should avoid extreme practices such as headstand, lotus position and forceful breathing. Individuals with medical preconditions should work with their physician and yoga teacher to appropriately adapt postures; patients with glaucoma should avoid inversions and patients with compromised bone should avoid forceful yoga practices.
Sameer Aggarwal; Vishal Kumar; Kishan Ramachandra Bhagwat; Vokkaleri Shankaranarayana Shashikanth; Holalu Shankaralingegowda Ravikumar
Inferior hip dislocation is the rarest type among all hip dislocations.Very few cases have been reported in the English literature.Most of the earlier reported cases involves the pediatric age group.No single case series could be found in the English literature.We came across 4 cases of inferior hip dislocation with a varied age profile (range 10 to 56 years,mean 33.8 years).Patients with this disease usually complained of pain and kept the thigh flexed and abducted.The diagnosis can be confirmed by radiographs which reveal that the long axis of the femur varies in alignment with respect to the spine from parallel to an angle almost 90° away from the axis.In our series,closed reduction was successful in all patients,either under sedation or general anaesthesia.Skin traction for a period of 6 weeks was applied in all of them and follow-up revealed pain-free,stable and mobile hips.In this study we present the details of these cases along with a review of literature discussing the various modes and mechanisms that produce inferior hip dislocation.
Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Inferior hip dislocation is the rarest type among all hip dislocations. Very few cases have been re-ported in the English literature. Most of the earlier reported cases involves the pediatric age group. No single case series could be found in the English literature. We came across 4 cases of inferior hip dislocation with a varied age profile (range 10 to 56 years, mean 33.8 years. Patients with this disease usually complained of pain and kept the thigh flexed and abducted. The diagnosis can be confirmed by radiographs which reveal that the long axis of the femur varies in alignment with respect to the spine from parallel to an angle almost 90° away from the axis. In our series, closed reduction was successful in all patients, either under seda-tion or general anaesthesia. Skin traction for a period of 6 weeks was applied in all of them and follow-up revealed pain-free, stable and mobile hips. In this study we present the details of these cases along with a review of literature discussing the various modes and mechanisms that pro-duce inferior hip dislocation. Key words: Hip dislocation; Therapeutics; Traction; Weight-bearing
Journal ofProteomics & Bioinformatics.He has published more than 200 papers in international peer-reviewed journals,including Science,Nature Cell Biology,Nature Genetics,Nature Biotechnology,Nature Methods, Nature Protocols, PNAS, EMBO J,Gastroenterology,Hepatology,Genome Res,and Mol Cell Proteomics.
Khalife, Sarah; Marchica, Cinzia; Zawawi, Faisal; Daniel, Sam J.; Manoukian, John J.
Background: Concha bullosa mucocele is a rare diagnosis that presents as a nasal mass. It impinges on surrounding structures and can easily be mistaken for a neoplasm. Objective: The objective of this study was to shed light on this rare entity and report its diagnostic features and treatment outcomes. Methods: A case series conducted in a tertiary health care center. Demographic data, clinical presentation, imaging, cultures, and treatments were recorded. Operative video illustration and key images were obtained. A review of the literature was also performed. Results: A total of five cases were reviewed, four of which were concha bullosa mucoceles and one was a mucopyocele. Three of the patients had some form of previous nasal trauma. Headache and nasal obstruction were the most common symptoms with a nasal mass finding on physical examination. Computed tomography was used in all the patients, and magnetic resonance imaging was used in four of the five patients. Four patients had coexistent chronic rhinosinusitis, and three had positive bacterial cultures. All these patients were treated endoscopically either with middle turbinate marsupialization or subtotal resection. No recurrence has been noted thus far. Conclusion: Concha bullosa mucocele is a rare diagnosis. Imaging characteristics are helpful in considering the diagnosis, although surgical intervention is often necessary to confirm the diagnosis and treat concha bullosa mucocele.
Wong, San S; Daka, Smitha; Pastewski, Andrew; Kyaw, Win; Chapnick, Edward; Sepkowitz, Douglas
Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare but potentially devastating condition. We noticed an increase in the number of cases of SEA, with the majority in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This prompted a retrospective chart review of all cases of SEA admitted from 2000 to 2005 and a literature search of similar cases. We identified 19 SEA cases treated at Long Island College Hospital during this 6-year period, of which six were on HD: four were dialyzed via catheter, one via arteriovenous fistula, and in one the method of dialysis was not documented. Four patients had bacteremia with Staphylococcus aureus. Four patients presented with paresis or paralysis; only one improved. The mortality rate was 33% (2/6). We found 30 other cases of SEA in patients on HD from the literature. These 36 HD cases were compared with 85 SEA cases that were not on HD (13 from our study and 72 described in two large case series). The mortality rate was noted to be much higher in HD patients (23% [6/26] versus 7% [6/85]). Neurologic deficit at presentation was noted in 47% (17/36) of HD patients versus 69% (59/85) of non-HD patients, but neurologic improvement was higher in non-HD patients (71% [42/59] versus 29% [5/17]). This is the largest literature review of SEA in patients on HD. When compared with non-HD patients, HD patients had a higher mortality rate and were less likely to improve neurologically.
Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry
Proteome provides highly valuable information on the amount, modifications, and subcellular localization of polypeptides. Accordingly, geneticists, molecular biologists, and biochemists have logically applied these new tools to respond to different lines of biological questions (inventory of proteins, impact of a mutation, dynamics of protein regulation under a given exposure, …). However, even if the results obtained are very informative, this approach needs an excellent experimental design which ensures robustness and thus yields reproducibility. The present chapter gives appropriate methods for assessing the proteome of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis approach. Protocols for crude protein extraction, protein separation by using immobilized pH gradients, and protein identification by Liquid Chromatography coupled with tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) are given.
Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ortiz, Alberto
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the three causes of death that has had the highest increase in the last 20 years. The increasing CKD burden occurs in the context of lack of access of most of the world population to adequate healthcare and an incomplete understanding of the pathogenesis of CKD. However, CKD is not homogeneously distributed. CKD hotspots are defined as countries, region, communities or ethnicities with higher than average incidence of CKD. Analysis of CKD hotspots has the potential to provide valuable insights into the pathogenesis of kidney disease and to improve the life expectancy of the affected communities. Examples include ethnicities such as African Americans in the USA or Aboriginals in Australia, regions such as certain Balkan valleys or Central America and even groups of people sharing common activities or interests such as young women trying to lose weight in Belgium. The study of these CKD hotspots has identified underlying genetic factors, such as ApoL1 gene variants, environmental toxins, such as aristolochic acid and socioeconomic factors leading to nutritional deprivation and inflammation/infection. The CKD hotspots series of CKJ reviews will explore the epidemiology and causes in CKD hotspots, beginning with Australian Aboriginals in this issue. An online map of CKD hotspots around the world will feature the reviewed hotspots, highlighting known or suspected causes as well as ongoing projects to unravel the cause and providing a directory of public health officials, physicians and basic scientists involved in these efforts. Since the high prevalence of CKD in a particular region or population may only be known to local physicians, we encourage readers to propose further CKD hotspots to be reviewed.
Ewusie, Joycelyne E; Blondal, Erik; Soobiah, Charlene; Beyene, Joseph; Thabane, Lehana; Straus, Sharon E; Hamid, Jemila S
Interrupted time series (ITS) design involves collecting data across multiple time points before and after the implementation of an intervention to assess the effect of the intervention on an outcome. ITS designs have become increasingly common in recent times with frequent use in assessing impact of evidence implementation interventions. Several statistical methods are currently available for analysing data from ITS designs; however, there is a lack of guidance on which methods are optimal for different data types and on their implications in interpreting results. Our objective is to conduct a scoping review of existing methods for analysing ITS data, to summarise their characteristics and properties, as well as to examine how the results are reported. We also aim to identify gaps and methodological deficiencies. We will search electronic databases from inception until August 2016 (eg, MEDLINE and JSTOR). Two reviewers will independently screen titles, abstracts and full-text articles and complete the data abstraction. The anticipated outcome will be a summarised description of all the methods that have been used in analysing ITS data in health research, how those methods were applied, their strengths and limitations and the transparency of interpretation/reporting of the results. We will provide summary tables of the characteristics of the included studies. We will also describe the similarities and differences of the various methods. Ethical approval is not required for this study since we are just considering the methods used in the analysis and there will not be identifiable patient data. Results will be disseminated through open access peer-reviewed publications. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Cheng, C. M.; Peng, Z. K.; Zhang, W. M.; Meng, G.
Nonlinear problems have drawn great interest and extensive attention from engineers, physicists and mathematicians and many other scientists because most real systems are inherently nonlinear in nature. To model and analyze nonlinear systems, many mathematical theories and methods have been developed, including Volterra series. In this paper, the basic definition of the Volterra series is recapitulated, together with some frequency domain concepts which are derived from the Volterra series, including the general frequency response function (GFRF), the nonlinear output frequency response function (NOFRF), output frequency response function (OFRF) and associated frequency response function (AFRF). The relationship between the Volterra series and other nonlinear system models and nonlinear problem solving methods are discussed, including the Taylor series, Wiener series, NARMAX model, Hammerstein model, Wiener model, Wiener-Hammerstein model, harmonic balance method, perturbation method and Adomian decomposition. The challenging problems and their state of arts in the series convergence study and the kernel identification study are comprehensively introduced. In addition, a detailed review is then given on the applications of Volterra series in mechanical engineering, aeroelasticity problem, control engineering, electronic and electrical engineering.
Full Text Available Chris Kalogeropoulos1, Ioannis Koumpoulis1, Andreas Mentis2, Chrisavgi Pappa1, Paraskevas Zafeiropoulos1, Miltiadis Aspiotis11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Greece; 2Laboratory of Medical Microbiology, Hellenic Pasteur Institute, Athens, GreecePurpose: To present various forms of uveitis and/or retinal vasculitis attributed to Bartonella infection and review the impact of this microorganism in patients with uveitis.Methods: Retrospective case series study. Review of clinical records of patients diagnosed with Bartonella henselae and Bartonella quintana intraocular inflammation from 2001 to 2010 in the Ocular Inflammation Department of the University Eye Clinic, Ioannina, Greece. Presentation of epidemiological and clinical data concerning Bartonella infection was provided by the international literature.Results: Eight patients with the diagnosis of Bartonella henselae and two patients with B. quintana intraocular inflammation were identified. Since four patients experienced bilateral involvement, the affected eyes totaled 14. The mean age was 36.6 years (range 12–62. Uveitic clinical entities that we found included intermediate uveitis in seven eyes (50%, vitritis in two eyes (14.2%, neuroretinitis in one eye (7.1%, focal retinochoroiditis in one eye (7.1%, branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO due to vasculitis in one eye (7.1%, disc edema with peripapillary serous retinal detachment in one eye (7.1%, and iridocyclitis in one eye (7.1%. Most of the patients (70% did not experience systemic symptoms preceding the intraocular inflammation. Antimicrobial treatment was efficient in all cases with the exception of the case with neuroretinitis complicated by anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and tubulointerstitial nephritis.Conclusion: Intraocular involvement caused not only by B. henselae but also by B. quintana is being diagnosed with increasing frequency. A high index of suspicion is needed because the
Islam, Sameer; Cevik, Cihan; Madonna, Rosalinda; Frandah, Wesam; Islam, Ebtesam; Islam, Sherazad; Nugent, Kenneth
The use of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) has become a state-of-the-art therapy for advanced cardiac heart failure; however, multiple reports in the literature describe an increased risk for gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in these patients. We characterized this association by reviewing recent studies on this topic. GI bleeding occurs frequently in patients with LVADs, especially with devices with nonpulsatile flow patterns. We performed a comprehensive literature review to identify articles that reported GI bleeding in patients with LVADs. Databases used included PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Ovid. Baseline and outcome data were then ed from these reports. We identified 10 case reports and 22 case series with 1543 patients. The mean age was 54.2 years. Most patients had nonpulsatile LVADs (1316, 85.3%). Three hundred and seventeen patients (20.5%) developed GI bleeding; this occurred more frequently in patients with nonpulsatile LVADs. Multiple procedures were performed without complications but often did not identify a definite bleeding site. Suspect lesions occurred throughout the GI tract but were more frequent in the upper GI tract. Many patients had arteriovenous malformations. All patients received medical therapy. None of the patients had their LVAD replaced. The use of anticoagulation did not appear to predispose these patients to more GI bleeding episodes. Patients with LVADs have frequent GI bleeds, especially from arteriovenous malformations, which can occur throughout the GI tract. Most diagnostic and therapeutic interventions can be used safely in these patients. The pathogenesis of the GI bleeding in these patients may involve the use of anticoagulant medications, the formation of arteriovenous malformations, loss of von Willebrand factor activity, and mucosal ischemia. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Aignătoaei, Anda Maria; Moldoveanu, Cristina Elena; Căruntu, Irina Draga; Giușcă, Simona Eliza; Partene Vicoleanu, Simona; Nedelcu, Alin Horațiu
Congenital rib abnormalities are found in approximately 2% of the general population. Usually, they occur in isolation, when they are rarely symptomatic, but they can also associate with other malformations. We reviewed imaging examinations performed over a period of two years (2014-2015), enabling us to identify isolated rib abnormalities in six adult patients. The case series consisted in three cases with bilateral cervical ribs and one case each with bifid rib, costal fusion and rib pseudarthrosis. In all patients, the costal anomalies were discovered incidentally. All rib malformations were detected at thoracic radiography, except for the rib pseudarthrosis, which was identified at CT scan. Differential diagnosis was made between cervical ribs and abnormalities of the C7 transverse process and of the first rib, while the other costal malformations were distinguished from tumoral, traumatic or inflammatory lesions of the chest wall, lung and pleura. Considering the existing knowledge on rib development, we suggest a classification of the most common types of rib malformations in three categories: (I) results of homeotic transformation, referring to numerical aberrations; (II) segmentation errors, including costal fusion and bridging; (III) anomalies of resegmentation, resulting in bifid ribs. It is important that radiologists are familiarized with the imaging features of rib abnormalities, since these anomalies can be misinterpreted as lesions with different implications. We aim that the developmental classification proposed in this paper can contribute to a better understanding of this pathology.
Dumitrascu, Traian; Ionescu, Mihnea; Ciurea, Silviu; Herlea, Vlad; Lupescu, Ioana; Popescu, Irinel
Obstruction of the hepatic hilum in patients without prior surgery is generally due to hilar adenocarcinoma (Klatskin tumor). However, not all the hilar strictures are malignant. Although uncommon, benign strictures of the proximal bile duct should be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of Klatskin tumors, since the incidence could reach up to 25% of patients with presumed Klatskin tumor diagnosis. This group of benign proximal bile duct strictures (Klatskin-mimicking lesions) is usually represented by segmental fibrosis and non-specific chronic inflammation. The clinical and imaging features can not differentiate between benign and malignant strictures. Herein, we present a case series of three patients with benign proximal bile duct strictures (representing 4.1% of 73 patients resected with presumptive preoperative diagnosis of Klatskin tumor) and literature review. There are presented the clinical and biochemical features, imaging preoperative workup, surgical treatment and histological analysis of the specimen, along with postoperative outcome. For benign strictures of the hilum limited resections are curative. However, despite new diagnosis tools developed in the last years, patients with hilar obstructions still require unnecessary extensive resections due to impossibility of excluding the malignancy. In all cases of proximal bile duct obstruction presumed malignant, they should be managed accordingly, even with the risk of over-treatment for some benign lesions.
Paredes Saenz, Carmen; Raju, Rubin; Cuthpert, Sierra; Kanzy, Abed; Abhari, Sina; Hebert III, John; Rocha, Frederico G.
Introduction. Uterine leiomyomas, also called uterine fibroids or myomas, are the most common pelvic tumors in women. They are very rarely the cause of acute complications. However, when complications occur they cause significant morbidity and mortality. Thromboembolic disease has been described as a rare complication of uterine leiomyomas. DVT is a serious illness, sometimes causing death due to acute PE. Cases. We report a case series of 3 patients with thromboembolic disease associated with uterine leiomyoma at Hurley Medical Center, Flint, Michigan, during 2015 and conduct a literature review on the topic. A literature search was conducted using Medline, PubMed, and PMC databases from 1966 to 2015. Conclusion. The uterine leiomyoma is a very rare cause of PE and only few cases have been reported. DVT secondary to uterine leiomyoma should be considered in a female presenting with abdominal mass and pelvic pressure, if there is no clear common cause for her symptoms. Thromboembolic disease secondary to large uterine leiomyoma should be treated with acute stabilization and then hysterectomy. Prophylactic anticoagulation would be beneficial for lowering the risk of VTE in patients with large uterine leiomyoma. PMID:27885348
Full Text Available Introduction. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a relatively novel cardiac syndrome that is characterized by transient left ventricular asynergy involving apical and mid-ventricular segments. Epidemiology and pathophisiology. It occurs predominantly in elderly women in the absence of obstructive coronary artery disease and is usually associated with severe emotional or physical stress. This syndrome is manifested with chest pain, electrocardiographic changes that mimic acute myocardial infarction, and minimal myocardial enzymatic release. Several different mechanisms have been proposed: coronary artery spasm, dynamic left ventricular outflow/intracavitary obstruction, coronary microvascular dysfunction and direct catecholamine-mediated cardiomyocite injury. Therapy and prognosis. Complete recovery usually occurs after dramatic presentation, frequently complicated with acute heart failure. Therapy is empiric and directed towards supportive measures against cardiogenic shock, acute heart failure, dysrhythmias. In-hospital mortality rate is less than 1%, but long-term prognosis is still unknown. In addition to the review of the literature on takotsubo cardiomyopathy, we present the first series of patients with this syndrome detected in Clinical Hospital Center Zemun.
Adam T. Marler
Full Text Available Background. Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are a cause of sudden cardiac death. Of the known anatomic variants, anomalous origination of a coronary artery from an opposite sinus of Valsalva (ACAOS remains the main focus of debate. Case Series. We present three cases, all presenting to our facility within one week’s time, of patients with newly discovered anomalous origination of the left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva (L-ACAOS. All patients underwent cardiac computed tomography for evaluation of coronary anatomy along with other forms of functional testing. Despite the high risk nature of two of the anomalies, the patients are being treated medically without recurrence of symptoms. Summary. After review of the literature, we have found that the risk of sudden cardiac death in patients with congenital coronary anomalies, even among variants considered the highest risk, may be overestimated. In addition, the exact prevalence of coronary anomalies in the general population is currently underestimated. A national coronary artery anomaly registry based on cardiac computed tomography and invasive coronary angiography data would be helpful in advancing our understanding of these cardiac peculiarities. The true prevalence of congenital coronary anomalies and overall risk of sudden cardiac death in this population are not well known. Surgical intervention remains the mainstay of therapy in certain patients though recent investigations into the pathophysiology of these abnormalities have shown that the risk of surgery may outweigh the minimal reduction in risk of sudden cardiac death.
Martin M Monti
Full Text Available Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a General Linear Model (GLM approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.
Monti, Martin M
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most widely used tools to study the neural underpinnings of human cognition. Standard analysis of fMRI data relies on a general linear model (GLM) approach to separate stimulus induced signals from noise. Crucially, this approach relies on a number of assumptions about the data which, for inferences to be valid, must be met. The current paper reviews the GLM approach to analysis of fMRI time-series, focusing in particular on the degree to which such data abides by the assumptions of the GLM framework, and on the methods that have been developed to correct for any violation of those assumptions. Rather than biasing estimates of effect size, the major consequence of non-conformity to the assumptions is to introduce bias into estimates of the variance, thus affecting test statistics, power, and false positive rates. Furthermore, this bias can have pervasive effects on both individual subject and group-level statistics, potentially yielding qualitatively different results across replications, especially after the thresholding procedures commonly used for inference-making.
Full Text Available Neuroendocrine tumours of the digestive system (GEP-NET are relatively rare. Nevertheless, their diagnoses is rising as seen from studies in the US and elsewhere. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (Gastric NETs vary through a wide clinical spectrum, from asymptomatic cases to functioning tumours. Gastrointestinal specialists need to be aware and pursue these lesions as they are indolent with a malignant variant and a potential for metastasis. A computerised search through our pathology laboratory data base, using codes for gastric, carcinoid and neuroendocrine tumour/ hyperplasia, was used to identify cases from January 2008 to September 2014. Medical charts were retrieved, examined. Eleven cases were identified and re-examined by one consultant pathologist. There were 5 females - mean age of 50 years (39-59 and 6 males - mean age of 57 years (41-73. Mean follow up period was 4.5 years (1-9. Gastric NETs fall into Type I, II and III (WHO Classification. Our series showed eight cases of Type I managed by biopsy/ endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR. No Type II cases were identified and one case of Type III had a subtotal gastrectomy and lymphadenectomy. Two neuroendocrine hyperplasia cases were managed by biopsy only. Cases were followed up (except one who refused with regular upper endoscopy and imaging as indicated. A literature review of managing Gastric NETs was discussed. We aim to alert gastrointestinal specialists by presenting a retrospective study of Gastric NETs from a single teaching institution.
Songlin RUAN; Huasheng MA; Shiheng WANG; Ya XIN; Lihua QIAN; Jianxing TONG; Jie WANG
Following the completion of genome sequen-cing of model plants,such as rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Arabidopsis thaliana,the era of functional plant genomics has arrived which provides a solid basis for the develop-ment of plant proteomics.We review the background and concepts of proteomics,as well as the key techniques which include:(1) separation techniques such as 2-DE (two-dimensional electrophoresis),RP-HPLC (reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography) and SELDI (surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization) protein chip; (2) mass spectrometry such as MALDI-TOF-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight- mass spectrometry) and ESI-MS/MS (elec-trospray ionization mass spectrometry/mass spectro-metry); (3) Peptide sequence tags; (4) databases related to proteomics; (5) quantitative proteome; (6) TAP (tandem affinity purification) and (7) yeast two-hybrid system.In addition,the challenges and prospects of pro-teomics are also discussed.
Being a significant health problem that affects patients in various age groups, breast cancer has been extensively studied to date. Recently, molecular breast cancer classification has advanced significantly with the availability of genomic profiling technologies. Proteomic technologies have also advanced from traditional protein assays including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry to more comprehensive approaches including mass spectrometry and reverse phase protein lysate arrays (RPPA). The purpose of this manuscript is to review the current protein markers that influence breast cancer prediction and prognosis and to focus on novel advances in proteomic classification of breast cancer.
Weldeselassie, Y G; Whitaker, H J; Farrington, C P
The self-controlled case-series method was originally developed to investigate potential associations between vaccines and adverse events, and is now commonly used for this purpose. This study reviews applications of the method to vaccine safety investigations in the period 1995-2010. In total, 40 studies were reviewed. The application of the self-controlled case-series method in these studies is critically examined, with particular reference to the definition of observation and risk periods, control of confounders, assumptions and potential biases, methodological and presentation issues, power and sample size, and software. Comparisons with other study designs undertaken in the papers reviewed are also highlighted. Some recommendations are presented, with the emphasis on promoting good practice.
Full Text Available Mass spectrometry-based proteomics is a powerful tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in biological samples. While it is routinely used for the characterization of simple cell line systems, the analysis of the cell specific proteome in multicellular organisms and tissues poses a significant challenge. Isolating a subset of cells from tissues requires mechanical and biochemical separation or sorting, a process which can alter cellular signaling, and thus, the composition of the proteome. Recently, several approaches for cell selective labeling of proteins, that include bioorthogonal amino acids, biotinylating enzymes, and genetic tools, have been developed. These tools facilitate the selective labeling of proteins, their interactome, or of specific cell types within a tissue or an organism, while avoiding the difficult and contamination-prone biochemical separation of cells from the tissue. In this review, we give an overview of existing techniques and their application in cell culture models and whole animals.
Schey, Kevin L; Luther, J Matthew; Rose, Kristie L
Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitative, global quantitative, and targeted quantitative analysis of exosomal proteins. In addition, we provide an example application of a standard global quantitative analysis followed by validation via a targeted quantitative analysis of urine exosome samples from human patients. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed as well as future directions for exosome proteomics analysis.
Financial-economic time series distinguishes from other time series because they contain a portion of uncertainity. Because of this, statistical theory and methods play important role in their analysis. Moreover, external influence of various parameters on the values in time series makes them non-linear, which on the other hand suggests employment of more complex techniques for ther modeling. To cope with this challenging problem many researchers and scientists have developed various models a...
Fasano, S; Margiotta, D P; Navarini, L; Pierro, L; Pantano, I; Riccardi, A; Afeltra, A; Valentini, G
Background Systemic lupus erythematosus is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Low-dose aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statins have been suggested to play a prophylactic role of cardiovascular events. This study is devoted to reviewing the literature on the topic and assessing the effects of these drugs in preventing a first cardiovascular event in a two-centre Italian series. Methods A PubMed search on cardiovascular prevention in systemic lupus erythematosus was performed. Moreover, systemic lupus erythematosus patients admitted to two centres from 2000-2015, who at admission had not experienced any cardiovascular event, were investigated. Aspirin, hydroxychloroquine and statin use, and the occurrence of any cardiovascular event, were recorded at each visit. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate the role of traditional, disease-related cardiovascular risk factors and of each of the three drugs in the occurrence of new cardiovascular events. Results The literature search produced conflicting results. Two hundred and ninety-one systemic lupus erythematosus patients were included in the study and followed for a median of eight years. During follow-up, 16 cardiovascular events occurred. At multivariate analysis, taking aspirin (hazard ratio: 0.24) and hydroxychloroquine for more than five years (hazard ratio: 0.27) reduced, while antiphospholipid antibody positivity (hazard ratio: 4.32) increased, the risk of a first cardiovascular event. No effect of statins emerged. Conclusion Our study confirms an additive role of aspirin and hydroxychloroquine in the primary prophylaxis of cardiovascular events in Italian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. The lack of any detected effect in previous reports may depend on the design of studies and their short follow-up period.
Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C
... of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics...
Hines, Harry B
Proteomic analyses involve a series of intricate, interdependent steps involving approaches and technical issues that must be fully coordinated to obtain the optimal amount of required information about the test subject. Fortunately, many of these steps are common to most test subjects, requiring only modifications to or, in some cases, substitution of some of the steps to ensure they are relevant to the desired objective of a study. This fortunate occurrence creates an essential core of proteomic approaches and techniques that are consistently available for most studies, regardless of test subject. In this chapter, an overview of some of these core approaches, techniques, and mass spectrometric instrumentation is given, while indicating how such steps are useful for and applied to bacterial investigations. To exemplify how such proteomic concepts and techniques are applicable to bacterial investigations, a practical, quantitative method useful for bacterial proteomic analysis is presented with a discussion of possibilities, pitfalls, and some emerging technology to provide a compilation of information from the diverse literature that is intermingled with experimental experience.
Ran-ran WANG; Zhi-hong HU; Hua-lin WANG; Fei DENG
Large DNA viruses normally have complex structures with many of protein components derived from both viral and host origins. The development in proteomics, especially mass spectrometry identification techniques provide powerful tools for analyzing large viruses. In this review, we have summarized the recent achievements on proteomic studies of large DNA viruses, such as herpesvirus, poxvirus, nimavirus and baculoviruse. The proteomics of baculovirus occlusion-derived virions (ODV) were emphasized. Different mass spectrometry techniques used on ,carious baculoviruses were introduced, and the identified structurally associated proteins of baculoviruses are summarized.
The Allan variance (AVAR) was introduced 50 years ago as a statistical tool for assessing of the frequency standards deviations. For the past decades, AVAR has increasingly being used in geodesy and astrometry to assess the noise characteristics in geodetic and astrometric time series. A specific feature of astrometric and geodetic measurements, as compared with the clock measurements, is that they are generally associated with uncertainties; thus, an appropriate weighting should be applied during data analysis. Besides, some physically connected scalar time series naturally form series of multi-dimensional vectors. For example, three station coordinates time series $X$, $Y$, and $Z$ can be combined to analyze 3D station position variations. The classical AVAR is not intended for processing unevenly weighted and/or multi-dimensional data. Therefore, AVAR modifications, namely weighted AVAR (WAVAR), multi-dimensional AVAR (MAVAR), and weighted multi-dimensional AVAR (WMAVAR), were introduced to overcome these ...
Warburton, Katharine L; Uter, Wolfgang; Geier, Johannes; Spiewak, Radoslaw; Mahler, Vera; Crépy, Marie-Noëlle; Schuttelaar, Marie-Louise; Bauer, Andrea; Wilkinson, Mark
BACKGROUND: Rubber additives constitute an important group of contact allergens, particularly in certain occupations. OBJECTIVES: To collect information regarding the current practice of using a 'rubber series' in Europe, and discuss this against the background of evidence concerning the prevalence
Piromchai, Patorn; Kasemsiri, Pornthep; Thanawirattananit, Panida; Yimtae, Kwanchanok
Patients with craniofacial anomalies often present to doctors due to their noticeable disfigurement and are routinely assessed by otolaryngologists for hearing evaluation. However, small percentage of craniofacial anomaly patients may present with delayed speech though they may not have initial obvious external deformation. The objective of case series is to identify the congenital inner ear malformation. The series of clinical presentation, physical examination, investigations, treatments and follow-up results were demonstrated followed by the discussion.
Basak, Subhash C; Gute, Brian D
This article reviews recent developments in the formulation and application of biodescriptors to characterize proteomics maps. Such biodescriptors can be derived by applying techniques from discrete mathematics (graph theory, linear algebra and information theory). This review focuses on the development of biodescriptors for proteomics maps derived from 2D gel electrophoresis. Preliminary results demonstrated that such descriptors have a reasonable ability to differentiate between proteomics patterns that result from exposure to closely related individual chemicals and complex mixtures, such as the jet fuel JP-8. Further research is required to evaluate the utility of these proteomics-based biodescriptors for drug discovery and predictive toxicology.
The crystal structures of four homologous series of rod-like molecules are reviewed, two of which form hydrogen bonds and two with a symmetric chemical constitution. Many of the compounds investigated turn into liquid crystalline phases upon temperature increase. It is of valuable interest to know possible conformations and possible packing arrangements as prerequisites to model liquid crystalline structures. The hydrogen bonds of homologous series of pure 4-(ω-hydroxyalkyloxy)-4'-hydroxybiphenyl (HnHBP, n the alkyloxy tail length) are realized through head to tail arrangements of the hydroxyl groups and crystallize except one compound in chiral space groups without the molecules containing any asymmetric carbon. The hydrogen bonds of the homologous series of 4-substituted benzoic acids with various lengths of the tail provide dimers through strong polar bonding of adjacent carboxyl groups and thus provide the stiff part of a mesogenic unit prerequisite for liquid crystalline phases. The homologous series of dialkanoyloxybiphenyls (BP-n, n = 1, 19), of which nine compounds could be crystallized, show liquid crystalline behavior for longer alkane chain lengths, despite the high mobility of the alkane chain ends already detectable in the crystal phase. A single molecule, half a molecule or two half molecules form the asymmetric unit in a centrosymmetric space group. The homologous series of 1,4-terephthalidene-bis-N-(4'-n-alkylaniline) (TBAA-n) exhibit a large variety of packing arrangements in the crystalline state, with or without relying on the symmetry center within the molecules.
McKinney, Cathy H; Honig, Timothy J
The Bonny Method of Guided Imagery and Music (GIM) is a music-centered approach to exploring consciousness for personal growth and transformation. Applications have been reported in a variety of clinical and nonclinical contexts. The purpose of this study was to review evidence that a series of Bonny Method of GIM sessions may promote positive health outcomes in adults. This systematic review examined randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and repeated measures designs that reported psychological or physiological outcomes following a series of at least six individual Bonny Method of GIM sessions. Researchers assessed each study for risk of bias and computed effect sizes for outcome variables. Of 270 non-duplicate titles retrieved, nine met criteria for inclusion, and eight had moderate or low risk of bias. These included 275 participants 18-78 years of age representing a variety of populations. Multiple studies measured anxiety, depression, mood disturbance, interpersonal problems, quality of life, sense of coherence, and/or psychiatric symptoms and found medium to large effect sizes. Four included physiological measures (systolic and diastolic blood pressure, beta-endorphin, cortisol, and pain) and reported medium to large effect sizes, none of which were replicated across studies in this review. Evidence is promising that a series of Bonny Method of GIM sessions may be effective for improving both psychological and physiological health and may be therapeutically indicated for adults seeking treatment with medical, mental health, and nonclinical needs. Further research is needed to replicate findings within outcomes and populations.
Powney, Janet; McPake, Joanna; Hall, Stuart; Lyall, Lindsay
This review examines research done and information made available regarding the education of minority ethnic groups in Scotland. Compilers of the review used and commented on available statistical information and Scottish studies relevant to minority ethnic groups and their education at all levels. The intent of the review was to determine whether…
Albrethsen, Jakob; Goetze, Jens P; Johnsen, Anders H
Proteomics of secretory granules is an emerging strategy for identifying secreted proteins, including potentially novel candidate biomarkers and peptide hormones. In addition, proteomics can provide information about the abundance, localization and structure (post-translational modification) of g...
Miller, I; Serchi, T; Murk, A J; Gutleb, A C
Proteomics has the potential to elucidate complex patterns of toxic action attributed to its unique holistic a posteriori approach. In the case of toxic compounds for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood, a proteomic approach may provide valuable mechanistic insight. This review provides an overview of currently available proteomic techniques, including examples of their application in toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies. Future perspectives for a wider application of state-of-the-art proteomic techniques in the field of toxicology are discussed. The examples concern experiments with dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers as model compounds, as they exhibit a plethora of sublethal effects, of which some mechanisms were revealed via successful proteomic studies. Generally, this review shows the added value of including proteomics in a modern tool box for toxicological studies.
The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e., Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion), or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e., Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover). However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.
Jandoc, Racquel; Burden, Andrea M; Mamdani, Muhammad; Lévesque, Linda E; Cadarette, Suzanne M
To describe the use and reporting of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We completed a systematic search of MEDLINE, Web of Science, and reference lists to identify English language articles through to December 2013 that used interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research. We tabulated the number of studies by publication year and summarized methodological detail. We identified 220 eligible empirical applications since 1984. Only 17 (8%) were published before 2000, and 90 (41%) were published since 2010. Segmented regression was the most commonly applied interrupted time series method (67%). Most studies assessed drug policy changes (51%, n = 112); 22% (n = 48) examined the impact of new evidence, 18% (n = 39) examined safety advisories, and 16% (n = 35) examined quality improvement interventions. Autocorrelation was considered in 66% of studies, 31% reported adjusting for seasonality, and 15% accounted for nonstationarity. Use of interrupted time series methods in drug utilization research has increased, particularly in recent years. Despite methodological recommendations, there is large variation in reporting of analytic methods. Developing methodological and reporting standards for interrupted time series analysis is important to improve its application in drug utilization research, and we provide recommendations for consideration. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hsu, Fan; Tom H Pringle; Kuhn, Robert M.; Karolchik, Donna; Diekhans, Mark; Haussler, David; Kent, W. James
The University of California Santa Cruz (UCSC) Proteome Browser provides a wealth of protein information presented in graphical images and with links to other protein-related Internet sites. The Proteome Browser is tightly integrated with the UCSC Genome Browser. For the first time, Genome Browser users have both the genome and proteome worlds at their fingertips simultaneously. The Proteome Browser displays tracks of protein and genomic sequences, exon structure, polarity, hydrophobicity, lo...
Genomes provide us with a blue print for the potential of a cell. However, the activity of a cell is expressed in its proteome. Full understanding of the complexity of cells demands a comprehensive view of the proteome; its interactions, activity states and organization. Comprehensive proteomic approaches applied to peroxisomes have yielded new insights into the organelle and its dynamic interplay with other cellular structures. As technologies and methodologies improve proteomics hold the pr...
Francesco Di Girolamo
Full Text Available Due to the incompleteness of animal genome sequencing, the analysis and characterization of serum proteomes of most farm animals are still in their infancy, compared to the already well-documented human serum proteome. This review focuses on the implications of the farm animal serum proteomics in order to identify novel biomarkers for animal welfare, early diagnosis, prognosis and monitoring of infectious disease treatment, and develop new vaccines, aiming at determining the reciprocal benefits for humans and animals.
Rathi, Divya; Gayen, Dipak; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan
Legumes are the major sources of food and fodder with strong commercial relevance, and are essential components of agricultural ecosystems owing to their ability to carry out endosymbiotic nitrogen fixation. In recent years, legumes have become one of the major choices of plant research. The legume proteomics is currently represented by more than 100 reference maps and an equal number of stress-responsive proteomes. Among the 48 legumes in the protein databases, most proteomic studies have been accomplished in two model legumes, soybean, and barrel medic. This review highlights recent contributions in the field of legume proteomics to comprehend the defence and regulatory mechanisms during development and adaptation to climatic changes. Here, we attempted to provide a concise overview of the progress in legume proteomics and discuss future developments in three broad perspectives: (i) proteome of organs/tissues; (ii) subcellular compartments; and (iii) spatiotemporal changes in response to stress. Such data mining may aid in discovering potential biomarkers for plant growth, in general, apart from essential components involved in stress tolerance. The prospect of integrating proteome data with genome information from legumes will provide exciting opportunities for plant biologists to achieve long-term goals of crop improvement and sustainable agriculture.
Repetto, Ombretta; Rogniaux, Hélène; Larré, Colette; Thompson, Richard; Gallardo, Karine
Understanding the regulatory networks coordinating seed development will help to manipulate seed traits, such as protein content and seed weight, in order to increase yield and seed nutritional value of important food crops, such as legumes. Because of the cardinal role of the nucleus in gene expression, sub-proteome analyses of nuclei from developing seeds were conducted, taking advantage of the sequences available for model species. In this review, we discuss the strategies used to separate and identify the nuclear proteins at a stage when the seed is preparing for reserve accumulation. We present how these data provide an insight into the complexity and distinctive features of the seed nuclear proteome. We discuss the presence of chromatin-modifying enzymes and proteins that have roles in RNA-directed DNA methylation and which may be involved in modifying genome architecture in preparation for seed filling. Specific features of the seed nuclei at the transition between the stage of cell divisions and that of cell expansion and reserve deposition are described here which may help to manipulate seed quality traits, such as seed weight.
Lopez-Martin, D; Martinez-Anton, J
Introduccion. En la edad pediatrica, la forma mas frecuente de neuritis optica se presenta generalmente despues de un cuadro infeccioso, con edema de papila, que suele ser bilateral y tiene buen pronostico. La conversion a esclerosis multiple es infrecuente. Objetivo. Presentar las caracteristicas clinicas y de laboratorio de una serie pediatrica de neuritis optica. Pacientes y metodos. Se analiza una serie de 17 casos de neuritis optica en niños y jovenes de 4 a 14 años, referidos entre los años 2000 y 2015. Resultados. La edad mediana de la serie fue de 11 años. Predominaron los pacientes de sexo femenino y el antecedente infeccioso fue poco frecuente; en cinco pacientes, la afectacion fue bilateral, y cuatro casos se presentaron como neuritis optica retrobulbar. La resonancia magnetica mostro hiperintensidad en T2 en los nervios opticos afectados en cinco pacientes. El estudio del liquido cefalorraquideo y bandas oligoclonales fue normal en todos los casos. Los pacientes, tratados con metilprednisolona intravenosa, tuvieron buena recuperacion. Solo en tres casos se comprobo una evolucion posterior a esclerosis multiple. Conclusiones. En esta serie, los casos que evolucionaron a esclerosis multiple no mostraron diferencias clinicas, aunque si presentaron mayor cantidad de lesiones hiperintensas en la resonancia magnetica. Este hecho, descrito en trabajos previos, apoya nuestro esquema diagnostico y terapeutico en un intento por acercarnos al manejo optimo de esta patologia.
Wentling, Rose Mary; Palma-Rivas, Nilda
The literature on diversity in the work force was reviewed to determine the complexity and breadth of workplace diversity issue and identify trends in diversity management and training. The literature review focused on the following: definition of diversity; changing society and work force; reasons organizations are managing and valuing diversity;…
Wesseling, Hendrik; Guest, Paul C; Lago, Santiago G; Bahn, Sabine
Proteomic studies have increased our understanding of the molecular pathways affected in psychiatric disorders. Mass spectrometry and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analyses of post-mortem brain samples from psychiatric patients have revealed effects on synaptic, cytoskeletal, antioxidant and mitochondrial protein networks. Multiplex immunoassay profiling studies have found alterations in hormones, growth factors, transport and inflammation-related proteins in serum and plasma from living first-onset patients. Despite these advances, there are still difficulties in translating these findings into platforms for improved treatment of patients and for discovery of new drugs with better efficacy and side effect profiles. This review describes how the next phase of proteomic investigations in psychiatry should include stringent replication studies for validation of biomarker candidates and functional follow-up studies which can be used to test the impact on physiological function. All biomarker candidates should now be tested in series with traditional and emerging cell biological approaches. This should include investigations of the effects of post-translational modifications, protein dynamics and network analyses using targeted proteomic approaches. Most importantly, there is still an urgent need for development of disease-relevant cellular models for improved translation of proteomic findings into a means of developing novel drug treatments for patients with these life-altering disorders.
Zheng, Lu; Lan, Ping; Shen, Ren Fang; Li, Wen Feng
Aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major constraint for plant root development and growth as well as crop yield in acidic soils, which constitute approximately 40% of the potentially arable lands worldwide. The mechanisms of Al tolerance in plants are not well understood. As a whole systems approach, proteomic techniques have proven to be crucial as a complementary strategy to explore the mechanism in Al toxicity. Review here focuses on the potential of proteomics to unravel the common and plant species-specific changes at proteome level under Al stress, via comparative analysis of the Al-responsive proteins uncovered by recent proteomic studies using 2DE. Understanding the mechanisms of Al tolerance in plants is critical to generate Al resistance crops for developing sustainable agriculture practices, thereby contributing to food security worldwide.
Vandemoortele, Giel; Gevaert, Kris; Eyckerman, Sven
Genome engineering experiments used to be lengthy, inefficient, and often expensive, preventing a widespread adoption of such experiments for the full assessment of endogenous protein functions. With the revolutionary clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein 9 technology, genome engineering became accessible to the broad life sciences community and is now implemented in several research areas. One particular field that can benefit significantly from this evolution is proteomics where a substantial impact on experimental design and general proteome biology can be expected. In this review, we describe the main applications of genome engineering in proteomics, including the use of engineered disease models and endogenous epitope tagging. In addition, we provide an overview on current literature and highlight important considerations when launching genome engineering technologies in proteomics workflows.
Full Text Available Background/Aim: The present analysis focuses on examining a case series of eight patients diagnosed with a granular cell tumor located in the oral cavity. Case series: The patients’ clinical states were thoroughly studied, along with the histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations findings. Their surgical treatment and postoperative course are also within the scope of this analysis. Numerous histogenesis theories and the appropriate tumor treatment are mentioned within the article being always in accordance with the relative literature. Conclusions: Oral granular cell tumor is a benign oral disease of possible neural origin commonly located on the tongue. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. In any case, histological and immunohistochemical examination confirm both the clinical diagnosis and the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis
This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79-653). The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.
Full Text Available Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM is a rare and unique disorder affecting Down syndrome (DS newborns. This case series presents 5 cases of Down syndrome with TAM diagnosed during 2007–2015 with detailed analysis of immunophenotypic data of each case. CD34, CD13, CD33, CD117, CD41, CD61, CD7 and HLA-DR are useful markers for characterization of blasts of TAM.
Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M
Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.
Gulati, Shraddha; Emmanuel, Andrew; Inoue, Haruhiro; Hayee, Bu'Hussain; Haji, Amyn
Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is an established treatment for primary achalasia. It has gained endorsement from the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy with increasing clinical acceptance since the first procedure, performed in Japan in 2008. The first successful POEM in the UK was performed in November 2013 at King's College Hospital and this article presents the first UK case series. Prospective data were collected at 3 and 12-24 months for consecutive patients undergoing POEM. Post-POEM gastro-oesophageal reflux health-related quality of life scale (GORD-HRQoL) score was recorded. Statistical comparisons were made using paired non-parametric testing. In an initial series of 33 consecutive prospectively followed patients (12 female; 49.5±13 years; median follow-up 9 (3-28) months; 58% having had previous intervention), a 91% success rate has been achieved at 3 months. To date, 16 patients have reached the 12-month time point, with 13 (81%) sustaining response. This case series compares well with international cohorts and demonstrates excellent long-term safety and favourable efficacy.
Full Text Available The crystal structures of four homologous series of rod-like molecules are reviewed, two of which form hydrogen bonds and two with a symmetric chemical constitution. Many of the compounds investigated turn into liquid crystalline phases upon temperature increase. It is of valuable interest to know possible conformations and possible packing arrangements as prerequisites to model liquid crystalline structures. The hydrogen bonds of homologous series of pure 4-(ω-hydroxyalkyloxy-4′-hydroxybiphenyl (HnHBP, n the alkyloxy tail length are realized through head to tail arrangements of the hydroxyl groups and crystallize except one compound in chiral space groups without the molecules containing any asymmetric carbon. The hydrogen bonds of the homologous series of 4-substituted benzoic acids with various lengths of the tail provide dimers through strong polar bonding of adjacent carboxyl groups and thus provide the stiff part of a mesogenic unit prerequisite for liquid crystalline phases. The homologous series of dialkanoyloxybiphenyls (BP-n, n = 1, 19, of which nine compounds could be crystallized, show liquid crystalline behavior for longer alkane chain lengths, despite the high mobility of the alkane chain ends already detectable in the crystal phase. A single molecule, half a molecule or two half molecules form the asymmetric unit in a centrosymmetric space group. The homologous series of 1,4-terephthalidene-bis-N-(4′-n-alkylaniline (TBAA-n exhibit a large variety of packing arrangements in the crystalline state, with or without relying on the symmetry center within the molecules.
Ramme, Austin J; Vira, Shaleen; Alaia, Michael J; VAN DE Leuv, Jonathan; Rothberg, Robert C
Spinning is a popular indoor stationary cycling program that uses group classes as a motivational tool. Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is frequently reported in athletes and military recruits; however, infrequently it has been reported after spinning class. ER is diagnosed by clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory values. Hydration, electrolyte management, and pain control are key components to treatment of this condition. Severe cases can be complicated by acute renal failure, compartment syndrome, arrhythmia, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. We describe three cases of admission due to rhabdomyolysis after spinning. The diagnosis, admission criteria, and medical treatment of ER are presented in the context of a literature review. A retrospective review of three cases with review of the current literature. The medical and laboratory records of three patient cases were reviewed. A search of the PubMed database was used to perform a comprehensive review of exertional rhabdomyolysis. Our institution's IRB reviewed this study. We report three cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis after spinning and describe the diagnostic workup and medical management of these patients. The diagnosis of ER is made by clinical history, physical exam, and laboratory values. The disease spectrum ranges from mild to severe with the potential of serious complications in some patients. We demonstrate three cases of ER in deconditioned individuals who presented to the emergency department for evaluation. Careful medical management and patient monitoring resulted in improved patient symptomatology and eventual return to physical activity.
Petersen, Jørgen; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard
tolerance, micronutrient utilization, and photosynthesis in barley. In the present review we present the current state of proteomics research for investigations of barley chloroplasts, i.e., the organelle that contain the photosynthetic apparatus in the plant. We describe several different proteomics...... strategies and discuss their applications in characterization of the barley chloroplast as well as future perspectives for functional proteomics in barley research....
Computational MS-based proteomics is an emerging field arising from the demand of high throughput analysis in numerous large-scale experimental proteomics projects. The review provides a broad overview of a number of computational tools available for data analysis of MS-based proteomics data and gives appropriate literature references to detailed description of algorithms. The review provides, to some extent, discussion of algorithms and methods for peptide and protein identification using MS data, quantitative proteomics, and data storage. The hope is that it will stimulate discussion and further development in computational proteomics. Computational proteomics deserves more scientific attention. There are far fewer computational tools and methods available for proteomics compared to the number of microarray tools, despite the fact that data analysis in proteomics is much more complex than microarray analysis.
Eliason, Michael J; Melzer, Jonathan M; Winters, Jessica R; Gallagher, Thomas Q
To complement a case series review of button battery impactions managed at our single military tertiary care center with a thorough literature review of laboratory research and clinical cases to develop a protocol to optimize patient care. Specifically, to identify predictive factors of long-term complications which can be used by the pediatric otolaryngologist to guide patient management after button battery impactions. A retrospective review of the Department of Defense's electronic medical record systems was conducted to identify patients with button battery ingestions and then characterize their treatment course. A thorough literature review complemented the lessons learned to identify potentially predictive clinical measures for long-term complications. Eight patients were identified as being treated for button battery impaction in the aerodigestive tract with two sustaining long-term complications. The median age of the patients treated was 33 months old and the median estimated time of impaction in the aerodigestive tract prior to removal was 10.5 h. Time of impaction, anatomic direction of the battery's negative pole, and identifying specific battery parameters were identified as factors that may be employed to predict sequelae. Based on case reviews, advancements in battery manufacturing, and laboratory research, there are distinct clinical factors that should be assessed at the time of initial therapy to guide follow-up management to minimize potential catastrophic sequelae of button battery ingestion. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Yeat, Nai Chien; Lin, Charlotte; Sager, Monica; Lin, Jimmy
In the last two decades, advances in genomic, transcriptomic and proteomic methods have enabled us to identify and classify cancers by their molecular profiles. Many anticipate that a molecular taxonomy of cancer will not only lead to more effective subtyping of cancers but also earlier diagnoses, more informative prognoses and more targeted treatments. This article reviews recent technological developments in the field of proteomics, recent discoveries in proteomic cancer biomarker research and trends in clinical use. Readers are also informed of examples of successful commercialization, and the future of proteomics in cancer diagnostics.
Rezende, Taia M B; Lima, Stella M F; Petriz, Bernardo A; Silva, Osmar N; Freire, Mirna S; Franco, Octávio L
Despite all the dental information acquired over centuries and the importance of proteome research, the cross-link between these two areas only emerged around mid-nineties. Proteomic tools can help dentistry in the identification of risk factors, early diagnosis, prevention, and systematic control that will promote the evolution of treatment in all dentistry specialties. This review mainly focuses on the evolution of dentistry in different specialties based on proteomic research and how these tools can improve knowledge in dentistry. The subjects covered are an overview of proteomics in dentistry, specific information on different fields in dentistry (dental structure, restorative dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, oral pathology, oral surgery, and orthodontics) and future directions. There are many new proteomic technologies that have never been used in dentistry studies and some dentistry areas that have never been explored by proteomic tools. It is expected that a greater integration of these areas will help to understand what is still unknown in oral health and disease.
Hanash, S; Schliekelman, M; Zhang, Q; Taguchi, A
Deciphering the complexity and heterogeneity of cancer, benefits from integration of proteomic level data into systems biology efforts. The opportunities available as a result of advances in proteomic technologies, the successes to date, and the challenges involved in integrating diverse datasets are addressed in this review.
Manickavasagam, J; Yapa, S; Bateman, N D; Thevasagayam, M S
Subglottic stenosis is a narrowing of the endolarynx and maybe classified as congenital (primary) or acquired (secondary). Congenital stenosis maybe caused by a small cricoid cartilage, thick submucosa or other laryngeal abnormalities and remains a well-known cause of stridor in infancy. It occurs sporadically and familial occurrence is rare. Our case series identifies three children with congenital subglottic stenosis born to consanguineous parents. Congenital subglottic stenosis in siblings of unrelated parents has been previously reported, but not in consanguineous parents indicating a strong genetic link. We recommend further genetic research to assess the mode of possible heritage in this disease.
Safaee, Michael; Oh, Taemin; Sun, Matthew Z; Parsa, Andrew T; McDermott, Michael W; El-Sayed, Ivan H; Bloch, Orin
Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a rare proliferative disorder of the synovial membrane. PVNS generally affects large joints but occasionally involves the temporomandibular joint (TMJ), with occasional extension into the middle cranial fossa. The purpose of this study was to report our experience with PVNS along with a focused literature review. Patients with PVNS of the TMJ treated at the University of California - San Francisco from 2007 to 2013 were reviewed. A PubMed search was performed to identify additional cases. Five patients underwent surgical resection, with 1 recurrence at 61 months. A literature review identified 58 patients, 19 of which had intracranial involvement. Interestingly, intracranial extension was more common in men. Intracranial extension was not associated with an increased rate of recurrence. PVNS of the TMJ is a rare entity associated with excellent outcomes, even with intracranial extension. Management should consist of maximal resection, with radiotherapy reserved for extensive or recurrent lesions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Osiri, John K; Shadpour, Hamed; Witek, Małgorzata A; Soper, Steven A
Proteomics is a challenging field for realizing totally integrated microfluidic systems for complete proteome processing due to several considerations, including the sheer number of different protein types that exist within most proteomes, the large dynamic range associated with these various protein types, and the diverse chemical nature of the proteins comprising a typical proteome. For example, the human proteome is estimated to have >10(6) different components with a dynamic range of >10(10). The typical processing pipeline for proteomics involves the following steps: (1) selection and/or extraction of the particular proteins to be analyzed; (2) multidimensional separation; (3) proteolytic digestion of the protein sample; and (4) mass spectral identification of either intact proteins (top-down proteomics) or peptide fragments generated from proteolytic digestions (bottom-up proteomics). Although a number of intriguing microfluidic devices have been designed, fabricated and evaluated for carrying out the individual processing steps listed above, work toward building fully integrated microfluidic systems for protein analysis has yet to be realized. In this chapter, information will be provided on the nature of proteomic analysis in terms of the challenges associated with the sample type and the microfluidic devices that have been tested to carry out individual processing steps. These include devices such as those for multidimensional electrophoretic separations, solid-phase enzymatic digestions, and solid-phase extractions, all of which have used microfluidics as the functional platform for their implementation. This will be followed by an in-depth review of microfluidic systems, which are defined as units possessing two or more devices assembled into autonomous systems for proteome processing. In addition, information will be provided on the challenges involved in integrating processing steps into a functional system and the approaches adopted for device
Chang, Tiffany S; Ricketts, Richard; Abramowsky, Carlos R; Abramowksy, Carlos R; Cotter, Breandan D; Steelman, Charlotte K; Husain, Aliya; Shehata, Bahig M
Mesenteric cysts, seen in all age groups, represent a rare cause of benign abdominal masses in children. We reviewed 21 patients with mesenteric/omental cysts. Gross and radiologic images, along with histologic sections, were reviewed to categorize the structures and determine the relationship to the mesentery and intestines. The cysts were composed of multi-loculated dilated channels at the serosal surface consistent with lymphangioma. Most treatment was simple excision, infrequently with intestinal resection. Nineteen patients did well after surgery. One patient developed short-gut syndrome after massive bowel resection, and one patient died immediately after birth due to massive fetal hydrops and heart failure.
Brandon T. Mullins
Full Text Available Background. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs of the head and neck are rare aggressive neoplasms with a poor prognosis. This study describes the management and outcomes of 3 of our patients with MPNSTs of the head and neck. Methods. We identified 3 patients presenting with MPNST of the head and neck and treated at the University of North Carolina. We compared our results to the literature from 1963 to 2014. Results. Mean follow-up was 31 months. Average age at diagnosis was 44.7 years of age. All patients received wide-local excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. No patients recurred during the series. Recurrence-free survival time for the patients was 45, 37, and 3 months, respectively. Conclusions. Our data series confirms that a combined-modality approach with complete surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy leads to improved outcomes in MPNSTs of the head and neck. Nonetheless, due to historically poor outcomes, continued research into newer therapies needs to be explored.
Cowley, Benjamin; Kirjanen, Svetlana; Partanen, Juhani; Castrén, Maija L
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and a variant of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The FXS population is quite heterogeneous with respect to comorbidities, which implies the need for a personalized medicine approach, relying on biomarkers or endophenotypes to guide treatment. There is evidence that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG) endophenotype-guided treatments can support increased clinical benefit by considering the patient's neurophysiological profile. We describe a case series of 11 children diagnosed with FXS, aged one to 14 years, mean 4.6 years. Case data are based on longitudinal clinically-observed reports by attending physicians for comorbid symptoms including awake and asleep EEG profiles. We tabulate the comorbid EEG symptoms in this case series, and relate them to the literature on EEG endophenotypes and associated treatment options. The two most common endophenotypes in the data were diffuse slow oscillations and epileptiform EEG, which have been associated with attention and epilepsy respectively. This observation agrees with reported prevalence of comorbid behavioral symptoms for FXS. In this sample of FXS children, attention problems were found in 37% (4 of 11), and epileptic seizures in 45% (5 of 11). Attention problems were found to associate with the epilepsy endophenotype. From the synthesis of this case series and literature review, we argue that the evidence-based personalized treatment approach, exemplified by neurofeedback, could benefit FXS children by focusing on observable, specific characteristics of comorbid disease symptoms.
Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS is the most common cause of inherited intellectual disability and a variant of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. The FXS population is quite heterogeneous with respect to comorbidities, which implies the need for a personalized medicine approach, relying on biomarkers or endophenotypes to guide treatment. There is evidence that quantitative electroencephalography (EEG endophenotype-guided treatments can support increased clinical benefit by considering the patient’s neurophysiological profile. We describe a case series of 11 children diagnosed with FXS, aged one to 14 years, mean 4.6 years. Case data are based on longitudinal clinically-observed reports by attending physicians for comorbid symptoms including awake and asleep EEG profiles. We tabulate the comorbid EEG symptoms in this case series, and relate them to the literature on EEG endophenotypes and associated treatment options. The two most common endophenotypes in the data were diffuse slow oscillations and epileptiform EEG, which have been associated with attention and epilepsy respectively. This observation agrees with reported prevalence of comorbid behavioral symptoms for FXS. In this sample of FXS children, attention problems were found in 37% (4 of 11, and epileptic seizures in 45% (5 of 11. Attention problems were found to associate with the epilepsy endophenotype. From the synthesis of this case series and literature review, we argue that the evidence-based personalized treatment approach, exemplified by neurofeedback, could benefit FXS children by focusing on observable, specific characteristics of comorbid disease symptoms.
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the treatment of IIH by neuronavigation-assisted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with programmable valves as compared to lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts.
Subauste, C.S.; Ajzenberg, D.; Kijlstra, A.
Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of chronic parasitic infection in the world. This protozoan can cause retino-choroiditis in newborns and in adults, both immunocompetent and immunodeficient. This disease tends to be recurrent and can lead to severe visual impairment. The authors review current kno
Mabray, Marc C.; Glastonbury, Christine M.; Mamlouk, Mark D.; Punch, Gregory E.; Solomon, David A.; Cha, Soonmee
Malignant gliomas are characterized by infiltrative growth of tumor cells, including along white matter tracts. This may result in clinical cranial neuropathy due to direct involvement of a cranial nerve rather than by leptomeningeal spread along cranial nerves. Gliomas directly involving cranial nerves III-XII are rare with only eleven cases reported in the literature prior to 2014, including eight with imaging. We present eight additional cases demonstrating direct infiltration of a cranial nerve by glioma. Asymmetric cisternal nerve expansion as compared to the contralateral nerve was noted with a mean length of involvement of 9.4 mm. Based on our case series, the key imaging feature to recognize direct cranial nerve involvement by a glioma is the detection of an intra-axial mass in the pons or midbrain that is directly associated with expansion, signal abnormality, and/or enhancement of the adjacent cranial nerve(s). PMID:25857757
Full Text Available Systemic sclerosis is a rare connective tissue disorder with a wide range of oral manifestations. This case series reports significant oral and periodontal changes and also makes an attempt to correlate oral and systemic findings in these patients which enable the clinician for a better diagnosis and evolve a comprehensive treatment plan. Six patients with a known diagnosis of systemic sclerosis were included. After obtaining the patient′s informed consent, relevant medical history, oral manifestations including periodontal findings and oral hygiene index simplified index were recorded. In these patients, oral changes included restricted mouth opening and, resorption of the mandible. The periodontal changes observed were gingival recession, absence or minimal gingival bleeding on probing, and widened periodontal ligament space, radiographically. Patients with systemic sclerosis often show wide range of oral manifestations, which is of major concern for the dentist.
Kulkarni, Ranganath R
Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS) affects about one-third of patients treated with clozapine, at times can be stigmatizing, socially embarrassing, disabling, affect quality-of-life, cause poor compliance and can be potentially life-threatening adverse effect. Prompt and effective treatment of CIS may assist treatment tolerability, adherence, and better outcomes in patients with treatment nonresponsive schizophrenia. The beneficial effect of amisulpride augmentation of clozapine therapy for such patients may be enhanced by its anti-salivatory effect on CIS. Current series of five subjects who developed CIS that responded poorly to anticholinergic drugs found drastic improvement in daytime and nocturnal CIS with very low-dose (50-100 mg/day) of amisulpride. Low-dose amisulpride augmentation may also provide strong ameliorating effect on CIS. Nevertheless, a long-term, large-scale study with a broader dose range is warranted to evaluate the stability of this effect across time.
Ranganath R Kulkarni
Full Text Available Clozapine-induced sialorrhea (CIS affects about one-third of patients treated with clozapine, at times can be stigmatizing, socially embarrassing, disabling, affect quality-of-life, cause poor compliance and can be potentially life-threatening adverse effect. Prompt and effective treatment of CIS may assist treatment tolerability, adherence, and better outcomes in patients with treatment nonresponsive schizophrenia. The beneficial effect of amisulpride augmentation of clozapine therapy for such patients may be enhanced by its anti-salivatory effect on CIS. Current series of five subjects who developed CIS that responded poorly to anticholinergic drugs found drastic improvement in daytime and nocturnal CIS with very low-dose (50-100 mg/day of amisulpride. Low-dose amisulpride augmentation may also provide strong ameliorating effect on CIS. Nevertheless, a long-term, large-scale study with a broader dose range is warranted to evaluate the stability of this effect across time.
Alkaabi, Juma M; Mushtaq, Ahmed; Al-Maskari, Fatma N; Moussa, Nagi A; Gariballa, Salah
The objective of this study was to present a case series of patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis. We described all patients with diagnosis of hypokalemic periodic paralysis admitted to the Al Ain Hospital (UAE) during the year 2006. Seventeen patients, all males and mostly Asians, were presented to the Al Ain Hospital over a 12-month period. The majority were admitted during the summer months. Four were thyrotoxic. All of the 17 patients received oral potassium supplements and recovered well without any major complications. In conclusion, clinicians should have a high index of suspicion, especially among Asians presenting with flaccid paralysis and hypokalemia. The main steps in the management include exclusion of other causes of hypokalemia, potassium replacement, hydration and close monitoring of the cardiac rhythm and serum potassium levels. When possible, the underlying cause must be adequately addressed to prevent the persistence or recurrence of paralysis.
Maw, Graeme; Aitken, Peter
Tuberculosis has re-emerged as a significant public health threat over the last decade both globally and within Australia. This is thought to be largely due to the HIV epidemic, a growing itinerant population, and immigration. The antibiotic isoniazid remains an integral part of drug therapy. With the numbers of patients receiving isoniazid remaining high, the number of cases of acute poisoning is expected to be significant. This paper presents a series of two cases of isoniazid poisoning presenting to a tertiary referral centre in North Queensland. Isoniazid toxicity produces a triad of coma, metabolic acidosis and seizures. The seizures are often refractory to traditional antiepileptics. A specific antidote is available (pyridoxine [vitamin B6]) and both patients were administered this as part of their treatment. We also surveyed all hospitals in Australia with an accredited adult Emergency Department to assess the availability of pyridoxine.
Basavaradhya Sahukar Shruthi
Full Text Available In the past decades, several ground breaking discoveries in life science were made. The completion of sequencing the human genome certainly belongs to the key tasks successfully completed, representing a true milestone in the biomedicine. The accomplishment of the complete genome also brings along a new, even more challenging task for scientists: The characterization of the human proteome. Proteomics, the main tool for proteome research, is a relatively new and extremely dynamically evolving branch of science, focused on the evaluation of gene expression at proteome level. Due to the specific properties of proteins, current proteomics deals with different issues, such as protein identification, quantification, characterization of post-translational modification, structure and function elucidation, and description of possible interactions. This field incorporates technologies that can be applied to serum and tissue in order to extract important biological information in the form of biomarkers to aid clinicians and scientists in understanding the dynamic biology of their system of interest, such as a patient with cancer. The present review article provides a detail description of proteomics and its role in cancer research.
Mehmet Derviş Güner, MD
Full Text Available Summary: Tuberculosis infections are still one of the most important public health problems among developing countries. Musculoskeletal involvement represents 10–15% of all extrapulmonary cases. Tuberculosis tenosynovitis is usually misdiagnosed as nonspecific tenosynovitis. To avoid misdiagnosis and mistreatment, it is important to be alert for mycobacterial infections. This article presents 3 patients with wrist tenosynovitis, which was caused by Mycobacterium bovis infection. The article also includes review of the literature.
Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J
This review focuses on adipose tissue biology and introduces the concept of adipose tissue plasticity and expandability as key determinants of obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation. This concept is fundamental to our understanding of adipose tissue as a dynamic organ at the center of nutritional adaptation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms by which adipose tissue can affect peripheral energy homeostasis, particularly in the context of overnutrition. Two mechanis...
Full Text Available Transmesenteric hernia is abdominal visceral herniation through a congenital or acquired mesenteric defect. Treves' field is the area of terminal ileal mesentery circumscribed by the ileocolic artery and its last ileal branch. It is very susceptible to congenital defects. To clarify the clinical course of congenital Treves' field transmesenteric hernia (cTFTH, we retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases and conducted a literature review. Five consecutive pediatric cTFTH cases (one male, four females underwent emergency laparotomy at our institutions from April 2009 and December 2014. We analyzed their demographics, preoperative findings, surgical procedures, and outcomes, along with a literature review. Abdominal plain X-ray showed displaced intestinal gas with gas paucity in the center of the abdomen in two cases and diffusely increased intestinal gas in two others. Abdominal computed tomography (CT in four cases showed intestinal loop clusters, mesenteric vessel changes, small-bowel obstruction, and ascites. All cases underwent emergency laparotomy for ileal resection with ileocecal valve preservation. Simultaneous anastomoses were performed in four cases; the remaining case underwent ileostomy because of prematurity. Although one case needed reoperation for postoperative bowel obstruction, all patients survived. Literature review of pediatric cTFTH showed a high frequency of necrosis (70.5% and mortality (26.5%. Among pediatric cTFTH cases, 67.6% were aged <5 years. Mesenteric defect was <5 cm in 70% cases. We should be aware of the clinical importance and radiological features of pediatric cTFTH. Abdominal CT may provide useful information.
Stern, Myriam D; Kopylov, Uri; Ben-Horin, Shomron; Apter, Sarah; Amitai, Marianne Michal
Background Evaluation of pregnant women with known or suspected Crohn’s disease (CD) remains a challenge. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) is a promising diagnostic tool in these patients; however, the clinical data on MRE utilization in pregnancy is scarce. The aim of the study was to describe the experience with MRE in pregnant CD patients in a tertiary referral center. Methods We retrospectively reviewed MRE studies performed in pregnant women with known or suspected CD that were perf...
The cerebral venous sinus system is a rare site for venous thrombosis except in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome. We describe three patients presenting with cerebral venous thrombosis in association with other thrombotic sites in two patients and as an only site in one patient. Antiphospholipid syndrome has varied clinical manifestations but the defining feature is the persistent presence of antiphospholipid antibodies. In this report we will review the clinical and laboratory diagnostic criteria and the management of patients with antiphospholipid syndrome.
Jaramillo, Sergio; Rojas, Yesenia; Slater, Bethany J; Baker, Michael L; Hicks, M John; Muscal, Jodi A; Vece, Timothy J; Wesson, David E; Nuchtern, Jed G
Tracheobronchial mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) are rare in the pediatric population with literature limited primarily to case reports. Here we present our institutional experience treating MEC in three patients and review the literature of 142 pediatric cases previously published from 1968 to 2013. Although rare, tracheobronchial MEC should be included in the differential diagnosis in a child with recurrent respiratory symptoms. Conservative surgical management is often sufficient to achieve complete resection and good outcomes.
Elsawaf, Ahmed; Awad, Tariq Elamam; Fesal, Salem S
Symptomatic sacral perineural cysts are extremely rare. The aim of this retrospective study is to investigate the outcome of 15 consecutive patients treated by microsurgical resection of the cyst and to review the literature. The authors retrospectively reviewed their clinical data archive from 2002 to 2014. Fifteen patients who were operated on due to symptomatic sacral perineural cysts were enrolled in the study. Patients' symptoms, radiographs, intra-operative findings, and clinical results were evaluated. All 15 patients underwent microsurgical excision of the cyst. The literature on this topic available in PubMed was also reviewed. There were 5 men and 10 women included in the study, with a mean age of 31 years (range 7-60 years). Preoperative symptoms include low back pain, coccydynia, buttock pain, perianal pain and radicular pain. All of the patients underwent surgical resection. The mean follow-up was 54 months (range 3-160 months). All the patients experienced complete or substantial resolution of the preoperative local and radicular pain after surgery. Cyst excision is an effective and safe technique for symptomatic sacral perineural (Tarlov) cysts. Careful patient selection is vital to the management and treatment of this difficult and controversial pathology.
Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K
This analysis reviews a selected body of research that identifies the essential areas of management expertise required of future health care executives. To ensure consistency, six studies are analyzed, utilizing the Delphi technique, to query a broad spectrum of experts in different fields and sites of health care management. The analysis identifies a number of management competencies, i.e., managerial capabilities, which current and aspiring health care executives, in various settings and with differing educational backgrounds, should possess to enhance the probability of their success in current and future positions of responsibility. In addition, this review identifies the skills (technical expertise), knowledge (facts and principles) and abilities (physical, mental or legal power) required to support achievement of these competencies. Leadership and resource management, including cost and finance dimensions, are the highest-rated requisite management competencies. The dominant skills, knowledge and abilities (SKAs) are related to interpersonal skills. The lowest-rated SKAs are related to job-specific, technical skills. Recommendations include the review of this research by formal and continuing education programs to determine the content of their courses and areas for future research. Similarly, current health care executives should assess this research to assist in identifying competency gaps. Lastly, this analysis recommends that the Delphi technique, as a valid and replicable methodology, be applied toward the study of non-executive health care managers, e.g., students, clinicians, mid-level managers and integrated systems administrators, to determine their requisite management competencies and SKAs.
ZHOU Yong-ming; GUO Tian-nan; HUANG Shi-ang
The distinctive features of proteomics are large-scale and high throughput. The key techniques of proteomics are two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics. Stem cell can differentiate into all kinds of cells, tissues and organs. There are many proteins and cytokines involved in the process of differentiation. Applying proteomics techniques to the research of the complex process of stem cell differentiation is of great importance to study the mechanism and applications of stem cell differentiation.
Lacerda, Carla M R; Reardon, Kenneth F
In this review, we present the use of proteomics to advance knowledge in the field of environmental biotechnology, including studies of bacterial physiology, metabolism and ecology. Bacteria are widely applied in environmental biotechnology for their ability to catalyze dehalogenation, methanogenesis, denitrification and sulfate reduction, among others. Their tolerance to radiation and toxic compounds is also of importance. Proteomics has an important role in helping uncover the pathways behind these cellular processes. Environmental samples are often highly complex, which makes proteome studies in this field especially challenging. Some of these challenges are the lack of genome sequences for the vast majority of environmental bacteria, difficulties in isolating bacteria and proteins from certain environments, and the presence of complex microbial communities. Despite these challenges, proteomics offers a unique dynamic view into cellular function. We present examples of environmental proteomics of model organisms, and then discuss metaproteomics (microbial community proteomics), which has the potential to provide insights into the function of a community without isolating organisms. Finally, the environmental proteomics literature is summarized as it pertains to the specific application areas of wastewater treatment, metabolic engineering, microbial ecology and environmental stress responses.
Merkley, Eric D.; Metz, Thomas O.; Smith, Richard D.; Baynes, John; Frizell, Norma
Succination is a chemical modification of cysteine in protein by the Krebs cycle intermediate, fumarate, yielding S-(2-succino)cysteine (2SC). Intracellular fumarate concentration and succination of proteins are increased by hyperpolarization of the inner mitochondrial membrane, in concert with mitochondrial, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and oxidative stress in adipocytes grown in high glucose medium and in adipose tissue in obesity and diabetes. Increased succination of proteins is also detected in the kidney of a fumarase conditional knock-out mouse which develops renal tumors. Keap1, the gatekeeper of the antioxidant response, was identified as a major succinated protein in renal cancer cells, suggesting that succination may play a role in activation of the antioxidant response. A wide range of proteins is subject to succination, including enzymes, adipokines, cytoskeletal proteins and ER chaperones with functional cysteine residues. There is also significant overlap between succinated and glutathionylated proteins, and with proteins containing cysteine residues that are readily oxidized to the sulfenic (cysteic) acid. Succination of adipocyte proteins is inhibited by uncouplers, which discharge the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) and by ER stress inhibitors. 2SC serves as a biomarker of mitochondrial stress or dysfunction in chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes and cancer, and recent studies suggest that succination is a mechanistic link between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative and ER stress, and cellular progression toward apoptosis. In this article, we review the history of the succinated proteome and the challenges associated with measuring this non-enzymatic post-translational modification of proteins by proteomics approaches.
Heneghan, Helen M
BACKGROUND: Pyogenic hepatic abscesses are relatively rare, though untreated are uniformly fatal. A recent paradigm shift in the management of liver abscesses, facilitated by advances in diagnostic and interventional radiology, has decreased mortality rates. The aim of this study was to review our experience in managing pyogenic liver abscess, review the literature in this field, and propose guidelines to aid in the current management of this complex disease. METHODS: Demographic and clinical details of all patients admitted to a single institution with liver abscess over a 5 year period were reviewed. Clinical presentation, aetiology, diagnostic work-up, treatment, morbidity and mortality data were collated. RESULTS: Over a 5 year period 11 patients presented to a single institution with pyogenic hepatic abscess (55% males, mean age 60.3 years). Common clinical features at presentation were non-specific constitutional symptoms and signs. Aetiology was predominantly gallstones (45%) or diverticular disease (27%). In addition to empiric antimicrobial therapy, all patients underwent radiologically guided percutaneous drainage of the liver abscess at diagnosis and only 2 patients required surgical intervention, including one 16-year old female who underwent hemi-hepatectomy for a complex and rare Actinomycotic abscess. There were no mortalities after minimum follow-up of one year. CONCLUSIONS: Pyogenic liver abscesses are uncommon, and mortality has decreased over the last two decades. Antimicrobial therapy and radiological intervention form the mainstay of modern treatment. Surgical intervention should be considered for patients with large, complex, septated or multiple abscesses, underlying disease or in whom percutaneous drainage has failed.
Polizzi, Silvio; Mahajan, Vinit B
The use of intravitreal antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injection is gaining wide acceptance as an off-label therapy for diseases that may affect pregnant women. However, these drugs may cause systemic side effects in the mother and fetal harm. This could lead specialists to not administer the drug or women to abort the fetus or to refuse treatment during pregnancy. We report the course of pregnancy in 3 women treated with intravitreal bevacizumab and provide a review of the literature on the use of intravitreal anti-VEGF in pregnancy. Our patients did not have any drug-related adverse event and delivered healthy full-term infants, although one of the women had risk factors for miscarriage. Infants reached all developmental milestones appropriately during infancy. A literature search on the use of intravitreal anti-VEGF injection in pregnancy was undertaken. Data for this review were identified by searches of PubMed and references from relevant articles using the search terms "pegaptanib," "bevacizumab," "ranibizumab," "aflibercept," "anti-VEGF," "intravitreal injection," "pregnant," "pregnancy," "abortion," "miscarriage," "preeclampsia," "embryo-fetal toxicity," "fetal malformations," "teratogenesis," "adverse events," and "maternofetal complications" in multiple combinations. We believe that intravitreal anti-VEGF can be given during pregnancy only when potential benefit to the woman justifies the potential risks to the fetus. When making a decision about whether to give drugs during pregnancy, it is important to consider the timing of exposure and its relationship to windows of developmental sensitivity. We believe that this review will be useful to specialists to inform and possibly treat their pregnant patients.
We reviewed 17 other patients with clinical cultures positive for S. fonticola. Of these, 11 isolates were from the genitourinary system, most often as part of a polymicrobial culture. The majority of the other organisms recovered were recognized pathogens from the Enterobacteriaceae family. The cases suggest that when recovered in conjunction with other organisms, S. fonticola does not lead to enhanced virulence or worse clinical outcomes and may be a bystander. When detected alone, which is a rare occurrence, S. fonticola may function as a human pathogen.
Lily Dare; Jennifer Hewett; Joseph Kartaik Lim
Dietary supplements represent an increasingly common source of drug-induced liver injury. Hydroxycut is a popular weight loss supplement which has previously been linked to hepatotoxiciLy, although the individual chemical components underlying liver injury remain poorly understood. We report two cases of acute hepatitis in the seLLing of Hydroxycut exposure and describe possible mechanisms of liver injury. We also comprehensively review and summarize the existing literature on commonly used weight loss supplements,and their individual components which have demonstrated potential for liver toxicity. An increased effort to screen for and educate patients and physicians about supplement-associated hepatotoxicity is warranted.
Peckham, Trevor; Kopstein, Melvyn; Klein, Jason; Dahlgren, James
We report seven cases of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with occupational exposure to a toluene-based hydrocarbon solvent. The cases were employed at a facility, which manufactured rubber belts and hoses, between 1950 and 2005 for periods ranging from 21 to 37 total years. Detailed histories were obtained for three workers who were diagnosed with AML within a 3-year period (2003-2005). Death certificates, medical records, and accounts by workers were reviewed. Benzene, a known cause of AML, is typically a contaminant of toluene. Benzene contamination in toluene and other widely used solvents and the potential for concurrent benzene exposure during usage of these solvents in occupational settings are discussed.
Yoshitaka; Takuma; Kazuhiro; Nouso
Recently,nonalcoholic steatohepatitis(NASH) has been considered to be another cause of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC).The natural history and prognosis of NASH are controversial.Accordingly,we assessed the clinicopathological features of NASH-associated HCC in our experience and reviewed the literature of NASH-associated HCC.We experienced 11 patients with NASH-associated HCC(6 male,5 female;mean age 73.8 ± 4.9 years) who received curative treatments.Most(91%) patients had been diagnosed ...
Waluza, J J; Aronson, D C; Nyirenda, D; Zoetmulder, F A N; Borgstein, E S
Volvulus of the transverse colon is very rare in children. Three cases that occurred in a short time span are described and the scarce literature is reviewed. All patients presented with colonic obstruction and in all three the condition was diagnosed at laparotomy, as CT-scanning is not an available option in either of the two institutions. The transverse colon had not become gangrenous but was resected after detorsion for redundancy. The postoperative course was complicated and relaparotomy had to be performed for reobstruction in all cases. Only if the 'reverse' bean sign is recognized on the preoperative plain abdominal radiograph this rare diagnosis can be suspected.
Witsch, Jens; Neugebauer, Hermann; Flechsenhar, Julia; Jüttler, Eric
Data on clinical long-term outcome after the acute phase of hypoglycemic encephalopathy (HE) using validated outcome scales is currently unavailable. Here we report the results of a systematic literature search for studies on HE and data on long-term outcome in patients with HE admitted to three Charité hospitals between January 2005 and July 2010. HE was defined as coma/stupor and blood glucose levels GOS), and Barthel index (BI). Fifteen patients were included, with a mean age of 60 years (range 29-79). Two were lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 13 patients, six had died (46 %). In the seven survivors, the median mRS score was 0 (range 0-5), median GOS score was 5 (range 2-5), and median BI was 100 (range 0-100). MRIs made in the acute phase were available for three patients and revealed no obvious relation between lesion size or pattern and clinical outcome. To our knowledge, this is the first case series using validated clinical scoring systems to determine clinical long-term outcome after HE. The results suggest that mortality is high, but long-term survival with little or no disability is possible and can be observed in the majority of survivors. Risk of death or poor outcome does not seem to be related to MRI features in the acute phase but rather to other presumably medical factors.
Seidowsky, Alexandre; Hoffmann, Maxime; Glowacki, François; Dhaenens, Claire-Marie; Devaux, Jean-Philippe; de Sainte Foy, Celia Lessore; Provot, François; Gheerbrant, Jean-Dominique; Hummel, Aurelie; Hazzan, Marc; Dracon, Michel; Dieux-Coeslier, Anne; Copin, Marie-Christine; Noël, Christian; Buob, David
Renal dysfunction is increasingly recognized as a potential clinical feature of mitochondrial cytopathies such as mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lacticacidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) syndrome. Five cases of MELAS syndrome with renal involvement from 4 unrelated families are presented in this case series. Three of the 5 patients had a history of maternally-inherited diabetes and/or deafness. Focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis and arteriolar hyaline thickening were the most striking findings on renal biopsy. In addition to clinical presentation with the typical symptoms of MELAS syndrome, genetic testing in these patients identified the A3243G point mutation in the tRNALeu gene of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). The diagnosis of MELAS syndrome was thus considered to be unequivocal. The incidence of kidney disease in MELAS syndrome may be underestimated although a study is required to investigate this hypothesis. As the A3243G mtDNA mutation leads to a progressive adult-onset form of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), screening for the MELAS A3243G mtDNA mutation should therefore be performed especially in patients with maternally-inherited diabetes or hearing loss presenting with FSGS.
Kulkarni, Ranganath Ramarao; Bairy, Bhavya K
Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF) an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day) with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%), DSF-induced hypertension (HTN) (37.5%), psychosis (12.5%) were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5%) were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5%) even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%). Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.
Steltzlen, C; Lazennec, J-Y; Catonné, Y; Rousseau, M-A
Surgical treatment of unstable odontoid fracture (type II OBAR or HTAL) has progressed, with a range of techniques, the specificities of which need to be known so as to determine their respective roles in the therapeutic arsenal now available. A retrospective study of 22 patients operated on in our center for odontoid fracture between 2005 and 2010 examined the operative techniques employed and analyzed results in the light of the literature, so as to construct an updated decision tree. Two populations could be distinguished: elderly victims of simple fall (mean age, 82.1 years), and younger victims of high-energy trauma (mean age, 42.6 years). Surgical techniques comprised: anterior odontoid screwing (n=14), transarticular C1-C2 screwing on the posterior Magerl (n=3) or anterior Vaccaro approach (n=1), Harms' posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis (n=3), and occipitocervical arthrodesis (n=3). The overall complications rate for the series was 28%, including one case of non-union, at a mean 11 months' follow-up. The risk/benefit ratio may be hard to assess in elderly patients. However, anterior screwing restores odontoid anatomy and is the technique of choice in first intention for reducible fracture. In second intention, transarticular C1-C2arthrodesis may be performed on an anterior or posterior approach, depending on local vertebral artery anatomy. Harms' posterior C1-C2 arthrodesis allows fixation of non-reduced fractures. Occipitocervical arthrodesis is a last resort, as the associated morbidity rate is higher.
Ranganath Ramarao Kulkarni
Full Text Available Seizure induction by disulfiram (DSF an adverse effect of therapeutic dosages of DSF is less understood. In our prospective case series of eight subjects with alcohol dependence a temporal, dose-dependent, and reversible epileptogenic potential due to DSF was noted. Mean duration of onset of first seizure was 2.13 ± 1.13 weeks after initiation of DSF therapy (125-500 mg/day with no other detectable causes of seizures. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures (50%, DSF-induced hypertension (HTN (37.5%, psychosis (12.5% were noted, that may suggest common neurobiological underpinnings like dopamine-beta-hydroxylase inhibition. Various types of DSF-induced generalized seizures (tonic-clonic, 62.5%; myoclonic and tonic-clonic, 25%; myoclonic, 12.5% were effectively managed by halving initial DSF dose (37.5% even after cessation of antiepileptics, or stopping DSF (37.5%. Presence of alcohol withdrawal seizures, DSF-induced HTN/psychosis during DSF therapy may be early risk factors for dose-dependent and reversible adverse effect of DSF therapy - seizure induction, emphasizing caution.
Zhou, Zhibin; Zhang, Xingwen; Cui, Fang; Liu, Ruozhuo; Dong, Zhao; Wang, Xiaolin; Yu, Shengyuan
Motor neuron hyperexcitability (MNH) indicates a disorder characterized by an ectopic motor nerve discharge on electromyogram (EMG). Here, we present a series of three cases of subacute MNH with mercury poisoning. The first case showed hyperhidrosis, insomnia, generalied myokymia, cramps, tremor, weight loss, and myokymic and neuromyotonic discharges, followed by encephalopathy with confusion, hallucinations, and memory decrease. The second case was similar to the former but without encephalopathic features. The third case showed widespread fasciculation, fatigue, insomnia, weight loss, and autonomic dysfunction, including constipation, micturition difficulty, and impotence, with multiple fibrillation, unstable fasciculation, widened motor neuron potential, and an incremental response at high-rate stimulation in repetitive nerve stimulation. Based on the symptoms, the three cases were diagnosed as Morvan's syndrome, Isaacs' syndrome, and Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome with ALS-like syndrome, respectively. Mercury poisoning in the three cases was confirmed by analysis of blood and urine samples. All cases recovered several months after chelation therapy and were in good condition at follow-up. Very few cases of MNH linked with mercury exposure have been reported in the literature. The mechanism of mercury-induced MNH may be associated with ion channel dysfunction.
Full Text Available Warthin-like tumor of the thyroid is a recently described rare variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma. The distinguishing histological feature of this variant is papillary foldings lined by oncocytic neoplastic cells with clear nuclei and nuclear pseudoinclusions, accompanied by prominent lymphocytic infiltrate in the papillary stalks. Its prognosis has been reported to be almost similar to conventional papillary carcinoma. In this case series, we report four cases with Warthin-like papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, diagnosed at Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine Department of Pathology in 2008 and 2009. Three patients were female. The mean patient age was 39 years (range, 20-56 and the mean tumor size was 1.7 cm (range, 0.9-2.0 cm. All of the cases had lymphocytic thyroiditis in the background. None of the tumors showed lymphovascular invasion. The patients are free of any recurrence and/or distant metastasis with a mean follow-up of 25 months. This rare variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma with distinct histopathological features should be indicated in pathology reports. Further studies and long-term follow-up of patients are needed to highlight the biological behavior of this variant.
Palmieri, Beniamino; Poddighe, Dimitri; Vadalà, Maria; Laurino, Carmen; Carnovale, Carla; Clementi, Emilio
Human papilloma virus (HPV) is recognized as a major cause for cervical cancer among women worldwide. Two HPV vaccines are currently available: Gardasil(®) and Cervarix(®). Both vaccines enclose viral antigenic proteins, but differ as to the biological systems of culture and the adjuvant components. Recently, a collection of symptoms, indicating nervous system dysfunction, has been described after HPV vaccination. We retrospectively described a case series including 18 girls (aged 12-24 years) referred to our "Second Opinion Medical Network" for the evaluation of "neuropathy with autonomic dysfunction" after HPV vaccination. All girls complained of long-lasting and invalidating somatoform symptoms (including asthenia, headache, cognitive dysfunctions, myalgia, sinus tachycardia and skin rashes) that have developed 1-5 days (n = 11), 5-15 days (n = 5) and 15-20 days (n = 2) after the vaccination. These cases can be included in the recently described immune dysfunction named autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). HPV vaccine, through its adjuvant component, is speculated to induce an abnormal activation of the immune system, involving glia cells in the nervous system too. Further researches should aim at defining the pathological and clinical aspects of these post-vaccination diseases and identifying a genetic background predisposing to these adverse reactions.
Aguilar-Olivos, Nancy Edith; de León-Monterroso, José Luis; Avila-Escobedo, Lourdes; López-Méndez, Eric
Antecedentes: la biliopatía por hipertensión portal es poco diagnosticada debido a que sólo algunos pacientes experimentan síntomas. Las manifestaciones clínicas más importantes son la colestasis y la colangitis. Objetivo: comunicar una serie de casos evaluados, tratados y seguidos en una institución pública de tercer nivel. Casos clínicos: cuatro pacientes con biliopatía por hipertensión portal se expusieron a diferentes métodos para tratar la hipertensión portal y la descompresión de la vía biliar. Se realizó seguimiento durante casi cinco años. Tres casos mostraron adecuada evolución, con remisión de los síntomas; un paciente falleció al intentar dilatarle la vía biliar. Finalmente, se revisa la bibliografía en relación con la terapéutica de la biliopatía por hipertensión portal. Conclusiones: no existe consenso para el tratamiento óptimo de este padecimiento, aunque el objetivo es descomprimir la vía biliar; cada caso plantea particularidades que guían el tratamiento.
Full Text Available Due to the important role of figures of speech in prose, the present research tried to investigate the figures of speech in the novel, Harry Potter Series, and their Persian translations. The main goal of this research was to investigate the translators’ problems in translating figures of speech from English into Persian. To achieve this goal, the collected data were analyzed and compared with their Persian equivalents. Then, the theories of Newmark (1988 & 2001, Larson (1998, and Nolan (2005 were used in order to find the applied strategies for rendering the figures of speech by the translators. After identifying the applied translation strategies, the descriptive and inferential analyses were applied to answer the research question and test its related hypothesis. The results confirmed that the most common pitfalls in translating figures of speech from English into Persian based on Nolan (2005 were, not identifying of figures of speech, their related meanings and translating them literally. Overall, the research findings rejected the null hypothesis. The findings of present research can be useful for translators, especially beginners. They can be aware of the existing problems in translating figures of speech, so they can avoid committing the same mistakes in their works.
Shuo Liu; Guang Sun; Zhanjun Guo; Xiaodong Li
OBJECTIVE To study the clinical, pathologic and imaging features of multilocular cystic renal cell carcinoma (MCRCC) and to review the diagnosis and treatment of this subtype of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). METHODS The data from 8 cases (mean age, 49.4; 5 men and 3 women) who had been treated from 2004 to 2006, were reviewed retrospectively. Radiologic and pathologic documents were evaluated. For treatments, radical nephrectomy was conducted in 4 patients, partial nephrectomy in 2 and laparoscopic nephrectomy in 2.RESULTS Postoperative pathological findings confirmed the diagnosis of MCRCC. The stage of all 8 cases was pT1. For pathologic grade, 7 cases were G1 and 1 case was G2. Seven patients available for follow-up had survived tumor-free during the mean time of 8 months. CONCLUSION MCRCC is an uncommon subtype of RCC, it has a lower malignant potential and a better prognosis compared with other types of RCC. Nephron-sparing surgery may be an appropriate treatment options for MCRCC.
Beisel, Claudia; Weiler-Normann, Christina; Teufel, Andreas; Lohse, Ansgar W
Liver test abnormalities have been described in up to 60% of patients with systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE) at some point during the course of their disease. Prior treatment with potentially hepatotoxic drugs or viral hepatitis is commonly considered to be the main cause of liver disease in SLE patients. However, in rare cases elevated liver enzymes may be due to concurrent autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). To distinguish whether the patient has primary liver disease with associated autoimmune clinical and laboratory features resembling SLE - such as AIH - or the elevation of liver enzymes is a manifestation of SLE remains a difficult challenge for the treating physician. Here, we present six female patients with complex autoimmune disorders and hepatitis. Patient charts were reviewed in order to investigate the complex relationship between SLE and AIH. All patients had coexisting autoimmune disease in their medical history. At the time of diagnosis of AIH, patients presented with arthralgia, abdominal complaints, cutaneous involvement and fatigue as common symptoms. All patients fulfilled the current diagnostic criteria of both, AIH and SLE. Remission of acute hepatitis was achieved in all cases after the initiation of immunosuppressive therapy. In addition to this case study a literature review was conducted.
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is an uncommon but important cause of headache that can lead to visual loss. This study was undertaken to review our experience in the treatment of IIH by neuronavigation-assisted ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts with programmable valves as compared to lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 25 patients treated for IIH between 2001 and 2009. Age, sex, clinical presentation, methods of treatment and failure rates were recorded. RESULTS: Seventy-two per cent were treated initially with LP shunts. Failure rate was 11% in this group. Neuronavigation-assisted VP shunts were used to treat 28%. In this group, the failure rate was 14%. CONCLUSION: Our experience indicates that both LP shunts and VP shuts are effective in controlling all the clinical manifestations of IIH in the immediate postoperative period. Failure rates are slightly higher for VP shunts (14%) than LP shunts (11%). However, revision rates are higher with LP shunts (60%) than with VP shunts (30%).
Luria, Lynette; Nguyen, Johnny; Zhou, Jun; Jaglal, Michael; Sokol, Lubomir; Messina, Jane L; Coppola, Domenico; Zhang, Ling
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) rarely occurs in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract with limited studies reported. We reviewed the clinical histories and pathology of four patients with GI PBL at our institute and similar case reports published in peer-reviewed journals. In our first case, a 40 year-old human immunodeficiency virus positive male presented with a hemorrhoid-like sensation, and was diagnosed with PBL via biopsy of a rectal mass. The second case involves a 65 year-old healthy male with bloody diarrhea who was found to have PBL in a resected sigmoid mass. The third patient was a 41 year-old male with a history of Crohn's disease who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, and weight loss. A small intestinal mass (PBL) was removed. The fourth patient was a 65-year-old male who was found PBL after surgical resection of bowel for his florid Crohn's disease. He later developed secondary acute myeloid leukemia. Clinical outcome was very poor in 3 out of 4 patients as reported in the literature. One patient survived chemotherapy followed by autologous transplant. The prototypical clinical presentation and variations of PBL can help create a more comprehensive differential diagnosis for GI tumors and establish an appropriate therapeutic guideline.
Karr, T L
Proteomics is a relatively new scientific discipline that merges protein biochemistry, genome biology and bioinformatics to determine the spatial and temporal expression of proteins in cells, tissues and whole organisms. There has been very little application of proteomics to the fields of behavioral genetics, evolution, ecology and population dynamics, and has only recently been effectively applied to the closely allied fields of molecular evolution and genetics. However, there exists considerable potential for proteomics to impact in areas related to functional ecology; this review will introduce the general concepts and methodologies that define the field of proteomics and compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages with other methods. Examples of how proteomics can aid, complement and indeed extend the study of functional ecology will be discussed including the main tool of ecological studies, population genetics with an emphasis on metapopulation structure analysis. Because proteomic analyses provide a direct measure of gene expression, it obviates some of the limitations associated with other genomic approaches, such as microarray and EST analyses. Likewise, in conjunction with associated bioinformatics and molecular evolutionary tools, proteomics can provide the foundation of a systems-level integration approach that can enhance ecological studies. It can be envisioned that proteomics will provide important new information on issues specific to metapopulation biology and adaptive processes in nature. A specific example of the application of proteomics to sperm ageing is provided to illustrate the potential utility of the approach.
Slattery, Marc; Ankisetty, Sridevi; Corrales, Jone; Marsh-Hunkin, K Erica; Gochfeld, Deborah J; Willett, Kristine L; Rimoldi, John M
The application of proteomics to marine sciences has increased in recent years because the proteome represents the interface between genotypic and phenotypic variability and, thus, corresponds to the broadest possible biomarker for eco-physiological responses and adaptations. Likewise, proteomics can provide important functional information regarding biosynthetic pathways, as well as insights into mechanism of action, of novel marine natural products. The goal of this review is to (1) explore the application of proteomics methodologies to marine systems, (2) assess the technical approaches that have been used, and (3) evaluate the pros and cons of this proteomic research, with the intent of providing a critical analysis of its future roles in marine sciences. To date, proteomics techniques have been utilized to investigate marine microbe, plant, invertebrate, and vertebrate physiology, developmental biology, seafood safety, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental change. However, marine proteomics studies often suffer from poor experimental design, sample processing/optimization difficulties, and data analysis/interpretation issues. Moreover, a major limitation is the lack of available annotated genomes and proteomes for most marine organisms, including several "model species". Even with these challenges in mind, there is no doubt that marine proteomics is a rapidly expanding and powerful integrative molecular research tool from which our knowledge of the marine environment, and the natural products from this resource, will be significantly expanded.
Ceciliani, F; Eckersall, D; Burchmore, R; Lecchi, C
Advancement in electrophoresis and mass spectrometry techniques along with the recent progresses in genomics, culminating in bovine and pig genome sequencing, widened the potential application of proteomics in the field of veterinary medicine. The aim of the present review is to provide an in-depth perspective about the application of proteomics to animal disease pathogenesis, as well as its utilization in veterinary diagnostics. After an overview on the various proteomic techniques that are currently applied to veterinary sciences, the article focuses on proteomic approaches to animal disease pathogenesis. Included as well are recent achievements in immunoproteomics (ie, the identifications through proteomic techniques of antigen involved in immune response) and histoproteomics (ie, the application of proteomics in tissue processed for immunohistochemistry). Finally, the article focuses on clinical proteomics (ie, the application of proteomics to the identification of new biomarkers of animal diseases).
Prasad, G Lakshmi; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar
Neurenteric cysts (NEC) are uncommon, benign, congenital lesions. Ventral foramen magnum (FM) location is very rare. The difficulties in diagnosis and management aspects are detailed with a review of the pertinent literature. We report four new cases of ventral FM NEC, all managed surgically and present a literature review of ventral FM NEC. A retrospective analysis of histopathologically confirmed cases of ventral FM NEC, operated from 2010-2013 at our institute, was performed. For review, only those cases of NEC extending from the lower clivus to the C2 level constituting the foramen magnum were included. Including our four cases, a total of 47 cases were identified. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Mean age was 33.5 years (range 1-60 years). Neck pain and occipital headache were the most common symptoms, followed by limb weakness and cranial nerve paresis. Recurrent meningitis was noted in three cases. Hyperintensity on both T1- and T2-weighted sequences with absent enhancement was the most common finding on MRI. Surgical approaches were as follows: suboccipital (n = 21), far/extreme lateral (n = 18), retrosigmoid (n = 6), and transoral (n = 4). The extent of resection was as follows: total, 26; near total, 6; subtotal, 9; and partial, 3 cases. Cerebrospinal fluid diversion was done in four cases for intracranial hypertension. Mean follow-up duration was 26.8 months (range 1 month-9 years). Recurrence was noted in four (8.5 %) cases. One (2 %) case had malignant transformation. Mortality rate was 4 %. Foramen magnum neurenteric cysts are rare, benign tumors of the central nervous system. Accurate preoperative diagnosis can often be established with MRI. Surgical removal is the treatment of choice. Complete excision is ideal but often not possible. Near total removal would suffice with good progression-free periods. A long-term follow-up with radiological studies is necessary as delayed recurrences can occur.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse flow sural neurocutaneous flap has been utilized more frequently during the past decade to cover vital structures around the foot and ankle area. The potential advantages are the relatively constant blood supply, ease of elevation and preservation of major vascular trunks in the leg. The potential disadvantages remain venous congestion, donor site morbidity and lack of sensation. Methods This descriptive case series was conducted at Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, from 1997 to 2003. Ten patients having undergone reverse flow sural neurocutaneous flap were identified through medical records. There were six females (60% and four males (40%, with an average age of 59.8 years. The defects occurred as a result of trauma in five patients (50%, diabetic ulcers in four (40% and decubitus ulcer in one (10% paraplegic patient. The defect site included non weight bearing heel in four (40%, tendo Achilles in two (20%, distal tibia in two (20%, lateral malleolus in one (10% and medial aspect of the midfoot in one patient (10%. The maximum flap size harvested was 14 × 6 cm. Preoperative doppler evaluation was performed in all patients to identify perforators and modified plaster of paris boot was used in the post operative period. A detailed questionnaire was developed addressing variables of interest. Results There was no flap failure. Venous congestion was encountered in one case. The donor site was relatively unsightly but acceptable to all patients. The loss of sensation in the sural nerve distribution was transient in all patients. Conclusion Reverse sural artery flap remains to be the workhorse flap to resurface the soft tissue defects of the foot and ankle. Anastomosis of the sural nerve to the digital plantar nerve can potentially solve the issue of lack of sensation in the flap especially when used for weight bearing heel.
Maxwel Capsy Boga Ribeiro
Full Text Available There is a clear association between chagasic megaesophagus and the esophageal cancer. On the other hand, the association between chagasic megacolon and intestinal neoplasm is uncommon. There are only a few cases described in literature. We selected two cases of colorectal adenocarcinoma associated with adenoma from 2000 to 2011, which are added to the four patients already described by this group. The mean age of the patients, was 68.5 years. Both had been submitted to surgical resection of the neoplasm. Survival rates ranged and were directly related to tumor staging at the time of diagnosis. In this context, we report our case series and reviwed the corresponding literature, especially the clinical and epidemiological aspects of this rare association.Há uma clara associação entre megaesôfago por doença de Chagas e o câncer esofágico. Ao contrário, tal relação, entre megacólon chagásico e neoplasias do intestino grosso é, reconhecidamente, incomum. Existem poucos casos relatados na literatura. Destacamos, entre 2000 e 2011, dois casos, sendo ambos adenocarcinomas colorretais e associados a adenomas, que se somam aos outros quatro já descritos por este grupo. A média de idade dos pacientes, foi de 68,5 anos. Todos foram submetidos à ressecção cirúrgica da neoplasia. A sobrevida foi variável e diretamente relacionada ao estádio do tumor no momento do diagnóstico. Dentro desse contexto, relatamos essa série de casos e revisamos a literatura correlata, com relação aos aspectos clínicos e epidemiológicos dessa rara associação.
Sethi, Jaswinder K; Vidal-Puig, Antonio J
This review focuses on adipose tissue biology and introduces the concept of adipose tissue plasticity and expandability as key determinants of obesity-associated metabolic dysregulation. This concept is fundamental to our understanding of adipose tissue as a dynamic organ at the center of nutritional adaptation. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of the mechanisms by which adipose tissue can affect peripheral energy homeostasis, particularly in the context of overnutrition. Two mechanisms emerge that provide a molecular understanding for obesity-associated insulin resistance. These are a) the dysregulation of adipose tissue expandability and b) the abnormal production of adipokines. This knowledge has the potential to pave the way for novel therapeutic concepts and strategies for managing and/or correcting complications associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
Chintamaneni, Preethi; Stevenson, Heather L; Malik, Shahid M
Bupivacaine is an established and efficacious anesthetic that has become increasingly popular in postoperative pain management. However, there is limited literature regarding the potential for bupivacaine-induced delayed liver toxicity. Describe cholestasis as a potential adverse reaction of bupivacaine infusion into a surgical wound. Retrospective review of patients' medical records. We report the cases of 3 patients with new onset of cholestatic injury after receiving bupivacaine infusion for postoperative herniorrhaphy pain management. All patients had negative serologic workups for other causes of liver injury. All patients achieved eventual resolution of their liver injury. Bupivacaine-induced liver injury should be on the differential of individuals presenting with jaundice and cholestasis within a month of infusion via a surgically placed catheter of this commonly used anesthetic.
Full Text Available Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT is a relatively new method that produces three-dimensional (3D information of the maxillofacial skeleton, including the teeth and their surrounding tissue, with a lower effective radiation dose than traditional CT scans. Specific endodontic applications for CBCT are being identified as the use of this technology becomes more common. CBCT has great potential to become a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing endodontic problems, as well as for assessing root fractures, apical periodontitis, resorptions, perforations, root canal anatomy and the nature of the alveolar bone topography around teeth. This article aims to review cone beam technology and its advantages over CT scans and conventional radiography, to illustrate current and future clinical applications in endodontic practice, and to highlight areas of further research of CBCT in endodontics. Specific case examples illustrate how treatment planning has changed with the images obtained with CBCT technology compared with only periapical radiography.
Kirshen, Carly; Pratt, Melanie
When patients have persistent oral complaints, it is important to consider allergic contact dermatitis to dental components. We present 3 cases seen at the Ottawa Hospital Patch Test Clinic between 2007 and 2009 with persistent oral lesions. Mercury, methacrylate, and beryllium were found to be the responsible allergens after patch testing. Of note, our case is the fourth reported dental contact dermatitis case to beryllium. Subsequently, a literature review and an examination of reported cases and management strategies were done. There is debate over the necessity of changing dental work after a positive patch-test result. We conclude that it is necessary to do your best to uncover all of the materials used in dental work. Often, material safety sheets do not include all allergens present in products. We advocate that if a positive reaction is found and deemed relevant, then appropriate replacement of the offending agent should be recommended.
Jean-Pol, Frippiat; Crucian, Brian E; de Quervain, Dominique
to maintain immune homeostasis under such challenges. In the framework of the THESEUS project whose aim was to develop an integrated life sciences research roadmap regarding human space exploration, experts working in the field of space immunology, and related disciplines, established a questionnaire sent......Dysregulation of the immune system occurs during spaceflight and may represent a crew health risk during exploration missions because astronauts are challenged by many stressors. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the biology of immune modulation under spaceflight conditions in order to be able...... to scientists around the world. From the review of collected answers, they deduced a list of key issues and provided several recommendations such as a maximal exploitation of currently available resources on Earth and in space, and to increase increments duration for some ISS crew members to 12 months or longer...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM is an uncommon, cutaneous malignant tumour which may arise on the foot. Its relative rarity, atypical appearance and late presentation frequently serve as poor prognostic indicators. Methods At a tertiary skin tumour centre, a retrospective review was undertaken of all patients diagnosed with the tumour at the level of ankle or below. Results Over a six year period, 27 cases (20 female, 7 male were identified with positive histology confirming the disease. The age ranged from 35–96 years of age (mean 62.7 years. The majority of the cohort were white (59% with plantar lesions (62%. 33% of patients were initially were diagnosed incorrectly. The average time taken from the point of recognition, by the patient, to the lesion being correctly diagnosed was around 13.5 months. Conclusion Earlier diagnosis of ALM requires education at both a patient and practitioner level.
Sandeep S. Nanaware
Full Text Available Endometriosis is defined as extra-uterine localization of ectopic functional endometrial gland and stroma. Cystic or solid tumoral masses caused by endometriosis are named as endometrioma. Although these pathologic conditions mostly encountered in ligaments of uterus, ovaries, pouch of douglos and pelvic peritoneum; endometriosis has also been reported in nose, breast, lung, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, kidney, abdominal wall, but scar endometriomais extremely rare. Scar endometriosis is rare and difficult to diagnose. This condition can be confused with other surgical conditions, however imaging techniques and FNAC are indicated towards better diagnostic approach. Medical treatment is helpful in selected cases but wide excision is the treatment of choice. By presenting this paper, and conducting a review of the literature, we intend to increase the awareness of this rather, rare condition. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(4.000: 948-952
Deldycke, Annelies; Haenebalcke, Christel; Taes, Youri
Paraneoplastic Cushing syndrome is a rare condition, representing a small fraction of the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent cases of Cushing syndrome Methods: Four case descriptions and literature review, highlighting the diagnostic challenges and treatment options are presented. Different tumor types can be associated with ectopic ACTH secretion. The most common types are bronchial carcinoids and small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC). However, in approximately 10 to 20% of the cases, no overt tumor (occult tumor) can be found. The diagnosis is made in a multistep process. Firstly, hypercortisolemia and adrenocorticotropin hormone dependency have to be confirmed. Distinction between a pituitary or ectopic cause can be cumbersome. MRI of the pituitary gland, a corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation test and a sinus petrosus sampling can be used. Treatment options consist of tumor management, somatostatin analogs, steroidogenesis inhibitors, and bilateral adrenalectomy. Clinicians should consider the diagnosis, and opt for specific treatment, especially in patients with a history of neuroendocrine tumors.
Full Text Available The present article describes three difficult cases of recurrent bleeding from obscure causes, followed by a review of the pitfalls and pharmacological management of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. All three patients underwent multiple investigations. An intervening complicating diagnosis or antiplatelet drugs may have compounded long-term bleeding in two of the cases. A bleeding angiodysplasia was confirmed in one case but was aggravated by the need for anticoagulation. After multiple transfusions and several attempts at endoscopic management in some cases, long-acting octreotide was associated with decreased transfusion requirements and increased hemoglobin levels in all three cases, although other factors may have contributed in some. In the third case, however, the addition of low-dose thalidomide stopped bleeding for a period of at least 23 months.
Raso, Samuele; Sciascia, Savino; Kuzenko, Anna; Castagno, Irene; Marozio, Luca; Bertero, Maria Tiziana
Peri-operative management of patients on warfarin involves assessing and balancing individual risks for thromboembolism and bleeding. The timing of warfarin withdrawal and a tailored pre/postoperative management (including the substitution of heparin in place of warfarin, the so-called bridging therapy) is critical in patients with prothrombotic conditions. The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is the most common cause of acquired thrombophilia. In this particular subset of patients, as the risk of thrombosis is higher than in general population, bridging therapy can represent a real challenge for treating physicians. Only few studies have been designed to address this topic. We aim to report our experience and to review the available literature in the peri-procedural management of APS and antiphospholipid antibody-positive patients, reporting adverse events and attempting to identify potential risk factor associated with thrombosis or bleeding complications.
Mohammadpour, Iraj; Motazedian, Mohammad Hossein; Handjani, Farhad; Hatam, Gholam Reza
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a protozoan disease which is endemic in Iran. It is transmitted by the Phlebotomus sand fly. The eyelid is rarely involved possibly because the movement of the lids impedes the sand fly from biting the skin in this region. Here, we report 6 rare cases of eyelid CL. The patients were diagnosed by skin scraping, culture, and PCR from the lesions. Skin scraping examination showed Leishmania spp. amastigotes in the cytoplasm of macrophages. Culture examination was positive for Leishmania spp. PCR was positive for Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica. The lesions were disguised as basal cell carcinoma, chalazion, hordeolum, and impetigo. The patients were treated with intramuscular meglumine antimoniate (20 mg/kg/day) for at least 3 weeks. They showed a dramatic response, and the lesions almost completely disappeared. We emphasized the importance of clinical and diagnostic features of lesions, characterized the phylogenetic relationship of isolated parasites, and reviewed the literature on ocular leishmaniasis. PMID:28095664
Full Text Available Vinca alkaloids include vincristine, vinblastine and vinorelbine. Peripheral neuropathy is one of the commonest side effects of these agents. Patients with decrease level of serum folate and vitamin B 12 are more prone to develop peripheral neuropathy. Underlying hepatic impairment and concurrent drugs which decreases Vinca alkaloids hepatic metabolism also increases the susceptibility to neuropathy. Peripheral neuropathy can be troublesome for significant number of patients. There is no specific therapy for this complication however; symptoms improve with the use of pyridoxine, pregabalin and NSAIDs in some cases. Aim of this case study was to review the characteristics and outcomes of patients who suffered from peripheral neuropathy due to vincristine or vinblastine.
Re Cecconi, Dario; Achilli, Antonio; Tarozzi, Marco; Lodi, Giovanni; Demarosi, Federica; Sardella, Andrea; Carrassi, Antonio
Evaluating data of patients affected by oral mucoceles, examined at the Unit of Oral Medicine and Pathology of the University of Milan between January 1994 and December 2008. Concise review on oral mucoceles and analysis of the clinical files of patients who underwent excisional biopsy (patient age, medical history, diagnosis, date and site of the biopsy, histopathological diagnosis and recurrences if any). During the period June 1994-December 2008, 158 mucoceles were observed (93 males and 65 females), with the most frequent site being the lower lip (53%) (p=0.001 by Fisher's test). The mean age of the patients was 31.9 years, with a peak of occurrence in the first four decades of life (75%). Mucoceles are lesions commonly seen in an oral medicine service, mainly affecting young people and lower lips.
Full Text Available Tacrolimus is an immunosuppressive drug mainly used to lower the risk of transplant rejection in individuals who are post solid organ or hematopoietic transplantation. It is a macrolide which reduces peptidyl-propyl isomerase activity and inhibits calcineurin, thus inhibiting T-lymphocyte signal transduction and interleukin-2 (IL-2 transcription. It has been associated with Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES, a disease of sudden onset that can present as a host of different symptoms, depending on the affected area of the brain. While infectious causes of encephalopathy must always be entertained, the differential diagnosis should also include PRES in the appropriate context. We report three cases of PRES in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML placed on tacrolimus after receiving a bone marrow transplant (BMT. The focus of this review is to enhance clinical recognition of PRES as it is related to an adverse effect of Tacrolimus in the setting of hematopoietic transplantation.
Pasini, Erica M; Lutz, Hans U; Mann, Matthias; Thomas, Alan W
Membrane proteomics offers unprecedented possibilities to compare protein expression in health and disease leading potentially to the identification of markers, of targets for therapeutics and to a better understanding of disease mechanisms. From transfusion medicine to infectious diseases, from cardiovascular affections to diabetes, comparative proteomics has made a contribution to the identification of proteins unique to RBCs of patients with specific illnesses shedding light on possible RBC markers for systemic diseases. In this review we will provide a short overview of some of the main achievements obtained by comparative proteomics in the field of RBC-related local and systemic diseases and suggest some additional areas of RBCs research to which comparative proteomics approaches could be fruitfully applied or extended in combination with biochemical techniques.
Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga
There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients’ demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient. PMID:25232385
Odabasi, Mehmet; Arslan, Cem; Akbulut, Sami; Abuoglu, Haci Hasan; Ozkan, Erkan; Yildiz, Mehmet Kamil; Eris, Cengiz; Gunay, Emre; Tekesin, Kemal; Muftuoglu, Tolga
There are many studies about the biliary stents, however there is a little information about the long-term stayed forgotten biliary stents except a few case reports. We have reported the results of a number of cases with biliary stents that were forgotten or omitted by the patient and the endoscopist. During February 2010 to May 2013, five patients were referred to the general surgery clinic of Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul Turkey. Past history and medical documents submitted by the patient did not indicate a replacement of the biliary stent in 3 patients. Two patients knew that they had biliary stents. We also conducted a literature review via the PubMed and Google Scholar databases of English language studies published until March 2014 on forgotten biliary stent. There were 3 men and 2 women ranging in age from 22 to 68 years (mean age 41.6 years). Patients presented with pain in the upper abdomen, jaundice, fever, abnormal liver function tests or dilatation of the biliary tract alone or in combination. Patients' demographic findings are presented in Table 1. A review of three cases reported in the English medical literature also discussed. The mean duration of the patency of the stent is about 12 months. The biliary stenting is performed either with plastic or metal stents, studies recommending their replacement after 3-6 months. Patients with long stayed forgotten biliary stents are inevitably treated with surgical intervention. We recommend for all endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography units provide a stent registry system that the stents placed for various therapeutic procedures are not forgotten both by the patient as well as the physician. There should be a deadline for biliary stents in the registry system for each patient.
Qureshi, Adnan I; Malik, Ahmed A; Freese, Melissa; Thompson, Michelle J; Khan, Asif A; Suri, M Fareed K
Because of a high risk of recurrence of ischemic events, some patients may be candidates for readministration of intravenous (IV) alteplase. We performed a single-center review and performed a search on PubMed from January 1966 to April 2014 for cases of readministration of alteplase. Favorable outcome was defined by a modified Rankin scale of 0 to 2 at discharge or at 1 to 3 months, improvement of greater than or equal to 4 points within 24 hours in the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, or as a major improvement in the 72-hour National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Four ischemic stroke patients underwent readministration of IV alteplase in our single-center review. None of the patients had symptomatic or asymptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.In 2 patients, IV alteplase had been administered for a previous acute ischemic stroke, 6 and 49 days before the index ischemic stroke.At discharge, both patients had a favorable outcome. A total of 22 cases of readministration of alteplase for ischemic stroke have been reported in literature. The mean interval between the 2 administrations of alteplase was 428 days (range, 3 hours to 2280 days).Asymptomatic post thrombolytic intracerebral hemorrhages were seen in 2 patients. Favorable outcome was seen in 16 patients. A total of 9 underwent readministration of IV alteplase within 3 months for recurrent ischemic stroke. Favorable outcome was seen in 5 of these 9 patients. We observed a relatively high rate of favorable outcomes and a small rate of adverse events after readministration of IV alteplase in ischemic stroke patients.
Bewick, Jessica; Egro, Francesco M.; Masterson, Liam; Javer, Amin R.
Background: It is recognized that patients who undergo endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) do not always achieve control of their disease. The causes are multifactorial; variations in surgical practice have been identified as possible factors in refractory disease. Objective: To reflect on the frequent anatomic findings of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) who require revision ESS. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who required revision ESS at a tertiary institution over a 3-year period. Patients for whom maximal medical therapy failed for CRS underwent computed tomography of the paranasal sinuses and image-guided surgery. Surgical records of anatomic findings were reviewed and analyzed. Results: Over 3 years, a total of 75 patients underwent revision procedures, 28% of all ESS performed in the unit. The most frequent finding was a residual uncinate process in 64% of the patients (n = 48); other findings included a maxillary antrostomy not based on the natural ostium of the maxillary sinus in 47% (n = 35), an oversized antrostomy in 29% (n = 22), resected middle turbinates in 35% (n = 26), middle meatal stenosis in 15% (n = 11), synechiae in 29% (n = 22), and osteitic bone that required drilling in 13% (n = 10). Conclusion: Surgical technique can give rise to anatomic variations that may prevent adequate mucociliary clearance and medication delivery, which leads to failure in ESS in patients with CRS. This study demonstrated the surgical findings encountered in revision ESS that should be highlighted in the training of Ear, Nose and Throat surgeons to help prevent primary failure and reduce health care costs. PMID:28107148
AIM: The aims of this study were to make an inventory of the disease in Ireland, to acquire better knowledge of the relationship between genetic makeup and phenotypic ocular presentation and, finally, through literature review and personal experience, to establish clear guidelines on best practice in the management of children with this rare condition both in terms of screening and follow-up. METHODS: All patients who attended the dermatology and genetic clinic in Our Lady\\'s Hospital for Sick Children, Crumlin, with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) were contacted and invited to attend the eye clinic for ocular assessment. Children who were already attending the ophthalmic services before commencement of the study had their charts reviewed for assessment. RESULTS: 11 of 19 patients agreed to attend the clinic for ocular assessment. Of these patients, nine had genetic testing. The mean age of the patients at the examination was 8 years (3 months to 29 years). In 10 patients, IP was the result of a spontaneous mutation, whereas the condition was inherited from an affected mother in one patient. Of the 11 patients with IP, 5 have visually significant ocular findings (47%). We describe the case history of four of these children briefly to outline the severity of this condition. CONCLUSION: Our patients had a significant percentage of ocular abnormalities (47%). We have outlined an examination schedule for patients with and without retinal pathology and recommend fluorescein angiography in patients with retinal pathology to fully determine the extent of ischaemia. Like other studies, early treatment with peripheral retinal photocoagulation to reduce the risk of retinal detachment is recommended in this study.
Vranakis, Iosif; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Psaroulaki, Anna; Sandalakis, Vassilios; Tselentis, Yannis; Gevaert, Kris; Tsiotis, Georgios
Ever since antibiotics were used to help humanity battle infectious diseases, microorganisms straight away fought back. Antibiotic resistance mechanisms indeed provide microbes with possibilities to by-pass and survive the action of antibiotic drugs. Several methods have been employed to identify these microbial resistance mechanisms in an ongoing effort to reduce the steadily increasing number of treatment failures due to multi-drug-resistant microbes. Proteomics has evolved to an important tool for this area of research. Following rapid advances in whole genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have been widely used to investigate microbial gene expression. This review highlights the contribution of proteomics in identifying microbial drug resistance mechanisms. It summarizes different proteomic studies on bacteria resistant to different antibiotic drugs. The review further includes an overview of the methodologies used, as well as lists key proteins identified, thus providing the reader not only a summary of research already done, but also directions for future research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Trends in Microbial Proteomics.
Full Text Available Herpesviruses are highly prevalent viruses associated with numerous pathologies both in animal and human populations. Until now, most of the strategies used to prevent or to cure these infections have been unsuccessful because these viruses have developed numerous immune evasion mechanisms. Therefore, a better understanding of their complex lifecycle is needed. In particular, while the genome of numerous herpesviruses has been sequenced, the exact composition of virions remains unknown for most of them. Mass spectrometry has recently emerged as a central method and has permitted fundamental discoveries in virology. Here, we review mass spectrometry-based approaches that have recently allowed a better understanding of the composition of the herpesvirus virion. In particular, we describe strategies commonly used for proper sample preparation and fractionation to allow protein localization inside the particle but also to avoid contamination by nonstructural proteins. A collection of other important data regarding post-translational modifications or the relative abundance of structural proteins is also described. This review also discusses the poorly studied importance of host proteins in herpesvirus structural proteins and the necessity to develop a quantitative workflow to better understand the dynamics of the structural proteome. In the future, we hope that this collaborative effort will assist in the development of new strategies to fight these infections.
Gartsman, Gary M; Waggenspack, Wame N; O'Connor, Daniel P; Elkousy, Hussein A; Edwards, T Bradley
Immediate and early postoperative complications of the Latarjet procedure are not well documented in the literature. The purpose of this study was to report the procedure-related complications of our large consecutive case series of 3 surgeons at a single high-volume center. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 416 Latarjet procedures performed on 400 patients (16 patients had bilateral procedures) who underwent surgery by the 3 senior authors from October 2002 to July 2015. Immediate and early complications included hardware problems, infection, and neurologic injury. In addition, the patient's age and history of prior instability surgery were noted and evaluated as risk factors for complication. The overall complication rate was 5.0% (21 complications in 19 procedures). Thirteen neurologic injuries (3.1%) occurred to the axillary (7), musculocutaneous (4), and suprascapular (2) nerves, including 2 patients with multiple nerves affected. All but 2 patients had complete resolution of symptoms at time of last follow-up. Six infections (1.4%) developed, including 3 superficial infections treated with oral antibiotics and 3 deep infections requiring irrigation and débridement with intravenous antibiotics. Two early hardware-related complications (0.05%) were also noted. Increased age was associated with a higher complication rate. History of prior surgery was not associated with increased complications in our series. This study highlights the procedural complications of the Latarjet procedure. Neurologic injury was the most common complication in our series, with complete or near-complete recovery in 11 of 13 patients. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Acute ischemic stroke (AIS due to thrombo-embolic occlusion in the cerebral vasculature is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States and throughout the world. Although the prognosis is poor for many patients with AIS, a variety of strategies and devices are now available for achieving recanalization in patients with this disease. Here, we review the treatment options for cerebrovascular thromboembolic occlusion with a focus on the evolution of strategies and devices that are utilized for achieving endovascular clot extraction. In order to demonstrate the progression of this treatment strategy over the past decade, we will also present a single-center case series of AIS patients treated with endovascular thrombectomy.
Beck, Hans Christian; Overgaard, Martin; Melholt Rasmussen, Lars
, this technology may therefore identify new biomarkers that previously have not been associated with cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we summarize the key challenges and considerations, including strategies, recent discoveries and clinical applications in cardiovascular proteomics that may lead...
Khawcharoenporn, T; Apisarnthanarak, A; Mundy, L M
Treatment limitations exist for drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii central nervous system (CNS) infection. We conducted a retrospective study and systematic literature review to identify patients with drug-resistant A. baumannii CNS infection who received primary or adjunct intrathecal or intraventricular (IT/IVT) colistin. In a case series of seven Thai patients and 17 patients identified in the literature, clinical and microbiological cure rates with IT/IVT colistin therapy were 83% and 92%, respectively. Three patients (13%) developed chemical ventriculitis and one (4%) experienced treatment-associated seizures. Death was associated with delayed IT/IVT colistin therapy compared to survival (mean time from diagnosis to IT/IVT colistin, 7 vs. 2 days; p 0.01). The only independent predictor of mortality was the severity of illness (APACHE II score > 19, adjusted odds ratio 49.5; 95% CI 1.7-1428.6; p 0.02). This case series suggests that administration of primary or adjunctive IT/IVT colistin therapy was effective for drug-resistant A. baumannii CNS infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background “Neuroleptic malignant syndrome” (NMS is a potentially fatal idiosyncratic reaction to any medication which affects the central dopaminergic system. Between 0.5% and 1% of patients exposed to antipsychotics develop the condition. Mortality rates may be as high as 55% and many risk factors have been reported. Although rapid escalation of antipsychotic dose is thought to be an important risk factor, to date it has not been the focus of a published case series or scientifically defined. Description We aimed to identify cases of NMS and review risk factors for its development with a particular focus on rapid dose escalation in the 30 days prior to onset. A review of the literature on rapid dose escalation was undertaken and a pragmatic definition of “rapid dose escalation” was made. NMS cases were defined using DSM-IV criteria and systematically identified within a secondary care mental health service. A ratio of titration rate was calculated for each NMS patient and “rapid escalators” and “non rapid escalators” were compared. 13 cases of NMS were identified. A progressive mean dose increase 15 days prior to the confirmed episode of NMS was observed (241.7 mg/day during days 1–15 to 346.9 mg/day during days 16–30 and the mean ratio of dose escalation for NMS patients was 1.4. Rapid dose escalation was seen in 5/13 cases and non rapid escalators had markedly higher daily cumulative antipsychotic dose compared to rapid escalators. Conclusions Rapid dose escalation occurred in less than half of this case series (n = 5, 38.5%, although there is currently no consensus on the precise definition of rapid dose escalation. Cumulative antipsychotic dose – alongside other known risk factors - may also be important in the development of NMS.
di Russo, Paolo; Perrini, Paolo; Pasqualetti, Francesco; Meola, Antonio; Vannozzi, Riccardo
Multicentric malignant gliomas are well-separated tumours in different lobes or hemispheres, without anatomical continuity between lesions. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical features, the pathology and the outcome according to the management strategies in a consecutive series of patients treated at a single institution. In addition, an analysis of the existing literature is presented. For the institutional analysis, a retrospective review of all patients who underwent treatment for multicentric gliomas in the last 7 years was performed. For the analysis of the literature, a MEDLINE search with no date limitations was accomplished for surgical treatment of multicentric malignant gliomas. Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with glioma were treated in our department. Eighteen patients (7.5 %) with a mean age of 64 years (age range, 37-78 years) presented multicentric malignant gliomas. Thirteen patients (72 %) underwent surgical resection of at least one lesion that was followed by adjuvant treatment in all but one case. Five patients (28 %) underwent stereotactic biopsy and thereafter received chemotherapy. A survival advantage was associated with resection of at least one lesion followed by adjuvant treatment (median overall survival 12 months) compared with 4 months for stereotactic biopsy followed by chemotherapy. Similar results were obtained from the review of the literature. Resection of at least one lesion seems to play a significant role in the management of selected patients with multicentric malignant gliomas. Multi-institutional studies on larger series are warranted to define how aggressively the patients with malignant multicentric gliomas should be treated.
Renton, T; Yilmaz, Z
This study describes the management of 216 patients with post-traumatic iatrogenic lingual nerve injuries (LNIs; n=93) and inferior alveolar nerve injuries (IANI; n=123). At initial consultation, 6% IANI and 2% LNI patients had undergone significant resolution requiring no further reviews. Reassurance and counselling was adequate management for 51% IANI and 55% LNI patients. Systemic or topical medication was offered as pain relief to 5% of patients. Additional cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) was offered to 8% of patients. Topical 5% lidocaine patches reduced pain and allodynia in 7% of IANI patients, most often used without any other form of management. A small percentage of IANI patients (4%) received a combination of therapies involving CBT, surgery, medication and 5% lidocaine patches. Exploratory surgery improved symptoms and reduced neuropathic area in 18 LNI and 15 IANI patients resulting in improved quality of life. In conclusion, the authors suggest a more diverse and perhaps holistic strategy for management of patients with iatrogenic trigeminal nerve injuries and recommend pragmatic assessment criteria for measurement of treatment success in these patients.
Bonfante, Eliana; Riascos, Roy F. [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Koenig, Mary Kay [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Mitochondrial Center of Excellence Leigh Clinic, Houston, TX (United States); Adejumo, Rahmat B.; Perinjelil, Vinu [The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Department of Pediatrics, Division of Child and Adolescent Neurology, Houston, TX (United States)
Leigh syndrome by definition is (1) a neurodegenerative disease with variable symptoms, (2) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction from a hereditary genetic defect and (3) accompanied by bilateral central nervous system lesions. A genetic etiology is confirmed in approximately 50% of patients, with more than 60 identified mutations in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. Here we review the clinical features and imaging studies of Leigh syndrome and describe the neuroimaging findings in a cohort of 17 children with genetically confirmed Leigh syndrome. MR findings include lesions in the brainstem in 9 children (53%), basal ganglia in 13 (76%), thalami in 4 (24%) and dentate nuclei in 2 (12%), and global atrophy in 2 (12%). The brainstem lesions were most frequent in the midbrain and medulla oblongata. With follow-up an increased number of lesions from baseline was observed in 7 of 13 children, evolution of the initial lesion was seen in 6, and complete regression of the lesions was seen in 3. No cerebral white matter lesions were found in any of the 17 children. In concordance with the literature, we found that Leigh syndrome follows a similar pattern of bilateral, symmetrical basal ganglia or brainstem changes. Lesions in Leigh syndrome evolve over time and a lack of visible lesions does not exclude the diagnosis. Reversibility of lesions is seen in some patients, making the continued search for treatment and prevention a priority for clinicians and researchers. (orig.)
Boyer, Nathan; Gupta, Rajesh; Schevchuck, Alex; Hindnavis, Vindhya; Maliske, Seth; Sheldon, Mark; Drachman, Douglas; Yeghiazarians, Yerem
Coronary artery aneurysm (CAA) is an uncommon clinical finding, with an incidence varying from 1.5%-4.9% in adults, and is usually considered a variant of coronary artery disease (CAD). CAA identified in the context of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) represents a unique management challenge, particularly if the morphology of the CAA is suspected to have provoked the acute clinical syndrome. CAA is associated with thrombus formation due to abnormal laminar flow, as well as abnormal platelet and endothelial-derived pathophysiologic factors within the CAA. Once formed, mural thrombus may potentiate the deposition of additional thrombus within aneurysmal segments. Percutaneous revascularization of CAA has been associated with complications including distal embolization of thrombus, no-reflow phenomenon, stent malapposition, dissection, and rupture. Presently, there are no formal guidelines to direct the management of CAA in patients presenting with ACS; controversies exist whether conservative, surgical, or catheter-based management should be pursued. In this manuscript, we present an extensive review of the existing literature and associated clinical guidelines, and propose a management algorithm for patients with this complex clinical scenario. Armed with this perspective, therapeutic decisions may be tailored to synthesize patient factors and preferences, individualized clinical assessment, and existing American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines for management of ACS.
El-Khoury, Joseph; Sahakian, Nayiri
The association of substance abuse and psychotic disorders is of interest to clinicians, academics, and lawmakers. Commonly abused substances, such as cannabis, cocaine, amphetamines, and alcohol, have all been associated with substance-induced psychosis. Hallucinogens can induce desired psychedelic effects and undesirable psychomimetic reactions. These are usually transient and resolve once the duration of action is over. Sometimes, these effects persist, causing distress and requiring intervention. This article focuses on the hallucinogenic substance Salvia divinorum, the use of which has been observed, particularly among youth worldwide. We present background information based on a review of the literature and on our own clinical encounters, as highlighted by two original case reports. We hypothesize that consumption of Salvia divinorum could be associated with the development of psychotic disorders. We propose that clinicians routinely inquire about the use of Salvia in patients with substance use disorders or psychotic illnesses. More research is required to assess any relationship between Salvia divinorum and psychosis. Additionally, we advocate increased public and medical awareness of this substance and other emerging drugs of abuse.
Fitterer, Colin; Berg, Zachary; Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Kusne, Shimon; Orenstein, Robert; Seville, Maria Teresa; Blair, Janis E
Coccidioidomycosis is a common infection in the desert southwestern USA; approximately 3 % of healthy persons in Arizona alone become infected annually. Coccidioidomycosis may be severe in immunocompromised persons, but experience among patients with solid organ cancer has not been fully described. Therefore, we aimed to describe the clinical courses of patients whose cancers were complicated by coccidioidomycosis at our institution, which is located in an area with endemic Coccidioides. To do so, we conducted a retrospective review from January 1, 2000, through December 31, 2014, of all patients with breast, colorectal, or ovarian cancer whose cancer courses were complicated by coccidioidomycosis. We identified 17,576 cancer patients; 14 (0.08 %) of these patients met criteria for proven or probable coccidioidomycosis diagnosed within the first 2 years after the cancer diagnosis. All of these patients had primary pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, none had relapsed prior infection, and 1 had possible extrapulmonary dissemination. Five had active coccidioidal infection during chemotherapy, 1 of whom was hospitalized for coccidioidal pneumonia. All were treated with fluconazole, and all improved clinically. Eleven did not require prolonged courses of fluconazole. There were no clearly demonstrated episodes of relapsed infection. In conclusion, coccidioidomycosis was not a common complication of breast, colorectal, or ovarian cancers in patients treated at our institution, and it was not commonly complicated by severe or disseminated infection.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the cause and psychopathology of delirious mania, a type of disorder where delirium and mania occur at the same time. This condition still has no formal diagnostic classification. To provide more information about this potentially life-threatening condition, we studied five patients with delirious mania. Methods We describe the cases of five patients with delirious mania admitted to an acute inpatient psychiatric unit between January 2005 and January 2007, and discuss the cases in the context of a selective review of the clinical literature describing the clinical features and treatment of delirious mania. Results Two patients had two episodes of delirious mania. Delirium usually resolved faster than mania though not always the case. Delirious mania remitted within seven sessions of the electroconvulsive therapy (ECT. Conclusions Delirious mania is a potentially life-threatening but under-recognized neuropsychiatric syndrome. Delirious mania that is ineffectively treated may induce a new-onset manic episode or worsen an ongoing manic episode, and the patient will need prolonged hospitalization. Delirious mania also has a close relationship with catatonia. Early recognition and aggressive treatment, especially with electroconvulsive therapy, can significantly reduce morbidity and mortality.
Boissier, E; Georgin-Lavialle, S; Cochereau, D; Ducloux, R; Ranque, B; Aslangul, E; Pouchot, J
Periodic thyrotoxic hypokalemic paralysis (TPP) is a neuromuscular complication of hyperthyroidism. It is more common in young Asian males than in Caucasian and African patients. We report four new cases and review the literature. Four consecutive patients were diagnosed with TPP. They were all men with a median age of 34.5 years at presentation. Two patients originated from the Philippines, one was African and one was Caucasian ethnic background. They all presented with a paresis or flaccid paralysis, without respiratory failure. Previous similar episodes in their past medical history, the presence of profound hypokalemia (mean serum potassium level of 2 mmol/L) and the presence of clinical and biological signs of hyperthyroidism led to the diagnosis of TPP. All four patients were diagnosed with Graves' disease. Outcome was favourable in all four patients with the symptomatic treatment of TPP and treatment of Graves' disease. TPP is a severe condition, due to a dysfunction of the Na(+)-K(+) ATPase pump. Initial management relies on β-blocker treatment and careful potassium supplementation. Then, medical or surgical etiological treatment of the thyrotoxicosis is essential to prevent a recurrence. The disease is probably underdiagnosed: it must be suspected when a profound hypokaliema resolves very quickly (<12hours); hyperthyroidism should always be included in the differential diagnosis of a paresis associated with hypokalemia. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Goralski, Jennifer L; Lercher, Daniel M; Davis, Stephanie D; Dellon, Evan S
Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) frequently experience gastrointestinal symptoms including nausea, emesis, malnutrition and indigestion; diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), distal intestinal obstructive syndrome, and cholelithiasis are commonly implicated. We have recently diagnosed eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in three patients with CF. EoE is a TH-2 driven, allergen-mediated disease which causes esophageal eosinophilia and presents with symptoms of nausea, feeding intolerance, regurgitation, and dysphagia. EoE is diagnosed when esophageal biopsies reveal greater than 15 eosinophils per high power field in the setting of the appropriate clinical scenario and after exclusion of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. Although described with increasing frequently in the gastrointestinal literature, there have been no prior cases documenting the co-existence of EoE and CF. We speculate that this is related to lack of familiarity with EoE symptoms by CF providers. We present three patients with CF diagnosed with EoE and review the current literature regarding diagnosis and management, focusing on management issues in patients with CF. Copyright © 2012 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Long, Quanxin; Huang, Changwu; Liao, Pu; Xie, Jianping
Acinetobacter baumannii is an important opportunist pathogen, due to severe antibiotic resistance and nosocomial infection. The epidemiology and antibiotic resistance of A.baumannii have been extensively reviewed, but the pathogenesis and virulence remain unclear. Proteomics analysis has been applied to study the mechanism of drug resistance, biofilm, micronutrient acquisition, and the extracellular compartment. This review summarizes applications of proteomics in A. baumannii, aiming to summarize novel insights into the mechanism of A. baumannii pathogenesis and drug resistance.
Burke, John F; Thawani, Jayesh P; Berger, Ian; Nayak, Nikhil R; Stephen, James H; Farkas, Tunde; Aschyan, Hovik John; Pierce, John; Kanchwala, Suhail; Long, Donlin M; Welch, William C
OBJECTIVE Tarlov cysts (TCs) occur most commonly on extradural components of the sacral and coccygeal nerve roots. These lesions are often found incidentally, with an estimated prevalence of 4%-9%. Given the low estimated rates of symptomatic TC and the fact that symptoms can overlap with other common causes of low-back pain, optimal management of this entity is a matter of ongoing debate. Here, the authors investigate the effects of surgical intervention on symptomatic TCs and aim to solidify the surgical criteria for this disease process. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data from consecutive patients who were surgically treated for symptomatic TCs from September 2011 to March 2013. Clinical evaluations and results from surveying pain and overall health were used. Univariate statistical analyses were performed. RESULTS Twenty-three adults (4 males, 19 females) who had been symptomatic for a mean of 47.4 months were treated with laminectomy, microsurgical exposure and/or imbrication, and paraspinous muscle flap closure. Eighteen patients (78.3%) had undergone prior interventions without sustained improvement. Thirteen patients (56.5%) underwent lumbar drainage for an average of 8.7 days following surgery. The mean follow-up was 14.4 months. Univariate analyses demonstrated that an advanced age (p = 0.045), the number of noted perineural cysts on preoperative imaging (p = 0.02), and the duration of preoperative symptoms (p = 0.03) were associated with a poor postoperative outcome. Although 47.8% of the patients were able to return to normal activities, 93.8% of those surveyed reported that they would undergo the operation again if given the choice. CONCLUSIONS This is one of the largest published studies on patients with TCs treated microsurgically. The data suggest that patients with symptomatic TCs may benefit from open microsurgical treatment. Although outcomes seem related to patient age, duration of symptoms, and extent of disease
Yan-Ming Zhou; Xiao-Feng Zhang; Lu-Peng Wu; Xu Su; Bin Li and Le-Hua Shi
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pancreatic ifstula is one of the most common complications after pancreatectomy. This study aimed to assess the occurrence and severity of pancreatic ifstula after central pancreatectomy. METHODS: The medical records of 13 patients who had undergone central pancreatectomy were retrospectively studied, together with a literature review of studies including at least ifve cases of central pancreatectomy. Pancreatic ifstula was deifned and graded according to the recommendations of the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF). RESULTS: No death was observed in the 13 patients. Pancreatic ifstula developed in 7 patients and was successfully treated non-operatively. None of these patients required re-operation. A total of 40 studies involving 867 patients who underwent central pancreatectomy were reviewed. The overall pancreatic ifstula rate of the patients was 33.4% (0-100%). Of 279 patients, 250 (89.6%) had grade A or B ifstulae of ISGPF and were treated non-operatively, and the remaining 29 (10.4%) had grade C ifstulae of ISGPF. In 194 patients, 15 (7.7%) were re-operated upon. Only one patient with grade C ifstula of ISGPF died from multiple organ failure after re-operation. CONCLUSION: Despite the relatively high occurrence, most pancreatic ifstulae after central pancreatectomy are recognized a grade A or B ifstula of ISGPF, which can be treated conservatively or by mini-invasive approaches.
LIU Yue-ping; ZHU Yun-ping; QU Yuan; GAO Li; LIU Xin-fan; XU Guo-zhen; LI Ye-xiong
Objective: Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) has been well described only in children. We analyzed the characteristics, reactivation, and outcome of LCH in a cohort of 55 patients across all ages. Methods: We reviewed the records of all patients with LCH treated at a single institute between Jan. 1974 and May 1998. Results: The 55 patients were 2 to 67 years of age (median, 31 years) at the time of diagnosis, and 85.5% were male. Forty patients (72.7%) had single-system LCH; Fifteen (27.3%) had multisystem disease. The head and neck was the most frequent tumor site (63.6%). LCH was not found in organs at risk of involvement (liver, spleen, bone marrow, and lungs). The frequency of bony invasion (23.6% overall) differed significantly according to age (15 years (66.7%) vs. Age >15 years (11.6%) (P=0.0005). At a median follow-up of 12 years, no patient died of LCH. The 5, 10-year survival estimates were 100%. The 5, 10-year disease-free survival estimates were 70.9% and 58.4%. The 5-year disease-free survival estimate was 58.3% for age ( 15 years vs. 74.4% for age >15 years (P=0.83) and 75% for single-system disease vs. 60% for multisystem disease (P=0.13). LCH was reactivated in 43.6% of patients, with a median of 14 months (range, 2-180 months). Three patients with recurrent disease experienced spontaneous remission. At the time of the most recent follow-up, 23.6% of survivors had active disease. Conclusion: LCH is not found exclusively in children and adolescents. The frequency of bone invasion is inversely related to age. Reactivation is very common regardless of the type of treatment, but the prognosis is generally good.
Cooper, J J; Schatzberg, S J; Vernau, K M; Summers, B A; Porter, B F; Siso, S; Young, B D; Levine, J M
Canine necrotizing meningoencephalitis (NME) is a fatal, noninfectious inflammatory disease of unknown etiology. NME has been reported only in a small number of dog breeds, which has led to the presumption that it is a breed-restricted disorder. Our objective was to describe histopathologically confirmed NME in dog breeds in which the condition has not been reported previously and to provide preliminary evidence that NME affects a wider spectrum of dog breeds than previously reported. Four dogs with NME. Archives from 3 institutions and from 1 author's (BS) collection were reviewed to identify histopathologically confirmed cases of NME in breeds in which the disease has not been reported previously. Age, sex, breed, survival from onset of clinical signs, and histopathologic findings were evaluated. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis was identified in 4 small dog breeds (Papillon, Shih Tzu, Coton de Tulear, and Brussels Griffon). Median age at clinical evaluation was 2.5 years. Histopathologic abnormalities included 2 or more of the following: lymphoplasmacytic or histiocytic meningoencephalitis or encephalitis, moderate-to-severe cerebrocortical necrosis, variable involvement of other anatomic locations within the brain (cerebellum, brainstem), and absence of detectable infectious agents. Until now, NME has only been described in 5 small dog breeds. We document an additional 4 small breeds previously not shown to develop NME. Our cases further illustrate that NME is not a breed-restricted disorder and should be considered in the differential diagnosis for dogs with signalment and clinical signs consistent with inflammatory brain disease. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Lee Grace C
Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs producing bacteria has become a significant global public health challenge while the optimal treatment remains undefined. We performed a systematic review of published studies and reports of treatment outcomes of KPC infections using MEDLINE (2001–2011. Articles or cases were excluded if one of the following was fulfilled: no individual patient data provided, no treatment regimen specified, no treatment outcome specified, report of colonization, or greater than three antibiotics were used to treat the KPC infection. Data extracted included patient demographics, site of infection, organism, KPC subtype, antimicrobial therapy directed at KPC-infection, and treatment outcome. Statistical analysis was performed in an exploratory manner. A total of 38 articles comprising 105 cases were included in the analysis. The majority of infections were due to K. pneumoniae (89%. The most common site of infection was blood (52%, followed by respiratory (30%, and urine (10%. Forty-nine (47% cases received monotherapy and 56 (53% cases received combination therapy directed at the KPC-infection. Significantly more treatment failures were seen in cases that received monotherapy compared to cases who received combination therapy (49% vs 25%; p= 0.01. Respiratory infections were associated with higher rates of treatment failure with monotherapy compared to combination therapy (67% vs 29% p= 0.03. Polymyxin monotherapy was associated with higher treatment failure rates compared to polymyxin-based combination therapy (73% vs 29%; p= 0.02; similarly, higher treatment failure rates were seen with carbapenem monotherapy compared to carbapenem-based combination therapy (60% vs 26%; p= 0.03. Overall treatment failure rates were not significantly different in the three most common antibiotic-class combinations: polymyxin plus carbapenem, polymyxin plus tigecycline, polymyxin plus aminoglycoside (30%, 29
Zanders, Edward D
Chemical genetics, genomics, and proteomics have been in existence as distinct offshoots of chemical biology for about 20 years. This review provides a brief definition of each, followed by some examples of how each technology is being used to advance basic research and drug discovery.
Hijaz, Nadia Mazen; Septer, Seth Steven; Degaetano, James; Attard, Thomas Mario
Collagenous gastritis (CG) is characterized by patchy subepithelial collagen bands. Effective treatment and the clinical and histological outcome of CG in children are poorly defined. The aim of this study is to summarize the published literature on the clinical outcome and response to therapy of pediatric CG including two new cases. We performed a search in Pubmed, OVID for related terms; articles including management and clinical and/or endo-histologic follow up information were included and abstracted. Reported findings were pooled in a dedicated database including the corresponding data extracted from chart review in our patients with CG. Twenty-four patients were included (17 females) with a mean age of 11.7 years. The clinical presentation included iron deficiency anemia and dyspepsia. The reported duration of follow up (in 18 patients) ranged between 0.2-14 years. Despite most subjects presenting with anemia including one requiring blood transfusion, oral iron therapy was only documented in 12 patients. Other treatment modalities were antisecretory measures in 13 patients; proton pump inhibitors (12), or histamine-2 blockers (3), sucralfate (5), prednisolone (6), oral budesonide in 3 patients where one received it in fish oil and triple therapy (3). Three (13%) patients showed no clinical improvement despite therapy; conversely 19 out of 22 were reported with improved symptoms including 8 with complete symptom resolution. Spontaneous clinical resolution without antisecretory, anti-inflammatory or gastroprotective agents was noted in 5 patients (4 received only supplemental iron). Follow up endo-histopathologic data (17 patients) included persistent collagen band and stable Mononuclear cell infiltrate in 12 patients with histopathologic improvement in 5 patients. Neither collagen band thickness nor mononuclear cell infiltrate correlated with clinical course. Intestinal metaplasia and endocrine cell hyperplasia were reported (1) raising the concern of long
Vaiopoulou, Anna; Gazouli, Maria; Theodoropoulos, George; Zografos, George
Since the formulation of the concept of proteomics, a plethora of proteomic technologies have been developed in order to study proteomes. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), several studies use proteomics to try to better understand the disease and discover molecules which can be used as biomarkers. Biomarkers should be able to be used for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis. Although several biomarkers have been discovered, few biomarkers have clinical value. In this review, we analyze and report the current use of proteomic techniques to highlight biomarkers characterizing IBD, and different stages of disease activity. We also report the biomarkers and their potential clinical value.
Zhou, Jianying; Dann, Geoffrey P.; Liew, Chong W.; Smith, Richard D.; Kulkarni, Rohit N.; Qian, Weijun
The pancreatic islets of Langerhans play a critical role in maintaining blood glucose homeostasis by secreting insulin and several other important peptide hormones. Impaired insulin secretion due to islet dysfunction is linked to the pathogenesis underlying both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Over the past 5 years, emerging proteomic technologies have been applied to dissect the signaling pathways that regulate islet functions and gain an understanding of the mechanisms of islet dysfunction relevant to diabetes. Herein, we briefly review some of the recent quantitative proteomic studies involving pancreatic islets geared towards gaining a better understanding of islet biology relevant to metabolic diseases.
Recently, the field of proteomics has rapidly expanded inits application towards clinical research with objectivesranging from elucidating disease pathogenesis todiscovering clinical biomarkers. As proteins governand/or reflect underlying cellular processes, the studyof proteomics provides an attractive avenue for researchas it allows for the rapid identification of proteinprofiles in a biological sample. Inflammatory boweldisease （IBD） encompasses several heterogeneousand chronic conditions of the gastrointestinal tract.Proteomic technology provides a powerful means ofaddressing major challenges in IBD today, especiallyfor identifying biomarkers to improve its diagnosis andmanagement. This review will examine the current stateof IBD proteomics research and its use in biomarkerresearch. Furthermore, we also discuss the challengesof translating proteomic research into clinically relevanttools. The potential application of this growing field isenormous and is likely to provide significant insightstowards improving our future understanding and managementof IBD.
Sprenger, Richard R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard
plasma membrane is of particular interest, by not only serving as a barrier between the "cell interior" and the external environment, but moreover by organizing and clustering essential components to enable dynamic responses to internal and external stimuli. Defining and characterizing the dynamic plasma...... membrane proteome is crucial for understanding fundamental biological processes, disease mechanisms and for finding drug targets. Protein identification, characterization of dynamic PTMs and protein-ligand interactions, and determination of transient changes in protein expression and composition are among...... the challenges in functional proteomic studies of the plasma membrane. We review the recent progress in MS-based plasma membrane proteomics by presenting key examples from eukaryotic systems, including mammals, yeast and plants. We highlight the importance of enrichment and quantification technologies required...
Pedreschi, Romina; Lurie, Susan; Hertog, Maarten; Nicolaï, Bart; Mes, Jurriaan; Woltering, Ernst
To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce post-harvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and developing countries. In recent years, a substantially increasing interest can be seen in the application of proteomics to understand post-harvest events. In the near future post-harvest proteomics will be poised to move from fundamental research to aiding the reduction of food losses. Proteomics research can help in reducing food losses through (i) identification and validation of gene products associated to specific quality traits supporting marker-assisted crop improvement programmes, (ii) delivering markers of initial quality that allow optimisation of distribution conditions and prediction of remaining shelf-life for decision support systems and (iii) delivering early detection tools of physiological or pathogen-related post-harvest problems. In this manuscript, recent proteomics studies on post-harvest and stress physiology are reviewed and discussed. Perspectives on future directions of post-harvest proteomics studies aiming to reduce food losses are presented.
Deane F. Mosher
Full Text Available We recently identified and quantified >7,000 proteins in non-activated human peripheral blood eosinophils using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS and described phosphoproteomic changes that accompany acute activation of eosinophils by interleukin-5 (IL5 (1. These data comprise a treasure trove of information about eosinophils. We illustrate the power of label-free LC–MS/MS quantification by considering four examples: complexity of eosinophil STATs, contribution of immunoproteasome subunits to eosinophil proteasomes, complement of integrin subunits, and contribution of platelet proteins originating from platelet–eosinophil complexes to the overall proteome. We describe how isobaric labeling enables robust sample-to-sample comparisons and relate the 220 phosphosites that changed significantly upon treatment with IL5 to previous studies of eosinophil activation. Finally, we review previous attempts to leverage the power of mass spectrometry to discern differences between eosinophils of healthy subjects and those with eosinophil-associated conditions and point out features of label-free quantification and isobaric labeling that are important in planning future mass spectrometric studies.
Ramdhani, Ritesh A; Patel, Amar; Swope, David; Kopell, Brian H
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is effective in treating the segmental symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) as well as axial symptoms that are levodopa responsive. PD patients on chronic DBS who develop axial symptoms and gait disturbances several years later oftentimes are refractory to high frequency stimulation (HFS). Several studies report benefit produced by low frequency subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation in such patients, though the sustainability of the effects has been mixed. To report the clinical outcomes of a series of patients with Parkinson's disease and levodopa responsive axial and gait disturbances who were switched to 60 Hz stimulation within one year of their DBS surgery. A retrospective review of 5 patients, whose severe pre-DBS, levodopa responsive gait disorders worsened on HFS STN-DBS and were subsequently switched to 60 Hz stimulation within 1 year of their surgery. The median age of this cohort was 66 years with median disease duration of 14 years. Four of 5 patients' experienced acute worsening of their axial and gait UPDRS III scores on HFS. All patients' gait disorder improved with 60 Hz along with amelioration of their segmental symptoms and reduction of their levodopa induced dyskinesia. The median time on HFS prior to switching to 60 Hz was two months. Stimulation through the ventral contacts was utilized in all patients with relatively modest changes achieved in levodopa equivalent daily dose. This case series demonstrates the clinical efficacy of utilizing low frequency (60 Hz) STN stimulation early in the DBS programming course in more advanced PD patients with levodopa responsive gait disturbance and freezing of gait. Activation of a broader stimulation field likely contributed to both axial and segmental symptom improvement while possibly aiding in the reduction of dyskinesia. © 2015 International Neuromodulation Society.
Gutiérrez, Ana M; Cerón, José J; Fuentes-Rubio, María; Tecles, Fernando; Beeley, Josie A
This paper reviews recent progress in salivary animal proteomics, with special reference to the porcine proteome. Until fairly recently, most studies on saliva as a diagnostic fluid have focused on humans, primates and rodents, and the development of salivary analysis in monitoring health in farm animals including pigs has received only limited consideration. The porcine salivary proteome has been characterised by 2D-electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry. Major and minor proteins have been identified. The use of saliva as a non-invasive biological fluid in monitoring health and disease in pigs will be reviewed, together with the potential use of proteomics for the development of biomarkers. In this review, methods of collection and the composition of porcine saliva will be considered, together with saliva handling and analysis. The overall findings indicate that there is considerable potential for the development of salivary analysis as a non-invasive diagnostic fluid in the pig, and that it offers advantages over other body fluids in this animal.
Zhan, Xianquan; Wang, Xiaowei; Cheng, Tingting
Pituitary adenoma (PA) is a common intracranial neoplasm that impacts on human health through interfering hypothalamus–pituitary–target organ axis systems. The development of proteomics gives great promises in the clarification of molecular mechanisms of a PA and discovery of effective biomarkers for prediction, prevention, early-stage diagnosis, and treatment for a PA. A great progress in the field of PA proteomics has been made in the past 10 years, including (i) the use of laser-capture microdissection, (ii) proteomics analyses of functional PAs (such as prolactinoma), invasive and non-invasive non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), protein post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and tyrosine nitration, NFPA heterogeneity, and hormone isoforms, (iii) the use of protein antibody array, (iv) serum proteomics and peptidomics, (v) the integration of proteomics and other omics data, and (vi) the proposal of multi-parameter systematic strategy for a PA. This review will summarize these progresses of proteomics in PAs, point out the existing drawbacks, propose the future research directions, and address the clinical relevance of PA proteomics data, in order to achieve our long-term goal that is use of proteomics to clarify molecular mechanisms, construct molecular networks, and discover effective biomarkers. PMID:27303365
Full Text Available Pituitary adenoma (PA is a commonly intracranial neoplasm that impacts on human health through interfering hypothalamus-pituitary-target organ axis systems. The development of proteomics gives great promises in clarification of molecular mechanisms of a pituitary adenoma and discovery of effective biomarkers for prediction, prevention, early-stage diagnosis and treatment of a PA. A great progress in the field of PA proteomics has been made in the past ten years, including (i the use of laser capture microdissection, (ii proteomics analyses of functional PAs (FPAs, such as prolactinoma, invasive and noninvasive nonfunctional PAs (NFPAs, protein post-translational modifications (PTMs including phosphorylation and tyrosine nitration, NFPA heterogeneity, and hormone isoforms, (iii the use of protein antibody array, (iv serum proteomics and peptidomics, (v integration of proteomics and other omics data, and (vi proposal of multi-parameter systematic strategy for a PA. This review will summarize those progresses of proteomics in PAs, point out the existing drawbacks, propose the future research directions, and address the clinical relevance of PA proteomics data, in order to achieve our long-term goal that is use of proteomics to clarify molecular mechanisms, construct molecular networks, and discover effective biomarkers.
Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Boschetti, Egisto; Candiano, Giovanni
The present review highlights recent progresses in the technique of combinatorial peptide ligand libraries (CPPL), a methodology that has much to offer for the detection of low- to very-low abundance proteins (nanograms/mL scale and below) in any proteome. In particular, advances in exploration of the urinary, plasma and tissue proteomes are discussed and evaluated. It is shown that when treating biological fluids, such as plasma, with CPLLs, the detection sensitivity, which in the control only reaches 10 ng/mL, can be enhanced to as high as 10 pg/mL, with an increment of sensitivity of three orders of magnitude. The possibility of using CPLLs as a two-dimensional pre-fractionation of any proteome is also evaluated: on the charge axis, CPLL capture can be implemented at no less than three different pH values (4.0, 7.2 and 9.3), thus permitting a capture of proteinaceous analytes bearing a net positive or net negative charge, respectively. When capture is performed in the absence of salts or at high levels of salts (of the Hofmeister series), one can favor the capture of hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic proteins, respectively. This would thus be a genuine 2D protocol, working on orthogonal separation principles (charge vs. hydrophobicity). As the horizon of CPLLs is expanding and its use is exponentially growing, we expect major breakthroughs in, e.g., biomarker discovery, a field that has suffered a decade of failures.
Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Foster, Joseph M; Martens, Lennart
Despite the fact that data deposition is not a generalised fact yet in the field of proteomics, several mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomics repositories are publicly available for the scientific community. The main existing resources are: the Global Proteome Machine Database (GPMDB), PeptideAtlas, the PRoteomics IDEntifications database (PRIDE), Tranche, and NCBI Peptidome. In this review the capabilities of each of these will be described, paying special attention to four key properties:...
Full Text Available Background Wii Fit was originally designed as a health and fitness interactive training experience for the general public. There are, however, many examples of Wii Fit being utilized in clinical settings. This article aims to identify the contribution of Wii Fit in the field of health promotion and rehabilitation by: (1 identifying the health-related domains for which the Wii Fit series has been tested, (2 clarifying the effect of Wii Fit in those identified health-related domains and (3 quantifying this effect. Method A systematic literature review was undertaken. The MEDLINE database and Games for Health Journal published content were explored using the search term “Wii-Fit.” Occurrences resulting from manual searches on Google and material suggested by experts in the field were also considered. Included articles were required to have measurements from Wii Fit activities for at least one relevant health indicator. The effect of Wii Fit interventions was assessed using meta-analyses for the following outcomes: activity-specific balance confidence score, Berg balance score (BBC and time-up-and-go test (TUG. Findings A total of 115 articles highlighted that the Wii Fit has been tested in numerous healthy and pathological populations. Out of these, only a few intervention studies have focused on the prevention of chronic diseases. A large proportion of the studies focus on balance training (N = 55. This systematic review highlights several potential benefits of Wii Fit interventions and these positive observations are supported by meta-analyses data (N = 25. For example, the BBC and the TUG respond to a similar extend to Wii Fit interventions compared with traditional training. Conclusion Wii Fit has the potential to be used as a rehabilitation tool in different clinical situations. However, the current literature includes relatively few randomized controlled trials in each population. Further research is therefore required.
Aiming Lin; Zhenggang Liu
@@ Signal transduction is pivotal for many, if not all, fundamental cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, transformation and programmed cell death. Deregulation of cell signaling may result in certain types of cancers and other human diseases.
Despite intense scientific efforts, the neuropathology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia are poorly understood. Proteomic studies, by testing large numbers of proteins for associations with disease, may contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of schizophrenia. They may also indicate the types and locations of cells most likely to harbor pathological alterations. Investigations using proteomic approaches have already provided much information on quantitative and qualitat...
Rodrigues, Pedro M.; Silva, Tomé S.; Dias, Jorge
growth in production is still expected for decades to come. Aquaculture is, though, a very competitive market, and a global awareness regarding the use of scientific knowledge and emerging technologies to obtain a better farmed organism through a sustainable production has enhanced the importance...... nutritional, health or quality properties for functional foods and the integration of proteomics techniques in addressing this challenging issue. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Farm animal proteomics....
Boudart, Georges; Minic, Zoran; Albenne, Cécile; Canut, Hervé; Jamet, Elisabeth; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F
In this chapter, we will focus on the contribution of proteomics to the identification and determination of the structure and function of CWPs as well as discussing new perspectives in this area. The great variety of proteins found in the plant cell wall is described. Some families, such as glycoside hydrolases, proteases, lectins, and inhibitors of cell wall modifying enzymes, are discussed in detail. Examples of the use of proteomic techniques to elucidate the structure of various cell wall...
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although several studies have been conducted regarding Kaposi sarcoma (KS, its histogenesis still remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to analyze the immunophenotype of Kaposi sarcoma and to present a hypothesis about the histogenesis of this tumor, based on a case series and a review of relevant literature. METHODS: In 15 cases of KSs diagnosed during 2000-2011, the clinicopathological features were correlated with the immunoexpression of c-Kit, SMA, CD34, CD31, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, COX-2, c-KIT, smooth muscle antigen (SMA, and stem cell surface marker CD105. RESULTS: Both CD105 and c-KIT rate of the spindle-shaped tumor cell positivity increased in parallel to the pathological stage. All cases displayed CD105 and weak c-KIT positivity in the endothelial cells. SMA, VEGF, and COX-2 were focally expressed in all cases. CD34 marked both endothelium and spindle-shaped tumor cells. No c-KIT expression was noticed in KS of the internal organs. CONCLUSIONS: KS seems to be a variant of myofibroblastic tumors that originates from the viral modified pluripotent mesenchymal cells of the connective tissue transformed in spindle-shaped KS cells, followed by a mesenchymal-endothelial transition and a myofibroblastic-like differentiation. This paper mailnly showed that KS cannot be considered a pure vascular tumor.
Full Text Available Permanent visual loss is a devastating yet preventable complication of cryptococcal meningitis. Early and aggressive management of cerebrospinal fluid pressure in conjunction with antifungal therapy is required. Historically, the mechanisms of visual loss in cryptococcal meningitis have included optic neuritis and papilloedema. Hence, the basis of visual loss therapy has been steroid therapy and intracranial pressure lowering without clear guidelines. With the use of high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging of the optic nerve, an additional mechanism has emerged, namely an optic nerve sheath compartment syndrome (ONSCS caused by severely elevated intracranial pressure and fungal loading in the peri-optic space. An improved understanding of these mechanisms and recognition of the important role played by raised intracranial pressure allows for more targeted treatment measures and better outcomes. In the present case series of 90 HIV co-infected patients with cryptococcal meningitis, we present the clinical and electrophysiological manifestations of Cryptococcus-induced visual loss and review the mechanisms involved.
Huppert, Theodore J; Diamond, Solomon G; Franceschini, Maria A; Boas, David A
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool for studying evoked hemodynamic changes within the brain. By this technique, changes in the optical absorption of light are recorded over time and are used to estimate the functionally evoked changes in cerebral oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations that result from local cerebral vascular and oxygen metabolic effects during brain activity. Over the past three decades this technology has continued to grow, and today NIRS studies have found many niche applications in the fields of psychology, physiology, and cerebral pathology. The growing popularity of this technique is in part associated with a lower cost and increased portability of NIRS equipment when compared with other imaging modalities, such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. With this increasing number of applications, new techniques for the processing, analysis, and interpretation of NIRS data are continually being developed. We review some of the time-series and functional analysis techniques that are currently used in NIRS studies, we describe the practical implementation of various signal processing techniques for removing physiological, instrumental, and motion-artifact noise from optical data, and we discuss the unique aspects of NIRS analysis in comparison with other brain imaging modalities. These methods are described within the context of the MATLAB-based graphical user interface program, HomER, which we have developed and distributed to facilitate the processing of optical functional brain data.
Mews, Marie Rosa; Quante, Arnim
Delusional disorder is an uncommon, yet not rare, psychotic disorder. Because of the distinct lack of high-evidence-level research conducted in this area, no definitive clinical guidelines are available on its treatment. The aim of this article was to summarize the current literature on the pharmacological treatment of delusional disorder in the form of a review, as well as to analyze a series of 6 cases treated at the Department of Psychiatry at "Charité-University Medicine Berlin, Campus Benjamin Franklin" between 2005 and 2011; in each case paying special attention to the relative efficacy and acceptability of the antipsychotics used. A MEDLINE search was conducted to capture all articles on the treatment of delusional disorder published since 2004. After viewing titles and abstracts, these articles were then assessed for relevance. The files of 6 cases of delusional disorder treated at the previously mentioned clinic were analyzed and information regarding the type of medication, dose, and duration of treatment as well as adverse effects was extracted and summarized. In line with previous studies, it was found that delusional disorder has a moderate prognosis when adequately treated and that noncompliance is often the reason for poor treatment results. Various novel antipsychotics as well as a combination of medication treatment and psychotherapy produced positive results. Generally, adverse effects were easily managed by a reduction in dose or a switch to another antipsychotic, and it was often necessary to try out a number of antipsychotics before arriving at a satisfactory solution.
Weaver, K F; Morales, V; Nelson, M; Weaver, P F; Toledo, A; Godde, K
This study examines the relationship between the introduction of a four-course writing-intensive capstone series and improvement in inquiry and analysis skills of biology senior undergraduates. To measure the impact of the multicourse write-to-learn and peer-review pedagogy on student performance, we used a modified Valid Assessment of Learning in Undergraduate Education rubric for Inquiry and Analysis and Written Communication to score senior research theses from 2006 to 2008 (pretreatment) and 2009 to 2013 (intervention). A Fisher-Freeman-Halton test and a two-sample Student's t test were used to evaluate individual rubric dimensions and composite rubric scores, respectively, and a randomized complete block design analysis of variance was carried out on composite scores to examine the impact of the intervention across ethnicity, legacy (e.g., first-generation status), and research laboratory. The results show an increase in student performance in rubric scoring categories most closely associated with science literacy and critical-thinking skills, in addition to gains in students' writing abilities.
Moreno, Cristiane de Araújo Martins; Abath Neto, Osório; Donkervoort, Sandra; Hu, Ying; Reed, Umbertina Conti; Oliveira, Acary Sousa Bulle; Bönnemann, Carsten; Zanoteli, Edmar
Nemaline myopathy is a rare congenital disease of skeletal muscle characterized by muscle weakness and hypotonia, as well as the diagnostic presence of nemaline rods in skeletal muscle fibers. Nemaline myopathy is genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous and, so far, mutations in 11 different genes have been associated with this disease. Dominant mutations in ACTA1 are the second most frequent genetic cause of nemaline myopathy and can lead to a variety of clinical and histologic phenotypes. We present a series of ACTA1-related cases from a Brazilian cohort of 23 patients with nemaline myopathy, diagnosed after Sanger sequencing the entire coding region of ACTA1, and review the literature on ACTA1-related nemaline myopathy. The study confirmed ACTA1 mutations in four patients, including one with intranuclear rods, one with large intracytoplasmic aggregates, and two with nemaline intracytoplasmic rods. A repeat muscle biopsy in one patient did not show histological progression. Despite the recognized phenotypic variability in ACTA1-related nemaline myopathy, clinical and histological presentations appear to correlate with the position of the mutation, which confirms emerging genotype/phenotype correlations and better predict the prognosis of affected patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This account will give an overview and evaluation of the current advances in mass spectrometry (MS-based proteomics platforms and technology. A general review of some background information concerning the application of these methods in the characterization of molecular sizes and related protein expression profiles associated with different types of cells under varied experimental conditions will be presented. It is intended to provide a concise and succinct overview to those clinical researchers first exposed to this foremost powerful methodology in modern life sciences of postgenomic era. Proteomic characterization using highly sophisticated and expensive instrumentation of MS has been used to characterize biological samples of complex protein mixtures with vastly different protein structure and composition. These systems are then used to highlight the versatility and potential of the MS-based proteomic strategies for facilitating protein expression analysis of various disease-related organisms or tissues of interest. Major MS-based strategies reviewed herein include (1 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-MS and electron-spray ionization proteomics; (2 one-dimensional or two-dimensional gel-based proteomics; (3 gel-free shotgun proteomics in conjunction with liquid chromatography/tandem MS; (4 Multiple reaction monitoring coupled tandem MS quantitative proteomics and; (5 Phosphoproteomics based on immobilized metal affinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-MS/MS.
Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Rakwal, Randeep
Growing rice is an important socio-economic activity. Rice proteomics has achieved a tremendous progress in establishing techniques to proteomes of almost all tissues, organs, and organelles during the past one decade (year 2000-2010). We have compiled these progresses time to time over this period. The present compilation discusses proteomics research in rice published between 1st April 2008 and 30th July 2010. Progress continues mainly towards protein cataloging deep into the proteome with high-confident protein assignment and some functional significance than ever before by (i) identifying previously unreported/low-abundance proteins, (ii) quantifying relative/absolute values of proteins, (iii) assigning protein responses to biotic/abiotic stresses, (iv) protein localization into organelles, (v) validating previous proteomes and eliminating false-positive proteins, and (vi) discovering potential biomarkers for tissues, organs, organelles, and for screening transgenic plants and food-safety evaluation. The notable achievements in global mapping of phosphorylation sites and identifying several novel secreted proteins into the extracellular space are worth appreciating. Our ever-increasing knowledge on the rice proteomics is beginning to impact the biology of not only rice, but also crops and plants. These major achievements will be discussed in this review keeping in mind newcomers, young, and established scientists in proteomics and plants. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Hudgins, H. C., Jr.
This monograph is a review of selected judicial decisions reported by state and federal courts during the past two years and related directly to the administration of elementary or secondary schools. The decisions were identified through a standard search of legal resources at the Temple University Law Library; each decision was read in its…
Proteomics is a newborn science focusing on the comprehensive systematic analysis of all proteins in molecule machineries,organelles,cells,tissues,organs or intact organisms.It has been becoming one of the focuses in life sciences and cutting-edge techniques in biotechnologies in the 21st century.During the last decade,proteomics in China has developed much faster than other developing fields in the life sciences.This review article briefly retrospects the origin and development of proteomics in China,and provides an overview of representative scientific progress and perspectives.
Jamet, Elisabeth; Canut, Hervé; Boudart, Georges; Pont-Lezica, Rafael F
Cell wall proteins are essential constituents of plant cell walls; they are involved in modifications of cell wall components, wall structure, signaling and interactions with plasma membrane proteins at the cell surface. The application of proteomic approaches to the cell wall compartment raises important questions: are there technical problems specific to cell wall proteomics? What kinds of proteins can be found in Arabidopsis walls? Are some of them unexpected? What sort of post-translational modifications have been characterized in cell wall proteins to date? The purpose of this review is to discuss the experimental results obtained to date using proteomics, as well as some of the new questions challenging future research.
Sui, Jianjun; Zhang, Jianhua; Ching, Chi Bun; Chen, Wei Ning
The chiralities of chiral drugs have been investigated extensively with the purpose of enlightening the role of chirality in drug action. Proteomics, though in its infancy, has recently emerged as the foremost technology in drug development research, possessing the advantage of providing more useful information about an organism than genomics, as it directly addresses the level of genome products and their interactions. In this review, we will discuss the background of chiral drug investigation from which contemporary drug chirality research has emerged, the techniques involved in proteomics technology, the application of proteomics in this exciting area, and the perspectives in future applications of this field.
Kondratiuk, Iu Iu; Mamenko, P M; Kots, S Ya
The present review contains results of proteomic researches of legume-rhizobium symbiosis. The technical difficulties associated with the methods of obtaining protein extracts from symbiotic structures and ways of overcoming them were discussed. The changes of protein synthesis under formation and functioning of symbiotic structures were shown. Special attention has been given to the importance of proteomic studies of plant-microbe structures in the formation of adaptation strategies under adverse environmental conditions. The technical and conceptual perspectives of legume-rhizobium symbiosis proteomics were shown.
Collins, Emily S; Little, Samantha J
Fifty postgraduate and postdoctoral delegates from all over Europe attended the week-long '1st European Summer School on Proteomic Basics' in Kloster Neustift in the Italian South Tyrol in August 2007. Invited proteomics experts gave tutorial lectures on Proteomics techniques with an emphasis on sample preparation, protein separation and purification in the first of an annual series of Proteomics Summer Schools funded by the EU and the Volkswagen Stiftung.
Rolling, Katherine E; Jorgenson, Margaret R; Descourouez, Jillian L; Mandelbrot, Didier A; Redfield, Robert R; Smith, Jeannina A
Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus (GR-CMV) is emerging as a significant infection in the abdominal transplant population. GR-CMV is difficult to manage, and treatment options are limited. We report a descriptive case series of 15 patients who had documented GR-CMV at our center and review the literature on treatment of GR-CMV. The first case in this series was detected in 2012; the majority of cases occurred after January 1, 2014, with approximately 50% occurring in 2015. UL97 and UL54 viral genome mutations were present in 100% and 40% of CMV-infected patients, respectively. GR-CMV infection occurred ≤ 1 year posttransplantation in 11 patients (73%). All patients experienced dose reduction of valganciclovir (the oral prodrug of ganciclovir) before the development of GR-CMV. Initial treatment for GR-CMV included a variety of regimens, all including reduction in maintenance immunosuppression. Of the 6 patients with detectable GR-CMV by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) who were discharged without GR-CMV treatment and had a length of stay (LOS) less than 14 days, 83% were subsequently readmitted for treatment of GR-CMV within 2 months (60% in < 20 days); none received leflunomide. Of six patients with a LOS ≥ 14 days, 80% had CMV PCR below quantification on hospital discharge, and only one patient was readmitted in less than 20 days; 83% received leflunomide. Following GR-CMV, there was a 50% rejection incidence, 27% graft loss, and 20% mortality. For patients with more than three admissions for GR-CMV treatment, 100% had a major complication: 60% rejection, 20% graft loss, and 40% mortality. Common clinical characteristics of patients with GR-CMV included high-risk serostatus, lymphocyte depletion, and history of valganciclovir dose reduction. Overall, outcomes were poor. It appears that hospital readmission rate was reduced when CMV was treated to negativity with an initial treatment regimen of reduced immunosuppression, foscarnet, intravenous immunoglobulins
Doran, Philip; Gannon, Joan; O'Connell, Kathleen; Ohlendieck, Kay
Over the last few decades of biomedical research, animal models of neuromuscular diseases have been widely used for determining pathological mechanisms and for testing new therapeutic strategies. With the emergence of high-throughput proteomics technology, the identification of novel protein factors involved in disease processes has been decisively improved. This review outlines the usefulness of the proteomic profiling of animal disease models for the discovery of new reliable biomarkers, fo...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidural fibrosis is regarded as a cause of failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS when excessive adhesional/fibrotic scar tissue causes compression, pain or discomfort by tethering of nerve tissue to the surrounding muscle or bone. Fibrosis inhibitors could therefore increase the success rate of spinal surgery and decrease the need for reoperations. In recent years, bio-resorbable gels or films for the prevention of peridural fibrosis and post-operative adhesions have been developed that look clinically promising. This included a 100% synthetic, sterile, absorbable gel combinations of carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and polyethylene oxide (PEO used to coat the dura to reduce scarring after discectomy which became available in Europe in 2002. However, given the burden of the problem and unfavorable experience with other types of adhesion-reduction agents, our unit decided to evaluate the safety of CMC/PEO in a large population of patients undergoing spinal microdiscectomy for herniation. Methods To determine the safety and assess efficacy of carboxymethylcellulose/polyethylene oxide (CMC/PEO gel as an anti-adhesion gel, a consecutive series of 396 patients undergoing lumbar discectomy performed by one surgeon had CMC/PEO gel administered at the end of surgery. The patients were followed up in accordance with standard clinical practice and records reviewed for side effects, such as skin reactions, general reactions or local fluid collections. Reoperations for recurrent herniation included an evaluation of fibrosis reduction. Results No product related complications were observed. Five patients needed reoperations for recurrent herniation. Significant but subjective reduction in fibrosis was observed in these patients. Conclusion The findings provide confidence that CMC/PEO gel is well tolerated as an agent to achieve reduction of fibrosis in lumbar disc surgery. Further formal prospective study is recommended in this area of unmet
D. Rotariu1, S. Gaivas1, Z. Faiyad1, D. Haba2, B. Iliescu1, I. Poeata1
Full Text Available Background: Diffuse infiltrative low-gradegliomas (LGG of the cerebral hemispheresin the adult are tumors with distinctclinical, histological and molecularcharacteristics. WHO (World HealthOrganization classification recognizesgrade II astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomasand oligoastrocytomas. Conventional MRIis used for differential diagnosis, guidingsurgery, planning radiotherapy andmonitoring treatment response.Advanced imaging techniques areincreasing the diagnostic accuracy. Lowgradegliomas have been documented toundergo transformation into high-gradegliomas, and the time interval of thistransformation has been reported togenerally occur within 5 years in about 50%of patients diagnosed with low-gradegliomas.Methods: We have reviewed all adultpatients operated on for hemisphericglioblastoma at N Oblu Hospital in Iasibetween 2006 and 2009 and in particularthose patients with secondary glioblastoma.Results: from the total 110 cases ofglioblastoma, ten of them were secondaryto malignant transformation of anpreviously operated low grade glioma. Ofthe 10 patients with secondaryglioblastoma, the initial histology was: gr IIastocytoma in 6 cases, oligoastocytoma in 2cases and in oligodendroglioma in 2 cases.The mean patient age was 46.1± 0.9 yearsand the most frequent symptom wasrepresented by seizures 70%, the mean timefrom the first symptom to diagnosis was11,2 months. 40% of the cases had subtotalresection and 60% had total resection(defined by the surgeon at the time ofoperation. 5 patients received radiotherapypostoperatively, 2 received both radio andchemotherapy and 3 had no adjuvanttreatment. In our series the median time tomalignant transformation was 32,5 months.Conclusions: Younger age, normalneurological examination andoligodendroglial histology are favorableprognostic factors, total/near total resectioncan improve seizure control, progressionfreeand overall survival, mean whilereducing the risk of malignanttransformation. Early post
Bohl, Michael A; Forseth, James; Nakaji, Peter
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is a common second-line or third-line vasopressor used in critically ill neurosurgical patients. Neurosurgical indications include hyperdynamic therapy for vasospasm, maintenance of cerebral perfusion pressure in patients with intracranial hypertension, and prevention of hypotension in patients with sepsis. A series of 6 neurosurgical patients receiving AVP infusions developed severe but transient diabetes insipidus (tDI) after cessation of AVP. To our knowledge, no previous reports of this phenomenon in neurosurgical patients have been published. We reviewed the clinical histories, intensive care unit treatment, medication administration records, and laboratory values of these patients, and we found recurrent elevated serum sodium and urine output and decreased urine specific gravity after discontinuation of AVP. Resolution of tDI occurred upon resumption of AVP or administration of desmopressin. Elevated serum sodium levels were often severe, resulting in worsened clinical outcomes. When AVP was resumed, tDI typically recurred if AVP was again tapered and discontinued. Routine administration of desmopressin was useful in controlling sodium levels until the tDI resolved. Recognition of this phenomenon has caused us to change our clinical management of neurosurgical patients receiving AVP. We hypothesize that tDI is caused by downregulation of the V2 receptor mass in the renal distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct cells. When AVP is discontinued, patients develop nephrogenic tDI secondary to decreased V2 receptor binding, which explains why desmopressin is effective in correcting tDI. Future research includes a large prospective study to determine risk factors for tDI, its incidence, and its pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
López-Barea, Juan; Gómez-Ariza, José Luis
Monitoring environmental pollution using biomarkers requires detailed knowledge about the markers, and many only allow a partial assessment of pollution. New proteomic methods (environmental proteomics) can identify proteins that, after validation, might be useful as alternative biomarkers, although this approach also has its limitations, derived mainly from their application to non-model organisms. Initial studies using environmental proteomics were carried out in animals exposed to model pollutants, and led to the concept of protein expression signatures. Experiments have been carried out in model organisms (yeast, Arabidopsis, rat cells, or mice) exposed to model contaminants. Over the last few years, proteomics has been applied to organisms from ecosystems with different pollution levels, forming the basis of an environmental branch in proteomics. Another focus is connected with the presence of metals bound to biomolecules, which adds an additional dimension to metal-biomolecule and metalloprotein characterization - the field of metallomics. The metallomic approach considers the metallome: a whole individual metal or metalloid species within a cell or tissue. A metallomic analytical approach (MAA) is proposed as a new tool to study and identify metalloproteins.
Fagerquist, Clifton K.
This chapter is intended to be a relatively brief overview of proteomic techniques currently in use for the identification and analysis of microorganisms with a special emphasis on foodborne pathogens. The chapter is organized as follows. First, proteomic techniques are introduced and discussed. Second, proteomic applications are presented specifically as they relate to the identification and qualitative/quantitative analysis of foodborne pathogens.
Pernikářová, Vendula; Bouchal, Pavel
The concept of personalized medicine includes novel protein biomarkers that are expected to improve the early detection, diagnosis and therapy monitoring of malignant diseases. Tissues, biofluids, cell lines and xenograft models are the common sources of biomarker candidates that require verification of clinical value in independent patient cohorts. Targeted proteomics - based on selected reaction monitoring, or data extraction from data-independent acquisition based digital maps - now represents a promising mass spectrometry alternative to immunochemical methods. To date, it has been successfully used in a high number of studies answering clinical questions on solid malignancies: breast, colorectal, prostate, ovarian, endometrial, pancreatic, hepatocellular, lung, bladder and others. It plays an important role in functional proteomic experiments that include studying the role of post-translational modifications in cancer progression. This review summarizes verified biomarker candidates successfully quantified by targeted proteomics in this field and directs the readers who plan to design their own hypothesis-driven experiments to appropriate sources of methods and knowledge.
Bacterial infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. By extending our understanding of the process of bacterial pathogenesis at the molecular level new strategies for their treatment and prevention can be developed. Proteomic technologies, along with other methods for global gene expression analysis, play an important role in understanding the mechanism(s) of bacterial pathogenesis. This review highlights the use of proteomics to identify protein biomarkers for virulent bacterial isolates and how these biomarkers can be correlated with the outcome of bacterial infection. Biomarker identification typically looks at the proteomes of bacteria grown under laboratory conditions. It is, however, the characterisation of the bacterial proteome during in vivo infection of its host that will eventually provide the most significant insights into bacterial pathogenesis. Although this area of research has significant technical challenges, a number of complementary proteome analytical approaches are being developed to identify and characterise the bacterial genes specifically expressed in vivo. Ultimately, the development of newly targeted therapies and vaccines using specific protein targets identified through proteomic analyses will be one of the major practical benefits arising from the proteomic analysis of bacterial pathogens.
Petriz, Bernardo A; Gomes, Clarissa P; Rocha, Luiz A O; Rezende, Taia M B; Franco, Octávio L
Exercise research has always drawn the attention of the scientific community because it can be widely applied to sport training, health improvement, and disease prevention. For many years numerous tools have been used to investigate the several physiological adaptations induced by exercise stimuli. Nowadays a closer look at the molecular mechanisms underlying metabolic pathways and muscular and cardiovascular adaptation to exercise are among the new trends in exercise physiology research. Considering this, to further understand these adaptations as well as pathology attenuation by exercise, several studies have been conducted using molecular investigations, and this trend looks set to continue. Through enormous biotechnological advances, proteomic tools have facilitated protein analysis within complex biological samples such as plasma and tissue, commonly used in exercise research. Until now, classic proteomic tools such as one- and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis have been used as standard approaches to investigate proteome modulation by exercise. Furthermore, other recently developed in gel tools such as differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE) and gel-free techniques such as the protein labeling methods (ICAT, SILAC, and iTRAQ) have empowered proteomic quantitative analysis, which may successfully benefit exercise proteomic research. However, despite the three decades of 2-DE development, neither classic nor novel proteomic tools have been convincingly explored by exercise researchers. To this end, this review gives an overview of the directions in which exercise-proteome research is moving and examines the main tools that can be used as a novel strategy in exercise physiology investigation.
de Oliveira, José Miguel P Ferreira; de Graaff, Leo H
Filamentous fungi are widely known for their industrial applications, namely, the production of food-processing enzymes and metabolites such as antibiotics and organic acids. In the past decade, the full genome sequencing of filamentous fungi increased the potential to predict encoded proteins enormously, namely, hydrolytic enzymes or proteins involved in the biosynthesis of metabolites of interest. The integration of genome sequence information with possible phenotypes requires, however, the knowledge of all the proteins in the cell in a system-wise manner, given by proteomics. This review summarises the progress of proteomics and its importance for the study of biotechnological processes in filamentous fungi. A major step forward in proteomics was to couple protein separation with high-resolution mass spectrometry, allowing accurate protein quantification. Despite the fact that most fungal proteomic studies have been focused on proteins from mycelial extracts, many proteins are related to processes which are compartmentalised in the fungal cell, e.g. β-lactam antibiotic production in the microbody. For the study of such processes, a targeted approach is required, e.g. by organelle proteomics. Typical workflows for sample preparation in fungal organelle proteomics are discussed, including homogenisation and sub-cellular fractionation. Finally, examples are presented of fungal organelle proteomic studies, which have enlarged the knowledge on areas of interest to biotechnology, such as protein secretion, energy production or antibiotic biosynthesis.
Tuma, Zdenek; Kuncova, Jitka; Mares, Jan; Grundmanova, Martina; Matejovic, Martin
Dysfunction of kidney mitochondria plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of a number of renal diseases. Proteomics represents an untargeted attempt to reveal the remodeling of mitochondrial proteins during disease. Combination of separation methods and mass spectrometry allows identification and quantitative analysis of mitochondrial proteins including protein complexes. The aim of this review is to summarize the methods and applications of proteomics to renal mitochondria. Using keywords "mitochondria", "kidney", "proteomics", scientific databases (PubMed and Web of knowledge) were searched from 2000 to August 2015 for articles describing methods and applications of proteomics to analysis of mitochondrial proteins in kidney. Included were publications on mitochondrial proteins in kidneys of humans and animal model in health and disease. Proteomics of renal mitochondria has been/is mostly used in diabetes, hypertension, acidosis, nephrotoxicity and renal cancer. Integration of proteomics with other methods for examining protein activity is promising for insight into the role of renal mitochondria in pathological states. Several challenges were identified: selection of appropriate model organism, sensitivity of analytical methods and analysis of mitochondrial proteome in different renal zones/biopsies in the course of various kidney disorders.
Full Text Available The inner ear, one of the most complex organs, contains within its bony shell three sensory systems, the evolutionary oldest gravity receptor system, the three semicircular canals for the detection of angular acceleration, and the auditory system - unrivaled in sensitivity and frequency discrimination. All three systems are susceptible to a host of afflictions affecting the quality of life for all of us. In the first part of this review we present an introduction to the milestones of inner ear research to pave the way for understanding the complexities of a proteomics approach to the ear. Minute sensory structures, surrounded by large fluid spaces and a hard bony shell, pose extreme challenges to the ear researcher. In spite of these obstacles, a powerful preparatory technique was developed, whereby precisely defined microscopic tissue elements can be isolated and analyzed, while maintaining the biochemical state representative of the in vivo conditions. The second part consists of a discussion of proteomics as a tool in the elucidation of basic and pathologic mechanisms, diagnosis of disease, as well as treatment. Examples are the organ of Corti proteins OCP1 and OCP2, oncomodulin, a highly specific calcium-binding protein, and several disease entities, Meniere's disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, and perilymphatic fistula.
Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge; Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Grusak, Michael A; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana-Flor
The phloem sap, xylem sap and apoplastic fluid play key roles in long and short distance transport of signals and nutrients, and act as a barrier against local and systemic pathogen infection. Among other components, these plant fluids contain proteins which are likely to be important players in their functionalities. However, detailed information about their proteomes is only starting to arise due to the difficulties inherent to the collection methods. This review compiles the proteomic information available to date in these three plant fluids, and compares the proteomes obtained in different plant species in order to shed light into conserved functions in each plant fluid. Inter-species comparisons indicate that all these fluids contain the protein machinery for self-maintenance and defense, including proteins related to cell wall metabolism, pathogen defense, proteolysis, and redox response. These analyses also revealed that proteins may play more relevant roles in signaling in the phloem sap and apoplastic fluid than in the xylem sap. A comparison of the proteomes of the three fluids indicates that although functional categories are somewhat similar, proteins involved are likely to be fluid-specific, except for a small group of proteins present in the three fluids, which may have a universal role, especially in cell wall maintenance and defense. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lovegrove, Alison; Salt, Louise; Shewry, Peter R.
Wheat is a major crop in world agriculture and is consumed after processing into a range of food products. It is therefore of great importance to determine the consequences (intended and unintended) of transgenesis in wheat and whether genetically modified lines are substantially equivalent to those produced by conventional plant breeding. Proteomic analysis is one of several approaches which can be used to address these questions. Two-dimensional PAGE (2D PAGE) remains the most widely available method for proteomic analysis, but is notoriously difficult to reproduce between laboratories. We therefore describe methods which have been developed as standard operating procedures in our laboratory to ensure the reproducibility of proteomic analyses of wheat using 2D PAGE analysis of grain proteins.
Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.
Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Semba, Richard D.; Ubaida-Mohien, Ceereena
Skeletal muscle is a large organ that accounts for up to half the total mass of the human body. A progressive decline in muscle mass and strength occurs with ageing and in some individuals configures the syndrome of ‘sarcopenia’, a condition that impairs mobility, challenges autonomy, and is a risk...... factor for mortality. The mechanisms leading to sarcopenia as well as myopathies are still little understood. The Human Skeletal Muscle Proteome Project was initiated with the aim to characterize muscle proteins and how they change with ageing and disease. We conducted an extensive review...... of the literature and analysed publically available protein databases. A systematic search of peer-reviewed studies was performed using PubMed. Search terms included ‘human’, ‘skeletal muscle’, ‘proteome’, ‘proteomic(s)’, and ‘mass spectrometry’, ‘liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)’. A catalogue...
Soil salinization is one of the key factors limiting plant growth and distribution. To explore plant molecular salt-responsive mechanisms is the basis of enhancing plant salt tolerance in virtue of molecular biological techniques, and also, the hotspot of plant physiology and molecular ecology. High throughput proteomics approaches include two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), blue-native/SDS-PAGE ( BN/SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) , liquid chromatography (LC) , and various mass spectrometry (MS) techniques, being widely applied in the research of plant salt-response and supplied important information for understanding plant molecular salt-tolerant mechanisms. In this paper, a review was made on the technical strategies applied in the research of plant salt-responsive proteomics.%土壤盐渍化是限制植物生长和分布的关键因素之一.揭示植物响应盐胁迫的分子机理是借助分子生物学手段提高植物耐盐性的基础,也是当前植物生理与分子生态学研究的热点问题.高通量的蛋白质组学技术体系包括双向电泳技术、蓝色自然胶电泳技术、双向荧光差异凝胶电泳技术、液相色谱技术,以及各种生物质谱技术,已经被广泛应用于植物应答盐胁迫研究,为解析植物耐盐分子机制提供了重要信息.本文综述了应用于植物盐胁迫响应蛋白质组学研究的技术策略.
Full Text Available 17223961 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role...ecent advances inunderstanding the role of Toll-like receptors in anti-viral immu...nity. PubmedID 17223961 Title Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: recent advances inunderstanding the role
De Angelis, Maria; Calasso, Maria; Cavallo, Noemi; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Gobbetti, Marco
Lactobacillus are mainly used for the manufacture of fermented dairy, sourdough, meat, and vegetable foods or used as probiotics. Under optimal processing conditions, Lactobacillus strains contribute to food functionality through their enzyme portfolio and the release of metabolites. An extensive genomic diversity analysis was conducted to elucidate the core features of the genus Lactobacillus, and to provide a better comprehension of niche adaptation of the strains. However, proteomics is an indispensable "omics" science to elucidate the proteome diversity, and the mechanisms of regulation and adaptation of Lactobacillus strains. This review focuses on the novel and comprehensive knowledge of functional proteomics and metaproteomics of Lactobacillus species. A large list of proteomic case studies of different Lactobacillus species is provided to illustrate the adaptability of the main metabolic pathways (e.g., carbohydrate transport and metabolism, pyruvate metabolism, proteolytic system, amino acid metabolism, and protein synthesis) to various life conditions. These investigations have highlighted that lactobacilli modulate the level of a complex panel of proteins to growth/survive in different ecological niches. In addition to the general regulation and stress response, specific metabolic pathways can be switched on and off, modifying the behavior of the strains.
Recent advances in molecular genetics, such as the ability to construct defined mutants, have allowed the study of virulence factors and more generally the biology in Leptospira. However, pathogenic leptospires remain much less easily transformable than the saprophyte L. biflexa and further development and improvement of genetic tools are required. Here, we review tools that have been used to genetically manipulate Leptospira. We also describe the major advances achieved in both genomics and postgenomics technologies, including transcriptomics and proteomics.
Ariza, Adriana; Montañez, M. I.; Pérez-Sala, Dolores
Purpose of review: To discuss the avenues that proteomic techniques are opening for the study of the chemical basis and cellular mechanisms of immunological reactions to drugs. Recent findings: Technical developments in recent years are allowing a detailed characterization of drug–protein interactions. In addition, novel metabolic pathways for drug biotransformation are being uncovered and potential targets for protein haptenation are being proposed that may help in the understanding of t...
Full Text Available The nucleus of eukaryotic organisms is highly dynamic and complex, containing different types of macromolecules including DNA, RNA, and a wide range of proteins. Novel proteomic applications have led to a better overall determination of nucleus protein content. Although nuclear plant proteomics is only at the initial phase, several studies have been reported and are summarized in this review using different plants species, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress, and barrel clover. These include the description of the total nuclear or phospho-proteome (i.e. Arabidopsis, cowpea, onion, or the analysis of the differential nuclear proteome under different growth environments (i.e. Arabidopsis, rice, cowpea, onion, garden cress and barrel clover. However, only few reports exist on the analysis of the maize nuclear proteome or its changes under various conditions. This review will present recent data on the study of the nuclear maize proteome, including the analysis of changes in posttranslational modifications in histone proteins.
Full Text Available C4 plants exhibit much higher CO2 assimilation rates than C3 plants. The specialized differentiation of mesophyll cell (M and bundle sheath cell (BS type chloroplasts is unique to C4 plants and improves photosynthesis efficiency. Maize (Zea mays is an important crop and model with C4 photosynthetic machinery. Current high-throughput quantitative proteomics approaches (e.g., 2DE, iTRAQ, and shotgun proteomics have been employed to investigate maize chloroplast structure and function. These proteomic studies have provided valuable information on C4 chloroplast protein components, photosynthesis, and other metabolic mechanisms underlying chloroplast biogenesis, stromal and membrane differentiation, as well as response to salinity, high/low temperature, and light stress. This review presents an overview of proteomics advances in maize chloroplast biology.
Tiwari, Vishvanath; Tiwari, Monalisa
Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections. The prevalence of this lethal pathogen increases gradually in the clinical setup where it can grow on artificial surfaces, utilize ethanol as a carbon source. Moreover it resists desiccation. Carbapenems, a β-lactam, are the most commonly prescribed drugs against A. baumannii. Resistance against carbapenem has emerged in Acinetobacter baumannii which can create significant health problems and is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. With the development of quantitative proteomics, a considerable progress has been made in the study of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Recent updates showed that quantitative proteomics has now emerged as an important tool to understand the carbapenem resistance mechanism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Present review also highlights the complementary nature of different quantitative proteomic methods used to study carbapenem resistance and suggests to combine multiple proteomic methods for understanding the response to antibiotics by Acinetobacter baumannii.
Full Text Available Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen causing pneumonia, respiratory infections and urinary tract infections. The prevalence of this lethal pathogen increases gradually in the clinical setup where it can grow on artificial surfaces, utilize ethanol as a carbon source. Moreover it resists desiccation. Carbapenems, a β-lactam, are the most commonly prescribed drugs against A. baumannii. Resistance against carbapenem has emerged in Acinetobacter baumannii which can create significant health problems and is responsible for high morbidity & mortality. With the development of quantitative proteomics, a considerable progress has been made in the study of carbapenem resistance of Acinetobacter baumannii. Recent updates showed that quantitative proteomics has now emerged as an important tool to understand the carbapenem resistance mechanism in Acinetobacter baumannii. Present review also highlights the complementary nature of different quantitative proteomic methods used to study carbapenem resistance and suggests to combine multiple proteomic methods for understanding the response to antibiotics by Acinetobacter baumannii.
Zhen Cai; Jen-Fu Chiu; Qing-Yu He
Tumor metastasis is the dominant cause of death in cancer patients. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying tumor metastasis are still elusive.The identification of protein molecules with their expressions correlated to the metastatic process would help to understand the metastatic mechanisms and thus facilitate the development of strategies for the therapeutic interventions and clinical management of cancer. Proteomics is a systematic research approach aiming to provide the global characterization of protein expression and function under given conditions. Proteomic technology has been widely used in biomarker discovery and pathogenetic studies including tumor metastasis. This article provides a brief review of the application of proteomics in identifying molecular factors in tumor metastasis process. The combination of proteomics with other experimental approaches in biochemistry, cell biology, molecular genetics and chemistry, together with the development of new technologies and improvements in existing method ologies will continue to extend its application in studying cancer metastasis.
Fernando de la Cuesta
Full Text Available Vascular disorders, and in particular atherothrombosis, are currently a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Western societies. Proteomics research into these disorders has helped improving our knowledge of the underlying mechanisms involved in the development of atherothrombosis, as well as providing novel biomarkers to diagnose and for the prognosis of this disease. However, the application of these advances into clinical use has not followed this trend. In this review we explore the potential of Proteomics and Metabolomics for the management of vascular disorders, paying special attention to atherothrombosis and aiming to guide the reader from the experimental design of proteomic analysis through the initial discovery phase to the clinical implementation of biomarkers or therapeutic targets (Fig. 1, providing state-of-the-art proteomic studies to exemplify the concepts addressed.
Roberto Alejandro Navarrete
Full Text Available We present a case from a running series of inflatable penile prosthesis failure due to improper folding of the Conceal™ reservoir. The Conceal™ Low-Profile reservoir gained popularity due to claims of improved cosmesis and ease of implantation. As the number of patients receiving this and other low-profile reservoirs increases, it is imperative to review and document any novel complications. While the Conceal™ reservoir may be preferred in ectopic placement, it may be more prone to fluid lockout facilitated by conformational change. Our review did not identify prior reports of improper folding, which we believe is unique to these low-profile reservoirs.
Full Text Available e receptors: networks regulated byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive...ed byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. Authors Parker LC, Prince LR, Sabroe I. Publi...d byToll-like receptors mediate innate and adaptive immunity. Parker LC, Prince LR, Sabroe I. Clin Exp Immun...17223959 Translational mini-review series on Toll-like receptors: networks regulate
MEI ShengWei; MA Jin
Based on,but not limited to the research results of electrical engineering published in the special issue of Science in China Series E,June 2008,this essay gives a brief review on a wide range of state-of-art advancement in electrical engineering field of China,which includes power system modeling,analysis and control,risk assessments in power system,etc.
Gooi, Zhen; Richmon, Jeremy; Agrawal, Nishant; Blair, Elizabeth; Portugal, Louis; Vokes, Everett; Seiwert, Tanguy; de Souza, Jonas; Saloura, Vassiliki; Haraf, Daniel; Goldenberg, David; Chan, Jason
This article is a continuation of the "Do You Know Your Guidelines" series, an initiative of the American Head and Neck Society's Education Committee to increase awareness of current best practices pertaining to head and neck cancer. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines for the management of nasopharyngeal cancer are reviewed here in a systematic fashion. These guidelines outline the workup, treatment and surveillance of patients with nasopharyngeal cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 201-205, 2017.
Gunn, Vicky; Fisk, Anna
This research review explores both the research and the grey literature on university teaching excellence with a specific remit to update an earlier review, "Excellence in Teaching and Learning: a review of literature for the Higher Education Academy". Little, B., et al (2007) The two main aims are: (1) to suggest further areas of…
Bunkenborg, Jakob; García, Guadalupe Espadas; Paz, Marcia Ivonne Peña;
Cell culture is a fundamental tool in proteomics where mammalian cells are cultured in vitro using a growth medium often supplemented with 5-15% FBS. Contamination by bovine proteins is difficult to avoid because of adherence to the plastic vessel and the cultured cells. We have generated peptide...
Gabaldon, T.; Huynen, M.A.
Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles that originated from a single bacterial endosymbiosis some 2 billion years ago. The transition from the ancestral endosymbiont to the modern mitochondrion has been accompanied by major changes in its protein content, the so-called proteome. These changes
de Bernonville, Thomas Dugé; Albenne, Cécile; Arlat, Matthieu; Hoffmann, Laurent; Lauber, Emmanuelle; Jamet, Elisabeth
Proteomic analysis of xylem sap has recently become a major field of interest to understand several biological questions related to plant development and responses to environmental clues. The xylem sap appears as a dynamic fluid undergoing changes in its proteome upon abiotic and biotic stresses. Unlike cell compartments which are amenable to purification in sufficient amount prior to proteomic analysis, the xylem sap has to be collected in particular conditions to avoid contamination by intracellular proteins and to obtain enough material. A model plant like Arabidopsis thaliana is not suitable for such an analysis because efficient harvesting of xylem sap is difficult. The analysis of the xylem sap proteome also requires specific procedures to concentrate proteins and to focus on proteins predicted to be secreted. Indeed, xylem sap proteins appear to be synthesized and secreted in the root stele or to originate from dying differentiated xylem cells. This chapter describes protocols to collect xylem sap from Brassica species and to prepare total and N-glycoprotein extracts for identification of proteins by mass spectrometry analyses and bioinformatics.
García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P
During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.
Fusaro, V A; Stone, J H
The vocabulary of proteomics and the swiftly-developing, technological nature of the field constitute substantial barriers to clinical investigators. In recent years, mass spectrometry has emerged as the most promising technique in this field. The purpose of this review is to introduce the field of mass spectrometry-based proteomics to clinical investigators, to explain many of the relevant terms, to introduce the equipment employed in this field, and to outline approaches to asking clinical questions using a proteomic approach. Examples of clinical applications of proteomic techniques are provided from the fields of cancer and vasculitis research, with an emphasis on a pattern recognition approach.
Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer and is highly fatal. During the last several years, research has been primarily based on the study of expression profiles using microarray technology. But now, investigators are putting into practice proteomic analyses of cancer tissues and cells to identify new diagnostic or therapeutic biomarkers for this cancer. Because the proteome reflects the state of a cell, tissue or organism more accurately, much is expected from proteomics to yield better tumor markers for disease diagnosis and therapy monitoring. This review summarizes the most relevant applications of proteomics the biomarker discovery for colorectal cancer.
Panisko, Ellen A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Grigoriev, Igor [USDOE Joint Genome Inst., Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Daly, Don S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baker, Scott E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
Biologists are awash with genomic sequence data. In large part, this is due to the rapid acceleration in the generation of DNA sequence that occurred as public and private research institutes raced to sequence the human genome. In parallel with the large human genome effort, mostly smaller genomes of other important model organisms were sequenced. Projects following on these initial efforts have made use of technological advances and the DNA sequencing infrastructure that was built for the human and other organism genome projects. As a result, the genome sequences of many organisms are available in high quality draft form. While in many ways this is good news, there are limitations to the biological insights that can be gleaned from DNA sequences alone; genome sequences offer only a bird's eye view of the biological processes endemic to an organism or community. Fortunately, the genome sequences now being produced at such a high rate can serve as the foundation for other global experimental platforms such as proteomics. Proteomic methods offer a snapshot of the proteins present at a point in time for a given biological sample. Current global proteomics methods combine enzymatic digestion, separations, mass spectrometry and database searching for peptide identification. One key aspect of proteomics is the prediction of peptide sequences from mass spectrometry data. Global proteomic analysis uses computational matching of experimental mass spectra with predicted spectra based on databases of gene models that are often generated computationally. Thus, the quality of gene models predicted from a genome sequence is crucial in the generation of high quality peptide identifications. Once peptides are identified they can be assigned to their parent protein. Proteins identified as expressed in a given experiment are most useful when compared to other expressed proteins in a larger biological context or biochemical pathway. In this chapter we will discuss the automatic
Huang, Eric L.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Orton, Daniel J.; Moore, Ronald J.; Qian, Wei-Jun; Casey, Cameron P.; Sun, Xiaofei; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Smith, Richard D.
Global proteomic analyses are now widely applied across biological research to study changes in an organism(s) proteome correlated with a perturbation, phenotype and/or time series of interest.[1-3] Further, it has been broadly established that efficient and reproducible sample preparation workflows are crucial to successful quantitative proteome comparisons, especially when applying label free methods.[4-8] However, clinical samples are often severely limited in quantity and can preclude the application of more robust bulk sample processing workflows due to e.g. contamination, carry-over, or sample losses. This has limited the effective application of global proteomics for many sample types of great interest, e.g. LCM dissected tissues, FACS sorted cells, circulating tumor cells (CTC), and early embryos. In a typical proteomics experiment, bulk homogenization is applied to generate sufficient protein for processing (> 10 µg protein), and can blend the proteomes of many different cell types and disparate tissue regions. The resulting “average” proteome, can effectively render unobservable proteome changes of interest, and preclude important applications. Global proteomic analyses of complex protein samples in nanogram quantities require a fastidious approach to achieve in-depth protein coverage and quantitative reproducibility.
Andrew M. Piggott
Full Text Available Reverse chemical proteomics combines affinity chromatography with phage display and promises to be a powerful new platform technology for the isolation of natural product receptors, facilitating the drug discovery process by rapidly linking biologically active small molecules to their cellular receptors and the receptorsÃ¢Â€Â™ genes. In this paper we review chemical proteomics and reverse chemical proteomics and show how these techniques can add value to natural products research. We also report on techniques for the derivatisation of polystyrene microtitre plates with cleavable linkers and marine natural products that can be used in chemical proteomics or reverse chemical proteomics. Specifically, we have derivatised polystyrene with palauÃ¢Â€Â™amine and used reverse chemical proteomics to try and isolate the human receptors for this potent anticancer marine drug.
The current exuberance on the potential of proteomics as a means to deploy the wealth of the human genome is expected to last into the coming years. Unlike the genome, a finite entity with a fixed number of base pairs of the genetic material, the proteome is "plastic", changing throughout growth and development and environmental stresses, as well as in pathological situations. Our proteomes change over time, and therefore there is no one proteome; the proteome is for practical purposes an infinite entity. It is therefore crucial to build systems that are capable of manipulating the information content that is the proteome, thence the need for computational proteomics as a discipline. In this Market View article, we present the industry landscape that is emerging in the computational proteomics space. This space is still in its infancy and for the most part undefined; therefore we seek to present the market opportunity in informatics in the drug discovery space and then extend that to an examination of industry trends in proteomics. Thus, the gestalt is a set of predictions as to the evolution of the landscape in computational proteomics over the coming years.
Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division and Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA
Targeted proteomics technique has emerged as a powerful protein quantification tool in systems biology, biomedical research, and increasing for clinical applications. The most widely used targeted proteomics approach, selected reaction monitoring (SRM), also known as multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), can be used for quantification of cellular signaling networks and preclinical verification of candidate protein biomarkers. As an extension to our previous review on advances in SRM sensitivity (Shi et al., Proteomics, 12, 1074–1092, 2012) herein we review recent advances in the method and technology for further enhancing SRM sensitivity (from 2012 to present), and highlighting its broad biomedical applications in human bodily fluids, tissue and cell lines. Furthermore, we also review two recently introduced targeted proteomics approaches, parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) and data-independent acquisition (DIA) with targeted data extraction on fast scanning high-resolution accurate-mass (HR/AM) instruments. Such HR/AM targeted quantification with monitoring all target product ions addresses SRM limitations effectively in specificity and multiplexing; whereas when compared to SRM, PRM and DIA are still in the infancy with a limited number of applications. Thus, for HR/AM targeted quantification we focus our discussion on method development, data processing and analysis, and its advantages and limitations in targeted proteomics. Finally, general perspectives on the potential of achieving both high sensitivity and high sample throughput for large-scale quantification of hundreds of target proteins are discussed.
Sean W. Harshman
Full Text Available Exhaled breath condensate (EBC has been established as a potential source of respiratory biomarkers. Compared to the numerous small molecules identified, the protein content of EBC has remained relatively unstudied due to the methodological and technical difficulties surrounding EBC analysis. In this review, we discuss the proteins identified in EBC, by mass spectrometry, focusing on the significance of those proteins identified. We will also review the limitations surrounding mass spectral EBC protein analysis emphasizing recommendations to enhance EBC protein identifications by mass spectrometry. Finally, we will provide insight into the future directions of the EBC proteomics field.
Mancone, C; Ciccosanti, F; Montaldo, C; Perdomo, A B; Piacentini, M; Alonzi, T; Fimia, G M; Tripodi, M
Developing antiviral drugs, vaccines and diagnostic markers is still the most ambitious challenge in clinical virology. In the past few decades, data from high-throughput technologies have allowed for the rapid development of new antiviral therapeutic strategies, thus making a profound impact on translational research. Most of the current preclinical studies in virology are aimed at evaluating the dynamic composition and localization of the protein platforms involved in various host-virus interactions. Among the different possible approaches, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used to define the protein composition in subcellular compartments, quantify differential protein expression among samples, characterize protein complexes, and analyse protein post-translational modifications. Here, we review the current knowledge of the most useful proteomic approaches in the study of viral persistence and pathogenicity, with a particular focus on recent advances in hepatitis C research. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.
Søren K. O. Abildgaard
Full Text Available Uveal melanoma (UM continues to be associated with a high mortality rate of up to 50% due to metastatic spread primarily to the liver. Currently there are relatively effective treatments for the primary tumor, though the management of the metastatic disease remains inadequate. Conventional diagnostic tools have a low sensitivity for detecting metastasis, and early detection of metastatic spread would allow more treatment options that could ultimately increase survival of UM patients. Advanced proteomic methods have already helped to find potential biomarkers associated with UM pathogenesis and metastasis. In the present review we discuss the field of proteomics in relation to studies elucidating biomarkers of UM, where proteins such as S-100β, osteopontin (OPN, and melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA have been shown to be associated with metastasis.
Deutsch, Eric W; Orchard, Sandra; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Bittremieux, Wout; Eisenacher, Martin; Hermjakob, Henning; Kawano, Shin; Lam, Henry; Mayer, Gerhard; Menschaert, Gerben; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Salek, Reza M; Tabb, David L; Tenzer, Stefan; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Walzer, Mathias; Jones, Andrew R
The Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI) of the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) has now been developing and promoting open community standards and software tools in the field of proteomics for 15 years. Under the guidance of the chair, cochairs, and other leadership positions, the PSI working groups are tasked with the development and maintenance of community standards via special workshops and ongoing work. Among the existing ratified standards, the PSI working groups continue to update PSI-MI XML, MITAB, mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, mzTab, and the MIAPE (Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment) guidelines with the advance of new technologies and techniques. Furthermore, new standards are currently either in the final stages of completion (proBed and proBAM for proteogenomics results as well as PEFF) or in early stages of design (a spectral library standard format, a universal spectrum identifier, the qcML quality control format, and the Protein Expression Interface (PROXI) web services Application Programming Interface). In this work we review the current status of all of these aspects of the PSI, describe synergies with other efforts such as the ProteomeXchange Consortium, the Human Proteome Project, and the metabolomics community, and provide a look at future directions of the PSI.
Tolstov, Georgi P
Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie
Navrot, Nicolas; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte
In common with other aerobic organisms, plants are exposed to reactive oxygen species resulting in formation of post-translational modifications related to protein oxidoreduction (redox PTMs) that may inflict oxidative protein damage. Accumulating evidence also underscores the importance of redox...... PTMs in regulating enzymatic activities and controlling biological processes in plants. Notably, proteins controlling the cellular redox state, e.g. thioredoxin and glutaredoxin, appear to play dual roles to maintain oxidative stress resistance and regulate signal transduction pathways via redox PTMs....... To get a comprehensive overview of these types of redox-regulated pathways there is therefore an emerging interest to monitor changes in redox PTMs on a proteome scale. Compared to some other PTMs, e.g. protein phosphorylation, redox PTMs have received less attention in plant proteome analysis, possibly...
Peltier, Julien; Härtlova, Anetta; Trost, Matthias
Phagocytosis is the process that engulfs particles in vesicles called phagosomes that are trafficked through a series of maturation steps, culminating in the destruction of the internalized cargo. Because phagosomes are in direct contact with the particle and undergo constant fusion and fission events with other organelles, characterization of the phagosomal proteome is a powerful tool to understand mechanisms controlling innate immunity as well as vesicle trafficking. The ability to isolate highly pure phagosomes through the use of latex beads led to an extensive use of proteomics to study phagosomes under different stimuli. Thousands of different proteins have been identified and quantified, revealing new properties and shedding new light on the dynamics and composition of maturing phagosomes and innate immunity mechanisms. In this chapter, we describe how quantitative-based proteomic methods such as label-free, dimethyl labeling or Tandem Mass Tag (TMT) labeling can be applied for the characterization of protein composition and translocation during maturation of phagosomes in macrophages.
Mathes, Tim; Pieper, Dawid
Distinguishing cohort studies from case series is difficult.We propose a conceptualization of cohort studies in systematic reviews of comparative studies. The main aim of this conceptualization is to clarify the distinction between cohort studies and case series. We discuss the potential impact of the proposed conceptualization on the body of evidence and workload.All studies with exposure-based sampling gather multiple exposures (with at least two different exposures or levels of exposure) and enable calculation of relative risks that should be considered cohort studies in systematic reviews, including non-randomized studies. The term "enables/can" means that a predefined analytic comparison is not a prerequisite (i.e., the absolute risks per group and/or a risk ratio are provided). Instead, all studies for which sufficient data are available for reanalysis to compare different exposures (e.g., sufficient data in the publication) are classified as cohort studies.There are possibly large numbers of studies without a comparison for the exposure of interest but that do provide the necessary data to calculate effect measures for a comparison. Consequently, more studies could be included in a systematic review. Therefore, on the one hand, the outlined approach can increase the confidence in effect estimates and the strengths of conclusions. On the other hand, the workload would increase (e.g., additional data extraction and risk of bias assessment, as well as reanalyses).
Talacchi, Andrea; Biroli, Antonio; Soda, Christian; Masotto, Barbara; Bricolo, Albino
Foramen magnum meningioma poses a challenge for neurosurgeons. Prognosis has generally improved with diagnostic and surgical advances over the past two decades; however, it may ultimately depend more on the surgeon's ability to tailor the approach and interpret intraoperative risks in single cases. The series comprised 64 patients operated on for ventral and ventrolateral foramen magnum meningioma. All patients underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and received surgery via the dorsolateral route, rendering the series homogeneous in neuroradiological workup and surgical treatment. Particular to this series was that the majority of patients were of advanced age (n = 29; age, >65 years), had serious functional impairment (n = 30, Karnofski score magnum meningiomas behave like clival or spinal tumors depending on their prevalent extension. A dorsolateral approach tailored to tumor position and extension and meticulous surgical technique allow for definitive control of surgical complications. Scrupulous postoperative care may prevent dysphagia, a major persistent complication of surgery. Long-term observation of indolent tumor behavior at follow-up suggests that incomplete resection may be a viable surgical treatment option.
薛亮; 刘建锋; 史胜青; 魏远; 常二梅; 高暝; 江泽平
重金属对生态系统造成的污染已成为全球关注的问题.植物对重金属的摄取不仅影响其正常生长,并能通过食物链来威胁人类及整个生态系统的健康.在mRNA水平上的基因表达分析,增强了人们对植物响应重金属的理解.然而,关于相关功能基因组翻译方面的问题仍未得到有效解决.通过分析鉴定相关响应基因和功能蛋白,获取翻译及翻译后水平上的信息,能为植物响应重金属胁迫提供更深层次的理解.本研究分析比较了近年来重金属胁迫蛋白组学研究技术,综述了植物响应重金属胁迫的蛋白组学研究进展,探讨从亚细胞蛋白组学水平解析植物解毒重金属过程的可能性,并提出未来该研究方向所面临的挑战及应对策略,为揭示植物与重金属相互作用的分子机制提供有效方法.%Heavy metal pollution of ecosystems is a global problem.Uptake of heavy metals by plants not only affects the regular growth,but also threatens the health of humans and the whole ecosystem throughout the food chains.Although the analysis of gene expression at the mRNA level has enhanced our understanding of the response of plants to heavy metals,many questions regarding the functional translated portions of plant genomes under metal stress remain unanswered.Acquiring information at the translational and post-translational levels by analyzing and identifying the heavy metal-responsive genes and functional proteins of the plant is needed for a deeper understanding of the response of plants to heavy metal stress.This article analyzes and compares technologies used in studying proteomic responses to heavy metal stress for the past few years and reviews developments in analyzing heavy metal-responsive mechanisms of plants using proteomics.The possibility of illustrating heavy metal detoxification pathways in plants at a sub-cellular proteomic level is discussed.Challenges and strategies encountered in this research
Kim, Sun Tae; Kim, Sang Gon; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Kikuchi, Shoshi; Rakwal, Randeep
Rice proteomics has progressed at a tremendous pace since the year 2000, and that has resulted in establishing and understanding the proteomes of tissues, organs, and organelles under both normal and abnormal (adverse) environmental conditions. Established proteomes have also helped in re-annotating the rice genome and revealing the new role of previously known proteins. The progress of rice proteomics had recognized it as the corner/stepping stone for at least cereal crops. Rice proteomics remains a model system for crops as per its exemplary proteomics research. Proteomics-based discoveries in rice are likely to be translated in improving crop plants and vice versa against ever-changing environmental factors. This review comprehensively covers rice proteomics studies from August 2010 to July 2013, with major focus on rice responses to diverse abiotic (drought, salt, oxidative, temperature, nutrient, hormone, metal ions, UV radiation, and ozone) as well as various biotic stresses, especially rice-pathogen interactions. The differentially regulated proteins in response to various abiotic stresses in different tissues have also been summarized, indicating key metabolic and regulatory pathways. We envision a significant role of rice proteomics in addressing the global ground level problem of food security, to meet the demands of the human population which is expected to reach six to nine billion by 2040.
Banner, Natalie F; Thornton, Tim
There has been a recent growth in philosophy of psychiatry that draws heavily (although not exclusively) on analytic philosophy with the aim of a better understanding of psychiatry through an analysis of some of its fundamental concepts. This 'new philosophy of psychiatry' is an addition to both analytic philosophy and to the broader interpretation of mental health care. Nevertheless, it is already a flourishing philosophical field. One indication of this is the new Oxford University Press series International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry seven volumes of which (by Bolton and Hill; Bracken and Thomas; Fulford, Morris, Sadler, and Stanghellini; Hughes, Louw, and Sabat; Pickering; Sadler; and Stanghellini) are examined in this critical review.
López-Villar, Elena; Martos-Moreno, Gabriel Á; Chowen, Julie A; Okada, Shigeru; Kopchick, John J; Argente, Jesús
The incidence of obesity and type diabetes 2 has increased dramatically resulting in an increased interest in its biomedical relevance. However, the mechanisms that trigger the development of diabetes type 2 in obese patients remain largely unknown. Scientific, clinical and pharmaceutical communities are dedicating vast resources to unravel this issue by applying different omics tools. During the last decade, the advances in proteomic approaches and the Human Proteome Organization have opened and are opening a new door that may be helpful in the identification of patients at risk and to improve current therapies. Here, we briefly review some of the advances in our understanding of type 2 diabetes that have occurred through the application of proteomics. We also review, in detail, the current improvements in proteomic methodologies and new strategies that could be employed to further advance our understanding of this pathology. By applying these new proteomic advances, novel therapeutic and/or diagnostic protein targets will be discovered in the obesity/Type 2 diabetes area. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.
Sumit Sethi; Dipti Chourasia; Ishwar S Parhar
An extensive guide on practicable and significant quantitative proteomic approaches in neuroscience research is important not only because of the existing overwhelming limitations but also for gaining valuable understanding into brain function and deciphering proteomics from the workbench to the bedside. Early methodologies to understand the functioning of biological systems are now improving with high-throughput technologies, which allow analysis of various samples concurrently, or of thousand of analytes in a particular sample. Quantitative proteomic approaches include both gel-based and non-gel-based methods that can be further divided into different labelling approaches. This review will emphasize the role of existing technologies, their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their applications in neuroscience. This review will also discuss advanced approaches for targeted proteomics using isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) coupled with laser capture microdissection (LCM) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. This technology can further be extended to single cell proteomics in other areas of biological sciences and can be combined with other ‘omics’ approaches to reveal the mechanism of a cellular alterations. This approach may lead to further investigation in basic biology, disease analysis and surveillance, as well as drug discovery. Although numerous challenges still exist, we are confident that this approach will increase the understanding of pathological mechanisms involved in neuroendocrinology, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders by delivering protein biomarker signatures for brain dysfunction.
Movahhed, Mina; Poursaleh, Zohreh
Background: Until now, Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) had been extensively based on Iranian philosophy in theoretical approach in diagnosis and treatment, with doubts on academic medicine. Nevertheless, the diagnosis of temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control had been with the obscurity of functional molecules and their action mechanisms. Proteomics is a potent board to the mechanistic investigation of ITM and has been comprehensively applied profile drug-regulated proteins. In this review, we assessed the application of this modern molecular biological method in the identification of temperaments and drug targets of ITM. Methods: All available studies related to proteomics in traditional medicine, alternative and complementary medicine, including books, journals, and other references were studied and assessed. Results: The present review showed the phenotypes of the various temperaments in healthy individuals, that is to say, same proteins with different dynamic properties. Therefore, the usefulness of proteomics seems authoritative to understand the means by which the molecular pathways protected in ITM. This might be also the key clinical viewpoint on this new approach for enabling the integration of Iranian traditional medicine and modern biological science and technology, as well for upholding the internationalization of ITM. Conclusion: Proteomics, as a powerful tool for systems biology, is an essential research methodology for understanding the mechanisms of traditional medicine. Further investigation on the applications of advanced proteomics in temperaments, herbal standardization, and quality control in ITM is recommended. PMID:27516684
Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso
Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.
Righetti, Pier Giorgio; Castagna, Annalisa; Herbert, Ben; Reymond, Frederic; Rossier, Joël S
The present review deals with a number of prefractionation protocols in preparation for two-dimensional map analysis, both in the fields of chromatography and in the field of electrophoresis. In the first case, Fountoulaki's groups has reported just about any chromatographic procedure useful as a prefractionation step, including affinity, ion-exchange, and reversed-phase resins. As a result of the various enrichment steps, several hundred new species, previously undetected in unfractionated samples, could be revealed for the first time. Electrophoretic prefractionation protocols include all those electrokinetic methodologies which are performed in free solution, essentially all relying on isoelectric focusing steps. The devices here reviewed include multichamber apparatus, such as the multicompartment electrolyzer with Immobiline membranes, Off-Gel electrophoresis in a multicup device and the Rotofor, an instrument also based on a multichamber system but exploiting the conventional technique of carrier-ampholyte-focusing. Other instruments of interest are the Octopus, a continuous-flow device for isoelectric focusing in a upward flowing liquid curtain, and the Gradiflow, where different pI cuts are obtained by a multistep passage through two compartments buffered at different pH values. It is felt that this panoply of methods could offer a strong step forward in "mining below the tip of the iceberg" for detecting the "unseen proteome".
Borgonovo, Andrea; Bianchi, Albino; Marchetti, Andrea; Censi, Rachele; Maiorana, Carlo
After an inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury, the onset of altered sensation usually begins immediately after surgery. However, it sometimes begins after several days, which is referred to as delayed paresthesia. The authors considered three different etiologies that likely produce inflammation along the nerve trunk and cause delayed paresthesia: compression of the clot, fibrous reorganization of the clot, and nerve trauma caused by bone fragments during clot organization. The aim of this article was to evaluate the etiology of IAN delayed paresthesia, analyze the literature, present a case series related to three different causes of this pathology, and compare delayed paresthesia with the classic immediate symptomatic paresthesia.
Full Text Available Women are often subjected to serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG testing prior to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. A positive result leads to further testing to rule out pregnancy and avoid possible fetal teratogenicity. The impact of chronic kidney disease (CKD on HCG testing has not been studied. We report a series of 5 women out of 62 with CKD, who had a positive HCG test on routine pre-transplant screening at a single transplant center. We analyzed their case records retrospectively. Despite aggressive investigation, their elevated HCG levels remained unexplained. The positive test contributed to delays in transplantation and increased overall cost of treatment.
Okafor, Kingsley; Lu, Jonathan; Thinda, Sumeer; Schwab, Ivan; Morse, Lawrence S; Park, Susanna S; Moshiri, Ala
We report three cases of patients with developmental-delay from neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis who presented years later with acute retinal necrosis due to herpes simplex virus. The diagnosis was delayed in all cases due to the patients' inability to verbalize their ocular complaints and cooperate with eye examinations. This case series documents the clinical course, pathophysiologic mechanism, and treatment of acute retinal necrosis in this patient population. Clinicians should understand the importance of prudent consideration of acute retinal necrosis in patients with a history of neonatal herpetic encephalitis and/or meningitis presenting with a red eye.
Giuseppe Piccinni; Anna Angrisano; Mario Testini; G. Martino Bonomo
Acute colonic obstruction due to malignancies is an emergency that requires surgical treatment. Elderly patients or inoperable tumors require intestinal decompression that is a simple colostomy in almost all cases. This "manoeuvre"leads the patient to a percentage of mortality/morbidity and to a bad quality of life due to acceptance of stoma. The introduction of enteral metal stent inserted endoscopically has, in our opinion, provided a new way to obtaining the definitive palliation of inoperable colo-rectal cancer with a simple method. We reported our case-series and we analyzed the current literature and costs of treatments.
Rigobello-Masini, Marilda; Penteado, José Carlos Pires; Masini, Jorge Cesar
Since "omics" techniques emerged, plant studies, from biochemistry to ecology, have become more comprehensive. Plant proteomics and metabolomics enable the construction of databases that, with the help of genomics and informatics, show the data obtained as a system. Thus, all the constituents of the system can be seen with their interactions in both space and time. For instance, perturbations in a plant ecosystem as a consequence of application of herbicides or exposure to pollutants can be predicted by using information gathered from these databases. Analytical chemistry has been involved in this scientific evolution. Proteomics and metabolomics are emerging fields that require separation, identification, and quantification of proteins, peptides, and small molecules of metabolites in complex biological samples. The success of this work relies on efficient chromatographic and electrophoretic techniques, and on mass spectrometric detection. This paper reviews recent developments in the use of monolithic columns, focusing on their applications in "top-down" and "bottom-up" approaches, including their use as supports for immobilization of proteolytic enzymes and their use in two-dimensional and multidimensional chromatography. Whereas polymeric columns have been predominantly used for separation of proteins and polypeptides, silica-based monoliths have been more extensively used for separation of small molecules of metabolites. Representative applications in proteomics and in analysis of plant metabolites are given and summarized in tables.
Byron, Adam; Humphries, Jonathan D; Humphries, Martin J
The cell microenvironment has a profound influence on the behaviour, growth and survival of cells. The extracellular matrix (ECM) provides not only mechanical and structural support to cells and tissues but also binds soluble ligands and transmembrane receptors to provide spatial coordination of signalling processes. The ability of cells to sense the chemical, mechanical and topographical features of the ECM enables them to integrate complex, multiparametric information into a coherent response to the surrounding microenvironment. Consequently, dysregulation or mutation of ECM components results in a broad range of pathological conditions. Characterization of the composition of ECM derived from various cells has begun to reveal insights into ECM structure and function, and mechanisms of disease. Proteomic methodologies permit the global analysis of subcellular systems, but extracellular and transmembrane proteins present analytical difficulties to proteomic strategies owing to the particular biochemical properties of these molecules. Here, we review advances in proteomic approaches that have been applied to furthering our understanding of the ECM microenvironment. We survey recent studies that have addressed challenges in the analysis of ECM and discuss major outcomes in the context of health and disease. In addition, we summarize efforts to progress towards a systems-level understanding of ECM biology. PMID:23419153
Full Text Available A sharp decline in the availability of arable land and sufficient supply of irrigation water along with a continuous steep increase in food demands have exerted a pressure on farmers to produce more with fewer resources. A viable solution to release this pressure is to speed up the plant breeding process by employing biotechnology in breeding programs. The majority of biotechnological applications rely on information generated from various -omic technologies. The latest outstanding improvements in proteomic platforms and many other but related advances in plant biotechnology techniques offer various new ways to encourage the usage of these technologies by plant scientists for crop improvement programs. A combinatorial approach of accelerated gene discovery through genomics, proteomics, and other associated -omic branches of biotechnology, as an applied approach, is proving to be an effective way to speed up the crop improvement programs worldwide. In the near future, swift improvements in -omic databases are becoming critical and demand immediate attention for the effective utilization of these techniques to produce next-generation crops for the progressive farmers. Here, we have reviewed the recent advances in proteomics, as tools of biotechnology, which are offering great promise and leading the path towards crop improvement for sustainable agriculture.
Full Text Available The evolution of the plant immune response has resulted in a highly effective defense system that is able to resist potential attack by microbial pathogens. The primary immune response is referred to as pathogen associated molecular pattern triggered immunity and has evolved to recognize common features of microbial pathogens. In response to the delivery of pathogen effector proteins, plants acquired R proteins to fight against pathogen attack. R-dependent defense response is important in understanding the biochemical and cellular mechanisms and underlying these interactions will enable molecular and transgenic approaches for crops with increased biotic resistance. Proteomic analyses are particularly useful for understanding the mechanisms of host plant against the pathogen attack. Recent advances in the field of proteome analyses have initiated a new research area, i.e the analysis of more complex microbial communities and their interaction with plant. Such areas hold great potential to elucidate, not only the interactions between bacteria and their host plants, but also of bacteria-bacteria interactions between different bacterial taxa, symbiotic, pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria. During biotic stress, plant hormonal signaling pathways prioritizes defense over other cellular functions. Some plant pathogens take advantage of hormone dependent regulatory system by mimicking hormones that interfere with host immune responses to promote virulence. In this review, it is discussed the cross talk that plays important role in response to pathogens attack with different infection strategies using proteomic approaches.
Gustav N. Sundell
Full Text Available Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs, or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance.
Chakrabarti, Abhijit; Halder, Suchismita; Karmakar, Shilpita
Erythrocytes undergo ineffective erythropoesis, hemolysis, and premature eryptosis in sickle cell disease and thalassemia. Abnormal hemoglobin variants associated with hemoglobinopathy lead to vesiculation, membrane instability, and loss of membrane asymmetry with exposal of phosphatidylserine. This potentiates thrombin generation resulting in activation of the coagulation cascade responsible for subclinical phenotypes. Platelet activation also results in the release of microparticles, which express and transfer functional receptors from platelet membrane, playing key roles in vascular reactivity and activation of intracellular signaling pathways. Over the last decade, proteomics had proven to be an important field of research in studies of blood and blood diseases. Blood cells and its fluidic components have been proven to be easy systems for studying differential expressions of proteins in hematological diseases encompassing hemoglobinopathies, different types of anemias, myeloproliferative disorders, and coagulopathies. Proteomic studies of erythrocytes and platelets reported from several groups have highlighted various factors that intersect the signaling networks in these anucleate systems. In this review, we have elaborated on the current scenario of anucleate blood cell proteomes in normal and diseased individuals and the cross-talk between the two major constituent cell types of circulating blood.
DEEPTI Bhushan GUPTA
Full Text Available Stress adaptation or tolerance in plants is a complex phenomenon involving changes in physiological and metabolic processes. Plants must develop elaborate networks of defense mechanisms, and adapt to and survive for sustainable agriculture. Water-deficit or dehydration is the most critical environmental factor that plants are exposed to during their life cycle, which influences geographical distribution and productivity of many crop species. The cellular responses to dehydration are orchestrated by a series of multidirectional relays of biochemical events at organelle level. The new challenge is to dissect the underlying mechanisms controlling the perception of stress signals and their transmission to cellular machinery for activation of adaptive responses. The completeness of current descriptions of spatial distribution of proteins, the relevance of subcellular locations in diverse functional processes, and the changes of protein abundance in response to dehydration hold the key to understanding how plants cope with such stress conditions. During past decades, organellar proteomics has proved to be useful not only for deciphering reprograming of plant responses to dehydration, but also to dissect stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes a range of organellar proteomics investigations under dehydration to gain a holistic view of plant responses to water-deficit conditions, which may facilitate future efforts to develop genetically engineered crops for better adaptation.
Gupta, Deepti B; Rai, Yogita; Gayali, Saurabh; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan
Stress adaptation or tolerance in plants is a complex phenomenon involving changes in physiological and metabolic processes. Plants must develop elaborate networks of defense mechanisms, and adapt to and survive for sustainable agriculture. Water-deficit or dehydration is the most critical environmental factor that plants are exposed to during their life cycle, which influences geographical distribution and productivity of many crop species. The cellular responses to dehydration are orchestrated by a series of multidirectional relays of biochemical events at organelle level. The new challenge is to dissect the underlying mechanisms controlling the perception of stress signals and their transmission to cellular machinery for activation of adaptive responses. The completeness of current descriptions of spatial distribution of proteins, the relevance of subcellular locations in diverse functional processes, and the changes of protein abundance in response to dehydration hold the key to understanding how plants cope with such stress conditions. During past decades, organellar proteomics has proved to be useful not only for deciphering reprograming of plant responses to dehydration, but also to dissect stress-responsive pathways. This review summarizes a range of organellar proteomics investigations under dehydration to gain a holistic view of plant responses to water-deficit conditions, which may facilitate future efforts to develop genetically engineered crops for better adaptation.
Zhonghua Zhou; Huijuan Yang; Boxiong Zhong
As the only truly domesticated insect,the silkworm not only has great economic value,but it also has value as a model for genetics and molecular biology research.Genomics and proteomics have recently shown vast potential to be essential tools in domesticated silkworm research,especially after the completion of the Bombyx mori genome sequence.This paper reviews the progress of the domesticated silkworm genome,particularly focusing on its genetic map,physical map and functional genome.This review also presents proteomics,the proteomic technique and its application in silkworm research.
Full Text Available Wolfgang Hueber1,2,3, William H Robinson1,21VA Palo Alto Health Care System, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 2Division of Immunology and Rheumatology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 3Novartis Institutes of Biomedical Research, Novartis, Basle, SwitzerlandAbstract: Tremendous progress has been made over the past decade in the development and refinement of genomic and proteomic technologies for the identification of novel drug targets and molecular signatures associated with clinically important disease states, disease subsets, or differential responses to therapies. The rapid progress in high-throughput technologies has been preceded and paralleled by the elucidation of cytokine networks, followed by the stepwise clinical development of pathway-specific biological therapies that revolutionized the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Together, these advances provide opportunities for a long-anticipated personalized medicine approach to the treatment of autoimmune disease. The ever-increasing numbers of novel, innovative therapies will need to be harnessed wisely to achieve optimal long-term outcomes in as many patients as possible while complying with the demands of health authorities and health care providers for evidence-based, economically sound prescription of these expensive drugs. Genomic and proteomic profiling of patients with autoimmune diseases holds great promise in two major clinical areas: (1 rapid identification of new targets for the development of innovative therapies and (2 identification of patients who will experience optimal benefit and minimal risk from a specific (targeted therapy. In this review, we attempt to capture important recent developments in the application of genomic and proteomic technologies to translational research by discussing informative examples covering a diversity of autoimmune diseases.Keywords: proteomics, genomics, autoimmune diseases, antigen microarrays, 2-Dih, rheumatoid arthritis
Pelfrey, Patricia A.
This paper looks at the 1992-3 compensation controversy at the University of California in light of the factors that shaped the board's policy response to the controversy, the Principles for Review of Executive Compensation. It discusses the events of 1992-3 in the context of the public and political debate over the appropriate model for executive…
Koenders, M.I.; Berg, W.B. van den
In this review the authors discuss the evidence for T helper type 17 (Th17) cells as pathogenic T cells in autoimmunity. Studies with cytokine-deficient mice or blocking of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-21 and IL-22 have resulted in a conflicting data set. Although in the experimental autoimmune encephalo
Webster, Ann A.
This paper reviews the literature on the use of dental auxiliaries (hygienists, assistants, and laboratory technicians). The dentist may increase his productivity by employing more auxiliaries and by delegating more tasks to them. Even though state laws and rules are becoming more liberal in allowing the dentist to delegate tasks to his…
Rosman, Ilana S; Berk, David R; Bayliss, Susan J; White, Andrew J; Merritt, Diane F
Acute genital ulcers rarely occur in nonsexually active young girls. When present, they can cause significant physical and emotional distress for the patient and her parents, and prompt an evaluation for sexual abuse and sexually transmitted diseases. With this review, we aim to further characterize acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls by reviewing the medical records of patients with this disorder and to offer an approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers based on our understanding and knowledge of this condition. We retrospectively review our understanding and knowledge of acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active girls at a pediatric hospital. A review of the recent literature on acute genital ulcers and a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of acute genital ulcers are also presented. Twelve patients presented with acute genital ulcers, 11 of which were hospitalized for evaluation and pain management. Extensive work-up failed to reveal a specific infectious or autoimmune etiology in all but one patient, who was diagnosed with acute mycoplasma pneumonia. Acute genital ulcers in nonsexually active young girls likely represent a form of idiopathic vulvar aphthosis. Evaluation of a first episode of acute genital ulcers with mild prodromal symptoms should be limited. Treatment consists primarily of supportive care and symptom relief.
Beukema, R.J.; Smit, J.J.; Adiyaman, A.; Casteren, L. Van; Delnoy, P.P.; Ramdat Misier, A.R.; Elvan, A.
AIMS: Focal atrial tachycardia successfully ablated from the non-coronary cusp (NCC) is rare. Our aim was to describe the characteristics of mapping and ablation therapy of NCC focal atrial tachycardias and to provide a comprehensive review of the literature. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (age
CUI Wei; XIANG Xue-fang; SI Yong-zhen; CHEN Qian; CAI Hao; LI Tan; SHEN Han; SHANG Kun; ZHANG Yong-qiang; WU Wei; WANG Xin; WANG Geng; HAO Ying-ying; CHEN Yu; LUO Dan; SHOU Wei-ling; ZHANG Shuo
Background A generally accepted guideline ("41 rules") published by the lnternational Consensus Group for Hematology Review (ICGHR) can not be suitable for all the laboratories because the facility type, laboratory requirements, sample volume, review rate, turn around time, instrument model and characters etc. are quite different from each other, which may cause a higher workload for microscopy review or lead to false or misleading results.Therefore, we decided to develop the personalized review criteria for 4 series of hematology analyzers in the same hospital, and describe all the implement procedures in detail.Methods The total 1770 blood samples were collected from Peking Union Medical College Hospital. Referring to the suggested criteria by international consensus group for hematology review ("41 rules"), the personalized review criteria for 4 series of hematology analyzers including Siemens Advia 2120, Sysmex XE-2100, Sysmex XT-1800i and Sysmex XS-800i were established and validated by adjusting the rules in order to reduce the false positive rate and keep the false negative acceptable by clinical.Results Using the "41 rules", high review rates of 37.94%, 35.56%, 33.44% and 37.94% were got respectively in Siemens Advia 2120, Sysmex XE-2100, Sysmex XT-1800i and Sysmex XS-800i. Three false positive rules mainly were observed in all of 4 analyzers: white blood cell ＜3×109/L or ＞30×109/L, platelet ＜100x109/L or ＞1000×109/L and immature granulocyte. Specialized rules were observed in different series of analyzers, atypical/variant lymphs flag were found mainly in Sysmex XE-2100, Aniso-RBC were found mainly in Sysmex XT-1800i, flag of "immature granulocyte" mainly in Sysmex XS-800i, Micro-RBC, Macro-RBC and Aniso-RBC mainly in Siemens Advia 2120. Rules of immature granulocyte,blast, and NRBC flag would be mainly triggered by hematology malignant tumor. We could not delete these rules due to the risk of false negative of serious disease, other rules were
阎超; 席柯; 袁武; 于剑
验证与确认一直是困扰计算流体力学（computational fluid dynamics，CFD）发展的关键问题．由AIAA组织的阻力预测会议（Drag Prediction Workshop，DPW）是CFD验证与确认方面的一项重要学术活动，其宗旨是提供一个开放、公正的平台，考核CFD方法、程序和模型的效能，评价CFD作为应用空气动力学工具的现状．本文综述了4次DPW系列会议，对会议的结果和结论进行了详细述评，对其反映的一些问题进行了深入探讨．最后根据多年对DPW的关注和研究，提出了一些由DPW引发的思考．%Verification and validation has been the key problem to the development of CFD. The AIAA CFD Drag Prediction Workshop （DPW） Series was an important academic activity concerning verification and validation of CFD, whose purpose is to provide an impartial international forum for evaluating the effectiveness of CFD Navier-Stokes solvers, and to assess state-of-the-art CFD methods as practical aerodynamic tools for the prediction of forces and moments on industry-relevant geometries. The results and conclusions of the four DPW series are summarized. Finally, some thoughts are put forward with respect to the development of CFD.
Gromov, Pavel; Moreira, José; Gromova, Irina
, and both prognosis and prediction of outcome of chemotherapy. The purpose of this review is to critically appraise what has been achieved to date using proteomic technologies and to bring forward novel strategies - based on the analysis of clinically relevant samples - that promise to accelerate......In the last decade, many proteomic technologies have been applied, with varying success, to the study of tissue samples of breast carcinoma for protein expression profiling in order to discover protein biomarkers/signatures suitable for: characterization and subtyping of tumors; early diagnosis...
Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina
is a critical evaluation of differential alkylation-based strategies for the analysis of S-nitrosylation and S-sulfenylation. The aim is to assess the current status and to provide insights for future directions in the dynamically evolving field of redox proteomics. To achieve that we collected 35 original......, including the amount of starting material required for analysis. The results of this meta-analysis are the core of this review, complemented by issues related to biological models and sample preparation in redox proteomics, including conditions for free thiol blocking and labelling of target cysteine...
Wang, Lv; Wu, Ning; Zhao, Tai-Yun; Li, Jin
Drug addiction places a significant burden on society and individuals. Proteomics and metabolomics approaches pave the road for searching potential biomarkers to assist the diagnosis and treatment. This review summarized putative drug addiction-related biomarkers in proteomics and metabolomics studies and discussed challenges and prospects in future studies. Alterations of several hundred proteins and metabolites were reported when exposure to abused drug, which enriched in energy metabolism, oxidative stress response, protein modification and degradation, synaptic function and neurotrasmission, etc. Hsp70, peroxiredoxin-6 and α- and β-synuclein, as well as n-methylserotonin and purine metabolites, were promising as potential biomarker for drug addiction.
Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte
with information from rice and other cereals facilitate identification of barley proteins. Several hundred barley seed proteins are identified and lower abundance proteins including membrane proteins are now being analysed. In the present review we focus on variation in protein profiles of seed tissues during...... forms on 2D-gels. Specific protein families, including peroxidases and alpha-amylases have been subjected to in-depth analysis resulting in characterisation of different isozymes, post-translational. modifications and processing. A functional proteomics study focusing on the seed thioredoxin system has...
Gibson, Frank; Hoogland, Christine; Martinez-Bartolomé, Salvador; Medina-Aunon, J Alberto; Albar, Juan Pablo; Babnigg, Gyorgy; Wipat, Anil; Hermjakob, Henning; Almeida, Jonas S; Stanislaus, Romesh; Paton, Norman W; Jones, Andrew R
The Human Proteome Organisation's Proteomics Standards Initiative has developed the GelML (gel electrophoresis markup language) data exchange format for representing gel electrophoresis experiments performed in proteomics investigations. The format closely follows the reporting guidelines for gel electrophoresis, which are part of the Minimum Information About a Proteomics Experiment (MIAPE) set of modules. GelML supports the capture of metadata (such as experimental protocols) and data (such as gel images) resulting from gel electrophoresis so that laboratories can be compliant with the MIAPE Gel Electrophoresis guidelines, while allowing such data sets to be exchanged or downloaded from public repositories. The format is sufficiently flexible to capture data from a broad range of experimental processes, and complements other PSI formats for MS data and the results of protein and peptide identifications to capture entire gel-based proteome workflows. GelML has resulted from the open standardisation process of PSI consisting of both public consultation and anonymous review of the specifications.
Full Text Available Urine has been in the center of attention among scientists of clinical proteomics in the past decade, because it is valuable source of proteins and peptides with a relative stable composition and easy to collect in large and repeated quantities with a noninvasive procedure. In this review, we discuss technical aspects of urinary proteomics in detail, including sample preparation, proteomic technologies, and their advantage and disadvantages. Several recent experiments are presented which applied urinary proteome for biomarker discovery in renal diseases including diabetic nephropathy, immunoglobulin A (IgA nephropathy, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, lupus nephritis, membranous nephropathy, and acute kidney injury. In addition, several available databases in urinary proteomics are also briefly introduced.
Fowler, Carol B; O'Leary, Timothy J; Mason, Jeffrey T
Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and their associated diagnostic records represent an invaluable source of retrospective proteomic information on diseases for which the clinical outcome and response to treatment are known. However, analysis of archival FFPE tissues by high-throughput proteomic methods has been hindered by the adverse effects of formaldehyde fixation and subsequent tissue histology. This review examines recent methodological advances for extracting proteins from FFPE tissue suitable for proteomic analysis. These methods, based largely upon heat-induced antigen retrieval techniques borrowed from immunohistochemistry, allow at least a qualitative analysis of the proteome of FFPE archival tissues. The authors also discuss recent advances in the proteomic analysis of FFPE tissue; including liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, reverse phase protein microarrays and imaging mass spectrometry.
Macleod, Graham; Varmuza, Susannah
Spermatogenesis is the process by which terminally differentiated sperm are produced from male germline stem cells. This complex developmental process requires the coordination of both somatic and germ cells through phases of proliferation, meiosis, and morphological differentiation, to produce the cell responsible for the delivery of the paternal genome. With infertility affecting ~ 15% of all couples, furthering our understanding of spermatogenesis and sperm function is vital for improving the diagnosis and treatment of male factor infertility. The emerging use of proteomic technologies has played an instrumental role in our understanding of spermatogenesis by providing information regarding the genes involved. This article reviews existing proteomic literature regarding spermatogenesis and sperm function, including the proteomic characterization of spermatogenic cell types, subcellular proteomics, post-translational modifications, interactomes, and clinical studies. Future directions in the application of proteomics to the study of spermatogenesis and sperm function are also discussed.
Kang, Changwon; Lee, Yejin; Lee, J Eugene
The last decade has witnessed remarkable technological advances in mass spectrometry-based proteomics. The development of proteomics techniques has enabled the reliable analysis of complex proteomes, leading to the identification and quantification of thousands of proteins in gastric cancer cells, tissues, and sera. This quantitative information has been used to profile the anomalies in gastric cancer and provide insights into the pathogenic mechanism of the disease. In this review, we mainly focus on the advances in mass spectrometry and quantitative proteomics that were achieved in the last five years and how these up-and-coming technologies are employed to track biochemical changes in gastric cancer cells. We conclude by presenting a perspective on quantitative proteomics and its future applications in the clinic and translational gastric cancer research. PMID:27729735
Rossi, Giovanni M; Emmi, Giacomo; Corradi, Domenico; Urban, Maria L; Maritati, Federica; Landini, Federica; Galli, Paola; Palmisano, Alessandra; Vaglio, Augusto
Mediastinal fibrosis is a rare disease characterised by fibrous proliferation in the mediastinum. It can be idiopathic or secondary to several conditions such as infections and malignancies. Anecdotal reports have described idiopathic mediastinal fibrosis (IMF) in association with other fibro-inflammatory or autoimmune diseases. We report nine new IMF cases recently seen at our Fibro-Inflammatory Disease Clinic and reviewed the IMF cases reported in the English language literature throughout 2006-2016. The purposes of our literature search were to assess the frequency of the association between IMF and other immune-mediated disorders and to analyse which disorders most often coexist with IMF. Of our nine IMF cases, one was associated with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis, one with large-vessel arteritis, three with idiopathic retroperitoneal fibrosis (one of which was IgG4-related), one with pancreatitis and one with IgG4-related seminal vesicle involvement. The remaining two cases, in which IMF was not associated with any other disease, were both classifiable as IgG4-related. The literature review showed that, of the 84 IMF cases identified, 27 (32 %) were associated with other idiopathic autoimmune or fibro-inflammatory disorders, particularly small-vessel vasculitis, Behçet disease, retroperitoneal fibrosis and other conditions belonging to the IgG4-related disease spectrum. Based on our own data and the literature review, we conclude that IMF is often associated with other autoimmune or fibro-inflammatory diseases; therefore, its clinical management requires an accurate screening of associated conditions. Immune-mediated mechanisms may be shared by these disorders.
Sam, Jo Ee; Gee, Teak Sheng; Nasser, Abdul Wahab
Introduction: Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Methodology: We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center. Nine patients were included and all 20 other remaining patients reported in literature so far are discussed. Discussion: We found that all patients in our center requiring neurosurgical intervention died. Another interesting observation is that detection of Dengue IgG usually meant more severe ICH and poorer outcomes. From our series, platelet levels did not seem to influence the outcome. Conclusion: We recommend that for early detection of ICH, Dengue IgG should be routinely screened and a high index of suspicion be maintained. Future research should be focused on determining predictors of ICH in patients with dengue fever so that preventive steps can be taken as mortality is high and no treatment seems beneficial at the moment once severe ICH occurs. PMID:27365962
Sam, Jo Ee; Gee, Teak Sheng; Nasser, Abdul Wahab
Dengue fever is a global pandemic threat with increasing incidence. To date, there are no cures and the effectiveness of dengue vaccines is still uncertain. World Heath Organization introduced expanded dengue syndrome to include unusual presentations of dengue fever including severe neurologic complications. One of the deadly complications is intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). We collected data of patients with ICH diagnosed via a plain computed tomography of the brain (CT brain) with thrombocytopenia and positive Dengue virus type 1 nonstructural protein (NS1) antigen test or positive dengue serology IgM from January 2014 till June 2015 at our center. Nine patients were included and all 20 other remaining patients reported in literature so far are discussed. We found that all patients in our center requiring neurosurgical intervention died. Another interesting observation is that detection of Dengue IgG usually meant more severe ICH and poorer outcomes. From our series, platelet levels did not seem to influence the outcome. We recommend that for early detection of ICH, Dengue IgG should be routinely screened and a high index of suspicion be maintained. Future research should be focused on determining predictors of ICH in patients with dengue fever so that preventive steps can be taken as mortality is high and no treatment seems beneficial at the moment once severe ICH occurs.
Sidramesh Shivanand Muttagi
Full Text Available Background: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC is an important public health problem in India. Several risk factors such as tobacco, human papilloma virus, alcohol, areca nut usage have been extensively studied as causative agents. Though Areca nut chewing is known cause of oral cancer, its association with hypopharynx cancer has not been previously reported. Since areca nut is mostly consumed along with tobacco, it is uncommon to find patients who consume the areca nut alone. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective case series of ten women who presented to us with HNSCC with history of chewing of areca nut alone for several years. We have excluded all those cases where areca nut was consumed along with tobacco in any form. The data were prospectively collected with regard to clinical parameters, duration and frequency of areca nut usage, the socio-economic status and education level. Results: All ten females had varying degree of submucous fibrosis and coexisting squamous cell carcinoma either in the oral cavity or hypopharynx. Submucous fibrosis was characterized by burning mouth, unhealthy oral mucosa, buried third molars, trismus, poor oral hygiene, etc. The disease presented in an advanced stage in majority of the cases. All patients were unaware of areca nut′s deleterious effects. Conclusion: Areca nut chewing is an important risk factor for HNSCC in females. Despite plethora of information, little importance is given to areca nut control in cancer prevention campaigns in India.
Ntirushwa, David; Rulisa, Stephen; Muhorakeye, Febronie; Bazzett-Matabele, Lisa; Rurangwa, Theogene; Small, Maria
Background Gastric rupture is a rare, life-threatening condition during pregnancy. Case study We present three cases of gastric perforation during pregnancy and the puerperium. The first patient presented with gastric perforation 4 days following an uncomplicated cesarean delivery for obstetric indications. She initially complained of epigastric pain; however, those symptoms resolved. She later demonstrated worsening abdominal distension, intra-abdominal free fluid, and signs of peritonitis. At laparotomy, an ascariasis-associated gastric rupture was diagnosed. She died from sepsis 4 days following the laparotomy. The second patient presented 19 days following a normal vaginal delivery. She presented with hemodynamic instability and underwent emergent laparotomy due to suspected septic shock peritonitis. Gastric rupture was diagnosed intraoperatively. She improved clinically and was discharged home. The third patient underwent emergency cesarean delivery due to non-reassuring fetal status in the setting of preeclampsia. She was initially diagnosed with ascites and pulmonary edema as a result of preeclampsia. Later in her course, she developed features in favor of acute abdomen and signs of sepsis. At the time of emergent laparotomy, a gastric rupture was identified and repaired. She died 2 days later from sepsis. Conclusion We report the management and outcome of three cases of pregnancy-related gastric rupture. To our knowledge, these three cases represent the largest series of pregnancy-related gastric ruptures from a single institution. PMID:28078172
Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Le Bihan, Marie-Catherine; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten;
) alternative detection methods for modification specific proteomics; 3) identification of protein isoforms and modified proteins. With an example of the glycoprotein TIMP-1 protein we illustrate the unique properties of 2D gels for the separation and characterisation of multiply modified proteins. We also show......With the rapid advance of MS-based proteomics one might think that 2D gel-based proteomics is dead. This is far from the truth. Current research has shown that there are still a number of places in the field of protein and molecular biology where 2D gels still play a leading role. The aim...... of this review is to highlight some of these applications. Examples from our own research as well as from other published works are used to illustrate the 2D gel driven research in the areas of: 1) de novo sequencing and protein identification from organisms with no or incomplete genome sequences available; 2...
Bassols, Anna; Turk, Romana; Roncada, Paola
A fundamental issue of farm animal welfare is to keep animals clinically healthy, without disease or stress, particularly in intensive breeding, in order to produce safe and quality food. This issue is highly relevant for the food industry worldwide as they are directly linked to public health and welfare. The aim of this review is to explore how proteomics can assess and improve the knowledge useful for the strategic management of products of animal origin. Useful indications are provided about the latest proteomics tools for the development of novel biotechnologies serving the public health. The multivariate proteomics approach provides the bases for the discovery of biomarkers useful to investigate adaptation syndromes and oxidative stress. These two responses represent the milestones for the study of animal welfare. Moreover their implementation in the characterization and standardization of raw materials, process development, and quality and safety control of the final product of animal origin represents the current frontier in official surveillance and tests development.
Han, Yumiao; Garcia, Benjamin A
Epigenetics is the study of changes in gene expression or cellular phenotype that do not change the DNA sequence. In this review, current methods, both genomic and proteomic, associated with epigenetics research are discussed. Among them, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by sequencing and other ChIP-based techniques are powerful techniques for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins, histone post-translational modifications or nucleosome positions. However, mass spectrometry-based proteomics is increasingly being used in functional biological studies and has proved to be an indispensable tool to characterize histone modifications, as well as DNA–protein and protein–protein interactions. With the development of genomic and proteomic approaches, combination of ChIP and mass spectrometry has the potential to expand our knowledge of epigenetics research to a higher level. PMID:23895656
Bartke, Till; Borgel, Julie; DiMaggio, Peter A
The involvement of epigenetic processes in the origin and progression of cancer is now widely appreciated. Consequently, targeting the enzymatic machinery that controls the epigenetic regulation of the genome has emerged as an attractive new strategy for therapeutic intervention. The development of epigenetic drugs requires a detailed knowledge of the processes that govern chromatin regulation. Over the recent years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become an indispensable tool in epigenetics research. In this review, we will give an overview of the applications of MS-based proteomics in studying various aspects of chromatin biology. We will focus on the use of MS in the discovery and mapping of histone modifications and how novel proteomic approaches are being utilized to identify and study chromatin-associated proteins and multi-subunit complexes. Finally, we will discuss the application of proteomic methods in the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer based on epigenetic biomarkers and comment on their future impact on cancer epigenetics.
Feng Ge; Shengce Tao; Lijun Bi; Zhiping Zhang; Xian'En Zhang
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignancy of terminally differentiated B-iymphocytes that accounts for ～13% of all hematologic cancers. Despite a wealth of knowledge describing the molecular biology of MM as well as signifi-cant advances in therapeutics, this disease remains incur-able. Since proteins govern the cellular structure and biological function, a wide selection of proteomic approaches holds great promise for increasing our under-standing of this disease, such as by investigating the dynamic nature of protein expression, cellular and subcel-lular distribution, post-translational modifications, and interactions at both the cellular and suhcellular levels.The aims of this review are to introduce the available and emerging proteomic technologies that have potential applications in the study of MM and to highlight the current status of proteomic studies of MM. To date,although there have been a limited number of proteomic studies in MM, those performed have provided valuable information with regard to MM diagnosis and therapy. The potential future application of proteomic technologies is expected to provide new avenues in MM diagnostics, individualized therapy design and therapy response sur-veillance for the clinician.
Full Text Available Reversible and irreversible post-translational modifications (PTMs induced by endogenously generated reactive oxygen species (ROS in regulatory enzymes and proteins plays an essential role in cellular signaling. Almost all cellular processes including metabolism, transcription, translation and degradation have been identified as containing redox regulated proteins. Specific redox modifications of key amino acids generated by ROS offers a dynamic and versatile means to rapidly alter the activity or functional structure of proteins in response to biochemical, environmental, genetic and pathological perturbations. How the proteome responds to these stimuli is of critical importance in oxidant physiology, as it can regulate the cell stress response by reversible and irreversible PTMs, affecting protein activity and protein-protein interactions. Due to the highly labile nature of many ROS species, applying redox proteomics can provide a signature footprint of the ROS species generated. Ideally redox proteomic approaches would allow; (1 the identification of the specific PTM, (2 identification of the amino acid residue that is modified and (3 the percentage of the protein containing the PTM. New developments in MS offer the opportunity of a more sensitive targeted proteomic approach and retrospective data analysis. Subsequent bioinformatics analysis can provide an insight into the biochemical and physiological pathways or cell signaling cascades that are affected by ROS generation. This mini-review will detail current redox proteomic approaches to identify and quantify ROS induced PTMs and the subsequent effects on cellular signaling.
Imam, Jahangir; Shukla, Pratyoosh; Mandal, Nimai Prasad; Variar, Mukund
The structure and function of proteins involved in plant-microbe interactions is investigated through large-scale proteomics technology in a complex biological sample. Since the whole genome sequences are now available for several plant species and microbes, proteomics study has become easier, accurate and huge amount of data can be generated and analyzed during plant-microbe interactions. Proteomics approaches are highly important and relevant in many studies and showed that only genomics approaches are not sufficient enough as much significant information are lost as the proteins and not the genes coding them are final product that is responsible for the observed phenotype. Novel approaches in proteomics are developing continuously enabling the study of the various aspects in arrangements and configuration of proteins and its functions. Its application is becoming more common and frequently used in plant-microbe interactions with the advancement in new technologies. They are all the more used for the portrayal of cell and extracellular destructiveness and pathogenicity variables delivered by pathogens. This distinguishes the protein level adjustments in host plants when infected with pathogens and advantageous partners. This review provides a brief overview of different proteomics technology which is currently available followed by their exploitation of them to study the plant-microbe interaction.
Abstract Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates.
Suo, Tongchuan; Wang, Haixia; Li, Zheng
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a widely used complementary alternative medicine approach. Although many aspects of its effectiveness have been approved clinically, rigorous scientific techniques are highly required to translate the promises from TCM into powerful modern therapies. In this respect, proteomics is useful because of its ability to unveil the underlying target proteins and/or protein biomarkers. In this review, we summarize the recent interplay between proteomics and research on TCM, ranging from exploration of the medicinal materials to the biological basis of TCM concepts, and from pathological studies to pharmacological investigations. We show that proteomic analyses provide preliminary biological evidence of the promises in TCM, and the integration of proteomics with other omics and bioinformatics offers a comprehensive methodology to address the complications of TCM. Expert commentary: Currently, only limited information can be obtained regarding TCM issues and thus more work is required to resolve the ambiguity. As such, more collaborations between proteomics and other techniques (other omics, network pharmacology, etc.) are essential for deciphering the underlying biological basis in TCM topics.
Bandrés, Sara; Durán, Raquel; Barrero, Francisco; Ramírez, Manuel; Vives, Francisco
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement and is caused by the death of the dopaminergic neurons in the compact part of the substantia nigra. Its diagnosis is essentially clinical, but although the signs and symptoms of PD are well known, the rate of diagnostic error is relatively high. It is estimated that 10-30% of patients initially diagnosed with PD are later reclassified. This disease has a high prevalence beyond the age of 60, and one of its biggest problems is that it is diagnosed when the degenerative process is already at a very advanced stage. Therefore, it is necessary to look for other biomarkers that make it possible to carry out an early diagnosis of PD, follow up its development, distinguish it from other related pathologies (parkinsonisms) and help monitor the effect of novel therapies. The fact that there are mutations that lead to PD, as well as polygenetic combinations that can act as risk factors, suggests the possibility of measuring the proteins resulting from the expression of these genes in peripheral tissues. And once their sensitivity and specificity have been proved they could be used as biomarkers for PD, even in the early phases of the disease. The aim of this work is to focus on a detailed review of the main candidate proteomic biomarkers researched to date by discussing the most recent literature.
Full Text Available Pancreatic cancer is a highly aggressive malignancy with a poor prognosis and deeply affects the life of people. Therefore, the earlier diagnosis and better treatments are urgently needed. In recent years, the proteomic technologies are well established and growing rapidly and have been widely applied in clinical applications, especially in pancreatic cancer research. In this paper, we attempt to discuss the development of current proteomic technologies and the application of proteomics to the field of pancreatic cancer research. This will explore the potential perspective in revealing pathogenesis, making the diagnosis earlier and treatment.
National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) scientists have just released a comprehensive dataset of the proteomic analysis of high grade serous ovarian tumor samples,
Liew, Y T; Yong, D J; Somasundran, M; Lum, C L
The aim of the study was to examine and analyze the epidemiology and outcome of treatment for paediatric acquired subglottic stenosis treated with endoscopic bougie dilatation and topical mitomycin C. There were 15 patients identified from 2008 until 2013. All of them had acquired subglottic stenosis due to history of intubation. Majority of the patients had grade III stenosis, with the total of seven. Three patients had grade IV; three were grade II and two were grade I. All of the patients with severe stenosis (grade III and IV) needed tracheostomy while only one in mild stenosis group (grade I and II) required it for prolonged ventilation rather than obstruction due to subglottic stenosis. All of them underwent direct laryngoscopy under general anesthesia followed by endoscopic dilatation with bougie and topical mitomycin C 0.4 mg/ml for 5 min. Aim of success in our study was decannulation of tracheostomy or absence of symptoms at exertion. We achieved 6 (60 %) successful decannulation out of 10 patients with tracheostomy (excluded the patient with tracheostomy in grade I stenosis due to prolonged ventilation). As for those without tracheostomy, 3 (75 %) out of 4 patients were asymptomatic even at exertion. Average number of dilatation was 3.1 times, with mean duration of 28 min. No complications were reported in our series. One patient with grade I stenosis passed away due to severe pneumonia unrelated to the stenosis or dilatation, and she did not have any dilatation before she passed away. Multiple related risk factors were identified such as intubation, prematurity, movement of endotracheal tube, respiratory infection, traumatic intubation and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Experience of open surgical method was very limited in our centre in Sabah in East Malaysia. Endoscopic technique plays an important role in treatment of subglottic stenosis with adjunct like mitomycin C possibly booster the successful rate.
Nandikolla, Amara G; Venugopal, Sangeetha; Anampa, Jesus
Background Li–Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS) is a rare disease with autosomal dominant inheritance linked to germline mutations of tumor suppressor gene TP53. These patients are predisposed to malignancies such as sarcoma, breast cancer, leukemia, and other malignancies. Breast cancer, the most common malignancy in adult patients with LFS, has an early-onset presentation and is usually treated as per the guidelines for the general population due to the limited literature about breast cancer in LFS. We aimed to describe our institutional experience treating patients with breast cancer and LFS to contribute to literature about this entity. Design Retrospective single-institution case-series study. We searched for cases with LFS and breast cancer from 01/01/2000 to 12/31/2015 with treatment received at our institution. Results We identified 4 cases (2 African Americans, 1 Indian, and 1 Hispanic) in 4 different families, who were diagnosed with LFS after presenting with breast cancer. Three cases were triple-negative disease and 1 case was ER+, HER2 positive disease. They were treated with mastectomy and a third-generation breast chemotherapy regimen and/or trastuzumab-containing regimen. Radiation therapy was used in 2 patients. Breast cancer recurrence was seen in 1 patient, while three other malignancies were identified after breast cancer treatment (1 breast sarcoma, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 myelodysplastic syndrome). A patient, who underwent surveillance with a positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan, was found to have a stage I leiomyosarcoma and was treated with surgical resection, but then developed metastatic disease requiring cytotoxic chemotherapy. Conclusion Breast cancer among patients with LFS needs a multidisciplinary treatment approach. Surgical management follows the guidelines for the general population. Risk–benefit assessment of chemotherapy and radiotherapy needs to be performed carefully in a case-by-case approach. Patients should
Sookur, Paul A. [West Middlesex University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Isleworth, Middlesex (United Kingdom); Saifuddin, Asif [The Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Stanmore (United Kingdom)
Soft-tissue masses located at the hand and wrist are a frequent clinical presentation. The majority of these are ganglia, which have characteristic imaging features. Other common masses in which a diagnosis is suggested by imaging include hemangiomas, lipomas, and focal synovitis. The remainder are rare although a diagnosis may be attempted by considering the patients' age and the location. We reviewed 39 soft-tissue masses at the hand and wrist referred to our institution between September 1998 and January 2006 that had indeterminate imaging features. The majority were benign neoplastic lesions with the most common being a giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, followed by angioleiomyoma, peripheral nerve sheath tumor, fibromatosis, fibroma of tendon sheath, and solitary fibrous tumor. These lesions tend to occur in young adults at the metacarpal level. However, there are no imaging features that can reliably differentiate between benign and malignant tumors. (orig.)
Williams, P; Sewell, W A C; Bunn, C; Pumphrey, R; Read, G; Jolles, S
In the last 10 years UK immunology laboratories have seen a dramatic increase in the number and range of allergy tests performed. The reasons for this have been an increase in the incidence of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated allergic disease set against a background of greater public awareness and more referrals for assessment. Laboratory testing forms an integral part of a comprehensive allergy service and physicians treating patients with allergic disease need to have an up-to-date knowledge of the range of tests available, their performance parameters and interpretation as well as the accreditation status of the laboratory to which tests are being sent. The aim of this review is to describe the role of the immunology laboratory in the assessment of patients with IgE-mediated allergic disease and provide an up-to-date summary of the tests currently available, their sensitivity, specificity, interpretation and areas of future development.
Boviatsis, Efstathios J; Stavrinou, Lampis C; Kouyialis, Andreas T; Gavra, Maria M; Stavrinou, Pantelis C; Themistokleous, Marios; Selviaridis, Panayiotis; Sakas, Damianos E
This study is designed based on the retrospective analysis of patients treated in the Neurosurgical Department of two major hospitals and review of the literature. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of surgery and address controversial issues in the treatment of symptomatic lumbar intraspinal synovial cysts. Spinal juxtafacet cysts (synovial and ganglion cysts) are a rare cause of low back and radicular leg pain. Although the relevant reports in the international literature are increasing, the controversy about conservative versus surgical treatment and the need for concomitant fusion still exists. Data from seven patients (age range 58-69 years, mean age 61 years) with low back and radicular leg pain due to a lumbar facet joint cyst were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic data, cyst level, presence of concomitant local pathology, treatment and results of treatment were recorded. A follow-up of at least 6 months (range 6-48 months) was conducted and results were noted. All patients had back pain, while five also experienced unilateral radicular leg pain and one had bilateral leg pain. One patient had neurogenic claudication. MRI identified the cyst and highlighted underlying pathology in all cases. All patients underwent surgical cyst excision. No fusion was performed. Post-operatively, all patients showed a total resolution of symptoms with sustained benefit at final evaluation. Review of the literature revealed a trend towards surgery, as this is correlated to a more favorable outcome compared with conservative treatment. Fusion should be performed on a case-by-case basis only. Surgery is a safe and effective treatment choice in this increasingly appearing ailment. A prospective, randomized trial should clarify issues under debate.
Norman, Francesca F; Fanciulli, Chiara; Pérez-Molina, José-Antonio; Monge-Maillo, Begoña; López-Vélez, Rogelio
Leprosy remains infrequent in non-endemic areas. The objective of this study was to describe the cases of leprosy reviewed at a referral unit for imported diseases in Europe and to compare these findings with published data on imported leprosy. Cases of leprosy evaluated at a referral centre are described and salient features of autochthonous and imported cases are compared. A review of the literature on imported leprosy was performed. During the study period, 25 patients with leprosy were followed-up (10 were autochthonous cases and 15 were considered to be imported). Regarding imported cases, the majority were diagnosed in Latin American immigrants (10/15, 67%), mean age was 42 years, there were no differences in gender distribution, estimated average time from arrival in Spain to first visit at the unit was 3 years and from symptom onset to diagnosis was 2 years. Over 80% of imported cases had multibacillary disease and over one third of patients had been previously diagnosed with leprosy. One third had received alternate incorrect diagnoses initially, leprosy completed standard therapy and were considered cured and over one third were lost to follow-up. Leprosy remains a complex disease for healthcare professionals unfamiliar with this infection. Manifestations are polymorphic so misdiagnoses and consequent delays in diagnosis are not infrequent and may lead to resulting disabilities. Early diagnosis and management are essential to prevent sequelae and possible transmission. Improving access to health care, especially for vulnerable groups, would be necessary to advance in the control of this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mallula, Kiran K; Sosnowski, Cyndi; Awad, Sawsan
The pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) was first described in 1958. It includes five anomalies: a deficiency of the anterior diaphragm, a midline supraumbilical abdominal wall defect, a defect in the diaphragmatic pericardium, various congenital intracardiac abnormalities, and a defect of the lower sternum. Five patients showing the PC spectrum are reported. The report presents the prenatal diagnosis, the postnatal course, and the patients' outcome at a tertiary care center from June 2001 to May 2012. A literature review and the management plan for this group of patients also are discussed. All patient data were obtained via electronic medical records retrospectively after approval by the institutional review board at the home institution. The patients in the study were three males and two females. For all of the patients, a prenatal diagnosis had been determined. The mean gestational age at delivery was 36.6 weeks. One patient had associated cranial and spine malformations. All the patients had associated congenital heart disease but a normal karyotype. Four of the five patients died in the first year of life. The ages at death ranged from 0 to 259 days (mean, 46.2 ± 51.8 days). The patients who did not survive had withdrawal of care due to increased morbidity, associated complications, or parental wishes. The pentalogy of Cantrell is a wide spectrum of associations. Patients with the complete PC together with complex congenital heart disease or extracardiac malformations may have a poor prognosis. Incomplete PC cases may have a better outcome based on associated anomalies. Prenatal counseling plays a very important role in the decision-making process for the families and has a significant impact on the postnatal management. A multidisciplinary team approach is essential for successful postpartum outcomes.
Giua, R; Pedone, C; Cortese, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R
The multiresistant Acinetobacter species bacteria are frequently involved in urinary or respiratory tract infections, and one of the most effective drugs, colistine, is associated with significant nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity. Given that very high concentrations of colistine into biological fluids are safe for the human organism, attempts have been made at delivering the drug topically, by aerosol, or, occasionally, intratechally or intraventricularly for meningitis. These topical treatments could eradicate the Pseudomonas sp. from the lung of patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis and the Acinetobacter baumannii from lung and meninges. However, only one case of colistin topic treatment in urinary tract infection is described. We report a case series of three patients successfully undergone colistin bladder instillations for multi drug resistant Acinetobacter urinary tract infection, and we review the literature about colistin topic treatment.
Papi, Giampaolo; Corrado, Stefania; Fadda, Guido; Maiorana, Antonino; Maccio, Livia; Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Pontecorvi, Alfredo
Objectives.Parathyroid involvement by thyroid cancer (TC) has not been frequently investigated in thyroidectomy-based studies. We aimed to detect cases of parathyroid invasion by TC in a large series of thyroidectomies and to review the literature on this topic. Study Design. A 10-yr period database research was made from the files of the Section of Pathology of two Italian University Hospitals. Out of 22,310 thyroidectomies, 10 patients with parathyroid involvement by TC were found. Results. The 10 patients, 7 females and 3 males, aged 55 ± 14 years (range 34-76, median 56) had papillary thyroid carcinoma and accounted for 0.4% of subjects affected by all TCs and submitted to thyroidectomy. The tumor invaded perithyroid soft tissues in 6 patients and central neck (level VI) lymph nodes in 3. Parathyroid involvement by TC occurred by infiltration in 6 cases, extension through an intervening pseudocapsule in 1, and both patterns in 3. All patients are alive and disease free at 5.6 ± 3-yr follow-up. Conclusion. Limited to thyroidectomy series, our results and literature data suggest that parathyroid involvement by TC has a 0.4-3.9% incidence rate; mainly affects women in their sixth-seventh decade of life; is associated to a good prognosis, unless massive extrathyroid extension of TC occurs.
Full Text Available Objectives.Parathyroid involvement by thyroid cancer (TC has not been frequently investigated in thyroidectomy-based studies. We aimed to detect cases of parathyroid invasion by TC in a large series of thyroidectomies and to review the literature on this topic. Study Design. A 10-yr period database research was made from the files of the Section of Pathology of two Italian University Hospitals. Out of 22,310 thyroidectomies, 10 patients with parathyroid involvement by TC were found. Results. The 10 patients, 7 females and 3 males, aged 55±14 years (range 34–76, median 56 had papillary thyroid carcinoma and accounted for 0.4% of subjects affected by all TCs and submitted to thyroidectomy. The tumor invaded perithyroid soft tissues in 6 patients and central neck (level VI lymph nodes in 3. Parathyroid involvement by TC occurred by infiltration in 6 cases, extension through an intervening pseudocapsule in 1, and both patterns in 3. All patients are alive and disease free at 5.6±3-yr follow-up. Conclusion. Limited to thyroidectomy series, our results and literature data suggest that parathyroid involvement by TC has a 0.4–3.9% incidence rate; mainly affects women in their sixth-seventh decade of life; is associated to a good prognosis, unless massive extrathyroid extension of TC occurs.
Sayid Shafi Zuhur
Full Text Available Insulinoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the pancreas and is the most common cause of endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia. Although 90% of insulinomas are benign tumors, recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia may lead to life-threatening consequences. Since surgery is the only curative method for patients with insulinomas, the preoperative localization of these tumors by appropriate imaging methods is important. In this case series, we report 5 patients with endogenous hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia, including one with MEN-1 syndrome, who were diagnosed with insulinoma according to the prolonged fasting test. All patients had normal pancreas on upper abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, therefore, they underwent endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS for localization of the insulinomas and were operated according to the EUS results. EUS demonstrated well-demarcated tumors in the tail of the pancreas in 4 subjects and in the head of the pancreas in one patient. However, in contrast to EUS results, one patient with MEN-1 syndrome had a glucagonoma and two insulinomas and one patient had not any tumor on histopathological evaluation of the distal pancreas after surgery. In this case series, we aimed to present the diagnostic performance of EUS and the treatment outcomes in a cluster of patients with insulinomas who had not a pancreatic lesion on upper abdominal MRI and to briefly review the currently available imaging methods for localization of insulinomas. Turk Jem 2015; 19: 93-98
Marcus, Katrin; Kühn-Hölsken, Eva; Schmidt, Carla; Schulenborg, Thomas; Urlaub, Henning
Proteomics is rapidly developing into a routine approach for protein analysis in many laboratories. The series of European-wide Summer Schools 'Proteomics Basics' (http://www.proteomic-basics.eu/) aims at teaching of comprehensive knowledge in proteomics research and applied technologies for master and graduate students and postdocs currently moving into the field of proteomic research. In the next 3 years the series will cover the theoretical basis of the fundamental topics in the various areas of proteomic analysis, i.e. sample preparation and handling, mass spectrometry, post-translational modifications and quantitation given by leading experts in the field. This summer school series embodies a unique advantage in comparison with conventional scientific meetings and university curricula: internationally renowned experts will give a detailed perspective view of the fundamentals of their particular proteome research area, something which is usually not encountered at conferences and congresses. Here, we give a report on the first European Summer School 'Sample Preparation and Handling' within the series 'Proteomic Basics' that was held at the monastery in Neustift close to Bressanone/Brixen, Italy from August 12 to 18, 2007.
Rimland, Joseph M; Trotta, Fabiana Mirella; Dell'Aquila, Giuseppina; Cruz-Jentoft, Alfonso; Petrovic, Mirko; Gudmundsson, Adalsteinn; Soiza, Roy; O'Mahony, Denis; Guaita, Antonio; Cherubini, Antonio
Objective To provide an overview of non-pharmacological interventions for behavioural and psychological symptoms in dementia (BPSD). Design Systematic overview of reviews. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CINAHL and PsycINFO (2009–March 2015). Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews (SRs) that included at least one comparative study evaluating any non-pharmacological intervention, to treat BPSD. Data extraction Eligible studies were selected and data extracted independently by 2 reviewers. The AMSTAR checklist was used to assess the quality of the SRs. Data analysis Extracted data were synthesised using a narrative approach. Results 38 SRs and 142 primary studies were identified, comprising the following categories of non-pharmacological interventions: (1) sensory stimulation interventions (12 SRs, 27 primary studies) that encompassed: acupressure, aromatherapy, massage/touch therapy, light therapy and sensory garden; (2) cognitive/emotion-oriented interventions (33 SRs; 70 primary studies) that included cognitive stimulation, music/dance therapy, dance therapy, snoezelen, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, reminiscence therapy, validation therapy, simulated presence therapy; (3) behaviour management techniques (6 SRs; 32 primary studies) and (4) other therapies (5 SRs, 12 primary studies) comprising exercise therapy, animal-assisted therapy, special care unit and dining room environment-based interventions. Music therapy was effective in reducing agitation (SMD, −0.49; 95% CI −0.82 to −0.17; p=0.003), and anxiety (SMD, −0.64; 95% CI −1.05 to −0.24; p=0.002). Home-based behavioural management techniques, caregiver-based interventions or staff training in communication skills, person-centred care or dementia care mapping with supervision during implementation were found to be effective for symptomatic and severe agitation. Conclusions A large number of non-pharmacological interventions for BPSD were
Maria Benedetta Michelazzo
Full Text Available Background. Aging is frequently accompanied by chronic diseases; as a consequence, older people are often exposed to polypharmacy that has been associated with negative health-consequences. The aim of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature reporting on the effectiveness of different approaches to reduce polypharmacy in the elderly. Methods. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, Scopus and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Eligible studies were case-series reporting outcomes of interventions aimed at reducing polypharmacy and its consequences in the elderly. A quality appraisal of the studies included was performed. Results. Nineteen studies were included, of which six conducted in community setting, seven in hospital setting, and six in nursing homes. Seventeen of them were judged as moderate quality, and two of them as poor quality. The majority of the interventions were carried out by pharmacists, alone (35% or with other professionals (40%. Interventions consisted in pharmacotherapy reviews based on various tools and software; in some cases educational interventions were performed for review-performers and patients. Studies conducted in community-setting provided also a feedback to primary care physician. The outcomes included five categories: therapy’s characteristics (e.g. number of drugs, appropriate prescriptions, quality of life, health-related outcomes, costs, healthcare services’ utilization. Therapy-related outcomes were those more affected by all types of interventions. Conclusion. Interventions aimed at reviewing patients’ therapy are effective in optimizing the use of drugs, and could be considered also in improving quality of life, healthcare costs, services’ utilization, and health-related outcomes.
Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)
The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Zebrafish (D. rerio has become a powerful and widely used model system for the analysis of vertebrate embryogenesis and organ development. While genetic methods are readily available in zebrafish, protocols for two dimensional (2D gel electrophoresis and proteomics have yet to be developed. Results As a prerequisite to carry out proteomic experiments with early zebrafish embryos, we developed a method to efficiently remove the yolk from large batches of embryos. This method enabled high resolution 2D gel electrophoresis and improved Western blotting considerably. Here, we provide detailed protocols for proteomics in zebrafish from sample preparation to mass spectrometry (MS, including a comparison of databases for MS identification of zebrafish proteins. Conclusion The provided protocols for proteomic analysis of early embryos enable research to be taken in novel directions in embryogenesis.
Walton, S Patrick; Jayaraman, Arul
Technology development in, and the application of, proteomics are emerging areas among chemical engineers and others who presented at the 2008 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE) Annual Meeting. Overall, the centennial meeting offered a broad current perspective on the discipline of chemical engineering as it enters its second century. Biomedical and biochemical engineering continue to grow as important facets of the discipline. Within these, the value and applicability of proteomics were demonstrated in a number of interesting presentations. This year, as in the recent past, the AIChE Annual Meeting was held in conjunction with the American Electrophoresis Society Annual Meeting. American Electrophoresis Society presenters offered further academic and industrial viewpoints on the still-developing role of proteomics and proteomic technologies in biological and clinical analyses.
Percio Ramón Becker Benitez
Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The manufacture of minimally traumatic needles and synthesis of pharmacological adjuncts with safe and effective action on inhibitory and neuromodulatory synapses distributed along the nociceptive pathways were crucial for a new expansion phase of spinal anesthesia. The objectives of this paper are present our clinical experience with 1330 lumbar spinal anesthesia performed with purposeful nociceptive blockade of the thoracic and cervical spinal nerves corresponding to dermatomes C4 or C3; warn about the method pathophysiological risks, and emphasize preventive standards for the safe application of the technique. CONTENT: Review of the historical background and anatomical spinal anesthesia with cervical levels of analgesia. Description of the technique used in our institution; population anesthetized; and surgery performed with the described method. Critical exposition of the physiological, pathophysiological, and clinical effects occurred and registered during anesthesia-surgery and postoperative period. CONCLUSION: Spinal anesthesia with nociceptive blockade to dermatome C4, or C3, is an effective option for surgery on somatic structures distal to the metamer of the third cervical spinal nerve, lasting no more than four or five hours. The method safety depends on the unrestricted respect for the essential rules of proper anesthesia.
Keogan, M T
Patients presenting with recurrent orogenital ulcers may have complex aphthosis, Behçet\\'s disease, secondary complex aphthosis (e.g. Reiter\\'s syndrome, Crohn\\'s disease, cyclical neutropenia) or non-aphthous disease (including bullous disorders, erythema multiforme, erosive lichen planus). Behçet\\'s syndrome is a multi-system vasculitis of unknown aetiology for which there is no diagnostic test. Diagnosis is based on agreed clinical criteria that require recurrent oral ulcers and two of the following: recurrent genital ulcers, ocular inflammation, defined skin lesions and pathergy. The condition can present with a variety of symptoms, hence a high index of suspicion is necessary. The most common presentation is with recurrent mouth ulcers, often with genital ulcers; however, it may take some years before diagnostic criteria are met. All patients with idiopathic orogenital ulcers should be kept under review, with periodic focused assessment to detect evolution into Behçet\\'s disease. There is often a delay of several years between patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria and a diagnosis being made, which may contribute to the morbidity of this condition. Despite considerable research effort, the aetiology and pathogenesis of this condition remains enigmatic.
Parkins, Michael D; Sibley, Christopher D; Surette, Michael G; Rabin, Harvey R
The "Streptococcus milleri" group (SMG) is increasingly recognized for their role in pyogenic infections including empyema and solid organ abscesses. However, SMG disease has rarely been identified in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inherent difficulties in both growing the organisms and distinguishing SMG from less virulent oropharyngeal viridans streptococci may have led to a decreased recognition of this as a CF pathogen. We report on six cases of SMG-related infection over a 4-year time-frame occurring within an adult CF clinic in Canada, and a further four cases identified through a literature review. SMG manifested disease as bronchopulmonary exacerbations in 7 of 10 patients, and 4 of 10 patients had extra-pulmonary dissemination of SMG infection. Noticeably, pulmonary exacerbations were frequently associated with atypically malodorous sputum. Furthermore, patients clinically responded to anti-microbial therapies with no anti-Pseudomonal activity. There was a consistent correlation of SMG disease and co-colonization with P. aeruginosa leading to speculation of polymicrobial interactions resulting in enhanced virulence. SMG deserves considerable attention as a potential pathogen within the airways of patients with CF.
Çalışkan, Mehmet Kemal; Kaval, Mehmet Emin
Spontaneous apical closure in non-vital immature teeth has been rarely encountered and outcome of non-surgical endodontic treatment of related teeth associated with periapical lesions has not yet been adequately elucidated. The aim of this article was to report endodontic management of spontaneous apical closure of infected untreated immature teeth with periapical lesions and to review previously proposed mechanisms for the development of spontaneous hard tissue barrier. Three patients were referred at different time intervals to the endodontic clinic for treatment of their maxillary anterior incisors with acute or chronic apical periodontitis. Dental histories indicated that related teeth had been subjected to trauma approximately 12-18 years previously. Radiographically, the involved teeth exhibited incomplete root formation with spontaneous apical closure and were associated with an apical radiolucency. After biomechanical preparation, calcium hydroxide paste was applied and was changed once or twice within 3 months. All canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus and the follow-up period was 16-50 months; both clinical and radiographic examinations revealed adequate function, the absence of clinical symptoms and significant healing of the periapical radiolucency.
Zhong, Zhihong; Sun, Yuhao; Lin, Dong; Sun, Qingfang; Bian, Liuguan
Coexistence of brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm was previously considered as an uncommon phenomenon. Actually it is not rare in neurosurgical procedures, and its incidence rate may be underestimated. Furthermore, there remains a lack of consensus regarding numerous aspects of its clinical management. We performed a retrospective study of 12 cases of coexistent brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm in our database. Then a systematic PubMed search of English-language literature published between 1970 and 2012 was carried out using the keywords: "brain tumor" and "intracranial aneurysm" in combination with "associate" or "coexist." A consensus panel of neurosurgeons, anesthetists, interventional neurologists, and intensivests reviewed this information and proposed a treatment strategy. In the majority of patients, clinical symptoms were caused by tumor growth, whereas aneurysm rupture was seen only in a few cases. Meningioma was the commonest tumor associated with aneurysm. In most patients, both lesions occurred within the adjacent area. Treatment of both pathologies in one session was performed in most patients. All of our patients were alive within the period of follow-up. Coexistence of brain tumor and intracranial aneurysm may be a coincidence. The treatment strategy should be designed according to the conditions of tumor and aneurysm, locations of both lesions, and pathologic nature of tumor.
Egle, J; Gupta, A; Mittal, V; Orfanou, P; Silapaswan, S
Internal hernias remain difficult to diagnose, despite advances in preoperative imaging. The anatomy of internal hernias varies widely, but herniation through the falciform ligament remains a rare entity. Sparse case reports are present, and no review has adequately synthesized all available information within the literature. Two patients presented to our institution with internal hernias through the falciform ligament over the span of 3 months. A PubMed search was performed for any article containing both the terms "falciform" and "hernia." These articles and their references were examined, identifying 35 cases in the world literature, in addition to the two at our institution. Reports were examined for demographics, mode of diagnosis, hernia etiology, hernia contents, need for resection, and survival. Five cases of falciform hernia were correctly diagnosed by preoperative imaging. Bowel resection was necessary in 43 % of patients, and mortality was 12 %. Incidence of falciform hernias is increasing. This pathology is a rare, though increasingly frequent, phenomenon that must be considered in the differential diagnosis when a bowel obstruction without other identifiable cause is encountered, particularly in a patient with history of previous laparoscopy. However, preoperative studies have a poor sensitivity for accurately diagnosing a hernia through the falciform ligament. Failure to consider this etiology may result in delayed operative intervention and increased morbidity and mortality.
Imran Hamid, U; Booth, K; McManus, K
Fistula formation between the pericardium and the gastrointestinal tract is rare. Enteropericardial fistulae may present dramatically, many have prodromal symptoms even though they are not symptoms usually associated with esophageal disease. Prompt diagnosis and expedient surgery can result in survival. We describe three cases of enteropericardial fistulae diagnosed during emergency surgery for sepsis or hemorrhage. All had previous surgery though the details were not available to the operating surgeons because of the time that had passed since their original operation. All three patients survived, albeit with prolonged hospital stay and repeated surgery. A review of the English language literature revealed 95 cases (Table 1). Fifty-eight had a history of previous surgery, particularly fundoplication or esophagectomy. Ten had advanced malignancy and were treated conservatively. All eight patients with fistulae, which were iatrogenic or due to foreign bodies, survived without aggressive surgery. For more extensive pathology, a successful outcome was achieved in 32 of the 36 cases when the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract was defunctioned because of the presence of major sepsis or because the healthy vascularized tissue was transposed into the area at risk for further fistula formation. Where less aggressive surgery was performed only 12 of 27 patients survived (P fistula is present, defunctioning of the upper GI tract or repair with transposition of vascularized tissue gives a better chance of a successful outcome. [Table: see text].
Methods. A retrospective review of 26 consecutive ASPS patients (12 male, 14 female; mean age of 27 years treated at our institution over 30 years (mean followup; 71 months was performed. Results. The primary tumor developed in the lower extremity (12, trunk (8, and upper extremity (6, with an average size of 7.2 cm (range, 2–14 cm. The AJCC stage at presentation was IIA (7, III (3, and IV (16. Surgical excision was performed in 20 patients (R0 18, R1 plus radiotherapy 2 without local recurrence. Six patients (stage IIA 3/7, stage III 3/3 later developed metastases after an average period of 28.7 months. The median survival of the 26 patients was 90 months, with overall 5/10-year survival rates of 64%/48%. AJCC stage and tumor size were significant prognostic factors. Significant palliation and slowing of metastasis progression were achieved with gamma knife radiotherapy. Nine patients receiving chemotherapy showed no objective response. Conclusions. ASPS is indolent but has a high propensity for metastasis. Early diagnosis and complete excision of the small primary tumor are essential in the treatment of ASPS.
Skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the human body and plays an important role in locomotion and whole body metabolism. It accounts for ~80% of insulin stimulated glucose disposal. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance, a primary feature of Type 2 diabetes, is caused by a decreased ability...... of muscle to respond to circulating insulin. Physical exercise improves insulin sensitivity and whole body metabolism and remains one of the most promising interventions for the prevention of Type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and exercise adaptations in skeletal muscle might be a cause, or consequence......, of altered protein expressions profiles and/or their posttranslational modifications (PTMs). Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics offer enormous promise for investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and exercise-induced adaptation; however, skeletal muscle...
Millar, A.H.; Heazlewood, J.L.; Kristensen, B.K.
The plant mitochondrial proteome might contain as many as 2000-3000 different gene products, each of which might undergo post-translational modification. Recent studies using analytical methods, such as one-, two- and three-dimensional gel electrophoresis and one- and two-dimensional liquid...... chromatography linked on-line with tandem mass spectrometry, have identified >400 mitochondrial proteins, including subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes, supercomplexes, phosphorylated proteins and oxidized proteins. The results also highlight a range of new mitochondrial proteins, new mitochondrial...... functions and possible new mechanisms for regulating mitochondrial metabolism. More than 70 identified proteins in Arabidopsis mitochondrial samples lack similarity to any protein of known function. In some cases, unknown proteins were found to form part of protein complexes, which allows a functional...
Sandro C. Esteves
Full Text Available We compared pregnancy outcomes following intracytoplasmic sperm injection for the treatment of male infertility according to the type of azoospermia. First, we analyzed our data from 370 couples who underwent intracytoplasmic sperm injection using sperm from men with obstructive azoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia, and the outcomes were compared to a group of 465 non-azoospermic infertile males. Then, we performed a systematic review of the published data on pregnancy and neonatal outcomes of children born after sperm injection using sperm from men with obstructive and nonobstructive azoospermia. Live birth rates were significantly lower in the nonobstructive azoospermia group (21.4% compared with the obstructive azoospermia (37.5% and ejaculated sperm (32.3% groups. A total of 326 live births resulted in 427 babies born. Differences were not observed between the groups in gestational age, preterm birth, birth weight and low birth weight, although we noted a tendency towards poorer neonatal outcomes in the azoospermia categories. The overall perinatal death and malformation rates were 2.8% and 1.6%, respectively, and the results did not differ between the groups. We identified 20 published studies that directly compared pregnancy outcomes between obstructive azoospermia and nonobstructive azoospermia. Most of these studies were not designed to detect differences in live birth rates and had lower power to detect differences in less frequent outcomes, and the reporting of neonatal outcomes was unusual. The included studies reported either a decrease or no difference in pregnancy outcomes with intracytoplasmic sperm injection in cases of nonobstructive azoospermia and obstructive azoospermia. In general, no major differences were noted in short-term neonatal outcomes and congenital malformation rates between children from fathers with nonobstructive azoospermia and obstructive azoospermia.
Ebara, Hirotaka; Hagiya, Hideharu; Haruki, Yuto; Kondo, Eisei; Otsuka, Fumio
Objective Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging nosocomial pathogen that causes fatal infections in critically ill or immunocompromised patients. S. maltophilia bacteremia (SMB) is a rare condition, and its clinical characteristics in Japanese settings are not well known. Methods The medical charts of patients with SMB were retrospectively reviewed at two medical facilities (Okayama University Hospital and Tsuyama Chuo Hospital) for seven years. The data were analyzed along with those previously reported from other Japanese facilities. Result A total of 181 patients (110 men and 71 women) were evaluated. The major underlying diseases included hematologic malignancy (36.5%), solid organ malignancy (25.4%), and neutropenia (31.5%). The recent use of carbapenem was seen in 56.9% of the cases in total, and more than one-third of the patients in our hospitals were treated with carbapenem at the onset of SMB. Of 28 (63.6%) of 44 cases treated for S. maltophilia, those who did not survive were more likely to have been treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. A multivariate analysis revealed that a higher updated Charlson Comorbidity Index [odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 1.75 (1.11-2.75); p=0.015] and intubation [odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 12.6 (1.62-97.9); p=0.016] were associated with mortality in our cases. Pathogens were often resistant to ceftazidime but susceptible to minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. The overall mortality rates within 30 and 90 days were 37.5% and 62.5%, respectively. Conclusion The clinical characteristics of SMB in Japanese cases were similar to those reported from other countries. Clinicians should be aware that breakthrough infection by S. maltophilia may occur during administration of carbapenem. PMID:28090041
Enajat, Morteza; Rozen, Warren M; Audolfsson, Thorir; Acosta, Rafael
With the increasing use of the deep inferior epigastric artery perforator (DIEP) flap, complications that are particularly rare (less than 1%) may start to become clinically relevant. During DIEP flap harvest, cutaneous nerves innervating the flap are necessarily sacrificed, resulting in reduced sensibility. This impaired sensibility prevents adequate thermoregulatory reflexes, like vasodilatation, sweating, and protective behaviors, leaving the reconstructed breast considerably more susceptible to thermal insult. We present four DIEP flap cases who sustained postoperative thermal injury to the reconstructed breast. All four cases were operated on between 2001 and 2008, over the course of 600 DIEP flaps in our unit (an incidence of 0.7%). The injuries occurred between 2 and 18 months after reconstruction. Two patients sustained thermal injury while sunbathing, one while staying in a warm environment, and one sustained the injury while taking a shower. No flap losses ensued, but these were not without morbidity. A literature review discusses other similar cases in the literature and describes the mechanisms for these findings. As a majority of patients will regain both fine-touch and heat sensation by 3 years postoperatively, it is pertinent that prophylactic measures be instituted during this period, such as the avoidance of sunbathing and the use of cooler shower temperatures for the first 3 years postoperatively. While performing sensory nerve coaptation is the gold standard for maximizing the success of sensory regeneration, this is not always sought and the 0.7% incidence of thermal injury we have encountered suggest the role for greater consideration of such injury. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Mark P. Maskery
Full Text Available Paraneoplastic neurological syndrome (PNS describes a spectrum of rare, heterogeneous neurological conditions associated with an underlying malignancy. Diagnosis of PNS is inherently difficult, with frequent misdiagnosis and delay. The literature suggests an underlying immune-mediated pathophysiology, and patients are usually tested for the presence of onconeural antibodies. With direct tumor therapy being the most effective method of stabilizing patients, there is a strong emphasis on detecting underlying tumors. The sensitivity of conventional CT imaging is often inadequate in such patients. While FDG-PET imaging has already been shown to be effective at detecting these tumors, FDG-PET/CT, combining both structural and functional imaging in a single study, is a more recent technique. To study the utility of FDG-PET/CT, we conducted a systematic literature review and a retrospective study. We identified 41 patients who underwent imaging for clinically suspected PNS at the regional PET-CT and neurosciences center based at the Royal Preston Hospital between 2007 and 2014 and compared the results to conventional investigations. Five patients had FDG-PET/CT tracer avidity suspicious of malignant disease, and four of these were subsequently diagnosed with cancer. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated to be 100 and 97.3%, respectively, with positive predictive value 80% and negative predictive value 100%. This compares to a sensitivity and specificity of 50 and 100%, respectively, for CT and 50 and 89%, respectively, for onconeural antibodies. These findings are in line with previous studies and support the diagnostic accuracy of FDG-PET/CT for the detection of underlying malignancy.
Zubarev, Roman; Mann, Matthias
Mass measurement is the main outcome of mass spectrometry-based proteomics yet the potential of recent advances in accurate mass measurements remains largely unexploited. There is not even a clear definition of mass accuracy in the proteomics literature, and we identify at least three uses of this term: anecdotal mass accuracy, statistical mass accuracy, and the maximum mass deviation (MMD) allowed in a database search. We suggest using the second of these terms as the generic one. To make the best use of the mass precision offered by modern instruments we propose a series of simple steps involving recalibration of the data on "internal standards" contained in every proteomics data set. Each data set should be accompanied by a plot of mass errors from which the appropriate MMD can be chosen. More advanced uses of high mass accuracy include an MMD that depends on the signal abundance of each peptide. Adapting search engines to high mass accuracy in the MS/MS data is also a high priority. Proper use of high mass accuracy data can make MS-based proteomics one of the most "digital" and accurate post-genomics disciplines.
Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD, similar with other neurodegenerative disorders, would benefit from the identification of early biomarkers for differential diagnosis and prognosis to address prompt clinical treatments. Together with hypothesis driven approaches, PD has been investigated by high-throughput differential proteomic analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF protein content. The principal methodologies and techniques utilized in the proteomics field for PD biomarker discovery from CSF are presented in this mini review. The positive aspects and challenges in proteome-based biomarker research are also discussed.
Stephan, Christian; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Podwojski, Katharina; Meyer, Helmut E; Eisenacher, Martin
The organization and storage of proteomics data are challenging issues today and even more for the rising amount of information in the future. This review article describes the advantages of using Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) in proteomics laboratories. Seven typical LIMS are explored in detail to describe their role in an even bigger interrelation. They are a central part of the proteomics data workflow, starting with data generation and ending with the publication in journals and repositories. Therefore, they enable community-wide data utilization and further Systems Biology discoveries.
Verheggen, Kenneth; Barsnes, Harald; Martens, Lennart
Modern day proteomics generates ever more complex data, causing the requirements on the storage and processing of such data to outgrow the capacity of most desktop computers. To cope with the increased computational demands, distributed architectures have gained substantial popularity in the recent years. In this review, we provide an overview of the current techniques for distributed computing, along with examples of how the techniques are currently being employed in the field of proteomics. We thus underline the benefits of distributed computing in proteomics, while also pointing out the potential issues and pitfalls involved.
Cabras, Tiziana; Iavarone, Federica; Manconi, Barbara; Olianas, Alessandra; Sanna, Maria Teresa; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene
Comprehensive analysis and characterization of the human salivary proteome is an important step towards the possible use of saliva for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. The contribution of the different sources to whole saliva, and the evaluation of individual variability and physiological modifications have been investigated by top-down proteomic approaches, disclosing the faceted and complex profile of the human salivary proteome. All this information is essential to develop saliva protein biomarkers. In this Review the major results obtained in the field by top-down platforms, and the improvements required to allow a more complete picture, will be discussed.
Wang, Shun; Wang, Peihong; Zhang, Nan; Gao, Ruichang
Penicillin is a kind of β-lactam drug which has been applied in the clinical treatment firstly in the world, and it has still been widely used at present. The synthesis and regulation mechanism of Penicillium chrysogenum, which is used to produce penicillin, has been studied quite maturely, but its proteomics research started relatively late and fewer reports were published. This paper reviews the synthesis and application of penicillin, transformation of Penicillium chrysogenum, and the research progress of its proteomics. On this basis, the study highlights the advantages of proteomics in the research of protein expression.
Fowles, Jeff; Banton, Marcy; Klapacz, Joanna; Shen, Hua
This review summarizes the hazards, exposure and risk that are associated with ethylene glycols (EGs) in their intended applications. Ethylene glycol (EG; CAS RN 107-21-1) and its related oligomers include mono-, di-, tri-, tetra-, and penta-EG. All of the EGs are quickly and extensively absorbed following ingestion and inhalation, but not by the dermal route. Metabolism involves oxidation to the mono- and dicarboxylic acids. Elimination is primarily through the urine as the parent compound or the monoacid, and, in the case of EG, also as exhaled carbon dioxide. All EGs exert acute toxicity in a similar manner, characterized by CNS depression and metabolic acidosis in humans and rodents; the larger molecules being proportionally less acutely toxic on a strict mg/kg basis. Species differences exist in the metabolism and distribution of toxic metabolites, particularly with the formation of glycolic acids and oxalates (OX) from EG and diethylene glycol (DEG); OX are not formed to a significant degree in higher ethylene glycols. Among rodents, rats are more sensitive than mice, and males more sensitive than females to the acute and repeated-dose toxicity of EG. The metabolic formation of glycolic acid (GA), diglycolic acid (DGA), and OX are associated with nephrotoxicity in humans and rodents following single and repeated exposures. However, physiological and metabolic differences in the rate of formation of GA, DGA and OX and their distribution result in EG and DEG causing embryotoxicity in rats, but not rabbits. This rodent-specific sensitivity indicates that EG and its higher oligomers are not anticipated to be embryotoxic in humans at environmentally relevant doses. None of the compounds present developmental toxicity concerns at doses that do not also cause significant maternal toxicity, nor do any of the EGs cause adverse effects on fertility. The EGs are neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic. A read-across matrix is presented, which considers the common and
Jiménez, Rafael C; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio
Both the existence of data standards and public databases or repositories have been key factors behind the development of the existing "omics" approaches. In this book chapter we first review the main existing mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics resources: PRIDE, PeptideAtlas, GPMDB, and Tranche. Second, we report on the current status of the different proteomics data standards developed by the Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI): the formats mzML, mzIdentML, mzQuantML, TraML, and PSI-MI XML are then reviewed. Finally, we present an easy way to query and access MS proteomics data in the PRIDE database, as a representative of the existing repositories, using the workflow management system (WMS) tool Taverna. Two different publicly available workflows are explained and described.
Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Bourguignon, Jacques; Rolland, Norbert; Ephritikhine, Geneviève; Ferro, Myriam; Jaquinod, Michel; Alexiou, Konstantinos G; Chardot, Thierry; Chakraborty, Niranjan; Jolivet, Pascale; Doonan, John H; Rakwal, Randeep
Organelle proteomics describes the study of proteins present in organelle at a particular instance during the whole period of their life cycle in a cell. Organelles are specialized membrane bound structures within a cell that function by interacting with cytosolic and luminal soluble proteins making the protein composition of each organelle dynamic. Depending on organism, the total number of organelles within a cell varies, indicating their evolution with respect to protein number and function. For example, one of the striking differences between plant and animal cells is the plastids in plants. Organelles have their own proteins, and few organelles like mitochondria and chloroplast have their own genome to synthesize proteins for specific function and also require nuclear-encoded proteins. Enormous work has been performed on animal organelle proteomics. However, plant organelle proteomics has seen limited work mainly due to: (i) inter-plant and inter-tissue complexity, (ii) difficulties in isolation of subcellular compartments, and (iii) their enrichment and purity. Despite these concerns, the field of organelle proteomics is growing in plants, such as Arabidopsis, rice and maize. The available data are beginning to help better understand organelles and their distinct and/or overlapping functions in different plant tissues, organs or cell types, and more importantly, how protein components of organelles behave during development and with surrounding environments. Studies on organelles have provided a few good reviews, but none of them are comprehensive. Here, we present a comprehensive review on plant organelle proteomics starting from the significance of organelle in cells, to organelle isolation, to protein identification and to biology and beyond. To put together such a systematic, in-depth review and to translate acquired knowledge in a proper and adequate form, we join minds to provide discussion and viewpoints on the collaborative nature of organelles in
Glover, A G; Gooday, A J; Bailey, D M; Billett, D S M; Chevaldonné, P; Colaço, A; Copley, J; Cuvelier, D; Desbruyères, D; Kalogeropoulou, V; Klages, M; Lampadariou, N; Lejeusne, C; Mestre, N C; Paterson, G L J; Perez, T; Ruhl, H; Sarrazin, J; Soltwedel, T; Soto, E H; Thatje, S; Tselepides, A; Van Gaever, S; Vanreusel, A
Societal concerns over the potential impacts of recent global change have prompted renewed interest in the long-term ecological monitoring of large ecosystems. The deep sea is the largest ecosystem on the planet, the least accessible, and perhaps the least understood. Nevertheless, deep-sea data collected over the last few decades are now being synthesised with a view to both measuring global change and predicting the future impacts of further rises in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. For many years, it was assumed by many that the deep sea is a stable habitat, buffered from short-term changes in the atmosphere or upper ocean. However, recent studies suggest that deep-seafloor ecosystems may respond relatively quickly to seasonal, inter-annual and decadal-scale shifts in upper-ocean variables. In this review, we assess the evidence for these long-term (i.e. inter-annual to decadal-scale) changes both in biologically driven, sedimented, deep-sea ecosystems (e.g. abyssal plains) and in chemosynthetic ecosystems that are partially geologically driven, such as hydrothermal vents and cold seeps. We have identified 11 deep-sea sedimented ecosystems for which published analyses of long-term biological data exist. At three of these, we have found evidence for a progressive trend that could be potentially linked to recent climate change, although the evidence is not conclusive. At the other sites, we have concluded that the changes were either not significant, or were stochastically variable without being clearly linked to climate change or climate variability indices. For chemosynthetic ecosystems, we have identified 14 sites for which there are some published long-term data. Data for temporal changes at chemosynthetic ecosystems are scarce, with few sites being subjected to repeated visits. However, the limited evidence from hydrothermal vents suggests that at fast-spreading centres such as the East Pacific Rise, vent communities are impacted on decadal scales
Yueguo Li; Xin Geng; Weiming Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma is a malignant tumor causing one of the highest death rates in the world. Viral hepatitis, hepatic fibrosis and hepatocirrhosis etc. Are some of the most important causes of hepatocellular carcinoma. With the advent of the post-genomic age, studying carcinoma and some related diseases using the developing technology of proteomics has become a major focus of researchers. This article is a review of the application of proteomics to study hepatocellular carcinoma and some related diseases.
Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Tabb, David L.; Chaerkady, Raghothama;
To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis, multidimens......To complement the recent genomic sequencing of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells, proteomic analysis was performed on CHO cells including the cellular proteome, secretome, and glycoproteome using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) of multiple fractions obtained from gel electrophoresis...
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...
Jun 20, 2013 ... Upper cervical spine injuries: a management of a series of 70 cases. El Fatemi ... women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. .... osteosynthesis is preferred to respect the biomechanics of the cervical spine ...
Goode, Robert J A; Yu, Simon; Kannan, Anitha; Christiansen, Jeffrey H; Beitz, Anthony; Hancock, William S; Nice, Edouard; Smith, A Ian
In 2010, the Human Proteome Organization launched the Human Proteome Project (HPP), aimed at identifying and characterizing the proteome of the human body. To support complete coverage, one arm of the project will take a gene- or chromosomal-centric strategy (C-HPP) aimed at identifying at least one protein product from each protein-coding gene. Despite multiple large international biological databases housing genomic and protein data, there is currently no single system that integrates updated pertinent information from each of these data repositories and assembles the information into a searchable format suitable for the type of global proteomics effort proposed by the C-HPP. We have undertaken the goal of producing a data integration and analysis software system and browser for the C-HPP effort and of making data collections from this resource discoverable through metadata repositories, such as Australian National Data Service's Research Data Australia. Here we present our vision and progress toward the goal of developing a comprehensive data integration and analysis software tool that provides a snapshot of currently available proteomic related knowledge around each gene product, which will ultimately assist in analyzing biological function and the study of human physiology in health and disease.
Chandra Sekhar Rao Kadiyala
Full Text Available Here, we describe the novel use of a volatile surfactant, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA, for shotgun proteomics. PFOA was found to solubilize membrane proteins as effectively as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. PFOA concentrations up to 0.5% (w/v did not significantly inhibit trypsin activity. The unique features of PFOA allowed us to develop a single-tube shotgun proteomics method that used all volatile chemicals that could easily be removed by evaporation prior to mass spectrometry analysis. The experimental procedures involved: 1 extraction of proteins in 2% PFOA; 2 reduction of cystine residues with triethyl phosphine and their S-alkylation with iodoethanol; 3 trypsin digestion of proteins in 0.5% PFOA; 4 removal of PFOA by evaporation; and 5 LC-MS/MS analysis of the resulting peptides. The general applicability of the method was demonstrated with the membrane preparation of photoreceptor outer segments. We identified 75 proteins from 1 µg of the tryptic peptides in a single, 1-hour, LC-MS/MS run. About 67% of the proteins identified were classified as membrane proteins. We also demonstrate that a proteolytic (18O labeling procedure can be incorporated after the PFOA removal step for quantitative proteomic experiments. The present method does not require sample clean-up devices such as solid-phase extractions and membrane filters, so no proteins/peptides are lost in any experimental steps. Thus, this single-tube shotgun proteomics method overcomes the major drawbacks of surfactant use in proteomic experiments.
Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.
While genomic approaches have been applied for the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to their inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides that could potentially be present in the proteomes of artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. A mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach was employed to experimentally detect and validate the predicted tryptic peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second in silico assessment of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was conducted to investigate the levels of instrumental performance that would be required to experimentally detect these peptides, as well as how performance varied with complexity (e.g., the number of different microorganisms). The experimental data for a simple community showed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and to quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for identifying a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities and the possible development of community wide markers of perturbations to such communities.
@@ A comparative proteomic analysis was applied to explore the mechanism of fiber cell development in cotton.Initially,an efficient protein preparation method was established for proteomic analysis of developing cotton fibers by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis,and a microwave enhanced ink staining technique also was created for fast and sensitive protein quantification in proteomic studies.
Luebker, Stephen A.; Koepsell, Scott A.
Urea based protein extraction of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue provides the most efficient workflow for proteomics due to its compatibility with liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). This study optimizes the use of urea for proteomic analysis of clinical FFPE tissue. A series of protein extraction conditions manipulating temperature and buffer composition were compared to reduce carbamylation introduced by urea and increase pro...
Full Text Available In the modern process of drug discovery, clinical, functional and chemical proteomics can converge and integrate synergies. Functional proteomics explores and elucidates the components of pathways and their interactions which, when deregulated, lead to a disease condition. This knowledge allows the design of strategies to target multiple pathways with combinations of pathway-specific drugs, which might increase chances of success and reduce the occurrence of drug resistance. Chemical proteomics, by analyzing the drug interactome, strongly contributes to accelerate the process of new druggable targets discovery. In the research area of clinical proteomics, proteome and peptidome mass spectrometry-profiling of human bodily fluid (plasma, serum, urine and so on, as well as of tissue and of cells, represents a promising tool for novel biomarker and eventually new druggable targets discovery. In the present review we provide a survey of current strategies of functional, chemical and clinical proteomics. Major issues will be presented for proteomic technologies used for the discovery of biomarkers for early disease diagnosis and identification of new drug targets.
Lehmann, Sylvain; Hoofnagle, Andrew; Hochstrasser, Denis; Brede, Cato; Glueckmann, Matthias; Cocho, José A; Ceglarek, Uta; Lenz, Christof; Vialaret, Jérôme; Scherl, Alexander; Hirtz, Christophe
Proteomics studies typically aim to exhaustively detect peptides/proteins in a given biological sample. Over the past decade, the number of publications using proteomics methodologies has exploded. This was made possible due to the availability of high-quality genomic data and many technological advances in the fields of microfluidics and mass spectrometry. Proteomics in biomedical research was initially used in 'functional' studies for the identification of proteins involved in pathophysiological processes, complexes and networks. Improved sensitivity of instrumentation facilitated the analysis of even more complex sample types, including human biological fluids. It is at that point the field of clinical proteomics was born, and its fundamental aim was the discovery and (ideally) validation of biomarkers for the diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic monitoring of disease. Eventually, it was recognized that the technologies used in clinical proteomics studies [particularly liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)] could represent an alternative to classical immunochemical assays. Prior to deploying MS in the measurement of peptides/proteins in the clinical laboratory, it seems likely that traditional proteomics workflows and data management systems will need to adapt to the clinical environment and meet in vitro diagnostic (IVD) regulatory constraints. This defines a new field, as reviewed in this article, that we have termed quantitative Clinical Chemistry Proteomics (qCCP).
Full Text Available Abiotic and biotic stresses constrain plant growth and development negatively impacting crop production. Plants have developed stress-specific adaptations as well as simultaneous responses to a combination of various abiotic stresses with pathogen infection. The efficiency of stress-induced adaptive responses is dependent on activation of molecular signaling pathways and intracellular networks by modulating expression, or abundance, and/or posttranslational modification of proteins primarily associated with defense mechanisms. In this review, we summarize and evaluate the contribution of proteomic studies to our understanding of stress response mechanisms in different plant organs and tissues. Advanced quantitative proteomic techniques have improved the coverage of total proteomes and sub-proteomes from small amounts of starting material, and characterized post-translational modifications as well as protein–protein interactions at the cellular level, providing detailed information on organ- and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms responding to a variety of individual stresses or stress combinations during plant life cycle. In particular, we address the tissue-specific signaling networks localized to various organelles that participate in stress-related physiological plasticity and adaptive mechanisms, such as photosynthetic efficiency, symbiotic nitrogen fixation, plant growth, tolerance and common responses to environmental stresses. We also provide an update on the progress of proteomics with major crop species and discuss the current challenges and limitations inherent to proteomics techniques and data interpretation for non-model organisms. Future directions in proteomics research towards crop improvement are further discussed.
Nanjo, Yohei; Nouri, Mohammad-Zaman; Komatsu, Setsuko
Quantitative proteomics is one of the analytical approaches used to clarify crop responses to stress conditions. Recent remarkable advances in proteomics technologies allow for the identification of a wider range of proteins than was previously possible. Current proteomic methods fall into roughly two categories: gel-based quantification methods, including conventional two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis, and MS-based quantification methods consists of label-based and label-free protein quantification approaches. Although MS-based quantification methods have become mainstream in recent years, gel-based quantification methods are still useful for proteomic analyses. Previous studies examining crop responses to stress conditions reveal that each method has both advantages and disadvantages in regard to protein quantification in comparative proteomic analyses. Furthermore, one proteomics approach cannot be fully substituted by another technique. In this review, we discuss and highlight the basis and applications of quantitative proteomic analysis approaches in crop seedlings in response to flooding and osmotic stress as two environmental stresses.
Full Text Available Fruits and vegetables are extremely susceptible to decay and easily lose commercial value after harvest. Different strategies have been developed to control postharvest decay and prevent quality deterioration during postharvest storage, including cold storage, controlled atmosphere, and application of biotic and abiotic stimulus. In this review, mechanisms related to protein level responses of host side and pathogen side were characterized. Protein extraction protocols have been successfully developed for recalcitrant, low protein content fruit tissues. Comparative proteome profiling and functional analysis revealed that defense related proteins, energy metabolism and antioxidant pathway played important roles in fruits in response to storage conditions and exogenous elicitor treatments. Secretome of pathogenic fungi has been well investigated and the results indicated that hydrolytic enzymes were the key virulent factors for the pathogen infection. These protein level changes shed new light on interaction among fruits, pathogens and environmental conditions. Potential postharvest strategies to reduce risk of fruit decay were further proposed based on currently available proteomic data.
Nkuipou-Kenfack, Esther; Koeck, Thomas; Mischak, Harald; Pich, Andreas; Schanstra, Joost P; Zürbig, Petra; Schumacher, Björn
Based on demographic trends, the societies in many developed countries are facing an increasing number and proportion of people over the age of 65. The raise in elderly populations along with improved health-care will be concomitant with an increased prevalence of ageing-associated chronic conditions like cardiovascular, renal, and respiratory diseases, arthritis, dementia, and diabetes mellitus. This is expected to pose unprecedented challenges both for individuals and societies and their health care systems. An ultimate goal of ageing research is therefore the understanding of physiological ageing and the achievement of 'healthy' ageing by decreasing age-related pathologies. However, on a molecular level, ageing is a complex multi-mechanistic process whose contributing factors may vary individually, partly overlap with pathological alterations, and are often poorly understood. Proteome analysis potentially allows modelling of these multifactorial processes. This review summarises recent proteomic research on age-related changes identified in animal models and human studies. We combined this information with pathway analysis to identify molecular mechanisms associated with ageing. We identified some molecular pathways that are affected in most or even all organs and others that are organ-specific. However, appropriately powered studies are needed to confirm these findings based in in silico evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Chen Sun; Ann H Rosendahl; Daniel Ansari; Roland Andersson
Pancreatic cancer, as a highly malignant cancer and the fourth cause of cancer-related death in world, is characterized by dismal prognosis, due to rapid disease progression, highly invasive tumour phenotype, and resistance to chemotherapy. Despite significant advances in treatment of the disease during the past decade,the survival rate is little improved. A contributory factor to the poor outcome is the lack of appropriate sensitive and specific biomarkers for early diagnosis. Furthermore, biomarkers for targeting, directing and assessing therapeutic intervention, as well as for detection of residual or recurrent cancer are also needed. Thus, the identification of adequate biomarkers in pancreatic cancer is of extreme importance. Recently, accompanying the development of proteomic technology and devices, more and more potential biomarkers have appeared and are being reported. In this review, we provide an overview of the role of proteome-based biomarkers in pancreatic cancer, including tissue, serum, juice, urine and cell lines. We also discuss the possible mechanism and prospects in the future. That information hopefully might be helpful for further research in the field.
Omics analyses provided many candidates for drug targets and biomarkers. However, these analyses have not contributed to drug development efficiently because of top-down omics analyses. To solve this problem, we have recently developed quantitative targeted proteomics with multiplexed-multiple reaction monitoring (multiplexed-MRM) method, which enables us to perform bottom-up proteomics. In this method, the target proteins for quantification are selected prior to analysis based on the knowledge related to interesting phenomena. Target peptides for quantification are selected only from sequence information, so time-consuming procedures such as antibody preparation and protein purification are unnecessary. In this review, we introduce the technical features of multiplexed-MRM method as novel protein quantification method, and summarize its advantages with reference to recently reported results, including species differences, in vitro-to-in vivo reconstruction and personalized chemotherapy. This novel simultaneous protein quantification method overcomes problems of antibody-based quantification and would open new drug research based of protein as "Pharmacoproteomics".
Vivanco, Fernando; Martín-Ventura, Jose L; Duran, Mari Carmen; Barderas, Maria G; Blanco-Colio, Luis; Dardé, Verónica M; Mas, Sebastián; Meilhac, Olivier; Michel, Jean B; Tuñón, Jose; Egido, Jesús
Atherosclerosis, and the resulting coronary heart disease and stroke, is the most common cause of death in developed countries. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in the development of complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Plaque rupture and thrombosis result in the acute clinical complications of myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. Although certain risk factors (dyslipidemias, diabetes, hypertension) and humoral markers of plaque vulnerability (C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, 10 and 18, CD40L) have been identified, a highly sensitive and specific biomarker or protein profile, which could provide information on the stability/vulnerability of atherosclerotic lesions, remains to be identified. In this review, we report several proteomic approaches which have been applied to circulating or resident cells, atherosclerotic plaques or plasma, in the search for new proteins that could be used as cardiovascular biomarkers. First, an example using a differential proteomic approach (2-DE and MS) comparing the secretome from control mammary arteries and atherosclerotic plaques is displayed. Among the different proteins identified, we showed that low levels of HSP-27 could be a potential marker of atherosclerosis. Second, we have revised several studies performed in cells involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (foam cells and smooth muscle cells). Another approach consists of performing proteomic analysis on circulating cells or plasma, which will provide a global view of the whole body response to atherosclerotic aggression. Circulating cells can bear information reflecting directly an inflammatory or pro-coagulant state related to the pathology. As an illustration, we report that circulating monocytes and plasma in patients with acute coronary syndromes has disclosed that mature Cathepsin D is increased both in the plasma and monocytes of these patients. Finally, the problems of applying proteomic approach
Delory, T; De Pontfarcy, A; Emirian, A; About, F; Berdougo, B; Brun-Buisson, C; Lesprit, P
The objective of this study was to assess the impact on carbapenems use of a program combining pre-authorization requirement and systematic post-prescription review of carbapenems prescriptions. The program was implemented in a 1,230-bed teaching tertiary hospital. Monthly carbapenems consumption was analyzed using a controlled interrupted time-series method and compared to that of vancomycin before and after implementation of the intervention. Compared to the pre-intervention period (14 monthly points), a significant and sustained decrease of carbapenems consumption [1.66 defined daily doses (DDD)/1,000 patient-days; p = 0.048] was observed during the intervention period (12 monthly points), despite an increasing trend in incidence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) isolates (0.02/1,000 patient-days per month; p = 0.093). As expected, vancomycin consumption was unaffected by the intervention. A total of 337 prescriptions were reviewed in the intervention period; most were microbiologically documented (81.3%; ESBL-PE: 39.2%). Three of four (76.6%) carbapenems prescriptions were modified within a median [interquartile range] of 2 [1; 4] days, either after infectious disease physician (IDP) advice (48.4%) or by ward physicians (28.2%). Most changes included de-escalating (52.2%) or reducing the planned duration (22.2%), which resulted in a median duration of treatment of only 3 [2; 7] days. The median length of stay and mortality rate were not influenced by the intervention. This reasonably practicable antimicrobial stewardship program including controlled delivery and systematic reevaluation of carbapenems prescriptions was able to reduce their use in our hospital, despite a rising ESBL-PE incidence.
Holmes, John; Meier, Petra S; Booth, Andrew; Guo, Yelan; Brennan, Alan
Changes in per capita alcohol consumption are temporally linked to changes in rates of alcohol-related harm. Methodological approaches for analysing this relationship have been suggested, however, the problem of time lags is not well-addressed. This study provides a review of time lag specifications, looking at (a) time to first effect on harm, (b) time to full effect and (c) the functional form of the effect accumulation from first to full effect to inform modelling of the relationship between changes in aggregate alcohol consumption and changes in rates of harm. Bibliographic databases were searched and citation and reference checking was used to identify studies. Included studies were time series analyses of the relationship between aggregated population alcohol consumption and rates of alcohol-related harms where time lag specifications had been derived or tested. 36 studies were included with liver cirrhosis, heart disease and suicide dominating the evidence base. For a large number of alcohol-related harms, no literature was identified. There was strong evidence of an immediate first effect following a change in consumption for most harms. Recommended lag specifications are proposed for a set of alcohol-attributable harms. Research on time lag specifications is under-developed for most harms although we provide suggested specifications based on the findings of the review. Greater methodological attention needs to be given to the rationale for choosing or applying lag specifications and the inherent complexity of the time lag process. More consistent and transparent reporting of methodological decisions would aide progress in the field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Jane W Chan,1,2 Jeff Albretson3 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Ophthalmology, College of Medicine, University of Arizona, Phoenix, AZ, USA; 3University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV, USA Purpose: The etiology of recurrent isolated sixth nerve palsies in older adults has not been well described in the literature. Sixth nerve palsies presenting with a chronic, relapsing, and remitting course are uncommon, but can herald a diagnosis of high morbidity and mortality in the older population. Patients and methods: Our method was a retrospective case series study. A review of clinical records of 782 patients ≥50 years of age diagnosed with recurrent sixth nerve palsies was performed over a 10-year period from 1995–2005 in a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in Reno, Nevada. A review of the current literature regarding similar cases was also performed on PubMed. Results: Seven patients ≥50 years of age with chronic, recurrent sixth nerve palsies were identified. Five were males and two were females. Four of seven (57% patients had structural lesions located in the parasellar or petrous apex cavernous sinus regions. One of seven (14.29% had a recurrent painful ophthalmoplegic neuropathy (International Headache Society [IHS] 13.9, previously termed ophthalmoplegic migraine; one of seven (14.29% presented with an intracavernous carotid artery aneurysm; and one of seven (14.29% presented with microvascular disease. Conclusion: The clinical presentation of an isolated recurrent diplopia from a sixth nerve palsy should prompt the neurologist or ophthalmologist to order a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of the brain with and without gadolinium as part of the initial workup to rule out a non-microvascular cause, such as a compressive lesion, which can increase morbidity and mortality in adults >50 years of age. Keywords: cranial nerve palsy, skull base tumor, aneurysm, meningioma, ophthalmoplegic migraine, microvascular disease
Gracia-Ochoa, M; Miranda, I; Orenga, S; Hurtado-Oliver, V; Sendra, F; Roselló-Añón, A
To evaluate peri-prosthetic femoral fractures by analysing type of patient, treatment and outcomes, and to compare them with Spanish series published in the last 20 years. A retrospective review of the medical records of patients with peri-prosthetic femoral fractures treated in our hospital from 2010 to 2014, and telephone survey on the current status. A total of 34 peri-prosthetic femoral fractures were analysed, 20 in hip arthroplasty and 14 in knee arthroplasty. The mean age of the patients was 79.9 years, and 91% had previous comorbidity, with up to 36% having at least 3 prior systemic diseases. Mean hospital stay was 8.7 days, and was higher in surgically-treated than in conservative-treated patients. The majority (60.6%) of patients had complications, and mortality was 18%. Functional status was not regained in 61.5% of patients, and pain was higher in hip than in knee arthroplasty. Peri-prosthetic femoral fractures are increasing in frequency. This is due to the increasing number of arthroplasties performed and also to the increasing age of these patients. Treatment of these fractures is complex because of the presence of an arthroplasty component, low bone quality, and comorbidity of the patients. Peri-prosthetic femoral fractures impair quality of life. They need individualised treatment, and have frequent complications and mortality. Copyright © 2016 SECOT. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Background. i-scan is a software-driven technology that allows modifications of sharpness, hue, and contrast to enhance mucosal imaging. It uses postimage acquisition software with real-time mapping technology embedded in the endoscopic processor. Aims. To review applications of i-scan technology in clinical endoscopic practice. Methods. This is a case series of 20 consecutive patients who underwent endoscopic procedures where i-scan image enhancement algorithms were applied. The main outcome measures were to compare mucosal lesions with high-definition white light endoscopy (HD-WLE and i-scan image enhancement for the application of diagnostic sampling and therapy. Results. 13 cases involving the upper GI tract and 7 cases of the lower GI tract are included. For upper GI tract pathology i-scan assisted in diagnosis or therapy of Barrett’s esophagus with dysplasia, esophageal adenocarcinoma, HSV esophagitis, gastric MALT lymphoma, gastric antral intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia, duodenal follicular lymphoma, and a flat duodenal adenoma. For lower GI tract pathology i-scan assisted in diagnosis or therapy of right-sided serrated adenomas, flat tubular adenoma, rectal adenocarcinoma, anal squamous cell cancer, solitary rectal ulcer, and radiation proctitis. Conclusions. i-scan imaging provides detailed topography of mucosal surfaces and delineates lesion edges, which can directly impact endoscopic management.
Stipa, Francesco; Burza, Antonio; Curinga, Rosanna; Santini, Ettore; Delle Site, Pietro; Avantifiori, Riccardo; Picchio, Marcello
Intracorporeal anastomosis associated to trans-vaginal specimen extraction decreases the extent of colon mobilisation and the number and size of abdominal incisions, improving the benefits of minimally invasive surgery in female patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of this procedure for colorectal cancer. Between 2009 and 2013, 13 female patients underwent laparoscopic colon and rectal resection for colorectal cancer with intracorporeal anastomosis and trans-vaginal specimen extraction: 2 right colectomies, 1 transverse colon resection, 4 left colectomies and 6 anterior resections were performed. A MEDLINE search of publications on the presented procedure for colon neoplasms was carried out. There were no intraoperative complications and no conversions. Postoperative visual analogue scale (VAS) score in the pelvis, abdomen and shoulder was moderate. In the postoperative period, we observed two colorectal anastomotic strictures, successfully treated with pneumatic endoscopic dilation. Median length of the specimen was 18.5 cm, with a median tumour size of 5.5 cm in diameter. Median number of retrieved lymph nodes was 12. All circumferential resection margins were negative. During a mean follow-up of 31 months (range, 6-62), there was neither evidence of recurrent disease nor disorders related to the genitourinary system. The aesthetic outcome was considered satisfactory in all patients. Nine studies were identified in the systematic review. Our case series, according to the results of the literature, showed that intracorporeal anastomosis associated to trans-vaginal specimen extraction is feasible and safe in selected female patients.
Eliel eRuiz May
Full Text Available The plant cell wall (CW compartment, or apoplast, is host to a highly dynamic proteome, comprising large numbers of both enzymatic and structural proteins. This reflects its importance as the interface between adjacent cells and the external environment, the presence of numerous extracellular metabolic and signaling pathways, and the complex nature of wall structural assembly and remodeling during cell growth and differentiation. Tomato fruit ontogeny, with its distinct phases of rapid growth and ripening, provides a valuable experimental model system for CW proteomic studies, in that it involves substantial wall assembly, remodeling and coordinated disassembly. Moreover, diverse populations of secreted proteins must be deployed to resist microbial infection and protect against abiotic stresses. Tomato fruits also provide substantial amounts of biological material, which is a significant advantage for many types of biochemical analyses, and facilitates the detection of lower abundance proteins. In this review we describe a variety of orthogonal techniques that have been applied to identify CW localized proteins from tomato fruit, including approaches that: target the proteome of the CW and the overlying cuticle; functional ‘secretome’ screens; lectin affinity chromatography; and computational analyses to predict proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Each has its merits and limitations, but collectively they are providing important insights into CW proteome composition and dynamics, as well as some potentially controversial issues, such as the prevalence of non-canonical protein secretion.
Full Text Available Increasing of world population marks a serious need to create new crop cultivars and medicinal plants with high growth and production at any environmental situations. Among the environmental unfavorable conditions, salinity is the most widespread in the world. Crop production and growth severely decreases under salt stress; however, some crop cultivars show significant tolerance against the negative effects of salinity. Among salt stress responses of crops, proteomic responses play a pivotal role in their ability to cope with it and have become the main center of notification. Many physiological responses are detectable in terms of protein increase and decrease even before physiological responses take place. Thus proteomic approach makes a short cut in the way of inferring how crops response to salt stress. Nowadays many salt-responsive proteins such as heat shock proteins, pathogen related proteins, protein kinases, ascorbate peroxidase, osmotin, ornithine decarboxylase and some transcription factors, have been detected in some major crops which are thought to give them the ability of withstanding against salt stress. Proteomic analysis of medicinal plants also revealed that alkaloid biosynthesis related proteins such as tryptophan synthase, codeinone reductase, strictosidine synthase and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase might have major role in production of secondary metabolites. In this review we are comparing some different or similar proteomic responses of several crops and medicinal plants to salt stress and discuss about the future prospects.
Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Restelli, Laura; Lecchi, Cristina
The need to provide in vivo complex environments to understand human diseases strongly relies on the use of animal models, which traditionally include small rodents and rabbits. It is becoming increasingly evident that the few species utilised to date cannot be regarded as universal. There is a great need for new animal species that are naturally endowed with specific features relevant to human diseases. Farm animals, including pigs, cows, sheep and horses, represent a valid alternative to commonly utilised rodent models. There is an ample scope for the application of proteomic techniques in farm animals, and the establishment of several proteomic maps of plasma and tissue has clearly demonstrated that farm animals provide a disease environment that closely resembles that of human diseases. The present review offers a snapshot of how proteomic techniques have been applied to farm animals to improve their use as biomedical models. Focus will be on specific topics of biomedical research in which farm animal models have been characterised through the application of proteomic techniques.
Emmanuelle Maria Françoise Bayer
Full Text Available In plants, the intercellular communication through the membranous channels called plasmodesmata (PD; singular plasmodesma plays pivotal roles in the orchestration of development, defence responses and viral propagation. PD are dynamic structures embedded in the plant cell wall that are defined by specialised domains of the endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane. PD structure and unique functions are guaranteed by their particular molecular composition. Yet, up to recent years and despite numerous approaches such as mutant screens, immunolocalisation or screening of random cDNAs, only few PD proteins had been conclusively identified and characterised. A clear breakthrough in the search of PD constituents came from mass-spectrometry-based proteomic approaches coupled with subcellular fractionation strategies. Due to their position, firmly anchored in the extracellular matrix, PD are notoriously difficult to isolate for biochemical analysis. Proteomic-based approaches have therefore first relied on the use of cell wall fractions containing embedded PD then on free PD fractions whereby PD membranes were released from the walls by enzymatic degradation. To discriminate between likely contaminants and PD protein candidates, bioinformatics tools have often been used in combination with proteomic approaches. GFP fusion proteins of selected candidates have confirmed the PD association of several protein families. Here we review the accomplishments and limitations of the proteomic based strategies to unravel the functional and structural complexity of PD. We also discuss the role of the identified PD associated proteins.
Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper F; Chen, Mingjie
manner using normalized spectral counts including as many as 5-fold more “extreme” proteins (low mass, high isoelectric point, hydrophobic) than previous mitochondrial proteome studies. We estimate that this compendium of proteins represents a high coverage of the potato tuber mitochondrial proteome...... that more than 50% of the identified proteins harbor at least one modification. The most prominently observed class of posttranslational modifications was oxidative modifications. This study reveals approximately 500 new or previously unconfirmed plant mitochondrial proteins and outlines a facile strategy...... for unbiased, near-comprehensive identification of mitochondrial proteins and their modified forms....
Bentires-Alj, Mohamed; Glukhova, Marina; Hynes, Nancy; Vivanco, Maria dM.
The European Network for Breast Development and Cancer (ENBDC) meeting on 'Methods in Mammary Gland Development and Cancer' has become an annual international rendezvous for scientists with interests in the normal and neoplastic breast. The fourth meeting in this series, held in April in Weggis, Switzerland, focused on proteomics, epigenetics, symmetric division, and metastasis.
Link, Vinzenz; Carvalho, Lara; Castanon, Irinka; Stockinger, Petra; Shevchenko, Andrej; Heisenberg, Carl-Philipp
During vertebrate gastrulation, a well-orchestrated series of morphogenetic changes leads to the formation of the three germ layers: the ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm. The analysis of gene expression patterns during gastrulation has been central to the identification of genes involved in germ layer formation. However, many proteins are regulated on a translational or post-translational level and are thus undetectable by gene expression analysis. Therefore, we developed a 2D-gel-based comparative proteomic approach to target proteins involved in germ layer morphogenesis during zebrafish gastrulation. Proteomes of ectodermal and mesendodermal progenitor cells were compared and 35 significantly regulated proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, including several proteins with predicted functions in cytoskeletal organization. A comparison of our proteomic results with data obtained in an accompanying microarray-based gene expression analysis revealed no significant overlap, confirming the complementary nature of proteomics and transcriptomics. The regulation of ezrin2, which was identified based on a reduction in spot intensity in mesendodermal cells, was independently validated. Furthermore, we show that ezrin2 is activated by phosphorylation in mesendodermal cells and is required for proper germ layer morphogenesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of proteomics in zebrafish, concluding that proteomics is a valuable tool for analysis of early development.
The term "proteome" refers to the entire complement of proteins, including the modifications made to a particular set of proteins, produced by an organism or a cellular system. This will vary with time and distinct requirements, such as stresses, that a cell or organism undergoes.
Full Text Available In the growing field of proteomics, tools for the in silico analysis of proteins and even of whole proteomes are of crucial importance to make best use of the accumulating amount of data. To utilise this data for healthcare and drug development, first the characteristics of proteomes of entire speciesmainly the humanhave to be understood, before secondly differentiation between individuals can be surveyed. Specialised databases about nucleic acid sequences, protein sequences, protein tertiary structure, genome analysis, and proteome analysis represent useful resources for analysis, characterisation, and classification of protein sequences. Different from most proteomics tools focusing on similarity searches, structure analysis and prediction, detection of specific regions, alignments, data mining, 2D PAGE analysis, or protein modelling, respectively, comprehensive databases like the proteome analysis database benefit from the information stored in different databases and make use of different protein analysis tools to provide computational analysis of whole proteomes.
Elschenbroich, Sarah; Kislinger, Thomas
Mass Spectrometry-based proteomics is now considered a relatively established strategy for protein analysis, ranging from global expression profiling to the identification of protein complexes and specific post-translational modifications. Recently, Selected Reaction Monitoring Mass Spectrometry (SRM-MS) has become increasingly popular in proteome research for the targeted quantification of proteins and post-translational modifications. Using triple quadrupole instrumentation (QqQ), specific analyte molecules are targeted in a data-directed mode. Used routinely for the quantitative analysis of small molecular compounds for at least three decades, the technology is now experiencing broadened application in the proteomics community. In the current review, we will provide a detailed summary of current developments in targeted proteomics, including some of the recent applications to biological research and biomarker discovery.
Qiang, Pu; Jia, Luo; Linyuan, Shen; Xuewei, Li; Shunhua, Zhang; Li, Zhu
Post-translational modifications (PTMs) play an important role in life science. The most widely studied protein modifications in biological science include protein phosphorylation, acylation, glycosylation, ubiquitination, acetylation, oxidation, methylation and so on. This review outlines current achievements in the study of protein modifications in muscle food using proteomic approaches. First we describe the general knowledge of protein modifications and then the development of proteomic approaches for the characterization of such modifications. Second, we describe the effects of protein modifications on muscle foods and devote our main attention to the application of proteomic approaches for the analysis of these modifications. We conclude that proteomics analysis is powerful for the study of protein modifications and analysis of meat quality characteristics in the process of food production.
Full Text Available High-density lipoprotein (HDL is a lipid and protein complex that consists of apolipoproteins and lower level HDL-associated enzymes. HDL dysfunction is a factor in atherosclerosis and decreases patient survival. Mass spectrometry- (MS- based proteomics provides a high throughput approach for analyzing the composition and modifications of complex HDL proteins in diseases. HDL can be separated according to size, surface charge, electronegativity, or apoprotein composition. MS-based proteomics on subfractionated HDL then allows investigation of lipoprotein roles in diseases. Herein, we review recent developments in MS-based quantitative proteomic techniques, HDL proteomics and lipoprotein modifications in diseases, and HDL subfractionation studies. We also discuss future directions and perspectives in MS-based proteomics on HDL.
Wang, Rui; Fabregat, Antonio; Ríos, Daniel; Ríos, Daniel; Ovelleiro, David; Foster, Joseph M; Côté, Richard G; Côté, Richard G; Griss, Johannes; Csordas, Attila; Perez-Riverol, Yasset; Reisinger, Florian; Hermjakob, Henning; Martens, Lennart; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio
PRIDE Inspector thus provides a user-friendly, comprehensive tool for the browsing, inspection, and evaluation of data in the PRIDE database, or in a compatible standard file format. As such, we believe that PRIDE Inspector will substantially increase the ability of researchers, editors and peer-reviewers to explore, review, evaluate, and reuse proteomics data.
Zee, Barry M; Young, Nicolas L; Garcia, Benjamin A
Histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) positively and negatively regulate gene expression, and are consequently a vital influence on the genomic profile of all eukaryotic species. The study of histone PTMs using classical methods in molecular biology, such as immunofluorescence and Western blotting, is challenging given the technical issues of the approaches, and chemical diversity and combinatorial patterns of the modifications. In light of these many technical limitations, mass spectrometry (MS) is emerging as the most unbiased and rigorous experimental platform to identify and quantify histone PTMs in a high-throughput manner. This review covers the latest developments in mass spectrometry for the analysis of histone PTMs, with the hope of inspiring the continued integration of proteomic, genomic and epigenetic research.
Sejersen, Maria Hee Jung; Frost, Poul; Hansen, Torben Bæk
Background Rotator cuff tendinopathy including tears is a cause of significant morbidity. The molecular pathogenesis of the disorder is largely unknown. This review aimed to present an overview of the literature on gene expression and protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other...... studies on objectively quantified differential gene expression and/or protein composition in human rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies as compared to control tissue. Results We identified 2199 studies, of which 54 were included; 25 studies focussed on rotator cuff or biceps tendinopathy......, which only allowed simultaneous quantification of a limited number of prespecified mRNA molecules or proteins, several proteins appeared to be differentially expressed/represented in rotator cuff tendinopathy and other tendinopathies. No proteomics studies fulfilled our inclusion criteria, although...
Xu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Hua-Ping; Li, Yan-Ming; Xiao, Fei; Wang, Chen
Objective: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is an acute and lethal clinical syndrome that is characterized by hypoxemic respiratory failure and diffuse alveolar inflammatory damage. This review aimed to search and discuss the mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic studies on different subsets of ARDS patients. Data Sources: Original research articles were collected from the PubMed database published in English up to December 2015. Study Selection: The literature search was done using the term “(acute lung injury OR acute respiratory distress syndrome) AND (proteomics OR proteome OR mass spectrum OR differential in-gel electrophoresis OR two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis)”. Related original research articles were included and were carefully analyzed. Results: Eight original proteomic researches on ARDS patients were found. The common proteomic modalities were two-dimensional (2D) high-performance liquid chromatography-based electronic spray ion-MS/MS and 2D-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis/differential in-gel electrophoresis-based matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight/MS. They compared the proteome between ARDS patients and normal controls and analyzed the dynamic changes of proteome at different ARDS stages or severity. The disturbed proteome in ARDS patients includes plasma acute-phase proteins, inflammatory/immune-associated proteins, and coagulation proteins. Conclusions: Although several previous studies have provided some useful information about the lung proteome in ARDS patients and gained several interesting disease-associated biomarkers, clinical proteomic studies in ARDS patients are still in the initial stage. An increased cooperation is still needed to establish a global and faithful database containing disease-specific proteome from the largest ARDS subsets. PMID:27647196
Woodward, Wayne A; Elliott, Alan C
""There is scarcely a standard technique that the reader will find left out … this book is highly recommended for those requiring a ready introduction to applicable methods in time series and serves as a useful resource for pedagogical purposes.""-International Statistical Review (2014), 82""Current time series theory for practice is well summarized in this book.""-Emmanuel Parzen, Texas A&M University""What an extraordinary range of topics covered, all very insightfully. I like [the authors'] innovations very much, such as the AR factor table.""-David Findley, U.S. Census Bureau (retired)""…
Botstein, D.; Cech, T.R.; Hille, B.; Lodish, H.F.; Majerus, P.W.
The Harvey Lecture Series is published annually and provides reviews of research topics in the biomedical sciences. Eight lectures by investigators are included in the volume representing the most recent work in the major laboratories.
Albrethsen, Jakob; Knol, Jaco C; Jimenez, Connie R
The nuclear matrix (NM) model posits the presence of a protein/RNA scaffold that spans the mammalian nucleus. The NM proteins are involved in basic nuclear function and are a promising source of protein biomarkers for cancer. Importantly, the NM proteome is operationally defined as the proteins...
Mariana P Torrente
Full Text Available Chromatin proteins provide a scaffold for DNA packaging and a basis for epigenetic regulation and genomic maintenance. Despite understanding its functional roles, mapping the chromatin proteome (i.e. the "Chromatome" is still a continuing process. Here, we assess the biological specificity and proteomic extent of three distinct chromatin preparations by identifying proteins in selected chromatin-enriched fractions using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. These experiments allowed us to produce a chromatin catalog, including several proteins ranging from highly abundant histone proteins to less abundant members of different chromatin machinery complexes. Using a Normalized Spectral Abundance Factor approach, we quantified relative abundances of the proteins across the chromatin enriched fractions giving a glimpse into their chromosomal abundance. The large-scale data sets also allowed for the discovery of a variety of novel post-translational modifications on the identified chromatin proteins. With these comparisons, we find one of the probed methods to be qualitatively superior in specificity for chromatin proteins, but inferior in proteomic extent, evidencing a compromise that must be made between biological specificity and broadness of characterization. Additionally, we attempt to identify proteins in eu- and heterochromatin, verifying the enrichments by characterizing the post-translational modifications detected on histone proteins from these chromatin regions. In summary, our results provide insights into the value of different methods to extract chromatin-associated proteins and provide starting points to study the factors that may be involved in directing gene expression and other chromatin-related processes.
Møller, Ian Max; Salvato, Fernanda; Havelund, Jesper
proteome was characterized in depth by a combination of gel electrophoresis prefractionation of proteins and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry of ensuing peptides from in-gel digestion. The results indicate that we have a close to complete coverage. The presence and absence of a number...
Harpreet Singh Grover
Full Text Available Proteins are vital parts of living organisms, as they are integral components of the physiological metabolic pathways of cells. Periodontal tissues comprise multicompartmental groups of interacting cells and matrices that provide continuous support, attachment, proprioception, and physical protection for the teeth. The proteome map, that is, complete catalogue of the matrix and cellular proteins expressed in alveolar bone, cementum, periodontal ligament, and gingiva, is to be explored for more in-depth understanding of periodontium. The ongoing research to understand the signalling pathways that allow cells to divide, differentiate, and die in controlled manner has brought us to the era of proteomics. Proteomics is defined as the study of all proteins including their relative abundance, distribution, posttranslational modifications, functions, and interactions with other macromolecules, in a given cell or organism within a given environment and at a specific stage in the cell cycle. Its application to periodontal science can be used to monitor health status, disease onset, treatment response, and outcome. Proteomics can offer answers to critical, unresolved questions such as the biological basis for the heterogeneity in gingival, alveolar bone, and cemental cell populations.
Norbeck, Angela D.; Callister, Stephen J.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jaitly, Navdeep; Elias, Dwayne A.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.
While genomic approaches have been applied to the detection and identification of individual bacteria within microbial communities, analogous proteomics approaches have been effectively precluded due to the inherent complexity. An in silico assessment of peptides derived from artificial simple and complex communities was performed to evaluate the effect of proteome complexity on species detection. Detection and validation of predicted peptides initially identified as distinctive within the simple community was experimentally performed using a mass spectrometry-based proteomics approach. An assessment of peptide distinctiveness and the potential for mapping to a particular bacterium within a community was made throughout each step of the study. A second assessment performed in silico of peptide distinctiveness for a complex community of 25 microorganisms was also conducted. The experimental data for a simple community, and the in silico data for a complex community revealed that it is feasible to predict, observe, and quantify distinctive peptides from one organism in the presence of at least a 100-fold greater abundance of another, thus yielding putative markers for the identification of a bacterium of interest. This work represents a first step towards quantitative proteomic characterization of complex microbial communities.
Sprenger, Richard Remko; Roepstorff, Peter
Mass spectrometry has evolved into a crucial technology for the field of proteomics, enabling the comprehensive study of proteins in biological systems. Innovative developments have yielded flexible and versatile mass spectrometric tools, including quadrupole time-of-flight, linear ion trap...
Soler, Laura; Niewold, Theo A; Moreno, Ángela; Garrido, Juan Jose
One of the major challenges in pig production is managing digestive health to maximize feed conversion and growth rates, but also to minimize treatment costs and to warrant public health. There is a great interest in the development of useful tools for intestinal health monitoring and the investigation of possible prophylactic/ therapeutic intervention pathways. A great variety of in vivo and in vitro intestinal models of study have been developed in the recent years. The understanding of such a complex system as the intestinal system (IS), and the study of its physiology and pathology is not an easy task. Analysis of such a complex system requires the use of systems biology techniques, like proteomics. However, for a correct interpretation of results and to maximize analysis performance, a careful selection of the IS model of study and proteomic platform is required. The study of the IS system is especially important in the pig, a species whose farming requires a very careful management of husbandry procedures regarding feeding and nutrition. The incorrect management of the pig digestive system leads directly to economic losses related suboptimal growth and feed utilization and/or the appearance of intestinal infections, in particular diarrhea. Furthermore, this species is the most suitable experimental model for human IS studies. Proteomics has risen as one of the most promising approaches to study the pig IS. In this review, we describe the most useful models of IS research in porcine and the different proteomic platforms available. An overview of the recent findings in pig IS proteomics is also provided.
Menezes, Rikitha; Pantelyat, Alexander; Izbudak, Izlem; Birnbaum, Julius
Patients with rheumatic diseases can present with movement and other neurodegenerative disorders. It may be underappreciated that movement and other neurodegenerative disorders can encompass a wide variety of disease entities. Such disorders are strikingly heterogeneous and lead to a wider spectrum of clinical injury than seen in Parkinson's disease. Therefore, we sought to stringently phenotype movement and other neurodegenerative disorders presenting in a case series of rheumatic disease patients. We integrated our findings with a review of the literature to understand mechanisms which may account for such a ubiquitous pattern of clinical injury.Seven rheumatic disease patients (5 Sjögren's syndrome patients, 2 undifferentiated connective tissue disease patients) were referred and could be misdiagnosed as having Parkinson's disease. However, all of these patients were ultimately diagnosed as having other movement or neurodegenerative disorders. Findings inconsistent with and more expansive than Parkinson's disease included cerebellar degeneration, dystonia with an alien-limb phenomenon, and nonfluent aphasias.A notable finding was that individual patients could be affected by cooccurring movement and other neurodegenerative disorders, each of which could be exceptionally rare (ie, prevalence of ∼1:1000), and therefore with the collective probability that such disorders were merely coincidental and causally unrelated being as low as ∼1-per-billion. Whereas our review of the literature revealed that ubiquitous patterns of clinical injury were frequently associated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings suggestive of a widespread vasculopathy, our patients did not have such neuroimaging findings. Instead, our patients could have syndromes which phenotypically resembled paraneoplastic and other inflammatory disorders which are known to be associated with antineuronal antibodies. We similarly identified immune-mediated and inflammatory markers of injury
Montano, Nicola; D'Alessandris, Quintino Giorgio; D'Ercole, Manuela; Lauretti, Liverana; Pallini, Roberto; Di Bonaventura, Rina; La Rocca, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Federico; Fernandez, Eduardo
OBJECT Only a few published studies of the surgical treatment of benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors (BPNSTs), malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs), and peripheral non-neural sheath tumors (PNNSTs) have analyzed the results and possible prognostic factors using multivariate analysis. The authors report on their surgical series of cases of BPNSTs, MPNSTs, and PNNSTs with long-term follow-up and analyze the role of selected factors with respect to the prognosis and risk of recurrence of these tumors using multivariate analysis. They also review the pertinent literature and discuss their results in its context. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed data from cases involving patients who underwent resection of a peripheral nerve tumor between January 1983 and December 2013 at their institution. Of a total of 200 patients, 150 patients (with 173 surgically treated tumors) had adequate follow-up data available for analysis. Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS), and motor and sensory function were assessed by means of the Louisiana State University grading system. They also analyzed the relationship between tumor recurrence and patient sex, patient age, diagnosis of neurofibromatosis (NF), tumor histopathology, tumor size, tumor location, and extent of resection (subtotal vs gross-total resection), using univariate and multivariate analyses. RESULTS There was a statistically significant improvement in the mean VAS pain score (preoperative 3.96 ± 2.41 vs postoperative 0.95 ± 1.6, p = 0.0001). Motor strength and sensory function were significantly improved after resection of tumors involving the brachial plexus (p = 0.0457 and p = 0.0043, respectively), tumors involving the upper limb (p = 0.0016 and p = 0.0016, respectively), BPNSTs (p = 0.0011 and p peripheral nervous system tumors (irrespective of the supposed diagnosis and tumor dimensions) because it is associated with better prognosis in term of functional outcome and overall
N. F. Bugay
Full Text Available Review of Study Guide: «KUBAN STUDIES. KUBAN IN THE XX CENTURY – THE BEGINNING OF THE XXI CENTURY. HISTORY. PEOPLE SOCIETY.» Study Guide (electronic version to grade 11 of educational institutions. A.A. Zaitsev, E.V. Morozova, N.V. Plotichkina and O.A. Borisko, M.A. Egupova, A.B. Sazantovich, I.S. Bashkakov, T.I. Belyaeva. Krasnodar: Perspectives on Education, 2015.In a review of a thorough analysis of all the component parts of the book that will surely attract the attention first of all history teachers and students in 11 classes of educational institutions of the region. A comprehensive presentation of the material significantly adds to the course of modern history of Russia and enrich its specific material about the life of the Russian Cossacks and as part of the – of the Kuban Cossacks. Along with the reference materials of pure nature that is needed for this kind of research are presented and informative sections on the socio-economic condition of the region, the interests of different strata of the population, the multinational factor and the religious beliefs of the population. Cossacks in its warlike mentality, and this trait is passed from generation to generation. But the aspirations of the Cossacks in this respect are transparent – protecting the integrity of the Fatherland, faithful service to him, boundless devotion to the Orthodox faith. The important story is linked with the identity of the Russian Cossacks, its mentality, "Kuban" specificity, especially for the rule on different sections of history, to various of its exponents, both military and civilians. As is known from the Cossacks received a development institute of judging for each Ataman smoking, working village judge. Cossacks series comply with the law as applied his own family, and chic plan – in the state, fought against offenders, it is considered in relation to the Cossacks and representatives of different ethnic communities living with the Cossacks, and
Reaktion Books’ Exposures series, edited by Peter Hamilton and Mark Haworth-Booth, is comprised of 13 volumes and counting, each less than 200 pages with 80 high-quality illustrations in color and black and white. Currently available titles include Photography and Australia, Photography and Spirit, Photography and Cinema, Photography and Literature, Photography and Flight, Photography and Egypt, Photography and Science, Photography and Africa, Photography and Italy, Photography and the USA, P...
6 oct. 2012 ... Le bilan biologique montrait un syndrome ..... Le syndrome de Raynaud était présent dans un cas, la capillaroscopie objectivait un aspect de ..... dermatomyositis during treatment for lung cancer, and literature review.
Li S; Bramley P M; Smith J; Cannon P F
@@ A series of highly taxonomically diverse Trichoderma strains were investigated using proteomic approaches, to investigate the utility of protein profiles as taxonomic markers and to identify proteins of potential economic importance. Initial studies have focused on a comparison of single strains of T.aureoviride, T. saturnisporum, T. polysporum, T. longbrachiatum and T. spirale, along with two strains of T. harzianum. All seven strains were grown in synthetic medium supplemented with 2 % (w/v) glycerol, to maximize the diversity of extracellular protein production. Samples of secreted protein were separated by 2D gel electrophoresis and will be characterized by MALDI-TOF peptide fingerprinting.
The National Cancer Institute's Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium scientists are working together with the University of California, Santa Cruz (UCSC) Genomics Institute to provide public access to cancer proteomics data.
Full Text Available The proteome of the presynaptic active zone controls neurotransmitter release and the short- and long-term structural and functional dynamics of the nerve terminal. The proteinaceous inventory of the presynaptic active zone has recently been reported. This review will evaluate the subcellular fractionation protocols and the proteomic approaches employed. A breakthrough for the identification of the proteome of the presynaptic active zone was the successful employment of antibodies directed against a cytosolic epitope of membrane integral synaptic vesicle proteins for the immunopurification of synaptic vesicles docked to the presynaptic plasma membrane. Combining immunopurification and subsequent analytical mass spectrometry, hundreds of proteins, including synaptic vesicle proteins, components of the presynaptic fusion and retrieval machinery, proteins involved in intracellular and extracellular signaling and a large variety of adhesion molecules, were identified. Numerous proteins regulating the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are indicative of the functional and structural dynamics of the presynapse. This review will critically discuss both the experimental approaches and prominent protein candidates identified. Many proteins have not previously been assigned to the presynaptic release sites and may be directly involved in the short- and long-term structural modulation of the presynaptic compartment. The identification of proteinaceous constituents of the presynaptic active zone provides the basis for further analyzing the interaction of presynaptic proteins with their targets and opens novel insights into the functional role of these proteins in neuronal communication.