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Sample records for review article pathogenesis

  1. Review article: Pathogenesis and management of gastric carcinoid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, M D; Pritchard, D M

    2006-11-01

    Gastric carcinoid tumours are rare, but are increasing in incidence. To discuss tumour pathogenesis and outline current approaches to patient management. Review of published articles following a Pubmed search. Although interest in gastric carcinoids has increased since it was recognized that they are associated with achlorhydria, to date there is no definite evidence that humans taking long-term acid suppressing medication are at increased risk. Type I tumours are associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II are associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, multiple endocrine neoplasia-1 and hypergastrinaemia and sporadic type III carcinoids are gastrin-independent and carry the worst prognosis. Careful investigation of these patients is required, particularly to identify the tumour type, the source of hypergastrinaemia and the presence of metastases. Treatment can be directed at the source of hypergastrinaemia if type I or II tumours are still gastrin responsive and not growing autonomously. Type III tumours should be treated surgically. Advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoids have led to recent improvements in investigation and management. Challenges remain in identifying the genetic and environmental factors, in addition to hypergastrinaemia, that are responsible for tumour development in susceptible patients.

  2. Micro-RNAs and Their Roles in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis; An Updated Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Bakhshi Aliabad

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Micro-RNAs (miRNAs are small molecules that modulate the translation of target mRNA through binding to these molecules. In cancer, the expression of oncogenes and suppressors are increased and decreased, respectively. MiRNAs are one of the causing factors in the formation of cancer. To collect data, research articles in PubMed and Google Scholar were searched under keywords including breast cancer and micro-RNA. The data obtained from articles published in prestigious journals showed that some miRNAs are involved in the suppression and some in the induction of cancer cell growth in breast cancer tissue. Some of them are also involved in the aggression and metastasis. According to the obtained results, it seems that assessing miRNAs in breast cancer tissue can be considered as a potential candidate for prognosis and may be used in pre-diagnosis of the disease in near future.

  3. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-12-02

    Dec 2, 2007 ... Introduction. What prompted this review article is because of the wrong notion that the only standard abdominal incision is the midline incision. Cases have been seen in which an abdominal incision extends from the xyphoid process to the symphysis pubis just to remove a perforated appendix! The reason ...

  4. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular...... impairment have all been proposed as playing important roles in the pathogenesis of this spectrum of diseases. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, leukotriene B4 and platelet activating factor, promote the adherence...

  5. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-27

    Sep 27, 2012 ... rationalism vs. irrationalism and emancipation vs. deconstruction. This article tries to critically .... conceptions of time, limitations of modern culture, exaggerated rationality ... and organizational mastery of empirical processes” ...

  6. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-20

    Sep 20, 2012 ... same years indicating a yield gain from extensive farming system. The production ... capacity to process the sesame and/or oil seeds in the country. Article History: ..... on: Area and production of crops (private peasant holdings ...

  7. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. REVIEW ... events of life, genetics, and male gender have been reported to be the ... If left untreated, it caus- es behavioral ... development of the urinary drainage center in the brain, but ...

  8. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Serum markers related to depression: A systematic review .... system proteins that play an important role in Alz- heimer's ... lated to the reduction of BDNF and its treatment ... positive action. .... involved in the physiology of emotional and psychological disorders (Gornick .... contribute fundamentally to emotional behaviors.

  9. Review article: the gut microbiome as a therapeutic target in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, C A; Patel, V C; Singanayagam, A; Shawcross, D L

    2018-01-01

    Mortality from chronic liver disease is rising exponentially. The liver is intimately linked to the gut via the portal vein, and exposure to gut microbiota and their metabolites translocating across the gut lumen may impact upon both the healthy and diseased liver. Modulation of gut microbiota could prove to be a potential therapeutic target. To characterise the changes in the gut microbiome that occur in chronic liver disease and to assess the impact of manipulation of the microbiome on the liver. We conducted a PubMed search using search terms including 'microbiome', 'liver' and 'cirrhosis' as well as 'non-alcoholic fatty liver disease', 'steatohepatitis', 'alcohol' and 'primary sclerosing cholangitis'. Relevant articles were also selected from references of articles and review of the ClinicalTrials.gov website. Reduced bacterial diversity, alcohol sensitivity and the development of gut dysbiosis are seen in several chronic liver diseases, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, alcohol-related liver disease and primary sclerosing cholangitis. Perturbations in gut commensals could lead to deficient priming of the immune system predisposing the development of immune-mediated diseases. Furthermore, transfer of stool from an animal with the metabolic syndrome may induce steatosis in a healthy counterpart. Patients with cirrhosis develop dysbiosis, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and increased gut wall permeability, allowing bacterial translocation and uptake of endotoxin inducing hepatic and systemic inflammation. Manipulation of the gut microbiota with diet, probiotics or faecal microbiota transplantation to promote the growth of "healthy" bacteria may ameliorate the dysbiosis and alter prognosis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Trichomonas vaginalis Pathogenesis: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Arab-Mazar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the latest articles which were published during 2013-2014, Trichomonas vaginalis (T. vaginalis was mentioned as a neglected sexual transmission disease (STD, while the exact mechanism of its pathogenesis has not been cleared yet. Although trichomonasiasis is easy curable, there is concern that resistance to drug are increasing. This common infection as concerning the important public health implications needs more research to be done for understanding the diagnosis, treatment, immunology and pathogenesis. In this review we searched all valuable and relevant information considering the pathogenesis of T. vaginalis. We referred to the information databases of Medline, PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar. The used keywords were the combinations of T. vaginalis and words associated with pathogenicity. This review discusses the host-parasite interaction and pathogenicity of this parasite.

  11. Review article: loss of the calcium-sensing receptor in colonic epithelium is a key event in the pathogenesis of colon cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rogers, Ailín C

    2012-03-01

    The calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is expressed abundantly in normal colonic epithelium and lost in colon cancer, but its exact role on a molecular level and within the carcinogenesis pathway is yet to be described. Epidemiologic studies show that inadequate dietary calcium predisposes to colon cancer; this may be due to the ability of calcium to bind and upregulate the CaSR. Loss of CaSR expression does not seem to be an early event in carcinogenesis; indeed it is associated with late stage, poorly differentiated, chemo-resistant tumors. Induction of CaSR expression in neoplastic colonocytes arrests tumor progression and deems tumors more sensitive to chemotherapy; hence CaSR may be an important target in colon cancer treatment. The CaSR has a complex role in colon cancer; however, more investigation is required on a molecular level to clarify its exact function in carcinogenesis. This review describes the mechanisms by which the CaSR is currently implicated in colon cancer and identifies areas where further study is needed.

  12. 164 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Methods: A review of laboratory records of requests and collected reports of malaria parasite, urine microscopy, culture and sensitivity, ... indicator of quality clinical laboratory services (1,4). .... Monitoring glycaemic control: is there evidence for.

  13. REVIEW ARTICLE 218

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    1) Epidemiology/ Surveillance, 2) Case Management/ Infection Control, 3) Social mobilization, 4) Laboratory ... The strategy group reviewed and approved all of the teams work and needed .... accountability measures and success of the polio.

  14. REVIEW ARTICLE 218

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    The strategy group reviewed and approved all of the teams work and needed resources. ... de cas/ Contrôle de l'infection, 3) la mobilisation sociale, 4) Les Services de laboratoire, 5) le point d'entrée et 6) Gestion / ... molecular evidence for adaptation during human to ... respond to malaria treatment and his travel from an.

  15. Review article: herbal and dietary supplement hepatotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunchorntavakul, C; Reddy, K R

    2013-01-01

    Herbal and dietary supplements are commonly used throughout the World. There is a tendency for underreporting their ingestion by patients and the magnitude of their use is underrecognised by Physicians. Herbal hepatotoxicity is not uncommonly encountered, but the precise incidence and manifestations have not been well characterised. To review the epidemiology, presentation and diagnosis of herbal hepatotoxicity. This review will mainly discuss single ingredients and complex mixtures of herbs marketed under a single label. A Medline search was undertaken to identify relevant literature using search terms including 'herbal', 'herbs', 'dietary supplement', 'liver injury', 'hepatitis' and 'hepatotoxicity'. Furthermore, we scanned the reference lists of the primary and review articles to identify publications not retrieved by electronic searches. The incidence rates of herbal hepatotoxicity are largely unknown. The clinical presentation and severity can be highly variable, ranging from mild hepatitis to acute hepatic failure requiring transplantation. Scoring systems for the causality assessment of drug-induced liver injury may be helpful, but have not been validated for herbal hepatotoxicity. Hepatotoxicity features of commonly used herbal products, such as Ayurvedic and Chinese herbs, black cohosh, chaparral, germander, greater celandine, green tea, Herbalife, Hydroxycut, kava, pennyroyal, pyrrolizidine alkaloids, skullcap, and usnic acid, have been individually reviewed. Furthermore, clinically significant herb-drug interactions are also discussed. A number of herbal medicinal products are associated with a spectrum of hepatotoxicity events. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risks involved are needed to improve herbal medicine safety. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. On Reviewing and Writing a Scholarly Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettis, Jerry L., Sr.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides guidelines for reviewing and writing scholarly articles for the professional who reads and writes them for his/her own work and/or for publication in scientific journals. It outlines the purpose and contents of each section of a research article and provides a checklist for reviewing and writing a research article. This…

  17. Membranous nephropathy: A review on the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ling Lai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In adults, membranous nephropathy (MN is a major cause of nephrotic syndrome. However, the etiology of approximately 75% of MN cases is idiopathic. Secondary causes of MN are autoimmune diseases, infection, drugs, and malignancy. The pathogenesis of MN involves formation of immune complex in subepithelial sites, but the definite mechanism is still unknown. There are three hypotheses about the formation of immune complex, including preformed immune complex, in situ immune-complex formation, and autoantibody against podocyte membrane antigen. The formation of immune complex initiates complement activation, which subsequently leads to glomerular damage. Recently, the antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody was found to be associated with idiopathic MN. This finding may be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of MN. The current treatment includes best supportive care, which consists of the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers, lipid-lowering agents, and optimal control of blood pressure. Immunosuppressive agents should be used for patients who suffer from refractory proteinuria or complications associated with nephrotic syndrome. Existing evidence supports the use of a combination of steroid and alkylating agents. This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and the treatment of MN.

  18. [A modern look at benign stenosing lesions. Etiology and pathogenesis of diagnostic capabilities. A systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhabova, E Iu; Belova, G V

    2012-01-01

    The problem of nonneoplastic stenosis of major duodenal papilla is on joint of gastroenterology and surgery and present a challenge for physicians. This article reviews what is known about the pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnostics of papillostenosis and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.

  19. The Paradox of Feline Coronavirus Pathogenesis: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Wanderley Myrrha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Feline coronavirus (FCoV is an enveloped single-stranded RNA virus, of the family Coronaviridae and the order Nidovirales. FCoV is an important pathogen of wild and domestic cats and can cause a mild or apparently symptomless enteric infection, especially in kittens. FCoV is also associated with a lethal, systemic disease known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP. Although the precise cause of FIP pathogenesis remains unclear, some hypotheses have been suggested. In this review we present results from different FCoV studies and attempt to elucidate existing theories on the pathogenesis of FCoV infection.

  20. Review Article The role of vitamin A

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article. The role of vitamin A. E. E. D. MILLS. •. In cancer. Summary. The differentiation ... tance of varying levels of cellular binding proteins in normal and .... pre-albumin occurs. The resulting ... membranes causing labilization. Protein ...

  1. Review article: Recent advances in nanomaterial fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locharoenrat, Kitsakorn

    2014-01-01

    As nanostructures with well-controlled dimension, composition, and crystallinity are expected to be a new class of intriguing system for investigating structure-property relations, this review article provides a comprehensive review of researches of these materials and related applications.

  2. Lymphangiosarcoma of dogs : a review : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Williams

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Lymphangiosarcoma in dogs, an extremely rare tumour with only 16 cases reported in the literature, is reviewed. Lymphangiosarcoma in humans, also very rare, and known in post-mastectomy, chronically-lymphoedematous patients as 'Stewart-Treves' syndrome, is briefly outlined, as well as the various other causes of lymphoedema, both primary and secondary, which usually precede malignancy. Comparisons between human and canine lymphoedema are made when such references were found. The genetic links to primary lymphoedema and the manifestation thereof in humans are mentioned. Lymphangiosarcoma in the majority of human and canine patients is an aggressively malignant tumour with few patients surviving despite various attempted treatments. The tumour most commonly arises in the subcutaneous tissues and rapidly invades underlying tissues and may spread widely internally via haematogenous and lymphatic routes, with frequent pleural and chest involvement. The tumour has been reported mostly in medium- to large-breed dogs, in slightly more males than females, and in an age-range of 8 weeks to 13 years, with more cases aged 5 years and older. Methods of diagnosis, with the variations encountered, including routine histopathology, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, tissue culture characteristics and endothelial expression of glycocongugates, are discussed.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REVIEW ARTICLE Conjugated Hyperbilirubinaemia in Early Infancy. AOK Johnson. Abstract. Conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia exists when the conjugated serum bilirubin level is more than 2 mg/dl or more than 20 per cent of the total serum bilirubin. It is always pathological in early infancy. The causes are many and diverse ...

  4. How to write a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, R C

    2001-12-01

    Writing a good review article is a real challenge. It requires not just a detailed literature search but a thorough 'digest' of the material obtained. Readers seek an up-to-date guide through a morass of data that has been sifted by the author and then integrated into a coherent and authoritative account.

  5. Review article: Ethnomusicology and music education: Continuing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This review article further explores the nexus between music education and African music/(ethno)musicology that continues the dialogue between the disciplines of musicology and ethnomusicology initiated by Susan Harrop-Allin in SAMUS vol. 25 109-24). Although there has been an explosion of literature over the last five ...

  6. Review Article: Hazards of Chaotic Importation, Certification ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Hazards of Chaotic Importation, Certification, Distribution and Marketing of Medical Laboratory Consumables in Nigeria. BC Nlemadim. Abstract. No abstract. Journal of Medical Laboratory Science Vol.12(2) 2003: 25 - 27. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ...

  7. Article Review: Advanced Change Theory Revisited: An Article Critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Scott Pochron

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of life in 21st century society requires new models for leadingand managing change. With that in mind, this paper revisits the model for AdvancedChange Theory (ACT as presented by Quinn, Spreitzer, and Brown in their article,“Changing Others Through Changing Ourselves: The Transformation of HumanSystems” (2000. The authors present ACT as a potential model for facilitating change incomplex organizations. This paper presents a critique of the article and summarizesopportunities for further exploring the model in the light of current trends indevelopmental and integral theory.

  8. CYTOMEGALOVIRUS: A REVIEW OF PATHOGENESIS, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Bezerra de Matos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The cytomegalovirus (CMV is a human β-herpesvirus ubiquitous and has high worldwide prevalence. The transmission occurs through contact with biological fluids, such as: saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and breast milk, as well as transplacental, blood transfusion or organ transplantation. The most CMV infected individuals remains asymptomatic, however, some patients, especially the immunosuppressed, can develop severe infection with serious clinical signs, like the transplant recipients, HIV positive, leukemic or newborn. This review aims, among other things, discuss the pathogenesis and highlight important sites of immunology and diagnosis of CMV infection.

  9. Cytomegalovirus: a review of pathogenesis, epidemiology and diagnosis of infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sócrates Bezerra de Matos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cytomegalovirus (CMV is a human β-herpesvirus ubiquitous and has high worldwide prevalence. The transmission occurs through contact with biological fluids, such as: saliva, semen, vaginal secretions, urine and breast milk, as well as trans placental, blood transfusion or organ transplantation. The most CMV infected individuals remains asymptomatic, however, some patients, especially the immunosuppressed, can develop severe infection with serious clinical signs, like the transplant recipients, HIV positive, leukemic or newborn. This review aims, among other things, discuss the pathogenesis and highlight important sites of immunology and diagnosis of CMV infection.

  10. Oral malodor: A review of etiology and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Benerji Kotti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malodor or halitosis is a condition characterized by unpleasant odors emanating from the oral cavity. The aim of the present review is to classify and explain the etiology and pathogenesis of oral malodor. Volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs that result from bacterial breakdown of protein are considered to be the main culprits for this foul odor. The etiology of oral malodor can be attributed to both systemic and oral conditions. However, nearly 85% of the cases originate from mouth due to tongue coating (especially posterior third of the dorsal surface, periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene, infections, ulcerations, food debris, dry mouth and faulty restorations. Bad breath can be caused by systemic disorders such as upper and lower respiratory tract infections; hepatic, pancreatic, and nephritic insufficiencies; trimethylaminuria and some medications. In addition, there are very few instances where patients suffer from pseudohalitosis or halitophobia.

  11. The role of candida albicans in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sona Sepahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Psoriasis is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease that is related to many genetic, and environmental factors, as well as infectious pathogens. Findings suggest that the Candida species, particularly Candida albicans, may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the possible association between C. albicans and the prevalence of psoriasis. Methods: A systematic search of existing literature was performed in the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases and the Google search engine using the following search strategy ((Candida albicans OR C. albicans OR Candida AND (psoriasis vulgaris OR plaque psoriasis OR psoriasis to find relevant articles that described a possible positive or negative association between C. albicans and the incidence or progression of psoriasis. The search was not limited to articles that were published within a specific time period; however, only those written in the English language were included in the review.Result: Of the 499 articles in total that were identified during the initial database search, 491 were excluded from the review because they failed to meet the inclusion/exclusion criteria. The total number of people involved in the selected studies, including both patients and healthy controls, was 1260. The analysis of the results of the included documents showed that the colonization of C. albicans is more prevalent in biological specimens taken from psoriatic patients.Conclusion: Studies show that C. albicans, opportunistic yeast, like diploid fungus, may be involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  12. Review Article: Celiac Disease, New Approaches to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashtak, Shahrooz; Murray, Joseph A

    2014-01-01

    STRUCTURED SUMMARY Background Celiac disease is managed by life-long gluten withdrawal from the diet. However strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is difficult and is not always effective. Novel therapeutic approaches are needed to supplement or even replace the dietary treatment. Aims To review recent advances in new therapeutic options for celiac disease. Methods A literature search was performed on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, DDW.org and ClinicalTrial.gov for English articles and abstracts. The search terms used include but not limited to “Celiac disease”, “new”, “novel”, Advances”, “alternatives” and “Drug therapy”. The cited articles were selected based on the relevancy to the review objective. Results Several new therapeutic approaches for celiac disease are currently under development by targeting its underlying pathogenesis. Alternative therapies range from reproduction of harmless wheat strains to immunomodulatory approaches. Some of these therapies such as enzymatic cleavage of gluten and permeability inhibitors have shown promise in clinical studies. Conclusion Gluten-free diet is still the only practical treatment for patients with celiac disease. Novel strategies provide promise of alternative adjunctive approaches to diet restriction alone for patients with this disorder. PMID:22324389

  13. Pediatric Viral Exanthema: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Jafar Saffar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context Many diseases caused by viral agents are associated with fever and cutaneous manifestations. Viral exanthema is a widespread nonspecific skin rash, commonly characterized by generalized eruption of erythematous macules and papular lesions. Although these rashes are mostly benign and self-limited, some may be serious and life-threatening. Differentiation between severe and benign types is clinically important and life-saving. Evidence Acquisition In this narrative review, electronic databases, including Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed (including Medline, Web of Science, Scientific Information Database, and Scopus, were searched. We conducted a narrative review of papers published on pediatric viral exanthema during 2000 - 2016. The used keywords included “viral exanthema”, “fever”, and “skin rash”. Articles on skin rash, caused by drug reactions or nonviral exanthema, were excluded. Results Different viral agents can cause different types of skin reactions. Cutaneous manifestations and skin rashes can be categorized, based on the form of the rash (macular, papular, vesicular, blistery, petechial, and purpuric or the general term, which denotes illnesses such as measles-like morbilliform rash, rubella or rubelliform rash, and scarlatiniform rash, a scarlet-fever like infection. Conclusions Based on the findings, a systematic approach relying on accurate history-taking and analysis of epidemiological cues and rash characteristics is of great significance.

  14. A review of the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of eye diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Oduntan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals, referred to as oxidants are molecules in the body with unpaired electrons, hence are unstable and ready to bond with other molecules with unpaired electrons.  They include Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS such as superoxide anion radicals (·O¯, hydrogen peroxide (H202, and hydroxyl free radicals (·OH.  Endogenous sources of ROS include metabolic and other organic processes, while exogenous sources include ultraviolet radiation and environmental toxins such as smoke.  Antioxidants (oxidant scavengers such as ascorbate, alpha-tocopherol and glutathione as well as various enzymatic compounds such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase and glutathione reductase are also present in the body and in manyfoods or food supplements.  An imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidantsis termed oxidative stress and can lead to cell or tissue damage and aging. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many serious systemic diseases such as diabetes, cancer and neurological disorders.  Also, laboratory and epidemiological studies have implicated oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of the majority of common serious eye diseases such as cataract, primary open angle glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration. In this article, we reviewed the current information on the roles of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of various eye diseases and the probable roles of antioxidants.  Eye care practitioners will find this article useful as it provides information on the pathogenesis of common eye diseases. (S Afr Optom 2011 70(4 182-190

  15. Inuit Elderly: A Systematic Review of Peer Reviewed Journal Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Balvinder K; Barker, Melanie; MacLean, Calvin; Grischkan, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Over the last century, Inuit have experienced rapid social changes that have greatly impacted their way of life, health, and intergenerational traditions. Although there is a growing body of research concerning Inuit youth, relatively little is known about elderly Inuit. In an effort to bridge this knowledge gap, a systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles was conducted. This review identified a dearth of research on older Inuit, and highlighted limitations in service provision to this primarily rural and isolated population. Implications for policy and practice and recommendations for future research are also discussed.

  16. Recombinant parathormone and osteoporosis: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larijani B

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Osteoporosis is a condition characterized with reduced bone density and destruction of the bone structure. The ideal treatment aims to reduce the risk of fracture while improving the density and structure of the bone. Parathormone (PTH and its main analogue triparatide (rhPTH [1-34] is a new class of anabolic medications which accelerates the healing process in the fractured bone through improving bone formation and therefore is used for treating severe osteoporosis. The present review article was designed to report the history, different types, anabolic and catabolic effects, complications, indications and contraindications of the hormone.

  17. The classic. Review article: Traffic accidents. 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscherne, H

    2013-09-01

    This Classic Article is a translation of the original work by Prof. Harald Tscherne, Der Straßenunfall [Traffic Accidents]. An accompanying biographical sketch of Prof. Tscherne is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-013-3011-x . An online version of the original German article is available as supplemental material. The Classic Article is reproduced with permission from Brüder Hollinek & Co. GesmbH, Purkersdorf, Austria. The original article was published in Wien Med Wochenschr. 1966;116:105-108. (Translated by Dr. Roman Pfeifer.).

  18. PERIPHERAL BLOOD FILM - A REVIEW FEATURE ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be abreast with its clinical utility and proper application of the reports in the management of patients. Keywords: Peripheral blood smear, Preparation, Examination, Interpretation, Reporting, Blood cells morphology. FEATURE ARTICLES. Ann Ibd. Pg. Med 2014. Vol.12, No.2 71-79. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.

  19. Leprosy and the eye a review of epidemiology, pathogenesis, ocular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: 1. To update knowledge on the current trends in the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of leprosy 2. To highlight the ocular complications associated with leprosy. Methodology:Current literature on various aspects of leprosy research obtained from the Internet and supplemented by available journals ...

  20. Automation for the Nineties: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Gretchen; Glogoff, Stuart

    1994-01-01

    Describes the technical, political, economic, and cultural environments of library automation. A review is then presented of five books covering wide-ranging library automation themes, including practical experiences; planning second-generation library systems; software, systems, and services; new roles for librarians; and the national network…

  1. Relationship between vascular endothelium and periodontal disease in atherosclerotic lesions: Review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffi, Marco Aurélio Lumertz; Furtado, Mariana Vargas; Polanczyk, Carisi Anne; Montenegro, Márlon Munhoz; Ribeiro, Ingrid Webb Josephson; Kampits, Cassio; Haas, Alex Nogueira; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rabelo-Silva, Eneida Rejane

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation and endothelial dysfunction are linked to the pathogenesis of atherosclerotic disease. Recent studies suggest that periodontal infection and the ensuing increase in the levels of inflammatory markers may be associated with myocardial infarction, peripheral vascular disease and cerebrovascular disease. The present article aimed at reviewing contemporary data on the pathophysiology of vascular endothelium and its association with periodontitis in the scenario of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25632316

  2. Visualizing Article Similarities via Sparsified Article Network and Map Projection for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) of biomedical literature summarize evidence from high-quality studies to inform clinical decisions, but are time and labor intensive due to the large number of article collections. Article similarities established from textual features have been shown to assist in the identification of relevant articles, thus facilitating the article screening process efficiently. In this study, we visualized article similarities to extend its utilization in practical settings for SR researchers, aiming to promote human comprehension of article distributions and hidden patterns. To prompt an effective visualization in an interpretable, intuitive, and scalable way, we implemented a graph-based network visualization with three network sparsification approaches and a distance-based map projection via dimensionality reduction. We evaluated and compared three network sparsification approaches and the visualization types (article network vs. article map). We demonstrated the effectiveness in revealing article distribution and exhibiting clustering patterns of relevant articles with practical meanings for SRs.

  3. Review article: the functional abdominal pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperber, A D; Drossman, D A

    2011-03-01

    Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a debilitating disorder with constant or nearly constant abdominal pain, present for at least 6 months and loss of daily functioning. To review the epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment of FAPS. A literature review using the keywords: functional abdominal pain, chronic abdominal pain, irritable bowel syndrome and functional gastrointestinal disorders. No epidemiological studies have focused specifically on FAPS. Estimates of prevalence range from 0.5% to 1.7% and tend to show a female predominance. FAPS pathophysiology appears unique in that the pain is caused primarily by amplified central perception of normal visceral input, rather than by enhanced peripheral stimulation from abdominal viscera. The diagnosis of FAPS is symptom-based in accordance with the Rome III diagnostic criteria. These criteria are geared to identify patients with severe symptoms as they require constant or nearly constant abdominal pain with loss of daily function and are differentiated from IBS based on their non-association with changes in bowel habit, eating or other gut-related events. As cure is not feasible, the aims of treatment are reduced suffering and improved quality of life. Treatment is based on a biopsychosocial approach with a therapeutic patient-physician partnership at its base. Therapeutic options include central nonpharmacological and pharmacological modalities and peripheral modalities. These can be combined to produce an augmentation effect. Although few studies have assessed functional abdominal pain syndrome or its treatment specifically, the treatment strategies outlined in this paper appear to be effective. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Monoclonal antibodies in oncology. Review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, S Y.T.; Sikora, K

    1986-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MCAs) can be used to differentiate between normal and neoplastic cells and thus exploited for diagnostic and, ultimately, therapeutic gain. The evidence for the existence of human tumour antigens is reviewed. Several areas of diagnosis are already benefiting from the application of the monoclonal technology. Immunohistology can help the pathologist with difficult diagnostic problems. New classifications of lymphoma and leukaemia can be based on specific surface molecules. Similarly, the detection of shed tumour antigens is already established as part of the routine assessment of many patients with common solid tumours. Isotopically labeled monoclonal antibodies have been used to localise primary and metastatic tumours. The use of antibodies in this way is not only a promising diagnostic tool but also the first step in studying the possibility of arming antibodies to provide therapeutic agents. Such trials are currently in progress. 69 refs.; 7 figs.; 3 tabs.

  5. Invited review article: the electrostatic plasma lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, Alexey

    2013-02-01

    The fundamental principles, experimental results, and potential applications of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating high-current, energetic, heavy ion beams are reviewed. First described almost 50 years ago, this optical beam device provides space charge neutralization of the ion beam within the lens volume, and thus provides an effective and unique tool for focusing high current beams where a high degree of neutralization is essential to prevent beam blow-up. Short and long lenses have been explored, and a lens in which the magnetic field is provided by rare-earth permanent magnets has been demonstrated. Applications include the use of this kind of optical tool for laboratory ion beam manipulation, high dose ion implantation, heavy ion accelerator injection, in heavy ion fusion, and other high technology.

  6. [Update on chronic pancreatitis: review article].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czul, Frank; Coronel, Emmanuel; Donet, Jean A

    2017-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive fibro-inflammatory disease of the pancreas characterized by irreversible fibrosis of the gland with eventual failure of exocrine and endocrine functions and hallmark features of abdominal pain, malabsorption, malnutrition, diabetes mellitus and pancreatic calcifications. In many patients this disease results from a complex mix of environmental (eg, alcohol, cigarettes, and occupational chemicals), genetic factors and a few patients with hereditary or autoimmune disease. The management includes medical, endoscopic and surgical approaches with the need for interaction between various specialties, calling for a concerted multidisciplinary approach. This review provides the reader with a comprehensive overview of the studies summarizing the epidemiology, etiology, physiopatology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and treatments of the disease.

  7. Perioperative fasting and children: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Imani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review provides an overview of the present knowledge on the aspects of preoperative fasting with the assessment of the evidence quality. A systematic research was conducted in electronic databases in order to identify trials published between 1990 and 2014 concerning preoperative fasting, early resumption of oral intake and the effects of oral carbohydrate mixtures on gastric emptying and postoperative recovery. The publications were classified in terms of their evidence level, scientific validity and clinical relevance. The key recommendations are that children be encouraged to drink clear fluids within up to 2 hours before elective surgery (including Caesarean section and all but one member of the guideline groups consider that tea or coffee, with milk added (up to about one fifth of the total volume, are still clear fluids .Furthermore, solid food consumption should be prohibited for up to 6 hours before elective surgery for children. However, patients should not have their operation cancelled or delayed only because they are chewing gums or sucking a boiled sweet immediately prior to the induction of anaesthesia. These recommendations also apply to those patients with obesity, gastro-oesophageal reflux and diabetes. There is insufficient evidence to support the routine use of antacids, metoclopramide or H2-receptor antagonists before elective surgery in non-obstetric patients. Infants should be fed before elective surgery. Breast milk is considered a safe option for up to 4 hours and other kinds of milk for up to 6 hours. The present review takes into account the safety and possible benefits of preoperative carbohydrates while offering advice on the postoperative resumption of oral intake.

  8. Writing a review article - Are you making these mistakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daldrup-Link, Heike E

    2018-01-01

    An explosion of scientific publications over the last decades has increased the need for review articles: Carefully crafted scientific review articles can provide the novice reader with an overview of a new subject and provide the expert with a synthesis of scientific evidence, proof of reproducibility of published data and pooled estimates of common truth through meta-analyses. Unfortunately, while there are ample presentations and published guidelines for the preparation of scientific articles available, detailed information about how to properly prepare scientific review articles is relatively scarce. This perspective summarizes possible mistakes that can lead to misinformation in scientific review articles with the goal to help authors to improve the scientific contribution of their review article and thereby, increase the respective value of these articles for the scientific community.

  9. Nutritional Factors and Osteoarthritis: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof. R N Srivastava

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common disease according to TNS Arogya survey 2007. Although OA was previously thought to be a progressive degenerative disorder, it is now known that spontaneous arrest or reversal of disease can occur. Conventional medications are often effective for symptomatic relief but they can also cause significant side effects and do not slow the progression of disease. Though the role of nutritional factors in OA has been suggested as early as 700 BC, it was first established in the 1960s. Several nutritional factors are helpful in relieving the symptoms of OA and they might positively affect the progression of the disease without any side effects. Preliminary evidences suggest several of these may have a role in influencing the course of OA. Studies have proven the role of these factors and experiment based results have established their therapeutic role. Research is ongoing on the beneficial properties of plant derived extracts for OA and nutraceuticals industries are accordingly making firm contribution to this sector. This article focuses the role of nutrients to slow down the progression of OA and their future aspects.

  10. 'Emerging' mycobacteria in South Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.D. Van Helden

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Disease can be caused by various species of the genus Mycobacterium. A number of reports, both published and unpublished, of rarely reported mycobacteria have surfaced in South Africa in the last few years. Some unusual hosts have also been involved, causing concern in some quarters.These include reports on Mycobacterium goodii in a spotted hyaena (Crocuta crocuta, M. xenopi in a ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata, M. intracellulare in wild-caught chacma baboons (Papio ursinus, the 'dassie bacillus' in free ranging rock hyrax (dassies; Procavia capensis the 'oryx bacillus' from free-ranging buffalo (Syncerus caffer and M. tuberculosis in suricates (Suricata suricatta, a domestic dog and in baboons. In this article it has been attempted to put these in context and show how improved surveillance and technologies have allowed mycobacteria to be identified to species level more easily. Most of the unusual mycobacterial species have most likely been present in the region for many years and have probably caused disease episodes before, but have been misdiagnosed. Each case must be evaluated carefully with respect to the animal species involved, the environment in which the host is found and the mycobacterial species, and operational decisions made accordingly.

  11. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E.; Warren, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications. PMID:27036751

  12. Hydrogen at extreme pressures (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, Alexander F.; Howie, Ross T.; Gregoryanz Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Here we review recent experimental and theoretical studies of hydrogen approaching metallization regime. Experimental techniques have made great advances over the last several years making it possible to reach previously unachievable conditions of pressure and temperature and to probe hydrogen at these conditions. Theoretical methods have also greatly improved; exemplified through the prediction of new structural and ordered quantum states. Recently, a new solid phase of hydrogen, phase IV, has been discovered in a high-pressure high-temperature domain. This phase is quite unusual structurally and chemically as it represents an intermediate state between common molecular and monatomic configurations. Moreover, it shows remarkable fluxional characteristics related to its quantum nature, which makes it unique among the solid phases, even of light elements. However, phase IV shows the presence of a band gap and exhibits distinct phonon and libron characteristic of classical solids. The quantum behavior of hydrogen in the limit of very high pressure remains an open question. Prospects of studying hydrogen at more extreme conditions by static and combined static-dynamic methods are also presented.

  13. Invited Review Article: Pump-probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Martin C., E-mail: Martin.Fischer@duke.edu; Wilson, Jesse W.; Robles, Francisco E. [Department of Chemistry, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States); Warren, Warren S. [Departments of Chemistry, Biomedical Engineering, Physics, and Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    Multiphoton microscopy has rapidly gained popularity in biomedical imaging and materials science because of its ability to provide three-dimensional images at high spatial and temporal resolution even in optically scattering environments. Currently the majority of commercial and home-built devices are based on two-photon fluorescence and harmonic generation contrast. These two contrast mechanisms are relatively easy to measure but can access only a limited range of endogenous targets. Recent developments in fast laser pulse generation, pulse shaping, and detection technology have made accessible a wide range of optical contrasts that utilize multiple pulses of different colors. Molecular excitation with multiple pulses offers a large number of adjustable parameters. For example, in two-pulse pump-probe microscopy, one can vary the wavelength of each excitation pulse, the detection wavelength, the timing between the excitation pulses, and the detection gating window after excitation. Such a large parameter space can provide much greater molecular specificity than existing single-color techniques and allow for structural and functional imaging without the need for exogenous dyes and labels, which might interfere with the system under study. In this review, we provide a tutorial overview, covering principles of pump-probe microscopy and experimental setup, challenges associated with signal detection and data processing, and an overview of applications.

  14. Wound healing in animal models: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing and reduction of its recovery time is one of the most important issues in medicine. Wound is defined as disruption of anatomy and function of normal skin. This injury could be the result of physical elements such as  surgical incision, hit or pressure cut of the skin and gunshot wound. Chemical or caustic burn is another category of wound causes that can be induced by acid or base contact irritation. Healing is a process of cellular and extracellular matrix interactions that occur in the damaged tissue. Wound healing consists of several stages including hemostasis, inflammatory phase, proliferative phase and new tissue formation which reconstructs by new collagen formation. Wounds are divided into acute and chronic types based on their healing time. Acute wounds have sudden onset and in normal individuals usually have healing process of less than 4 weeks without any residual side effects. In contrast, chronic wounds have gradual onset. Their inflammatory phase is prolonged and the healing process is stopped due to some background factors like diabetes, ischemia or local pressure. If the healing process lasts more than 4 weeks it will be classified as chronic wound. Despite major advances in the treatment of wounds, still finding effective modalities for healing wounds in the shortest possible time with the fewest side effects is a current challenge. In this review different phases of wound healing and clinical types of wound such as venous leg ulcer, diabetic foot ulcer and pressure ulcer are discussed. Also acute wound models (i.e burn wounds or incisional wound and chronic wound models (such as venous leg ulcers, diabetic foot ulcer, pressure ulcers or bedsore in laboratory animals are presented. This summary can be considered as a preliminary step to facilitate designing of more targeted and applied research in this area.

  15. Endometriosis-Associated Ovarian Cancer: A Review of Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Wing Ng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is classically defined as the presence of endometrial glands and stroma outside of the endometrial lining and uterine musculature. With an estimated frequency of 5%–10% among women of reproductive age, endometriosis is a common gynecologic disorder. While in itself a benign lesion, endometriosis shares several characteristics with invasive cancer, has been shown to undergo malignant transformation, and has been associated with an increased risk of epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC. Numerous epidemiologic studies have shown an increased risk of EOC among women with endometriosis. This is particularly true for women with endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinoma. However, the carcinogenic pathways by which endometriosis associated ovarian carcinoma (EAOC develops remain poorly understood. Current molecular studies have sought to link endometriosis with EAOC through pathways related to oxidative stress, inflammation and hyperestrogenism. In addition, numerous studies have sought to identify an intermediary lesion between endometriosis and EAOC that may allow for the identification of endometriosis at greatest risk for malignant transformation or for the prevention of malignant transformation of this common gynecologic disorder. The objective of the current article is to review the current data regarding the molecular events associated with EAOC development from endometriosis, with a primary focus on malignancies of the endometrioid and clear cell histologic sub-types.

  16. Livedoid vasculopathy: A review of pathogenesis and principles of management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Biju; Neema, Shekhar; Verma, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Livedoid vasculopathy is a rare cutaneous disease manifesting as recurrent ulcers on the lower extremities. The ulceration results in atrophic, porcelain white scars termed as atrophie blanche. The pathogenesis is yet to be understood with the main mechanism being hypercoagulability and inflammation playing a secondary role. The important procoagulant factors include protein C and S deficiency, factor V Leiden mutation, antithrombin III deficiency, prothrombin gene mutation and hyperhomocysteinemia. Histopathology of livedoid vasculopathy is characterized by intraluminal thrombosis, proliferation of the endothelium and segmental hyalinization of dermal vessels. The treatment is multipronged with anti-thrombotic measures such as anti-platelet drugs, systemic anticoagulants and fibrinolytic therapy taking precedence over anti-inflammatory agents. Colchicine, hydroxychloroquine, vasodilators, intravenous immunoglobulin, folic acid, immunosuppressive therapy and supportive measures are also of some benefit. A multidisciplinary approach would go a long way in the management of these patients resulting in relief from pain and physical as well as psychological scarring.

  17. Physiotherapy for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to ident...

  18. Standards for the preparation and writing of Psychology review articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernández-Ríos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of bibliographical resources addressing a topic is an interesting subject for research. It is included as part of literature reviews. The aim of this theoretical study is to establish a series of standards for planning, preparing and writing Psychology review articles. With this aim, the study suggests a set of guidelines for the structuring and justification of content for these types of articles: organisation of the article, background understanding of the topic, literature review, style and understanding of argumentative structure, theoretical and practical relevance of conclusions, the critical and interdisciplinary perspectives of the article, recommendations for future research and what the article can bring to the future advancement of the discipline. The work concludes on the relevance of the study undertaken and accepts the importance of undertaking the necessary reviews from the interdisciplinary perspective of building psychological understanding.

  19. Improving your journal article using feedback from peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Bob

    2014-09-30

    While preparation of a journal article for submission may often include informal review by colleagues, an article is not accepted for publication until it has been formally peer reviewed. Peer review is the process whereby journal editors ask expert reviewers to examine the work submitted and prepare a report on its suitability for publication. Two or more revisions of the article may be required following peer review, with the author reworking the article in the light of feedback received on each occasion. This can be challenging for some authors, but used well, it offers a chance to improve the work to the required standard of the journal, and help the author present a more precise and coherent account of the arguments. The extent to which the author responds to the critical commentary of peer reviewers is important, because this may determine whether or not the article is published. This article explores the aims of peer reviewers and recommends ways in which authors can respond to the feedback provided.

  20. The role of Porphyromonas gingivalis in the pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis: Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma Johanna Moreno Huertas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scientific evidence on the relationship between Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA and Periodontal Disease (PD has been focused on the presence of the peri- odontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g. Di erent studies have established its relationship with the citrullination process and production of citrullinated antipeptide antibodies. Currently, scienti c evidence on this topic is heterogeneous with new contributions and di erent ndings, but studies in human populations are the ones generating most interest. Objective: To review scientific evidence on clinical studies related to the pathogenesis of Periodontal Disease and Porphyromonas gingivalis in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Methodology: Through a literature search, publications about the de ned topic were identi ed taking into account only of clinical studies. The search period was from 2012 to 2016. The search terms used were: rheumatoid arthritis and Porphyromonas gingivalis. After reviewing titles and abstracts of the papers initially identi ed, literature reviews, case reports, in vitro studies and studies conducted in animals were excluded. Results: After performing the search in three databases (PubMed, Lilacs y Embase, 166 articles were found, 140 articles were rejected and 25 were included given that they described clinical studies on the relationship between RA and P.g. The majority of these studies showed quantitative analysis determining the presence of P.g in patients with RA. In patients with RA and periodontal disease, it is clear the presence of antibodies to P.g in serum, also P.g. DNA, while very little has been reported in synovial uid. New evidence suggests associations with other pathogens and detection in early onset arthritis.

  1. Review Article: Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11

    OpenAIRE

    Campo, Juan E.

    2003-01-01

    The following is a review article by Juan E. Campo, Religious Studies Department at the University of California, Santa Barbara, on Bruce Lincoln's Holy Terrors: Thinking about Religion after September 11. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003, Pp. 142.

  2. Pathogenesis-based treatments in primary Sjogren's syndrome using artificial intelligence and advanced machine learning techniques: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulquier, Nathan; Redou, Pascal; Le Gal, Christophe; Rouvière, Bénédicte; Pers, Jacques-Olivier; Saraux, Alain

    2018-05-17

    Big data analysis has become a common way to extract information from complex and large datasets among most scientific domains. This approach is now used to study large cohorts of patients in medicine. This work is a review of publications that have used artificial intelligence and advanced machine learning techniques to study physio pathogenesis-based treatments in pSS. A systematic literature review retrieved all articles reporting on the use of advanced statistical analysis applied to the study of systemic autoimmune diseases (SADs) over the last decade. An automatic bibliography screening method has been developed to perform this task. The program called BIBOT was designed to fetch and analyze articles from the pubmed database using a list of keywords and Natural Language Processing approaches. The evolution of trends in statistical approaches, sizes of cohorts and number of publications over this period were also computed in the process. In all, 44077 abstracts were screened and 1017 publications were analyzed. The mean number of selected articles was 101.0 (S.D. 19.16) by year, but increased significantly over the time (from 74 articles in 2008 to 138 in 2017). Among them only 12 focused on pSS but none of them emphasized on the aspect of pathogenesis-based treatments. To conclude, medicine progressively enters the era of big data analysis and artificial intelligence, but these approaches are not yet used to describe pSS-specific pathogenesis-based treatment. Nevertheless, large multicentre studies are investigating this aspect with advanced algorithmic tools on large cohorts of SADs patients.

  3. Disclosures of Conflicts of Interest in Psychiatric Review Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Andrew M.; Gorelick, David A.; Appelbaum, Paul S.

    2013-01-01

    To characterize disclosures of conflicts of interest in review articles in psychiatry, we identified 285 reviews from ten high-impact journals in psychiatry and two in general medicine. Disclosures were reliably coded as biotech/pharmaceutical/other material interests, nonprofit/government, communication companies, or other. Authors in both types of journals frequently reported industry ties. However, reviews in psychiatric journals were significantly less likely to include industry-related disclosures (32% of reviews; 18% of authors) compared with general medical journals (64% of articles; 40% of authors). The most common types of industry-related disclosures were for consulting, research support, and speaking fees. Disclosures appeared to be of limited utility in helping readers assess possible biases, because the nature and extent of the relationship being disclosed was often unclear. Efforts to screen out authors with significant financial relationships pertaining to the topic under review may be more effective than disclosure in protecting the integrity of the medical literature. PMID:23364114

  4. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-06-11

    Jun 11, 2011 ... health care.1 A literature review on the impact of language barriers to health care by .... lish effective relationships despite cultural differences, has been shown to ..... ment adherence in a South African workplace programme.

  5. Botryoid odontogenic cyst developing from lateral periodontal cyst: A rare case and review on pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Arora

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Botryoid odontogenic cyst (BOC is considered to be a polycystic variant of the lateral periodontal cyst (LPC as the specimen resembled a cluster of grapes. It is a non-inflammatory odontogenic cyst. The BOCs can be unicystic or multicystic. These cysts have potential to extend in the bone and become multilocular and they have a high recurrence rate. Till now, only 73 cases of BOC have been reported. The pathogenesis of BOC is still debatable. We review different pathogenesis proposed for BOC and discuss a rare case of BOC developing from lining of an abnormally large LPC which showed aggressive behaviour in terms of growth and size.

  6. Sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer: Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Fouad Kotb

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sexual activity can affect prostate cancer pathogenesis in a variety of ways; including the proposed high androgen status, risk of sexually transmitted infections and the potential effect of retained carcinogens within the prostatic cells. Methods: PubMed review of all publications concerning sexual activity and the risk of prostate cancer was done by two researchers. Results: Few publications could be detected and data were classified as a prostate cancer risk in association with either heterosexual or homosexual activities. Conclusion: Frequent ejaculation seems to be protective from the development of prostate cancer. Multiple sexual partners may be protective from prostate cancer, excluding the risk of sexually transmitted infections. Homosexual men are at a greater risk for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

  7. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-22

    Jun 22, 2009 ... of the 80% of pregnant women having access to prevention of mother-to-child ... breviation for a complicated statement that includes, among other things, moral ... duce an outcome where frustrations of welfare interests become .... Article abortion and its related issues of moral status in prenatal life. The.

  8. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The large sums of money invested by drug companies in clinical research have resulted in a veritable research ... of these strategies involved the creation of institutional review boards to oversee the ethics of clinical ... mean that enrolling patients with a particular disease process is much easier than in the developed world.

  9. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FDB

    of scholarly communication (Singeh, Abrizah & Karim, 2012; Dutta & Paul, 2014). The use of IR is ..... Self- archiving. Through the. Library staff. Through a colleague. No response. N (%). N. (%). N. (%) N ... work deposited in IR in a peer reviewed journal .... people from different organizations and countries. She is a member ...

  10. Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-09

    Dec 9, 2011 ... scientists were recruited through existing international networks and ... cal research in their different institutions, as well as the major obsta- ... Department, Faculty of Medicine Pharmacy and Dentistry, Malaria Research and Training ... peer-reviewed journals were 30.21% while 26.04% have written a grant.

  11. Nutritional Factors and Osteoarthritis: A review article | Sanghi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research is ongoing on the beneficial properties of plant derived extracts for OA and nutraceuticals industries are accordingly making firm contribution to this sector. This article focuses the role of nutrients to slow down the progression of OA and their future aspects. Keywords: Osteoarthritis; Dietary factors; Nutrition; Review

  12. Association studies in common endocrine diseases (review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akrami SM

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the pathogenesis of endocrine disorders increase rapidly by genetic studies at the molecular level. Common endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, osteoporosis, dyslipidemia and cancer follow the multifactorial model in the genetic aspect. This review tries to clarify the approach in molecular studies of such diseases for clinicians in different specialties. How to evaluate a possible association between a single nucleotide polymorphism and an endocrinopathy or its complication is the main concern of this review. Two approaches for gene mapping will be discussed as well as main challenges regarding each approach. All such genetic studies ideally include some test of the association between genome sequence variation and the phenotype of interest such as the trait itself, the presence of a given complication, or measures of some endocrinopathy-related intermediate trait. Despite different advances in this analysis, there are major concerns regarding the overall performance and robustness of genetic association studies. By using powerful new high-throughput methods, further insights to molecular basis of such endocrine disorders can be expected. Close correlation between geneticists and clinicians can effectively bridge between basic sciences and clinical investigations.

  13. Review of influential articles in surgical education: 2002-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlauer, Max V; George, Brian; Lawrence, Peter F; Pugh, Carla M; Van Eaton, Erik G; Darosa, Debra

    2013-06-01

    Exploring the trends in surgical education research offers insight into concerns, developments, and questions researchers are exploring that are relevant to teaching and learning in surgical specialties. We conducted a review of the surgical education literature published between 2002 and 2012. The purpose was 2-fold: to provide an overview of the most frequently cited articles in the field of surgical education during the last decade and to describe the study designs and themes featured in these articles. Articles were identified through Web of Science by using "surgical education" and "English language" as search terms. Using a feature in Web of Science, we tracked the number of citations of any publication. Of the 800 articles produced by the initial search, we initially selected 23 articles with 45 or more citations, and ultimately chose the 20 articles that were most frequently cited for our analysis. Analysis of the most frequently cited articles published in US journals between the years 2002-2012 identified 7 research themes and presented them in order of frequency with which they appear: use of simulation, issues in student/resident assessment, specialty choice, patient safety, team training, clinical competence assessment, and teaching the clinical sciences, with surgical simulation being the central theme. Researchers primarily used descriptive methods. Popular themes in surgical education research illuminate the information needs of surgical educators as well as topics of high interest to the surgical community.

  14. Pathogenesis of cerebral palsy through the prism of immune regulation of nervous tissue homeostasis: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovska, Natalya; Daribayev, Zholtay; Lisovskyy, Yevgeny; Kussainova, Kenzhe; Austin, Lana; Bulekbayeva, Sholpan

    2016-11-01

    The cerebral palsy is highly actual issue of pediatrics, causing significant neurological disability. Though the great progress in the neuroscience has been recently achieved, the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy is still poorly understood. In this work, we reviewed available experimental and clinical data concerning the role of immune cells in pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. Maintaining of homeostasis in nervous tissue and its transformation in case of periventricular leukomalacia were analyzed. The reviewed data demonstrate involvement of immune regulatory cells in the formation of nervous tissue imbalance and chronicity of inborn brain damage. The supported opinion, that periventricular leukomalacia is not a static phenomenon, but developing process, encourages our optimism about the possibility of its correction. The further studies of changes of the nervous and immune systems in cerebral palsy are needed to create fundamentally new directions of the specific therapy and individual schemes of rehabilitation.

  15. Physiotherapy for Women with Stress Urinary Incontinence: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaderi, Fariba; Oskouei, Ali E.

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] This review article is designed to expose physiotherapists to a physiotherapy assessment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) and the treatment and possibly preventive roles that they might play for women with SUI. Specifically, the goal of this article is to provide an understanding of pelvic floor muscle function and the implications that this function has for physiotherapy treatment by reviewing articles published in this area. [Methods] A range of databases was searched to identify articles that address physiotherapy for SUI, including the Cochrane Library, Medline, and CINAHL. [Results] According to the articles identified in our databases research, greater improvements in SUI occur when women receive a supervised exercise program of at least three months. The effectiveness of physiotherapy treatment is increased if the exercise program is based on some principles, such as intensity, duration, resembling functional task, and the position in which the exercise for pelvic floor muscles is performed. Biofeedback and electrical stimulation may also be clinically useful and acceptable modalities for some women with SUI. [Conclusion] We concluded that the plan for physiotherapy care should be individualized for each patient and include standard physiotherapy interventions. PMID:25276044

  16. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Raimundo; Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid per...

  17. Statistical reviewers improve reporting in biomedical articles: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Cobo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Although peer review is widely considered to be the most credible way of selecting manuscripts and improving the quality of accepted papers in scientific journals, there is little evidence to support its use. Our aim was to estimate the effects on manuscript quality of either adding a statistical peer reviewer or suggesting the use of checklists such as CONSORT or STARD to clinical reviewers or both.Interventions were defined as 1 the addition of a statistical reviewer to the clinical peer review process, and 2 suggesting reporting guidelines to reviewers; with "no statistical expert" and "no checklist" as controls. The two interventions were crossed in a 2x2 balanced factorial design including original research articles consecutively selected, between May 2004 and March 2005, by the Medicina Clinica (Barc editorial committee. We randomized manuscripts to minimize differences in terms of baseline quality and type of study (intervention, longitudinal, cross-sectional, others. Sample-size calculations indicated that 100 papers provide an 80% power to test a 55% standardized difference. We specified the main outcome as the increment in quality of papers as measured on the Goodman Scale. Two blinded evaluators rated the quality of manuscripts at initial submission and final post peer review version. Of the 327 manuscripts submitted to the journal, 131 were accepted for further review, and 129 were randomized. Of those, 14 that were lost to follow-up showed no differences in initial quality to the followed-up papers. Hence, 115 were included in the main analysis, with 16 rejected for publication after peer review. 21 (18.3% of the 115 included papers were interventions, 46 (40.0% were longitudinal designs, 28 (24.3% cross-sectional and 20 (17.4% others. The 16 (13.9% rejected papers had a significantly lower initial score on the overall Goodman scale than accepted papers (difference 15.0, 95% CI: 4.6-24.4. The effect of suggesting a guideline to the

  18. Pathogenesis of chronic pancreatitis: an evidence-based review of past theories and recent developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Tyler; Conwell, Darwin L; Zuccaro, Gregory

    2004-11-01

    In the past several decades, four prominent theories of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis have emerged: the toxic-metabolic theory, the oxidative stress hypothesis, the stone and duct obstruction theory, and the necrosis-fibrosis hypothesis. Although these traditional theories are formulated based on compelling scientific observations, substantial contradictory data also exist for each. Furthermore, the basic premises of some of these theories are directly contradictory. Because of the recent scientific progress in the underlying genetic, cellular, and molecular pathophysiology, there have been substantial advances in the understanding of chronic pancreatitis pathogenesis. This paper will provide an evidence-based review and critique of the traditional pathogenic theories, followed by a discussion of the new advances in pancreatic fibrogenesis. Moreover, we will discuss plausible pathogenic sequences applied to each of the known etiologies.

  19. Pathogenesis of post-traumatic ankylosis of the temporomandibular joint: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Kusanale, Atul; Zaki, Graeme A; Brennan, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Many factors have been implicated in the development of bony ankylosis following trauma to the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) or ankylosis that recurs after surgical treatment for the condition. Although many reports have been published, to our knowledge very little has been written about the pathogenesis of the process and there are few scientific studies. Over the last 70 years various treatments have been described. Different methods have been used with perceived favourable outcomes although recurrence remains a problem in many cases, and ankylosis presents a major therapeutic challenge. We present a critical review of published papers and discuss the various hypotheses regarding the pathogenesis of the condition. Copyright © 2010 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vibrio parahaemolyticus: A Review on the Pathogenesis, Prevalence and Advance Molecular Identification Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengadesh eLetchumanan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative halophilic bacterium that is found in estuarine, marine and coastal environments. Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading causal agent of human acute gastroenteritis following the consumption of raw, undercooked or mishandled marine products. In rare cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus causes wound infection, ear infection or septicaemia in individuals with pre-existing medical conditions. Vibrio parahaemolyticus has two hemolysins virulence factors that are thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh-a pore-forming protein that contributes to the invasiveness of the bacterium in humans, and TDH-related hemolysin (trh, which plays a similar role as thermostable direct hemolysin (tdh in the disease pathogenesis. In addition, the bacterium is also encodes for adhesions and type III secretion systems (T3SS1 and T3SS2 to ensure its survival in the environment. This review aims at discussing the Vibrio parahemolyticus growth and characteristics, pathogenesis, prevalence and advances in molecular identification techniques.

  1. Review article The Frontier of Interculturality. A review of Wim van ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review article. The Frontier of Interculturality. A review of Wim van Binsbergen\\'s Intercultural Encounters: African and Anthropological Lessons towards a Philosophy of Interculturality (2003). Sanya Osha ...

  2. What do reviewers look for in an original research article?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, P R

    2012-01-01

    In this article common errors committed by authors especially those, whose first language is not English, while writing an original research articleis described. Avoiding common errors and improving chances of publication has also been covered. This article may resemble instruction to the author. However, tips from reviewer's eyes has been given. The abstract is the section of the paper most commonly read and care should be taken while writing this section. Keywordsare usedto retrieve articles following searches and use of words from the MeSH database is recommended.The introduction describes work already conducted in the particular area and briefly mentions how the manuscript will add to the existing knowledge.The methods section describes how the study was conducted, is written in the past tense and is often the first part of the paper to be written. The results describe what was found in the study and is usually written after the methods section.The discussion compares the study with the literature and helps to put the study findings in context. The conclusions should be based on the results of the study. The references should be written strictly according to the journal format. Language should be simple, active voice should be used and jargon avoided. Avoid directly quoting from reference articles and paraphrase these in your own words to avoid plagiarism.

  3. Review Article: The New Political Economy of Skill Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    affordable, high-quality childcare and cognitive as well as behavioral skills in schooling, and to protect valuable asset-specific skill investments. These are important messages for policymakers, and they open up promising avenues for future research on the cognitive, behavioral, and micro-political sources......This article reviews the emerging literatures on public policies to invest in, and protect, human capital and valuable asset-specific skills. Special attention is given to two recent books on the topic: James Heckman and Alan Krueger's (2003) Inequality in America, and Torben Iversen's (2005......) Capitalism, Democracy, and Welfare. The article argues that, cumulatively, the literatures in economics, politics, sociology and political economy show that human capital policies can be institutional sources of competitive economic advantage. Efficiency can be boosted by strategies aiming both to provide...

  4. Review article: the investigation and management of gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuroy, R; Srirajaskanthan, R; Prachalias, A; Quaglia, A; Ramage, J K

    2014-05-01

    Gastric carcinoids (GCs) or neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly identified at endoscopy, and account for 0.6-2% of all gastric polyps identified. The SEER database in the US has demonstrated a rising incidence of gastric NETs amongst all NETs; from 2.2% between 1950 and 1969 to 6.0% between 2000 and 2007. To review the literature and assist clinicians in managing patients with GCs. A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE using search terms: gastric, carcinoid, neuroendocrine tumour, therapy, endoscopy, mucosal resection, submucosal dissection. Relevant articles were identified through manual review. The reference lists of these articles were reviewed to include further appropriate articles. There are three types of GCs with important epidemiological, pathophysiological, histological and endoscopic differences that affect prognosis and management. Type 1 and 2 GCs develop in the context of hypergastrinaemia that originates from achlorhydria in atrophic gastritis and a gastrinoma, respectively. Type 3 GCs occur sporadically and independent of gastrin. The histological type, grade and Ki67 index are used to determine prognosis and direct clinical management. Type 1 GCs >1 cm in size and type 2 GCs should be assessed for invasion beyond the submucosa with EUS prior to endoscopic resection with EMR or ESD. Type 3 GCs should be managed as per recommendations for gastric adenocarcinoma. The treatment of advanced disease is multimodal. Patients with gastric carcinoids should be discussed in a specialist neuroendocrine tumour multidisciplinary meeting to ensure all treatment options are explored in localised and advanced disease. Areas of controversy exist that need further research. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  6. The Peer Education Approach in Adolescents- Narrative Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Simbar, Masoumeh

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is an important stage of human life span, which crucial developmental processes occur. Since peers play a critical role in the psychosocial development of most adolescents, peer education is currently considered as a health promotion strategy in adolescents. Peer education is defined as a system of delivering knowledge that improves social learning and provides psychosocial support. As identifying the outcomes of different educational approaches will be beneficial in choosing the most effective programs for training adolescents, the present article reviewed the impact of the peer education approach on adolescents. In this review, databases such as PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases, from 1999 to 2013, were searched using a number of keywords. Peer education is an effective tool for promoting healthy behaviors among adolescents. The development of this social process depends on the settings, context, and the values and expectations of the participants. Therefore, designing such programs requires proper preparation, training, supervision, and evaluation.

  7. Oral Health and Coronary Artery Disease, A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Rostami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Various risk factors have been identified for atherosclerosis. Recently, bacterial and viral organisms, which are involved in chronic inflammatory processes, have been also implicated in atherosclerosis development. Individuals with a prior history of periodontal diseases and/or tooth loss are considered to be at a higher risk for peripheral arterial disease, compared to those without periodontal diseases or tooth loss. Evidence suggests that periodontitis contributes to the overall burden of infection and inflammation and may lead to cardiovascular events and stroke in susceptible patients. In this article, we aimed to review the available data on the relationship between periodontal diseases and cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease. At least sixty papers were reviewed during 2014-15. Of these, 44 were included in our study.

  8. Review article: pathogenesis and pathophysiology of hepatorenal syndrome--is there scope for prevention?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    2004-01-01

    The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a functional impairment of the kidneys in chronic liver disease caused by a circulatory failure. The prognosis is poor, particularly with type 1 HRS, but also type 2, and only liver transplantation is of lasting benefit. However, recent research into the pathophy...

  9. Crisis management aspects of bam catastrophic earthquake: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi-Bazargani, Homayoun; Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Ziapour, Behrad

    2015-01-01

    Bam earthquake was the most catastrophic natural disasters in recent years. The aim of this study was to review different aspects of crisis management during and after the catastrophic earthquake in Bam City, Iran. Data needed for this systematic review were collected through searching PubMed, EMBASE and SID databases, for the period from 2003 to 2011. Keywords included earthquake, Iran and Bam earthquake. The data were summarized and were analyzed using Content Analysis. Out of 422 articles, 25 articles were included in the study. Crisis Management aspects and existing pitfalls were classified into seven categories including planning and organization, human resource management, management of logistics, international humanitarian aids, field performance of the military and security forces, health and medical service provision, and information management. Positive aspects and major pitfalls of crisis management have been introduced in all the mentioned categories. The available evidence indicated poor crisis management during Bam earthquake that resulted in aggravating the losses as well as diminishing the effect of interventions. Thus, concerning the importance of different aspects of the crisis management and the high prevalence of disasters in Iran, the observed vulnerability in disaster management process should be addressed.

  10. Manual signs as augmentative and alternative communication system. Review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fàtima Vega Llobera

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a long tradition of scientific evidence about using hand signals simultaneously with oral language to promote the development of communication and language in children with or without disabilities. This article aims to review and analyze intervention work focused on the use of manual signs as augmentative communication system (AAC in hearing participants. Several criteria were used to narrow the search, selection, coding and synthesis of the 50 original scientific papers have finally been part of the review. The included studies were edited from 1970 to the present, at a national and international level and were published in English and Spanish. The bibliographic compilation was performed through searches by keyword in bibliographic databases, with the help of search engines (Google Scholar and through secondary searches. From each of the scientific articles the following data was extracted: year of the study, the country of origin, the characteristics of the participants, the design and the methodology and the obtained results. This information has been analyzed and compared. The results of the study highlight that, despite the diversity in results, the signing use as augmentative communication system is effective to improve language development, receptive and expressive level.

  11. Review article: The mountain motif in the plot of Matthew

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert J. Volschenk

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reviewed T.L. Donaldson’s book, Jesus on the mountain: A study in Matthean theology, published in 1985 by JSOT Press, Sheffield, and focused on the mountain motif in the structure and plot of the Gospel of Matthew, in addition to the work of Donaldson on the mountain motif as a literary motif and as theological symbol. The mountain is a primary theological setting for Jesus’ ministry and thus is an important setting, serving as one of the literary devices by which Matthew structured and progressed his narrative. The Zion theological and eschatological significance and Second Temple Judaism serve as the historical and theological background for the mountain motif. The last mountain setting (Mt 28:16–20 is the culmination of the three theological themes in the plot of Matthew, namely Christology, ecclesiology and salvation history.

  12. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheila Nazarpour

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental–emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse.

  13. Factors affecting sexual function in menopause: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Tehrani, Fahimeh Ramezani

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to systematically review the articles on factors affecting sexual function during menopause. Searching articles indexed in Pubmed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, EMBASE, Scopus, and Scientific Information Database databases, a total number of 42 studies published between 2003 and 2013 were selected. Age, estrogen deficiency, type of menopause, chronic medical problems, partner's sex problems, severity of menopause symptoms, dystocia history, and health status were the physical factors influencing sexual function of menopausal women. There were conflicting results regarding the amount of androgens, hormonal therapy, exercise/physical activity, and obstetric history. In the mental-emotional area, all studies confirmed the impact of depression and anxiety. Social factors, including smoking, alcohol consumption, the quality of relationship with husband, partner's loyalty, sexual knowledge, access to health care, a history of divorce or the death of a husband, living apart from a spouse, and a negative understanding of women's health were found to affect sexual function; however, there were conflicting results regarding the effects of education, occupation, socioeconomic status, marital duration, and frequency of sexual intercourse. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. MAGNETIC BACTERIA AND THEIR POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS: A REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rajab Eljmeli

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This outline explores the scientific discovery concerning the magnetotactic bacteria (MTB. The results of the discovery are used in microbiology, mineralogy, limnology, physics, biophysics, chemistry, biochemistry, geology, crystallography, and astrobiology. Magnetosomes of the MTB are organized in linear chains and orient the cell body along geomagnetic field lines while flagella actively propel the cells, resulting in so-called magnetotaxis. Materials and Methods: The review article about the magnetotactic bacteria is a collection of many research papers from different institutes. The emerging important points about this review lie in: (1 any biological system is capable of producing magnetic biomaterials such as magnetite (Fe3O4 and gregite (Fe3S4; (2 the navigation of these nano-crystals in the biological system is interconnected with the Earth’s magnetic field. Results: The researchers involved in the study have shown that the magnetotactic bacteria do respond to a magnetic field. This makes them attractive for biomedical and industrial applications because of the availability of superior electromagnets, superconducting magnets and permanent magnet. Magnetic bacteria can also be used as a diagnostic tool in the detection of imperfections even at the nanoscale. Discussion and Conclusions: Although the importance of this issue is still limitedly used in medical area, more performance is necessary to explore the world of these bacteria that are candidate for new industry and new therapy strategies in biotechnology and medical fields.

  15. Effects of anxiety and depression on periodontal diseases: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahvash Mousavi jazi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Periodontitis does not affect on all patients by the same way. There are some risk factors in some people that make them more sensitive to progress of periodontitis. Smoking, uncontrolled diabetes, and special pathogens increase the risk of periodontitis. Other factors such as stress, depression and anxiety, are not crucial risk factors for periodontitis yet. Biologic explanation of this relation is that mental conditions and exposure to stressful situations can alter immune response. The aim of this study was to review the psychological factors of anxiety and depression associated with periodontitis.   Materials and Methods: For this review article, we have searched through internet by the following keywords; periodontal disease, anxiety, depression. We have tried to cover almost all dental– related sites and journals as well as Pubmed from 1990-2010.   Conclusion: Most published studies support a positive relationship between periodontitis and several psycho-social factors. Life style, stressful conditions, hormonal changes, nonchalance in oral hygiene, habits such as smoking are predisposing factors in periodontal diseases.

  16. Astrovirus Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cydney Johnson

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Astroviruses are a major cause of diarrhea in the young, elderly, and the immunocompromised. Since the discovery of human astrovirus type 1 (HAstV-1 in 1975, the family Astroviridae has expanded to include two more human clades and numerous mammalian and avian-specific genotypes. Despite this, there is still little known about pathogenesis. The following review highlights the current knowledge of astrovirus pathogenesis, and outlines the critical steps needed to further astrovirus research, including the development of animal models of cell culture systems.

  17. Publication practices and responsible authorship: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis E. Tarkang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Dissemination of research findings through the publication of one’s work or a group of contributors is an important part of the research process, as this allows the passing on of benefits to a much wider community. In whatever evocative form this dissemination may take, the onus lies on the author(s to ensure adherence to the code of ethics as it pertains to the integrity of the information being put out. We publish because we want our findings to be adapted into practice and application, or in some cases may be relevant to policy makers in decision-making. To a large extent in the field of academia, successful publication improves opportunities for academic funding and promotion whilst enhancing scientific and scholarly achievement and repute. A situation may be compromised where intellectual contributions to a scientific investigation do not adhere to the four key guidelines of scholarship, authorship, approval and agreement as well as the protocols of ensuring good publication ethics. The objective of this review is to lay emphasis on universal standards for manuscript authorship and to fostering good practices. This in our view will bring authorship credit and accountability to the attention of our colleagues and readers at large. To achieve this, a systematic and critical review of the literature was undertaken. Electronic databases, academic journals and books from various sources were accessed. Several key search terms relating to responsible authorship, common authorship malpractices, conflict of interest, universal publication guidelines and other authorship related issues, were used. Only references deemed useful from relevant texts and journal articles were included. In this paper, the authors have sought to highlight the pitfalls researchers sometimes entangle themselves within an act of compromise thereby impinging on the ethical and professional responsibilities for the content of a paper under consideration. This article

  18. Role of PHGG as a dietary fiber: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quartarone, G

    2013-12-01

    Functional and metabolic effects of dietary fiber are recognized by the scientific, clinical and nutritional experts. Dietary fiber plays a very significant role in modifying the intestinal microbiota, exerting prebiotic effects such as stimulating the growth and/or function of beneficial intestinal microorganisms. Changes in the gut microbiota composition are classically considered as one of the many factors involved in the pathogenesis of either inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. The use of particular food products with a prebiotic effect has thus been tested in clinical trials with the objective to improve the clinical activity and well-being of patients with such disorders. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum (PHGG) is a natural dietary fiber (Benefibra™, Novartis CH Italy): it is a white powder, water-soluble, colorless and transparent in water solution and almost tasteless. PHGG is stable and soluble at various pH levels commonly found in foods as well as resistant to heat, acid, salt, high pressure and digestive enzymes. Low viscosity of PHGG provides a distinct advantage for the use of fiber in enteral feeding products to be administered through feeding tubes. It has been studied in adults, both healthy volunteers and patients, in different disorders such as constipation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), enteral nutrition, small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and, very recently, in children suffering from functional abdominal pain according to the Rome III Criteria definition for functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs). This review takes stock of the situation concerning what is known to date on PHGG as dietary fiber, in order to give the health care professionals, such as gastroenterologists, dieticians and general practitioners, a complete overview on its intrinsic characteristics, preclinical and clinical evaluations, uses in different situations as supportive therapy in the management of the main intestinal functional

  19. Pathogenesis and immunobiology of brucellosis: review of Brucella-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Figueiredo, Paul; Ficht, Thomas A; Rice-Ficht, Allison; Rossetti, Carlos A; Adams, L Garry

    2015-06-01

    This review of Brucella-host interactions and immunobiology discusses recent discoveries as the basis for pathogenesis-informed rationales to prevent or treat brucellosis. Brucella spp., as animal pathogens, cause human brucellosis, a zoonosis that results in worldwide economic losses, human morbidity, and poverty. Although Brucella spp. infect humans as an incidental host, 500,000 new human infections occur annually, and no patient-friendly treatments or approved human vaccines are reported. Brucellae display strong tissue tropism for lymphoreticular and reproductive systems with an intracellular lifestyle that limits exposure to innate and adaptive immune responses, sequesters the organism from the effects of antibiotics, and drives clinical disease manifestations and pathology. Stealthy brucellae exploit strategies to establish infection, including i) evasion of intracellular destruction by restricting fusion of type IV secretion system-dependent Brucella-containing vacuoles with lysosomal compartments, ii) inhibition of apoptosis of infected mononuclear cells, and iii) prevention of dendritic cell maturation, antigen presentation, and activation of naive T cells, pathogenesis lessons that may be informative for other intracellular pathogens. Data sets of next-generation sequences of Brucella and host time-series global expression fused with proteomics and metabolomics data from in vitro and in vivo experiments now inform interactive cellular pathways and gene regulatory networks enabling full-scale systems biology analysis. The newly identified effector proteins of Brucella may represent targets for improved, safer brucellosis vaccines and therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Testicular Descend, How and Why: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujan Narayan Agrawal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The testis develops in the dorsal abdominal wall, and then descends to scrotum. The development begins as early as 6th week of intrauterine life and is completed by fifth month of intrauterine life. The testis may get arrested during its descent from dorsal abdominal wall to scrotum. The anomalies of descent includes cryptorchism (and its variant like anarchism, monarchism or partially descended testis, ectopic testis, persistent processus vaginalis and encysted hydrocoel of spermatic cord etc. Cryptorchism is usually diagnosed during the new born examination. The recognition of this condition, identification of associated syndromes, proper diagnostic evaluation and timely treatment by surgical urologist is important to prevent adverse consequences like sterility, congenital hernia & hydrocoel, testicular carcinoma etc. Objectives: the objective of this review is to study the role of gubernaculum in the testicular migration process. Material & Method: We performed a descriptive review of the literature about the role of the gubernaculum in testicular migration during the human fetal life. This article provides an overview of role of gubernaculum and other factors responsible for gonadal migration. Results: In the first phase of testicular migration the gubernaculum enlarges to hold the testis near groin and in the second phase the gubernaculum migrates across the pubic region to reach the scrotum. The proximal end of gubernaculum is attached to the testis and epididymis. The lower end reaches to bottom of scrotum. A failure in the proper functioning of gubernaculum causes cryptorchism. Rarely male gonads may deviate from main pathway due to presence of many tails of distal gubernaculum, and it may give rise to ectopic testis. The processus vaginalis usually closes by birth. If it remains patent, it leads to congenital hernia, hydrocoel, encysted hydrocoel etc. Conclusion: the gubernaculum presents a significant structure during

  1. REVIEW ARTICLE: Oxygen diffusion and precipitation in Czochralski silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, R. C.

    2000-06-01

    The objective of this article is to review our understanding of the properties of oxygen impurities in Czochralski silicon that is used to manufacture integrated circuits (ICs). These atoms, present at a concentration of ~1018 cm-3, occupy bond-centred sites (Oi) in as-grown Si and the jump rate between adjacent sites defines `normal' diffusion for the temperature range 1325 - 330 °C. Anneals at high temperatures lead to the formation of amorphous SiO2 precipitates that act as traps for fast diffusing metallic contaminants, such as Fe and Cu, that may be inadvertently introduced at levels as low as 1011 cm-3. Without this `gettering', there may be severe degradation of fabricated ICs. To accommodate the local volume increase during oxygen precipitation, there is parallel generation of self-interstitials that diffuse away and form lattice defects. High temperature (T > 700 °C) anneals are now well understood. Details of lower temperature processes are still a matter of debate: measurements of oxygen diffusion into or out of the Si surface and Oi atom aggregation have implied enhanced diffusion that has variously been attributed to interactions of Oi atoms with lattice vacancies, self-interstitials, metallic elements, carbon, hydrogen impurities etc. There is strong evidence for oxygen-hydrogen interactions at T continue to decrease as the size of future device features decreases below the lower end of the sub-micron range, currently close to 0.18 µm.

  2. Review article: Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelle Dannhauser

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is a lengthy review of the book Jesus’ resurrection in Joseph’s garden by P.J.W. (Flip Schutte. The book represents a quest to trace the relationship between Jesus’ resurrection, myth and canon. Schutte finds the origin of events underlying the biblical canon in proclamation. His focus in the book is the proclamation of the death and resurrection of Christ, which, in its developmental stages, hinged on the life and death of the historical Jesus. Proclamation developed into a mythical narrative that became the foundational myth for the Christ cult, validating its existence and rituals. With the growth and institutionalisation of the faith community (church, came an increased production of literature, causing the power-wielding orthodoxy to identify a body of literature containing the ‘truth’ and ‘correct teaching’, thus establishing the authoritative canon. In, through, behind and beyond Jesus of Nazareth, Schutte has perceived a canon behind the canon: a God of love. In Jesus, the man of myth with historical roots who has become to us the observable face of God, Schutte confesses the kerygma to open up before him. The proclamation therefore extends an invitation to join in a mythological experience and an encounter with God whose love is preached in the metaphor called Easter.

  3. Breastfeeding Education: Where Are We Going? A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgio, Maria Adriana; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Sicilia, Angela; Prosperi Porta, Romana; Porpora, Maria Grazia; Ban Frangež, Helena; DI Venti, Giovanni; Triolo, Onofrio

    2016-08-01

    UNICEF (United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund) and WHO estimate that if all babies were breastfed for at least the first six months of their lives, the rate of morbidity and malnutrition would significantly decrease all over the world. In this view, these two organizations promoted a worldwide campaign for breastfeeding, creating the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) that encourages good practices for the promotion of breastfeeding in hospitals. The aim of our study was to review the available evidence regarding the positive effects of breastfeeding, in order to suggest to most appropriate strategy to support it. The main databases including Scopus, PubMed, MEDLINE, Google scholar and Science Direct were researched to obtain the original papers related to breastfeeding education. The main terms used to literature search were "Breastfeeding education", Breastfeeding support", and "Breastfeeding healthcare policy". The timeframe included the obtained articles was from 1980 to 2015. Our analysis confirms that healthcare providers play a pivotal role in education and encouraging mothers to begin and continue breastfeeding. In this view, the adequate training of healthcare providers seems to be mandatory in order to support this practice. Moreover, adequate facilities are needed in order to promote and support breastfeeding. Considering the available evidence, breastfeeding should be supported among all the mothers. Based on the positive data emerging from the public awareness campaign in different Countries of the world, we strongly encourage an accurate training for doctors and midwives and the implementation of adequate facilities in order to support breastfeeding.

  4. Understanding mechanisms and the role of differentiation in pathogenesis of Toxoplasma gondii: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J Sullivan Jr

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Parasite differentiation from proliferating tachyzoites into latent bradyzoites is central to pathogenesis and transmission of the intracellular protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. The presence of bradyzoite-containing cysts in human hosts and their subsequent rupture can cause life-threatening recrudescence of acute infection in the immunocompromised and cyst formation in other animals contributes to zoonotic transmission and widespread dissemination of the parasite. In this review, we discuss the evidence showing how the clinically relevant process of bradyzoite differentiation is regulated at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Specific regulatory factors implicated in modulating bradyzoite differentiation include promoter-based cis-elements, epigenetic modifications and protein translation control through eukaryotic initiation factor -2 (eIF2. In addition to a summary of the current state of knowledge in these areas we discuss the pharmacological ramifications and pose some questions for future research.

  5. A Review of the Strain Diversity and Pathogenesis of Chicken Astrovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria J. Smyth

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a relatively recently emerged virus, identified only in 2004 as a separate species of avian astrovirus, chicken astrovirus (CAstV has been associated with poor growth of broiler flocks, enteritis and diarrhea and is a candidate pathogen in cases of runting stunting syndrome. More recently CAstV has been implicated in cases of two other diseases of broilers as the sole etiological agent, namely severe kidney disease of young broilers with visceral gout and the “White Chicks” hatchery disease. Examination of the strains of CAstV associated with the two latter diseases reveals they are closely related genetically. This review will discuss the pathogenesis of CAstV in relation to strain diversity and the effects of vertical versus horizontal transmission, virus load, co-infections and age of bird at infection, all factors that may impact upon disease severity.

  6. A Review of the Strain Diversity and Pathogenesis of Chicken Astrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Victoria J

    2017-02-10

    Although a relatively recently emerged virus, identified only in 2004 as a separate species of avian astrovirus, chicken astrovirus (CAstV) has been associated with poor growth of broiler flocks, enteritis and diarrhea and is a candidate pathogen in cases of runting stunting syndrome. More recently CAstV has been implicated in cases of two other diseases of broilers as the sole etiological agent, namely severe kidney disease of young broilers with visceral gout and the "White Chicks" hatchery disease. Examination of the strains of CAstV associated with the two latter diseases reveals they are closely related genetically. This review will discuss the pathogenesis of CAstV in relation to strain diversity and the effects of vertical versus horizontal transmission, virus load, co-infections and age of bird at infection, all factors that may impact upon disease severity.

  7. Induced pluripotent stem cells, from generation to application: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharif Moradi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent stem cells which have the ability to indefinitely self-renew and differentiate into all differentiated cells of the body. Regarding their two main properties (unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation, these cells have various biomedical applications in basic research and cell based therapy. Because the transplantation of differentiated cells that are derived from embryonic stem cells is allogenic, they face the problem of immune rejection following the transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived cells into patients. In 2006, researchers from Japan reported the derivation of a new type of pluripotent stem cells which could overcome the problem of immune rejection that is associated with the application of embryonic stem cells. They designated these cells as induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells, because their production was ‘induced’ from differentiated somatic cells using a combination of four embryonic stem cell-associated transcription factors. Importantly, these pluripotent stem cells exhibit all the key features of embryonic stem cells including unlimited self-renewal and multi-lineage differentiation potential, and can pass the most stringent test of pluripotency which is known as the tetraploid (4n complementation. Hence, in addition to bypassing the problem of immune rejection, iPS cells have all of the potential applications of embryonic stem cells, including in developmental studies, toxicology research, drug discovery and disease modeling. Also, considering that they could be generated from patient’s own cells, iPS cells hold great promise in the future of patient-specific cell replacement therapies using pluripotent stem cells. In this review article, we will present a comprehensive review on the how and why of the generation of iPS cell from somatic cells of the body and discuss how they should be characterized in terms of morphologically, pluripotent stem cell behavior, and

  8. SERUM LEPTIN LEVENS AND HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: REVIEW ARTICLE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, Luiza Vitelo; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most frequent types of malignant tumors in the world. There is growing evidence of the relationship between it development and obesity. The mechanism that links obesity to cancer is still not fully understood; however, it is essential to the understanding the adipose tissue in metabolic changes related to obesity and hepatocellular carcinoma. To review the influence of serum leptin levels in patients with hepatocelular carcinoma. Systematic review of the literature based on the methodology of the Cochrane Institute. The search for articles was in the database: Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed. The key words used were hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. After evaluation of individual studies, were selected seven studies. The results previously studied are still inconsistent and contradictory, and leptin can be effectively involved in the occurrence and development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, it is necessary to develop prospective, well-designed and conducted focusing on the role and specific mechanisms of this hormone in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma, so that new correlations can be properly supported. O carcinoma hepatocelular é um dos tipos mais frequentes de tumores malignos no mundo. Há crescentes evidências da relação entre o seu desenvolvimento e a obesidade. O mecanismo que os relaciona ainda não é completamente entendido. Entretanto é essencial a compreensão do tecido adiposo nas alterações metabólicas relacionadas à obesidade e ao câncer. Revisar a influência dos níveis séricos de leptina em pacientes com carcinoma hepatocelular. Trata-se de revisão bibliográfica baseada na metodologia do Instituto Cochrane; a busca de dados foi realizada na base de dados Science Direct, Scielo, Medline, Lilacs e Pubmed, empregando as seguintes descritores: hepatocellular carcinoma, leptin, adipokine. Após avaliação individual dos artigos selecionaram-se sete estudos

  9. In situ hybridization; principles and applications: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nozhat

    2015-06-01

    suspected after microscope analysis. In this technique different fluorescent labels are attached to the probes. In this review article ISH, its different types, their application, advantages and disadvantages have been considered.

  10. The Art of Critically Reviewing a Medical Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LD Mishra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Annually about 6 million articles related to the field of medicine are published worldwide. However, only 15% of these are of any use. Average quality score of randomized controlled trials (RCTs is <50%.

  11. Review article: gastric emptying in functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Although delayed gastric emptying has been described in several functional gastrointestinal disorders, and appears to be especially common in functional dyspepsia, the relationship of this finding to symptoms and basic pathophysiology is difficult to define. The delineation of the interactions between delayed gastric emptying, on the one hand, and symptom pathogenesis, on the other, has been hampered by several factors. These include the limitations of the methodology itself, the extent of overlap between the various functional disorders and the sensitivity of gastric emptying to factors external to the stomach, be they elsewhere within the gastrointestinal tract, in the central nervous system or in the environment. In many instances, delayed gastric emptying is an epiphenomenon, reflecting the overlap between inadequately defined functional syndromes, shared pathophysiology or the activation of physiological interactions between the various organs of the gut. In others, it may imply a truly diffuse motor disorder. The disappointments attendant on attempts to alleviate symptoms through approaches designed to accelerate gastric emptying should therefore not come as a surprise. Pending the definition of the true significance of delayed gastric emptying in all functional gastrointestinal disorders, caution should be exerted in the interpretation of this finding in a patient with functional symptoms.

  12. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Inflammatory Bowel Disease Pathogenesis: An Update Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoshi Ma

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelial cells serve essential roles in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, which relies on appropriate endoplasmic reticulum (ER function for proper protein folding, modification, and secretion. Exogenous or endogenous risk factors with an ability to disturb the ER function can impair the intestinal barrier function and activate inflammatory responses in the host. The last decade has witnessed considerable progress in the understanding of the functional role of ER stress and unfolded protein response (UPR in the gut homeostasis and its significant contribution to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Herein, we review recent evidence supporting the viewpoint that deregulation of ER stress and UPR signaling in the intestinal epithelium, including the absorptive cells, Paneth cells, goblet cells, and enteroendocrine cells, mediates the action of genetic or environmental factors driving colitis in experimental animals and IBD patients. In addition, we highlight pharmacologic application of chaperones or small molecules that enhance protein folding and modification capacity or improve the function of the ER. These molecules represent potential therapeutic strategies in the prevention or treatment of IBD through restoring ER homeostasis in intestinal epithelial cells.

  13. The Immune Response and the Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis: a Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceribelli, Angela; De Santis, Maria; Isailovic, Natasa; Gershwin, M Eric; Selmi, Carlo

    2017-02-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIMs, including polymyositis and dermatomyositis) remains largely enigmatic, despite advances in the study of the role played by innate immunity, adaptive immunity, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors in an orchestrated response. Several factors are involved in the inflammatory state that characterizes the different forms of IIMs which share features and mechanisms but are clearly different with respect to the involved sites and characteristics of the inflammation. Cellular and non-cellular mechanisms of both the immune and non-immune systems have been identified as key regulators of inflammation in polymyositis/dermatomyositis, particularly at different stages of disease, leading to the fibrotic state that characterizes the end stage. Among these, a special role is played by an interferon signature and complement cascade with different mechanisms in polymyositis and dermatomyositis; these differences can be identified also histologically in muscle biopsies. Numerous cellular components of the adaptive and innate immune response are present in the site of tissue inflammation, and the complexity of idiopathic inflammatory myositis is further supported by the involvement of non-immune mechanisms such as hypoxia and autophagy. The aim of this comprehensive review is to describe the major pathogenic mechanisms involved in the onset of idiopathic inflammatory myositis and to report on the major working hypothesis with therapeutic implications.

  14. Oral candidiasis: pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalla, Rajesh V; Patton, Lauren L; Dongari-Bagtzoglou, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Oral candidiasis is a clinical fungal infection that is the most common opportunistic infection affecting the human oral cavity. This article reviews the pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis and treatmentstrategies for oral candidiasis.

  15. Novel Insights to Celiac Disease: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Pourtalebi-Firoozabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease is a chronic, systemic and autoimmune disorder of gastrointestinal track that involves approximately 1% of individuals of all ages throughout the world. The collaboration of environmental factor such as gluten proteins and genetic factors, notably HLA-DQ2 and/or HLA-DQ8 trigger the disease. Gluten-free diet is the simply and merely safe and proficient existing treatment. This article summarizes the latest trends in celiac disease.

  16. The Role of Carbohydrate Related Factors in Pathogenesis of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Sherafatmanesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is among the most common causes of chronic liver disease worldwide and its prevalence is increasing nowadays. This review article discusses the role of carbohydrate in NAFLD. We reviewed 57 papers out of which 48 randomized controlled trials and review articles with good quality were collected. The key words used for the search were: “Carbohydrate”, “Fructose”, “Weight”, “Low carbohydrate, ketogenic diet”, in combination with “NAFLD” for searching in “Pubmed”, ”Science direct” and “Google Scholar” databases. We limited our search to studies published in English. The available data provided adequate scientific evidence which pointed toward the considerable potential effects between high intake of carbohydrates, fructose, high glycemic index foods and low dietary fiber and incidence of the NAFLD. This review provided sufficient evidence that higher consumption of carbohydrates and fructose sources may exacerbate NAFLD which leads to more accumulation of fat in the liver; while higher intake of fiber and low GI carbohydrate tends to ameliorate NAFLD.

  17. Current Status of Acanthamoeba in Iran: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Niyyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Free-living amoebae belonging to the genus Acanthamoeba have an environmental distribution. Amoebic keratitis due to these protozoan parasites continue to rise in Iran and worldwide. In Iran, there are various researches regarding both morphological and molecular identification of Acanthamoeba spp. in environmental and clinical samples. However, there is no thorough review about Acanthamoeba genotypes and their distribution in environmental sources such as water, dust and biofilm in Iran. Besides, according to increasing cases of Amoebic keratitis in the region awareness regarding the pathogenic potential of these sight-threatening amoebae is of utmost importance.We conducted a thorough review based on the database sources such as MEDLINE, PubMed and Google scholar. No restrictions were placed on study date, study design or language of publication. We searched all valuable and relevant information considering the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba in both environmental and clinical samples.According to our thorough review Acanthamoeba belonging to T4 genotype is the most prevalent type strain in environmental and clinical samples in several regions in Iran and worldwide, however, there are reports regarding Acanthamoeba belonging to other genotypes such as T2, T3, T5, T6 and T11 and the mentioned point could leads us to more researches with the goal of presenting the real genotype dominance of Acanthamoeba and related disease in the country.Overall, the present review will focus on present status of genotypes of Acanthamoeba in Iran during recent years.

  18. Albert Einstein's 1916 Review Article on General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Sauer, Tilman

    2004-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of the final version of the general theory of relativity was published by Einstein in 1916 after several expositions of preliminary versions and latest revisions of the theory in November 1915. A historical account of this review paper is given, of its prehistory, including a discussion of Einstein's collaboration with Marcel Grossmann, and of its immediate reception.

  19. Gloriosa, a source of colchicine፡ review article | Alemu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this review is to assess the importance of Gloriosa superba as a source of colchicine and action to taken on the conservation of the plant in Ethiopian. Gloriosa superba L. is an important plant distributed in different countries which is known by its valuable chemical called colchicine. Due to this, the crop is ...

  20. The nature and scope of psychiatric ethics: review article | Radden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both the professional code of conduct required in the practice of psychiatry, and the broader set of moral and ethical problems distinctive to, or at least magnified by, the mental health care setting are reviewed here. Some perennial aspects of mental disorder and its cultural history are introduced, together with problems ...

  1. Review Article: Vaccine for Malaria – How Far? | Oyeyinka | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a review of the progress made so far in the effort to produce a malaria vaccine. The problems that have made it impossible to get an effective vaccine for malaria are discussed. Also examined are the current efforts to produce the vaccine and the prospects for an effective vaccine in the future. Key words: Vaccine ...

  2. Review Article eview Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... Recent years, foreign investment in productive agricultural land in dev ... there is an in rights of people. ... Administration, College of Business and Economics, Wollega University, ost Box No: ..... agricultural workers, rural women, and indigenous ... Southeast Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (Jama and. Pizarro ...

  3. Review Article eview Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2013-06-28

    Jun 28, 2013 ... In many of the host States, there is an in rights of people. .... boycott, the United States of America (USA) threatened to cut off ... In fact their real concern was temporary export restrictions imposed ... well as aboveground and subsurface carbon stocks. ..... Global Food Production under SRES Emissions and.

  4. Gender identity in disorders of sex development: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jennifer H; Baskin, Laurence S; DiSandro, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Many concerns have been raised regarding the treatment and long-term outcome of infants born with complex genital anomalies. Debate among clinicians, psychologists, ethicists, and patient advocate groups regarding the optimal management of these individuals is ongoing. Although determining the most appropriate gender is a difficult task, this review will help clarify some of the issues at hand. A literature review which addresses the challenges of advising families about gender identity in infants and children with disorders of sex development. The evidence for endocrine effects on neurobiological development with regard to sexual behavior is compelling, although the existing outcome studies are largely anecdotal and somewhat contradictory. Gender assignment in infants born with a disorder of sex development remains only one of the many difficult decisions faced by both the treatment team and the family. Improved long-term follow-up of these patients will provide much needed feedback on previous and contemporary management. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. AIAA Aerospace America Magazine - Year in Review Article, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    NASA Stennis Space Center has implemented a pilot operational Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) capability. The implementation was done for the E-2 Rocket Engine Test Stand and a Chemical Steam Generator (CSG) test article; and validated during operational testing. The CSG test program is a risk mitigation activity to support building of the new A-3 Test Stand, which will be a highly complex facility for testing of engines in high altitude conditions. The foundation of the ISHM capability are knowledge-based integrated domain models for the test stand and CSG, with physical and model-based elements represented by objects the domain models enable modular and evolutionary ISHM functionality.

  6. Review article: Numerical simulation of adsorption heat pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesaran, Alireza; Lee, Hoseong; Hwang, Yunho; Radermacher, Reinhard; Chun, Ho-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    The primary advantages of the AHP (adsorption heat pump) including using environmentally friendly working fluids and their capability of using low-grade waste heat as their primary driving energy have raised a great deal of attention in recent years. In this work, computer models of AHPs and the latest relevant findings are reviewed since the performance of an AHP system greatly depends on the coupled heat and mass transfer rates inside the adsorbent bed and the design parameters of the adsorber. The nonlinearity of the coupled heat and mass transfer equations makes the qualitative analysis of such systems difficult and hence many researchers have proposed various models to predict the performance of the system and optimize the design parameters to boost the performance. The available models in the literature have been categorized into thermodynamic models, lumped-parameter models, and distributed-parameter (heat and mass transfer) models. The results of the literature review indicate that recent numerical modeling of AHPs relies on the distributed-parameter models. Majority of the modeling works are focused on validating the proposed model and used the model to optimize the adsorber design parameters and operating conditions of the system. Based on the literature review, some potential future research areas are suggested. - Highlights: • Reviewed different types of models to predict the adsorption heat pump performance. • Distributed-parameter models are identified as the most accurate models. • Linear driving force model is widely used for the internal mass transfer resistance. • Darcy's law is widely used for the external mass transfer resistance.

  7. Schumann Resonances and Their Potential Applications: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Fathi Alrais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Schumann resonances is an important topic gains great interest in research areas which has extensive use of Schumann resonances in a variety of desplines such as biological evolutionary processes, the optimal functioning of the human brain waves and lightning-related studies. Materials and Methods: This dictates the major emphasis on economic, environmental, and engineering applications and hazard assessments in the form of earthquake and volcano monitoring. Results: This review is aimed at the reader generally unfamiliar with the Schumann Resonances. It is our hope that this review will increase the interest in SR among researchers previously unfamiliar with this phenomenon. Discussion and Conclusions: In this review paper, a brief introduction about Schumann resonances is presented. A general description of Earth’s ionosphere is outlined. The electromagnetic waves spectrum from lightning is discussed. The history of Schumann resonances is briefly presented. The connection of man with nature through Schumann resonances is introduced. Present Schumann resonances researches are briefly outlined. Schumann (global electromagnetic resonances in the cavity Earth – ionosphere play a critical role in all biological evolutionary processes. However, there is a great need for independent research into the bio-compatibility between natural and manmade signals. Serious attention must now be paid to the possible biological role of standing waves in the atmosphere. Being a global phenomenon, Schumann resonances have numerous applications in lightning research.

  8. Research advances in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD has been developing rapidly in recent years and has become one of the most common liver diseases. However, its pathogenesis remains unclear, and there are no widely accepted therapeutic regimens. NAFLD has a complex pathogenesis with multiple factors involved, including insulin resistance, oxidative stress, bile acid metabolic disorders, and autophagy. This article reviews the pathogenesis of NAFLD in order to provide a reference for further research and clinical treatment in the future.

  9. 77 FR 65864 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-31

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  10. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  11. 78 FR 51708 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  12. 75 FR 74686 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  13. 76 FR 4633 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... duty law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  14. 76 FR 14917 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1... established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were...

  15. 76 FR 56404 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... law of the country that made the determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  16. 77 FR 29965 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... determination. Under Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of... Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules''). These Rules were published in the Federal...

  17. Article Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... Article. The use of standardised patients (SPs) in medical education is well ... those taught using inpatients6 and virtual patients.7 The use of the ..... the reality that principles taught in theory do not always translate into the.

  18. Invited Review Article: The Chandra X-ray Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Daniel A.

    2014-06-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory is an orbiting x-ray telescope facility. It is one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's four "Great Observatories" that collectively have carried out astronomical observations covering the infrared through gamma-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Chandra is used by astronomers world-wide to acquire imaging and spectroscopic data over a nominal 0.1-10 keV (124-1.24 Å) range. We describe the three major parts of the observatory: the telescope, the spacecraft systems, and the science instruments. This article will emphasize features of the design and development driven by some of the experimental considerations unique to x-ray astronomy. We will update the on-orbit performance and present examples of the scientific highlights.

  19. REVIEW ARTICLE: Spectrophotometric applications of digital signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Roman Z.

    2006-09-01

    Spectrophotometry is more and more often the method of choice not only in analysis of (bio)chemical substances, but also in the identification of physical properties of various objects and their classification. The applications of spectrophotometry include such diversified tasks as monitoring of optical telecommunications links, assessment of eating quality of food, forensic classification of papers, biometric identification of individuals, detection of insect infestation of seeds and classification of textiles. In all those applications, large numbers of data, generated by spectrophotometers, are processed by various digital means in order to extract measurement information. The main objective of this paper is to review the state-of-the-art methodology for digital signal processing (DSP) when applied to data provided by spectrophotometric transducers and spectrophotometers. First, a general methodology of DSP applications in spectrophotometry, based on DSP-oriented models of spectrophotometric data, is outlined. Then, the most important classes of DSP methods for processing spectrophotometric data—the methods for DSP-aided calibration of spectrophotometric instrumentation, the methods for the estimation of spectra on the basis of spectrophotometric data, the methods for the estimation of spectrum-related measurands on the basis of spectrophotometric data—are presented. Finally, the methods for preprocessing and postprocessing of spectrophotometric data are overviewed. Throughout the review, the applications of DSP are illustrated with numerous examples related to broadly understood spectrophotometry.

  20. Surgical Management of Hip Problems in Myelomeningocele: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghi Baghdadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with myelomeningocele (MMC develop a wide variety of hip deformities such as muscle imbalance, contracture, subluxation, and dislocation. Various methods and indications have been introduced for treatment of muscle imbalances and other hip problems in patients with MMC but there is no study or meta-analysis to compare the results and complications. This review aims to find the most acceptable approach to hip problems in patients with MMC. Methods: MEDLINE was searched up to April 2015. All study designs that reported on the outcomes of hip problems in MMC were included. From 270 screened citations, 55 were strictly focused on hip problem in MMC were selected and reviewed. Results: Complex osseous and soft tissue reconstructive procedures to correct hip dysplasia and muscle balancing around the hip are rarely indicated for MMC patients without good quadriceps power. Conclusion: Over the years a consensus on the best algorithm for treatment of hip dislocation in myelomeningocele has been missing, however, muscular balancing with/out osseous procedure seems a reasonable approach especially in unilateral mid-lumbar MMC.

  1. Preeclampsia: A review of the pathogenesis and possible management strategies based on its pathophysiological derangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Amel A F

    2017-10-01

    This review is divided into three parts. The first part briefly describes the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. This is followed by reviewing previously reported management strategies of the disease based on its pathophysiological derangements. Finally, the author defines the safe and acceptable methods/medications that may be used to 'prevent' preeclampsia (in high risk patients) and those that may be used to 'treat' preeclampsia (meant to prolong the pregnancy in patients with established preeclampsia). The review concludes that multi-center trials are required to include multiple drugs in the same management protocol. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Review article: Methodology for the 'rapid review' series on musculoskeletal injuries in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strudwick, Kirsten; McPhee, Megan; Bell, Anthony; Martin-Khan, Melinda; Russell, Trevor

    2018-02-01

    Musculoskeletal injuries are a common presentation to the ED, with significant costs involved in the management of these injuries, variances in care within the ED and associated morbidity. A series of rapid review papers were completed to guide best practice for the assessment and management of common musculoskeletal injuries presenting to the ED. This paper presents the methodology used across the rapid reviews. PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, TRIP and the grey literature, including relevant organisational websites, were searched in 2015. The search was repeated consistently for each topic area (injuries of the foot and ankle, knee, hand and wrist, elbow, shoulder, lumbar spine and cervical spine). English-language primary studies, systematic reviews and guidelines that were published in the last 10 years and addressed acute musculoskeletal injury management were considered for inclusion. Data extraction of each included article was conducted, followed by a quality appraisal. The extracted data from each article was synthesised to group similar evidence together. For each rapid review, the evidence has been organised in a way that a clinician can direct their attention to a specific component of the clinical cycle of care in the ED, such as the assessment, diagnostic tests, management and follow-up considerations from ED. The series of rapid reviews are designed to foster evidence-based practice within the ED, targeting the injuries most commonly presenting. The reviews provide clinicians in EDs with rapid access to the best current evidence, which has been synthesised and organised to assist decision-making. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Implication of thymoglobulin in kidney transplant patients: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudabeh Alatab

    2015-11-01

    association is present when lower dosing regimens are used. In this review, we aimed to present first a brief history of thymoglobulin development and its mechanism of action and then assess the most recent published data regarding the role of thymoglobulin in following issues: immunological tolerance, ischemia-reperfusion injury, delayed graft function, prevention and treatment of acute allograft rejection, live donor transplantation, graft and patient survival and posttrans-plant lymphoproliferative disorder. This review can help specialist in transplant domain to appropriately used thymoglobulin in transplant patients.

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE: Emission measurement techniques for advanced powertrains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Masayuki

    2000-10-01

    Recent developments in high-efficiency low-emission powertrains require the emission measurement technologies to be able to detect regulated and unregulated compounds with very high sensitivity and a fast response. For example, levels of a variety of nitrogen compounds and sulphur compounds should be analysed in real time in order to develop aftertreatment systems to decrease emission of NOx for the lean burning powertrains. Also, real-time information on the emission of particulate matter for the transient operation of diesel engines and direct injection gasoline engines is invaluable. The present paper reviews newly introduced instrumentation for such emission measurement that is demanded for the developments in advanced powertrain systems. They include Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and fast response flame ionization detection. In addition, demands and applications of the fuel reformer developments for fuel cell electric vehicles are discussed. Besides the detection methodologies, sample handling techniques for the measurement of concentrations emitted from low emission vehicles for which the concentrations of the pollutants are significantly lower than the concentrations present in ambient air, are also described.

  5. Review article. Adverse hematological effects of hexavalent chromium: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Rina Rani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Workers of tanneries, welding industries, factories manufacturing chromate containing paints are exposed to hexavalent chromium that increas¬es the risk of developing serious adverse health effects. This review elucidates the mode of action of hexavalent chromium on blood and its adverse effects. Both leukocyte and erythrocyte counts of blood sharply decreased in Swiss mice after two weeks of intraperitoneal treatment with Cr (VI, with the erythrocytes transforming into echinocytes. The hexavalent chromium in the blood is readily reduced to trivalent form and the reductive capacity of erythrocytes is much greater than that of plasma. Excess Cr (VI, not reduced in plasma, may enter erythrocytes and lymphocytes and in rodents it induces microcytic anemia. The toxic effects of chromium (VI include mitochondrial injury and DNA damage of blood cells that leads to carcinogenicity. Excess Cr (VI increases cytosolic Ca2+ activity and ATP depletion thereby inducing eryptosis. Se, vitamin C, and quercetin are assumed to have some protective effect against hexavalent chromium induced hematological disorders.

  6. Review article: uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruzziello, L; Iacopini, F; Bulajic, M; Shah, S; Costamagna, G

    2006-05-15

    Diverticular disease of the colon is the fifth most important gastrointestinal disease in terms of direct and indirect health care costs in western countries. Uncomplicated diverticular disease is defined as the presence of diverticula in the absence of complications such as perforation, fistula, obstruction and/or bleeding. The distribution of diverticula along the colon varies worldwide being almost always left-sided and directly related to age in western countries and right-sided where diet is rich in fibre. The pathophysiology of diverticular disease is complex and relates to abnormal colonic motility, changes in the colonic wall, chronic mucosal low-grade inflammation, imbalance in colonic microflora and visceral hypersensitivity. Moreover, there can be genetic factors involved in the development of colonic diverticula. The use of non-absorbable antibiotics is the mainstay of therapy in patients with mild to moderate symptoms, and the effect of fibre-supplementation alone does not appear to be significantly different from placebo, although no definite data are available. More recently, alternative treatments have been reported. Mesalazine acts as a local mucosal immunomodulator and has been shown to improve symptoms and prevent recurrence of diverticulitis. In addition, probiotics have also been shown to be beneficial by re-establishing a normal gut microflora. In this study, the current literature on uncomplicated diverticular disease of the colon is reviewed.

  7. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-10-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  8. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vos, Winnok H.; Beghuin, Didier; Schwarz, Christian J.; Jones, David B.; Loon, Jack J. W. A. van; Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.

    2014-01-01

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy

  9. Essential oils as natural medicinal substances: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Aali

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Herbal essential oils are volatile, natural, complex compounds formed by medicinal plants as secondary metabolites. As reported by international organization for standardization (ISO, the term "essential oils" (EOs is defined for a product obtained from vegetable raw materials or fruit using distillation with water or steam. The EOs are generally complex mixtures of volatile organic compounds include hydrocarbons (terpenes and sesquiterpenes and oxygenated compounds (alcohols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, phenols, and phenol ethers compounds. In medicinal plants, the EOs chemical profile usually very varies because of both intrinsic (sexual, seasonal, ontogenetic, and genetic variations and extrinsic (ecological and environmental aspects factors, also the EOs composition differs not only in the number and type of molecules but also in their stereochemical structures, and can be very different according to the extraction method. EOs represents a “green” alternative in the nutritional and pharmaceutical fields due to reported antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties thus, in recent times; EOs has gained great popularity as consumers have developed a particular ever-growing awareness toward the use of natural ingredients, especially in food and household. Therefore, the present review provides a comprehensive summary on the method of preparation of EOs from medicinal plants, chemical composition analysis, their biological and pharmacological effects and their potential benefits on health level. Present information was compiled using keywords “Essential oil, Medicinal Plants and Natural additive in scientific database as Science Direct, Elsevier, PubMed, Google scholar and SID, until 2005 to 2015. EOs have great antimicrobial activity and mostly destroy bacteria, fungi and viruses without harmful effects on consumer’s health. Finding of this study showed that the Thymol, α-Pinene,

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast Foods and their Impact on Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashakiran

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eat healthy and live healthy’ is one of the essential requirements for long life. Unfortunately, today’s world has been adapted to a system of consumption of foods which has several adverse effects on health. Lifestyle changes has compelled us so much that one has so little time to really think what we are eating is right Globalisation and urbanisation have greatly affected one’s eating habits and forced many people to consume fancy and high calorie fast foods, popularly known as ‘Junk foods. Research into the possible health hazards on consumption of such high calorie foods has given an insight to avoid them, but unfortunately measures taken are not aseffective as they need to be. Diseases like coronary artery disease and diabetes mellitus have seen a profound rise in developing countries and such unhealthy junk food consumption is one of the notable factors to its contribution. This global problem of consuming junk food on a large scale and its impact on health needs emphasis and health education which can greatly contribute to itslimited consumption and switching over to healthy eating habits for the better living. knowledge highlighting about the eating habits,nutritional aspects, quality of unhealthy foods, their health impact and preventive measures should be given to create awareness and render health education for a change towards good eating practices. Junk food and its impact on health have been reviewed from variousresources and have been systematically presented, so as to emphasize its ill effects and measures to be adapted towards healthy living.

  11. Invited Review Article: Advanced light microscopy for biological space research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vos, Winnok H., E-mail: winnok.devos@uantwerpen.be [Laboratory of Cell Biology and Histology, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Antwerp (Belgium); Cell Systems and Imaging Research Group, Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Beghuin, Didier [Lambda-X, Nivelles (Belgium); Schwarz, Christian J. [European Space Agency (ESA), ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Jones, David B. [Institute for Experimental Orthopaedics and Biomechanics, Philipps University, Marburg (Germany); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, VU University Medical Center and Department of Oral Cell Biology, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bereiter-Hahn, Juergen; Stelzer, Ernst H. K. [Physical Biology, BMLS (FB15, IZN), Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    As commercial space flights have become feasible and long-term extraterrestrial missions are planned, it is imperative that the impact of space travel and the space environment on human physiology be thoroughly characterized. Scrutinizing the effects of potentially detrimental factors such as ionizing radiation and microgravity at the cellular and tissue level demands adequate visualization technology. Advanced light microscopy (ALM) is the leading tool for non-destructive structural and functional investigation of static as well as dynamic biological systems. In recent years, technological developments and advances in photochemistry and genetic engineering have boosted all aspects of resolution, readout and throughput, rendering ALM ideally suited for biological space research. While various microscopy-based studies have addressed cellular response to space-related environmental stressors, biological endpoints have typically been determined only after the mission, leaving an experimental gap that is prone to bias results. An on-board, real-time microscopical monitoring device can bridge this gap. Breadboards and even fully operational microscope setups have been conceived, but they need to be rendered more compact and versatile. Most importantly, they must allow addressing the impact of gravity, or the lack thereof, on physiologically relevant biological systems in space and in ground-based simulations. In order to delineate the essential functionalities for such a system, we have reviewed the pending questions in space science, the relevant biological model systems, and the state-of-the art in ALM. Based on a rigorous trade-off, in which we recognize the relevance of multi-cellular systems and the cellular microenvironment, we propose a compact, but flexible concept for space-related cell biological research that is based on light sheet microscopy.

  12. REVIEW ARTICLE: Geophysical signatures of oceanic core complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Donna K.; Canales, J. Pablo; Harding, Alistair

    2009-08-01

    Oceanic core complexes (OCCs) provide access to intrusive and ultramafic sections of young lithosphere and their structure and evolution contain clues about how the balance between magmatism and faulting controls the style of rifting that may dominate in a portion of a spreading centre for Myr timescales. Initial models of the development of OCCs depended strongly on insights available from continental core complexes and from seafloor mapping. While these frameworks have been useful in guiding a broader scope of studies and determining the extent of OCC formation along slow spreading ridges, as we summarize herein, results from the past decade highlight the need to reassess the hypothesis that reduced magma supply is a driver of long-lived detachment faulting. The aim of this paper is to review the available geophysical constraints on OCC structure and to look at what aspects of current models are constrained or required by the data. We consider sonar data (morphology and backscatter), gravity, magnetics, borehole geophysics and seismic reflection. Additional emphasis is placed on seismic velocity results (refraction) since this is where deviations from normal crustal accretion should be most readily quantified. However, as with gravity and magnetic studies at OCCs, ambiguities are inherent in seismic interpretation, including within some processing/analysis steps. We briefly discuss some of these issues for each data type. Progress in understanding the shallow structure of OCCs (within ~1 km of the seafloor) is considerable. Firm constraints on deeper structure, particularly characterization of the transition from dominantly mafic rock (and/or altered ultramafic rock) to dominantly fresh mantle peridotite, are not currently in hand. There is limited information on the structure and composition of the conjugate lithosphere accreted to the opposite plate while an OCC forms, commonly on the inside corner of a ridge-offset intersection. These gaps preclude full

  13. Negotiation on the Assessment of Research Articles with Academic Reviewers: Application of Peer-Review Approach of Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Rafiq, Imran; Imam, Boulent

    2011-01-01

    This study provides an insight into the dominant negotiation processes that occur between the authors of research articles and academic reviewers at the peer reviewing stage. Data of reviewers comments and authors responses on 32 science and engineering based journal articles covering four decision categories (accept as is, accept with minor…

  14. 77 FR 74174 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section.... Therefore, on the basis of the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was...

  15. 78 FR 5778 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... the Panel Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the...

  16. 78 FR 17639 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  17. 78 FR 10600 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  18. 78 FR 11627 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  19. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Order and Rule 80 of the Article 1904 Panel Rules, the Panel Review was completed and the panelists were...

  20. A Content and Methodological Review of Articles Concerning Multiracial Issues in Six Major Counseling Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Pedrotti, Jennifer Teramoto

    2008-01-01

    This study describes a comprehensive content and methodological review of articles about multiracial issues in 6 journals related to counseling up to the year 2006. The authors summarize findings about the 18 articles that emerged from this review of the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," "Journal of Counseling & Development," "The Counseling…

  1. Towards an Analysis of Review Article in Applied Linguistics: Its Classes, Purposes and Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Ali Sorayyaei; Hashim, Azirah

    2014-01-01

    The classes, purposes and characteristics associated with the review article in the field of applied linguistics were analyzed. The data were collected from a randomly selected corpus of thirty two review articles from a discipline-related key journal in applied linguistics. The findings revealed that different sub-genres can be identified within…

  2. Examining the Distribution, Modularity, and Community Structure in Article Networks for Systematic Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Machiraju, Raghu; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2015-01-01

    Systematic reviews (SRs) provide high quality evidence for clinical practice, but the article screening process is time and labor intensive. As SRs aim to identify relevant articles with a specific scope, we propose that a pre-defined article relationship, using similarity metrics, could accelerate this process. In this study, we established the article relationship using MEDLINE element similarities and visualized the article network with the Force Atlas layout. We also analyzed the article networks with graph diameter, closeness centrality, and module classes. The results revealed the distribution of articles and found that included articles tended to aggregate together in some module classes, providing further evidence of the existence of strong relationships among included articles. This approach can be utilized to facilitate the articles selection process through early identification of these dominant module classes. We are optimistic that the use of article network visualization can help better SR work prioritization.

  3. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    perlite and pumice, road metal and building stones. - g. Quaternary sediments and sedimentary rocks. Principal mineral and industrial rock occurrences are potash, sulphur, lignite, limestone, gypsum, diatomite, salt and clay. Figs 2 and 3 show the distribution of the main deposits of the principal minerals and industrial.

  4. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-19

    Sep 19, 2012 ... and newly qualified teachers may not have mastered or developed sufficient skills for effective teaching .... employed to directly influence teaching behavior .... collegial supervision include mentoring, cognitive coaching, and ...

  5. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular im...

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Ki-67 score or index is the percentage of positively ... negative, node-positive and untreated breast cancer patients. ... In the USA, black women are 40% more likely to die than ... and forty-three patients with node-negative breast cancer,.

  7. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioline

    Nigerian Journal of surgical Research. Vol 8 No .... weight, lipid solubility, degree of ionization, serum ... higher CSF levels than do large, complex molecules. .... The dura should be left intact whenever possible.11,12. Haematogenous Skull ...

  8. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-29

    Dec 29, 2012 ... Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Electrical ... proposes several architectures for implementing a rasterizor unit on smart-display, ... Embedded systems ..... Master's thesis, Delft University of Technology.

  9. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-06-24

    Jun 24, 2012 ... though most industrial organizations have now adopted modern quality ... PSP as a framework of techniques to help engineers and their organizations to improve their .... software products (Defect prevention and removal are ...

  10. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hamid

    2008-10-09

    Oct 9, 2008 ... All public systems look for the best organizational structure to funnel part of their national income into healthcare services. ... system based on social insurance where there .... 45 LD were for medical supplies and drugs. [15].

  11. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    correct understanding and treatment of war wounds. Attention is focused .... eye injuries: -. Benzyl penicillin ... (depending on possibility of oral intake). stomach, small ... absorbent dressing made of dry fluffed-up gauze and held in place with ...

  12. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 2226-7522(Print) and 2305-3327 (Online). Science ... Countries around the world have nominated broadband network as establishing an information society for achieving their social, economic and scientific goals. Broadband has been a .... Bank loans, shopping, .... track of their friends and communicate with them.

  13. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    al developed a variety of mathematical equations based on fasting insulin .... found to predict and increase the risk of CKD in 12,728 ... Table 2: Mean Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) and/or Hazard Ratio (HR) in renal and non-renal .... example metformin, an efficient drug improving IR in the.

  14. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    are fossil fuel power plants, major CO2-emitting industries such as cement and steel production, etc. Geological ... Galadima & Garba (2008) discussed potential implementation risks ..... assess and verify the ability to safely store CO2 in oil reservoirs. A ..... Gas Control Technologies, 5-9 September 2004, Vancouver,.

  15. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evert

    Entente Powers (the chief of which were Britain, France and Russia) when it declared war on the ... Reitz served as an officer in both the UDF and the British Army during the war, including spells .... files, financial and other records.24.

  16. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Ahmed

    Thus, the isomerisation method serves as a better alternative that could be ... 83.4% isomerisation selectivity obtained with the Zr-free Al–MCM-. 41 catalysts. ... alkane to a corresponding n-alkene, which isomerises in the second step and ...

  17. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N

    2000-01-01

    , but the epidemiological data on the risk of gallstone formation in these patients are too scarce and equivocal to recommend prophylactic cholecystectomy. Future studies on gall-bladder motility after surgical procedures should include measurements of gall-bladder motility during the fasting state, as well as in the post...

  18. Review article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, M A; Krarup, H; Sand, J.M.B

    2014-01-01

    for disease. Assessment of the tissue turnover balance by measurement of tissue formation and tissue degradation separately by novel technologies may provide value. CONCLUSIONS: Novel technologies focused on the protein fingerprint in addition to biomarker classification, may increase the quality of biomarker...

  19. REVIEW ARTICLE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    School of Emerging Life Science Technologies, Central University of Punjab, ... some pesticides and change their actual dose response curve due to mixed exposure to ...... an organophosphate degrading enzyme An International Quarterly.

  20. REVIEW ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1997-01-26

    Jan 26, 1997 ... South African book on the topic of privatised security outfits in Africa. Since it is a ... petroleum and minet'al companies with business interests in resource-rich Africa'. As ..... important cause of the war against Russia34.

  1. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Demetris AJ, Drachenberg CB, Gibson IW, Grimm. PC, Haas M, Lerut E, Liapis H, Mannon RB, Marcus. PB, Mengel M, Mihatsch MJ, Nankivell BJ, Nickeleit. V, Papadimitriou JC, Platt JL, Randhawa P, Roberts. I, Salinas-Madriga L, Salomon DR, Seron D, Sheaff. M, Weening JJ. Banff'05 Meeting Report: differential diagnosis ...

  2. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    are in doubt about the ethics of a clinical trial, we can ask ourselves: “what would ... Keywords: Clinical trials; Developing World; Informed. Consent ... enhancing favorable outcomes. .... cultural clashes, asymmetry of communication between.

  3. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Is Global Warming Likely to Cause an Increased Incidence of. Malaria? Nabi SA1 ... environment (Figure 1). ... in climate change and human health” Their list includes ..... Migration and human travel is also one of the factors ...

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ANNALS

    affect women in contrast to men due to differences in exposure, occupational risk, sociocultural behavior, gender roles and ... differ physiologically and do different things, thus there are gender .... Millions of women aspire to a better life and.

  5. review article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    G5

    Kidney dysfunction is a serious compli- cation that can occur following the admin- istration of contrast media (CM). Although the incidence of contrast nephropathy. (CN) is low in the general population (1 -. 2%) it poses a serious risk to those with impaired kidney function. Other risks include diabetes, old age and ...

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    In addition, the 24 kDa fragment resulting from the effect of cathepsin D ... keratinocyte differentiation, hair follicle cycle, apop- .... common laboratory tests, such as vitamin B12, T4, ..... gene results in complete loss of autophagy, while this effect ...

  7. Review Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-09-15

    Sep 15, 2012 ... Thus, the primary purpose of this study is to scrutinize the impacts of exam administration ... and setting up key agencies to guide and oversee the sector .... often legitimate reasons for seeking both a ... albeit often guided by a conceptual framework .... that requires alignment, balance and rigour in order to ...

  8. Review Article

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Annalena Mills

    Department of Biology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, U.S.A. ... The difference in the female vs. male sex-biased genes on the X chromosomes of flies and ... biased gene expression is predominantly female-biased; in brain both female ...

  9. 75 FR 20567 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  10. 76 FR 56156 - North American Free-Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... (NAFTA), Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews AGENCY: NAFTA Secretariat, United States Section... Article 1904 of the Agreement, which came into force on January 1, 1994, the Government of the United States, the Government of Canada and the Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article...

  11. Impaired wound healing after radiation therapy: A systematic review of pathogenesis and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia K. Jacobson

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: Pathogenesis of delayed wound healing and fibrosis following radiotherapy is a complex, interdependent process involving cellular depletion, extracellular matrix changes, microvascular damage, and altered pro-inflammatory mediators. Current treatment is limited, and more Level I studies are needed to develop best-practice recommendations. Investigatory treatment options targeting specific mechanisms of injury may offer potential solutions to this significant clinical and surgical problem.

  12. Lessons Learned from PISA: A Systematic Review of Peer-Reviewed Articles on the Programme for International Student Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfenbeck, Therese N.; Lenkeit, Jenny; El Masri, Yasmine; Cantrell, Kate; Ryan, Jeanne; Baird, Jo-Anne

    2018-01-01

    International large-scale assessments are on the rise, with the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) seen by many as having strategic prominence in education policy debates. The present article reviews PISA-related English-language peer-reviewed articles from the programme's first cycle in 2000 to its most current in 2015. Five…

  13. Pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Riederer, Peter; Lange, Klaus W.

    1992-01-01

    The importance of genetic aspects, ageing, environmental factors, head trauma, defective mitochondrial respiration, altered iron metabolism, oxidative stress and glutamatergic overactivity of the basal ganglia in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD) are considered in this review.

  14. Insights into the pathogenesis and clinicopathological spectrum of oral vegetable granuloma. Case series with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankargouda Patil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral vegetable granuloma represents an inflammatory lesion of foreign body origin resulting from the implantation of vegetable matter. Controversy regarding its pathogenesis is reflected by the various terminologies used to describe the lesion. Its diverse clinical presentations are due to variations in the antigenic potential of the vegetable material and the host response. As the diagnosis is solely histopathological, it is critical to differentiate vegetable granuloma from other oral granulomatous lesions like tuberculosis, sarcoidosis and Wegner’s granulomatosis. Here, we report six cases with the varied clinicopathological presentation of hyaline ring granulomas in association with different pathological lesions.

  15. Underutilisation of routinely collected data in the HIV programme in Zambia: a review of quantitatively analysed peer-reviewed articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munthali, Tendai; Musonda, Patrick; Mee, Paul; Gumede, Sehlulekile; Schaap, Ab; Mwinga, Alwyn; Phiri, Caroline; Kapata, Nathan; Michelo, Charles; Todd, Jim

    2017-06-13

    The extent to which routinely collected HIV data from Zambia has been used in peer-reviewed published articles remains unexplored. This paper is an analysis of peer-reviewed articles that utilised routinely collected HIV data from Zambia within six programme areas from 2004 to 2014. Articles on HIV, published in English, listed in the Directory of open access journals, African Journals Online, Google scholar, and PubMed were reviewed. Only articles from peer-reviewed journals, that utilised routinely collected data and included quantitative data analysis methods were included. Multi-country studies involving Zambia and another country, where the specific results for Zambia were not reported, as well as clinical trials and intervention studies that did not take place under routine care conditions were excluded, although community trials which referred patients to the routine clinics were included. Independent extraction was conducted using a predesigned data collection form. Pooled analysis was not possible due to diversity in topics reviewed. A total of 69 articles were extracted for review. Of these, 7 were excluded. From the 62 articles reviewed, 39 focused on HIV treatment and retention in care, 15 addressed prevention of mother-to-child transmission, 4 assessed social behavioural change, and 4 reported on voluntary counselling and testing. In our search, no articles were found on condom programming or voluntary male medical circumcision. The most common outcome measures reported were CD4+ count, clinical failure or mortality. The population analysed was children in 13 articles, women in 16 articles, and both adult men and women in 33 articles. During the 10 year period of review, only 62 articles were published analysing routinely collected HIV data in Zambia. Serious consideration needs to be made to maximise the utility of routinely collected data, and to benefit from the funds and efforts to collect these data. This could be achieved with government support

  16. A review on Zika virus, a re-emerging arbovirus: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Khodakhah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Before the recent outbreaks of Zika virus, few people have ever heard of its name. Even virologists had paid little attention to this member of the Flaviviridae family. Hence, up to January 2016, only 269 articles about Zika virus had been indexed in PubMed compared to the 9187 articles related to dengue virus. However, declaration of the World health organization (WHO about the global Zika virus spreading, which has been associated with birth defects and some neurological problems, diverted more attention to this forgotten virus. Afterwards, the virus hit the headlines and became a research interest. Since then, up to 9 August 2017, the number of Zika related articles indexed in PubMed reached to 3214. Zika virus is a re-emerging arbovirus. The First detection of Zika virus was in Uganda in 1947. It belongs to the Flavivirus genus in the Flaviviridae family. Zika can typically cause a mild and self-limiting disease in a healthy person. However, in pregnant women, it might cause birth defects and occasionally it can be associated with peripheral neuropathy such as Guillain-Barre syndrome. Although many research have been conducted to find out the casual link between this virus and these disorders but this relationship is still dim and controversial. Considering its recent epidemics in 2015 and 2016 the geographical distribution of Zika virus seems to expand all over the world progressively. Interaction between virus and vector is dynamic. Variety of competent vectors and adaptability of virus to new arthropod vectors are the two major factors for this process. According to the last report published by WHO, 84 countries/territories in five continents have reported the circulation of Zika virus in their area. In the recent outbreak, WHO regional office in our region (EMRO have reported no case of Zika virus transmission from this region. Nonetheless, because specific and competent vectors exist in some countries, this region has a potential of

  17. Pituitary carcinoma diagnosed on fine needle aspiration: Report of a case and review of pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakoushina Tatiana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Pituitary carcinoma (PC is a very rare entity (0.2% of all pituitary tumors, with only about 140 cases reported in English literature. There are no reliable histological, immunohistochemical or ultrastructural features distinguishing pituitary adenoma (PA from PC. By definition, a diagnosis of PC is made after a patient with PA develops non-contiguous central nervous system (CNS or systemic metastases. To date, only three cases of PC have been reportedly diagnosed on fine needle aspiration (FNA. Two of the reported cases were diagnosed on FNA of the cervical lymph nodes and one on FNA of the vertebral bone lesion. Herein, we present a case of PC, diagnosed on FNA of the liver lesion. In this case, we describe cytologic features of PC and compare them to histologic features of the tumor in the pituitary. Clinical behavior of tumor, pathogenesis of metastasis and immunochemical and prognostic markers will also be described.

  18. Review papers The role of KIT gene mutations in pathogenesis of pediatric mastocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Dawicka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mastocytosis is characterized by excessive proliferation and accumulation of mast cells in skin and/or other organs. Two forms of the disease, cutaneous and systemic mastocytosis, differ significantly in symptomatology and clinical course. KIT mutations play an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. The presence of p.D816V KIT mutation was detected in the vast majority of adults with systemic mastocytosis. The role of KIT mutations in childhood-onset mastocytosis remains a matter of discussion. More recent studies have shown that cutaneous mastocytosis, which is the most common clinical manifestation of the disease in children, has a genetic background. In contrast to adults, different types of KIT mutations have been described in pediatric and familial mastocytosis. The understanding of the molecular mechanisms in mastocytosis enables targeted therapy using tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

  19. Open access to scientific articles: a review of benefits and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björk, Bo-Christer

    2017-03-01

    The Internet has fundamentally changed the publishing of scholarly peer reviewed journals, and the way readers find and access articles. Digital access is nowadays the norm, in particular for researchers. The Internet has enabled a totally new business model, Open Access (OA), in which an article is openly available in full text for anyone with Internet access. This article reviews the different options to achieve this, whether by journals changing their revenue structures from subscription to publishing charges, or authors utilizing a number of options for posting OA versions of article manuscripts in repositories. It also discusses the regrettable emergence of "predatory" publishers, who spam academics, and make money by promising them rapid publication with only the semblance of peer review. The situation is further discussed from the viewpoints of different stakeholders, including academics as authors and readers, practicing physicians and the general public.

  20. The 100 Most-Cited Articles in Visceral Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Martin; Gloor, Beat; Candinas, Daniel; Malinka, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Even though citation analysis has several limitations, it is a commonly used tool to determine the impact of scientific articles in different research fields. The study aims to identify and systematically review the 100 most cited articles in the field of visceral surgery focusing on papers that modified therapeutic concepts and influenced the surgeons' decision making. The 100 most cited clinical articles in visceral surgery were identified using Journal Citation Reports and Science Citation Index Expanded of the Web of Science (Thomson Reuters, Philadelphia, Pa., USA). Data for characterization of the articles were determined: Number of citations, research topic, journal, publication time, authorship, country of origin, type of article and level of evidence if reasonable. The 100 most cited articles were published in 17 journals; 72 articles were found in the 3 journals: New England Journal of Medicine (38), Annals of Surgery (21) and Lancet (13). The oldest article was published in 1908 in Annals of Surgery (ranked 76th) and the most recent in 2012 in Lancet (65th). Eighty articles were published between 1990 and 2010. The number of citations ranged from 667 to 4,666 (median 925). The leading country of origin was the United States with 39 articles, followed by articles originating from more than one country (30). There were 45 interventional studies (27 randomized controlled trials), 32 observational studies, 19 reviews and 4 guidelines, definitions or classifications. The level of evidence was low (IV) in 42 articles and high in 35 articles (Ia or Ib). A high number of citations did not reflect a high level of evidence. The topics and research questions of the identified articles covered a large area of visceral surgery. Some of the milestones in visceral surgery were identified. The high impact measured by citations did not reflect a high quality of research (level of evidence) in a considerable number of publications. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Review of the prevalence and causes of antimony compounds resistance in different societies review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Jaffary

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL is an endemic parasitic disease of major health impact in many parts of the world and is caused by several species of the protozoan parasite Leishmania. Antimonial compounds (i.e glucantime and pentostam are the first-line treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis with emerging drug resistance as a problem. The control of Leishmania is further complicated by the emergence of drug-resistant parasites. In the clinical settings, resistance to SbV containing drugs is now well established and it was found to occur in South America, Europe, the Middle East and most notably in India. Clinical resistance to organic pentavalent antimonials, in the form of sodium stibogluconate (pentostam or N-methylglucamine antimoniate (glucantime, has long been recognized. However, it is unknown whether the clinical failure of chemotherapy is attributable to the development of drug resistance mechanisms in the parasite or to a variety of host factors that might also contribute to low drug response. Reported rate of drug-resistance to antimonial compounds in Iran varies from 9.4% to 94.2% and there is not any comprehensive study on this issue. Indeed, in the endemic region treatment with SbV fails in more cases; thus, in general patients infected with resistant parasites are unresponsive although exceptions have been reported. This article aims to review the mechanisms of drug resistance to these compounds. The main resistance factors include genetical, enzymatic, intracellular (such as apoptosis and cytoskeleton changes and resistance proteins. Also, mechanisms related to drug transport and intracellular activation are discussed. Various methods of drug resistance detection such as culture and molecular methods (i.e polymerase chain reaction are reviewed. Although the exact mechanism of action glucantime is not clear, it seems that protein and gene factors involved in cellular drug entry are the main causes of drug resistance. Cross

  2. [Tobacco and advertising. Systematic review of the articles published between 2000 and 2008].

    Science.gov (United States)

    March Cerdá, Joan Carles; Suess, Astrid; Danet, Alina; Prieto Rodríguez, María Angeles; Romero Vallecillos, Manuel

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of tobacco advertising on consumer habits. Systematic review. PubMed, Ovid, Scielo, Mediclatina, Elsevier-Doyma, Isooc (CSIC) (January 2000-September 2008) A total of 44 national and international articles, linking the consumption of tobacco with any promotional or advertising practice. Articles not focused on the impact of advertising and promotion of cigarettes and research on prevention, intervention, plans and laws were removed. Advertising influences tobacco consumption. Publicity leads to starting smoking (5 articles) and maintaining the habit (3 articles). It uses the relationship between advertising and smoker's image and concept (5 articles) and different advertising strategies (22 articles). The advertising developed by the tobacco industry uses different strategies of influence on the consumption of cigarettes in the population. Copyright 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  3. 75 FR 82376 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Mexico and the People's Republic of China. This determination was published in the Federal Register (75... Panel Review. SUMMARY: On December 22, 2010, the Government of Mexico filed a First Request for Panel... Government of Mexico established Rules of Procedure for Article 1904 Binational Panel Reviews (``Rules...

  4. A systematic review of Bayesian articles in psychology : The last 25 years

    OpenAIRE

    van de Schoot, Rens; Winter, Sonja; Ryan, Oisín; Zondervan - Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Although the statistical tools most often used by researchers in the field of psychology over the last 25 years are based on frequentist statistics, it is often claimed that the alternative Bayesian approach to statistics is gaining in popularity. In the current article, we investigated this claim by performing the very first systematic review of Bayesian psychological articles published between 1990 and 2015 (n = 1,579). We aim to provide a thorough presentation of the role Bayesian statisti...

  5. Reviewing the pathogenesis of antibody-mediated rejection and renal graft pathology after kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozumi, Kunio; Takeda, Asami; Otsuka, Yasuhiro; Horike, Keiji; Gotoh, Norihiko; Narumi, Shunji; Watarai, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2016-07-01

    The clinicopathological context of rejection after kidney transplantation was well recognized. Banff conferences greatly contributed to elucidate the pathogenesis and to establish the pathologic criteria of rejection after kidney transplantation. The most important current problem of renal transplantation is de novo donor-specific antibody (DSA) production leading chronic rejection and graft loss. Microvascular inflammation is considered as a reliable pathological marker for antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) in the presence of DSA. Electron microscopic study allowed us to evaluate early changes in peritubular capillaries in T-lymphocyte mediated rejection and transition to antibody-mediated rejection. Severe endothelial injuries with edema and activated lymphocyte invaded into subendothelial space with early multi-layering of peritubular capillary basement membrane suggest T-lymphocyte mediated rejection induce an unbounded chain of antibody-mediated rejection. The risk factors of AMR after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation are important issues. Anti-ABO blood type antibody titre of IgG excess 32-fold before transplant operation is the only predictable factor for acute AMR. Characteristics of chronic active antibody-mediated rejection (CAAMR) are one of the most important problems. Light microscopic findings and C4d stain of peritubular capillary and glomerular capillary are useful diagnostic criteria of CAAMR. Microvascular inflammation, double contour of glomerular capillary and thickening of peritubular capillary basement are good predictive factors of the presence of de novo DSA. C4d stain of linear glomerular capillary is a more sensitive marker for CAAMR than positive C4d of peritubular capillary. Early and sensitive diagnostic attempts of diagnosing CAAMR are pivotal to prevent chronic graft failure. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology.

  6. Impact of Article Page Count and Number of Authors on Citations in Disability Related Fields: A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Abubakar; Adam, Mastura; Ghafar, Norafida A; Muhammad, Murtala; Ebrahim, Nader Ale

    2016-09-01

    Citation metrics and total publications in a field has become the gold standard for rating researchers and viability of a field. Hence, stimulating demand for citation has led to a search for useful strategies to improve performance metric index. Meanwhile, title, abstract and morphologic qualities of the articles attract researchers to scientific publications. Yet, there is relatively little understanding of the citation trend in disability related fields. We aimed to provide an insight into the factors associated with citation increase in this field. Additionally, we tried to know at what page number an article might appear attractive to disability researchers needs. Thus, our focus is placed on the article page count and the number of authors contributing to the fields per article. To this end, we evaluated the quantitative characteristics of top cited articles in the fields with a total citation (≥50) in the Web of Science (WoS) database. Using one-way independent ANOVA, data extracted spanning a period of 1980-2015 were analyzed, while the non-parametric data analysis uses Kruskal-Walis test. Articles with 11 to 20 pages attract more citations followed by those within the range of zero to 10. Articles with upward 21 pages are the least cited. Surprisingly, articles with more than two authors are significantly ( P <0.05) less cited and the citation decreases as the number of authors increased. Collaborative studies enjoy wider utilization and more citation, yet discounted merit of additional pages and limited collaborative research in disability field is revealed in this study.

  7. Article Review on World Bank Report, Optimal Design for a Minimum Wage Policy in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Nurrachmi, Rininta; Mad-Ahin, Ashanee; Waeowanjit, Phimpaporn; Kareemarif Arif, Naz Abdul

    2012-01-01

    There are many pros and cons with the implementation of minimum wage in Malaysia, since it is the first time. This article review is to analyze the World Bank report on Malaysian minimum wage policy that will be implemented in 2013. There are strength and weakness on the report. Moreover the review will also be analyzed from Islamic perspective since majority population in Malaysia is Muslim.

  8. Review of Medicinal Remedies on Hand Eczema Based on Iranian Traditional Medicine: A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    MANSOURI, Parvin; KHADEMI, Aleme; PAHLEVAN, Daryoush; MEMARIANI, Zahra; ALIASL, Jale; SHIRBEIGII, Laila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand Eczema (HE) is a dermatological disorder with frequent relapses and multiple causes such as atopic, allergic and irritant contact dermatitis. The management is complex because of the wide range of different pathogenesis. Efficacy of some of available treatments is not well established and it can affect patients’ quality of life significantly. Methods: Reports on HE such as diagnosis, pathophysiology, pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapy that described in medieval Iranian medicine, were gathered and analyzed from selected medical and pharmaceutical textbooks of Iranian Traditional Medicine (ITM). The search of databases such as PubMed, EMBASE/Excerpta Medica, Science direct, Scopus, Google scholar, Web of science, Sid, Iran medex, Irandoc, was performed to reconfirm the efficacy of ITM remedies in conventional medicine from 1980-Jan-1 to 2015-Dec-30. Results: According to their opinion, HE is highly associated with liver function. This disorder was categorized into two main types as wet and dry ones. Most Iranian textbook explained signs of HE, as excessive skin itching, redness, burning and dryness. Treatments recommended by Iranian scientists were lifestyle modification, dietary intervention and performing the rules of prevention as well as herbal therapy and special manipulations. Conclusion: Iranian practitioners believed that, six essential principles, diet therapy and medicinal plants have high impact on treatment of HE. These remedies based on Iranian scholar’s experiences might be useful for further studies to the management of HE. PMID:27928524

  9. Using ontology-based semantic similarity to facilitate the article screening process for systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiaonan; Ritter, Alan; Yen, Po-Yin

    2017-05-01

    Systematic Reviews (SRs) are utilized to summarize evidence from high quality studies and are considered the preferred source of evidence-based practice (EBP). However, conducting SRs can be time and labor intensive due to the high cost of article screening. In previous studies, we demonstrated utilizing established (lexical) article relationships to facilitate the identification of relevant articles in an efficient and effective manner. Here we propose to enhance article relationships with background semantic knowledge derived from Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts and ontologies. We developed a pipelined semantic concepts representation process to represent articles from an SR into an optimized and enriched semantic space of UMLS concepts. Throughout the process, we leveraged concepts and concept relations encoded in biomedical ontologies (SNOMED-CT and MeSH) within the UMLS framework to prompt concept features of each article. Article relationships (similarities) were established and represented as a semantic article network, which was readily applied to assist with the article screening process. We incorporated the concept of active learning to simulate an interactive article recommendation process, and evaluated the performance on 15 completed SRs. We used work saved over sampling at 95% recall (WSS95) as the performance measure. We compared the WSS95 performance of our ontology-based semantic approach to existing lexical feature approaches and corpus-based semantic approaches, and found that we had better WSS95 in most SRs. We also had the highest average WSS95 of 43.81% and the highest total WSS95 of 657.18%. We demonstrated using ontology-based semantics to facilitate the identification of relevant articles for SRs. Effective concepts and concept relations derived from UMLS ontologies can be utilized to establish article semantic relationships. Our approach provided a promising performance and can easily apply to any SR topics in the

  10. Review Article: Second Language Acquisition of Bantu Languages--A (Mostly) Untapped Research Opportunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinner, Patti

    2011-01-01

    This review article presents a summary of research on the second language acquisition of Bantu languages, including Swahili, Zulu, Xhosa and Lingala. Although second language (L2) research on these languages is currently very limited, work in morphosyntax and phonology suggests promising directions for future study, particularly on noun class,…

  11. College Board Response to "Harvard Educational Review" Article by Santelices and Wilson

    Science.gov (United States)

    College Board, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This is the College Board's response to a research article by Drs. Maria Veronica Santelices and Mark Wilson in the Harvard Educational Review, entitled "Unfair Treatment? The Case of Freedle, the SAT, and the Standardization Approach to Differential Item Functioning" (see EJ930622).

  12. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  13. Review Article: Ethical Issues in the Study of Second Language Acquisition--Resources for Researchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Two recent books provide varied resources for exploring ethical issues in the social sciences. Reflection on ethical issues aims to sensitize scholars to a range of consequences of their research, and to scholars' responsibilities to their discipline, their colleagues, and the public. This review article assesses the utility of these texts (and of…

  14. Open Fractures of the Hand: Review of Pathogenesis and Introduction of a New Classification System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulipan, Jacob E; Ilyas, Asif M

    2018-02-01

    Open fractures of the hand are a common and varied group of injuries. Although at increased risk for infection, open fractures of the hand are more resistant to infection than other open fractures. Numerous unique factors in the hand may play a role in the altered risk of postinjury infection. Current systems for the classification of open fractures fail to address the unique qualities of the hand. This article proposes a novel classification system for open fractures of the hand, taking into account the factors unique to the hand that affect its risk for developing infection after an open fracture. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Calcium polysulphide, its applications and emerging risk of environmental pollution-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlawi, Saad Mohammed; Siddiqui, Samreen

    2017-01-01

    Easy availability, preparation technique, and economic value make calcium polysulphide (CaS x ) a very useful inorganic chemical for various field and industrial applications. In this article, disparate applications of CaS x solution have been reviewed to suggest potential and future consolidation. This article also encompasses the physiochemical properties and production of CaS x solution, with critical appraisal on research focusing on CaS x application in agriculture industries and removal of potentially toxic elements (PTEs) from the environment. The kinetics of CaS x , technical issues associated with optimization of its dosage and environmental fate is also discussed in detail. This study covers almost all of the peer-reviewed research that has been performed since 1914. Some of the critiques in this article include the lack of integration between the exposure effect and the efficiency of treatment method, effects of oxidizing environments on the long-term performance of CaS x solution, and kinetics of CaS x solution with the PTEs. The working model of CaS x with PTEs is still system dependent, and therefore cannot be used with other applications. The kinetics of CaS x is described in detail with various phase stoichiometric reactions. Environmental fate is discussed based on applications, government reports, peer-reviewed articles and kinetics of CaS x , which provides a clear picture of emerging contaminants in the environment in relation to the insect resistance and ecotoxicology. Real time, lab based research articles are needed to identify toxicity limits of CaS x in environment in order to describe its effective permissible limit in environmental system. This review article provides a risk assessment of environmental pollution by CaS x based on its physicochemical characteristic, stoichiometry, kinetics, field, and industrial applications.

  16. The visibility of scientific misconduct: A review of the literature on retracted journal articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmann, Felicitas; Graf, Verena; Schmidt, Marion; Reinhart, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Retractions of scientific articles are becoming the most relevant institution for making sense of scientific misconduct. An increasing number of retracted articles, mainly attributed to misconduct, is currently providing a new empirical basis for research about scientific misconduct. This article reviews the relevant research literature from an interdisciplinary context. Furthermore, the results from these studies are contextualized sociologically by asking how scientific misconduct is made visible through retractions. This study treats retractions as an emerging institution that renders scientific misconduct visible, thus, following up on the sociology of deviance and its focus on visibility. The article shows that retractions, by highlighting individual cases of misconduct and general policies for preventing misconduct while obscuring the actors and processes through which retractions are effected, produce highly fragmented patterns of visibility. These patterns resemble the bifurcation in current justice systems.

  17. Helicobacter pylori and Gastric Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue (MALT) Lymphoma: Updated Review of Clinical Outcomes and the Molecular Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidekazu; Saito, Yoshimasa; Hibi, Toshifumi

    2009-06-01

    In most H. pylori-positive patients, gastric low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas regress both endoscopically and histopathologically after H. pylori eradication, but no factors that can be predictive of the response to the eradication have been definitively identified, and there is little information on how to determine the optimal observation period before additional treatment can be started. Here, clinical studies dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of gastric MALT lymphomas and H. pylori published during the last 5 years were systematically reviewed, and studies identifying the molecular approaches involved in the pathogenesis were summarized. Most of the clinical studies indicate a favorable effect of H. pylori eradication on the clinical outcome of gastric MALT lymphomas. Some studies suggest the necessity of additional treatment in nonresponders to H. pylori eradication, while others suggest the adoption of a watch-and-wait strategy. The molecular characteristics of MALT lymphomas could play an important role in prognostic prediction and the selection of further therapeutic intervention after the eradication. This updated review of gastric MALT lymphomas illustrates the potential efficacy of H. pylori eradication in tumor remission, but further molecular characterization is necessary to establish the most suitable therapeutic strategy for patients who do not respond to eradication.

  18. Review of survey articles regarding medication therapy management (MTM) services/programs in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oladapo, Abiola O; Rascati, Karen L

    2012-08-01

    To provide a summary of published survey articles regarding the provision of medication therapy management (MTM) services in the United States. A literature search was conducted to identify original articles on MTM-related surveys conducted in the United States, involving community and outpatient pharmacists, physicians, patients, or pharmacy students and published by the primary researchers who conducted the study. Search engines used included PubMed, Medline, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (IPA). If MTM was in the keyword list, mesh heading, title, or abstract, the article was reviewed. References from these articles were searched to determine whether other relevant articles were available. A total of 405 articles were initially reviewed; however, only 32 articles met the study requirements. Of the 32 articles, 17 surveyed community/outpatient pharmacists, 3 surveyed pharmacy students, 4 surveyed physicians, and 8 surveyed patients. The survey periods varied across the different studies, with the earliest survey conducted in 2004 and the most recent survey conducted in 2009. The surveys were conducted via the telephone, US mail, interoffice mail, e-mails, Internet/Web sites, hand-delivered questionnaires, and focus groups. Despite the identified barriers to the provision of MTM services, pharmacists reportedly found it professionally rewarding to provide these services. Pharmacists claimed to have adequate clinical knowledge, experience, and access to information required to provide MTM services. Pharmacy students were of the opinion that the provision of MTM services was important to the advancement of the pharmacy profession and in providing patients with a higher level of care. Physicians supported having pharmacists adjust patients’ drug therapy and educate patients on general drug information but not in selecting patients’ drug therapy. Finally, patients suggested that alternative ways need to be explored in describing and marketing MTM

  19. Assessment of quality of life in patients with laryngeal cancer: A review of articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolator, Mateusz; Kolator, Patrycja; Zatoński, Tomasz

    2018-04-19

    This article presents a review of the medical literature published between 1994 and 2014 with the use of the PubMed database concerning quality-of-life instruments for head and neck cancer patients used to assess general well-being of patients with laryngeal cancer. The PubMed database was searched for articles containing the keywords "quality of life", "laryngeal neoplasm" and "questionnaires". The resulting articles were reviewed and analyzed. After the identification of questionnaires, an additional search was performed. The articles and questionnaires were described and analyzed. In 43 articles, the authors used questionnaires specific to the head and neck regions in order to assess the quality of life in patients with laryngeal cancer. Four different questionnaires were identified. The European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) questionnaire is most commonly used to assess the quality of life in patients with laryngeal cancer. Questionnaires are generally used in order to select from a range of different treatment methods. There are a few head and neck cancer-related quality-of-life instruments which are widely used to assess the quality of life in patients with laryngeal cancer, but they are not dedicated to that region of the body. Today, there is much more attention paid to the quality of life; therefore, there is a real need to develop specific scales for different types of cancer.

  20. Review Article: A Review Of Adult Orthodontics – Role Of The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adjunctive and comprehensive orthodontic treatments are the main types of orthodontic therapy recommended for adult malocclusion. The orthodontic therapy and refer to the specialist appropriately. KEY WORDS: Review, Adult Orthodontics, General Dental Practitioner. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice Vol.7(1) 2004: ...

  1. Review Article The challenge of diabetic foot care: Review of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    amputation.1 This review of the literature will cover the nature and ... experience of establishing a diabetic foot service at Queen. Elizabeth .... In these studies the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy ... diabetes education, the Step by Step Foot Care Programme .... long distances for patients to travel to the clinic; delays.

  2. How do I peer-review a scientific article?-a personal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe

    2018-02-01

    Peer-review is an essential activity for the vast majority of credited scientific journals and represents the cornerstone for assessing the quality of potential publications, since it is substantially aimed to identify drawbacks or inaccuracies that may flaw the outcome or the presentation of scientific research. Since the importance of this activity is seldom underestimated by some referees, the purpose of this article is to present a personal and arbitrary perspective on how a scientific article should be peer-reviewed, offering a tentative checklist aimed to describe the most important criteria that should be considered. These basically include accepting the assignment only when the topic is in accordance with referee's background, disclosing potential conflicts of interest, checking availability and time according to size and complexity of the article, identifying the innovative value of the manuscript, providing exhaustive and clear comments, expressing disagreement with a fair and balanced approach, weighting revisions according to the importance of the journal, summarizing recommendations according to previous comments, maintaining confidentiality throughout and after the peer-review process. I really hope that some notions reported in this dissertation may be a guide or a help, especially for young scientists, who are willing to be engaged in peer-review activity for scientific journals.

  3. How do I peer-review a scientific article?—a personal perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Peer-review is an essential activity for the vast majority of credited scientific journals and represents the cornerstone for assessing the quality of potential publications, since it is substantially aimed to identify drawbacks or inaccuracies that may flaw the outcome or the presentation of scientific research. Since the importance of this activity is seldom underestimated by some referees, the purpose of this article is to present a personal and arbitrary perspective on how a scientific article should be peer-reviewed, offering a tentative checklist aimed to describe the most important criteria that should be considered. These basically include accepting the assignment only when the topic is in accordance with referee’s background, disclosing potential conflicts of interest, checking availability and time according to size and complexity of the article, identifying the innovative value of the manuscript, providing exhaustive and clear comments, expressing disagreement with a fair and balanced approach, weighting revisions according to the importance of the journal, summarizing recommendations according to previous comments, maintaining confidentiality throughout and after the peer-review process. I really hope that some notions reported in this dissertation may be a guide or a help, especially for young scientists, who are willing to be engaged in peer-review activity for scientific journals. PMID:29610756

  4. 75 FR 13494 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of... Section, International Trade Administration, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of First Request for...

  5. 76 FR 10005 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of...-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement...

  6. Predicting of mortality in patients with intracrani al hemorrhage: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzad Rahmani

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is one of the important and common diseases, which can lead to permanent disability or even death to people. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH is a type of stroke that is associated with high mortality despite improved diagnostic and treatment methods, as well as the mortality rate remains high. Methods: In the present review article, reputable internet databases since 2000 were analyzed. Studies that discussed the predicting mortality of ICH were included in this review. Results: For predicting the mortality rates in patients with primary ICH, physicians use several methods such as level of consciousness, bleeding volume and multiple rating systems. In this review, we introduce three scoring system of ICH in patients with ICH. Conclusion: Perhaps its cut-off point of these three score systems were different in different societies according to conditions and facilities therefore it is needed to review these scores and record their results in different societies.

  7. The Pathogenesis of Subacute Subdural Hematoma: A Report of 3 Cases and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhi-Qiang; Ding, Sheng-Hong; Huang, Jian-Yue; Zhu, Zhi-Gang

    2018-06-01

    To discuss the pathologic mechanism of subacute subdural hematoma (sASDH). Three typical cases of sASDH were reported, and related literature in Chinese published in the past 15 years was reviewed. Intervals from onset of acute subdural hematoma to surgery or symptom deterioration resulting in sASDH were 12.5-15.5 days (mean 14.1 days). Delayed liquefaction of hematoma clots occurred in all 3 reported cases. One patient achieved good curative effect after administration of dexamethasone, and another patient relapsed owing to poor drainage after evacuation of hematoma. The conversion of acute subdural hematoma to sASDH is an inflammatory reaction process with very regular in time, and it is speculated that the pathologic mechanism may be a delayed hypersensitivity reaction. Antigen released during the liquefaction process of blood clot, with subdural neomembrane cells as antigen-presenting cells, is presented to the T lymphocytes released from the capillaries in the neomembrane and forms sensitized T lymphocytes. When the subsequent antigen is released from the blood clots with a delayed liquefaction and is exposed to sensitized T lymphocytes, the delayed hypersensitivity process occurs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Review of the gut microbiome and esophageal cancer: Pathogenesis and potential clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Yoshifumi; Iwatsuki, Masaaki; Yoshida, Naoya; Watanabe, Masayuki; Baba, Hideo

    2017-06-01

    Esophageal cancer ranks among the most aggressive malignant diseases. The limited improvements in treatment outcomes provided by conventional therapies have prompted us to seek innovative strategies for treating this cancer. More than 100 trillion microorganisms inhabit the human intestinal tract and play a crucial role in health and disease conditions, including cancer. The human intestinal microbiome is thought to influence tumor development and progression in the gastrointestinal tract by various mechanisms. For example, Fusobacterium nucleatum , which primarily inhabits the oral cavity and causes periodontal disease, might contribute to aggressive tumor behavior through activation of chemokines such as CCL20 in esophageal cancer tissue. Composition of the intestinal microbiota is influenced by diet, lifestyle, antibiotics, and pro- and prebiotics. Therefore, by better understanding how the bacterial microbiota contributes to esophageal carcinogenesis, we might develop novel cancer prevention and treatment strategies through targeting the gastrointestinal microflora. This review discusses the current knowledge, available data and information on the relationship of microbiota with esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

  9. Cancer-induced cardiac cachexia: Pathogenesis and impact of physical activity (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloum, Yassine; Rannou-Bekono, Françoise; Favier, François B

    2017-05-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome observed in many patients suffering from several chronic diseases including cancer. In addition to the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, cancer cachexia results in cardiac function impairment. During the severe stage of the disease, patients as well as animals bearing cancer cells display cardiac atrophy. Cardiac energy metabolism is also impeded with disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and reduced oxidative capacity, although the available data remain equivocal. The release of inflammatory cytokines by tumor is a key mechanism in the initiation of heart failure. Oxidative stress, which results from the combination of chemotherapy, inadequate antioxidant consumption and chronic inflammation, will further foster heart failure. Protein catabolism is due to the concomitant activation of proteolytic systems and inhibition of protein synthesis, both processes being triggered by the deactivation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. The reduction in oxidative capacity involves AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α dysregulation. The nuclear factor-κB transcription factor plays a prominent role in the coordination of these alterations. Physical exercise appears as an interesting non-pharmaceutical way to counteract cancer cachexia-induced-heart failure. Indeed, aerobic training has anti-inflammatory effects, increases anti-oxidant defenses, prevents atrophy and promotes oxidative metabolism. The present review points out the importance of better understanding the concurrent structural and metabolic changes within the myocardium during cancer and the protective effects of exercise against cardiac cachexia.

  10. Epidemiology and pathogenesis of fulminant viral hepatitis in pregnant women: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosone, Grazia; Simeone, Davide; Spera, Anna M; Viceconte, Giulio; Bianco, Vincenzo; Orlando, Raffaele

    2017-10-09

    The pregnancy-associated immunological and hormonal changes may alter the immune response to infectious agents, including hepatitis viruses. Therefore, this phenomenon may affect the clinical course and the outcome of acute viral hepatitis in pregnant women. For this reason, we have focused on epidemiological and pathogenetic aspects of the fulminant liver failure caused by acute viral hepatitis reviewing PubMED in April of 2017. Although all the viruses might cause a fulminant AVH in a pregnant woman, the large majority of fulminant failure reported in the literature had been related to Hepatits E Virus mainly and had been concentrated in Indian subcontinent and some African areas, whereas the problem seems to be very low or absent in the remaining geographical areas. However, the rate of maternal mortality due to fulminant E hepatitis may vary inside the endemic areas of India and Africa, likely due to the circulation of HEV genotypes with different degree of virulence. The other hepatitis viruses have not been reported to cause a greater risk for fulminant hepatitis in pregnant women respect to non pregnant ones, except Herpes Simplex Virus, that has been associated to some cases of fatal hepatitis in absence of a prompt antiviral therapy.

  11. Review article: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broers, C; Tack, J; Pauwels, A

    2018-01-01

    When gastro-oesophageal reflux is causing symptoms or lesions in the oesophagus, this is referred to as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). GERD can manifest itself through typical symptoms (heartburn, regurgitation) or may lead to extra-oesophageal symptoms. Extra-oesophageal manifestations of GERD gained increasing attention over the last decade, especially respiratory disorders, because of the prevalent co-occurrence with GERD. The role of GERD in the pathogenesis of respiratory disorders has become a topic of intense discussion. To provide an overview of the current knowledge on the role of GERD in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PubMed was searched for relevant articles using the keywords: GERD, asthma, COPD, prevalence, treatment. Case reports were excluded, only English language articles were considered. Estimates for the prevalence of GERD in asthma range from 30% to 90%, compared to an average of 24% in controls. In COPD patients, the prevalence of GERD ranges from 19% to 78% compared to an average of 18% in controls. These data indicate an increased prevalence of GERD in patients with asthma and COPD, although causality is not established and GERD treatment yielded inconsistent effects. Literature supports GERD as a risk factor for COPD-exacerbations and a predictor of the 'frequent-exacerbator'-phenotype. Despite the high prevalence of GERD in asthma and COPD, a causal link is lacking. The results of anti-reflux therapy on pulmonary outcome are inconsistent and contradictory. Future studies will need to identify subgroups of asthmatics and COPD patients that may benefit from anti-reflux therapy (nocturnal or silent reflux). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Review article: anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoulakis, C

    2009-10-15

    Saccharomyces boulardii, a well-studied probiotic, can be effective in inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases with diverse pathophysiology, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and bacterially mediated or enterotoxin-mediated diarrhoea and inflammation. To discuss the mechanisms of action involved in the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of S. boulardii. Review of the literature related to the anti-inflammatory effects of this probiotic. Several mechanisms of action have been identified directed against the host and pathogenic microorganisms. S. boulardii and S. boulardii secreted-protein(s) inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by interfering with the global mediator of inflammation nuclear factor kappaB, and modulating the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38. S. boulardii activates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) that protects from gut inflammation and IBD. S. boulardii also suppresses 'bacteria overgrowth' and host cell adherence, releases a protease that cleaves C. difficile toxin A and its intestinal receptor and stimulates antibody production against toxin A. Recent results indicate that S. boulardii may interfere with IBD pathogenesis by trapping T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. The multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by S. boulardii provide molecular explanations supporting its effectiveness in intestinal inflammatory states.

  13. Review article: Anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action of Saccharomyces boulardii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothoulakis, C.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Background Saccharomyces boulardii (S. boulardii), a well-studied probiotic, can be effective in inflammatory gastrointestinal diseases with diverse pathophysiology, such as Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), and bacterially – or enterotoxin-mediated diarrhea and inflammation. Aim Discuss the mechanisms of action involved in the intestinal anti-inflammatory action of S. boulardii Methods Review of the literature related to the anti-inflammatory effects of this probiotic. Results Several mechanisms of action have been identified directed against the host and pathogenic microorganisms. S. boulardii and S. boulardii secreted protein(s) inhibit production of proinflammatory cytokines by interfering with the global mediator of inflammation nuclear factor κB, and modulating the activity of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/2 and p38. S. boulardii activates expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) that protects from gut inflammation and IBD. S. boulardii also suppresses “bacteria overgrowth” and host cell adherence, releases a protease that cleaves C. difficile toxin A and its intestinal receptor, and stimulates antibody production against toxin A. Recent results indicate that S. boulardii may interfere with IBD pathogenesis by trapping T cells in mesenteric lymph nodes. Conclusions The multiple anti-inflammatory mechanisms exerted by S. boulardii provide molecular explanations supporting its effectiveness in intestinal inflammatory states. PMID:19706150

  14. Migrations of theory, method and practice: a reflection on themes in migration studies (Review article)

    OpenAIRE

    Palmary, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    In this review article, I offer some reflection on three themes in migration research, namely, the categorisation and quantification of migration, the role of trauma and distress in such categorisation, and the feminisation of migration. I was prompted to explore these three themes after reading a recent publication on migration in southern Africa (edited by Kok, Gelderblom, Oucho and Van Zyl, 2006). In this paper I raise these as three areas that appear to be determining the boundaries of th...

  15. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Nourelahi; Roshannia; Kameli; Hormozi

    2016-01-01

    Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodonta...

  16. Cross-talk between the Immune System and Tuberculosis Pathogenesis; a Review with Emphasis on the Immune Based Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Javan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a globally major health problem, tuberculosis (TB causes almost two million cases of death annually. Epidemiological studies demonstrate that a third of the world’s individuals is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Approximately 10% of infected patients with M. tuberculosis develop chronic manifestation as TB. Due to HIV coinfection and emerging the drug-resistant TB, the disease has been increasing and its control has been frustrated in several parts of the world.Current diagnostic techniques and therapeutic tools for TB are not satisfactory. Consequently, it is urgently essential to establish new therapies concerning vaccines, immunotherapeutic agents to provide prosperous attempts for TB controlling. To achieve this goal, it is required to be armed with comprehensive understanding of immunobiology and immunopathogenesis of TB. This would be beneficial in designing new immune-based protections, drug discoveries, personalized medicine by choosing highly-effective immunotherapeutic interventions, identification and development of novel drug candidates. Hopefully, immunotherapies could be advantageous in modulating the immune system in patients with TB, providing efficient control of M. tuberculosis infection perpetuation and, therefore, its pathogenesis. This review herein attempts to describe the function of immune system in response to TB that is of the therapeutical and clinical importance. Moreover, new insights based on therapeutics to resolve TB with immunological orientation will be discussed.

  17. Role of VEGF, Nitric Oxide and sympathetic neurotransmitters in the pathogenesis of tendinopathy: a review of the current evidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiano Vasta

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tendinopathy is a painful common condition affecting athletes as well as the general population undergoing to tendon overuse. Although its huge prevalence, little is known about tendinopathy pathogenesis, and even cloudier is its treatment.Traditionally, tendinopathy has been defined as a lack of tendon ability to overcome stressing stimuli with appropriate adaptive changes. Histologic studies have demonstrated the absence of inflammatory infiltrates, as a consequence conventional antinflammatory drugs have shown little or no effectiveness in treating tendinopathies. New strategies should be therefore identified to address chronic tendon disorders. Angiofibroblastic changes have been highlighted as the main feature of tendinopathy, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has been demonstrated as one of the key molecules involved in vascular hyperplasia. More recently, attention has been focused on new peptides such as Substance P, nitric oxide and calcitonin gene-related peptide. Those new findings support the idea of a nerve-mediated disregulation of tendon metabolism. Each of those molecules could be a target for new treatment options. This study aimed to systematically review the current available clinical and basic science in order to summarize the latest evidences on the pathophysiology and its effect on treatment of chronic tendinopathy, and to spread suggestions for future research on its treatment.

  18. Persian Medicine in the World of Research; Review of Articles on Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeini, Reihaneh; Gorji, Narjes

    2016-05-01

    Due to negligence, Persian (Iranian) traditional medicine has had a weak presence in the world of research for a long time. However, in recent years, a variety of activates by research and faculty centers have created awareness and a platform to introduce and promote Persian medicine to the world. The aim of this study is to present and analyze scientific achievements of Persian medicine in the world of research. Articles were collected from PubMed database using keywords such as "Persian medicine", "Persian traditional medicine", "Iranian medicine", and "Iranian traditional medicine". All data were classified based on the type of research (review, intervention, case reports, etc.), the field of study (neurology, cardiovascular, metabolic, historical studies, etc.), publication year, and journal type. A total of 501 articles were identified until the end of 2015, comprising of 222 reviews and 219 interventional (108 animal, 57 clinical and 54 cellular). Most studies were on neurology (20.1%), gastroenterology (14.5%), and cardiovascular diseases (10.4%). The publications in 2015 and 2014 had the highest hit rate with 139 and 132 articles, respectively, with 1:2 publication ratio between foreign and Iranian journals. The most published articles, both foreign and Iranian, were in "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine" and "Iranian Red Crescent Medicine" journals. The contribution of foreign authors was 5%. The primary focus of the articles was on "Basic concepts of Persian medicine", "Healthy lifestyle according to Persian medicine", and "Historical aspects", by 3.1%, 2.9%, and 6.7%, respectively. During the last 2 years, the number of articles published in Persian (Iranian) medicine, particularly clinical studies had significant growth in comparison with the years before. The tendency of foreign researchers to use the keywords "Iranian" or "Persian" medicine is notable. This research was only based on the designated keyword and other keywords were

  19. Review article: A systematic review of emergency department incident classification frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Matthew; McCarthy, Sally

    2017-10-11

    As in any part of the hospital system, safety incidents can occur in the ED. These incidents arguably have a distinct character, as the ED involves unscheduled flows of urgent patients who require disparate services. To aid understanding of safety issues and support risk management of the ED, a comparison of published ED specific incident classification frameworks was performed. A review of emergency medicine, health management and general medical publications, using Ovid SP to interrogate Medline (1976-2016) was undertaken to identify any type of taxonomy or classification-like framework for ED related incidents. These frameworks were then analysed and compared. The review identified 17 publications containing an incident classification framework. Comparison of factors and themes making up the classification constituent elements revealed some commonality, but no overall consistency, nor evolution towards an ideal framework. Inconsistency arises from differences in the evidential basis and design methodology of classifications, with design itself being an inherently subjective process. It was not possible to identify an 'ideal' incident classification framework for ED risk management, and there is significant variation in the selection of categories used by frameworks. The variation in classification could risk an unbalanced emphasis in findings through application of a particular framework. Design of an ED specific, ideal incident classification framework should be informed by a much wider range of theories of how organisations and systems work, in addition to clinical and human factors. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. The Bibliography of Articles of the Republican Era 1923-1999: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar Tonta

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Turkish National Library has recently published the Bibliography of Articles of the Republican Era 1923-1999 (BARE on CD-ROM. BARE is the most comprehensive bibliography that indexes the articles contained in Turkish journals received by the Library through “legal depot”. It contains bibliographic information on a total of566,627 articles that appeared in 4,418 Turkish journals andperiodicals. This paper critically reviews the Bibliography on the basis of its user interface, database design and data quality. Human-computer interaction (HCI issues and the usability criteria seem to have not been taken into account when designing the user interface of the BARE CD-ROM. The user interface is not intuitive. It appears that a comprehensive systems analysis study was not carried out before designing the database and the principles of database management design seem to have been ignored. Bibliographic data listed in the printed copies of the Bibliography was simply transferred to a flat table, which resulted in data redundancy and waste of space. Boolean searches cannot be performed on author and article titles. Nine percent of the records contained errors in article and journal titles as well as authors’ names. Used through the web site of the Turkish National Library, the Bibliography and its interface should be redesigned and improved, and the functions of the search engine should be increased.

  1. Review article: Staff perception of the emergency department working environment: Integrative review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Louisa; Greenslade, Jaimi; Thom, Ogilvie; Carlstrom, Eric; Wallis, Marianne; Crilly, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Employees in EDs report increasing role overload because of critical staff shortages, budgetary cuts and increased patient numbers and acuity. Such overload could compromise staff satisfaction with their working environment. This integrative review identifies, synthesises and evaluates current research around staff perceptions of the working conditions in EDs. A systematic search of relevant databases, using MeSH descriptors ED/EDs, Emergency room/s, ER/s, or A&E coupled with (and) working environment, working condition/s, staff perception/s, as well as reference chaining was conducted. We identified 31 key studies that were evaluated using the mixed methods assessment tool (MMAT). These comprised 24 quantitative‐descriptive studies, four mixed descriptive/comparative (non‐randomised controlled trial) studies and three qualitative studies. Studies included varied widely in quality with MMAT scores ranging from 0% to 100%. A key finding was that perceptions of working environment varied across clinical staff and study location, but that high levels of autonomy and teamwork offset stress around high pressure and high volume workloads. The large range of tools used to assess staff perception of working environment limits the comparability of the studies. A dearth of intervention studies around enhancing working environments in EDs limits the capacity to recommend evidence‐based interventions to improve staff morale. © 2016 The Authors. Emergency Medicine Australasia published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine PMID:26784282

  2. Review article: Workplace violence in the emergency department: A systematic review and meta analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikathil, Shradha; Olaussen, Alexander; Gocentas, Robert A; Symons, Evan; Mitra, Biswadev

    2017-06-01

    Patient or visitor perpetrated workplace violence (WPV) has been reported to be a common occurrence within the ED. No universal definition of violence or recording of such events exists. In addition ED staff are often reluctant to report violent incidents. The true incidence of WPV is therefore unclear. This systematic review aimed to quantify WPV in EDs. The association of WPV to drug and alcohol exposure was explored. The databases MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Library were searched from their commencement to 10 March 2016. MeSH terms and text words for ED, violence and aggression were combined. A meta-analysis was conducted on the primary outcome variable-proportion of violent patients among total ED presentations. A secondary meta-analysis used studies reporting on proportion of drug and alcohol affected patients occurring within the violent population. The search yielded a total of 8720 records. A total of 7235 were unique and underwent abstract screening. A total of 22 studies were deemed relevant according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. Retrospective study design predominated, analysing mainly security records and incident reports. The rates of violence from individual studies ranged from 1 incident to 172 incidents per 10 000 presentations. The pooled incidence suggests there are 36 violent patients for every 10 000 presentations to the ED (95% confidence interval 0.0030-0.0043). WPV in the ED was commonly reported. There is wide heterogeneity across the study methodology, definitions and rates. More standardised recording and reporting may inform preventive measures and highlight effective management strategies. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  3. Challenges of E-learning in Medical Sciences: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mahim naderifar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Extension of knowledge and information is given a new meaning to the concept of education. One of The most important reasons for the use of e-learning in medical education is that learning is learned by the learners themselves. This method facilitates their individualized education programs. This study introduced the challenges and solutions for the achievement of e-learning in medical education. Materials and Methods: This is a review article that was implemented a comprehensive review using the World Wide Web. The databases such as Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, and PubMed as well as key words “e-learning, educational challenges and medical education” in Persian and English languages were used. Of the 80 articles fund, 30 articles which were related to the research objective were chosen. Results: The research showed that e-learning, despite its advantages and wide applications, has drawbacks including the lack of implementation by lecturer due to lack of knowledge of its functioning, the fading role of lecturer, lack of expertise in its application, fear of its application, special cultural beliefs and insufficient resources. Conclusion: It is necessary to consider establishing standards and substructures for achieving the implementation of e-learning in medical education. Because of inexperience of universities of medical sciences in Iran compared with other universities around the world, we suggest using the experience of universities in other countries. Also holding workshops based on e-learning can be effective.

  4. A systematic review of Bayesian articles in psychology: The last 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Schoot, Rens; Winter, Sonja D; Ryan, Oisín; Zondervan-Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-06-01

    Although the statistical tools most often used by researchers in the field of psychology over the last 25 years are based on frequentist statistics, it is often claimed that the alternative Bayesian approach to statistics is gaining in popularity. In the current article, we investigated this claim by performing the very first systematic review of Bayesian psychological articles published between 1990 and 2015 (n = 1,579). We aim to provide a thorough presentation of the role Bayesian statistics plays in psychology. This historical assessment allows us to identify trends and see how Bayesian methods have been integrated into psychological research in the context of different statistical frameworks (e.g., hypothesis testing, cognitive models, IRT, SEM, etc.). We also describe take-home messages and provide "big-picture" recommendations to the field as Bayesian statistics becomes more popular. Our review indicated that Bayesian statistics is used in a variety of contexts across subfields of psychology and related disciplines. There are many different reasons why one might choose to use Bayes (e.g., the use of priors, estimating otherwise intractable models, modeling uncertainty, etc.). We found in this review that the use of Bayes has increased and broadened in the sense that this methodology can be used in a flexible manner to tackle many different forms of questions. We hope this presentation opens the door for a larger discussion regarding the current state of Bayesian statistics, as well as future trends. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in articles: a review of its applications and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinhui, Li; Yuan, Chen; Wenjing, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), especially commercial decabrominated diphenyl ethers (c-decaBDE), have been widely produced and applied to numerous materials because of their highly effective flame-retardant capabilities. The production of commercial pentaBDE (c-pentaBDE) and commercial octaBDE (c-octaBDE) ended in 2004 because they are persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic to both humans and the environment, but decaBDE production and use continue. Furthermore, many congeners of PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer products and articles that they pose enormous threat to both the environment and human health. PBDEs have been detected in the casing of electrical and electronic equipment, textile materials, automotive interiors, polyurethane foam (PUF) in seat cushions, children's toys, kitchenware, and other products. With increasing evidence about PBDE pollution and the adoption of international conventions, many developed countries have drawn more public attention to PBDEs and developed sound strategies for their management. This review summaries the utilization and management of PBDEs in a number of countries and reaches the conclusion that PBDEs are still prevalent in consumer articles, while specific regulations or policies for articles containing PBDEs are rare. Public awareness should be raised on the importance of sound management of articles containing PBDEs.

  6. The Learning Curve in neurofeedback of Peter Van Deusen: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdenilson Ribeiro Ribas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Learning Curve (TLC in neurofeedback concept emerged after Peter Van Deusen compiled the results of articles on the expected electrical activity of the brain. This concept was subsequently tested on patients at four clinics in Atlanta between 1994 and 2001. The aim of this paper was to report the historical aspects of TLC. Articles published on the electronic databases MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science were reviewed. During patient evaluation, TLC investigates categories called disconnected, hot temporal lobes, reversal of alpha and beta waves, blocking, locking, and filtering or processing. This enables neuroscientists to use their training designs and, by means of behavioral psychology, to work on neuroregulation, as self-regulation for patients. TLC shows the relationships between electrical, mental and behavioral activity in patients. It also identifies details of patterns that can assist physicians in their choice of treatment.

  7. Rabies - epidemiology, pathogenesis, public health concerns and advances in diagnosis and control: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajendra; Singh, Karam Pal; Cherian, Susan; Saminathan, Mani; Kapoor, Sanjay; Manjunatha Reddy, G B; Panda, Shibani; Dhama, Kuldeep

    2017-12-01

    Rabies is a zoonotic, fatal and progressive neurological infection caused by rabies virus of the genus Lyssavirus and family Rhabdoviridae. It affects all warm-blooded animals and the disease is prevalent throughout the world and endemic in many countries except in Islands like Australia and Antarctica. Over 60,000 peoples die every year due to rabies, while approximately 15 million people receive rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) annually. Bite of rabid animals and saliva of infected host are mainly responsible for transmission and wildlife like raccoons, skunks, bats and foxes are main reservoirs for rabies. The incubation period is highly variable from 2 weeks to 6 years (avg. 2-3 months). Though severe neurologic signs and fatal outcome, neuropathological lesions are relatively mild. Rabies virus exploits various mechanisms to evade the host immune responses. Being a major zoonosis, precise and rapid diagnosis is important for early treatment and effective prevention and control measures. Traditional rapid Seller's staining and histopathological methods are still in use for diagnosis of rabies. Direct immunofluoroscent test (dFAT) is gold standard test and most commonly recommended for diagnosis of rabies in fresh brain tissues of dogs by both OIE and WHO. Mouse inoculation test (MIT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are superior and used for routine diagnosis. Vaccination with live attenuated or inactivated viruses, DNA and recombinant vaccines can be done in endemic areas. This review describes in detail about epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, advances in diagnosis, vaccination and therapeutic approaches along with appropriate prevention and control strategies.

  8. Pain Management in the Emergency Department: a Review Article on Options and Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Abdolrazaghnejad

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Context: The aim of this review is to recognizing different methods of analgesia for emergency medicine physicians (EMPs allows them to have various pain relief methods to reduce pain and to be able to use it according to the patient’s condition and to improve the quality of their services. Evidence acquisition: In this review article, the search engines and scientific databases of Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane for emergency pain management methods were reviewed. Among the findings, high quality articles were eventually selected from 2000 to 2018, and after reviewing them, we have conducted a comprehensive comparison of the usual methods of pain control in the emergency department (ED.  Results: For better understanding, the results are reported in to separate subheadings including “Parenteral agents” and “Regional blocks”. Non-opioids analgesics such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and acetaminophen are commonly used in the treatment of acute pain. However, the relief of acute moderate to severe pain usually requires opioid agents. Considering the side effects of systemic drugs and the restrictions on the use of analgesics, especially opioids, regional blocks of pain as part of a multimodal analgesic strategy can be helpful. Conclusion: This study was designed to investigate and identify the disadvantages and advantages of using each drug to be able to make the right choices in different clinical situations for patients while paying attention to the limitations of the use of these analgesic drugs.

  9. Management of synkinesis and asymmetry in facial nerve palsy: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmomeny, Abbas Ali; Asadi, Sahar

    2014-10-01

    The important sequelae of facial nerve palsy are synkinesis, asymmetry, hypertension and contracture; all of which have psychosocial effects on patients. Synkinesis due to mal regeneration causes involuntary movements during a voluntary movement. Previous studies have advocated treatment using physiotherapy modalities alone or with exercise therapy, but no consensus exists on the optimal approach. Thus, this review summarizes clinical controlled studies in the management of synkinesis and asymmetry in facial nerve palsy. Case-controlled clinical studies of patients at the acute stage of injury were selected for this review article. Data were obtained from English-language databases from 1980 until mid-2013. Among 124 articles initially captured, six randomized controlled trials involving 269 patients were identified with appropriate inclusion criteria. The results of all these studies emphasized the benefit of exercise therapy. Four studies considered electromyogram (EMG) biofeedback to be effective through neuromuscular re-education. Synkinesis and inconsistency of facial muscles could be treated with educational exercise therapy. EMG biofeedback is a suitable tool for this exercise therapy.

  10. A propaganda index for reviewing problem framing in articles and manuscripts: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambrill, Eileen; Reiman, Amanda

    2011-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of an index in increasing recognition of misleading problem framing in articles and manuscripts. A propaganda index consisting of 32 items was developed drawing on related literature. Seventeen subjects who review manuscripts for possible publication were requested to read five recent published reports of randomized controlled trials concerning social anxiety and to identify indicators of propaganda (defined as encouraging beliefs and actions with the least thought possible). They then re-read the same five articles using a propaganda index to note instances of propaganda. Convenience sample of individuals who review manuscripts for possible publication and sample of recent published reports of randomized controlled trials regarding social anxiety in five different journals by different authors, blinded by author and journal. Data showed that there was a high rate of propagandistic problem framing in reports of RCTs regarding social anxiety such as hiding well argued alternative views and vagueness. This occurred in 117 out of 160 opportunities over five research reports. A convenience sample of 17 academics spotted only 4.5 percent of propaganda indicators. This increased to 64 percent with use of the 32 item propaganda index. Use of a propaganda index increased recognition of related indicators. However many instances remained undetected. This propaganda index warrants further exploration as a complement to reporting guidelines such as CONSORT and PRISMA.

  11. The Role of Mobile Technology in Tourism: Patents, Articles, News, and Mobile Tour App Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongwook Kim

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to identify the status and role of mobile technology in achieving sustainable and smart tourism, and to suggest future research and strategy directions for academia and managers in practice. This research utilized multiple sources, such as patents, academic articles, and news, and selected methodologies optimized for the purpose of each study. Study 1 used Netminer, a social network analysis program, to analyze the relationships between patent’s International Patent Classification (IPC codes. Study 2 used the T-LAB program for content analysis to analyze the texts of patents, journal articles, and news. Study 3 used the Leximancer program, which utilizes relative frequency to analyze mobile app consumer reviews. In study 1, we identified various forms of data related technologies and mobile technologies for smart city systems and maps. In study 2, we found the environment, sustainability, business, and market themes to be related to mobile technology. In study 3, we explored consumers’ attitudes and preferences for mobile travel app using their reviews. Advances in mobile technology are expected to create innovative experiences for consumers, foster a sustainable competitive advantage for tourism destinations and tourism-related suppliers, and create sustainable competencies for smart tourism.

  12. Management of Synkinesis and Asymmetry in Facial Nerve Palsy: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali pourmomeny

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The important sequelae of facial nerve palsy are synkinesis, asymmetry, hypertension and contracture; all of which have psychosocial effects on patients. Synkinesis due to mal regeneration causes involuntary movements during a voluntary movement. Previous studies have advocated treatment using physiotherapy modalities alone or with exercise therapy, but no consensus exists on the optimal approach. Thus, this review summarizes clinical controlled studies in the management of synkinesis and asymmetry in facial nerve palsy.   Materials and Methods: Case-controlled clinical studies of patients at the acute stage of injury were selected for this review article. Data were obtained from English-language databases from 1980 until mid-2013.   Results: Among 124 articles initially captured, six randomized controlled trials involving 269 patients were identified with appropriate inclusion criteria. The results of all these studies emphasized the benefit of exercise therapy. Four studies considered electromyogram (EMG biofeedback to be effective through neuromuscular re-education.   Conclusion:  Synkinesis and inconsistency of facial muscles could be treated with educational exercise therapy. EMG biofeedback is a suitable tool for this exercise therapy.

  13. Principles of treatment planning for compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behrad Tanbakuchi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The first permanent molar is susceptible to caries, endodontic complications and developmental anomalies. Compromised teeth with poor prognosis could cause the clinician to face dilemmas. The aim of this review article was to assess recent guidelines on the treatment planning of compromised first permanent molars in mixed dentition period. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was based on review of literature by searching the MEDLINE, Web of science and Google scholar. Key words (permanent first molar, extraction, treatment plan were used. This search was limited to the English articles published after the year 2000. Conclusion: A number of factors influenced decision-making process regarding compromised first permanent molars including the restorative status of the tooth, dental age of the patient, degree of crowding and occlusal relationships were assessed. The ideal time for removal of these teeth was 8-9 years of age. However, the current evidence for managing compromised first permanent molars demands clinical trials.

  14. Oral Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Coeliac Disease – A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Viviana Marisa Pereira; Coelho, Ana Sofia; Veloso e Silva, Diana Maria; de Andrade, David José Casimiro

    2017-01-01

    Background: Coeliac disease is a chronic enteropathy that remains a challenge for the clinician, due to its atypical manifestations and etiopathogenic complexity. Objective: This article intends to describe the oral characteristics of Coeliac Disease in children in order to facilitate their management in the dental office. Methods: A review of the literature was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, and MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 2000 to April of 2017. The article is also based on the authors' clinical experience with children with coeliac disease. The searched keywords were “coeliac disease “,”oral manifestations “, “dental enamel defects”, “recurrent aphthous stomatitis” and “oral aphthous ulcers”. Results: There are some oral manifestations which are strictly related to coeliac disease: dental enamel defects, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, delayed tooth eruption, multiple caries, angular cheilitis, atrophic glossitis, dry mouth and burning tongue. Conclusion: The complete knowledge of the oral manifestations of coeliac disease can trigger an effective change in the quality of life of the patients with this disease. PMID:29238414

  15. Study of prevalence & risk factors of congenital heart defect (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali dehghani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Congenital heart defects are known as the state that comes from birth and influences on structure and function of baby's heart, The different types of defects can range from mild (e.g., a small hole between the heart chambers to hard (like a flaw or weakness in a part of the heart. Method: This article is a review article in which the articles published in Farsi and English that the bases valid as Medline, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Springer, SID index has been used, as well as for the study of keywords associated with the use of MESH keywords in identifying and no time limit listed in the databases were searched. Result The prevalence of congenital heart defect, in general, less than one per cent in newborn. The ventricular wall abnormalities defect (VSD, atrial septal defect of (ASD, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA and tetralogy of Fallot (TOF Top among the most types of congenital heart anomalies. Factors such as the age of the parents at conception, maternal risk of diabetes, influenza and febrile illness during pregnancy, drug use during pregnancy and taking a multivitamin before and during the Pregnancy were influenced of newborns with congenital heart defects. Conclusion: According to studies need to be conducted in the presence of multiple risk factors for these disorders, seem to have a detailed plan to Study of More about the factors that affect the risk of developing these disorders, as well as interventions to reduce risk factors identified particularly during pregnancy.

  16. Oral Manifestations in Pediatric Patients with Coeliac Disease - A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, Viviana Marisa Pereira; Coelho, Ana Sofia; Veloso E Silva, Diana Maria; de Andrade, David José Casimiro

    2017-01-01

    Coeliac disease is a chronic enteropathy that remains a challenge for the clinician, due to its atypical manifestations and etiopathogenic complexity. This article intends to describe the oral characteristics of Coeliac Disease in children in order to facilitate their management in the dental office. A review of the literature was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, and MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 2000 to April of 2017. The article is also based on the authors' clinical experience with children with coeliac disease. The searched keywords were "coeliac disease ","oral manifestations ", "dental enamel defects", "recurrent aphthous stomatitis" and "oral aphthous ulcers". There are some oral manifestations which are strictly related to coeliac disease: dental enamel defects, recurrent aphthous stomatitis, delayed tooth eruption, multiple caries, angular cheilitis, atrophic glossitis, dry mouth and burning tongue. The complete knowledge of the oral manifestations of coeliac disease can trigger an effective change in the quality of life of the patients with this disease.

  17. Bohring-Opitz (Oberklaid-Danks) syndrome: clinical study, review of the literature, and discussion of possible pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hastings, Rob; Cobben, Jan-Maarten; Gillessen-Kaesbach, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    . This is the largest series reported to date, providing a unique opportunity to document the key clinical features and course through childhood. Investigations undertaken to try and elucidate the underlying pathogenesis of BOS using array comparative genomic hybridization and tandem mass spectrometry of cholesterol...

  18. Extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease of bone, subcutaneous tissue and paranasal sinus mucosa with a review of its pathogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Angela J.; Parisien, May; Feldman, Frieda; Young-In Lee, Francis

    2005-01-01

    We report an unusual case of extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease presenting in a 36-year-old man with lesions of bone, subcutaneous tissue of the arm and maxillary sinus mucosa unassociated with lymphadenopathy or systemic symptoms. These lesions appeared metachronously within a 6-month period. The diagnostic light microscopic and immunohistochemical findings and pathogenesis of this interesting disease are discussed. (orig.)

  19. The role of free-radical processes in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration. Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kolesnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available the modern ideas of the role of free radical processes in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD are consid- ered. Data of large randomized clinical trials on application of antioxidants for prevention and therapy AMD are provided. Possibility of the differential application of antioxidants depending on the genetic status of patients is discussed.

  20. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  1. The Potential Role of Music in Second Language Learning: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Zeromskaite

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of musical activities on non-musical domains have recently sparked much research. Whereas the benefits of music for native language abilities are well established, the effect on second language (L2 is not yet fully explored. This review discusses articles suggesting the transfer effect of music on L2 phonological and reading skills. Through the analysis of research literature, it examines; (1 the extent of transfer to specific L2 skills, the nature of necessary music training, the effect of native language on musicality and L2, and the role of working memory in the transfer effect. While the discussed papers provide promising insights into the music-L2 relationship, due to the little research done in this area it is difficult to generalize the results to overall L2 learning.

  2. A review article on brodalumab in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roostaeyan, Omid; Kivelevitch, Dario; Menter, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic immune-mediated skin disorder affecting approximately 2-3% of the worldwide population. Recent advances in our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of psoriasis have resulted in novel therapeutic agents. IL-17, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, plays a pivotal role in psoriasis. Therapeutic agents targeting this cytokine have shown clinical effectiveness in the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. Brodalumab, a human antibody against IL-17 receptor A, has been approved by the US FDA in February 2017, by the Japanese Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency in July 2016 and by the EMA in July 2017 for the treatment of moderate-to-severe psoriasis. This article reviews the published data relating to brodalumab for the treatment of moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis.

  3. PRESAGE® as a solid 3-D radiation dosimeter: A review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khezerloo, Davood; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Takavar, Abbas; Zirak, Alireza; Farhood, Bagher; Movahedinejhad, Hadi; Banaee, Nooshin; Ahmadalidokht, Isa; Knuap, Courtney

    2017-12-01

    Radiation oncology has been rapidly improved by the application of new equipment and techniques. With the advent of new complex and precise radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and volumetric modulated arc therapy, the demand for an accurate and feasible three-dimensional (3-D) dosimetry system has increased. The most important features of a 3-D dosimeter, apart from being precise, accurate and reproducible, include also its low cost, feasibility, and availability. In 2004 a new generation of solid plastic dosimeters which demonstrate a radiochromic response to ionizing radiation was introduced. PRESAGE® plastic dosimeter lacks the limitations of previous Ferric and polymer plastic 3-D dosimeters such as diffusion, sensitivity to oxygen, fabrication problems, scanning and read out challenges. In this decade, a large number of efforts have been carried out to enhance PRESAGE® structure and scanning methods. This article attempts to review and reflect on the results of these investigations.

  4. Cardiovascular effects of saffron and its active constituents: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marjan Razavi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available (Crocus sativus L. Commonly known as saffron, is a perennial stem less herb of the iridaceae family, widely cultivated in Iran and other countries. It is used as a flavoring and coloring agent for many thousands of years. In traditional medicine, saffron has been used for various purposes including abortion, as a fever reducer, an analgesic, expectorant, antispasmodic, aphrodisiac, sedative, digestive and a carminative. Various pharmacological studies have been described that saffron and its constituents exhibit different beneficial properties, including antioxidant, anticancer, anticonvulsant, antiischemic, antigenotoxic, antidote, antiapoptotic, antitussive, antidepressive, sedative and hypnotic, hypolipidemic, antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects. Research projects have also revealed that saffron also exhibits protective effects against cardiovascular diseases including cardiac ischemia, arrhythmia, hypertension and atherosclerosis. In this review article, the effects of saffron and its active constituents on cardiovascular system were introduced.

  5. Dental prostheses mimic the natural enamel behavior under functional loading: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed A. Madfa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Alumina- and zirconia-based ceramic dental restorations are designed to repair functionality as well as esthetics of the failed teeth. However, these materials exhibited several performance deficiencies such as fracture, poor esthetic properties of ceramic cores (particularly zirconia cores, and difficulty in accomplishing a strong ceramic–resin-based cement bond. Therefore, improving the mechanical properties of these ceramic materials is of great interest in a wide range of disciplines. Consequently, spatial gradients in surface composition and structure can improve the mechanical integrity of ceramic dental restorations. Thus, this article reviews the current status of the functionally graded dental prostheses inspired by the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ structures and the linear gradation in Young's modulus of the DEJ, as a new material design approach, to improve the performance compared to traditional dental prostheses. This is a remarkable example of nature's ability to engineer functionally graded dental prostheses. The current article opens a new avenue for recent researches aimed at the further development of new ceramic dental restorations for improving their clinical durability.

  6. Management protocols for status epilepticus in the pediatric emergency room: systematic review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheuk C. Au

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department treatment of status epilepticus. Sources: Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017 contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline. Summary of findings: 356 articles were retrieved and 13 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. In all six pre-hospital guidelines, the preferred route of medication administration was to use alternatives to the intravenous route: all recommended buccal and intranasal midazolam; three also recommended intramuscular midazolam, and five recommended using rectal diazepam. All 11 emergency department guidelines described three phases in therapy. Intravenous medication, by phase, was indicated as such: initial phase - ten/11 guidelines recommended lorazepam, and eight/11 recommended diazepam; second phase - most (ten/11 guidelines recommended phenytoin, but other options were phenobarbital (nine/11, valproic acid (six/11, and either fosphenytoin or levetiracetam (each four/11; third phase - four/11 guidelines included the choice of repeating second phase therapy, whereas the other guidelines recommended using a variety of intravenous anesthetic agents (thiopental, midazolam, propofol, and pentobarbital. Conclusions: All of the guidelines share a similar framework for management of status epilepticus. The choice in route of administration and drug type varied across guidelines. Hence, the adoption of a particular guideline should take account of local practice options in health service delivery.

  7. Review article: teaching, learning, and the pursuit of excellence in anesthesia education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Anne

    2012-02-01

    Excellence in anesthesia education has been advocated to meet the future needs and direction of the specialty. The purpose of this article is twofold: first, to review the current medical education literature and theory in order to inform teaching and learning in anesthesia; and second, to advocate for excellence in anesthesia education. This review considers the general education, educational psychology, and medical education literature based on a search of the MEDLINE and ERIC databases, educational Web sites, and library catalogues. Excellent teaching is considered that which facilitates and maximizes learning. A conceptual framework of learning as a convergence of teacher, learner, assessment, and context is proposed. The contribution of each component to learning is examined in order to enable anesthesia teachers to choose and adapt the most appropriate educational approaches for their particular contexts. The relationship of excellent teaching, scholarly teaching, and the scholarship of teaching is explored. Strategies for promoting excellence in anesthesia education are suggested. The call for excellence in anesthesia has become an important theme, particularly with respect to education. While excellent teaching is a goal to which all anesthesia faculty should aspire, scholarly teaching and scholarship in teaching should also be promoted in order to advance anesthesia education for the benefit of the profession and ultimately for patient care.

  8. Outlines and Outcomes of Instrumented Posterior Fusion in the Pediatric Cervical Spine: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh Haddadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context The most common source of cervical spine arthrodesis in the pediatric populace is the instability related to congenital or traumatic damage. Surgery of cervical spine can be challenging given slighter anatomical constructions, fewer hardened bone, and upcoming growth potential and growth. Evidence Acquisition Trainings in adult patients recommended that consuming screw constructs results in enhanced consequences with inferior amounts of instrumentation catastrophe. But, the pediatric literature is inadequate for minor retrospective series. Authors reviewed the existing pediatric cervical spine arthrodesis literature. They studied 184 abstracts from January 1976 to December 2014. An entire of 883 patients in 82 articles were involved in the evaluation. Patients were characterized as taking either posterior cervical fusion with wiring or posterior cervical fusion with screws or occipitocervical fusion. Results The etiologies faced most frequently were inherited abnormalities (54% shadowed by trauma (28%, Down syndrome (8%, and infectious, oncological, iatrogenic, or mixed causes (10%. The mean duration of follow-up was 32.5 months. Conclusions The consequences of this training are restricted by deviations in construct policy, usage of orthoses, follow-up period and fresher adjuvant produces stimulating fusions. But, a literature review recommend that instrumentation of the cervical spine in children may be harmless and more effective than using screw concepts rather than wiring methods.

  9. Quotation accuracy in medical journal articles-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jergas, Hannah; Baethge, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background. Quotations and references are an indispensable element of scientific communication. They should support what authors claim or provide important background information for readers. Studies indicate, however, that quotations not serving their purpose-quotation errors-may be prevalent. Methods. We carried out a systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression of quotation errors, taking account of differences between studies in error ascertainment. Results. Out of 559 studies screened we included 28 in the main analysis, and estimated major, minor and total quotation error rates of 11,9%, 95% CI [8.4, 16.6] 11.5% [8.3, 15.7], and 25.4% [19.5, 32.4]. While heterogeneity was substantial, even the lowest estimate of total quotation errors was considerable (6.7%). Indirect references accounted for less than one sixth of all quotation problems. The findings remained robust in a number of sensitivity and subgroup analyses (including risk of bias analysis) and in meta-regression. There was no indication of publication bias. Conclusions. Readers of medical journal articles should be aware of the fact that quotation errors are common. Measures against quotation errors include spot checks by editors and reviewers, correct placement of citations in the text, and declarations by authors that they have checked cited material. Future research should elucidate if and to what degree quotation errors are detrimental to scientific progress.

  10. Review article: the potential role of nitric oxide in chronic inflammatory bowel disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Rask-Madsen, J

    1999-01-01

    The aetiology of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases-ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease-as well as 'microscopic colitis'-both collagenous (COC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)-remains unknown. Autoimmune mechanisms, cytokine polymorphism, commensal bacteria, infectious agents and vascular...... impairment have all been proposed as playing important roles in the pathogenesis of this spectrum of diseases. A variety of proinflammatory mediators, including tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, interferon gamma, leukotriene B4 and platelet activating factor, promote the adherence...

  11. 77 FR 10479 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... Section of the NAFTA Secretariat pursuant to Article 1904 of the North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace domestic judicial review...

  12. WITHDRAWN: A Descriptive Review Article for Pump Initiation in a Pediatric Diabetes Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roode, Angela; Smith, Monica

    2013-06-27

    The Publisher regrets that this article is an accidental duplication of an article that has already been published, DOI of original article:10.1016/j.pedn.2013.01.005. The duplicate article has therefore been withdrawn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-13

    Jun 13, 2016 ... emerging drug-resistant pathogens in research programme around the world. This article reviews the history of antibiotics, different types of antibiotics, .... of the plasma membrane; these changes result in the loss of important ...

  14. Management protocols for status epilepticus in the pediatric emergency room: systematic review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Cheuk C; Branco, Ricardo G; Tasker, Robert C

    This systematic review of national or regional guidelines published in English aimed to better understand variance in pre-hospital and emergency department treatment of status epilepticus. Systematic search of national or regional guidelines (January 2000 to February 2017) contained within PubMed and Google Scholar databases, and article reference lists. The search keywords were status epilepticus, prolonged seizure, treatment, and guideline. 356 articles were retrieved and 13 were selected according to the inclusion criteria. In all six pre-hospital guidelines, the preferred route of medication administration was to use alternatives to the intravenous route: all recommended buccal and intranasal midazolam; three also recommended intramuscular midazolam, and five recommended using rectal diazepam. All 11 emergency department guidelines described three phases in therapy. Intravenous medication, by phase, was indicated as such: initial phase - ten/11 guidelines recommended lorazepam, and eight/11 recommended diazepam; second phase - most (ten/11) guidelines recommended phenytoin, but other options were phenobarbital (nine/11), valproic acid (six/11), and either fosphenytoin or levetiracetam (each four/11); third phase - four/11 guidelines included the choice of repeating second phase therapy, whereas the other guidelines recommended using a variety of intravenous anesthetic agents (thiopental, midazolam, propofol, and pentobarbital). All of the guidelines share a similar framework for management of status epilepticus. The choice in route of administration and drug type varied across guidelines. Hence, the adoption of a particular guideline should take account of local practice options in health service delivery. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Review article: coffee consumption, the metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesil, A; Yilmaz, Y

    2013-11-01

    Coffee consumption may modulate the risk of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). To review the experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies investigating the association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS and NAFLD. A literature search was conducted with the aim of finding original experimental, epidemiological and clinical articles on the association between coffee consumption, MetS and NAFLD. The following databases were used: PubMed, Embase, Scopus and Science Direct. We included articles written in English and published up to July 2013. Three experimental animal studies investigated the effects of coffee in the MetS, whereas five examined whether experimental coffee intake may modulate the risk of fatty liver infiltration. All of the animal studies showed a protective effect of coffee towards the development of MetS and NAFLD. Moreover, we identified eleven epidemiological and clinical studies that met the inclusion criteria. Of them, six were carried out on the risk of the MetS and five on the risk of NAFLD. Four of the six studies reported an inverse association between coffee consumption and the risk of MetS. The two studies showing negative results were from the same study cohort consisting of young persons with a low prevalence of the MetS. All of the epidemiological and clinical studies on NAFLD reported a protective effect of coffee intake. Coffee intake can reduce the risk of NAFLD. Whether this effect may be mediated by certain components of the MetS deserves further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Does the South African Physiotherapy Journal fulfill the needs of its constituency? A retrospective article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Frantz

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Professional  journals  are  used  to  disseminate  the  knowledge of scholars in the profession and to provide clinicians with guidance for best practice.  This  article  aimed  to  retrospectively  review  the  role  of the  South African  Journal  of  Physiotherapy  and  its  contribution  to  the profession.  An archival  research  design  was  used  to  collect  information from  the  archives of  the  South  African  Society  of  Physiotherapy website.  The  information  was retrieved  using  a  data  capture  sheet and descriptive  statistics  were  used throughout  to  establish  frequencies  for the  relevant  information.  During  the identified period, 170 articles were published. The greatest number of papers originated in South Africa (81%, 8% from the rest of Africa and 11% written by international authors. Authors with a Masters degree contributed almost 50% of the papers and those with doctorates were responsible for at least 25% of the papers. Most of the papers presented original research (81% with secondary research such as reviews and scholarly papers accounting for 19% of the total. The most common speciality area addressed through research  was  linked  to musculoskeletal  conditions.  The  journal  appears  to  have  provided  an important  platform  for  South African academics and emerging researchers to publish their findings. It is suggested that the journal should give preference to papers that deal with issues that are unique to South Africa and sub-Saharan Africa, as these are the least likely to be published elsewhere. In addition, the journal should emphasise papers that will advance the profession.

  17. Update on mucormycosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ashraf S; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-12-01

    Mucormycosis is an increasingly common fungal infection with unacceptably high mortality. The recent sequencing genome projects of Mucorales and the development of gene manipulation have enabled significant advances in understanding the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. Therefore, we review the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and highlight potential development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities against this lethal disease. Much of the work has been focused on the role of iron uptake in the virulence of Mucorales. Additionally, host receptors and fungal ligands involved in the process of tissue invasion as well as sporangiospore size and sex loci and their contribution to virulence of Mucorales are discussed. Finally, the role of innate and adaptive immunity in protection against Mucorales and new evidence about drug-induced apoptosis in these fungi are discussed. Recent discoveries introduce several potentially novel diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, which are likely to improve management and outcome for mucormycosis. Future preclinical and clinical research is warranted to develop these diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

  18. Internet usage among pregnant women for seeking health information: A review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Javanmardi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the Internet has become one of the most popular sources of health information for users, and pregnant women are no exception. This study aimed to investigate Internet usage among pregnant women for achieving health information on the finding of related studies. Materials and Methods: This review study was conducted by searching databases such as IranMedex, Magiran, Scientific Information Database, Irandoc, PubMed, Science Direct, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and Scopus in December 2016. Restrictions were placed on publication to within 16 years and language of publication was restricted to English and Persian. Keywords used in the search included information-seeking behavior, information-seeking, information needs, access to information, pregnancy, and pregnant women. Results: This search resulted in 106 related publications and among them sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. This review showed that the use of the Internet by pregnant women was driven by information needs, ease, and speed of access and finding people with the same situation. Fetal development, symptoms, and complications of pregnancy, prenatal tests and nutrition, activities during pregnancy, and stages of delivery were the most often mentioned topics of interest. The benefits of internet use include reduced anxiety, personal support, creating an emotional connection and an increased confidence. Conclusions: Health providers must have sufficient ability for interpreting the achieved information from the Internet and should allocate efficient amount of time for discussing information-seeking manners with pregnant women. Furthermore, they must try to respond to the doubts of pregnant women and provide valid and reliable online educational resources.

  19. Students’ Trust Formation and Credibility Judgements in Online Health Information – A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Khosrowjerdi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health information is a frequent subject for online information seeking. Research on the phenomenon has to a certain extent included students. This review, based on an analysis of 61 articles, shows the current state of the art of research on students’ trust in online health information. The review covers methodological approaches and findings of previous previous empirical studies: research design; trustworthy health information sources; credibility assessment; and factors impacting on trust formation. The analysis of research designs reveals that the survey method was most frequent, but small qualitative studies were also occurring. More than half of the studies were administered in the USA, while only a smaller part concerned ‘non-Western’ countries. Female subjects were more frequent than male.The concept of trust was not always explicitly defined in the studies. The students' actual propensity to use internet was generally taken as an expression of trust. The antecedents of trust identified in the studies can be summarized as the perceived quality of the information, the perceived credibility of the source or source provider, the users’ general inclination to trust, the actual use of information, and the perceived intelligibility of the information. The findings show that Internet was among the main sources for health information, but parents or other family members, friends, schools, health professionals were also frequent sources of health information, and students were not immediately accepting online information as trustworthy. The students’ trust and credibility judgments were influenced by social and demographic, cultural, psychological, knowledge and skills-related, and source, system and content-related factors. Governmental and organizational websites were reported as the most trustful sources, although some issues regarding website features and presentation of content were reported as barriers. Easy access were of

  20. Review article: the pathophysiology and medical management of diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tursi, A; Papa, A; Danese, S

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of diverticulosis and diverticular disease of the colon, including diverticulitis, is increasing worldwide, and becoming a significant burden on national health systems. Treatment of patients with diverticulosis and DD is generally based on high-fibre diet and antibiotics, respectively. However, new pathophysiological knowledge suggests that further treatment may be useful. To review the current treatment of diverticulosis and diverticular disease. A search of PubMed and Medline databases was performed to identify articles relevant to the management of diverticulosis and diverticular disease. Major international conferences were also reviewed. Two randomised controlled trials (RCT) found the role of antibiotics in managing acute diverticulitis to be questionable, particularly in patients with no complicating comorbidities. One RCT found mesalazine to be effective in preventing acute diverticulitis in patients with symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. The role of rifaximin or mesalazine in preventing diverticulitis recurrence, based on the results of 1 and 4 RCTs, respectively, remains unclear. RCTs found rifaximin and mesalazine to be effective in treating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. The use of probiotics in diverticular disease and in preventing acute diverticulitis occurrence/recurrence appears promising but unconclusive. Finally, the role of fibre in treating diverticulosis remains unclear. Available evidence suggests that antibiotics have a role only in the treatment of complicated diverticulitis. It appears to be some evidence for a role for rifaximin and mesalazine in treating symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease. Finally, there is not currently adequate evidence to recommend any medical treatment for the prevention of diverticulitis recurrence. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Review article: transient receptor potential channels as possible therapeutic targets in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckers, A B; Weerts, Z Z R M; Helyes, Z; Masclee, A A M; Keszthelyi, D

    2017-11-01

    Abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains challenging to treat effectively. Researchers have attempted to elucidate visceral nociceptive processes in order to guide treatment development. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels have been implied in the generation (TRPV1, TRPV4, TRPA1) and inhibition (TRPM8) of visceral pain signals. Pathological changes in their functioning have been demonstrated in inflammatory conditions, and appear to be present in IBS as well. To provide a comprehensive review of the current literature on TRP channels involved in visceral nociception. In particular, we emphasise the clinical implications of these nociceptors in the treatment of IBS. Evidence to support this review was obtained from an electronic database search via PubMed using the search terms "visceral nociception," "visceral hypersensitivity," "irritable bowel syndrome" and "transient receptor potential channels." After screening the abstracts the articles deemed relevant were cross-referenced for additional manuscripts. Recent studies have resulted in significant advances in our understanding of TRP channel mediated visceral nociception. The diversity of TRP channel sensitization pathways is increasingly recognised. Endogenous TRP agonists, including poly-unsaturated fatty acid metabolites and hydrogen sulphide, have been implied in augmented visceral pain generation in IBS. New potential targets for treatment development have been identified (TRPA1 and TRPV4,) and alternative means of affecting TRP channel signalling (partial antagonists, downstream targeting and RNA-based therapy) are currently being explored. The improved understanding of mechanisms involved in visceral nociception provides a solid basis for the development of new treatment strategies for abdominal pain in IBS. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Mo; Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-12-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter , Escherichia coli , Candida , and Gardnerella ). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC.

  3. Acceptance of Health Information Technologies, Acceptance of Mobile Health: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavand, A; Samadbeik, M; Kafashi, M; Abhari, Sh

    2017-12-01

    Mobile health is one of the new technologies for the utilization of health information. For its successful implementation as well as any other system, we must primarily measure the adoption and use of its factors. The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate published articles about the factors affecting the adoption of mobile health and categorizing the factors affecting the adoption of this system. This study is a comprehensive review done by searching major databases such as Google Scholar, Emerald, Science Direct, Iran Medex, SID, Magiran, Pub med, etc. In addition, we use Mobile, mobile Health + adoption, mobile Health + TAM, Health + TAM keywords in the range of 2004 to 2015. Among the studies that use information technology theories to survey the factors affecting the adoption of mobile health, TAM model was used more than other models. Factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and facilitating condition form TUATU are the most effective in the adoption of mobile health. Results showed that by considering factors such as perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and facilitating condition can increase the adoption of mobile health system. Consequently, these factors are recommended to be considered in planning to run systems.

  4. Malaria Vaccine Development: The Need for Novel Approach-es: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima MAHMOUDI

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although rigorous efforts have substantially decreased the malaria burden through decades, it still threatens the lives of millions of children. Development of an effective vaccine can provide important approach in malaria control strategies. Unfortunately, development of an effective vaccine for falciparum malaria has been hindered by the extreme complexity of malaria parasite biology, complex and diverse parasite genomes, and immune evasion by the parasites as well as the intricate nature of the parasites infection cycle. The aim of this review was to discuss the different approaches to malaria vaccine development until now.Methods: Scientific databases, including MEDLINE (via PubMed and SCOPUS were searched up to 30 Jan 2017 and the articles regarding malaria vaccine development were taken into examination.Results: Several strategies for malaria vaccine development including pre-erythrocytic vaccines, antibody-based subunit vaccines, vectored vaccines, whole sporozoite vaccines, genetically Attenuated parasites and sporozoite subunit vaccine, erythrocytic vaccines, sexual stage vaccine, transmission-blocking vaccine as well as synthetic peptides and conjugate vaccine has been introduced. However, the success has been limited thus far.Conclusion: Although development of malaria vaccine over the past 70 year has been continued, the discovery, development, and licensing of a malaria vaccine formulation, which meets safety, affordability, accessibility, applicability, and efficacy has not yet been achieved.

  5. Probiotics in the Prevention and Treatment of Postmenopausal Vaginal Infections: Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yoo Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species (spp.), which act beneficially as a bacterial barrier in the vagina, interfering with uropathogens. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level. A lower vaginal pH inhibits uropathogen growth, preventing vaginal infections. Decreased estrogen secretion in postmenopausal women depletes lactobacilli and increases intravaginal pH, resulting in increased vaginal colonization by harmful microorganisms (e.g., Enterobacter, Escherichia coli, Candida, and Gardnerella). Probiotics positively effects on vaginal microflora composition by promoting the proliferation of beneficial microorganisms, alters the intravaginal microbiota composition, prevents vaginal infections in postmenopausal. Probiotics also reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections (e.g., vaginal discharge, odor, etc.), and are thus helpful for the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. In this review article, we provide information on the intravaginal mechanism of postmenopausal vaginal infections, and describes the effectiveness of probiotics in the treatment and prevention of BV and VVC. PMID:29354612

  6. Isotopic and spin-nuclear effects in solid hydrogens (Review Article)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiman, Yuri A.; Crespo, Yanier

    2017-12-01

    The multiple isotopic family of hydrogens (H2, HD, D2, HT, DT, T2) due to large differences in the de Boer quantum parameter and inertia moments displays a diversity of pronounced quantum isotopic solid-state effects. The homonuclear members of this family (H2, D2, T2) due to the permutation symmetry are subjects of the constraints of quantum mechanics which link the possible rotational states of these molecules to their total nuclear spin giving rise to the existence of two spin-nuclear modifications, ortho- and parahydrogens, possessing substantially different properties. Consequently, hydrogen solids present an unique opportunity for studying both isotope and spin-nuclear effects. The rotational spectra of heteronuclear hydrogens (HD, HT, DT) are free from limitations imposed by the permutation symmetry. As a result, the ground state of these species in solid state is virtually degenerate. The most dramatic consequence of this fact is an effect similar to the Pomeranchuk effect in 3He which in the case of the solid heteronuclear hydrogens manifests itself as the reentrant broken symmetry phase transitions. In this review article we discuss thermodynamic and kinetic effects pertaining to different isotopic and spin-nuclear species, as well as problems that still remain to be solved.

  7. Validity of claims made in weight management research: a narrative review of dietetic articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aphramor Lucy

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The best available evidence demonstrates that conventional weight management has a high long-term failure rate. The ethical implications of continued reliance on an energy deficit approach to weight management are under-explored. Methods A narrative literature review of journal articles in The Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics from 2004 to 2008. Results Although the energy deficit approach to weight management has a high long-term failure rate it continues to dominate research in the field. In the current research agenda, controversies and complexities in the evidence base are inadequately discussed, and claims about the likely success of weight management misrepresent available evidence. Conclusions Dietetic literature on weight management fails to meet the standards of evidence based medicine. Research in the field is characterised by speculative claims that fail to accurately represent the available data. There is a corresponding lack of debate on the ethical implications of continuing to promote ineffective treatment regimes and little research into alternative non-weight centred approaches. An alternative health at every size approach is recommended.

  8. PRESAGE® as a solid 3-D radiation dosimeter: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khezerloo, Davood; Nedaie, Hassan Ali; Takavar, Abbas; Zirak, Alireza; Farhood, Bagher; Movahedinejhad, Hadi; Banaee, Nooshin; Ahmadalidokht, Isa; Knuap, Courtney

    2017-01-01

    Radiation oncology has been rapidly improved by the application of new equipment and techniques. With the advent of new complex and precise radiotherapy techniques such as intensity modulated radiotherapy, stereotactic radiosurgery, and volumetric modulated arc therapy, the demand for an accurate and feasible three-dimensional (3-D) dosimetry system has increased. The most important features of a 3-D dosimeter, apart from being precise, accurate and reproducible, include also its low cost, feasibility, and availability. In 2004 a new generation of solid plastic dosimeters which demonstrate a radiochromic response to ionizing radiation was introduced. PRESAGE ® plastic dosimeter lacks the limitations of previous Ferric and polymer plastic 3-D dosimeters such as diffusion, sensitivity to oxygen, fabrication problems, scanning and read out challenges. In this decade, a large number of efforts have been carried out to enhance PRESAGE ® structure and scanning methods. This article attempts to review and reflect on the results of these investigations. - Highlights: • Sensitivity and stability can improve with variation in weight fraction of gel. • To overcome star and edge artifacts, Wide-parallel beam optical CT can use in clinic. • Modeling of scatter pattern can be usable to enhance of images.

  9. Peer-Reviewed Articles on Inclusive Research: Do Co-Researchers with Intellectual Disabilities Have a Voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Walmsley, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Background: Inclusive research is increasingly common in intellectual disabilities research, but ways in which voice of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities is presented remain underexplored in the literature. Materials and Method: The authors conducted a literature review and analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on…

  10. Hepatitis E: Molecular Virology and Pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Subrat K.; Varma, Satya P.K.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus is a single, positive-sense, capped and poly A tailed RNA virus classified under the family Hepeviridae. Enteric transmission, acute self-limiting hepatitis, frequent epidemic and sporadic occurrence, high mortality in affected pregnants are hallmarks of hepatitis E infection. Lack of an efficient culture system and resulting reductionist approaches for the study of replication and pathogenesis of HEV made it to be a less understood agent. Early studies on animal models, sub-genomic expression of open reading frames (ORF) and infectious cDNA clones have helped in elucidating the genome organization, important stages in HEV replication and pathogenesis. The genome contains three ORF's and three untranslated regions (UTR). The 5′ distal ORF, ORF1 is translated by host ribosomes in a cap dependent manner to form the non-structural polyprotein including the viral replicase. HEV replicates via a negative-sense RNA intermediate which helps in the formation of the positive-sense genomic RNA and a single bi-cistronic sub-genomic RNA. The 3′ distal ORF's including the major structural protein pORF2 and the multifunctional host interacting protein pORF3 are translated from the sub-genomic RNA. Pathogenesis in HEV infections is not well articulated, and remains a concern due to the many aspects like host dependent and genotype specific variations. Animal HEV, zoonosis, chronicity in immunosuppressed patients, and rapid decompensation in affected chronic liver diseased patients warrants detailed investigation of the underlying pathogenesis. Recent advances about structure, entry, egress and functional characterization of ORF1 domains has furthered our understanding about HEV. This article is an effort to review our present understanding about molecular biology and pathogenesis of HEV. PMID:25755485

  11. Critical Review of Hamby's (2014) Article Titled "Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Research, Scientific Progress, Scientific Challenges, and Gender".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winstok, Zeev

    2015-07-28

    In a recent article, Hamby advocates the replacement of the "old" Conflict Tactic Scales used to measure physical partner violence (PV) with a new measurement instrument that represents and supports a thesis that gender use of physical PV is asymmetrical rather than symmetrical. This article takes a critical look at the logic, assumptions, arguments, examples, interpretations, and conclusions, presented in Hamby's article, and in some cases disagrees with them. Furthermore, this article uses Hamby's proposals as an opportunity to review and examine core issues in the study of perpetration of physical PV, including gender-related theoretical and methodological issues. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Review article: liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma - a critical appraisal of the current worldwide listing criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, K V; Hakeem, A R; Heaton, N D

    2014-10-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) plays an important role in the management of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although early results following LT for HCC were poor, since the introduction of the Milan criteria in 1996 morphological criteria have since been well established. Thereafter, various expansions of the Milan criteria were introduced worldwide. Listing criteria for LT for HCC in the United Kingdom (UK) initially conformed to the Milan criteria but were re-defined in 2009 by expansion of the Milan criteria. To look at the evidence in literature on listing criteria and management of HCC worldwide in comparison with the UK. Secondly, we aim to review worldwide vs. UK literature on prioritisation models, loco-regional therapy protocols and role of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) in LT for HCC. An electronic literature search with Medline was carried out to identify articles related to LT for HCC. Although various expansions of the Milan criteria have been described, they remain the gold standard against which other criteria are measured. The UK criteria are an expansion of the Milan criteria that go beyond Milan and University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) criteria. The current UK listing criteria for LT for HCC when compared to the worldwide criteria have a worse survival benefit (projected 5-year survival between 35-50%) when plotted on the metroticket calculator. In keeping with most transplant centres worldwide, the UK have adopted expansions to Milan to allow more patients to benefit from LT. However, currently, as it stands the UK criteria when plotted in the modification of the Metroticket model project worse survival that would seem unjustified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The Relationship Between Periodontal Disease and Neoplasms of the Oral Cavity: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourelahi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Context Oral cavity is one of the most common sites for neoplasms with a multifactorial etiology. Tobacco and alcohol are the main risk factors. Periodontal disease is an inflammatory disease affecting periodontal tissues such as gingiva, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone. Periodontal disease is linked to many systemic diseases. Recently a link between periodontal disease and cancer is suggested. The current review article aimed to evaluate the association between periodontal disease and risk of cancer in the oral cavity and some related factors. Evidence Acquisition Evidence suggests that oral cavity cancer is significantly more prevalent in patients with periodontal disease, poor oral hygiene or more missing teeth. Clinically, gingival squamous cell carcinoma (GSCC usually appears as an exophytic mass with a granular, papillary or verrucous surface or presents as an ulcerative lesion. Some reported cases of GSCC mimicking periodontal disease include gingival enlargement with no bone invasion, dentoalveolar abscess, erosive erythematosus lesion with keratotic papules, root exposure and tooth mobility, verrucous leukoplakia, verruciform xanthoma and development of hyperplastic granulation tissue after tooth extraction. Greater burden of oral flora that produce carcinogenic metabolites, human papilloma virus (HPV and other viruses that are residents of periodontal pocket, increased amount of inflammatory mediators and markers and some periodontal pathogens affecting cell cycle leading to mutation and dysplasia are considered as the rational for the relationship between malignant lesions of oral cavity and periodontal disease. Results Cancer of the oral cavity and periodontal disease are related from different aspects. Periodontal disease and tooth loss are considered as independent risk factors for cancer. Gingival squamous cell carcinoma can also mimic periodontal disease leading to misdiagnosis and delayed commencement of appropriate

  14. Review article: dyssynergic defaecation and biofeedback therapy in the pathophysiology and management of functional constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardoon, G R; Khera, A J; Emmanuel, A V; Burgell, R E

    2017-08-01

    Functional constipation is a common clinical presentation in primary care. Functional defaecation disorders are defined as the paradoxical contraction or inadequate relaxation of the pelvic floor muscles during attempted defaecation (dyssynergic defaecation) and/or inadequate propulsive forces during attempted defaecation. Prompt diagnosis and management of dyssynergic defaecation is hindered by uncertainty regarding nomenclature, diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and efficacy of management options such as biofeedback therapy. To review the evidence pertaining to the pathophysiology of functional defaecation disorders and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the management of patients with dyssynergic defaecation and functional constipation. Relevant articles addressing functional defaecation disorders and the efficacy of biofeedback therapy in the management of dyssynergic defaecation and functional constipation were identified from a search of Pubmed, MEDLINE Ovid and the Cochrane Library. The prevalence of dyssynergic defaecation in patients investigated for chronic constipation is as many as 40%. Randomised controlled trials have demonstrated major symptom improvement in 70%-80% of patients undergoing biofeedback therapy for chronic constipation resistant to standard medical therapy and have determined it to be superior to polyethylene glycol laxatives, diazepam or sham therapy. Long-term studies have shown 55%-82% of patients maintain symptom improvement. Dyssynergic defaecation is a common clinical condition in patients with chronic constipation not responding to conservative management. Biofeedback therapy appears to be a safe, successful treatment with sustained results for patients with dyssynergic defaecation. Further studies are required to standardise the diagnosis of dyssynergic defaecation in addition to employing systematic protocols for biofeedback therapy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Causal language and strength of inference in academic and media articles shared in social media (CLAIMS): A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Noah; Smith, Emily R; Moscoe, Ellen; Andrews, Kathryn; Audy, Robin; Bell, Winnie; Brennan, Alana T; Breskin, Alexander; Kane, Jeremy C; Karra, Mahesh; McClure, Elizabeth S; Suarez, Elizabeth A

    2018-01-01

    The pathway from evidence generation to consumption contains many steps which can lead to overstatement or misinformation. The proliferation of internet-based health news may encourage selection of media and academic research articles that overstate strength of causal inference. We investigated the state of causal inference in health research as it appears at the end of the pathway, at the point of social media consumption. We screened the NewsWhip Insights database for the most shared media articles on Facebook and Twitter reporting about peer-reviewed academic studies associating an exposure with a health outcome in 2015, extracting the 50 most-shared academic articles and media articles covering them. We designed and utilized a review tool to systematically assess and summarize studies' strength of causal inference, including generalizability, potential confounders, and methods used. These were then compared with the strength of causal language used to describe results in both academic and media articles. Two randomly assigned independent reviewers and one arbitrating reviewer from a pool of 21 reviewers assessed each article. We accepted the most shared 64 media articles pertaining to 50 academic articles for review, representing 68% of Facebook and 45% of Twitter shares in 2015. Thirty-four percent of academic studies and 48% of media articles used language that reviewers considered too strong for their strength of causal inference. Seventy percent of academic studies were considered low or very low strength of inference, with only 6% considered high or very high strength of causal inference. The most severe issues with academic studies' causal inference were reported to be omitted confounding variables and generalizability. Fifty-eight percent of media articles were found to have inaccurately reported the question, results, intervention, or population of the academic study. We find a large disparity between the strength of language as presented to the

  16. Pathogenesis of motor neuron disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuefei Wang

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze the factors and theories related to the attack of motor neuron disease, and comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease.DATA SOURCES: A search of Pubmed database was undertaken to identify articles about motor neuron disease published in English from January 1994 to June 2006 by using the keywords of "neurodegenerative diseases". Other literatures were collected by retrieving specific journals and articles.STUDY SELECTION: The data were checked primarily, articles related to the pathogenesis of motor neuron disease were involved, and those obviously irrelated to the articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 54 articles were collected, 30 of them were involved, and the other 24 were excluded.DATA SYNTHESIS: The pathogenesis of motor neuron disease has multiple factors, and the present related theories included free radical oxidation, excitotoxicity, genetic and immune factors, lack of neurotrophic factor,injury of neurofilament, etc. The studies mainly come from transgenic animal models, cell culture in vitro and patients with familial motor neuron disease, but there are still many restrictions and disadvantages.CONCLUSION: It is necessary to try to find whether there is internal association among different mechanisms,comprehensively investigate the pathogenesis of motor neuron diseases, in order to provide reliable evidence for the clinical treatment.

  17. Nourodevelopmental follow-up in high-risk infants: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2015-02-01

    for it. The present review article aims to introduce the care process and tools that is used for following-up these babies, also introduces the application of screening tools for neuro-developmental care.

  18. Helicobacter pylori virulence genes and microevolution in host and the clinical outcome: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Zahra Bakhti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori is the causative agent in development of gastroduode-nal diseases, such as chronic atrophic gastritis, peptic ulcers, mucosa associated lym-phoid tissue (MALT lymphoma, and gastric cancer. H. pylori has been associated with inflammation in cardia, showing the fact that infection with this bacterium could also be a risk factor for gastric cardia cancer. Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. This is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths, and ap-proximately 700,000 people succumb each year to gastric adenocarcinoma. It has been estimated that 69% of the Iranian population currently harbor H. pylori infection. The prevalence of duodenal ulcer and gastric cancer is high in Iranian populations. However, this has been largely influenced by geographic and/or ethnic origin. Epidemi-ology studies have shown that host, environmental, and bacterial factors determine the outcome of H. pylori infection. The bacterium contains allelic diversity and high genet-ic variability into core- and virulence-genes and that this diversity is geographically and ethnically structured. The genetic diversity within H. pylori is greater than within most other bacteria, and its diversity is more than 50-fold higher than that of human DNA. The maintenance of high diversification makes this bacterium to cope with particular challenges in individual hosts. It has been reported that the recombination contributed to the creation of new genes and gene family. Furthermore, the microevolution in cagA and vacA genes is a common event, leading to a change in the virulence phenotype. These factors contribute to the bacterial survival in acidic conditions in stomach and protect it from host immune system, causing tissue damage and clinical disease. In this review article, we discussed the correlation between H. pylori virulence factors and clin-ical outcomes, microevolution of H. pylori virulence genes in a single host

  19. The Impact of Density: The Importance of Nonlinearlity and Selection on Flight and Fight Responses: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Conklin

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available The article "The Impact of Density" by Wendy C. Regoeczi is reviewed as part of Sociation Today's effort to place focus on important articles relating to core social science concepts. The effects of density on human behavior may have been underreported in the past due to the non-linear relationship between density and crowding and the fact that people self select out of dense situations.

  20. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Subhedar; R. K. Sinha; Saumi Sinha

    2015-01-01

    Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was cond...

  1. Epidemiology, disease and control of infections in ruminants by herpesviruses - an overview : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Patel

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are at least 16 recognised herpesviruses that naturally infect cattle, sheep, goats and various species of deer and antelopes. Six of the viruses are recognised as distinct alphaherpesviruses and 9 as gammaherpesviruses. Buffalo herpesvirus (BflHV and ovine herpesvirus-1 (OvHV-1 remain officially unclassified. The prevalence of ruminant herpesviruses varies from worldwide to geographically restricted in distribution. Viruses in both subfamilies Alphaherpesvirinae and Gammaherpesvirinae cause mild to moderate and severe disease in respective natural or secondary ruminant hosts. Accordingly, the economic and ecological impact of the viruses is also variable. The molecular characteristics of some members have been investigated in detail. This has led to the identification of virulence-associated genes and construction of deletion mutants and recombinant viruses. Some of the latter have been developed as commercial vaccines. This paper aims to give an overview of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of infection by these viruses, immuno-prophylaxis and mechanisms of recovery from infection. Since there are 128 ruminant species in the family Bovidae, it is likely that some herpesviruses remain undiscovered. We conclude that currently known ruminant alphaherpesviruses occur only in their natural hosts and do not cross stably into other ruminant species. By contrast, gammaherpesviruses have a much broader host range as evidenced by the fact that antibodies reactive to alcelaphine herpesvirus type 1 have been detected in 4 subfamilies in the family Bovidae, namely Alcelaphinae, Hippotraginae, Ovibovinae and Caprinae. New gammaherpesviruses within these subfamilies are likely to be discovered in the future.

  2. Poorly cited articles in peer-reviewed cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007: analysis of 5-year citation rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S; Masoudi, Frederick A; Spertus, John A; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2015-05-19

    The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited articles may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997 to 2007. We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997 to 2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164 377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997 to 2007. From 1997 to 2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2%, respectively. Of all the articles, 75 550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25 650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997 to 2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1%-46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three-fourths of the journal's content poorly cited at 5 years. Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature and the number of poorly cited articles both increased substantially from 1997 to 2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggests inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education: A Review of Articles Published in "School-University Partnerships"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yendol-Hoppey, Diane; Franco, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    ''In Search of Signature Pedagogy for PDS Teacher Education'' is a review of articles published in "School-University Partnerships" which emerged in response to Shulman's critique that we do not possess powerful, consistent models of practice that we can define and have deeply studied. To these ends, we searched for Signature Pedagogy…

  4. WWC Quick Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning" Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an updated WWC (What Works Clearinghouse) Review of the Article "Culture and the Interaction of Student Ethnicity with Reward Structure in Group Learning". The study examined the effects of different reward systems used in group learning situations on the math skills of African-American and White students. The…

  5. Evaluating Prior Scholarship in Literature Reviews of Research Articles: A Comparative Study of Practices in Two Research Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Becky S. C.; Chan, Hang; Lam, Colin

    2012-01-01

    Evaluations of prior scholarship play a crucial role in the literature review (LR) of a research article by showing how the boundary of an area of inquiry can be further advanced by the writer's work. Yet, many inexperienced writers find evaluating others' work a major challenge. Although the task has received some attention in research and…

  6. Motor (re) learning concepts used in technology assisted training of arm hand function in stroke: a review article.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.; Seelen, H.A.M.; Willmann, R.; Kingma, H.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It is the purpose of this article to review, which are possible criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer upper limb training after stroke that is based on principles of motor learning. Methods: A computerised literature search was conducted in

  7. Review Article: Structural flood-protection measures referring to several European case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryžanowski, A.; Brilly, M.; Rusjan, S.; Schnabl, S.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a review of structural measures that were taken to cope with floods in some cities along the Danube River, such as Vienna, Bratislava, and Belgrade. These cities were also considered as case studies within the KULTURisk project. The structural measures are reviewed and compared to each other according to the type, duration of application, the return period of the design flood event, how the project measures are integrated into spatial planning and the problems that occur in the flood defences today. Based on this review, some suggestions are given on how to improve the flood risk management in flood-prone areas.

  8. Occupational Stress: A Comprehensive Review of the Top 50 Annual and Lifetime Cited Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowrouzi, Behdin; Nguyen, Christine; Casole, Jennifer; Nowrouzi-Kia, Behnam

    2017-05-01

    This study determined the impact and influence of published articles on the field of occupational stress. A transdisciplinary approach was used to identify the 50 work-related stress articles with the most lifetime citations and the 50 work-related stress articles with the highest annual citation rates. Studies were categorized based on their primary focus: (a) etiology, (b) predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is the outcome or predictor of outcome for which occupational stress is an independent variable, (c) management/intervention, (d) theory/model/framework, or (e) methodologies. The majority of studies with the highest number of lifetime citations as well as the highest annual citation rates used stress as a predictor or outcome of another factor. The proportion of studies that were categorized by etiology, intervention/management, theory/model/framework, or methodologies was relatively low for both lifetime and annual citations.

  9. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-05-01

    May 1, 2018 ... In addition, the accounting information system plays a major role in providing ... being studied, which we will review in this article. the impact of information technology ... taking into account the form of traditional controls and roles. in other words ... among sectors and individuals. the use of e-mail, the internal ...

  10. Poorly Cited Articles in Peer-Reviewed Cardiovascular Journals from 1997–2007: Analysis of 5-Year Citation Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghe, Isuru; Shojaee, Abbas; Bikdeli, Behnood; Gupta, Aakriti; Chen, Ruijun; Ross, Joseph S.; Masoudi, Frederick; Spertus, John A.; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The extent to which articles are cited is a surrogate of the impact and importance of the research conducted; poorly cited papers may identify research of limited use and potential wasted investments. We assessed trends in the rates of poorly cited articles and journals in the cardiovascular literature from 1997–2007. Methods and Results We identified original articles published in cardiovascular journals and indexed in the Scopus citation database from 1997–2007. We defined poorly cited articles as those with ≤5 citations in the 5 years following publication and poorly cited journals as those with >75% of journal content poorly cited. We identified 164,377 articles in 222 cardiovascular journals from 1997–2007. From 1997–2007, the number of cardiovascular articles and journals increased by 56.9% and 75.2% respectively. Of all the articles, 75,550 (46.0%) were poorly cited, of which 25,650 (15.6% overall) had no citations. From 1997–2007, the proportion of poorly cited articles declined slightly (52.1% to 46.2%, trend Pjournal level, 44% of cardiovascular journals had more than three quarters of the journal’s content poorly cited at 5 years. Conclusion Nearly half of all peer-reviewed articles published in cardiovascular journals are poorly cited 5 years after publication, and many are not cited at all. The cardiovascular literature, and the number of poorly cited articles, have both increased substantially from 1997–2007. The high proportion of poorly cited articles and journals suggest inefficiencies in the cardiovascular research enterprise. PMID:25812573

  11. Weight Management, Energy Metabolism, and Endocrine Hor¬mones- Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed-Ali MOSTAFAVI; Saeed HOSSEINI

    2015-01-01

    Energy expenditure is determined by basal metabolic rate, physical activity, and Thermic Effect of Foods (TEF). Some endocrine hormones have role in basal metabolism and hence in human energy expenditure. And some foods pose more thermic effects on the total body energy expenditure and therefore can influence body weight. This review was performed to discuss factors which may affect body metabolism and body weight. Latest medical databases and nutrition and metabolism books were reviewed. We ...

  12. A systematic review of Bayesian articles in psychology : The last 25 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Schoot, Rens|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304833207; Winter, Sonja; Ryan, Oisín|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413321061; Zondervan - Zwijnenburg, Mariëlle|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/380604884; Depaoli, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Although the statistical tools most often used by researchers in the field of psychology over the last 25 years are based on frequentist statistics, it is often claimed that the alternative Bayesian approach to statistics is gaining in popularity. In the current article, we investigated this claim

  13. Evaluating Effect of Albendazole on Trichuris trichiura Infection: A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Jouybari, Toraj; Najaf Ghobadi, Khadije; Lotfi, Bahare; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Ahmadi, Nayeb Ali; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Aghaei, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of defaults and conducted meta-analysis of the efficacy of single-dose oral albendazole against T. trichiura infection. We searched PubMed, ISI Web of Science, Science Direct, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and WHO library databases between 1983 and 2014. Data from 13 clinical trial articles were used. Each article was included the effect of single oral dose (400 mg) albendazole and placebo in treating two groups of patients with T. trichiura infection. For both groups in each article, sample size, the number of those with T. trichiura infection, and the number of those recovered following the intake of albendazole were identified and recorded. The relative risk and variance were computed. Funnel plot, Beggs and Eggers tests were used for assessment of publication bias. The random effect variance shift outlier model and likelihood ratio test were applied for detecting outliers. In order to detect influence, DFFITS values, Cook's distances and COVRATIO were used. Data were analyzed using STATA and R software. The article number 13 and 9 were outlier and influence, respectively. Outlier is diagnosed by variance shift of target study in inferential method and by RR value in graphical method. Funnel plot and Beggs test did not show the publication bias ( P =0.272). However, the Eggers test confirmed it ( P =0.034). Meta-analysis after removal of article 13 showed that relative risk was 1.99 (CI 95% 1.71 - 2.31). The estimated RR and our meta-analyses show that treatment of T. trichiura with single oral doses of albendazole is unsatisfactory. New anthelminthics are urgently needed.

  14. A review of the role of alcohol in the pathogenesis of oral cancer and the link between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reidy, John T

    2011-08-01

    This article will review the most recent literature on the effects of alcohol on the oral mucosa, and the possible mechanisms by which alcohol is thought to act as a carcinogen. The article will also consider the possible link between alcohol-containing mouthrinses and oral cancer. The authors recommend that the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses in high-risk populations should be restricted, pending the outcome of further research.

  15. Digging in to Link Analysis Researches in Iran and all around the World: a Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Nooshinfard

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Increasing websites quantity, specially scientific websites, there were many researches with concern of link analysis using webometrics by librarian and other scholars in different academic majors around the world. The purpose of this article was link analysis of all link analysis related papers from the beginning to February 19th 2009. The research based on Weiner, Amick, and Lee searching model in 2008, this study included 96 refereed papers extracted from international databases like Springer, Proquest, Sage, Emerald, IEEE, Science Direct and national databases such as Magiran and SID. These papers were studied focusing on their different parts like authors, affiliated organizations, purpose, methods, tools, keywords, date of publishing, publication, indexing databases and their suggestions. Moreover, analyzing those papers and studying any related models were the other purposes of the current article. The findings have been categorized and analyses in ten different sections.

  16. Applications of Depleted Uranium in the first and second Persian Gulf Wars: a review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Behrouzi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Depleted uranium (DU is a byproduct of natural uranium enrichment process. Its unique characteristics (e.g. high density caused to use in civilian and military fields extensively. In the military fields, DU is used in the bullets and projectiles war hats. The munitions containing DU were used in the recent wars, more strikingly in the Middle East region (first and second Persian Gulf wars, and Afghanistan. Due to its biological impacts, this study aimed to assess biological effects of DU using scientometrics by investigating papers indexed in Pubmed from 1990-2008, to reveal the number and type of articles and also the important dimensions of DU biological impacts as well as the core issues. Methods: In this descriptive epidemiologic study, quantitative methods (counting frequency of words and scientometrics were used. Sample size was the total of the articles indexed in Pubmed during 1991- 2008, containing the terms "Gulf War" and "Depleted Uranium" in their title or keywords. Results: The most compromised body systems were urinary, nervous and cardiovascular. Other systems such as endocrine, musculoskeletal, immune and respiratory were also mentioned. Conclusion: Highly controversial results which have been stated in the surveyed articles about DU biological and environmental impacts caused the authors to recommend long term investigations for assessing its effects on recurrence to reveal potential late effects of DU.

  17. Invited Review Article: Measurements of the Newtonian constant of gravitation, G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothleitner, C; Schlamminger, S

    2017-11-01

    By many accounts, the Newtonian constant of gravitation G is the fundamental constant that is most difficult to measure accurately. Over the past three decades, more than a dozen precision measurements of this constant have been performed. However, the scatter of the data points is much larger than the uncertainties assigned to each individual measurement, yielding a Birge ratio of about five. Today, G is known with a relative standard uncertainty of 4.7 × 10 -5 , which is several orders of magnitudes greater than the relative uncertainties of other fundamental constants. In this article, various methods to measure G are discussed. A large array of different instruments ranging from the simple torsion balance to the sophisticated atom interferometer can be used to determine G. Some instruments, such as the torsion balance can be used in several different ways. In this article, the advantages and disadvantages of different instruments as well as different methods are discussed. A narrative arc from the historical beginnings of the different methods to their modern implementation is given. Finally, the article ends with a brief overview of the current state of the art and an outlook.

  18. Metabolic and mineral conditions of retained placenta in highly productive dairy cows: pathogenesis, diagnostics and prevention – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Mordak

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The time around calving in highly productive dairy cows is a critical period in terms of their metabolism, which is connected with high demands of the foetus as well as with the onset of lactation. Retained placenta in cows may have multifactorial aetiology, but in herds which are free from infectious diseases, the most important reasons are; periparturient metabolic changes and disturbances to the internal balance and stress. During the periparturient period, the most important factor causing immune suppression and hypotony of uterus in cows is metabolic stress due to hormonal and nutritional factors, including metabolic fluctuations, negative energy balance, as well as shortage of proteins, minerals, vitamins and antioxidants. This metabolic stress as a result of an imbalance in the internal metabolic homeostasis activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPA and increases serum corticosterid (cortisol concentration, especially on the day of calving. Cortisol is a powerful immune suppressive factor that causes depression of leukocyte proliferation and their functions. The periparturient metabolic stress may also stimulate the production of catecholamines, especially adrenalin. Elevated levels of adrenalin activate adrenoreceptors of the myometrium, which in turn cause hypotony or atony of the uterus at calving in cows. Elevated levels of cortisol and adrenalin may significantly inhibit the rejection and expulsion of foetal membranes in cows, resulting in an increased incidence of their retention. These important mechanisms for placental retention in highly productive dairy cows often have primary nutritional metabolic aetiology, but they also occur during secondary metabolic disturbances and metabolic stress during calving. This metabolic and immunological aetiology and pathogenesis of retained placenta usually occur in highly productive periparturient cows on dairy farms in the absence of bovine infectious diseases, which can

  19. Review article – Optimisation of exposure parameters for spinal curvature measurements in paediatric radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Seraphine; Reis, Cláudia; Ndlovu, Junior; Serrenho, Catarina; Akhtar, Ifrah; Garcia, José Antonio; Linde, Daniël; Thorskog, Martine; Franco, Loris; Hogg, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This review aims to identify strategies to optimise radiography practice using digital technologies, for full spine studies on paediatrics focusing particularly on methods used to diagnose and measure severity of spinal curvatures. The literature search was performed on different databases (PubMed,

  20. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Iran: (1997–2012): Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    SOLTANZADEH, Ahmad; EBRAHIMI, Hossein; FALLAHI, Majid; KAMALINIA, Mojtaba; GHASSEMI, Shadi; GOLMOHAMMADI, Rostam

    2014-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss, which is one of the 10 leading occupational diseases, is a debilitating and irreversible disease. During the recent 15-years period (1997–2012), several studies have investigated the association between noise, hearing damage and other side effects of noise in Iran. The aim of this study was to review systematically the relevant literature related to noise-induced hearing loss, lead to developing noise exposure limits. In this systematic review, two researchers independently extracted the data from 31 past studies that had considered noise-induced hearing loss (including hearing loss, temporary and permanent hearing threshold shift and auditory trauma). The data were then recorded in a modified form and Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS, version 16.0. In analyzed studies the weighted average equivalent sound pressure level [L Aeq ] was 90.29 dB(A) and average hearing loss was 26.44 dB(A). The Highest degree of hearing loss in the right ear was associated at 4000 Hz, and the highest degree of hearing loss in the left ear was associated to 1000 and 4000 Hz. The majority of the reviewed studies have confirmed that exposure to a noise level above 85 dB (A) can lead to an increased chance of hearing loss. Furthermore, the results of the present review indicated that as L Aeq increased up to 85 dB(A), so did the severity of the hearing loss. PMID:26171352

  1. Peer-reviewed articles on inclusive research: Do co-researchers with intellectual disabilities have a voice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strnadová, Iva; Walmsley, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive research is increasingly common in intellectual disabilities research, but ways in which voice of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities is presented remain underexplored in the literature. The authors conducted a literature review and analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles reporting on inclusive research. The aim was to explore the ways the voices of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities are represented in published peer-reviewed journal articles. The findings indicate that there are a wide range of ways in which inclusive research projects are reported in peer-reviewed journals. However, the experiences, views and opinions of co-researchers are often either absent or very selectively reported. The article concludes that although inclusive research has proliferated in the 21st century, more attention needs to be paid to the ways in which the voices of co-researchers with intellectual disabilities are heard in formal academic contexts. Guidelines for future practice are offered. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Current understanding in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tess McPherson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been advances in our understanding of the complex pathogenesis of atopic eczema over the past few decades. This article examines the multiple factors which are implicated in this process.

  3. Pathogenesis of ovarian cancer: current perspectives | Chesang ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To present a review of current knowledge of the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer and its clinical implications. Data Source: Extensive literature search was conducted to identify relevant studies. Study Selection: Studies in the English language about or related to pathogenesis of ovarian cancer were selected.

  4. The Helminths Causing Surgical or Endoscopic Abdominal Intervention: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal UYSAL

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Helminths sometimes require surgical or endoscopic intervention. Helminths may cause acute abdomen, mechanical intestinal obstruction, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, perforation, hepatitis, pancreatitis, and appendicitis. This study aimed to determine the surgical diseases that helminths cause and to gather, analyze the case reports, case series and original articles about this topic in literature.Methods: This study was designed as a retrospective observational study. In order to determine the studies published in literature, the search limits in PubMed database were set to 1 Jan 1957 and 31 Mar 2016 (59 yr, and the articles regarding Helminth-Surgery-Endoscopy were taken into examination. Among 521 articles scanned, 337 specific ones were involved in this study.Results: The most common surgical pathology was found to be in Ascaris lumbricoides group. Enterobius vermicularis was found to be the parasite that caused highest amount of acute appendicitis. Anisakiasis was observed to seem mainly because of abdominal pain and mechanical intestinal obstruction. Strongyloides stercoraries causes duodenal pathologies such as duodenal obstruction and duodenitis. Taenia saginata comes into prominence with appendicitis and gastrointestinal perforations. Fasciola hepatica exhibits biliary tract involvement and causes common bile duct obstruction. Hookworms were observed to arise along with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and anemia. Trichuris trichiuria draws attention with gastrointestinal hemorrhage, mechanical intestinal obstruction.Conclusion: Helminths may lead to life-threatening clinic conditions such as acute abdomen, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, and hemorrhages. There is a relationship between surgery and helminths. It is very important for surgeons to consider and remember helminths in differential diagnoses during their daily routines.

  5. Status and trends in the development of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) - a review of international articles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreassen, Mads; Gertsen, Frank; Christiansen, Thomas Bøhm

    2004-01-01

    Corporate continuous innovation efforts are often guided by (more or less) customized standard management concepts such as "TQM", "BPR" or "Lean". The focus of this article, Total Productive Maintenance (TPM), is a contemporary example of such a concept. Although the concept first appeared more...... maintenance and high efficiency of the production facilities. However, during the last ten years, the concepthas been developed into a company wide (management)concept, also compromising efficiency in the administrative part of a company, safety and environmental aspects, as well as product quality. Based...

  6. Second derivative Langmuir probe diagnostics of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (review article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, Tsv K; Dimitrova, M; Dias, F M; Tsaneva, V N; Stelmashenko, N A; Blamire, M G; Barber, Z H

    2006-01-01

    The second-derivative Langmuir probe method for precise determination of the plasma potential, the electron energy distribution function (respectively the electron temperature,) and the electron density of gas discharge plasma at intermediate pressures (100-1000 Pa) is reviewed. Results of applying the procedure proposed to different kinds of gas discharges are presented. Factors affecting the accuracy of the plasma characteristics evaluated are discussed

  7. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but als...

  8. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the Eastern and Western Mediterranean

    OpenAIRE

    U. Dayan; K. M. Nissen; U. Ulbrich

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes producing heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the Western and Eastern Mediterranean in order to point at specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the ad...

  9. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia – status and challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Chen; W. Li; G. Fang; Z. Li

    2017-01-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeli...

  10. Review article: Surgical approaches for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchmatia, Jaykar R; Lenke, Lawrence G; Molloy, Sean; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Kebaish, Khaled M

    2015-12-01

    This study reviewed the literature regarding the pros and cons of various surgical approaches (anterior, anterolateral, combined, and posterior) for correction of post-tubercular kyphosis. The anterior and anterolateral approaches are effective in improving neurological deficit but not in correcting kyphosis. The combined anterior and posterior approach and the posterior approach combined with 3-column osteotomy achieve good neurological improvement and kyphosis correction. The latter is superior when expertise and facilities are available.

  11. Antiferromagnetism and its origin in iron-based superconductors (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Ming-Cui; Zhang, Yu-Zhong; Lin, Hai-Qing

    2014-01-01

    In iron-based superconductors, unravelling the origin of the antiferromagnetism is a crucial step towards understanding the high-T c superconductivity as it is widely believed that the magnetic fluctuations play important roles in the formation of the Cooper pairs. Therefore, in this paper, we will briefly review experimental results related to the antiferromagnetic state in iron-based superconductors and focus on a review of the theoretical investigations which show applicability of the itinerant scenario to the observed antiferromagnetism and corresponding phase transitions in various families of the iron-based superconductors. A proposal of coupling between frustrated and un frustrated bands for understanding the reduced magnetic moment typically observed in iron pnictides is also reviewed. While all the above theoretical investigations do not rule out a possible existence of localized electrons in iron-based superconductors, these results strongly indicate a close relation between itinerant electrons and the magnetically ordered state and point out the importance of taking into account the orbital degrees of freedom.

  12. Review article: the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori and the incidence of gastric cancer across Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S E; Morrison-Rees, S; Samuel, D G; Thorne, K; Akbari, A; Williams, J G

    2016-02-01

    There is little up-to-date review evidence on the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori across Europe. To establish regional and national patterns in H. pylori prevalence across Europe. Secondly, to establish trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence and, thirdly, to report on the relationship between H. pylori prevalence and age group across Europe. A review of H. pylori prevalence from unselected surveys of adult or general populations across 35 European countries and four European regions since 1990. Secondly, an analysis of trends over time in H. pylori prevalence and in gastric cancer incidence from cancer registry data. Helicobacter pylori prevalence was lower in northern and western Europe than in eastern and southern Europe (P Europe from 1993 to 2007 was 2.1% with little variation regionally across Europe (north 2.2%, west 2.3%, east 1.9% and south 2.0%). Sharp increases in age-related prevalence of H. pylori often levelled off for middle age groups of about 50 years onwards, especially in areas with high prevalence. This review shows that H. pylori prevalence is much higher in less affluent regions of Europe and that age-related increases in prevalence are confined to younger age groups in some areas. There were sharp reductions in both H. pylori prevalence and gastric cancer incidence throughout Europe. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. The use of Pierre Bourdieu's distinction concepts in scientific articles studying food and eating: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Priscila de Morais; Gittelsohn, Joel; Unsain, Ramiro Fernandez; Roble, Odilon José; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews and discusses scientific papers on eating practices that have used Pierre Bourdieu's concepts presented in Distinction: A Social Critique of the Judgement of Taste. It aims to synthesize and analyze theoretical and empirical studies on the theme in order to present Bourdieu's contributions to the field, advances in his theories, and directions for future research. Exclusion criteria were: not written in Portuguese, English, Spanish, or French; not published in a peer-reviewed journal; not analyzing food or eating; and not using Bourdieu's concepts as presented in Distinction as the main theoretical framework. In this narrative review, we found 38 articles, which were categorized main themes: food choice and provisioning, taste, social class, food symbolism, the body, and the scientific field of food and eating. The taste of luxury and the taste of necessity were broadly applied on the works found in this review and were observed among the lower and upper classes, manifesting differently in each class. These studies show that while Bourdieu's theories are still highly relevant to understanding contemporary social groups, they may be improved when combined with other frameworks and theorists. We highlight as directions for future research manners in which gender and the environment interact with the habitus and food choices. Finally, this review points to new areas of investigation that may help improve the use of Bourdieu's concepts in exploring health inequalities, such as differences in eating practices and habitus within populations with low socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular Pathogenesis of NASH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Caligiuri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is the main cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world and a major health problem, owing to its close association with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. NASH progression results from numerous events originating within the liver, as well as from signals derived from the adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract. In a fraction of NASH patients, disease may progress, eventually leading to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Understanding the mechanisms leading to NASH and its evolution to cirrhosis is critical to identifying effective approaches for the treatment of this condition. In this review, we focus on some of the most recent data reported on the pathogenesis of NASH and its fibrogenic progression, highlighting potential targets for treatment or identification of biomarkers of disease progression.

  15. Canine distemper infections, with special reference to South Africa, with a review of the literature : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Leisewitz

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus is a member of the genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridaethat causes severe disease in dogs and a range of wild mammals. The clinical signs relate essentially to the respiratory, gastrointestinal and central nervous systems. In South Africa, infection with Ehrlichia canis and canine parvovirus may present similarly. Many dogs will initially present with a wide range of central nervous system signs without any history of systemic disease. A recent South African study evaluating ante mortem diagnosis highlighted the importance of recognising clinical signs, cerebrospinal fluid IgG titres, serum IgM titres and immunocytochemistry of epithelial tissue. A 2-year retrospective evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid samples collected from dogs presented to the Onderstepoort Veterinary Academic Hospital indicates that distemper infection is common, and this disease should routinely be suspected in cases of diverse neurological disease in dogs. The South African dog population is specifically at high risk for the disease because of the large pool of unvaccinated, reproductively-active dogs that expose the wildlife resources of the country to risk of fatal disease. Outbreaks of disease in dogs continue to occur in developed and developing communities in both vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs worldwide, and have also been described in a wide range of free-ranging wildlife, including seals, dolphins and lions, and in endangered zoo animals. Modified live virus vaccines have contributed markedly to disease control in the dog population but have caused mortality in some wild carnivores. New recombinant vaccines are being developed that will be safe in wild animals. The pathogenesis of CNS demyelination has been compared to various important demyelinating diseases in humans and, amongst other things, relates to down-regulation of the oligodendrocyte gene coding for myelin synthesis and non-immunocyte CNS cell expression of type II

  16. A Systematic Review of the Role of Dysfunctional Wound Healing in the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Betensley

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a chronic, progressive interstitial lung disorder showcasing an interaction between genetic predisposition and environmental risks. This usually involves the coaction of a mixture of cell types associated with abnormal wound healing, leading to structural distortion and loss of gas exchange function. IPF bears fatal prognosis due to respiratory failure, revealing a median survival of approximately 2 to 3 years. This review showcases the ongoing progress in understanding the complex pathophysiology of IPF and it highlights the latest potential clinical treatments. In IPF, various components of the immune system, particularly clotting cascade and shortened telomeres, are highly involved in disease pathobiology and progression. This review also illustrates two US Food and Drug Administration (FDA-approved drugs, nintedanib (OFEV, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ingelheim am Rhein, Germany and pirfenidone (Esbriet, Roche, Basel, Switzerland, that slow IPF progression, but unfortunately neither drug can reverse the course of the disease. Although the mechanisms underlying IPF remain poorly understood, this review unveils the past and current advances that encourage the detection of new IPF pathogenic pathways and the development of effective treatment methods for the near future.

  17. (No) Limits to Anglo-American Accounting? Reconstructing the History of the International Accounting Standards Committee ; A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Botzem, S.; Quack, S.

    2009-01-01

    The development of the current International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) from the earlier International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC) provides insight into many issues of international financial reporting, among them the characteristics of international accounting standards themselves. This article reviews Camfferman and Zeff’s [Camfferman, K., & Zeff, S. A. (2007). Financial reporting and global capital markets. A history of the international accounting standards committee 1973...

  18. The Survival of Total Knee Arthroplasty: Current Data from Registries on Tribology: Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinini, Roberto; Carulli, Christian; Matassi, Fabrizio; Lepri, Andrea Cozzi; Sirleo, Luigi; Innocenti, Massimo

    2017-02-01

    Polyethylene (PE) wear is a major contributor to implant loosening following total knee arthroplasty (TKA), and advanced bearings in TKA are being investigated with hopes of reducing or eliminate wear-related loosening. Currently, information on knee tribology is available from national joint registries and may be the best tools to evaluate the efficacy and safety of design innovations in joint arthroplasty. We performed a review of national joint registries trying to answer the following questions: "Which is the main factor directly related to revisions rate in TKA?" and "Are there new bearing options better than conventional ones?" A review was performed of all published annual reports of National Joint Registers, as well as of the literature. The search was carried out using and comparing the National Joint Registers. Current data from registries for total knee arthroplasty indicates that age is the major factor affecting the outcome of primary total knee replacement. The 10-year cumulative revision rate for non-cross-linked PE was 5.8% and for XLPE it was 3.5%. The effect of cross-linked polyethylene was more evident in the younger patients. The survival of the oxidized zirconium (OxZr) femoral component appears better when compared to a similar age group of patients with conventional group of prostheses. Our review suggests that the revision rates are half for the OxZr components compared to conventional CoCr femoral components. Age is the most relevant single factor related to revision rate. Cross-linked PE has a statistical lower revision rate at 10 years compared to conventional PE and, in the OxZr group, the revision rate is 2 times lower than Co-Cr in the same group of age.

  19. Review article: the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, J; Blondeau, K; Boecxstaens, V; Rommel, N

    2011-04-01

    Rumination syndrome, characterised by the effortless, often repetitive, regurgitation of recently ingested food into the mouth, was originally described in children and in the developmentally disabled. It is now well-recognised that rumination syndrome occurs in patients of all ages and cognitive abilities. To review a scholarly review on our current understanding of the rumination syndrome. The review was conducted on the basis of a medline search to identify relevant publications pertaining to the pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis and management of rumination syndrome. The Rome III consensus established diagnostic criteria for rumination syndrome in adults, children and infants. A typical history can be highly suggestive but oesophageal (high resolution) manometry/impedance with ingestion of a meal may help to distinguish rumination syndrome from other belching/regurgitation disorders. The pathophysiology is incompletely understood, but involves a rise in intra-gastric pressure, generated by a voluntary, but often unintentional, contraction of the abdominal wall musculature, at a time of low pressure in the lower oesophageal sphincter, causing retrograde movement of gastric contents into the oesophagus. To date, controlled trials in the treatment rumination syndrome are lacking. The mainstay of treatment for rumination syndrome is explanation and behavioural treatment which consists of habit reversal techniques that compete with the urge to regurgitate. Chewing gum, prokinetics, baclofen and even antireflux surgery have been proposed as adjunctive therapies, but high quality studies are generally lacking. Rumination is an under-recognised condition with incompletely understood pathophysiology. Behavioural therapy seems effective, but controlled treatment trials are lacking. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Hydrophobically associated polymers for wettability alteration and enhanced oil recovery – Article review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. El-hoshoudy

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude oil and other petroleum products are crucial to the global economy today due to increasing energy demand approximately (∼1.5% per year and significant oil remaining after primary and secondary oil recovery (∼45–55% of original oil in place, OOIP, which accelerates the development of enhanced oil recovery (EOR technologies to maximize the recovered oil amount by non-conventional methods as polymer flooding. This review discusses enhanced oil recovery methods specially polymer flooding techniques and their effects on rock wettability alteration.

  1. 'In-between' and other reasonable ways to deal with risk and uncertainty: A review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Jens O

    2016-11-16

    How people deal with risk and uncertainty has fuelled public and academic debate in recent decades. Researchers have shown that common distinctions between rational and 'irrational' strategies underestimate the complexity of how people approach an uncertain future. I suggested in 2008 that strategies in-between do not follow standards of instrumental rationality nor they are 'irrational' but follow their own logic which works well under particular circumstances. Strategies such as trust, intuition and emotion are an important part of the mix when people deal with risk and uncertainty. In this article, I develop my original argument. It explores in-between strategies to deal with possible undesired outcomes of decisions. I examine 'non-rational strategies' and in particular the notions of active, passive and reflexive hope. Furthermore, I argue that my original typology should be seen as a triangular of reasonable strategies which work well under specific circumstances. Finally, I highlight a number of different ways in which these strategies combine.

  2. Review article Control cognitions as predictors of distress in a cross-cultural context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Jánošová

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Negative psychological states as well as happiness belong to universal human experience; however, research findings reveal interindividual and intercultural differences in their symptoms and effective ways of coping. The aim of this article is to analyze the experience of distress in a cultural perspective with special focus on the relationship with control cognitions. Models of agency and Michel’s theory of uncertainty are used to interpret differences in attitude toward ambiguity and subjective need of control, indicated by preliminary cross-cultural studies. Finally, practical implications of the findings are discussed, pointing out that effectiveness of commonly used psychological interventions, based on the change in control beliefs, may not be universal.

  3. Active learning-based information structure analysis of full scientific articles and two applications for biomedical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yufan; Silins, Ilona; Stenius, Ulla; Korhonen, Anna

    2013-06-01

    Techniques that are capable of automatically analyzing the information structure of scientific articles could be highly useful for improving information access to biomedical literature. However, most existing approaches rely on supervised machine learning (ML) and substantial labeled data that are expensive to develop and apply to different sub-fields of biomedicine. Recent research shows that minimal supervision is sufficient for fairly accurate information structure analysis of biomedical abstracts. However, is it realistic for full articles given their high linguistic and informational complexity? We introduce and release a novel corpus of 50 biomedical articles annotated according to the Argumentative Zoning (AZ) scheme, and investigate active learning with one of the most widely used ML models-Support Vector Machines (SVM)-on this corpus. Additionally, we introduce two novel applications that use AZ to support real-life literature review in biomedicine via question answering and summarization. We show that active learning with SVM trained on 500 labeled sentences (6% of the corpus) performs surprisingly well with the accuracy of 82%, just 2% lower than fully supervised learning. In our question answering task, biomedical researchers find relevant information significantly faster from AZ-annotated than unannotated articles. In the summarization task, sentences extracted from particular zones are significantly more similar to gold standard summaries than those extracted from particular sections of full articles. These results demonstrate that active learning of full articles' information structure is indeed realistic and the accuracy is high enough to support real-life literature review in biomedicine. The annotated corpus, our AZ classifier and the two novel applications are available at http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/yg244/12bioinfo.html

  4. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong; Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ming-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants

  5. What Is Fitness Training? Definitions and Implications: A Systematic Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    PAOLI, Antonio; BIANCO, Antonino

    2015-01-01

    Background: This review based upon studies searched from the major scientific libraries has the objective of clarifying what is fitness training in modern days, the implications that it has on health in both youth and elderly and finally discuss fitness training practical implications. Methods: The PRISMA statement was partially adopted and a number of 92 items were selected, according to the inclusion criteria. Results were discussed in 4 main sections: 1. Children and adolescents fitness levels; 2. Fitness training in the elderly; 3. Pathology prevention through fitness training; 4. Training through Fitness activities. Results: This review pointed out the fact that nowadays there is a large variety of fitness activities available within gyms and fitness centers. Even though they significantly differ with each other, the common aim they have is the wellbeing of the people through the improvement of the physical fitness components and the psychological balance. Conclusion: Fitness instructors’ recommendations should be followed in gym context and should be contingent upon an individual’s objectives, physical capacity, physical characteristics and experience. PMID:26284201

  6. [Complementary and alternative procedures for fibromyalgia syndrome : Updated guidelines 2017 and overview of systematic review articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhorst, J; Heldmann, P; Henningsen, P; Kopke, K; Krumbein, L; Lucius, H; Winkelmann, A; Wolf, B; Häuser, W

    2017-06-01

    The regular update of the guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome, AWMF number 145/004, was scheduled for April 2017. The guidelines were developed by 13 scientific societies and 2 patient self-help organizations coordinated by the German Pain Society. Working groups (n =8) with a total of 42 members were formed balanced with respect to gender, medical expertise, position in the medical or scientific hierarchy and potential conflicts of interest. A search of the literature for systematic reviews of randomized controlled trials of complementary and alternative therapies from December 2010 to May 2016 was performed in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine version 2009. The strength of recommendations was formed by multiple step formalized procedures to reach a consensus. Efficacy, risks, patient preferences and applicability of available therapies were weighed up against each other. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the board of directors of the societies engaged in the development of the guidelines. Meditative movement therapies (e.g. qi gong, tai chi and yoga) are strongly recommended. Acupuncture and weight reduction in cases of obesity can be considered.

  7. Factors Influence on Geographic Distribution of Physicians in Selected Countries: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Ashkan Nasiripour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most important inequalities of providing health services is misdistribution of human resources, especially physicians. Many factors contribute to the distribution of physicians in different regions. The present study was aimed to explore the effective factors in distributing physicians in different countries. Methods: This study is a systematic review, in which the data were gathered through literature review, online searches in multiple databases and relevant organizations’ websites. Later, the collected data were classified using content analysis method, and consequently, they were illustrated in comparative matrix. Results: The factors that influence the dispersion of the physicians are divided into 4 main groups. Firstly, Geographic and Demographic factors of the region such as, population, age, gender and climate. Secondly, Health factors of the region and the country such as, the number of hospitals, health centers and health indicators. Thirdly, Economic, Social and Political factors of the region such as, economic growth, culture and believes. And finally, the factors related to physicians' characteristics and motivation such as, age, gender and the compensation system. Conclusion: There are different reasons why physicians spread in different countries’ geographical regions. Regarding the unequal distribution of physicians in Iran, identifying these influential reasons and also the factors affecting the distribution of physicians, and the impact of each one of these, can lead to a fair and equal distribution of resources of the health sector.

  8. Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis, a Rare and Under-diagnosed Fungal Infection in Immunocompetent Hosts: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Geramizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis (GIB is an unusual, rare, but emerging fungal infection in the stomach, small intestine, colon, and liver. It has been rarely reported in the English literature and most of the reported cases have been from US, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Iran. In the last five years, 17 cases have been reported from one or two provinces in Iran, and it seems that it has been undiagnosed or probably unnoticed in other parts of the country. In this review, we explored the English literature from 1964 through 2013 via PubMed, Google, and Google scholar using the following search keywords: 1 Basidiobolomycosis 2 Basidiobolus ranarum 3 Gastrointestinal Basidiobolomycosis In this review, we attempted to collect all clinical, pathological, and radiological findings of the presenting patients; complemented with previous experiences regarding the treatment and prognosis of the GIB. Since 1964, only 71 cases have been reported, which will be fully described in terms of clinical presentations, methods of diagnosis and treatment as well as prognosis and follow up.

  9. Current research progress in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys: A review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Yahia; Qiu, Dong [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); Jiang, Bin; Pan, Fusheng [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Ming-Xing, E-mail: Mingxing.Zhang@uq.edu.au [School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, particularly in magnesium–aluminium (Mg–Al) based alloys, has been an active research topic in the past two decades, because it has been considered as one of the most effective approaches to simultaneously increase the strength, ductility and formability. The development of new grain refiners was normally based on the theories/models that were established through comprehensive and considerable studies of grain refinement in cast Al alloys. Generally, grain refinement in cast Al can be achieved through either inoculation treatment, which is a process of adding, or in situ forming, foreign particles to promote heterogeneous nucleation rate, or restricting grain growth by controlling the constitutional supercooling or both. But, the concrete and tangible grain refinement mechanism in cast metals is still not fully understood and there are a number of controversies. Therefore, most of the new developed grain refiners for Mg–Al based alloys are not as efficient as the commercially available ones, such as zirconium in non-Al containing Mg alloys. To facilitate the research in grain refinement of cast magnesium alloys, this review starts with highlighting the theoretical aspects of grain refinement in cast metals, followed by reviewing the latest research progress in grain refinement of magnesium alloys in terms of the solute effect and potent nucleants.

  10. The Status of Human and Animal Fascioliasis in Iran: A Narrative Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASHRAFI, Keyhan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased during last few decades due to the appearance of new emerging and re-emerging foci in many countries. Iran, as the most important focus of human disease in Asia, has been included among six countries known to have a serious problem with fascioliasis by WHO. Various aspects of the disease in Iran are discussed in this review. Methods: This narrative review covers all information about human and animal fascioliasis in Iran, which has been published in local and international journals from 1960 to 2014 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct. Results: During the period of the study the infection rates of 0.1% to 91.4% was noted in various livestock. Despite the higher infection rates of livestock in southern areas in past decades, human disease has been mostly encountered in northern Provinces especially in Guilan. Recent studies indicate noticeable decrease in prevalence rates of veterinary fascioliasis in Iran, however the prevalence rates of fascioliasis in livestock in northern Provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran seem to remain at a higher level in comparison to other parts. New foci of the disease have also been reported recently. Conclusion: While the prevalence of animal fascioliasis has decreased during last decades, human fascioliasis emerged as a public health problem in the country. The validity of new foci of human fascioliasis needs complementary standard studies. PMID:26622287

  11. Review article: Hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia - status and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yaning; Li, Weihong; Fang, Gonghuan; Li, Zhi

    2017-02-01

    Meltwater from glacierized catchments is one of the most important water supplies in central Asia. Therefore, the effects of climate change on glaciers and snow cover will have increasingly significant consequences for runoff. Hydrological modeling has become an indispensable research approach to water resources management in large glacierized river basins, but there is a lack of focus in the modeling of glacial discharge. This paper reviews the status of hydrological modeling in glacierized catchments of central Asia, discussing the limitations of the available models and extrapolating these to future challenges and directions. After reviewing recent efforts, we conclude that the main sources of uncertainty in assessing the regional hydrological impacts of climate change are the unreliable and incomplete data sets and the lack of understanding of the hydrological regimes of glacierized catchments of central Asia. Runoff trends indicate a complex response to changes in climate. For future variation of water resources, it is essential to quantify the responses of hydrologic processes to both climate change and shrinking glaciers in glacierized catchments, and scientific focus should be on reducing uncertainties linked to these processes.

  12. An Annotated Checklist of the Human and Animal Entamoeba (Amoebida: Endamoebidae Species- A Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Hooshyar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of valid of pathogen and non-pathogen species of Entamoeba has continuously increased in human and animals. This review is performed to provide an update list and some summarized information on Entamoeba species, which were identified up to the 2014.We evaluated the Entamoeba genus with a broad systematic review of the literature, books and electronic databases until February 2014. The synonyms, hosts, pathogenicity and geographical distribution of valid species were considered and recorded. Repeated and unrelated cases were excluded.Totally 51 defined species of Entamoeba were found and arranged by the number of nuclei in mature cyst according to Levin's grouping. Seven of these species within the 4 nucleate mature cysts group and 1 species with one nucleate mature cyst are pathogen. E. histolytica, E. invadence, E. rananrum and E. anatis causes lethal infection in human, reptiles, amphibians and brides respectively, four species causes non-lethal mild dysentery. The other species were non-pathogen and are important to differential diagnosis of amoebiasis.There are some unknown true species of Entamoeba that available information on the morphology, hosts, pathogenicity and distribution of them are still very limited and more considerable investigation will be needed in order to clarify the status of them.

  13. Promotional tone in reviews of menopausal hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: an analysis of published articles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriane Fugh-Berman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Even after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (hormone therapy outweighed benefit for asymptomatic women, about half of gynecologists in the United States continued to believe that hormones benefited women's health. The pharmaceutical industry has supported publication of articles in medical journals for marketing purposes. It is unknown whether author relationships with industry affect promotional tone in articles on hormone therapy. The goal of this study was to determine whether promotional tone could be identified in narrative review articles regarding menopausal hormone therapy and whether articles identified as promotional were more likely to have been authored by those with conflicts of interest with manufacturers of menopausal hormone therapy. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed tone in opinion pieces on hormone therapy published in the four years after the estrogen-progestin arm of the WHI was stopped. First, we identified the ten authors with four or more MEDLINE-indexed reviews, editorials, comments, or letters on hormone replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy published between July 2002 and June 2006. Next, we conducted an additional search using the names of these authors to identify other relevant articles. Finally, after author names and affiliations were removed, 50 articles were evaluated by three readers for scientific accuracy and for tone. Scientific accuracy was assessed based on whether or not the findings of the WHI were accurately reported using two criteria: (1 Acknowledgment or lack of denial of the risk of breast cancer diagnosis associated with hormone therapy, and (2 acknowledgment that hormone therapy did not benefit cardiovascular disease endpoints. Determination of promotional tone was based on the assessment by each reader of whether the article appeared to promote hormone therapy. Analysis of inter-rater consistency found moderate agreement

  14. Promotional tone in reviews of menopausal hormone therapy after the Women's Health Initiative: an analysis of published articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugh-Berman, Adriane; McDonald, Christina Pike; Bell, Alicia M; Bethards, Emily Catherine; Scialli, Anthony R

    2011-03-01

    Even after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (hormone therapy) outweighed benefit for asymptomatic women, about half of gynecologists in the United States continued to believe that hormones benefited women's health. The pharmaceutical industry has supported publication of articles in medical journals for marketing purposes. It is unknown whether author relationships with industry affect promotional tone in articles on hormone therapy. The goal of this study was to determine whether promotional tone could be identified in narrative review articles regarding menopausal hormone therapy and whether articles identified as promotional were more likely to have been authored by those with conflicts of interest with manufacturers of menopausal hormone therapy. We analyzed tone in opinion pieces on hormone therapy published in the four years after the estrogen-progestin arm of the WHI was stopped. First, we identified the ten authors with four or more MEDLINE-indexed reviews, editorials, comments, or letters on hormone replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy published between July 2002 and June 2006. Next, we conducted an additional search using the names of these authors to identify other relevant articles. Finally, after author names and affiliations were removed, 50 articles were evaluated by three readers for scientific accuracy and for tone. Scientific accuracy was assessed based on whether or not the findings of the WHI were accurately reported using two criteria: (1) Acknowledgment or lack of denial of the risk of breast cancer diagnosis associated with hormone therapy, and (2) acknowledgment that hormone therapy did not benefit cardiovascular disease endpoints. Determination of promotional tone was based on the assessment by each reader of whether the article appeared to promote hormone therapy. Analysis of inter-rater consistency found moderate agreement for scientific accuracy (κ=0.57) and substantial

  15. Quality of vision in refractive and cataract surgery, indirect measurers: review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parede, Taís Renata Ribeira; Torricelli, André Augusto Miranda; Mukai, Adriana; Vieira Netto, Marcelo; Bechara, Samir Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Visual acuity is the measurement of an individual's ability to recognize details of an object in a space. Visual function measurements in clinical ophthalmology are limited by factors such as maximum contrast and so it might not adequately reflect the real vision conditions at that moment as well as the subjective aspects of the world perception by the patient. The objective of a successful vision-restoring surgery lies not only in gaining visual acuity lines, but also in vision quality. Therefore, refractive and cataract surgeries have the responsibility of achieving quality results. It is difficult to define quality of vision by a single parameter, and the main functional-vision tests are: contrast sensitivity, disability glare, intraocular stray light and aberrometry. In the current review the different components of the visual function are explained and the several available methods to assess the vision quality are described.

  16. Review article: the use of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) for natural hazards monitoring and management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordan, Daniele; Hayakawa, Yuichi; Nex, Francesco; Remondino, Fabio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    The number of scientific studies that consider possible applications of remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPASs) for the management of natural hazards effects and the identification of occurred damages strongly increased in the last decade. Nowadays, in the scientific community, the use of these systems is not a novelty, but a deeper analysis of the literature shows a lack of codified complex methodologies that can be used not only for scientific experiments but also for normal codified emergency operations. RPASs can acquire on-demand ultra-high-resolution images that can be used for the identification of active processes such as landslides or volcanic activities but can also define the effects of earthquakes, wildfires and floods. In this paper, we present a review of published literature that describes experimental methodologies developed for the study and monitoring of natural hazards.

  17. How to Trick Your Opponent: A Review Article on Deceptive Actions in Interactive Sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Güldenpenning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Performing deceptive actions is a wide-spread phenomenon in sports and it is of considerable practical relevance to know whether or not a fake or a disguised action decreases the opponents’ performance. Therefore, research on deceptive actions for various sport disciplines (e.g., cricket, rugby, martial arts, soccer, and basketball has been conducted. This research is scattered, both across time and scientific disciplines. Here, we aim to systematically review the empirical work on deceptive actions in interactive sports and want to give an overview about several issues investigated in the last decades. Three main topics of the detected literature were discussed here: (1 the role of expertise for the recognition of deceptive actions, (2 the cognitive mechanisms underlying the processing of deceptive actions, and (3 the pros and cons of in situ research designs. None of these themes seems to be settled and therefore, they should be considered in future research agendas.

  18. Review Article. Organochlorine pesticides, their toxic effects on living organisms and their fate in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraj Ravindran

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Organochlorine (OC pesticides are synthetic pesticides widely used all over the world. They belong to the group of chlorinated hydrocarbon derivatives, which have vast application in the chemical industry and in agriculture. These compounds are known for their high toxicity, slow degradation and bioaccumulation. Even though many of the compounds which belong to OC were banned in developed countries, the use of these agents has been rising. This concerns particularly abuse of these chemicals which is in practice across the continents. Though pesticides have been developed with the concept of target organism toxicity, often non-target species are affected badly by their application. The purpose of this review is to list the major classes of pesticides, to understand organochlorine pesticides based on their activity and persistence, and also to understand their biochemical toxicity.

  19. New directions in point-contact spectroscopy based on scanning tunneling microscopy techniques (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tartaglini, E.; Verhagen, T.G.A.; Galli, F.; Trouwborst, M.L.; Aarts, J.; Van-Ruitebbeek, J.M.; Muller, R.; Shiota, T.

    2013-01-01

    Igor Yanson showed 38 years ago for the first time a point-contact measurement where he probed the energy resolved spectroscopy of the electronic scattering inside the metal. Since this first measurement, the pointcontact spectroscopy (PCS) technique improved enormously. The application of the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) techniques in the late 1980s allowed achieving contacts with a diameter of a single atom. With the introduction of the mechanically controlled break junction technique, even spectroscopy on freely suspended chains of atoms could be performed. In this paper, we briefly review the current developments of PCS and show recent experiments in advanced scanning PCS based on SPM techniques. We describe some results obtained with both needle-anvil type of point contacts and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We also show our first attempt to lift up with a STM a chain of single gold atoms from a Au(110) surface.

  20. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  1. The Status of Human and Animal Fascioliasis in Iran: A Narra¬tive Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyhan ASHRAFI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The public health importance of human fascioliasis has increased during last few decades due to the appearance of new emerging and re-emerging foci in many countries. Iran, as the most important focus of human disease in Asia, has been included among six countries known to have a serious problem with fascio­liasis by WHO. Various aspects of the disease in Iran are discussed in this review.Methods: This narrative review covers all information about human and animal fascioliasis in Iran, which has been published in local and international journals from 1960 to 2014 using various databases including PubMed, SID, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct. Results: During the period of the study the infection rates of 0.1% to 91.4% was noted in various livestock. Despite the higher infection rates of livestock in south­ern areas in past decades, human disease has been mostly encountered in northern Provinces especially in Guilan. Recent studies indicate noticeable decrease in preva­lence rates of veterinary fascioliasis in Iran, however the prevalence rates of fascio­liasis in livestock in northern Provinces of Guilan and Mazandaran seem to remain at a higher level in comparison to other parts. New foci of the disease have also been reported recently. Conclusion: While the prevalence of animal fascioliasis has decreased during last decades, human fascioliasis emerged as a public health problem in the country. The validity of new foci of human fascioliasis needs complementary standard studies.

  2. 77 FR 72325 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final resolution of the Countervailing Duty... 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to replace...

  3. 76 FR 16728 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's final... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  4. 77 FR 66798 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904; NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the Antidumping Administrative... INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a mechanism to...

  5. 76 FR 42115 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the Final Results of the 2008- 2009 and 2009-2010.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement (``Agreement'') established a...

  6. 76 FR 72677 - North American Free-Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; Request for Panel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free-Trade Agreement... Trade Agreement. Panel review was requested of the final determination of the effective examination and... 20230, (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free-Trade Agreement...

  7. Readers' evaluation of effect of peer review and editing on quality of articles in the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; Walvoort, H C; Overbeke, A J

    1996-11-30

    Academic biomedical journals use peer review and editing to help to select and improve the quality of articles. We have investigated whether articles accepted by the Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, the Dutch Journal of Medicine, were improved after peer review and editing (post-acceptance scientific and copy editing). 400 readers of the journal (100 each of medical students, recent medical graduates, general practitioners, and specialists) were invited to participate in a questionnaire survey. The first 25 from each group who agreed to participate were included. We posted a pack containing a set of identically appearing typescripts (ie, blinding) of the submitted, accepted, and published versions of 50 articles that had been published in Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. Each evaluator received two of the sets of versions, and each set was evaluated by one person from each group. The package also included two questionnaires: the first was used to compare the submitted with the accepted version (25 questions), the second compared the accepted with the published version (17 questions). The questions were answered on five-point scales, and were about the quality of the articles or were general/overall scores. We analysed the data as scores of 3-5 (ie, improvement) versus 1-2. After peer review, the quality in 14 of 23 questions (61%) was significantly improved (p = 0.03 or smaller). In particular, the overall score and general medical value were significantly improved (p = 0.00001 for each). Editing led to significant improvement in 11 of 16 questions (69%, p = 0.017 or smaller), and especially in style and readability (p = 0.001 and p = 0.004). Generally, we found no differences between the scores of the four categories of evaluators. 72% of the evaluators correctly identified which version was which. Evaluations by readers of the Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd indicated significant improvement of published articles after both peer review and editing. We think that peer review

  8. Questionnaire-based Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Iran: A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneshi-Maskooni, Milad; Shab-Bidar, Sakineh; Badri-Fariman, Mahtab; Aubi, Erfan; Mohammadi, Younes; Jafarnejad, Sadegh; Djafarian, Kurosh

    2017-11-01

    Data on the questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity are needed to develop food and nutrition security studies and policies. The present study aimed to assess the questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity in Iran. A systematic search of cross-sectional studies were conducted on databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, Iranmedex, SID and Medlib up to 29 Oct 2015. Estimation of food insecurity prevalence was according to the instruments including 9-items-HFIAS, 18 and 6-items USDA (US-HFSSM) and Radimer/Cernel food security questionnaires. Pooled effect was estimated using random-effect model and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and I 2 tests. Thirteen articles included in the study based on screening and assessment of eligibility. The questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity was 49.2% (CI95%: 43.8-54.6). The according to sub-groups analysis, the food insecurity without and with hunger was 29.6% (CI95%: 25.7-33.6) and 19.2% (CI95%: 16-22.3), respectively. The about half of the population were food insecure. The food insecurity without hunger was more than the food insecurity with hunger. An ongoing food insecurity assessment system is needed to support evidence-informed policy and to plan interventions to increase the food security in different areas.

  9. Evaluation of the effects of ionizing radiations on flour: Review article

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sá, Ana Paula Nunes de; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia Casanas Haasis

    2017-01-01

    The radiation is an efficient alternative, of great technological value in employment of 10 kGy doses up to dry, dehydrated foods and low in fat. The objective of this research is accomplishing through bibliographical survey on existing work with purpose flours and technology available in the literature for medium and high doses of radiation. The study was based on data from Brazilian and international bases, such as: Google Scholar, Science Direct, Pubmed, SciELO, Web of Science. Results were collected from the period since 1980, in flour from maize, cassava, wheat, beans, rice, nuts, cornmeal and banana. Fpreach used keywords in both Portuguese and English: food irradiation; irradiated meal and technological aspects of irradiated meal; food, irradiation technology aspects of irradiated flour. Search results/search showed that doses vary from plant application to higher doses related to technological features. 10 works were found about phytosanitary purposes (0.1 to 1.0 kGy) and 20 with the technological features (doses up to 1 kGy to 10 kGy). In this work related studies have been observed with microbiological load reduction, nutritional composition, organoleptic changes and increased ratio of acid value present in cornmeal/Brown and also a tendency of improvement as a means of improving the production of baking in some articles. In this way, based on the literature, we concluded that food irradiation technologies with medium doses present advantages and improve the features in production of breads. (author)

  10. Review Essay: Twenty Important Journal Articles on Radicalisation to, and De-Radicalisation from, Terrorism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hofmann

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Keeping up-to-date with new research on terrorism can be challenging for both academic and non-academic researchers, with a multitude of books, articles and reports of varying degrees of quality being produced continuously. Andrew Silke noted that the publication of books on terrorism nearly jumped tenfold after 9/11, from 150 titles in 2000 to 1108 the following year, and 1767 in 2002 [1]. If one searches for books on terrorism with www.amazon.com one decade later, one gets over 30,000 results and the sub-genre ‘radicalisation’ already produces in excess of 300 books. Research on radicalisation took off in 2004 in response to the blowback from the American intervention in Iraq the year before. The London bombings in 2005 generated further interest in the phenomenon of “homegrown terrorism”, where apparently self-starting cells of radicalising individuals mobilized against their host countries with little or no material support from foreign terrorist entities. This has created a whole new field of empirical inquiry.

  11. Pharmacological Approach for Managing Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longtu; Ilham, Sheikh J.; Feng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Context Visceral pain is a leading symptom for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that affects 10% - 20 % of the world population. Conventional pharmacological treatments to manage IBS-related visceral pain is unsatisfactory. Recently, medications have emerged to treat IBS patients by targeting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and peripheral nerves to alleviate visceral pain while avoiding adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several investigational drugs for IBS also target the periphery with minimal CNS effects. Evidence of Acquisition In this paper, reputable internet databases from 1960 - 2016 were searched including Pubmed and ClinicalTrials.org, and 97 original articles analyzed. Search was performed based on the following keywords and combinations: irritable bowel syndrome, clinical trial, pain, visceral pain, narcotics, opioid, chloride channel, neuropathy, primary afferent, intestine, microbiota, gut barrier, inflammation, diarrhea, constipation, serotonin, visceral hypersensitivity, nociceptor, sensitization, hyperalgesia. Results Certain conventional pain managing drugs do not effectively improve IBS symptoms, including NSAIDs, acetaminophen, aspirin, and various narcotics. Anxiolytic and antidepressant drugs (Benzodiazepines, TCAs, SSRI and SNRI) can attenuate pain in IBS patients with relevant comorbidities. Clonidine, gabapentin and pregabalin can moderately improve IBS symptoms. Lubiprostone relieves constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C) while loperamide improves diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D). Alosetron, granisetron and ondansetron can generally treat pain in IBS-D patients, of which alosetron needs to be used with caution due to cardiovascular toxicity. The optimal drugs for managing pain in IBS-D and IBS-C appear to be eluxadoline and linaclotide, respectively, both of which target peripheral GI tract. Conclusions Conventional pain managing drugs are in general not suitable for treating IBS pain. Medications that target

  12. Review article: Medical decision models of Helicobacter pylori therapy to prevent gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, A; Inadomi, J M

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the present article is to study the utility of Helicobacter pylori eradication programmes in decreasing the incidence of gastric cancer. Three types of decision models are employed to pursue this aim, i.e. decision tree, present value, and declining exponential approximation of life expectancy (DEALE). 1) A decision tree allows one to model the interaction of multiple variables in great detail and to calculate the marginal cost, as well as the marginal cost-benefit ratio, of a preventive strategy. The cost of gastric cancer, the efficacy of H. pylori therapy in preventing cancer, and the cumulative probability of developing gastric cancer exert the largest influence on the marginal cost of cancer prevention. The high cost of future gastric cancer and a high efficacy of therapy make screening for H. pylori and its eradication the preferred strategy. 2) The present value is an economic method to adjust future costs or benefits to their current value using a discount rate and the length of time between now and a given time point in the future. It accounts for the depreciation of money and all material values over time. During childhood, the present value of future gastric cancer is very low. Vaccination of children to prevent gastric cancer would need to be very inexpensive to be practicable. Cancer prevention becomes a feasible option, only if the time period between the preventive measures and the occurrence of gastric cancer can be made relatively short. 3) The DEALE provides a means to calculate the increase in life expectancy that would occur, if death from a particular disease became preventable. Life expectancy of the general population is hardly affected by gastric cancer. For life expectancy to increase appreciably by vaccination or antibiotic therapy directed against H. pylori infection, these interventions would need to be focused towards a sub-population with an a priori high risk for gastric cancer.

  13. Review article: health benefits of some physiologically active ingredients and their suitability as yoghurt fortifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayed, A E

    2015-05-01

    The article is concerned with health benefits of two main physiologically active ingredients namely, Isoflavones and γ-Aminobutyric acid, with emphasis on their fitness for fortification of yoghurt to be consumed as a functional food. Isoflavones (ISO) are part of the diphenol compounds, called "phytoestrogens," which are structurally and functionally similar to estradiol, the human estrogen, but much less potent. Because of this similarity, ISO were suggested to have preventive effects for many kinds of hormone-dependent diseases. In nature, ISO usually occur as glycosides and, once deconjugated by the intestinal microflora, the ISO can be absorbed into the blood. At present, it seems convincing their possible protective actions against various cancers, osteoporosis and menopausal symptoms and high levels of blood cholesterol as well as the epidemiological evidence. Γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), it is an amino acid that has long been reported to lower blood pressure by intravenous administration in experimental animals and in human subjects. GABA is present in many vegetables and fruits but not in dairy products. GABA was reported to lower blood pressure in people with mild hypertension. It was suggested that low-dose oral GABA has a hypotensive effect in spontaneously hypertensive. Yoghurt beyond its ability to be probiotic food via its culturing with the gut strains, it could further carry more healthy benefits when it was fortified with physiological active ingredients, especially GABA versus ISO preferring, whether, bacteriologically or biochemically, a fortification level of 50 mg ISO/kg or 200 mg GABA/kg.

  14. Scientometrics on Public Health Research in Iran: Increase of Area Studies despite Embargoes? A Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poreau, Brice

    2017-03-01

    Due to embargoes and sanctions from 1979 until 2015, impact on scientific research in Iran may be critical. Public health is the main example of this burning point. In this paper, the aim was to map the scientific research in public health in Iran until 2014 with area studies as well as networks of countries involved. We used bibliographic analyses using VOS viewer software for network analysis during the period 1975-2014. Two databases were used: Web of Science and PubMed. We performed analyses of journals, authors, publication years, organizations, funding companies, countries, keywords and Web of sciences Categories. We accessed 862 articles published between 1991 and 2014, the majority of published after 2008. The main countries of research were Iran, the United States of America, England, and Sweden and represented the main network collaboration. The main Web of Sciences categories was public, occupational and environmental health, medicine general internal and parasitology. We accessed 25462 publications on PubMed database from 1950 to 2014. The majority of published after 2004. The main area studies were prognosis, wounds and injuries, soil solutions and biological markers. Public health research in Iran has been developed since 2004. The chief field was emerging cardiovascular diseases and communicable diseases. Other biotechnological fields were emerging such as biological markers research. Iran provides structures to face up with its new challenges using networks of countries such as the USA, England, and Sweden. End of embargoes could provide new perspectives for public health research and more largely scientific research in Iran.

  15. Spontaneous and persistent currents in superconductive and mesoscopic structures (Review Article)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulik, I.O.

    2004-01-01

    We briefly review aspects of superconductive persistent currents in Josephson junctions of the S/I/S, S/O/S and S/N/S types, focusing on the origin of jumps in the current versus phase dependences, and discuss in more detail the persistent as well as 'spontaneous' currents in the Aharonov-Bohm mesoscopic and nanoscopic (macromolecular) structures. A fixed-number-of-electrons mesoscopic or macromolecular conducting ring is shown to be unstable against structural transformation removing spatial symmetry (in particular, azimuthal periodicity) of its electron- lattice Hamiltonian. In case when the transformation is blocked by strong coupling to an external azimuthally symmetric environment, the system becomes bistable in its electronic configuration at certain number of electrons. At such a condition, the persistent current has a nonzero value even at the (almost) zero applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, and results in very high magnetic susceptibility dM/dH at small nonzero fields, followed by an oscillatory dependence at larger fields. We tentatively assume that previously observed oscillatory magnetization in cyclic metallo-organic molecules by Gatteschi et al. can be attributed to persistent currents. If this proves correct, it may open an opportunity (and, more generally, macromolecular cyclic structures may suggest the possibility) of engineering quantum computational tools based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect in ballistic nanostructures and macromolecular cyclic aggregates

  16. Review Article: Atmospheric conditions inducing extreme precipitation over the eastern and western Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, U.; Nissen, K.; Ulbrich, U.

    2015-11-01

    This review discusses published studies of heavy rainfall events over the Mediterranean Basin, combining them in a more general picture of the dynamic and thermodynamic factors and processes that produce heavy rain storms. It distinguishes the western and eastern Mediterranean in order to point out specific regional peculiarities. The crucial moisture for developing intensive convection over these regions can be originated not only from the adjacent Mediterranean Sea but also from distant upwind sources. Transport from remote sources is usually in the mid-tropospheric layers and associated with specific features and patterns of the larger-scale circulations. The synoptic systems (tropical and extratropical) that account for most of the major extreme precipitation events and the coupling of circulation and extreme rainfall patterns are presented. Heavy rainfall over the Mediterranean Basin is caused at times in concert by several atmospheric processes working at different atmospheric scales, such as local convection, upper synoptic-scale-level troughs, and mesoscale convective systems. Under tropical air-mass intrusions, convection generated by static instability seems to play a more important role than synoptic-scale vertical motions. Locally, the occurrence of torrential rains and their intensity is dependent on factors such as temperature profiles and implied instability, atmospheric moisture, and lower-level convergence.

  17. Review article: cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet as a primary treatment for orofacial granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H E; Escudier, M P; Patel, P; Challacombe, S J; Sanderson, J D; Lomer, M C E

    2011-10-01

    Orofacial granulomatosis is a rare chronic granulomatous inflammatory disease of the lips, face and mouth. The aetiology remains unclear but may involve an allergic component. Improvements have been reported with cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets. To explore the prevalence of compound and food sensitivity and examine the dietary treatments used in orofacial granulomatosis. A comprehensive literature search was carried out and relevant studies from January 1933 to January 2010 were identified using the electronic database search engines; AGRIS 1991-2008, AMED 1985-2008, British Nursing and Index archive 1985-2008, EMBASE 1980-2008, evidence based medicine review databases (e.g. Cochrane DSR), International Pharmaceutical and Medline 1950-2008. Common sensitivities identified, predominantly through patch testing, were to benzoic acid (36%) food additives (33%), perfumes and flavourings (28%), cinnamaldehyde (27%), cinnamon (17%), benzoates (17%) and chocolate (11%). The cinnamon- and benzoate-free diet has been shown to provide benefit in 54-78% of patients with 23% requiring no adjunctive therapies. A negative or positive patch test result to cinnamaldehyde, and benzoates did not predict dietary outcome. The most concentrated source of benzoate exposure is from food preservatives. Use of liquid enteral formulas can offer a further dietary therapy, particularly in children with orofacial granulomatosis. Management of orofacial granulomatosis is challenging but cinnamon- and benzoate-free diets appear to have a definite role to play. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Invited review article: IceCube: an instrument for neutrino astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halzen, Francis; Klein, Spencer R

    2010-08-01

    Neutrino astronomy beyond the Sun was first imagined in the late 1950s; by the 1970s, it was realized that kilometer-scale neutrino detectors were required. The first such instrument, IceCube, is near completion and taking data. The IceCube project transforms 1 km(3) of deep and ultratransparent Antarctic ice into a particle detector. A total of 5160 optical sensors is embedded into a gigaton of Antarctic ice to detect the Cherenkov light emitted by secondary particles produced when neutrinos interact with nuclei in the ice. Each optical sensor is a complete data acquisition system including a phototube, digitization electronics, control and trigger systems, and light-emitting diodes for calibration. The light patterns reveal the type (flavor) of neutrino interaction and the energy and direction of the neutrino, making neutrino astronomy possible. The scientific missions of IceCube include such varied tasks as the search for sources of cosmic rays, the observation of galactic supernova explosions, the search for dark matter, and the study of the neutrinos themselves. These reach energies well beyond those produced with accelerator beams. The outline of this review is as follows: neutrino astronomy and kilometer-scale detectors, high-energy neutrino telescopes: methodologies of neutrino detection, IceCube hardware, high-energy neutrino telescopes: beyond astronomy, and future projects.

  19. Some reasons for saffron yield loss over the last 30 years period (Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Koocheki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. is a perennial plant which grows basically in arid and semi-arid regions of Iran. Despite saffron’s adaptation to these regions, the assessment of changes in cultivation area over the last 30 years reveals that cultivation of this crop has sharply increased. According to the available statistics, there are 21 provinces where saffron is cultivated on about 84,000 hectares of land. Nonetheless, saffron yield per unit area has aggressively fallen from 5.1 kg ha-1 in 1982 to 3.2 kg ha-1 in 2015. Saffron yield loss can be caused by several factors, such as mismanagement in agriculture section, economics and post-harvest processing as well as the recent droughts. Lack of attention to these factors could lead to further decline in saffron yield in the future. The saffron yield loss over the last 30 years is an alert for saffron-related institutions such as the universities, research centers and Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO to pay more attention to this crop and prepare more comprehensive programs. In developing these programs, the importance of government policies for planning and approving enough budget is to be highlighted. In this review, first we focus on the reasons for saffron yield loss during the last 30 years and then we try to provide some solutions in relation to these reasons.

  20. Review Article : Utilization of Environmental Radiochemistry Techniques for Selection and Evaluation of Nuclear Facility Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atta, E.R.; Madbouly, A.M.; Zakaria, Kh.M.

    2016-01-01

    This research review puts necessary considerations on the available environmental radiochemistry techniques for selection and evaluation of a nuclear facility sites.The main bjective in site evaluation for nuclear facilities in terms of nuclear safety is to protect the site workers, the public and the environment from the effects of ionizing radiation release from nuclear facilities due to accidents. The extreme sensitivity and speed of radiochemical methods make their applications of considerable importance in several fields and they have found many uses. Information about the existed radioactivity in the different nuclear facilities is an essential requirement for their environmental assessment. It is necessary to estimate the various radioactivity levels in the environment through qualitative and quantitative analytical techniques and to assess the potential effects of the nuclear facility in the region by considering the characteristics of sites.The siting and site evaluation requirements are discussed. Emphasis was given to types of radiochemical techniques used for characterization of the site parameters which determine the potential hazards of the site on the facility and the facility on the site. Emphasis has been also given to the quantitative and qualitative analysis of naturally occurring radionuclides for monitoring and control .There are some techniques employed such as radioactive tracer technique, liquid scintillation technique, gamma spectrometry technique, neutron activation analysis technique, fluorimetric technique and isotope hydrology technique.

  1. Review Article: Advances in modeling of bed particle entrainment sheared by turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Subhasish; Ali, Sk Zeeshan

    2018-06-01

    Bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow is a key topic of interest in hydrodynamics because it plays a major role to govern the planetary morphodynamics. In this paper, the state-of-the-art review of the essential mechanisms governing the bed particle entrainment by turbulent wall-shear flow and their mathematical modeling is presented. The paper starts with the appraisal of the earlier multifaceted ideas in modeling the particle entrainment highlighting the rolling, sliding, and lifting modes of entrainment. Then, various modeling approaches of bed particle entrainment, such as deterministic, stochastic, and spatiotemporal approaches, are critically analyzed. The modeling criteria of particle entrainment are distinguished for hydraulically smooth, transitional, and rough flow regimes. In this context, the responses of particle size, particle exposure, and packing condition to the near-bed turbulent flow that shears the particles to entrain are discussed. From the modern experimental outcomes, the conceptual mechanism of particle entrainment from the viewpoint of near-bed turbulent coherent structures is delineated. As the latest advancement of the subject, the paper sheds light on the origin of the primitive empirical formulations of bed particle entrainment deriving the scaling laws of threshold flow velocity of bed particle motion from the perspective of the phenomenological theory of turbulence. Besides, a model framework that provides a new look on the bed particle entrainment phenomenon stemming from the stochastic-cum-spatiotemporal approach is introduced. Finally, the future scope of research is articulated with open questions.

  2. Invited Review Article: Measurement uncertainty of linear phase-stepping algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hack, Erwin [EMPA, Laboratory Electronics/Metrology/Reliability, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Burke, Jan [Australian Centre for Precision Optics, CSIRO (Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation) Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia)

    2011-06-15

    Phase retrieval techniques are widely used in optics, imaging and electronics. Originating in signal theory, they were introduced to interferometry around 1970. Over the years, many robust phase-stepping techniques have been developed that minimize specific experimental influence quantities such as phase step errors or higher harmonic components of the signal. However, optimizing a technique for a specific influence quantity can compromise its performance with regard to others. We present a consistent quantitative analysis of phase measurement uncertainty for the generalized linear phase stepping algorithm with nominally equal phase stepping angles thereby reviewing and generalizing several results that have been reported in literature. All influence quantities are treated on equal footing, and correlations between them are described in a consistent way. For the special case of classical N-bucket algorithms, we present analytical formulae that describe the combined variance as a function of the phase angle values. For the general Arctan algorithms, we derive expressions for the measurement uncertainty averaged over the full 2{pi}-range of phase angles. We also give an upper bound for the measurement uncertainty which can be expressed as being proportional to an algorithm specific factor. Tabular compilations help the reader to quickly assess the uncertainties that are involved with his or her technique.

  3. Potential plant poisonings in dogs and cats in southern Africa : review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.J. Botha

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning occurs less commonly in dogs and cats than in herbivorous livestock, but numerous cases have been documented worldwide, most of them caused by common and internationally widely cultivated ornamental garden and house plants. Few cases of poisoning of cats and dogs have been reported in southern Africa, but many of the plants that have caused poisoning in these species elsewhere are widely available in the subregion and are briefly reviewed in terms of toxic principles, toxicity, species affected, clinical signs, and prognosis. The list includes Melia azedarach (syringa, Brunfelsia spp. (yesterday, today and tomorrow, Datura stramonium (jimsonweed, stinkblaar, a wide variety of lilies and lily-like plants, cycads, plants that contain soluble oxalates, plants containing cardiac glycosides and other cardiotoxins and euphorbias (Euphorbia pulcherrima, E. tirucalli. Poisoning by plant products such as macadamia nuts, onions and garlic, grapes and raisins, cannabis (marijuana, dagga or hashish and castor oil seed or seedcake is also discussed. Many of the poisonings are not usually fatal, but others frequently result in death unless rapid action is taken by the owner and the veterinarian, underlining the importance of awareness of the poisonous potential of a number of familiar plants.

  4. Polymer blend microspheres for controlled drug release: the techniques for preparation and characterization: a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasan, K Priya; Rekha, C

    2012-11-01

    The use of polymers and their microspheres in drug delivery is well known for they are being widely used in the field of drug delivery. The polymer entraps a drug which is to be released in a predesigned manner in the body through biodegradation. The blending of polymers is one way of modifying and enhancing the properties of polymer- based products which is also a cost effective procedure rather than developing a new product. The molecular weight of the polymer, the composition of the blend, the sphere porosity and size, and drug distribution are found to be controllable factors on which drug delivery depends. Polymer blends are obtained by allowing two polymers to combine as one material which has the advantage of two or more polymers. Polymer microspheres are small spherical particles with diameters in the micrometer range between 1μm to 1000μm which are manufactured from various natural and synthetic materials. Microspheres are used to administer medication in a rate- controlled manner and sometimes in a targeted manner. This review presents various polymer blend- combinations in different ratios, the different processing techniques adopted and the details of their characterization through examples found in a literature survey. The characterization of the different polymer blends or microspheres showed changes in structure, increase in drug loading, encapsulation efficiency, biocompatibility and low cytotoxicity.

  5. Review Article: A comparison of flood and earthquake vulnerability assessment indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ruiter, Marleen C.; Ward, Philip J.; Daniell, James E.; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.

    2017-07-01

    In a cross-disciplinary study, we carried out an extensive literature review to increase understanding of vulnerability indicators used in the disciplines of earthquake- and flood vulnerability assessments. We provide insights into potential improvements in both fields by identifying and comparing quantitative vulnerability indicators grouped into physical and social categories. Next, a selection of index- and curve-based vulnerability models that use these indicators are described, comparing several characteristics such as temporal and spatial aspects. Earthquake vulnerability methods traditionally have a strong focus on object-based physical attributes used in vulnerability curve-based models, while flood vulnerability studies focus more on indicators applied to aggregated land-use classes in curve-based models. In assessing the differences and similarities between indicators used in earthquake and flood vulnerability models, we only include models that separately assess either of the two hazard types. Flood vulnerability studies could be improved using approaches from earthquake studies, such as developing object-based physical vulnerability curve assessments and incorporating time-of-the-day-based building occupation patterns. Likewise, earthquake assessments could learn from flood studies by refining their selection of social vulnerability indicators. Based on the lessons obtained in this study, we recommend future studies for exploring risk assessment methodologies across different hazard types.

  6. An Inventory of Peer-reviewed Articles on Killer Whales (Orcinus orca with a Comparison to Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M. Hill

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The welfare of killer whales (Orcinus orca has received worldwide attention recently. The purpose of this study was to sample the peer-reviewed scientific research on killer whales with a complementary comparison to Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus to ascertain the primary topics of research conducted with these two cetaceans. A second objective of the study was to assess the relationship between the research topic and the setting in which the research was conducted. From a database-driven search of peer-reviewed academic journal articles, 759 unique articles involving killer whales, 2,022 unique articles involving Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, and 38 additional articles that included both species were retained for analysis. Coders categorized each article by topic (Anthropogenic Response, Cognition, Distribution, Echolocation, Foraging/Predation, Health/Physiology, Interactions with Humans, Sociality, and Vocalization and research setting (Natural Habitat, Captivity, or Both. Most studies of killer whales involved animals in their natural habitat (90% and the majority of killer whale studies, regardless of setting, concentrated on health and physiology, such as contaminants and genetic variability (31%, foraging and predation behaviors (26%, and geographic distribution (20%. The majority of the studies (68% involving bottlenose dolphins were also conducted in their natural habitat, but there was significantly more research comparatively with captive animals and with greater diversity. The results suggested that research with killer whales has been dominated by a limited range of topics with relatively little research conducted on topics that directly address issues of welfare. Similar to killer whales, research with Atlantic bottlenose dolphins has been dominated by health and physiology (48.5% and distribution (17.6%. In contrast to killer whales, topics such as sociality (9.5% and cognition (5% were more prominent in research

  7. Impression cytology in the evaluation of ocular surface tumors: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeison de Nadai Barros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Impression cytology (IC has been widely used as a method for evaluating the ocular surface and superficial cells layers in the diagnosis and follow-up after treatment of several ocular surface tumors of both epithelial and melanocytic origin. Information regarding this can be found in the English-language literature since 1992. Using either cellulose acetate or Biopore membranes for specimen collection, a high correlation has been found between IC and tissue histology. Compared with exfoliative cytology with spatula, IC is less traumatic to the patient’s eye, provides a precise location of the area being studied, and allows accurate observation of the cells the way they exist in vivo. The additional advantage of IC is the preservation of limbal stem cells responsible for continuous corneal epithelium renewal; these can be affected after incisional or excisional biopsy at the corneoscleral limbus, which is the most frequent site of appearance of tumors in the stratified epithelium. Treatment for ocular surface squamous neoplasia has historically included surgery, but nonsurgical interventions have also been adopted. Hence, in certain cases, ophthalmologists may prefer interventions less invasive than surgical biopsy such as of impression cytology for both initial diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of treatment for ocular surface lesions. Nevertheless, it should be considered that IC may be less helpful if the results conflict with the clinical picture or if the clinical diagnosis is uncertain and results are negative. In such cases, surgical biopsy is required for accurate diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to examine the published literature on the utilization of IC for the diagnosis and management of ocular surface tumors and to discuss the requirement for further investigation on the subject.

  8. Review article: safety aspects of anesthesia in under-resourced locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enright, Angela

    2013-02-01

    Improving patient safety during anesthesia and surgery is the focus of much effort worldwide. Major advances have occurred since the 1980s, especially in economically advantaged areas. This paper is a review of some of the challenges that face those who work in resource-poor areas of the world. There is a shortage of trained anesthesia providers, both physician and non-physician, and this is particularly acute outside urban areas. Anesthesia is still sometimes delivered by unqualified people, which results in expected high rates of morbidity and mortality. Residency training programs in low-income countries ought to increase their output as anesthesiologists must be available to supervise non-physician providers. All groups require continuing medical education. In addition, increased efforts are needed to recruit trainees into the specialty of anesthesia and to retain them locally. There is a well-recognized shortage of resources for anesthesia. Consequently, concerted efforts are necessary to ensure reliable supplies of drugs, and attention should be paid to the procurement of anesthesia equipment appropriate for the location. Biomedical support must also be developed. Lifebox is a charitable foundation dedicated to supplying pulse oximeters to low- and middle-income countries. Adoption of the World Health Organization's Surgical Safety Checklist could further reduce morbidity and mortality. Much time, effort, planning, and resources are required to ensure that anesthesia in low-income areas can reach internationally accepted standards. Such investment in anesthesia would result in wider access to surgical and obstetrical care, and the quality and safety of that care would be much improved.

  9. pp ii Brain, behaviour and mathematics: Are we using the right approaches? [review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Velazquez, Jose Luis

    2005-12-01

    Mathematics are used in biological sciences mostly as a quantifying tool, for it is the science of numbers after all. There is a long-standing interest in the application of mathematical methods and concepts to neuroscience in attempts to decipher brain activity. While there has been a very wide use of mathematical/physical methodologies, less effort has been made to formulate a comprehensive and integrative theory of brain function. This review concentrates on recent developments, uses and abuses of mathematical formalisms and techniques that are being applied in brain research, particularly the current trend of using dynamical system theory to unravel the global, collective dynamics of brain activity. It is worth emphasising that the theoretician-neuroscientist, eager to apply mathematical analysis to neuronal recordings, has to consider carefully some crucial anatomo-physiological assumptions, that may not be as accurate as the specific methods require. On the other hand, the experimentalist neuro-physicist, with an inclination to implement mathematical thoughts in brain science, has to make an effort to comprehend the bases of the theoretical concepts that can be used as frameworks or as analysis methods of brain electrophysiological recordings, and to critically inspect the accuracy of the interpretations of the results based on the neurophysiological ground. It is hoped that this brief overview of anatomical and physiological presumptions and their relation to theoretical paradigms will help clarify some particular points of interest in current trends in brain science, and may provoke further reflections on how certain or uncertain it is to conceptualise brain function based on these theoretical frameworks, if the physiological and experimental constraints are not as accurate as the models prescribe.

  10. Review article: the gut microbiome in inflammatory bowel disease-avenues for microbial management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, J; Ianiro, G; Mukhopadhya, I; Hansen, R; Hold, G L

    2018-01-01

    The concept of an altered collective gut microbiota rather than identification of a single culprit is possibly the most significant development in inflammatory bowel disease research. We have entered the "omics" era, which now allows us to undertake large-scale/high-throughput microbiota analysis which may well define how we approach diagnosis and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the future, with a strong steer towards personalised therapeutics. To assess current epidemiological, experimental and clinical evidence of the current status of knowledge relating to the gut microbiome, and its role in IBD, with emphasis on reviewing the evidence relating to microbial therapeutics and future microbiome modulating therapeutics. A Medline search including items 'intestinal microbiota/microbiome', 'inflammatory bowel disease', 'ulcerative colitis', 'Crohn's disease', 'faecal microbial transplantation', 'dietary manipulation' was performed. Disease remission and relapse are associated with microbial changes in both mucosal and luminal samples. In particular, a loss of species richness in Crohn's disease has been widely observed. Existing therapeutic approaches broadly fall into 3 categories, namely: accession, reduction or indirect modulation of the microbiome. In terms of microbial therapeutics, faecal microbial transplantation appears to hold the most promise; however, differences in study design/methodology mean it is currently challenging to elegantly translate results into clinical practice. Existing approaches to modulate the gut microbiome are relatively unrefined. Looking forward, the future of microbiome-modulating therapeutics looks bright with several novel strategies/technologies on the horizon. Taken collectively, it is clear that ignoring the microbiome in IBD is not an option. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A proposal for a process of selection, bibliometrics and sistemic review of articles on the supply chain performance evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emílio Della Bruna Junior

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Supply Chain Management has been widely studied through scientific researches and publications, presenting well grounded concepts in both academic and business areas. Meanwhile, the topic of Performance Evaluation is newer and its concepts are still under consolidation. In this context, the paper aims to propose a process for selection and analysis of a portfolio of scientific articles on Supply Chain Performance Evaluation. To do this, it illustrates a process for searching and selecting articles from scientific databases and analyzes them through Bibliometrics and Systemic Review. As a result, a portfolio of 18 papers aligned to the research subject was obtained and the journals, authors and articles with higher academic relevance were identified. The Systemic Review, in turn, has highlighted the knowledge gaps of the evaluated papers and, from these, developed a research question and objective aiming to answer them. These latter will guide the continuity of this research. Finally, it is expected that the proposed process can be useful for researchers wishing to apply it to their research topics.

  12. Evaluation of the Relationship between Mitral Valve Prolapse (MVP and Body Mass Index (BMI: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Samim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mitral valve prolapse (MVP is a valvular heart disease in which the two valve flaps of the mitral valve do not close equally, and part of the mitral valve slips backward loosely into the left atrium during systole. In general, MVP is associated with low body mass index (BMI, as confirmed by several studies. However, the reason for the higher prevalence of MVP in patients with low BMI remains unknown. Objectives: There is no reliable evidence on the role of genetics or pathophysiological factors in this correlation, and the hypothesis that the size of BMI may lead to MVP or vice versa has not yet been established. Materials and Methods: In this study, all the articles were evaluated in terms of the inclusion criteria. In total, we found 546 articles via PubMed and Google scholar, out of which 30 articles were mainly focusing on MVP, MVR as the major complication of MVP, and BMI, which were included in this systematic review. Results: Among these reviewed studies, patients with MVP had a lower BMI score compared to the subjects without MVP. The low and high BMI score were 28±5 kg/m and 31±6 kg/m, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study, we concluded that low BMI is directly associated with the occurrence of MVP.

  13. Oxidative stress: development and progression of breast cancer:review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Salmaninejad

    2017-04-01

    free radicals which create such compounds as malondialdehyde (MDA and hydroxyguanosine. These substances known as indicators of cancer. In this review, free radicals as oxidizing agents, antioxidants as the immune system, and the role of oxidative stress in cancer, particularly breast cancer, have been investigated by hope that better exploration of the factors involved in the occurrence and spread of cancer will improve the identification of treatment aims.

  14. Regeneration of musculoskeletal injuries using mesenchymal stem cells loaded scaffolds: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ataie

    2017-07-01

    are better suggestion. Combination of mesenchymal stem cells harvested from bone marrow, adipose tissue and cord blood with proper scaffolds and growth factors could be a useful method in treatment of skeletal injuries. In this review paper, we focus on the application of mesenchymal stem cells in the repair of damaged bone, cartilage, meniscus, ligaments, tendons and spine tissue.

  15. Induced pluripotent stem cells in research and therapy of diseases: review article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Noori Daloii

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Differentiated cells can change to embryonic stem cells by reprograming. Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs has revolutionized the field of regenerative and personalized medicine. iPSCs can self-renew and differentiate into many cell types. iPSC cells offer a potentially unlimited source for targeted differentiation. Through the expression of a set of transcription factors, iPSCs can be generated from different kinds of embryonic and adult cells. This technology for the first time enabled the researchers to take differentiated cells from an individual, and convert them to another cell type of interest, which is particularly to that person. When the set of master transcription factors containing OCT4, SOX2, KLF4, and MYC is expressed ectopically in somatic cells, the transcriptional network is propelled to organize itself in such a way as to maintenance a pluripotent state. Since iPSCs are similar to Embryonic Stem Cell (ESC, they can be considered as sources for modeling different diseases. iPSCs which are induced from somatic cells of patient can be useful for screening and drugs selection, and also introduce treatment via grafting the cells. Although this technology has been successful in different fields, the tumorigenesis of viral vectors during induction of reprogramming is a major challenge. Nevertheless, iPSCs are valuable for clinical applications and research. By discovery of these cells many challenges related to the safety, efficacy, and bioethics of ESCs are solved. Pluripotency is defined in two aspect of functional and molecular, by which functional regards the capacity of cell is generate three kinds of embryonic layers and germ line, and molecular aspect regards the identifying of molecules and genes that support functional features. Identification of these genes has been placed at the center of fields related to development and stem cell research. In this review, we discuss the process of generation of these

  16. Foodborne Campylobacter: Infections, Metabolism, Pathogenesis and Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon V. R. Epps

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter species are a leading cause of bacterial-derived foodborne illnesses worldwide. The emergence of this bacterial group as a significant causative agent of human disease and their propensity to carry antibiotic resistance elements that allows them to resist antibacterial therapy make them a serious public health threat. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are considered to be the most important enteropathogens of this genus and their ability to colonize and survive in a wide variety of animal species and habitats make them extremely difficult to control. This article reviews the historical and emerging importance of this bacterial group and addresses aspects of the human infections they cause, their metabolism and pathogenesis, and their natural reservoirs in order to address the need for appropriate food safety regulations and interventions.

  17. Etiology and pathogenesis of antisperm antibody

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farhad Shahsavar

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Antisperm antibodies (ASA occur in men and women and may significantly impair fertility. In this case, the testis is an immunologically privileged site where germ cell antigens are protected from autoimmune attack. However, due to disruption of the blood-testis barrier occurring from testicular injury, or as a consequence of trauma to the epididymis or vas deferens many testicular proteins get autoantigenic during immunological challenges resulting in the formation of ASA in the blood serum, seminal plasma or located on the sperm membrane. ASA have also been reported to be associated with inflammation, cryptorchidism, varicocele and surgical intervention in the genital organs. ASA may interfere with different sperm functions, which are essential for the fertilization process.This review article will help to increase our understanding of the specific mechanisms that elicit the autoimmune response to sperm and of the pathogenesis of ASA that leads to an antibody-mediated infertility.

  18. Thrombocytopenia in leukemia: Pathogenesis and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahrabi, Saeid; Behzad, Masumeh Maleki; Jaseb, Kaveh; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-02-20

    Leukemias, a heterogeneous group of hematological disorders, are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and morphologic abnormalities of hematopoietic cells. Thrombocytopenia is a common problem among leukemia types that can lead to hemorrhagic complications in patients. The purpose of this review article is to identify the conditions associated with the incidence of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. It can be stated that although translocations have been considered responsible for this complication in many studies, other factors such as bone marrow failure, genes polymorphism, a mutation in some transcription factors, and the adverse effects of treatment could be associated with pathogenesis and poor prognosis of thrombocytopenia in leukemias. Considering the importance of thrombocytopenia in leukemias, it is hoped that the recognition of risk factors increasing the incidence of this complication in leukemic patients would be useful for prevention and treatment of this disorder.

  19. New trends on mobile learning area: The review of published articles on mobile learning in science direct database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrah Soykan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Articles published in Science Direct between 2009 and 2014 (May were screened in this research. This is because of its respectable position in the field of technology and peer-reviewed secured structure of this database. From a total of 161 articles within the scope of the screening 156 articles were included in the study. Through this research, new trends in mobile learning activities in recent years will be determined and a new way will be shown for researchers . "Mobile learning" keywords used during researching process and all the articles with "mobile learning" keywords were included in this study. As a result of this research, it is determined that the most studies in the field of mobile learning were published in 2013 in Malaysia, UK and Taiwan. Particularly undergraduate students was selected as the sample group of the researches. It is emerged that, experimental research was used maximum as a research model. Quantitative data collection tools were used most as a means of data collection. It was emerged that foreign language education is the most widely used field in mobile learning. It is seen that smart phones as mobile learning devices and IOS operating system as an operating system were used in the most researches. Mobile-based method is seen to be used as the teaching method in the present study.

  20. Contemporary review on the pathogenesis of takotsubo syndrome: The heart shedding tears: Norepinephrine churn and foam at the cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y-Hassan, Shams; De Palma, Rodney

    2017-02-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TS), an increasingly recognized acute cardiac disease entity, is characterized by a unique pattern of circumferential and typically regional left ventricular wall motion abnormality resulting in a conspicuous transient ballooning of the left ventricle during systole. The mechanism of the disease remains elusive. However, the sudden onset of acute myocardial stunning in a systematic pattern extending beyond a coronary artery territory; the history of a preceding emotional or physical stress factor in two thirds of cases; the signs of sympathetic denervation at the regions of left ventricular dysfunction on sympathetic scintigraphy; the finding of myocardial edema and other signs consistent with (catecholamine-induced) myocarditis shown by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging; and the contraction band necrosis on histopathological examination all argue strongly for the involvement of the cardiac sympathetic nervous system in the pathogenesis of TS. In this narrative review, extensive evidence in support of local cardiac sympathetic nerve hyperactivation, disruption and norepinephrine spillover causing TS in predisposed patients is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Review Article: Inventing Historical Myths—Deborah S. Cornelius. Hungary in World War II. Caught in the Cauldron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Pastor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article questions the validity of Deborah S. Cornelius’s claims which she presents in her recently published book on interwar and World War II Hungary. These exonerate the revisionist, anti-Semitic and war-time policies of the Horthy regime. The monograph also presents the Hungarian leaders in an undeservedly positive light. The author of the review demonstrates that Cornelius’s representation of the past was accomplished by the selective reading of primary and secondary sources. Cornelius also commits too many factual errors in order to justify some of her assertions.

  2. Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus pathogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Sandra; Schulz, Thomas F.

    2017-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), taxonomical name human gammaherpesvirus 8, is a phylogenetically old human virus that co-evolved with human populations, but is now only common (seroprevalence greater than 10%) in sub-Saharan Africa, around the Mediterranean Sea, parts of South America and in a few ethnic communities. KSHV causes three human malignancies, Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and many cases of the plasmablastic form of multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD) as well as occasional cases of plasmablastic lymphoma arising from MCD; it has also been linked to rare cases of bone marrow failure and hepatitis. As it has colonized humans physiologically for many thousand years, cofactors are needed to allow it to unfold its pathogenic potential. In most cases, these include immune defects of genetic, iatrogenic or infectious origin, and inflammation appears to play an important role in disease development. Our much improved understanding of its life cycle and its role in pathogenesis should now allow us to develop new therapeutic strategies directed against key viral proteins or intracellular pathways that are crucial for virus replication or persistence. Likewise, its limited (for a herpesvirus) distribution and transmission should offer an opportunity for the development and use of a vaccine to prevent transmission. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Human oncogenic viruses’. PMID:28893942

  3. 274 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    Le consentement informé verbal et écrit a été prise de tous les patients. Un total de 404 VIH .... 2014. 404 HIV seropositive clients who attended. Kogi State University Teaching Hospital Anyigba ..... Renata AB, Renata ZAM, Geovana MN etal.

  4. REVIEW ARTICLE ABSTRACT

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    β be a real-valued regular solution to the generalized biaxially symmetric potential equation. (. ) βα β α. ,. 2. 2. 2. 2. )1. 2(. 1. 2. F ... orthogonality of Jacobi polynomials ([1], p.8) and. Poisson Kernel ([1], p.11) to uniquely define the transform.

  5. 35 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    include;1) Invasive aspergillosis seen mostly in stem cell and organ transplant recipients, patients with haematological malignancies, cancer ...... 1977; 86(4): p. ... 1982; 96(3): p. 286-91. 46. Denning, D.W. O'Driscoll, B.R., Powell, G., et al.

  6. REVIEW ARTICLE 66

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    1 Medicine Programme, Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, .... Factors that are important in promoting healing ..... status, lifestyle e.g. tobacco and alcohol habits, .... ulcers in elderly residents of nursing facilities.

  7. Drug allergy REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    disease. The :most dangerous but least co:m:mon for:m of drug allergy is .... immune response, and allergic reaction occur in only ... mental sensitisation by milk and aerosol.11,19 ... requires cross-linking of the high-affinity specific IgE Fc.

  8. 58 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Boaz

    resistant to many antifungal agents making this infection very difficult to treat. It is also associated .... spectrum antibiotics and use of antifungals puts the patient at higher .... implemented using chlorine-based products and hydrogen peroxide ...

  9. 49 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    important to direct empiric therapy and also to encourage implementation and monitoring of antibiotic stewardship programs. LES TENDANCES DES PROFILS DE BACTERIES CASANT LA SEPTICEMIE NEONATALE DANS L'HOPITAL AU CENTRE DU NIGERIA. Medugu N., Iregbu K. C.. Département de Microbiologie ...

  10. PEER-REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marty

    2011-02-28

    Feb 28, 2011 ... four wood species treated with cellulose lacquer and synthetic varnish and across all heating treatments. However, surface roughness decreased for all wood species depending on heating temperature and ..... construction.

  11. 282 REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    certified Lassa fever vaccine thus complicating deterrent or preventive ... for the populace on the useful control measures against Lassa fever. ..... produced last during replication, and therefore, delay ... At this stage, the onset of the disease mimics malaria ... Lassa Virus NP-Specific Monoclonal Antibody (L2F1) Test.

  12. Learning Organization [reviewed article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonoaie, N.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available “The essence of LOs is effective organizational learning, but relevant academic disciplines, such as economics, anthropology, and social psychology, all entail different assumptions about what this might actually mean. Assorted analytical approaches such as population ecology and sociotechnical systems theory offer distinctly different vocabularies for describing what the LO might be or what it might do.” [Snell, 2007] The learning organization (LO is an idealized vision of an organization where the structures, routines, and working practices are open to continuous adaptation and improvement, where the individuals and teams engage in continuous learning, where the norms and values are supportive of continuous learning, and where strategic decision making is informed by and responsive to relevant data analysis and feedback.

  13. Article 7 Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-06-02

    Jun 2, 2006 ... soul (mind) which is not physical (not locatable in space and time) affect the ... Shoemaker, Strawson and Davidson and the scientific spirit of ... knowledge. .... ontological divide (cleavage) between the thinking substance.

  14. 35 . REVIEW ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    spikes are dispersed evenly over the entire surface. The nucleocapsid is isometric, and surrounded by the tegument that consists of globular material which is frequently ... molecule of linear double stranded DNA. Total genome length is 120,000-220,000 .Molecular virological techniques have been used to study variation ...

  15. Critical role of environmental factors in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jinrong; Luo, Shuaihantian; Huang, Yumeng; Lu, Qianjin

    2017-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common cutaneous disease with multifactorial etiology including genetic and non-genetic factors, such as drugs, smoking, drinking, diet, infection and mental stress. Now, the role of the interaction between environmental factors and genetics are considered to be a main factor in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. However, it is a challenge to explore the mechanisms how the environmental factors break the body balance to affect the onset and development of psoriasis. In this article, we review the pathogenesis of psoriasis and summarize numerous clinical data to reveal the association between environmental factors and psoriasis. In addition, we focus on the mechanisms of environmental risk factors impact on psoriasis and provide a series of potential treatments against environmental risk factors. © 2017 Japanese Dermatological Association.

  16. Oral submucous fibrosis: An update on current theories of pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakeri, Gururaj; Rai, Kirthi Kumar; Hunasgi, Santosh; Merkx, M A W; Gao, Shan; Brennan, Peter A

    2017-07-01

    Over the last 40 years, many theories linking oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) to various risk factors have been proposed. Spicy, pungent foods and irritants such as supari (areca nut), paan (betel leaves), tobacco (through chewing or smoking)-the common Asian habits of chewing the aforementioned agents-have all been incriminated as causative agents. Systemic factors such as nutritional deficiency, genetic predisposition and autoimmunity have also been proposed in the pathogenesis of OSMF. However, the precise aetiology of OSMF is still unknown, and no conclusive evidence has been found despite many extensive investigations on implicated factors. Most of the ideas proposed have been derived from the existing clinical and epidemiological data. We present a comprehensive review of the various theories regarding the pathogenesis of the condition, but have not concentrated on malignant transformation in this article. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A new direction in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolb Martin

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent review article suggested that idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a disease that is associated more with abnormal wound healing than with inflammation. Data derived from transgenic and gene transfer rodent models suggest that lung inflammation may be a necessary but insufficient component of IPF, and that at some point in the natural history of the disease IPF becomes no longer dependent on the inflammatory response for propagation. Altered microenvironment and involvement of epithelial cell/mesenchymal cell interaction are the most likely contributors to the pathogenesis of this chronic progressive disorder.

  18. Standards and pitfalls of focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats: With a systematic review of recent articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Hiroshi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We reviewed the early development of various focal ischemia models in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, and summarized recent reports on this topic. Among 6 focal ischemia models established in divergent substrains of SHR, distal middle cerebral artery occlusion is the most frequently used and relevant method of focal ischemia in the light of penumbra concept. We performed an online PubMed search (2001–2010, and identified 118 original articles with focal ischemia in SHR. Physiological parameters such as age, body weight, and even blood pressure were often neglected in the literature: the information regarding the physiological parameters of SHR is critical, and should be provided within the methodology section of all articles related to stroke models in SHR. Although the quality of recent studies on neuroprotective strategy is improving, the mechanisms underlying the protection should be more clearly recognized so as to facilitate the translation from animal studies to human stroke. To overcome the genetic heterogeneity in substrains of SHR, new approaches, such as a huge repository of genetic markers in rat strains and the congenic strategy, are currently in progress.

  19. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  20. Closing the Energy Efficiency Gap—A Systematic Review of Empirical Articles on Drivers to Energy Efficiency in Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mette Talseth Solnørdal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Research has identified an extensive potential for energy efficiency within the manufacturing sector, which is responsible for a substantial share of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. The purpose of this study is to enhance the knowledge of vital drivers for energy efficiency in this sector by providing a critical and systematic review of the empirical literature on drivers to energy efficiency in manufacturing firms at the firm level. The systematic literature review (SLR is based on peer-reviewed articles published between 1998 and 2016. The findings reveal that organizational and economic drivers are, from the firms’ perspective, the most prominent stimulus for energy efficiency and that they consider policy instruments and market drivers to be less important. Secondly, firm size has a positive effect on the firms’ energy efficiency, while the literature is inconclusive considering sectorial impact. Third, the studies are mainly conducted in the US and Western European countries, despite the fact that future increase in energy demand is expected outside these regions. These findings imply a potential mismatch between energy policy-makers’ and firm mangers’ understanding of which factors are most important for achieving increased energy efficiency in manufacturing firms. Energy policies should target the stimulation of management, competence, and organizational structure in addition to the provision of economic incentives. Further understanding about which and how internal resources, organizational capabilities, and management practices impact energy efficiency in manufacturing firms is needed. Future energy efficiency scholars should advance our theoretical understanding of the relationship between energy efficiency improvements in firms, the related change processes, and the drivers that affect these processes.

  1. The role of peer review on the improvement of the articles published in the Journal of Birjand University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Beydokhti

    2014-11-01

    Conclusion: Peer review improved the quality of articles, particularly in the titles, editing and findings. Since accurate medical research reports in the correct information transfer to professionals and researchers, what JBUMS has done can be useful and valuable.

  2. On the nosology and pathogenesis of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome: genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of 80 patients and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollino, Marcella; Murdolo, Marina; Marangi, Giuseppe; Pecile, Vanna; Galasso, Cinzia; Mazzanti, Laura; Neri, Giovanni

    2008-11-15

    Based on genotype-phenotype correlation analysis of 80 Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) patients, as well as on review of relevant literature, we add further insights to the following aspects of WHS: (1) clinical delineation and phenotypic categories; (2) characterization of the basic genomic defect, mechanisms of origin and familiarity; (3) identification of prognostic factors for mental retardation; (4) chromosome mapping of the distinctive clinical signs, in an effort to identify pathogenic genes. Clinically, we consider that minimal diagnostic criteria for WHS, defining a "core" phenotype, are typical facial appearance, mental retardation, growth delay and seizures (or EEG anomalies). Three different categories of the WHS phenotype were defined, generally correlating with the extent of the 4p deletion. The first one comprises a small deletion not exceeding 3.5 Mb, that is usually associated with a mild phenotype, lacking major malformations. This category is likely under-diagnosed. The second and by far the more frequent category is identified by large deletions, averaging between 5 and 18 Mb, and causes the widely recognizable WHS phenotype. The third clinical category results from a very large deletion exceeding 22-25 Mb causing a severe phenotype, that can hardly be defined as typical WHS. Genetically, de novo chromosome abnormalities in WHS include pure deletions but also complex rearrangements, mainly unbalanced translocations. With the exception of t(4p;8p), WHS-associated chromosome abnormalities are neither mediated by segmental duplications, nor associated with a parental inversion polymorphism on 4p16.3. Factors involved in prediction of prognosis include the extent of the deletion, the occurrence of complex chromosome anomalies, and the severity of seizures. We found that the core phenotype maps within the terminal 1.9 Mb region of chromosome 4p. Therefore, WHSCR-2 should be considered the critical region for this condition. We also confirmed that the

  3. DNA Amplification Techniques for the Detection of Toxoplasma gondii Tissue Cysts in Meat Producing Animals: A Narrative Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq RIAZ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite, which infects one-third population of world. Humans and animals acquire infection by ingesting oocytes from feces of cats or by meat of other animals having cysts that may lead to congenital, ocular or cephalic toxoplasmosis. Either it is important to detect T. gondii from meat of food animals from retail shops or directly at slaughterhouses, which is meant for export.Methods: The current research was done without time limitation using such terms as follows: “Toxoplasma gondii”, “Meat”, “Tissue cyst”, “PCR”, “LAMP”, “Screening” and “Immunological assay” alone or in combination, in English language. The used electronic databases for searching included as follows: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Science Direct. The searches were limited to the published papers to English language.Results: Sensitivity of different molecular techniques for diagnosis of Toxoplasma is real-time PCR > LAMP > conventional PCR. In addition to these DNA analysis tools, bioassay in mice and cats is considered as “gold standard” to detect T. gondii. Conclusion: This review article will help the readers for grasping advantages and limitations of different diagnostic tools for screening meat samples for T. gondii. This review also makes bibliography about the type of meat sample to be processed for diagnosis and different primers or sequences to be targeted for T. gondii by number of researches for its detection from meat or tissue sample using DNA amplification techniques.

  4. Fibromyalgia Pathogenesis and Treatment Options Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, Steven; Caldwell, William; Gritsenko, Karina

    2016-04-01

    This review article presents and summarizes up-to-date literature on the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, pathophysiological mechanisms, and treatment options for fibromyalgia patients. First, the most recent diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia, as put forth by the American College of Rheumatology will be summarized. Clinical features, including chronic widespread pain, hyperalgesia, mood disorders, anxiety, and disturbed sleep patterns will be explored in-depth. The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of fibromyalgia involves alterations in multiple ascending and descending central nervous system pathways, as well as peripheral pathways, leading to heightened pain sensitivity. Risk factors have been studied extensively, and the most recent research focuses on various genetic influences and the contributions of stress and poor sleep. Lastly, the discussion in this article focuses on treatment options for fibromyalgia; some have been mainstay options for many years. Pharmacological agents include tricyclic antidepressants, anti-epileptic drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, norepinephrine/serotonin reuptake inhibitors, as well as some investigational agents. The evidence behind non-pharmacologic treatments, including massage therapy, exercise, and acupuncture, are discussed.

  5. Ginkgo biloba as an adjunct to methylphenidate in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children: review of articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paria Hebrani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in childhood. The medications which inhibit the reuptake of noradrenline and dopamine including psychostimulants such as methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine and non-stimulating pre-frontal cortex noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor such as atomoxetine, are the standard treatment of ADHD. Adverse effects of stimulants have been reported in thirty percent of patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. More than fifty percent of the parents of these children have tried one or more complementary or alternative medicines including vitamins in their children. Ginkgo biloba has been described to be effective for various neuropsychiatric symptoms. It was assumed that ginkgo biloba might improve some symptoms of attention deficit disorder as well. Nevertheless, no systematic study reported a possible efficacy of ginkgo biloba in attention deficit disorder. This review article evaluates the available evidence on the efficacy of ginkgo biloba medication in Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children to present an appropriate guidance for this common child disorder.

  6. Determination the Research Priorities in the Field of HIV/AIDS in Iran: A Systematic Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doosti-Irani, Amin; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    HIV and AIDS have many different epidemiological, social and political aspects. The aim of this study was to determine the research priorities according to the necessary aspects of HIV and AIDS in Iran. The national and international databases were searched to obtain the published articles regarding HIV and AIDS in Iran. All Epidemiologic studies were included in this review for assess research priorities. Of 3059 retrieved references, 362 studies were included. The most studies were conducted in Tehran, Kermanshah, Fars and Kerman provinces. The cross-sectional studies with 71.55% have higher proportion. Studies related to adherence to treatment (0.55%), drug resistance (0.83%) and experience, perception and behavior of HIV/AIDS patients (0.83%) had the lowest proportion of conducted studies. Proportion of studies regarding prevention of HIV was 2.76%. The authors of studies on female sex workers (FSWs) (63.64%) and prisoners (58.82%) suggested further studies on these groups. According to our results, the high-risk groups such as female sex workers, injecting drug users and prisoners are in priority for research. Moreover, topics related to the prevention of HIV and AIDS, adherence to treatment and antiretroviral drug resistance are other research priorities in Iran.

  7. New Insights into the Pathogenesis of Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Raghuwansh P.; Dawra, Rajinder K.; Saluja, Ashok K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we review important advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of pancreatitis. Recent Findings The relative contribution of intra-pancreatic trypsinogen activation and NFκB activation, the two major early independent cellular events in the etiology of pancreatitis, have been investigated using novel genetic models. Trypsinogen activation has traditionally held the spotlight for many decades as it is believed to be the central pathogenic event of pancreatitis However, recent experimental evidence points to the role of trypsin activation in early acinar cell damage but not in the inflammatory response of acute pancreatitis through NFκB activation. Further, chronic pancreatitis in the caerulein model develops independently of typsinogen activation. Sustained activation of the NFκB pathway, but not persistent intra-acinar expression of active trypsin, was shown to result in chronic pancreatitis. Calcineurin-NFAT signaling was shown to mediate downstream effects of pathologic rise in intracellular calcium. IL-6 was identified as a key cytokine mediating pancreatitis-associated lung injury. Summary Recent advances challenge the long-believed trypsin-centered understanding of pancreatitis. It is becoming increasingly clear that activation of intense inflammatory signaling mechanisms in acinar cells is crucial to the pathogenesis of pancreatitis, which may explain the strong systemic inflammatory response in pancreatitis. PMID:23892538

  8. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ciećko-Michalska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy.

  9. Pathogenesis of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciećko-Michalska, Irena; Szczepanek, Małgorzata; Słowik, Agnieszka; Mach, Tomasz

    2012-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy can be a serious complication of acute liver failure and chronic liver diseases, predominantly liver cirrhosis. Hyperammonemia plays the most important role in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. The brain-blood barrier disturbances, changes in neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, GABA-ergic or benzodiazepine pathway abnormalities, manganese neurotoxicity, brain energetic disturbances, and brain blood flow abnormalities are considered to be involved in the development of hepatic encephalopathy. The influence of small intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) on the induction of minimal hepatic encephalopathy is recently emphasized. The aim of this paper is to present the current views on the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:23316223

  10. Analyses of Brucella Pathogenesis, Host Immunity, and Vaccine Targets using Systems Biology and Bioinformatics

    OpenAIRE

    He, Yongqun

    2012-01-01

    Brucella is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacterium that causes zoonotic brucellosis in humans and various animals. Out of 10 classified Brucella species, B. melitensis, B. abortus, B. suis, and B. canis are pathogenic to humans. In the past decade, the mechanisms of Brucella pathogenesis and host immunity have been extensively investigated using the cutting edge systems biology and bioinformatics approaches. This article provides a comprehensive review of the applications of Omi...

  11. Feature Article

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Feature Article. Articles in Resonance – Journal of Science Education. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 80-85 Feature Article. What's New in Computers Windows 95 · Vijnan Shastri · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 1 Issue 1 January 1996 pp 86-89 Feature ...

  12. Molecular Pathogenesis of Spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing

    This dissertation includes a presentation of knowledge on the molecular pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis achieved through a PhD programme at Aalborg University from 1.12.2011 - 1.12.2014. Work was carried out in the Laboratory of Medical Mass Spectrometry, headed by: Professor Svend Birkelund...

  13. Stomatitis associated with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition: A review of pathogenesis, prevention, treatment, and clinical implications for oral practice in metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Mark S; Rugo, Hope S; Litton, Jennifer K; Meiller, Timothy F

    2018-04-01

    Patients with metastatic breast cancer may develop oral morbidities that result from therapeutic interventions. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor-associated stomatitis (mIAS) is a common adverse event (AE), secondary to mTOR inhibitor therapy, that can have a negative impact on treatment adherence, quality of life, and health care costs. A multidisciplinary team approach is important to minimize mIAS and to maximize treatment benefits to patients with breast cancer. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and natural history of mIAS. Current and new management strategies for the prevention and treatment of mIAS are described in the context of fostering a coordinated team care approach to optimizing patient care. The authors conducted a PubMed search from 2007 through 2017 using the terms "stomatitis," "mIAS," "everolimus," "mTOR," "metastatic breast cancer," and "oral care." They selected articles published in peer-reviewed journals that reported controlled trials and evidence-based guidelines. mIAS can be distinguished from mucositis caused by cytotoxic chemotherapy or radiotherapy on the basis of cause, clinical presentation, and treatment paradigms. Specific preventive and therapeutic management strategies can be implemented across the continuum of patient oral health care. Oral health care providers are on the frontline of oral health care for patients with metastatic breast cancer and are uniquely positioned to provide patient education, advocate accurate reporting of mIAS, and support early identification, monitoring, and prompt intervention to mitigate the severity and duration of this manageable, potentially dose-limiting AE. Copyright © 2018 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Narrative Review of Statistical Reporting Checklists, Mandatory Statistical Editing, and Rectifying Common Problems in the Reporting of Scientific Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Shafer, Steven L

    2017-03-01

    Considerable attention has been drawn to poor reproducibility in the biomedical literature. One explanation is inadequate reporting of statistical methods by authors and inadequate assessment of statistical reporting and methods during peer review. In this narrative review, we examine scientific studies of several well-publicized efforts to improve statistical reporting. We also review several retrospective assessments of the impact of these efforts. These studies show that instructions to authors and statistical checklists are not sufficient; no findings suggested that either improves the quality of statistical methods and reporting. Second, even basic statistics, such as power analyses, are frequently missing or incorrectly performed. Third, statistical review is needed for all papers that involve data analysis. A consistent finding in the studies was that nonstatistical reviewers (eg, "scientific reviewers") and journal editors generally poorly assess statistical quality. We finish by discussing our experience with statistical review at Anesthesia & Analgesia from 2006 to 2016.

  15. Review of pathogenesis and diagnostic methods of immediate relevance for epidemiology and control of Salmonella Dublin in cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Dublin (S. Dublin) receives increasing attention in cattle production. It is host-adapted to cattle, and leads to unacceptable levels of morbidity, mortality and production losses in both newly and persistently infected herds. Cattle health promoting...... institutions in several countries are currently constructing active surveillance programmes or voluntary certification programmes, and encourage control and eradication of S. Dublin infected cattle herds. There is a need to understand the underlying pathogenesis of the infection at both animal and herd level...

  16. Ciliated Median Raphe Cyst of Perineum Presenting as Perianal Polyp: A Case Report with Immunohistochemical Study, Review of Literature, and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayesh Sagar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  17. Ciliated median raphe cyst of perineum presenting as perianal polyp: a case report with immunohistochemical study, review of literature, and pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagar, Jayesh; Sagar, Bethani; Patel, Adam F; Shak, D K

    2006-03-05

    Median raphe cyst is a very rare, benign congenital lesion occurring mainly on the ventral aspect of the penis, but can develop anywhere in the midline between the external urethral meatus and anus. We report a case of median raphe cyst in the perineum presenting as a perianal polyp in a 65-year-old, English white male with exceptionally rare ciliated epithelium. According to our knowledge, this is the third such case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the English literature. This case, also the first case of ciliated median raphe cyst in the perineum location, focuses on pathogenesis of median raphe cyst.

  18. ARTICLES RECEIVED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    The following articles have been submitted for possible publication in Teaching English in China. For reasons of space or priority they have not been able to be included. If you are interested in further information about an article please contact the author direct at the address given below.

  19. Review article: Environmental heatstroke and long-term clinical neurological outcomes: A literature review of case reports and case series 2000-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, Emily M; Pearce, Helen; Gabb, Genevieve M

    2018-05-31

    Global temperatures are rising; extreme environmental heat can result in adverse health effects including heatstroke. Acute effects of heat are well recognised, but there is less understanding of potential long-term adverse outcomes. Our aim was to review recent medical literature for clinical cases of environmental heatstroke with a focus on neurological outcome. Structured search strategies were designed to retrieve publications of heatstroke case reports using Ovid Medline and Embase (2000-2016). One thousand and forty-nine abstracts were identified, and after application of exclusion criteria 71 articles deemed relevant. Ninety cases were identified from 71 articles. 100% presented with acute neurological symptoms; 87.8% presented with non-neurological symptoms. 44.4% patients recovered fully, 23.3% died, 23.3% suffered convalescent or long-term neurological sequelae, and in 8.9% no long-term follow up was available. 57.1% of the patients who died or had a neurological deficit had no documented co-morbidity. Patterns of neurological deficits included 66.7% patients with motor dysfunction, 9.5% cognitive impairment, 19% both motor and cognitive impairment and 4.7% other. In total 71.4% of the impaired patients had long-term cerebellar dysfunction. Adverse long-term neurological outcomes were common in surviving patients presenting with environmental heatstroke. Permanent neurological deficits were present in 34.4% of survivors where outcome was known; many were young, healthy individuals. Cerebellar injury was common suggesting cerebellar structures are vulnerable to heat. These findings highlight that people of all ages and pre-morbid states are at risk of severe heat-related illness. In the face of climate change, effective interventions for heat-related illness, including both treatment and prevention are necessary. © 2018 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Pathogenesis of varicelloviruses in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwendijk, Werner J D; Verjans, Georges M G M

    2015-01-01

    Varicelloviruses in primates comprise the prototypic human varicella-zoster virus (VZV) and its non-human primate homologue, simian varicella virus (SVV). Both viruses cause varicella as a primary infection, establish latency in ganglionic neurons and reactivate later in life to cause herpes zoster in their respective hosts. VZV is endemic worldwide and, although varicella is usually a benign disease in childhood, VZV reactivation is a significant cause of neurological disease in the elderly and in immunocompromised individuals. The pathogenesis of VZV infection remains ill-defined, mostly due to the species restriction of VZV that impedes studies in experimental animal models. SVV infection of non-human primates parallels virological, clinical, pathological and immunological features of human VZV infection, thereby providing an excellent model to study the pathogenesis of varicella and herpes zoster in its natural host. In this review, we discuss recent studies that provided novel insight in both the virus and host factors involved in the three elementary stages of Varicellovirus infection in primates: primary infection, latency and reactivation. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Bordetella pertussis pathogenesis: current and future challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Jeffrey A.; Scheller, Erich V.; Miller, Jeff F.; Cotter, Peggy A.

    2014-01-01

    Pertussis, or whooping cough, has recently reemerged as a major public health threat despite high levels of vaccination against the etiological agent, Bordetella pertussis. In this Review, we describe the pathogenesis of this disease, with a focus on recent mechanistic insights into virulence factor function. We also discuss the changing epidemiology of pertussis and the challenges of vaccine development. Despite decades of research, many aspects of B. pertussis physiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood. We highlight knowledge gaps that must be addressed to develop improved vaccines and therapeutic strategies. PMID:24608338

  2. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  3. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    (with and without its frailty) in Estimating Survival Time of Patients with Colorectal Cancer ..... ACKNOWLEDGMENT. This article is a part of research project approved ... rectal cancer survival trends in Norway 1958. –1997. European Journal of ...

  5. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... In the present article, aspect oriented programming and design patterns are ... works have been devoted to solve the problems it is going to face. ... utilized as an architecture concept in C++ language and then the book GOF ...

  6. Aetio-pathogenesis of breast cancer | Abdulkareem | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a literature review on the aetiology and pathogenesis of breast cancer, which is the most common cancer worldwide, and the second leading cause of cancer death, especially in Western countries. Several aetiological factors have been implicated in its pathogenesis, and include age, genetics, family history, diet, ...

  7. Digoxin-like immunoreactivity, endogeneous cardiac glycoside-like factors (s) and natriuretic hormone. More than a hypothesis. Review article

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clerico, A

    1987-01-01

    Endogenous factors crossreacting with antidigoxin antibodies (digoxin-like immunoreactive substances=DLIS) have been found in several tissues and body fluids of animals and humans, using commercially avaiable digoxin RIA or EIA methods. Detectable DLIS concentration were found in blood and urine extracts of adults (normal healthy controls, hypertensive patients and salt loaded healthy subjects), while higher levels were generally observed in plasma samples of pregnant women, newborns and patients with renal insufficiency. The chemical characteristics of this endogenous factor are, at present, unknown, although it has been suggested that DLIS could be a substance with low molecular weight. Experimental studies and theoretical consideration suggest that DLIS, in addition to reacting with antibodies, might also bind to the specific cellular receptor of the cardiac glycosides and thus inhibit the membrane Na/sup +//K/sup +/ ATPase (sodium pump). Therefore, it has been suggested that DLSI is an endogeneous modulator of the membrane sodium-potassium pump and it could play a role in the regulation of fluid and electrolytes muscular tone of myocardial and also in pathogenesis of hypertension. 91 refs.

  8. Pathogenesis of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Paul J.; Collard, Harold R.; Jones, Kirk D.

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a fibrosing interstitial lung disease associated with aging that is characterized by the histopathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Although an understanding of the pathogenesis of IPF is incomplete, recent advances delineating specific clinical and pathologic features of IPF have led to better definition of the molecular pathways that are pathologically activated in the disease. In this review we highlight several of these advances, with a focus on genetic predisposition to IPF and how genetic changes, which occur primarily in epithelial cells, lead to activation of profibrotic pathways in epithelial cells. We then discuss the pathologic changes within IPF fibroblasts and the extracellular matrix, and we conclude with a summary of how these profibrotic pathways may be interrelated. PMID:24050627

  9. Quality Assessment of Published Articles in Iranian Journals Related to Economic Evaluation in Health Care Programs Based on Drummond's Checklist: A Narrative Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezapour, Aziz; Jafari, Abdosaleh; Mirmasoudi, Kosha; Talebianpour, Hamid

    2017-09-01

    Health economic evaluation research plays an important role in selecting cost-effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of published articles in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs based on Drummond's checklist in terms of numbers, features, and quality. In the present review study, published articles (Persian and English) in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs were searched using electronic databases. In addition, the methodological quality of articles' structure was analyzed by Drummond's standard checklist. Based on the inclusion criteria, the search of databases resulted in 27 articles that fully covered economic evaluation in health care programs. A review of articles in accordance with Drummond's criteria showed that the majority of studies had flaws. The most common methodological weakness in the articles was in terms of cost calculation and valuation. Considering such methodological faults in these studies, it is anticipated that these studies would not provide an appropriate feedback to policy makers to allocate health care resources correctly and select suitable cost-effective interventions. Therefore, researchers are required to comply with the standard guidelines in order to better execute and report on economic evaluation studies.

  10. Avian Colibacillosis and Salmonellosis: A Closer Look at Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Control and Public Health Concerns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Lutful Kabir

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis are considered to be the major bacterial diseases in the poultry industry world-wide. Colibacillosis and salmonellosis are the most common avian diseases that are communicable to humans. This article provides the vital information on the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, control and public health concerns of avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis. A better understanding of the information addressed in this review article will assist the poultry researchers and the poultry industry in continuing to make progress in reducing and eliminating avian colibacillosis and salmonellosis from the poultry flocks, thereby reducing potential hazards to the public health posed by these bacterial diseases.

  11. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-01-15

    Jan 15, 2018 ... The objectives of this study is two folds; firstly to develop an interactive mobile application software .... athletes: A systematic review. International ... rugby league players: Does knowledge translate into practice? Journal of the ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research on breast-feeding is enormous, therefore this review focuses on identifying .... conferred benefit for a period after breast-feeding discontinued, strengthens the ... found that compared with infants who were exclusively breast- fed, those ...

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    institutional databases of common diseases can, therefore, ... retrospective review (1985 - 1996) of all children admitted to ... This is a particular hindrance in ..... Central Statistical Services supplied mortality data on computer tape: analysed by.

  14. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-02-01

    Feb 1, 2018 ... Faculty of Computer Systems and Software Engineering, Universiti ... This paper reviews Information Security Culture (ISC) studies ...... [30] Da Veiga A, Martins N. Information security culture and information protection culture:.

  15. Solid state laser technology for inertial confinement fusion: A collection of articles from ''Energy and Technology Review''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This paper contains reprinted articles that record several milestones in laser research at LLNL. ''Neodymium-Glass Laser Research and Development at LLNL'' recounts the history of the Laser Program and our work on neodymium-glass lasers. ''Nova Laser Technology'' describes the capabilities of the Nova laser and some of its uses. ''Building Nova: Industry Relations and Technology Transfer'' illustrates the Laboratory's commitment to work with US industry in technology development. ''Managing the Nova Laser Project'' details the organization and close monitoring of costs and schedules during the construction of the Nova laser facility. The article ''Optical Coatings by the Sol-Gel Process,'' describes our chemical process for making the damage-resistant, antireflective silica coatings used on the Nova laser glass. The technical challenges in designing and fabricating the KDP crystal arrays used to convert the light wave frequency of the Nova lasers are reported in ''Frequency Conversion of the Nova Laser.'' Two articles, ''Eliminating Platinum Inclusions in Laser Glass'' and ''Detecting Microscopic Inclusions in Optical Glass,'' describe how we dealt with the problem of damaging metal inclusions in the Nova laser glass. The last article reprinted here, ''Auxilliary Target Chamber for Nova,'' discusses the diversion of two of Nova's ten beamlines into a secondary chamber for the purpose of increasing our capacity for experimentation

  16. Scientific Journal Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    These are abstracts of peer-reviewed articles, authored by Office of Children's Health Protection staff. They cover topics including risk assessment for early life stages, inhalation dosimetry, and manganese in drinking water.

  17. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  2. SERIES ARTICLES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Microscale Experiments in Chemistry - The Need of the New Millenium. Experiments Which Bring Theory Closer to Laboratories. Shriniwas L Kelkar and Dilip D Dhavale. GENERAL ARTICLES. Chandra's X-ray Vision. K P Singh. Space-Filling Curves. R C Mittal. DNA Chip. The Whats, the Whys and the Hows. Bhismadev ...

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  5. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAMSUNG

    2016-06-05

    Jun 5, 2016 ... for civil engineers (in terms of gravity and lateral load) in developed countries. Despite the relatively significant growth of LSF structures during the last decade in our country, the studies in this field have been still done neither in our country nor in abroad. In this article, we try to study LSF structures from the ...

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  7. Download article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tions made in this article about outer texts in an electronic sign language dictionary serve as part of a complete concept model suggested specifically for the De la Bat School for the Deaf in Worcester,. South Africa (Fourie 2013). The purpose of the proposed dictionary is to give the learners of the De la Bat School electronic ...

  8. Review article Toward positive and systemic mental health practices in schools: Fostering social-emotional learning through service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia L. Wilczenski

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mental health services in schools in the 21st century will be prevention-oriented with a grounding in positive psychology and strong school-family-community partnerships that emphasize proactive and systemic practices to build social-emotional competencies for all children. This article makes the case for youth development through service learning to promote social and emotional wellness.

  9. THE PROFILE OF THE ACCOUNTING RESEARCH ABOUT IFRS: A BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW OF INTERNATIONAL ARTICLES ON THE SUBJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Iovine Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to identify what is currently being researched in the area of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS around the world; who is carrying on such researches; which researches has caused stronger impact; which journals shows more articles about this issue and the ones that cause more impacts; the time frames and places this subject is more often produced. The applied methodology was based on the metrics precepts, using as data base platform the Web of Science (WoS of Citation Indexes from the Institute for Scientific Information – ISI – Citation Indexes. It was found 150 articles for the research lookout of “International Financial Reporting Standards” and 147 for “IFRS” found in the four main categories of WoS related to that subject. According to the two used terms for research, the result was quite conflicting. It was observed that the more productive writers are not necessarily the most influential ones, which also occurred in regard to periodic publications. The large majority of the production occurred from 2006 on, and the countries that stood out more, in quantity terms, were the United States of America, Germany, Australia and England.

  10. Bibliographic analysis of scientific research on selected topics in public health nutrition in West Africa: Review of articles published from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Grant J; Wilson, Shelby E; Brown, Kenneth H

    2010-01-01

    Few countries in West Africa have the capacity for carrying out advanced training in nutrition and public health. To provide additional information on current regional applied nutrition research capacity and productivity, we analysed peer-reviewed articles on key public health nutrition topics that were published from 1998 to 2008. Using MEDLINE/PubMed, the following terms were searched: 'breast feeding', 'infant nutrition physiology' (comprising complementary feeding and weaning), 'protein energy malnutrition', 'nutrition and infection', 'vitamin A', 'iodine', 'zinc' and 'overweight', each linked with the term 'Western Africa'. In total, 412 unique articles (37±6 articles per year) were identified. Most research focused on infant and young child feeding practices, selected micronutrient deficiencies, and the emerging problem of overweight and obesity. The primary author of nearly half (46%) the publications was located in an institution outside of West Africa. Most articles were published in English (90%), and nearly half of all articles (41%) were cross-sectional studies. Our findings indicate that few peer-reviewed research studies are being published on key public health topics in the West African region, considering the magnitude of nutrition problems in this region. New approaches are needed to encourage and support research capacity and output in West Africa.

  11. Quality Assessment of Published Articles in Iranian Journals Related to Economic Evaluation in Health Care Programs Based on Drummond’s Checklist: A Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Rezapour

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Health economic evaluation research plays an important role in selecting cost-effective interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of published articles in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs based on Drummond’s checklist in terms of numbers, features, and quality. In the present review study, published articles (Persian and English in Iranian journals related to economic evaluation in health care programs were searched using electronic databases. In addition, the methodological quality of articles’ structure was analyzed by Drummond’s standard checklist. Based on the inclusion criteria, the search of databases resulted in 27 articles that fully covered economic evaluation in health care programs. A review of articles in accordance with Drummond’s criteria showed that the majority of studies had flaws. The most common methodological weakness in the articles was in terms of cost calculation and valuation. Considering such methodological faults in these studies, it is anticipated that these studies would not provide an appropriate feedback to policy makers to allocate health care resources correctly and select suitable cost-effective interventions. Therefore, researchers are required to comply with the standard guidelines in order to better execute and report on economic evaluation studies.

  12. Review article: The clinical importance of growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease: is it important to the gastroenterologist?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taminiau, J. A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth in children with inflammatory bowel disease is often compromised. To explore the origins of growth retardation in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease and to consider management strategies. Relevant literature was identified and reviewed. A combination of the following factors results in

  13. 77 FR 66441 - North American Free Trade Agreement, Article 1904 NAFTA Panel Reviews; First Request for Panel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration North American Free Trade Agreement... North American Free Trade Agreement. Panel Review was requested of the U.S. Department of Commerce's..., (202) 482-5438. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Chapter 19 of the North American Free Trade Agreement...

  14. Current insights in sepsis: from pathogenesis to new treatment targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. Joost

    2011-01-01

    Sepsis continues to be a leading cause of ICU death. This review summarizes current knowledge on sepsis pathogenesis and new therapeutical strategies. Although systemic inflammatory response syndrome predominates in early sepsis, the compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome causes

  15. Comparison of Data on Serious Adverse Events and Mortality in ClinicalTrials.gov, Corresponding Journal Articles, and FDA Medical Reviews: Cross-Sectional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Richeek; Singh, Sonal

    2018-04-11

    Inconsistencies in data on serious adverse events (SAEs) and mortality in ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles pose a challenge to research transparency. The objective of this study was to compare data on SAEs and mortality from clinical trials reported in ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical reviews. We conducted a cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of new molecular entities approved during the study period 1 January 2013 to 31 December 2015. We extracted data on SAEs and mortality from 15 pivotal trials from ClinicalTrials.gov and corresponding journal articles (the two index resources), and FDA medical reviews (reference standard). We estimated the magnitude of deviations in rates of SAEs and mortality between the index resources and the reference standard. We found deviations in rates of SAEs (30% in ClinicalTrials.gov and 30% in corresponding journal articles) and mortality (72% in ClinicalTrials.gov and 53% in corresponding journal articles) when compared with the reference standard. The intra-class correlation coefficient between the three resources was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-0.99) for SAE rates and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-0.99) for mortality rates. There are differences in data on rates of SAEs and mortality in randomized clinical trials in both ClinicalTrials.gov and journal articles compared with FDA reviews. Further efforts should focus on decreasing existing discrepancies to enhance the transparency and reproducibility of data reporting in clinical trials.

  16. Protective articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wardley, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    This patent specification describes an article affording protection against radiation, and especially against X-rays comprising at least one flexible layer of lead filled material in an envelope of, or sandwiched between two layers of a knitted, woven or non-woven fabric preferably of synthetic fibrous material, carrying on its outer surface a coating of flexible polyurethane. The outer fabric provides a resilient, extremely tough and cut resistant covering for the relatively soft lead filled material. (author)

  17. A STUDY ESTABLISHING THE IMPORTANCE OF BODY COMPOSITION ANALYSIS, REGULAR PHYSIOTHERAPY AND DIETARY MODIFICATIONS FOR INDEPENDENT AND HEALTHY LIVING AMONG GERIATRIC POPULATION: A DETAILED SYSTEMATIC REVIEW ARTICLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Subhedar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review article aims towards comprehensive and elaborative collection of research articles related to the importance of body composition analysis, Physiotherapy and nutrition for independent geriatric lifestyle. The review article includes articles which suggest the importance of Body composition analysis, Physiotherapy interventions, specific exercises and a combination of fat free, fiber, fruit and fluid diet. Methods: A comprehensive electronic search was conducted using electronic databases Pub Med, MEDLINE, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Research gate, ICMJE, DOAJ, DRJI, IOSR, WAME and many others. In Total 3714, Research papers were reviewed which reported, Age ≥50 years, changes in Body composition in elderly , effects of Diet &Exercises on Body composition and effects of regular Physiotherapy in Geriatric health and obesity. Literature search was restricted to the studies conducted during 1980-2015. Results: Finally 55 papers along with references in research proposal were included. Review shows that ageing, body composition, Physiotherapeutic intervention and nutrition play an interdependent role in providing independent and healthy living among geriatric population. Conclusion: Combined and comprehensive interventions in form of periodic Body Composition Analysis, Physiotherapy interventions with Exercise therapy sessions and Nutritional Supplementation, will be more effective in combating ageing and independent healthy living among Geriatric population. Finally with this review we shall conclude that achieving perfect geriatric health depends upon awareness among the geriatric community to periodically analyze their body composition and regularly comply with exercise therapy sessions, subjective Physiotherapy modality sessions and nutritional supplementation. These principles help in achieving physically fit, healthy, happy and independent geriatric Community.

  18. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    102640

    Diseases at the Tripoli Medical Centre. Methods: The medical records of 891 Libyan chronic HCV infected patients registered and followed up from January 2003 to January 2007 were reviewed. Data gathered includes patient's age, gender, risk factors and family history of HCV infection. Statistical analysis was performed ...

  19. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    jen

    This report is a review of our experience with STS over a 23 year period at a busy ... Hospital, Kaduna, with oral and maxillofacial malignancies between the years ..... LM, Mark K, Meier R, Calcaterra TC, Parker ... Cancer 1962;15:1028-1032.

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2001-12-02

    Dec 2, 2001 ... Pretoria: Department of Finance, 1996. 6. National Department of Finance. Intergovernmental Review 1999. Pretoria: Department of. Finance, 1999. 7. National ... Department of Finance, Western Cape Province. ... Mcintyre D. Social health insurance: is it a feasible and desirable option for South Africa?

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hepatitis B carriers in the South African population, the reduction in the number of patients at risk of infection, ... among British and American haemodialysis patients respectively,'·" prompted studies which ..... in antiquity, and the nature of tumours reported, are reviewed. P 0 Box 29521, Danhof, 9310. Francois P Retief, MD, ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    recently done in two rural Eastern Cape hospitals supports the literature which ... Ann Ashworth, BSc, PhD. Initiative for Sub-District Support, Health Systems Trust, Cape Town. Susan Strasser, RN ... A review of treatment practices worldwide found that many ... model district-based integrated nutrition programme (INP).9 As ...

  3. Research Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-18

    Jun 18, 2016 ... Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Bahonar ... review of the supercritical based techniques applied to the ... The bottom-up approach deals with the controlled assembly of atomic and molecular aggregates into larger systems (e.g. clusters, organic lattices, supermolecular.

  4. Review article: gut-directed hypnotherapy in the management of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, S L; Muir, J G; Gibson, P R

    2015-06-01

    Gut-directed hypnotherapy is being increasingly applied to patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and to a lesser extent, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the technique, mechanisms of action and evidence for efficacy, and to identify gaps in the understanding of gut-directed hypnotherapy as a treatment for IBS and IBD. A review of published literature and a systematic review of clinical trials in its application to patients with IBS and IBD were performed. Gut-directed hypnotherapy is a clearly described technique. Its potential mechanisms of action on the brain-gut axis are multiple with evidence spanning psychological effects through to physiological gastrointestinal modifications. Six of seven randomised IBS studies reported a significant reduction (all P hypnotherapy ranged between 24% and 73%. Efficacy was maintained long-term in four of five studies. A therapeutic effect was also observed in the maintenance of clinical remission in patients with ulcerative colitis. Uncontrolled trials supported the efficacy and durability of gut-directed hypnotherapy in IBS. Gaps in understanding included to whom and when it should be applied, the paucity of adequately trained hypnotherapists, and the difficulties in designing well controlled-trials. Gut-directed hypnotherapy has durable efficacy in patients with IBS and possibly ulcerative colitis. Whether it sits in the therapeutic arsenal as a primary and/or adjunctive therapy cannot be ascertained on the current evidence base. Further research into efficacy, mechanisms of action and predictors of response is required. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Why do motor neurons degenerate? Actualization in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho, J; Gonzalo, I; Ruiz-Soto, M; Berciano, J

    2016-02-04

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Although a small proportion of ALS cases are familial in origin and linked to mutations in specific genes, most cases are sporadic and have a multifactorial aetiology. Some recent studies have increased our knowledge of ALS pathogenesis and raised the question of whether this disorder is a proteinopathy, a ribonucleopathy, an axonopathy, or a disease related to the neuronal microenvironment. This article presents a review of ALS pathogenesis. To this end, we have reviewed published articles describing either ALS patients or ALS animal models and we discuss how the main cellular pathways (gene processing, protein metabolism, oxidative stress, axonal transport, relationship with neuronal microenvironment) may be involved in motor neurons degeneration. ALS pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Recent studies suggest that although initial triggers may differ among patients, the final motor neurons degeneration mechanisms are similar in most patients once the disease is fully established. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Viral induced oxidative and inflammatory response in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis with identification of potential drug candidates: A systematic review using systems biology approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talwar, Puneet; Gupta, Renu; Kushwaha, Suman; Agarwal, Rachna; Saso, Luciano; Kukreti, Shrikant; Kukreti, Ritushree

    2018-04-19

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is genetically complex with multifactorial etiology. Here, we aim to identify the potential viral pathogens leading to aberrant inflammatory and oxidative stress response in AD along with potential drug candidates using systems biology approach. We retrieved protein interactions of amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau protein (MAPT) from NCBI and genes for oxidative stress from NetAge, for inflammation from NetAge and InnateDB databases. Genes implicated in aging were retrieved from GenAge database and two GEO expression datasets. These genes were individually used to create protein-protein interaction network using STRING database (score≥0.7). The interactions of candidate genes with known viruses were mapped using virhostnet v2.0 database. Drug molecules targeting candidate genes were retrieved using the Drug-Gene Interaction Database (DGIdb). Data mining resulted in 2095 APP, 116 MAPT, 214 oxidative stress, 1269 inflammatory genes. After STRING PPIN analysis, 404 APP, 109 MAPT, 204 oxidative stress and 1014 inflammation related high confidence proteins were identified. The overlap among all datasets yielded eight common markers (AKT1, GSK3B, APP, APOE, EGFR, PIN1, CASP8 and SNCA). These genes showed association with hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), human herpes virus 8 and Human papillomavirus (HPV). Further, screening of drugs targeting candidate genes, and possessing anti-inflammatory property, antiviral activity along with suggested role in AD pathophysiology yielded 12 potential drug candidates. Our study demonstrated the role of viral etiology in AD pathogenesis by elucidating interaction of oxidative stress and inflammation causing candidate genes with common viruses along with the identification of potential AD drug candidates. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Review article: the many potential roles of intestinal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) signalling in inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M D; Tekin, I; Vrana, K E; Mawe, G M

    2017-09-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) is an important mediator of every major gut-related function. Recent investigations also suggest that 5-HT can influence the development and severity of inflammation within the gut, particularly in the setting of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To review the roles that the intestinal serotonin signalling system plays in gut function, with a specific focus on IBD. We reviewed manuscripts from 1952 to 2017 that investigated and discussed roles for 5-HT signalling in gastrointestinal function and IBD, as well as the influence of inflammation on 5-HT signalling elements within the gut. Inflammation appears to affect every major element of intestinal 5-HT signalling, including 5-HT synthesis, release, receptor expression and reuptake capacity. Importantly, many studies (most utilising animal models) also demonstrate that modulation of selective serotonergic receptors (via agonism of 5-HT 4 R and antagonism of 5-HT 3 R) or 5-HT signal termination (via serotonin reuptake inhibitors) can alter the likelihood and severity of intestinal inflammation and/or its complicating symptoms. However, there are few human studies that have studied these relationships in a targeted manner. Insights discussed in this review have strong potential to lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic tools to improve the management of IBD and other related disorders. Specifically, strategies that focus on modifying the activity of selective serotonin receptors and reuptake transporters in the gut could be effective for controlling disease activity and/or its associated symptoms. Further studies in humans are required, however, to more completely understand the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the roles of 5-HT in this setting. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Writing is Connecting Thread of Time: Cyrillic or Latin charatcters (the article in the genre of review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Улданай Максутовна Бахтикиреева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to an actual problem of script change, what about has been actively spoken for the last quarter of century in some parts of Russian Federation and Turkic near abroad countries. Script changing system as a scientific problem tends to be difficult complex of questions, which demands comprehensive discussion and interdisciplinary approach. The authors emphasize an importance of seeking the answer to the problem that has been initiation by some of the researchers of script changing system in Kazakh language from Cyrillic to Latin, which may lead to ruinous circumstances for the fortunes of society, intergenerational links, nonstop development and succession of cultural inheritance, knowledge. The main attention is being paid to the research and appreciation of monographic research of the famous linguist Mahanbet Dzhusupov “Kazakh script: yesterday, today, tomorrow (Cyril or Latin” (2013, with the position of which authors are totally share. The research of monograph work by M. Dzhusupov’s who is not the proponent of the transition to system from Cyril to Latin and moreover who is anticipated with the necessary excursus to the question history and assessment of the problem development state. Further it is given the critical evaluation of separate chapters of the book, also listed the facts to the benefit of Kazakh language compliance to Cyril customs that admit some particular changes taking into consideration the specificity of this language. Sequentially it is stated the position of the expert in Kazakh language script matters, that is based on the analysis of similarities and differences in conception of alphabet formation in order writing type changes in Kazakhstan as well as in substantiation of inexpediency of in script type changing in highly educated country that has centuries-old traditions. Moreover this article emphasizes deep recognition by M. Dzhusupov of writing importance as the main condition in business

  9. [Physiotherapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy in fibromyalgia syndrome : Updated guidelines 2017 and overview of systematic review articles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Bork, H; Brückle, W; Dexl, C; Heldmann, P; Henningsen, P; Krumbein, L; Pullwitt, V; Schiltenwolf, M; Häuser, W

    2017-06-01

    The regular update of the guidelines on fibromyalgia syndrome, AWMF number 145/004, was scheduled for April 2017. The guidelines were developed by 13 scientific societies and 2 patient self-help organizations coordinated by the German Pain Society. Working groups (n =8) with a total of 42 members were formed balanced with respect to gender, medical expertise, position in the medical or scientific hierarchy and potential conflicts of interest. A literature search for systematic reviews of randomized, controlled trials on physiotherapy, occupational therapy and physical therapy from December 2010 to May 2016 was performed in the Cochrane library, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Scopus databases. Levels of evidence were assigned according to the classification system of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine version 2009. The strength of recommendations was achieved by multiple step formalized procedures to reach a consensus. Efficacy, risks, patient preferences and applicability of available therapies were weighed up against each other. The guidelines were reviewed and approved by the board of directors of the societies engaged in the development of the guidelines. Low to moderate intensity endurance and strength training are strongly recommended. Chiropractic, laser therapy, magnetic field therapy, massage and transcranial magnetic stimulation are not recommended.

  10. NEW DEVELOPMENTS IN THE PATHOGENESIS OF PREECLAMPSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Naljayan, Mihran V.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth

    2013-01-01

    Preeclampsia affecting 3-5% of all pregnancies is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This disorder is characterized by a constellation of signs and symptoms, most notably new onset hypertension and proteinuria during the last trimester of pregnancy. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of preeclampsia with an emphasis on the role of circulating anti-angiogenic proteins in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and its complications will be discussed.

  11. Communications article

    KAUST Repository

    Fariborzi, Hossein

    2017-07-20

    Seamless, covert communications using a communications system integrated or incorporated within an article of clothing is described. In one embodiment, the communications system is integrated or incorporated into a shoe insole and includes a haptic feedback mechanism, a communications module, a flexible pressure sensor, and a battery. The communications module includes a wireless communications module for wireless communications, a wired interface for wired communications, a microcontroller, and a battery charge controller. The flexible pressure sensor can be actuated by an individual\\'s toe, for example, and communication between two communications nodes can be achieved using coded signals sent by individuals using a combination of long and short presses on the pressure sensor. In response to the presses, wireless communications modules can transmit and receive coded signals based on the presses.

  12. Mitochondrial Contribution to Parkinson's Disease Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony H. V. Schapira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification of the etiologies and pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD should play an important role in enabling the development of novel treatment strategies to prevent or slow the progression of the disease. The last few years have seen enormous progress in this respect. Abnormalities of mitochondrial function and increased free radical mediated damage were described in post mortem PD brain before the first gene mutations causing familial PD were published. Several genetic causes are now known to induce loss of dopaminergic cells and parkinsonism, and study of the mechanisms by which these mutations produce this effect has provided important insights into the pathogenesis of PD and confirmed mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress pathways as central to PD pathogenesis. Abnormalities of protein metabolism including protein mis-folding and aggregation are also crucial to the pathology of PD. Genetic causes of PD have specifically highlighted the importance of mitochondrial dysfunction to PD: PINK1, parkin, DJ-1 and most recently alpha-synuclein proteins have been shown to localise to mitochondria and influence function. The turnover of mitochondria by autophagy (mitophagy has also become a focus of attention. This review summarises recent discoveries in the contribution of mitochondrial abnormalities to PD etiology and pathogenesis.

  13. Immunological pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Hoon Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronic inflammatory state of the gastrointestinal tract and can be classified into 2 main clinical phenomena: Crohn's disease (CD and ulcerative colitis (UC. The pathogenesis of IBD, including CD and UC, involves the presence of pathogenic factors such as abnormal gut microbiota, immune response dysregulation, environmental changes, and gene variants. Although many investigations have tried to identify novel pathogenic factors associated with IBD that are related to environmental, genetic, microbial, and immune response factors, a full understanding of IBD pathogenesis is unclear. Thus, IBD treatment is far from optimal, and patient outcomes can be unsatisfactory. As result of massive studying on IBD, T helper 17 (Th17 cells and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs are investigated on their effects on IBD. A recent study of the plasticity of Th17 cells focused primarily on colitis. ILCs also emerging as novel cell family, which play a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. IBD immunopathogenesis is key to understanding the causes of IBD and can lead to the development of IBD therapies. The aim of this review is to explain the pathogenesis of IBD, with a focus on immunological factors and therapies.

  14. The current status of fluoroscopy and echocardiography in the diagnosis of prosthetic valve thrombosis-a review article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürsoy, Mustafa Ozan; Kalçik, Macit; Karakoyun, Süleyman; Özkan, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Prosthetic valve thrombosis (PVT) is a potentially life-threatening complication of heart valve replacement. Early diagnosis is crucial for the prevention of significantly morbid and lethal complications. Cinefluoroscopy (CF) and echocardiography have been widely used for diagnosing PVT. In recent years, the role of CF has declined since the introduction of transesophageal echocardiography and the great improvements in ultrasound technology including real time three-dimensional imaging. Nevertheless, both echocardiography and CF provide different kinds of information on prosthesis function, and therefore they are considered as complementary and not alternative. In this review, we aimed to summarize the current status of CF and echocardiography in the diagnosis of PVT. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. ‘In-between’ and other reasonable ways to deal with risk and uncertainty: A review article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Jens O.

    2016-01-01

    How people deal with risk and uncertainty has fuelled public and academic debate in recent decades. Researchers have shown that common distinctions between rational and ‘irrational’ strategies underestimate the complexity of how people approach an uncertain future. I suggested in 2008 that strategies in-between do not follow standards of instrumental rationality nor they are ‘irrational’ but follow their own logic which works well under particular circumstances. Strategies such as trust, intuition and emotion are an important part of the mix when people deal with risk and uncertainty. In this article, I develop my original argument. It explores in-between strategies to deal with possible undesired outcomes of decisions. I examine ‘non-rational strategies’ and in particular the notions of active, passive and reflexive hope. Furthermore, I argue that my original typology should be seen as a triangular of reasonable strategies which work well under specific circumstances. Finally, I highlight a number of different ways in which these strategies combine. PMID:28392747

  16. Assessment of Culture Condition and In Vitro Colonization Ability of Human Spermatogonial Stem Cells: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Mahal Dashtian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is a highly complex and regulated process in which germ stem cells differentiate into spermatozoa. These stem cells, called spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs, are in the base of seminiferous tubules and have the ability of self-renewal and differentiation into functional germ cells. Due to this ability, SSCs can restore spermatogenesis after testicular damage caused by cytotoxic materials or following transplantation into an infertile recipient. Therefore, self-renewal of these cells is critical for the preservation of SSC populations and restoration of fertility. While previous studies have shown that the SSCs of mice and other species can survive and proliferate for long periods of time, little information is available about suitable culture media for the growth of human SSCs. Identification of SSC markers allows for the isolation of these populations of cells. The isolated cell can be expanded in culture and transplanted into infertile recipients. Consequently, the recognition of markers and the establishment of long-term culture systems for human SSCs will be essential for using the potential of these cells in a clinical setting. In this article, we focus on the markers that have been identified for human SSCs and in vitro culture techniques used for human SSCs proliferation.

  17. Content and Phrasing in Titles of Original Research and Review Articles in 2015: Range of Practice in Four Clinical Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Ellen Kerans

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reporting guidelines for clinical research designs emerged in the mid-1990s and have influenced various aspects of research articles, including titles, which have also been subject to changing uses with the growth of electronic database searching and efforts to reduce bias in literature searches. We aimed (1 to learn more about titles in clinical medicine today and (2 to develop an efficient, reliable way to study titles over time and on the fly—for quick application by authors, manuscript editors, translators and instructors. We compared content and form in titles from two general medical journals—the New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM and the British Medical Journal—and two anesthesiology journals (the European Journal of Anaesthesiology and Anesthesiology; we also analyzed the inter-rater reliability of our coding. Significant content differences were found in the frequencies of mentions of methods, results (between general and subspecialty titles, and geographic setting; phrasing differences were found in the prevalence of full-sentence and compound titles (and their punctuation. NEJM titles were significantly shorter, and this journal differed consistently on several features. We conclude that authors must learn to efficiently survey titles for form and content patterns when preparing manuscripts to submit to unfamiliar journals or on resubmitting to a new journal after rejection.

  18. Modern concepts of pathogenesis of ichthyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Світлана Володимирівна Дмитренко

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The modern concepts of ichthyosis are rather ambiguous and need more precise definition. The modern conception of pathogenesis of ichthysosis is offered and considered in this article.Aim. An aim is to analyze received data of our researches about molecular disturbances of keratin on the background of ichthyosis and the current data on the pathogenesis of disease.Materials and methods. An analysis of the results of research in 70 patients with ichthyosis by the methods of the flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry and by immunologic methods is presented in an article.Results. Authors revealed molecular, immunologic and immunohistochemical changes that realizes the disturbance of keratinization on the background of this disease. The model of pathogenesis of the various manifestations of gene mutations that causes ichthyosis is proposed and it can be taken into account when elaborating the new directions of therapy.Conclusions. Gene mutations that cause ichthyosis realizes on the background of disturbance of the cell cycle causing cornification and disturb the local and general immune reactions that summarily lead to the clinical presentations of disease. 

  19. Pathogenesis of invasive candidiasis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Disseminated candidiasis remains a life-threatening disease in the ICU. The development of invasive disease with Candida albicans is dependent on multiple factors, such as colonization and efficient host defense at the mucosa. In the present review, we describe the host defense

  20. Surgical treatment of Chiari malformation: review and progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Yuan-zheng

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of Chiari malformation (CM began in 1932. With the advance of medical technology, the surgical technique of CM is also in constant improvement. But due to its pathogenesis has not yet clear, there is no accepted optimal method, and different levels of the operation is still controversial. The author reviewed the concept, pathogenesis, diagnosis and surgical treatment of CM. The hot topics and new technological application were also reviewed in this article.