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Sample records for reverse blotting hybridization

  1. Performance of PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for detection of rifampicin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hye-young; Kim, Hyunjung; Kim, Yeun; Bang, Hyeeun; Kim, Jong-Pill; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Cho, Sang-Nae; Kim, Tae Ue; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2015-10-01

    Drug resistance in Mycobacterium leprae is a significant problem in countries where leprosy is endemic. A sensitive, specific, and high-throughput reverse blot hybridization assay (REBA) for the detection of genotypic resistance to rifampicin (RIF) was designed and evaluated. It has been shown that resistance to RIF in M. leprae involves mutations in the rpoB gene encoding the -subunit of the RNA polymerase. The PCR-REBA simultaneously detects both 6 wild-type regions and 5 different mutations (507 AGC, 513 GTG, 516 TAT, 531 ATG, and 531 TTC) including the most prevalent mutations at positions 507 and 531. Thirty-one clinical isolates provided by Korea Institute of Hansen-s Disease were analyzed by PCR-REBA with RIF resistance of rpoB gene. As a result, missense mutations at codons 507 AGC and 531 ATG with 2-nucleotide substitutions were found in one sample, and a missense mutation at codon 516 TAT and ΔWT6 (deletion of 530-534) was found in another sample. These cases were confirmed by DNA sequence analysis. This rapid, simple, and highly sensitive assay provides a practical alternative to sequencing for genotypic evaluation of RIF resistance in M. leprae.

  2. Retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern Italy by reverse line blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceci, Luigi; Iarussi, Fabrizio; Greco, Beatrice; Lacinio, Rosanna; Fornelli, Stefania; Carelli, Grazia

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. In order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern Italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization. The study had been carried out in three regions of southern Italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. RLB showed that 43.7% of the cattle were positive for nine different species of hemoparasites with either a single infection or a mixed infection. Theileria buffeli was the most common species found, being present in 27.3% of the animals, followed by Anaplasma marginale in 18.1%, Anaplasma centrale in 13.8%, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma bovis in 4.2%, Anaplasma phagocytophilum in 1.7%, Babesia bovis in 1.6%, Babesia major in 0.2% and Babesia divergens in 0.1%. Complete blood counts showed different degrees of anemia in 363 animals (24.2%) and of these, 169 were RLB-positive for at least one pathogen. Among the ticks that were collected from the cattle, the following species were identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Ixodes ricinus, Hyalomma marginatum, Boophilus annulatus, Dermacentor marginatus and Haemaphysalis (sulcata, parva, inermis and punctata). The results obtained confirmed the spread of endemic tick-borne pathogens in the regions studied.

  3. Epidemiology of Babesia, Anaplasma and Trypanosoma species using a new expanded reverse line blot hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletta, Martina Soledad; López Arias, Ludmila; de la Fournière, Sofía; Guillemi, Eliana Carolina; Luciani, Carlos; Sarmiento, Néstor Fabián; Mosqueda, Juan; Farber, Marisa Diana; Wilkowsky, Silvina Elizabeth

    2018-02-01

    Vector-borne hemoparasitic infections are a major problem that affects livestock industries worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. In this work, a reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay was developed for the simultaneous detection and identification of Anaplasma, Babesia and bovine trypanosomes, encompassing in this way the most relevant hemoparasites that affect cattle. A total of 186 bovine blood samples collected from two different ecoepidemiological regions of northeast Argentina, with and without tick control, were analyzed with this new RLB. High diversity of parasites, such as Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Anaplasma marginale and three different Trypanosoma species, was found. High rates of coinfections were also detected, and significant differences were observed not only in the prevalence of parasites but also in the level of coinfections between the two analyzed areas. Regarding the Trypanosoma genus, we provide molecular evidence of the presence of T. vivax and T. theileri for the first time in Argentina. Besides, since the RLB is a prospective tool, it allowed the identification of a yet unknown bovine trypanosome which could not be assigned to any of the bovine species known so far. In the present study we provide new insights on the prevalence of several pathogens that directly impact on livestock production in Argentina. The RLB assay developed here allows to identify simultaneously numerous pathogenic species which can also be easily expanded to detect other blood borne pathogens. These characteristics make the RLB hybridization assay an essential tool for epidemiological survey of all vector-borne pathogens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous Detection of Bovine Theileria and Babesia Species by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, J. M.; de Vos, A. P.; van der Weide, M.; Viseras, J.; Schouls, L. M.; de Vries, E.; Jongejan, F.

    1999-01-01

    A reverse line blot (RLB) assay was developed for the identification of cattle carrying different species of Theileria and Babesia simultaneously. We included Theileria annulata, T. parva, T. mutans, T. taurotragi, and T. velifera in the assay, as well as parasites belonging to the T. sergenti-T. buffeli-T. orientalis group. The Babesia species included were Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and B. divergens. The assay employs one set of primers for specific amplification of the rRNA gene V4 hypervariable regions of all Theileria and Babesia species. PCR products obtained from blood samples were hybridized to a membrane onto which nine species-specific oligonucleotides were covalently linked. Cross-reactions were not observed between any of the tested species. No DNA sequences from Bos taurus or other hemoparasites (Trypanosoma species, Cowdria ruminantium, Anaplasma marginale, and Ehrlichia species) were amplified. The sensitivity of the assay was determined at 0.000001% parasitemia, enabling detection of the carrier state of most parasites. Mixed DNAs from five different parasites were correctly identified. Moreover, blood samples from cattle experimentally infected with two different parasites reacted only with the corresponding species-specific oligonucleotides. Finally, RLB was used to screen blood samples collected from carrier cattle in two regions of Spain. T. annulata, T. orientalis, and B. bigemina were identified in these samples. In conclusion, the RLB is a versatile technique for simultaneous detection of all bovine tick-borne protozoan parasites. We recommend its use for integrated epidemiological monitoring of tick-borne disease, since RLB can also be used for screening ticks and can easily be expanded to include additional hemoparasite species. PMID:10325324

  5. Patterns of Limnohabitans Microdiversity across a Large Set of Freshwater Habitats as Revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, Martin W.

    2013-01-01

    Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S–23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus) patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of these bacteria

  6. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Jezbera

    Full Text Available Among abundant freshwater Betaproteobacteria, only few groups are considered to be of central ecological importance. One of them is the well-studied genus Limnohabitans and mainly its R-BT subcluster, investigated previously mainly by fluorescence in situ hybridization methods. We designed, based on sequences from a large Limnohabitans culture collection, 18 RLBH (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization probes specific for different groups within the genus Limnohabitans by targeting diagnostic sequences on their 16 S-23 S rRNA ITS regions. The developed probes covered in sum 92% of the available isolates. This set of probes was applied to environmental DNA originating from 161 different European standing freshwater habitats to reveal the microdiversity (intra-genus patterns of the Limnohabitans genus along a pH gradient. Investigated habitats differed in various physicochemical parameters, and represented a very broad range of standing freshwater habitats. The Limnohabitans microdiversity, assessed as number of RLBH-defined groups detected, increased significantly along the gradient of rising pH of habitats. 14 out of 18 probes returned detection signals that allowed predictions on the distribution of distinct Limnohabitans groups. Most probe-defined Limnohabitans groups showed preferences for alkaline habitats, one for acidic, and some seemed to lack preferences. Complete niche-separation was indicated for some of the probe-targeted groups. Moreover, bimodal distributions observed for some groups of Limnohabitans, suggested further niche separation between genotypes within the same probe-defined group. Statistical analyses suggested that different environmental parameters such as pH, conductivity, oxygen and altitude influenced the distribution of distinct groups. The results of our study do not support the hypothesis that the wide ecological distribution of Limnohabitans bacteria in standing freshwater habitats results from generalist adaptations of

  7. Patterns of Limnohabitans microdiversity across a large set of freshwater habitats as revealed by reverse line blot hybridization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jezbera, Jan; Jezberová, Jitka; Kasalický, Vojtěch; Šimek, Karel; Hahn, M.W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 3 (2013), e58527 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP504/10/0566; GA ČR(CZ) GEEEF/10/E011 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Limnohabitans * microdiversity * habitats * hybridization Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  8. A comparison of DNA extraction protocols from blood spotted on FTA cards for the detection of tick-borne pathogens by Reverse Line Blot hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailemariam, Zerihun; Ahmed, Jabbar Sabir; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Nijhof, Ard Menzo

    2017-01-01

    An essential step in the molecular detection of tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) in blood is the extraction of DNA. When cooled storage of blood under field conditions prior to DNA extraction in a dedicated laboratory is not possible, the storage of blood on filter paper forms a promising alternative. We evaluated six DNA extraction methods from blood spotted on FTA Classic ® cards (FTA cards), to determine the optimal protocol for the subsequent molecular detection of TBPs by PCR and the Reverse Line Blot hybridization assay (RLB). Ten-fold serial dilutions of bovine blood infected with Babesia bovis, Theileria mutans, Anaplasma marginale or Ehrlichia ruminantium were made by dilution with uninfected blood and spotted on FTA cards. Subsequently, DNA was extracted from FTA cards using six different DNA extraction protocols. DNA was also isolated from whole blood dilutions using a commercial kit. PCR/RLB results showed that washing of 3mm discs punched from FTA cards with FTA purification reagent followed by DNA extraction using Chelex ® resin was the most sensitive procedure. The detection limit could be improved when more discs were used as starting material for the DNA extraction, whereby the use of sixteen 3mm discs proved to be most practical. The presented best practice method for the extraction of DNA from blood spotted on FTA cards will facilitate epidemiological studies on TBPs. It may be particularly useful for field studies where a cold chain is absent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification of pathogenic Nocardia species by reverse line blot hybridization targeting the 16S rRNA and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Sorrell, Tania C; Cao, Yongyan; Lee, Ok Cha; Liu, Ying; Sintchenko, Vitali; Chen, Sharon C A

    2010-02-01

    Although 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis is employed most often for the definitive identification of Nocardia species, alternate molecular methods and polymorphisms in other gene targets have also enabled species determinations. We evaluated a combined Nocardia PCR-based reverse line blot (RLB) hybridization assay based on 16S and 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer region polymorphisms to identify 12 American Type Culture Collection and 123 clinical Nocardia isolates representing 14 species; results were compared with results from 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thirteen 16S rRNA gene-based (two group-specific and 11 species-specific) and five 16S-23S spacer-targeted (two taxon-specific and three species-specific) probes were utilized. 16S rRNA gene-based probes correctly identified 124 of 135 isolates (sensitivity, 92%) but were unable to identify Nocardia paucivorans strains (n = 10 strains) and a Nocardia asteroides isolate with a novel 16S rRNA gene sequence. Nocardia farcinica and Nocardia cyriacigeorgica strains were identified by the sequential use of an N. farcinica-"negative" probe and a combined N. farcinica/N. cyriacigeorgica probe. The assay specificity was high (99%) except for weak cross-reactivity between the Nocardia brasiliensis probe with the Nocardia thailandica DNA product; however, cross-hybridization with closely related nontarget species may occur. The incorporation of 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-based probes enabled the identification of all N. paucivorans strains. The overall sensitivity using both probe sets was >99%. Both N. farcinica-specific 16S-23S rRNA gene spacer-directed probes were required to identify all N. farcinica stains by using this probe set. The study demonstrates the utility of a combined PCR/RLB assay for the identification of clinically relevant Nocardia species and its potential for studying subtypes of N. farcinica. Where species assignment is ambiguous or not possible, 16S rRNA gene sequencing is recommended.

  10. Accurate and Practical Identification of 20 Fusarium Species by Seven-Locus Sequence Analysis and Reverse Line Blot Hybridization, and an In Vitro Antifungal Susceptibility Study▿†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, He; Xiao, Meng; Kong, Fanrong; Chen, Sharon; Dou, Hong-Tao; Sorrell, Tania; Li, Ruo-Yu; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2011-01-01

    Eleven reference and 25 clinical isolates of Fusarium were subject to multilocus DNA sequence analysis to determine the species and haplotypes of the fusarial isolates from Beijing and Shandong, China. Seven loci were analyzed: the translation elongation factor 1 alpha gene (EF-1α); the nuclear rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit (LSU), and intergenic spacer (IGS) regions; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase gene (RPB2); the calmodulin gene (CAM); and the mitochondrial small subunit (mtSSU) rRNA gene. We also evaluated an IGS-targeted PCR/reverse line blot (RLB) assay for species/haplotype identification of Fusarium. Twenty Fusarium species and seven species complexes were identified. Of 25 clinical isolates (10 species), the Gibberella (Fusarium) fujikuroi species complex was the commonest (40%) and was followed by the Fusarium solani species complex (FSSC) (36%) and the F. incarnatum-F. equiseti species complex (12%). Six FSSC isolates were identified to the species level as FSSC-3+4, and three as FSSC-5. Twenty-nine IGS, 27 EF-1α, 26 RPB2, 24 CAM, 18 ITS, 19 LSU, and 18 mtSSU haplotypes were identified; 29 were unique, and haplotypes for 24 clinical strains were novel. By parsimony informative character analysis, the IGS locus was the most phylogenetically informative, and the rRNA gene regions were the least. Results by RLB were concordant with multilocus sequence analysis for all isolates. Amphotericin B was the most active drug against all species. Voriconazole MICs were high (>8 μg/ml) for 15 (42%) isolates, including FSSC. Analysis of larger numbers of isolates is required to determine the clinical utility of the seven-locus sequence analysis and RLB assay in species classification of fusaria. PMID:21389150

  11. Genetic relatedness of orbiviruses by RNA-RNA blot hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodkin, D.K.

    1985-01-01

    RNA-RNA blot hybridization was developed in order to identify type-specific genes among double-stranded (ds) RNA viruses, to assess the genetic relatedness of dsRNA viruses and to classify new strains. Viral dsRNA segments were electrophoresed through 10% polyacrylamide gels, transferred to membranes, and hybridized to [5' 32 P]-pCp labeled genomic RNA from a related strain. Hybridization was performed at 52 0 C, 50% formamide, 5X SSC. Under these conditions heterologous RNA species must share ≥ 74% sequence homology in order to form stable dsRNA hybrids. Cognate genes of nine members of the Palyam serogroup of orbiviruses were identified and their sequence relatedness to the prototype. Palyam virus, was determined. Reciprocal blot hybridizations were performed using radiolabeled genomic RNA of all members of the Palyam serogroup. Unique and variant genes were identified by lack of cross-homology or by weak homology between segments. Since genes 2 and 6 exhibited the highest degree of sequence variability, response to the vertebrate immune system may be a major cause of sequence divergence among members of a single serogroup. Changuinola serogroup isolates were compared by dot-blot hybridization, while Colorado tick fever (CTF) serogroup isolates were compared by the RNA-RNA blot hybridization procedure described for reovirus and Palyam serogroup isolates. Preliminary blot hybridization data were also obtained on the relatedness of members of different Orbivirus serogroups

  12. Influence of DNA treatments on Southern blot hybridization analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... DNA samples obtained by a non-phenol/chloroform isolation method, from three races of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici ... Key words: Fusarium oxysporum, DIG-IGS Probe, Southern hybridization. INTRODUCTION .... Detection of Fusarium spp in plants with monoclonal antibody. Ann. Phytopathol.

  13. Reverse hybrid total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wangen, Helge; Havelin, Leif I.; Fenstad, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose - The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA, have been sparsely described. The Nordic Arthroplasty....... Patients and methods - From the NARA, we extracted data on reverse hybrid THAs from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2013. 38,415 such hips were studied and compared with cemented THAs. The Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression analyses were used to estimate the prosthesis survival and the relative risk...

  14. New Method for Simultaneous Species-Specific Identification of Equine Strongyles (Nematoda, Strongylida) by Reverse Line Blot Hybridization▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Iorio, Raffaella; Klei, Thomas R.; Kharchenko, Vitaliy A.; Gawor, Jakub; Otranto, Domenico; Sparagano, Olivier A. E.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of a reverse line blot (RLB) assay to identify 13 common species of equine small strongyles (cyathostomins) and to discriminate them from three Strongylus spp. (large strongyles) was demonstrated. The assay relied on the specific hybridization of PCR-amplified intergenic spacer DNA fragments of the nuclear ribosomal DNA to membrane-bound species-specific probes. All cyathostomins examined were unequivocally identified and simultaneously discriminated from each other and from three large strongyles (Strongylus edentatus, Strongylus equinus, and Strongylus vulgaris). This assay will enable the accurate and rapid identification of equine cyathostomins irrespective of their life cycle stage, opening important avenues for a better understanding of their biology and epidemiology and of the pathogenesis of cyathostomin-associated disease. In particular, this RLB method promises to be a powerful diagnostic tool to determine the roles of individual species in the pathogenesis of mixed infections and to elucidate some aspects of cyathostominosis. Also, it could represent a basic step toward the development of a rapid and simple molecular test for the early detection of drug-resistant genotypes of horse strongyle species. PMID:17626168

  15. Detection of Zika virus using reverse-transcription LAMP coupled with reverse dot blot analysis in saliva.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maite Sabalza

    Full Text Available In recent years, there have been increasing numbers of infectious disease outbreaks that spread rapidly to population centers resulting from global travel, population vulnerabilities, environmental factors, and ecological disasters such as floods and earthquakes. Some examples of the recent outbreaks are the Ebola epidemic in West Africa, Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-Co in the Middle East, and the Zika outbreak through the Americas. We have created a generic protocol for detection of pathogen RNA and/or DNA using loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP and reverse dot-blot for detection (RDB and processed automatically in a microfluidic device. In particular, we describe how a microfluidic assay to detect HIV viral RNA was converted to detect Zika virus (ZIKV RNA. We first optimized the RT-LAMP assay to detect ZIKV RNA using a benchtop isothermal amplification device. Then we implemented the assay in a microfluidic device that will allow analyzing 24 samples simultaneously and automatically from sample introduction to detection by RDB technique. Preliminary data using saliva samples spiked with ZIKV showed that our diagnostic system detects ZIKV RNA in saliva. These results will be validated in further experiments with well-characterized ZIKV human specimens of saliva. The described strategy and methodology to convert the HIV diagnostic assay and platform to a ZIKV RNA detection assay provides a model that can be readily utilized for detection of the next emerging or re-emerging infectious disease.

  16. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  17. Prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions of dot-blot-SNP analysis using estimated melting temperature of oligonucleotide probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokai, Sachiko; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu; Nishio, Takeshi

    2010-08-01

    Although the dot-blot-SNP technique is a simple cost-saving technique suitable for genotyping of many plant individuals, optimization of hybridization and washing conditions for each SNP marker requires much time and labor. For prediction of the optimum hybridization conditions for each probe, we compared T (m) values estimated from nucleotide sequences using the DINAMelt web server, measured T (m) values, and hybridization conditions yielding allele-specific signals. The estimated T (m) values were comparable to the measured T (m) values with small differences of less than 3 degrees C for most of the probes. There were differences of approximately 14 degrees C between the specific signal detection conditions and estimated T (m) values. Change of one level of SSC concentrations of 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0x SSC corresponded to a difference of approximately 5 degrees C in optimum signal detection temperature. Increasing the sensitivity of signal detection by shortening the exposure time to X-ray film changed the optimum hybridization condition for specific signal detection. Addition of competitive oligonucleotides to the hybridization mixture increased the suitable hybridization conditions by 1.8. Based on these results, optimum hybridization conditions for newly produced dot-blot-SNP markers will become predictable.

  18. Blot hybridization analysis of TCR genes of T cells for five people exposed in a radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min Rui; Liu Benti; Cheng Tianmin; Yang Rujun; Meng Xiangshun; Xiao Jinsong

    1996-01-01

    Human lymphocyte total DNA was prepared in agarose plug by mixing cells with low melting agarose, and two restriction endonucleases were used for digestion of the total DNA with human α and β TCR cDNA probes. The total digested DNA from five people who were whole body exposed to 2.0-2.5 Gy ionizing radiation in an accident 4.5 years ago was hybridized by Southern blot method. The results showed that no obvious difference in hybridization bands was found between controls and the five victims when hybridizations were fulfilled in the total DNA which was digested by Hind III restriction endonuclease with both α and β probes. However, when the total DNA was digested with restriction endonuclease EcoR I and was hybridized with TCR α probe, four of the five exposed people showed a different hybridizing band pattern compared with the controls. The results are also discussed

  19. Detection of mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis by dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping using specific radiolabelled probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Maghraby, T.K.; Abdelazeim, O.

    2002-01-01

    The present work has been conducted to determine the mutations related to drug resistance in M. tuberculosis in 63 Egyptian isolates using dot blot hybridization and spoligotyping. The PCR was done for amplification rpoB and katG genes in isolates. Dot blot hybridization were done to PCR products by using specific radiolabelled probes. Moreover, spoligotyping was done to know about the different strains found in Egypt. The results revealed that 58% from isolates had drug resistance to one or more of antituberculosis drugs. The results of spoligotyping have revealed that some Egyptian isolates are identical with the international code while the rest has not been identified yet. DNA sequencing was done to identify the mutation that not clear in dot blot hybridization. Early diagnosis of geno typing resistance to antituberculosis drugs is important as well as allow appropriate early patients management with few days of TB diagnosis. Using such strategy for early diagnosis of TB drug resistance allow and fast and potent patient's management

  20. Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T

    2001-05-01

    Southern blotting is the transfer of DNA fragments from an electrophoresis gel to a membrane support (the properties and advantages of the different types of membrane, transfer buffer, and transfer method are discussed in detail), resulting in immobilization of the DNA fragments, so the membrane carries a semipermanent reproduction of the banding pattern of the gel. After immobilization, the DNA can be subjected to hybridization analysis, enabling bands with sequence similarity to a labeled probe to be identified. This appendix describes Southern blotting via upward capillary transfer of DNA from an agarose gel onto a nylon or nitrocellulose membrane, using a high-salt transfer buffer to promote binding of DNA to the membrane. With the high-salt buffer, the DNA becomes bound to the membrane during transfer but not permanently immobilized. Immobilization is achieved by UV irradiation (for nylon) or baking (for nitrocellulose). A Support Protocol describes how to calibrate a UV transilluminator for optimal UV irradiation of a nylon membrane. An alternate protocol details transfer using nylon membranes and an alkaline buffer, and is primarily used with positively charged nylon membranes. The advantage of this combination is that no post-transfer immobilization step is required, as the positively charged membrane binds DNA irreversibly under alkaline transfer conditions. The method can also be used with neutral nylon membranes but less DNA will be retained. A second alternate protocol describes a transfer method based on a different transfer-stack setup. The traditional method of upward capillary transfer of DNA from gel to membrane described in the first basic and alternate protocols has certain disadvantages, notably the fact that the gel can become crushed by the weighted filter papers and paper towels that are laid on top of it. This slows down the blotting process and may reduce the amount of DNA that can be transferred. The downward capillary method described in

  1. Reverse line blot probe design and polymerase chain reaction optimization for bloodmeal analysis of ticks from the eastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, M C; Harmon, J R; Tsao, J I; Jones, C J; Hickling, G J

    2012-05-01

    Determining the host preference of vector ticks is vital to elucidating the eco-epidemiology of the diseases they spread. Detachment of ticks from captured hosts can provide evidence of feeding on those host species, but only for those species that are feasible to capture. Recently developed, highly sensitive molecular assays show great promise in allowing host selection to be determined from minute traces of host DNA that persist in recently molted ticks. Using methods developed in Europe as a starting-point, we designed 12S rDNA mitochondrial gene probes suitable for use in a reverse line blot (RLB) assay of ticks feeding on common host species in the eastern United States. This is the first study to use the 12S mitochondrial gene in a RLB bloodmeal assay in North America. The assay combines conventional PCR with a biotin-labeled primer and reverse line blots that can be stripped and rehybridized up to 20 times, making the method less expensive and more straightforward to interpret than previous methods of tick bloodmeal identification. Probes were designed that target the species, genus, genus group, family, order, or class of eight reptile, 13 birds, and 32 mammal hosts. After optimization, the RLB assay correctly identified the current hostspecies for 99% of ticks [Amblyomma americanum (L.) and eight other ixodid tick species] collected directly from known hosts. The method identified previous-host DNA for approximately half of all questing ticks assayed. Multiple bloodmeal determinations were obtained in some instances from feeding and questing ticks; this pattern is consistent with previous RLB studies but requires further investigation. Development of this probe library, suitable for eastern U.S. ecosystems, opens new avenues for eco-epidemiological investigations of this region's tick-host systems.

  2. Comparison of RT-PCR-Dot blot hybridization based on radioisotope 32P with conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Assays for blood screening of HIV-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Andi Yasmon

    2011-01-01

    There are many commercial ELISA and rapid test kits that have been used for blood screening; however, the kits can give false positive and negative results. Therefore, RT-PCR (Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction) - Dot Blot Hybridization based on radioisotope 32 P (RDBR) method was developed in this research, to compare the method with the conventional RT-PCR and commercial ELISA Enzyme-Linked lmmunosorbent Assay) kit. This method is efficient for screening of large blood specimens and surveillance study. Eighty seven samples were used and serum of the samples were tested by ELISA to detect HIV-1. The HIV-l RNA genome was extracted from plasma samples and tested using the RT-PCR and RDBR methods. Of 87 samples that were tested, the rates of positive testing of the RT-PCR, the RDBR, and the ELISA were 71.26%, 74.71%, and 80.46%, respectively. The RDBR (a combination of RTPCR and dot blot hybridization) was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR by showing 3.45% in increase number of positive specimens. The results showed that of 9 samples (10.34%) were negative RDBR and positive ELISA, while 4 samples (4.60%) were negative ELISA and positive RDBR. The two methods showed slightly difference in the results but further validation is still needed. However, RDBR has high potential as an alternative method for screening of blood in large quantities when compared to method of conventional RT-PCR and ELISA. (author)

  3. The early days of blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    The history of the development of DNA blotting is described in this chapter. DNA blotting, involving the transfer of electrophoretically separated DNA fragments to a membrane support through capillary action, is also known as Southern blotting. This procedure enables the detection of a specific DNA sequence by hybridization with probes. The term Southern blotting led to a "geographic" naming tradition, with RNA blotting bearing the name Northern blotting and protein transfer to membranes becoming known as Western blotting.

  4. Northern blots: capillary transfer of RNA from agarose gels and filter hybridization using standard stringency conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Donald C

    2015-03-02

    In this protocol, an RNA sample, fractionated by gel electrophoresis, is transferred from the gel onto a membrane by capillary transfer. Short-wave UV light is used to fix the transferred RNA to the membrane. The membrane is then pretreated to block nonspecific probe-binding sites, and hybridization of the immobilized RNA to a (32)P-labeled DNA or RNA probe specific for the mRNA of interest is performed. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. Because exposure to UV cross-links the RNA to the membrane, the membrane can be stripped and hybridized with other probes. The procedure is suitable for detecting poly(A)(+)-selected mRNA or mRNA in total cellular RNA if the target transcript is relatively abundant. Using DNA or RNA probes labeled to 1 × 10(8)-10 × 10(8) cpm/µg, it should be possible to detect ∼5 pg of a specific RNA. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Application of the Reverse Line Blot Assay for the Molecular Detection of Theileria and Babesia sp. in Sheep and Goat Blood Samples from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rasul

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was designed to detect the presence of tick-borne parasites (Theileria and Babesia spp. in 196 blood samples collected from apparently healthy sheep and goats from two provinces, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa, in Pakistan.Methods: Reverse line blot (RLB assay was applied for the parasitic detection by the amplification of hypervariable V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA gene. A membrane with covalently linked generic and species specific oligonucleotide probes was used for the hybridization of amplified PCR products.Results: Parasites were detected in 16% of the ruminant blood samples under study. Two Theileria species, T. lestoquardi and T. ovis, were identified in samples. 25, of the total 32, infected animals were from Khyber Pukhtoon Khwa.Conclusion: Sheep were more prone to tick borne haemoprotozans as 81% infected samples were sheep as compared to 19% goats (P > 0.001. Risk factor analysis revealed that male (P = 0.03, ani­mals infested by ticks (P = 0.03 and herd composed of sheep only (P = 0.001 were more infected by blood parasites.

  6. Detection of Babesia and Theileria species infection in cattle from Portugal using a reverse line blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M G; Marques, P X; Oliva, A

    2010-12-15

    Babesiosis and Theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. In Portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of Babesia and Theileria sp. identified: Rhipicephalus bursa, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus, Ixodes ricinus and Haemaphysalis punctata. All these potential Babesia and Theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in Portugal, although they are predominant in the Southern region. In this study, 1104 cattle blood samples were randomly collected from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and analyzed by PCR-reverse line blotting (RLB) for the detection of Babesia and Theileria sp. Testing indicated that 74.7% of the bovines tested were positive for either Babesia and/or Theileria sp. In addition, five different apicomplexan species, namely, Theileria buffeli, Theileria annulata, Babesia divergens, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina were detected by RLB among the bovines tested. T. buffeli was the most frequently found species, being present in 69.9% of the positive samples either as single infections (52.4%), or as mixed infections (17.5%). The Babesia specie most frequently found was B. divergens, detected in 4.2% of the infected bovines. Overall, infected bovines were found in all regions tested; however the highest number of infected bovines was observed in Évora district (96.2%) and in cattle from Limousin breeds (81.7%). The results indicate widespread Babesia and Theileria infections in Portuguese bovines, suggesting the need for improved control of ticks and tick-borne diseases. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  8. Analysis of differentially expressed genes in two immunologically distinct strains of Eimeria maxima using suppression subtractive hybridization and dot-blot hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well known that different Eimeria maxima strains exhibit significant antigenic variation. However, the genetic basis of these phenotypes remains unclear. Methods Total RNA and mRNA were isolated from unsporulated oocysts of E. maxima strains SH and NT, which were found to have significant differences in immunogenicity in our previous research. Two subtractive cDNA libraries were constructed using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and specific genes were further analyzed by dot-blot hybridization and qRT-PCR analysis. Results A total of 561 clones were selected from both cDNA libraries and the length of the inserted fragments was 0.25–1.0 kb. Dot-blot hybridization revealed a total of 86 differentially expressed clones (63 from strain SH and 23 from strain NT). Nucleotide sequencing analysis of these clones revealed ten specific contigs (six from strain SH and four from strain NT). Further analysis found that six contigs from strain SH and three from strain NT shared significant identities with previously reported proteins, and one contig was presumed to be novel. The specific differentially expressed genes were finally verified by RT-PCR and qRT-PCR analyses. Conclusions The data presented here suggest that specific genes identified between the two strains may be important molecules in the immunogenicity of E. maxima that may present potential new drug targets or vaccine candidates for coccidiosis. PMID:24894832

  9. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  10. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  11. Hybrid supercapacitors for reversible control of magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Alan; Leufke, Philipp M; Reitz, Christian; Dasgupta, Subho; Witte, Ralf; Kruk, Robert; Hahn, Horst

    2017-05-10

    Electric field tuning of magnetism is one of the most intensely pursued research topics of recent times aiming at the development of new-generation low-power spintronics and microelectronics. However, a reversible magnetoelectric effect with an on/off ratio suitable for easy and precise device operation is yet to be achieved. Here we propose a novel route to robustly tune magnetism via the charging/discharging processes of hybrid supercapacitors, which involve electrostatic (electric-double-layer capacitance) and electrochemical (pseudocapacitance) doping. We use both charging mechanisms-occurring at the La 0.74 Sr 0.26 MnO 3 /ionic liquid interface to control the balance between ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic phases of La 1-x Sr x MnO 3 to an unprecedented extent. A magnetic modulation of up to ≈33% is reached above room temperature when applying an external potential of only about 2.0 V. Our case study intends to draw attention to new, reversible physico-chemical phenomena in the rather unexplored area of magnetoelectric supercapacitors.

  12. Hybrid recreation by reverse breeding in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnker, Erik; Deurhof, Laurens; van de Belt, Jose; de Snoo, C Bastiaan; Blankestijn, Hetty; Becker, Frank; Ravi, Maruthachalam; Chan, Simon W L; van Dun, Kees; Lelivelt, Cilia L C; de Jong, Hans; Dirks, Rob; Keurentjes, Joost J B

    2014-04-01

    Hybrid crop varieties are traditionally produced by selecting and crossing parental lines to evaluate hybrid performance. Reverse breeding allows doing the opposite: selecting uncharacterized heterozygotes and generating parental lines from them. With these, the selected heterozygotes can be recreated as F1 hybrids, greatly increasing the number of hybrids that can be screened in breeding programs. Key to reverse breeding is the suppression of meiotic crossovers in a hybrid plant to ensure the transmission of nonrecombinant chromosomes to haploid gametes. These gametes are subsequently regenerated as doubled-haploid (DH) offspring. Each DH carries combinations of its parental chromosomes, and complementing pairs can be crossed to reconstitute the initial hybrid. Achiasmatic meiosis and haploid generation result in uncommon phenotypes among offspring owing to chromosome number variation. We describe how these features can be dealt with during a reverse-breeding experiment, which can be completed in six generations (∼1 year).

  13. Detection of human papilloma virus 16 and 18 DNA sequences by southern blot hybridization in oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rahul; Rao, G R K; Tiwary, S K; Rai, Ashish; Khanna, Seema; Khanna, A K

    2009-04-01

    The etiopathological role of human papilloma virus (HPV) in the causation of oral cancer is till a subject of speculation. We used the technique of Southern blot hybridization to detect the presence of HPV types 16 & 18 in biopsy specimens from oral cancer and leukoplakia patients as well as normal oral mucosal biopsies. The prevalence of either HPV type 16 or 18 was found in 64.5% (29/45) of oral cancer, 40%(12/30) of leukoplakia and 20%(9/45) of normal oral mucosal biopsies. No association could be demonstrated between tobacco usage habits or a history of genital warts with HPV prevalence. A significant finding was that none of the oral cancer patients were negative for both: a history of tobacco usage as well as presence of HPV infection, on Southern blot hybridization.

  14. Detection of KatG Gen Mutation on Mycobacterium Tuberculosis by Means of PCR-Dot Blot Hybridization with 32P Labeled Oligonucleotide Probe Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maria Lina R; Budiman Bela; Andi Yasmon

    2009-01-01

    Handling and controlling of tuberculosis, a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), is now complicated since there are many MTBs that are resistant against anti-tuberculosis drugs such as isoniazid. The drug resistance could occurred due to the inadequate and un-regular drug utilization that cause gene mutation of the drug target such as katG gene for isoniazid. The molecular biology techniques such as the PCR- dot blot hybridization with radioisotope ( 32 P) labeled oligonucleotide probe, has been reported as a technique that is more sensitive and rapid for detection of gene mutations related with drug resistances. Hence, the aim of this study was to apply the PCR- dot blot hybridization technique using 32 P labeled oligonucleotide probe for detection of single mutation at codon 315 of katG gene of MTBs that rise the isoniazid resistance. In this study, we used 89 sputum specimens and a standard MTB (MTB H 37 RV) as a control. DNA extractions were performed by the BOOM method and the phenol chloroform for sputum samples and standard MTB, respectively. Primers used for PCR technique were Pt8 and Pt9 and RTB59 and RTB36 for detecting tuberculosis causing Mycobacterium and the existence of katG gene, respectively. Both of the primers are specific for IS6110 region and katG gene, respectively. PCR products were detected by an agarose gel electrophoresis technique. Dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu was performed to detect mutation at codon 315 of tested samples. Results of the PCR using primer Pt8 and Pt9 showed that all sputum specimens had positive results. Mutation detection by PCR- dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe 315mu, revealed that 11 of 89 tested samples had a mutation at their codon 315 of katG gene. Based upon these results, it is concluded that PCR-dot blot hybridization with 32 P-oligonucleotide probe is a technique that is rapid and highly specific and sensitive for detection of mutation at codon

  15. Application of a Reverse Line Blot hybridisation assay for the species-specific identification of cyathostomins (Nematoda, Strongylida) from benzimidazole-treated horses in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, Dana; Paoletti, Barbara; Králová-Hromadová, Ivica; Iorio, Raffaella; Cudeková, Patrícia; Milillo, Piermarino; Traversa, Donato

    2009-03-09

    Five horse farms located in eastern Slovakia were investigated for the presence of benzimidazole-resistant strongyles by faecal egg count reduction test and egg hatch assay. Coprocultures were prepared for each farm from faecal samples taken pre- and post-treatment and harvested larvae were molecularly examined with a Reverse Line Blot assay. Faecal egg count reduction values ranged from 0 to 52.5% and all farms were positive for benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomins. Seven benzimidazole-resistant cyathostomin species were molecularly identified on farms before and also after treatment. These data demonstrate that resistance to benzimidazoles is well established in cyathostomin populations from horse farms in the Slovak Republic and that the molecular assay was able to determine the species-specific distribution of resistant cyathostomins under field conditions.

  16. A combined RT-PCR and dot-blot hybridization method reveals the coexistence of SJNNV and RGNNV betanodavirus genotypes in wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Jimena, B; Cherif, N; Garcia-Rosado, E; Infante, C; Cano, I; Castro, D; Hammami, S; Borrego, J J; Alonso, M C

    2010-10-01

    To detect the possible coexistence of striped jack nervous necrosis virus (SJNNV) and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) genotypes in a single fish, a methodology based on the combination of PCR amplification and blot hybridization has been developed and applied in this study. The degenerate primers designed for the PCR procedure target the T4 region within the capsid gene, resulting in the amplification of both genotypes. The subsequent hybridization of these amplification products with two different specific digoxigenin-labelled probes resulted in the identification of both genotypes separately. The application of the RT-PCR protocol to analyse blood samples from asymptomatic wild meagre (Argyrosomus regius) specimens has shown a 46.87% of viral nervous necrosis virus carriers. The combination of RT-PCR and blot hybridization increases the detection rate up to 90.62%, and, in addition, it has shown the coexistence of both genotypes in 18 out of the 32 specimens analysed (56.25%). This study reports the coexistence of betanodaviruses belonging to two different genotypes (SJNNV and RGNNV) in wild fish specimens. This is the first report demonstrating the presence of SJNNV and RGNNV genotypes in the same specimen. This study also demonstrates a carrier state in this fish species for the first time. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  18. Study on sensitivity of southern blotting hybridization using a 32P-labeled probe of PCR products in detecting human cytomegalovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bu Hengfu; Chen Juan; Shen Rongsen; Ma Liren; Xu Yongqiang

    1996-01-01

    Southern blotting hybridization (SBH) using a 32 P-labeled probe is one of the most practical methods for genetic diagnosis of pathogen. On the basis of establishing PCR and nested PCR for detecting human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), a 32 P-labeled probe was prepared with the amplified products of 613 bp PCR outer primers and hybridized with 300 bp inner primer amplified product, resulting in increase in detecting sensitivity from 17 ng (in 1.2% agarose electrophoresis) before SBH to 500 pg (autoradiographed), in other words, increasing the sensitivity of detecting HCMV by 10 2 dilutions after using SBH. The method of PCR and SBH using a 32 P-labeled probe could detect less than 1 gene copy of HCMV, therefore, it is a rapid and reliable diagnosis method for detecting HCMV latent infection

  19. Reverse-hybrid robotic mesorectal excision for rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In Ja; You, Y Nancy; Schlette, Erika; Nguyen, Sa; Skibber, John M; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel A; Chang, George J

    2012-02-01

    The robotic system offers potential technical advantages over laparoscopy for total mesorectal excision with radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer. However, the requirement for fixed docking limits its utility when the working volume is large or patient repositioning is required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate short-term outcomes associated with a novel setup to perform total mesorectal excision and radical lymphadenectomy for rectal cancer by the use of a "reverse" hybrid robotic-laparoscopic approach. This is a prospective consecutive cohort observational study of patients who underwent robotic rectal cancer resection from January 2009 to March 2011. During the study period, a technique of reverse-hybrid robotic-laparoscopic rectal resection with radical lymphadenectomy was developed. This technique involves reversal of the operative sequence with lymphovascular and rectal dissection to precede proximal colonic mobilization. This technique evolved from a conventional-hybrid resection with laparoscopic vascular control, colonic mobilization, and robotic pelvic dissection. Perioperative and short-term oncologic outcomes were analyzed. Thirty patients underwent reverse-hybrid resection. Median tumor location was 5 cm (interquartile range 3-9) from the anal verge. Median BMI was 27.6 (interquartile range 25.0-32.1 kg/m). Twenty (66.7%) received neoadjuvant chemoradiation. There were no conversions. Median blood loss was 100 mL (interquartile range 75-200). Total operation time was a median 369 (interquartile range 306-410) minutes. Median docking time was 6 (interquartile range 5-8) minutes, and console time was 98 (interquartile range 88-140) minutes. Resection was R0 in all patients; no patients had an incomplete mesorectal resection. Six patients (20%) underwent extended lymph node dissection or en bloc resection. Reverse-hybrid robotic surgery for rectal cancer maximizes the therapeutic applicability of the robotic and conventional laparoscopic

  20. Hybrid Algorithms for Fuzzy Reverse Supply Chain Network Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Z. H.; Chiang, Tzu-An; Kuo, Y. C.

    2014-01-01

    In consideration of capacity constraints, fuzzy defect ratio, and fuzzy transport loss ratio, this paper attempted to establish an optimized decision model for production planning and distribution of a multiphase, multiproduct reverse supply chain, which addresses defects returned to original manufacturers, and in addition, develops hybrid algorithms such as Particle Swarm Optimization-Genetic Algorithm (PSO-GA), Genetic Algorithm-Simulated Annealing (GA-SA), and Particle Swarm Optimization-Simulated Annealing (PSO-SA) for solving the optimized model. During a case study of a multi-phase, multi-product reverse supply chain network, this paper explained the suitability of the optimized decision model and the applicability of the algorithms. Finally, the hybrid algorithms showed excellent solving capability when compared with original GA and PSO methods. PMID:24892057

  1. Sulphate reduction and vertical distribution of sulphate-reducing bacteria quantified by rRNA slot-blot hybridization in a coastal marine sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahm, K.; MacGregor, BJ; Jørgensen, BB

    1999-01-01

    In the past, enumeration of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by cultivation-based methods generally contradicted measurements of sulphate reduction, suggesting unrealistically high respiration rates per cell. Here, we report evidence that quantification of SRB rRNA by slot-blot hybridization...... between 18% and 25% to the prokaryotic rRNA pool. The dominant SRB were related to complete oxidizing genera (Desulphococcus, Desulphosarcina and Desulphobacterium), while Desulpho-bacter could not be detected. The vertical profile and quantity of rRNA from SRB was compared with sulphate reduction rates......, directly above the sulphate reduction maximum. Cell numbers calculated by converting the relative contribution of SRB rRNA to the percentage of DAPI-stained cells indicated a population size for SRB of 2.4-6.1 x 10(8) cells cm(-3) wet sediment. Cellular sulphate reduction rates calculated on the basis...

  2. Comparison of the performance in detection of HPV infections between the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR and the PCR-reverse dot blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lahong; Dai, Yibei; Chen, Jiahuan; Hong, Liquan; Liu, Yuhua; Ke, Qiang; Chen, Yiwen; Cai, Chengsong; Liu, Xia; Chen, Zhaojun

    2018-01-01

    A new multiplex real-time PCR assay, the high-risk HPV genotyping real time PCR assay (HR HPV RT-PCR), has been developed to detect 15 high-risk HPV types with respective viral loads. In this report, a total of 684 cervical specimens from women diagnosed with vaginitis were assessed by the HR HPV RT-PCR and the PCR reaction and reverse dot blot (PCR-RDB) assays, using a PCR-sequencing method as a reference standard. A total coincidence of 97.7% between the HR HPV RT PCR and the PCR-RDB assays was determined with a Kappa value of 0.953. The HR HPV RT PCR assay had sensitivity, specificity, and concordance rates (accuracy) of 99.7%, 99.7%, and 99.7%, respectively, as confirmed by PCR-sequencing, while the PCR-RDB assay had respective rates of 98.8%, 97.1%, and 98.0%. The overall rate of HPV infection, determined by PCR-sequencing, in women diagnosed with vaginitis was 49.85%, including 36.26% of single infection and 13.6% of multiple infections. The most common infections among the 15 high-risk HPV types in women diagnosed with vaginitis were HPV-52, HPV-16, and HPV-58, with a total detection rate of 10.23%, 7.75%, and 5.85%, respectively. We conclude that the HR HPV RT PCR assay exhibits better clinical performance than the PCR-RDB assay, and is an ideal alternative method for HPV genotyping. In addition, the HR HPV RT PCR assay provides HPV DNA viral loads, and could serve as a quantitative marker in the diagnosis and treatment of single and multiple HPV infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Origin of Reversible Photoinduced Phase Separation in Hybrid Perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G.; Hetherington, Craig L.; Wu, Hao; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D. Frank; Limmer, David T.; Ginsberg, Naomi S.

    2017-02-01

    Nonequilibrium processes occurring in functional materials can significantly impact device efficiencies and are often difficult to characterize due to the broad range of length and time scales involved. In particular, mixed halide hybrid perovskites are promising for optoelectronics, yet the halides reversibly phase separate when photo-excited, significantly altering device performance. By combining nanoscale imaging and multiscale modeling, we elucidate the mechanism underlying this phenomenon, demonstrating that local strain induced by photo-generated polarons promotes halide phase separation and leads to nucleation of light-stabilized iodide-rich clusters. This effect relies on the unique electromechanical properties of hybrid materials, characteristic of neither their organic nor inorganic constituents alone. Exploiting photo-induced phase separation and other nonequilibrium phenomena in hybrid materials, generally, could enable new opportunities for expanding the functional applications in sensing, photoswitching, optical memory, and energy storage.

  4. Approaches for Reverse Line Blot-Based Detection of Microbial Pathogens in Ixodes ricinus Ticks Collected in Austria and Impact of the Chosen Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schötta, Anna-Margarita; Wijnveld, Michiel; Stockinger, Hannes; Stanek, Gerold

    2017-07-01

    Ticks transmit a large number of pathogens capable of causing human disease. In this study, the PCR-reverse line blot (RLB) method was used to screen for pathogens in a total of 554 Ixodes ricinus ticks collected from all provinces of Austria. These pathogens belong to the genera Borrelia , Rickettsiae , Anaplasma / Ehrlichia (including " Candidatus Neoehrlichia"), Babesia , and Coxiella The pathogens with the highest detected prevalence were spirochetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, in 142 ticks (25.6%). Borrelia afzelii (80/142) was the most frequently detected species, followed by Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (38/142) and Borrelia valaisiana (36/142). Borrelia garinii/Borrelia bavariensis , Borrelia lusitaniae , and Borrelia spielmanii were found in 28 ticks, 5 ticks, and 1 tick, respectively. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 93 ticks (16.8%): R. helvetica (39/93), R. raoultii (38/93), R. monacensis (2/93), and R. slovaca (1/93). Thirteen Rickettsia samples remain uncharacterized. " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis," Babesia spp. ( B. venatorum , B. divergens , B. microti ), and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were found in 4.5%, 2.7%, and 0.7%, respectively. Coxiella burnetii was not detected. Multiple microorganisms were detected in 40 ticks (7.2%), and the cooccurrence of Babesia spp. and " Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis" showed a significant positive correlation. We also compared different PCR-RLBs for detection of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Rickettsia spp. and showed that different detection approaches provide highly diverse results, indicating that analysis of environmental samples remains challenging. IMPORTANCE This study determined the wide spectrum of tick-borne bacterial and protozoal pathogens that can be encountered in Austria. Surveillance of (putative) pathogenic microorganisms occurring in the environment is of medical importance, especially when those agents can be transmitted by ticks and cause disease. The

  5. Origin of Reversible Photoinduced Phase Separation in Hybrid Perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bischak, Connor G; Hetherington, Craig L; Wu, Hao; Aloni, Shaul; Ogletree, D Frank; Limmer, David T; Ginsberg, Naomi S

    2017-02-08

    The distinct physical properties of hybrid organic-inorganic materials can lead to unexpected nonequilibrium phenomena that are difficult to characterize due to the broad range of length and time scales involved. For instance, mixed halide hybrid perovskites are promising materials for optoelectronics, yet bulk measurements suggest the halides reversibly phase separate upon photoexcitation. By combining nanoscale imaging and multiscale modeling, we find that the nature of halide demixing in these materials is distinct from macroscopic phase separation. We propose that the localized strain induced by a single photoexcited charge interacting with the soft, ionic lattice is sufficient to promote halide phase separation and nucleate a light-stabilized, low-bandgap, ∼8 nm iodide-rich cluster. The limited extent of this polaron is essential to promote demixing because by contrast bulk strain would simply be relaxed. Photoinduced phase separation is therefore a consequence of the unique electromechanical properties of this hybrid class of materials. Exploiting photoinduced phase separation and other nonequilibrium phenomena in hybrid materials more generally could expand applications in sensing, switching, memory, and energy storage.

  6. The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-23

    Introduction The widely practiced horizontal integrated circuit supply chain exposes a design to various types of attacks including the reverse engineering ...STT_CMOS designs for reverse- engineering prevention, DAC 2016. [5] M. E. Massad and et. al. Integrated circuit (IC) decamouflaging: reverse...The ATPG Attack for Reverse Engineering of Combinational Hybrid Custom-Programmable Circuits Raza Shafiq Hamid Mahmoodi Houman Homayoun Hassan

  7. Introduction to protein blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    Protein blotting is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins following electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer.

  8. Western blotting: an introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Western blotting is an important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. This process involves the transfer of protein patterns from gel to microporous membrane. Electrophoretic as well as non-electrophoretic transfer of proteins to membranes was first described in 1979. Protein blotting has evolved greatly since the inception of this protocol, allowing protein transfer to be accomplished in a variety of ways.

  9. Histone gene expression in early development of Xenopus laevis. Analysis of histone mRNA in oocytes and embryos by blot-hybridization and cell-free translation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, W. M.; Moorman, A. F.; Destrée, O. H.

    1983-01-01

    This study comprises the hybridization analysis of electrophoretically separated histone mRNAs from oocytes and embryos of Xenopus laevis, and analysis of in vitro translation products of these mRNAs on polyacrylamide gels containing sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or Triton X-100. In oocytes and

  10. Application of a High-Power Reversible Converter in a Hybrid Traction Power Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A high-power reversible converter can achieve a variety of functions, such as recovering regenerative braking energy, expanding traction power capacity, and improving an alternating current (AC grid power factor. A new hybrid traction power supply scheme, which consists of a high-power reversible converter and two 12-pulse diode rectifiers, is proposed. A droop control method based on load current feed-forward is adopted to realize the load distribution between the reversible converter and the existing 12-pulse diode rectifiers. The direct current (DC short-circuit characteristics of the reversible converter is studied, then the relationship between the peak fault current and the circuit parameters is obtained from theoretical calculations and validated by computer simulation. The first two sets of 2 MW reversible converters have been successfully applied in Beijing Metro Line 10, the proposed hybrid application scheme and coordinated control strategy are verified, and 11.15% of average energy-savings is reached.

  11. Efficient hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics--Monte Carlo simulations with symmetric momentum reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2014-09-21

    Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct

  12. Efficient hybrid non-equilibrium molecular dynamics - Monte Carlo simulations with symmetric momentum reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunjie; Roux, Benoît

    2014-09-01

    Hybrid schemes combining the strength of molecular dynamics (MD) and Metropolis Monte Carlo (MC) offer a promising avenue to improve the sampling efficiency of computer simulations of complex systems. A number of recently proposed hybrid methods consider new configurations generated by driving the system via a non-equilibrium MD (neMD) trajectory, which are subsequently treated as putative candidates for Metropolis MC acceptance or rejection. To obey microscopic detailed balance, it is necessary to alter the momentum of the system at the beginning and/or the end of the neMD trajectory. This strict rule then guarantees that the random walk in configurational space generated by such hybrid neMD-MC algorithm will yield the proper equilibrium Boltzmann distribution. While a number of different constructs are possible, the most commonly used prescription has been to simply reverse the momenta of all the particles at the end of the neMD trajectory ("one-end momentum reversal"). Surprisingly, it is shown here that the choice of momentum reversal prescription can have a considerable effect on the rate of convergence of the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm, with the simple one-end momentum reversal encountering particularly acute problems. In these neMD-MC simulations, different regions of configurational space end up being essentially isolated from one another due to a very small transition rate between regions. In the worst-case scenario, it is almost as if the configurational space does not constitute a single communicating class that can be sampled efficiently by the algorithm, and extremely long neMD-MC simulations are needed to obtain proper equilibrium probability distributions. To address this issue, a novel momentum reversal prescription, symmetrized with respect to both the beginning and the end of the neMD trajectory ("symmetric two-ends momentum reversal"), is introduced. Illustrative simulations demonstrate that the hybrid neMD-MC algorithm robustly yields a correct

  13. Lectin-Array Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazos, Raquel; Echevarria, Juan; Hernandez, Alvaro; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2017-09-01

    Aberrant protein glycosylation is a hallmark of cancer, infectious diseases, and autoimmune or neurodegenerative disorders. Unlocking the potential of glycans as disease markers will require rapid and unbiased glycoproteomics methods for glycan biomarker discovery. The present method is a facile and rapid protocol for qualitative analysis of protein glycosylation in complex biological mixtures. While traditional lectin arrays only provide an average signal for the glycans in the mixture, which is usually dominated by the most abundant proteins, our method provides individual lectin binding profiles for all proteins separated in the gel electrophoresis step. Proteins do not have to be excised from the gel for subsequent analysis via the lectin array but are transferred by contact diffusion from the gel to a glass slide presenting multiple copies of printed lectin arrays. Fluorescently marked glycoproteins are trapped by the printed lectins via specific carbohydrate-lectin interactions and after a washing step their binding profile with up to 20 lectin probes is analyzed with a fluorescent scanner. The method produces the equivalent of 20 lectin blots in a single experiment, giving detailed insight into the binding epitopes present in the fractionated proteins. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Western Blotting using Capillary Electrophoresis

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J.; Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein a...

  15. Protein blotting protocol for beginners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrasovits, Lars A

    2014-01-01

    The transfer and immobilization of biological macromolecules onto solid nitrocellulose or nylon (polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF)) membranes subsequently followed by specific detection is referred to as blotting. DNA blots are called Southerns after the inventor of the technique, Edwin Southern. By analogy, RNA blots are referred to as northerns and protein blots as westerns (Burnette, Anal Biochem 112:195-203, 1981). With few exceptions, western blotting involves five steps, namely, sample collection, preparation, separation, immobilization, and detection. In this chapter, protocols for the entire process from sample collection to detection are described.

  16. Proton-Fueled, Reversible DNA Hybridization Chain Assembly for pH Sensing and Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lan; Liu, Jin-Wen; Huang, Zhi-Mei; Wu, Han; Li, Na; Tang, Li-Juan; Jiang, Jian-Hui

    2017-07-05

    Design of DNA self-assembly with reversible responsiveness to external stimuli is of great interest for diverse applications. We for the first time develop a pH-responsive, fully reversible hybridization chain reaction (HCR) assembly that allows sensitive sensing and imaging of pH in living cells. Our design relies on the triplex forming sequences that form DNA triplex with toehold regions under acidic conditions and then induce a cascade of strand displacement and DNA assembly. The HCR assembly has shown dynamic responses in physiological pH ranges with excellent reversibility and demonstrated the potential for in vitro detection and live-cell imaging of pH. Moreover, this method affords HCR assemblies with highly localized fluorescence responses, offering advantages of improving sensitivity and better selectivity. The proton-fueled, reversible HCR assembly may provide a useful approach for pH-related cell biology study and disease diagnostics.

  17. TLC blot (far-eastern blot) and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao; Gonzalez, Tania Valdes; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Hayasaka, Takahiro; Setou, Mitsutoshi

    2009-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids from a high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, called TLC blot (far-eastern blot), is presented. Lipids separated on a HPTLC plate are blotted quantitatively. This procedure made it possible to purify individual lipids from a blotted membrane in a short time. Binding study, immunodetection, and mass spectrometric analysis are available for PVDF membrane. Furthermore, the world of molecular species imaging is opened by a scanning analysis with a combination of TLC blot and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS).

  18. Stationary magnetic shear reversal during Lower Hybrid experiments in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaudon, X.; Arslanbekov, R.; Hoang, G.T.; Joffrin, E.; Kazarian-Vibert, F.; Moreau, D.; Peysson, Y.; Bibet, P.

    1996-01-01

    Stable and stationary states with hollow current density profiles have been achieved with Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) during Lower Hybrid (LH) wave accessibility experiments. By analysing the bounded propagation domain in phase space which naturally limits the central penetration and absorption of the waves, off-axis LH power deposition has been realized in a reproducible manner. The resulting current density profile modifications have led to a global confinement enhancement attributed to the formation of an internal 'transport barrier' in the central reversed shear region where the electron thermal diffusivity is reduced to its neoclassical collisional level. The multiple-pass LH wave propagation in the weak Landau damping and reversed magnetic shear regime is also investigated in the framework of a statistical theory and the experimental validation of this theory is discussed. (author)

  19. Economic Evaluation of a Hybrid Desalination System Combining Forward and Reverse Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yongjun; Cho, Hyeongrak; Shin, Yonghyun; Jang, Yongsun; Lee, Sangho

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to evaluate the performance and economic feasibility of the forward osmosis (FO)–reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process; to propose a guideline by which this hybrid process might be more price-competitive in the field. A solution-diffusion model modified with film theory was applied to analyze the effects of concentration polarization, water, and salt transport coefficient on flux, recovery, seawater concentration, and treated wastewater of the FO process of an FO-RO hybrid system. A simple cost model was applied to analyze the effects of flux; recovery of the FO process; energy; and membrane cost on the FO-RO hybrid process. The simulation results showed that the water transport coefficient and internal concentration polarization resistance are very important factors that affect performance in the FO process; however; the effect of the salt transport coefficient does not seem to be large. It was also found that the flux and recovery of the FO process, the FO membrane, and the electricity cost are very important factors that influence the water cost of an FO-RO hybrid system. This hybrid system can be price-competitive with RO systems when its recovery rate is very high, the flux and the membrane cost of the FO are similar to those of the RO, and the electricity cost is expensive. The most important thing in commercializing the FO process is enhancing performance (e.g.; flux and the recovery of FO membranes). PMID:26729176

  20. Opposition-Based Memetic Algorithm and Hybrid Approach for Sorting Permutations by Reversals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soncco-Álvarez, José Luis; Muñoz, Daniel M; Ayala-Rincón, Mauricio

    2018-02-21

    Sorting unsigned permutations by reversals is a difficult problem; indeed, it was proved to be NP-hard by Caprara (1997). Because of its high complexity, many approximation algorithms to compute the minimal reversal distance were proposed until reaching the nowadays best-known theoretical ratio of 1.375. In this article, two memetic algorithms to compute the reversal distance are proposed. The first one uses the technique of opposition-based learning leading to an opposition-based memetic algorithm; the second one improves the previous algorithm by applying the heuristic of two breakpoint elimination leading to a hybrid approach. Several experiments were performed with one-hundred randomly generated permutations, single benchmark permutations, and biological permutations. Results of the experiments showed that the proposed OBMA and Hybrid-OBMA algorithms achieve the best results for practical cases, that is, for permutations of length up to 120. Also, Hybrid-OBMA showed to improve the results of OBMA for permutations greater than or equal to 60. The applicability of our proposed algorithms was checked processing permutations based on biological data, in which case OBMA gave the best average results for all instances.

  1. Reversible energy storage on a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerpa Unda, Jesus Enrique

    2011-02-18

    A new concept of energy storage based on hydrogen which operates reversibly near ambient conditions and without important energy losses is investigated. This concept involves the hybridization between a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a supercapacitor. The main idea consists in the electrochemical splitting of hydrogen at a PEM fuel cell-type electrode into protons and electrons and then in the storage of these two species separately in the electrical double layer of a supercapacitor-type electrode which is made of electrically conductive large-surface area carbon materials. The investigation of this concept was performed first using a two-electrode fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device. A three-electrode hybrid cell was used to explore the application of this concept as a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a PEM fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. (orig.)

  2. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gwendolyn J; M Cipolla, Cynthia; Kennedy, Robert T

    2011-02-15

    A microscale Western blotting system based on separating sodium-dodecyl sulfate protein complexes by capillary gel electrophoresis followed by deposition onto a blotting membrane for immunoassay is described. In the system, the separation capillary is grounded through a sheath capillary to a mobile X-Y translation stage which moves a blotting membrane past the capillary outlet for protein deposition. The blotting membrane is moistened with a methanol and buffer mixture to facilitate protein adsorption. Although discrete protein zones could be detected, bands were broadened by ∼1.7-fold by transfer to membrane. A complete Western blot for lysozyme was completed in about one hour with 50 pg mass detection limit from low microgram per milliliter samples. These results demonstrate substantial reduction in time requirements and improvement in mass sensitivity compared to conventional Western blots. Western blotting using capillary electrophoresis shows promise to analyze low volume samples with reduced reagents and time, while retaining the information content of a typical Western blot.

  3. An alternative method for processing northern blots after capillary transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsen, Timothy W

    2015-03-02

    Different laboratories use different methods for the prehybridization, hybridization, and washing steps of the northern blotting procedure. In this protocol, a northern blot is pretreated with Church and Gilbert hybridization buffer to block nonspecific probe-binding sites. The immobilized RNA is then hybridized to a DNA probe specific for the RNA of interest. Finally, the membrane is washed and subjected to autoradiography or phosphorimaging. The solutions and conditions described here may be ideal for those who prefer to use fewer ingredients in their solutions. This protocol is designed to achieve the same goals as other northern blotting approaches. It minimizes background (nonspecific adherence of probe to membrane and nonspecific hybridization) and maximizes specific hybridization to RNAs immobilized on a membrane. © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  4. Simulations of enhanced reversed shear TFTR discharges with lower hybrid current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesner, J.; Bateman, G.

    1996-01-01

    The BALDUR based BBK code permits predictive simulations of time-dependent tokamak discharges and has the capability to include neutral beam heating, pellet injection, bootstrap currents and lower hybrid current drive. BALDUR contains a theory based multi-regime transport model and previous work has shown excellent agreement with both L-mode and supershot TFTR discharges. These simulations reveal that core transport is dominated by η i and trapped electron modes and the outer region by resistive ballooning. We simulate enhanced reverse shear discharges by beginning with a supershot simulation with a reversed shear profile. Similarly to the TFTR experiments the reversed shear profile is obtained through the programming of the current during startup and the freezing in of these profiles by subsequent heating. At the time of transition into the enhanced confinement regime we turn off the η i and trapped-electron mode transport. We examine the further modification of the plasma current profile that can be obtained with the application of lower hybrid current drive. The results of these simulations will be discussed

  5. Behaviour of hybrid fibre reinforced concrete beam–column joints under reverse cyclic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, N.; Indira, P.V.; Sabeena, M.V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a high performance hybrid fibre reinforced cementitious composite. • Exterior beam-column joints have been tested under reversed cyclic loading. • Ductility factor, energy dissipation and stiffness degradation have been evaluated. • Contribution to reduce congestion of reinforcement in beam column joints. - Abstract: An experimental investigation was carried out to study the effect of hybrid fibres on the strength and behaviour of High performance concrete beam column joints subjected to reverse cyclic loads. A total of 12 reinforced concrete beams column joints were cast and tested in the present investigation. High performance concrete of M60 grade was designed using the modified ACI method suggested by Aïtcin. Crimped steel fibres and polypropylene fibres were used in hybrid form. The main variables considered were the volume fraction of (i) crimped steel fibres viz. 0.5% (39.25 kg/m 3 ) and 1.0% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) and (ii) polypropylene fibres viz. 0.1% (0.9 kg/m 3 ), 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ), and 0.2% (1.8 kg/m 3 ). Addition of fibres in hybrid form improved many of the engineering properties such as the first crack load, ultimate load and ductility factor of the composite. The combination of 1% (78.5 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of steel fibres and 0.15% (1.35 kg/m 3 ) volume fraction of polypropylene fibres gave better performance with respect to energy dissipation capacity and stiffness degradation than the other combinations

  6. The Corail stem as a reverse hybrid - survivorship and x-ray analysis at 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangen, Helge; Nordsletten, Lars; Boldt, Jens G; Fenstad, Anne M; Beverland, David E

    2017-07-25

    The use of a cemented cup together with an uncemented stem in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has become popular in Norway and Sweden during the last decade. The results of this prosthetic concept, reverse hybrid THA have been sparsely described.We report our experience of reverse hybrid THA, using the Elite plus polyethylene cemented cup together with the Corail fully hydroxyapatite-coated uncemented stem and a 28-mm alumina ceramic head. 132 consecutive reverse hybrid hip arthroplasties were performed from January 2000 to December 2003 in 126 patients with a mean age of 54.3 years (28-65). All patients were routinely reviewed at 3 months, 1, 5, 7 and 10 years postoperatively. At each follow-up patients were seen either by a consultant orthopaedic surgeon or a senior trainee. Anteroposterior pelvic and lateral x-rays of the hip were taken at each visit. To estimate the survival of the THAs we used the Kaplan-Meier method with 95% confidence interval (CI). Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors affected the presence of radiolucency around the femoral stem. The mean follow-up was 11.1 years (9.0-14.2). 1 patient was lost to follow-up, and 7 patients were deceased at the time of 10-year follow up. At 10 years 7 patients have had further surgery. 5 for infection, 1 periprosthetic femoral fracture and 1 heterotopic bone formation. All stems were classified as well fixed. 2 cups were defined as loose at 10 years. 1 patient is scheduled for revision the other refused revision. The clinical outcome and radiological findings were assessed in 123 hips. The mean Harris Hip Score was 94 (35-100) at 10 years and the mean WOMAC score was 89 (30.2-100). We report good results with respect to clinical outcome and survival of the reverse hybrid concept in patients younger than 65. A successful outcome depends on meticulous preoperative planning, use of modern cementing techniques in the acetabulum and experience in implanting an uncemented stem.

  7. Lower hybrid heating and current drive in ignitor shear reversal scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbato, E; Pinaccione, L [Italian Agengy for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dip. Energia

    1996-05-01

    Injection of Lower Hybrid (LH) Wave power at 8 GHz is considered into IGNITOR shear reversal scenarios, characterized by a reduced plasma current and density. Power deposition calculation are performed to establish whether LH waves can be used both as central heating and off axis current drive tool. It turns out that LH waves can be used (a) for central plasma heating purpose during the current vamp phase, to freeze the shear reversed configuration, at the power level of {approx}10 MW. (b) to drive a current in the outer part of the plasma at the power level of 20 MW. In this way around 1/3-1/6 of the total current in the proper plasma position (i.e. where q is minimum) is driven.

  8. Hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hong; Zhang, Jun; Luo, Ming-Xing; Pan, Lei; Pieprzyk, Josef; Xiao, Fuyuan; Orgun, Mehmet A

    2016-08-12

    With prevalent attacks in communication, sharing a secret between communicating parties is an ongoing challenge. Moreover, it is important to integrate quantum solutions with classical secret sharing schemes with low computational cost for the real world use. This paper proposes a novel hybrid threshold adaptable quantum secret sharing scheme, using an m-bonacci orbital angular momentum (OAM) pump, Lagrange interpolation polynomials, and reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. To be exact, we employ entangled states prepared by m-bonacci sequences to detect eavesdropping. Meanwhile, we encode m-bonacci sequences in Lagrange interpolation polynomials to generate the shares of a secret with reverse Huffman-Fibonacci-tree coding. The advantages of the proposed scheme is that it can detect eavesdropping without joint quantum operations, and permits secret sharing for an arbitrary but no less than threshold-value number of classical participants with much lower bandwidth. Also, in comparison with existing quantum secret sharing schemes, it still works when there are dynamic changes, such as the unavailability of some quantum channel, the arrival of new participants and the departure of participants. Finally, we provide security analysis of the new hybrid quantum secret sharing scheme and discuss its useful features for modern applications.

  9. Western blotting using chemiluminescent substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegria-Schaffer, Alice

    2014-01-01

    Western blotting is a powerful and commonly used tool to identify and quantify a specific protein in a complex mixture (Towbin et al., 1979). The technique enables indirect detection of protein samples immobilized on a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. New hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation scheme for wireless optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Renbo; Liu, Hongzhan; Qiao, Yaojun

    2014-05-01

    In order to improve the power efficiency and reduce the packet error rate of reverse differential pulse position modulation (RDPPM) for wireless optical communication (WOC), a hybrid reverse differential pulse position width modulation (RDPPWM) scheme is proposed, based on RDPPM and reverse pulse width modulation. Subsequently, the symbol structure of RDPPWM is briefly analyzed, and its performance is compared with that of other modulation schemes in terms of average transmitted power, bandwidth requirement, and packet error rate over ideal additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channels. Based on the given model, the simulation results show that the proposed modulation scheme has the advantages of improving the power efficiency and reducing the bandwidth requirement. Moreover, in terms of error probability performance, RDPPWM can achieve a much lower packet error rate than that of RDPPM. For example, at the same received signal power of -28 dBm, the packet error rate of RDPPWM can decrease to 2.6×10-12, while that of RDPPM is 2.2×10. Furthermore, RDPPWM does not need symbol synchronization at the receiving end. These considerations make RDPPWM a favorable candidate to select as the modulation scheme in the WOC systems.

  11. Electron currents in field reversed mirror dynamics: Theory and hybrid simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    To model the dynamics of the Field-Reversed Mirror (FRM) as a whole we have developed a 1-D radical hybrid code which also incorporates the above electron null current model. This code, named FROST, models the plasma as azimuthally symmetric with no axial dependence. A multi-group method in energy and canonical angular momentum describes the large-orbit ions from the beam. Massless fluid equations describe electrons and low energy ions. Since a fluid treatment for electrons is invalid near a field null, the null region electron current model discussed above has been included for this region, a unique feature. Results of simulation of neutral beam start-up in a 2XIIB-like plasma is discussed. There FROST predicts that electron currents will retard, but not prevent reversal of the magnetic field at the plasma center. These results are optimistic when compared to actual reversal experiments in 2XIIB, because there finite axial length effects and micro-instabilities substantially deteriorated the ion confinement. Nevertheless, because of the importance of the electron current in a low field region in the FRM, FROST represents a valuable intermediate step toward a more complete description of FRM dynamics. 54 refs., 50 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Evaluation of a reverse-hybridization StripAssay for the detection of genetic polymorphisms leading to acenocoumarol sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gialeraki, Argyri; Markatos, Christos; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Merkouri, Efrosyni; Travlou, Anthi; Politou, Marianna

    2010-04-01

    Acenocoumarol is mainly catabolized by CYP2C9 isoform of cytochrome P450 (CYP) liver complex and exerts its anticoagulant effect through the inhibition of Vitamin K Epoxide Reductase (VKOR). The most important genetic polymorphisms which lead to an impaired enzymatic activity and therefore predispose to acenocoumarol sensitivity, are considered to be CYP2C9*2 (Arg144Cys), CYP2C9*3 (Ile359Leu) and VKORC1-1639G>A, respectively. In this study we compared the results of the PGXThrombo StripAssay kit (ViennaLab Diagnostics,Vienna, Austria) with direct DNA sequencing and in house Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms (RFLP) for the detection of the aforementioned Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs). The reverse hybridization StripAssay was found to be equally effective with RFLP and direct DNA sequencing for the detection of CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3 polymorphisms, respectively. The comparison of the RFLP reference method with the reverse hybridization StripAssay for the detection of VKORC1-1639 G>A polymorphism showed that the reverse hybridization StripAsssay might misclassify some A/A homozygotes as heterozygotes. Optimization of the hybridization procedures may eliminate the extra low signal band observed in some samples at the reverse hybridization StripAssay and improve its diagnostic value.

  13. An investigation of desalination by nanofiltration, reverse osmosis and integrated (hybrid NF/RO) membranes employed in brackish water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaeipour, M; Nouri, J; Hassani, A H; Mahvi, A H

    2017-01-01

    As an appropriate tool, membrane process is used for desalination of brackish water, in the production of drinking water. The present study aims to investigate desalination processes of brackish water of Qom Province in Iran. This study was carried out at the central laboratory of Water and Wastewater Company of the studied area. To this aim, membrane processes, including nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), separately and also their hybrid process were applied. Moreover, water physical and chemical parameters, including salinity, total dissolved solids (TDS), electric conductivity (EC), Na +1 and Cl -1 were also measured. Afterward, the rejection percent of each parameter was investigated and compared using nanofiltration and reverse osmosis separately and also by their hybrid process. The treatment process was performed by Luna domestic desalination device, which its membrane was replaced by two NF90 and TW30 membranes for nanofiltration and reverse osmosis processes, respectively. All collected brackish water samples were fed through membranes NF90-2540, TW30-1821-100(RO) and Hybrid (NF/RO) which were installed on desalination household scale pilot (Luna water 100GPD). Then, to study the effects of pressure on permeable quality of membranes, the simulation software model ROSA was applied. Results showed that percent of the salinity rejection was recorded as 50.21%; 72.82 and 78.56% in NF, RO and hybrid processes, respectively. During the study, in order to simulate the performance of nanofiltartion, reverse osmosis and hybrid by pressure drive, reverse osmosis system analysis (ROSA) model was applied. The experiments were conducted at performance three methods of desalination to remove physic-chemical parameters as percentage of rejections in the pilot plant are: in the NF system the salinity 50.21, TDS 43.41, EC 43.62, Cl 21.1, Na 36.15, and in the RO membrane the salinity 72.02, TDS 60.26, EC 60.33, Cl 43.08, Na 54.41. Also in case of the rejection in

  14. Simulations of the lower-hybrid antenna in the Madison Symmetric Torus reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, Johan; Smithe, David; Kaufman, Michael; Goetz, John; Thomas, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Due to constraints inherent to a reversed-field pinch plasma configuration, an unusual launch structure—the interdigital line—was used for lower-hybrid current-drive experiments in the Madison Symmetric Torus. The antenna design and performance were analyzed using an array of codes (including RANT3D/AORSA1D-H, Microwave Studio and VORPAL). It was found that the voltage phasing was not the intended one. As a result, the parallel-wavenumber spectrum of the launched wave peaks at a value lower than desired, making the accessibility marginal. Further simulations demonstrated that the error can largely be corrected by either lowering the antenna operating frequency or shortening the length of the resonators. (paper)

  15. On the use of reverse Brownian motion to accelerate hybrid simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakarji, Joseph; Tartakovsky, Daniel M., E-mail: tartakovsky@stanford.edu

    2017-04-01

    Multiscale and multiphysics simulations are two rapidly developing fields of scientific computing. Efficient coupling of continuum (deterministic or stochastic) constitutive solvers with their discrete (stochastic, particle-based) counterparts is a common challenge in both kinds of simulations. We focus on interfacial, tightly coupled simulations of diffusion that combine continuum and particle-based solvers. The latter employs the reverse Brownian motion (rBm), a Monte Carlo approach that allows one to enforce inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, or Robin boundary conditions and is trivially parallelizable. We discuss numerical approaches for improving the accuracy of rBm in the presence of inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions and alternative strategies for coupling the rBm solver with its continuum counterpart. Numerical experiments are used to investigate the convergence, stability, and computational efficiency of the proposed hybrid algorithm.

  16. Automated design of genomic Southern blot probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komiyama Noboru H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sothern blotting is a DNA analysis technique that has found widespread application in molecular biology. It has been used for gene discovery and mapping and has diagnostic and forensic applications, including mutation detection in patient samples and DNA fingerprinting in criminal investigations. Southern blotting has been employed as the definitive method for detecting transgene integration, and successful homologous recombination in gene targeting experiments. The technique employs a labeled DNA probe to detect a specific DNA sequence in a complex DNA sample that has been separated by restriction-digest and gel electrophoresis. Critically for the technique to succeed the probe must be unique to the target locus so as not to cross-hybridize to other endogenous DNA within the sample. Investigators routinely employ a manual approach to probe design. A genome browser is used to extract DNA sequence from the locus of interest, which is searched against the target genome using a BLAST-like tool. Ideally a single perfect match is obtained to the target, with little cross-reactivity caused by homologous DNA sequence present in the genome and/or repetitive and low-complexity elements in the candidate probe. This is a labor intensive process often requiring several attempts to find a suitable probe for laboratory testing. Results We have written an informatic pipeline to automatically design genomic Sothern blot probes that specifically attempts to optimize the resultant probe, employing a brute-force strategy of generating many candidate probes of acceptable length in the user-specified design window, searching all against the target genome, then scoring and ranking the candidates by uniqueness and repetitive DNA element content. Using these in silico measures we can automatically design probes that we predict to perform as well, or better, than our previous manual designs, while considerably reducing design time. We went on to

  17. Design and development of a lower-hybrid antenna for the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Cekic, M.; Lovell, T.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Uchimoto, E.

    1995-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies strongly motivated the development of a radio-frequency current drive scheme for current density gradient reduction in the outer region of a reversed field pinch. The preliminary experiments using inductive current drive indicate that such current density profile modification reduces the magnetic fluctuation amplitude and related energy and particle losses. To test the theoretical predictions and to further improve confinement in the MST, the authors are planning a series of lower-hybrid wave experiments. The initial phase is the design and optimization of a low-power antenna to study slow wave propagation in a frequency range 2--3 f LH (200--300 MHz) with parallel index of refraction n parallel ∼10. Ray-tracing calculations, for typical MST plasma parameters, indicate that such a wave will spiral radially into a target zone inside the reversal layer. The antenna consists of an array of tunable loops arranged in the poloidal direction. The design is compatible with the existing box-port openings in the MST conductive shell to prevent additional magnetic field errors associated with large portholes. Antenna vacuum characteristics are studied on a test-stand designed to approximate the geometry of the MST shell. For the initial measurements of plasma response and antenna loading, the authors designed a reduced, easily insertable, vacuum antenna structure. The results of plasma impedance measurements will be compared with the numerical modeling results and incorporated in the optimized design of the antenna for wave propagation experiments

  18. [Optimization and assessment of a reverse hybridization system for the detection of HBV drug-resistant mutations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan-chen; Huang, Ai-long; Hu, Yuan; Hu, Jie-li; Lai, Guo-qi; Zhang, Wen-lu

    2011-12-01

    To establish a detection method for HBV drug-resistant mutations related to lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir by optimization and assessment of reverse hybridization system. 26 degenerated probes covering 10 drug-resistant hotspots of 3 drugs were synthesized and immobilized on the same positively charged nylon membrane. PCR products labeled with digoxigenin were hybridized with corresponding probes. To improve the sensitivity and specificity, 4 reaction steps of reverse hybridization were optimized including the number of labeled digoxigenin, the energy intensity of UV cross-linking, hybridization and stringency wash conditions. To prove the feasibility, the specificity, sensitivity and accuracy of this system were assessed respectively. Sensitive and specific results are obtained by the optimization of the following 4 reaction steps: the primers labeled with 3 digoxigenin, energy intensity of UV cross-linking for 1500 x 0.1 mJ/cm², hybridization at 42 degrees C and stringency wash with 0.5 x SSC and 0.1% SDS solution at 44 degrees C for 30 min. In the assessment of system, the majority of probes have high specificity. The quantity of PCR product with a concentration of 10 ng/μl or above can be detected by this method. The concordant rate between reverse hybridization and direct sequencing is 93.9% in the clinical sample test. Though the specificity of several probes needs to be improved further, it is a simple, rapid and sensitive method which can detect HBV resistant mutations related to lamivudine, adefovir and entecavir simultaneously. Due to the short distance between 180 and 181, likewise 202 and 204, the sequence of the same probe covers two codon positions, and hybridization will be interfered by each other. To avoid such interference, the possible solution is that probes are designed by arranging and combining various forms of two near codons.

  19. Changes in rRNA levels during stress invalidates results from mRNA blotting: Fluorescence in situ rRNA hybridization permits renormalization for estimation of cellular mRNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.C.; Nielsen, A.K.; Molin, Søren

    2001-01-01

    obtained by these techniques are compared between experiments in which differences in growth rates, strains, or stress treatments occur, the normalization procedure may have a significant impact on the results. In this report we present a solution to the normalization problem in RNA slot blotting...... the relative level of rRNA per cell, and slot blotting to rRNA probes, which estimates the level of rRNA per extracted total RNA, the amount of RNA per cell was calculated in a series of heat shock experiments with the gram-positive bacterium Lactococcus lactis. It was found that the level of rRNA per cell...... decreased to 30% in the course of the heat shock. This lowered ribosome level led to a decrease in the total RNA content, resulting in a gradually increasing overestimation of the mRNA levels throughout the experiment. Using renormalized cellular mRNA levels, the HrcA-mediated regulation of the genes...

  20. Surface modification of polyamide reverse osmosis membrane with organic-inorganic hybrid material for antifouling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wan, Ying; Pan, Guoyuan; Yan, Hao; Yao, Xuerong; Shi, Hongwei; Tang, Yujing; Wei, Xiangrong; Liu, Yiqun

    2018-03-01

    A series of thin-film composite reverse osmosis membranes based on polyamide have been modified by coating the polyvinyl alcohol and 3-mercaptopropyltriethoxysilane aqueous solution prepared by a sol-gel process on the membrane surface, followed by thermal crosslinking treatment. In order to improve the hydrophilicity of the modified TFC membranes, the membranes were then immersed into H2O2 aqueous solution to convert -SH into -SO3H. The resulting TFC membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, ATR-FTIR, streaming potential, XPS as well as static contact angle. After surface modification with the organic-inorganic hybrid material, the TFC membranes show increased NaCl rejection and decreased water flux with increasing 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane content in coating solution. The optimal modification membrane (PA-SMPTES-0.8) exhibits a NaCl rejection of 99.29%, higher than that (97.20%) of the virgin PA membrane, and a comparable water flux to virgin PA membrane (41.7 L/m2 h vs 47.9 L/m2 h). More importantly, PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane shows much more improved fouling resistance to BSA than virgin PA and PVA modified PA (PA-PVA-1.0) membranes. PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane loses about 13% of the initial flux after BSA fouling for 12 h, which is lower than that of virgin PA and PA-PVA-1.0 membranes (42% and 18%). Furthermore, the flux recovery of PA-SMPTES-0.8 membrane reaches 94% after cleaning. Thus the TFC membranes modified by this organic-inorganic hybrid technology show potential applications as antifouling RO membrane for desalination and purification.

  1. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo

    2015-10-19

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis – low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor – reverse osmosis – advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m3 d−1 of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m3 produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  2. Optimized molecular reconstruction procedure combining hybrid reverse Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bousige, Colin; Boţan, Alexandru; Coasne, Benoît, E-mail: coasne@mit.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); UMI 3466 CNRS-MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ulm, Franz-Josef [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Pellenq, Roland J.-M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); UMI 3466 CNRS-MIT, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); CINaM, CNRS/Aix Marseille Université, Campus de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 09 (France)

    2015-03-21

    We report an efficient atom-scale reconstruction method that consists of combining the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo algorithm (HRMC) with Molecular Dynamics (MD) in the framework of a simulated annealing technique. In the spirit of the experimentally constrained molecular relaxation technique [Biswas et al., Phys. Rev. B 69, 195207 (2004)], this modified procedure offers a refined strategy in the field of reconstruction techniques, with special interest for heterogeneous and disordered solids such as amorphous porous materials. While the HRMC method generates physical structures, thanks to the use of energy penalties, the combination with MD makes the method at least one order of magnitude faster than HRMC simulations to obtain structures of similar quality. Furthermore, in order to ensure the transferability of this technique, we provide rational arguments to select the various input parameters such as the relative weight ω of the energy penalty with respect to the structure optimization. By applying the method to disordered porous carbons, we show that adsorption properties provide data to test the global texture of the reconstructed sample but are only weakly sensitive to the presence of defects. In contrast, the vibrational properties such as the phonon density of states are found to be very sensitive to the local structure of the sample.

  3. Reverse osmosis desalination of chitosan cross-linked graphene oxide/titania hybrid lamellar membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hui; Sun, Penzhan; Zhang, Yingjiu; Zhu, Hongwei

    2016-07-08

    With excellent mass transport properties, graphene oxide (GO)-based lamellar membranes are believed to have great potential in water desalination. In order to quantify whether GO-based membranes are indeed suitable for reverse osmosis (RO) desalination, three sub-micrometer thick GO-based lamellar membranes: GO-only, reduced GO (RGO)/titania (TO) nanosheets and RGO/TO/chitosan (CTS) are prepared, and their RO desalination performances are evaluated in a home-made RO test apparatus. The photoreduction of GO by TO improves the salt rejection, which increases slowly with the membrane thickness. The RGO/TO/CTS hybrid membranes exhibit higher rejection rates of only about 30% (greater than threefold improvement compared with a GO-only membrane) which is still inferior compared to other commercial RO membranes. The low rejection rates mainly arise from the pressure-induced weakening of the ion-GO interlayer interactions. Despite the advantages of simple, low-cost preparation, high permeability and selectivity of GO-based lamellar membranes, as the current desalination performances are not high enough to afford practical application, there still remains a great challenge to realize high performance separation membranes for water desalination applications.

  4. Reversible transient hydrogen storage in a fuel cell-supercapacitor hybrid device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unda, Jesus E Zerpa; Roduner, Emil

    2012-03-21

    A new concept is investigated for hydrogen storage in a supercapacitor based on large-surface-area carbon material (Black Pearls 2000). Protons and electrons of hydrogen are separated on a fuel cell-type electrode and then stored separately in the electrical double layer, the electrons on the carbon and the protons in the aqueous electrolyte of the supercapacitor electrode. The merit of this concept is that it works spontaneously and reversibly near ambient pressure and temperature. This is in pronounced contrast to what has been known as electrochemical hydrogen storage, which does not involve hydrogen gas and where electrical work has to be spent in the loading process. With the present hybrid device, a H(2) storage capacity of 0.13 wt% was obtained, one order of magnitude more than what can be stored by conventional physisorption on large-surface-area carbons at the same pressure and temperature. Raising the pressure from 1.5 to 3.5 bar increased the capacity by less than 20%, indicating saturation. A capacitance of 11 μF cm(-2), comparable with that of a commercial double layer supercapacitor, was found using H(2)SO(4) as electrolyte. The chemical energy of the stored H(2) is almost a factor of 3 larger than the electrical energy stored in the supercapacitor. Further developments of this concept relate to a hydrogen buffer integrated inside a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to be used in case of peak power demand. This serial setup takes advantage of the suggested novel concept of hydrogen storage. It is fundamentally different from previous ways of operating a conventional supercapacitor hooked up in parallel to a fuel cell.

  5. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis - low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valladares Linares, R; Li, Z; Yangali-Quintanilla, V; Ghaffour, N; Amy, G; Leiknes, T; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, forward osmosis (FO) hybrid membrane systems have been investigated as an alternative to conventional high-pressure membrane processes (i.e. reverse osmosis (RO)) for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment and recovery. Nevertheless, their economic advantage in comparison to conventional processes for seawater desalination and municipal wastewater treatment has not been clearly addressed. This work presents a detailed economic analysis on capital and operational expenses (CAPEX and OPEX) for: i) a hybrid forward osmosis - low-pressure reverse osmosis (FO-LPRO) process, ii) a conventional seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) desalination process, and iii) a membrane bioreactor - reverse osmosis - advanced oxidation process (MBR-RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality characteristics (similar feed water and similar water produced), production capacity of 100,000 m(3) d(-1) of potable water, energy consumption, materials, maintenance, operation, RO and FO module costs, and chemicals. Compared to SWRO, the FO-LPRO systems have a 21% higher CAPEX and a 56% lower OPEX due to savings in energy consumption and fouling control. In terms of the total water cost per cubic meter of water produced, the hybrid FO-LPRO desalination system has a 16% cost reduction compared to the benchmark for desalination, mainly SWRO. Compared to the MBR-RO-AOP, the FO-LPRO systems have a 7% lower CAPEX and 9% higher OPEX, resulting in no significant cost reduction per m(3) produced by FO-LPRO. Hybrid FO-LPRO membrane systems are shown to have an economic advantage compared to current available technology for desalination, and comparable costs with a wastewater treatment and recovery system. Based on development on FO membrane modules, packing density, and

  6. Detection of proteins on blot transfer membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasse, Joachim; Gallagher, Sean R

    2003-11-01

    In the basic and alternate protocols of this unit, proteins are stained after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot transfer membranes. If the samples of interest are electrophoresed in duplicate and transferred to a blot transfer membrane, half of the membrane can be stained to determine the efficiency of transfer to the membrane and the other half can be used for immunoblotting (i.e., western blotting). Detection limits of each staining method are given along with a list of compatible blot transfer membranes and gels. A support protocol describes a method for alkali treatment that enhances subsequent staining of bound proteins.

  7. Integration of Multiplexed Microfluidic Electrokinetic Concentrators with a Morpholino Microarray via Reversible Surface Bonding for Enhanced DNA Hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Diogo; Wei, Xi; Levicky, Rastislav; Song, Yong-Ak

    2016-04-05

    We describe a microfluidic concentration device to accelerate the surface hybridization reaction between DNA and morpholinos (MOs) for enhanced detection. The microfluidic concentrator comprises a single polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microchannel onto which an ion-selective layer of conductive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) was directly printed and then reversibly surface bonded onto a morpholino microarray for hybridization. Using this electrokinetic trapping concentrator, we could achieve a maximum concentration factor of ∼800 for DNA and a limit of detection of 10 nM within 15 min. In terms of the detection speed, it enabled faster hybridization by around 10-fold when compared to conventional diffusion-based hybridization. A significant advantage of our approach is that the fabrication of the microfluidic concentrator is completely decoupled from the microarray; by eliminating the need to deposit an ion-selective layer on the microarray surface prior to device integration, interfacing between both modules, the PDMS chip for electrokinetic concentration and the substrate for DNA sensing are easier and applicable to any microarray platform. Furthermore, this fabrication strategy facilitates a multiplexing of concentrators. We have demonstrated the proof-of-concept for multiplexing by building a device with 5 parallel concentrators connected to a single inlet/outlet and applying it to parallel concentration and hybridization. Such device yielded similar concentration and hybridization efficiency compared to that of a single-channel device without adding any complexity to the fabrication and setup. These results demonstrate that our concentrator concept can be applied to the development of a highly multiplexed concentrator-enhanced microarray detection system for either genetic analysis or other diagnostic assays.

  8. Programmable display of DNA-protein chimeras for controlling cell-hydrogel interactions via reversible intermolecular hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Li, Shihui; Chen, Niancao; Yang, Cheng; Wang, Yong

    2013-04-08

    Extensive studies have been recently carried out to achieve dynamic control of cell-material interactions primarily through physicochemical stimulation. The purpose of this study was to apply reversible intermolecular hybridization to program cell-hydrogel interactions in physiological conditions based on DNA-antibody chimeras and complementary oligonucleotides. The results showed that DNA oligonucleotides could be captured to and released from the immobilizing DNA-functionalized hydrogels with high specificity via DNA hybridization. Accordingly, DNA-antibody chimeras were captured to the hydrogels, successfully inducing specific cell attachment. The cell attachment to the hydrogels reached the plateau at approximately half an hour after the functionalized hydrogels and the cells were incubated together. The attached cells were rapidly released from the bound hydrogels when triggering complementary oligonucleotides were introduced to the system. However, the capability of the triggering complementary oligonucleotides in releasing cells was affected by the length of intermolecular hybridization. The length needed to be at least more than 20 base pairs in the current experimental setting. Notably, because the procedure of intermolecular hybridization did not involve any harsh condition, the released cells maintained the same viability as that of the cultured cells. The functionalized hydrogels also exhibited the potential to catch and release cells repeatedly. Therefore, this study demonstrates that it is promising to regulate cell-material interactions dynamically through the DNA-programmed display of DNA-protein chimeras.

  9. Removal of heavy-metal pollutants from ground water using a reverse-osmosis/coupled-transport hybrid system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Ray, R.J.; Scholfield, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    Two membrane processes - reverse osmosis (RO) and coupled transport (CT) - are useful in removing heavy metals from aqueous solutions and producing purified water. Each process has advantages. RO produces clean water reliably and relatively inexpensively. However, the pollutants are removed nonselectively and cannot be appreciably concentrated. CT removes pollutants selectively and can concentrate them by several orders of magnitude, but CT suffers from limited reliability and performs poorly at low pollutant concentrations. By combining these two unit processes in a hybrid process, it is possible to capitalize on the advantages of each process and to minimize their disadvantages. The RO/CT hybrid process the authors are developing removes more than 98% of the uranium and chromium in a contaminated groundwater stream - reducing concentrations of each pollutant to less than 100 ppb. These pollutants are simultaneously recovered as a concentrate at metal-ion concentrations greater than 1 wt% in relatively pure form. The hybrid process promises to be reliable and to reduce treatment costs below that for costs if either CT or RO were used alone. Even more importantly, the high selectivity of the hybrid process minimizes the volume of waste requiring disposal

  10. Reversible electrical-field control of magnetization and anomalous Hall effect in Co/PMN-PT hybrid heterostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Huang, Q. K.; Lu, S. Y.; Tian, Y. F.; Chen, Y. X.; Bai, L. H.; Dai, Y.; Yan, S. S.

    2018-04-01

    Room-temperature reversible electrical-field control of the magnetization and the anomalous Hall effect was reported in hybrid multiferroic heterojunctions based on Co/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 (PMN-PT). We demonstrate herein that electrical-field-induced strain and oxygen-ion migration in ZnO/Co/PMN-PT junctions exert opposing effects on the magnetic properties of the Co sublayer, and the competition between these effects determines the final magnitude of magnetization. This proof-of-concept investigation opens an alternative way to optimize and enhance the electrical-field effect on magnetism through the combination of multiple electrical manipulation mechanisms in hybrid multiferroic devices.

  11. Preparation of psoralen polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles and their reversal of multidrug resistance in MCF-7/ADR cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingqing; Cai, Tiange; Li, Qianwen; Huang, Yinghong; Liu, Qian; Wang, Bingyue; Xia, Xi; Wang, Qi; Whitney, John C C; Cole, Susan P C; Cai, Yu

    2018-11-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the leading cause of failure for breast cancer in the clinic. Thus far, polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PLN) loaded chemotherapeutic agents has been used to overcome MDR in breast cancer. In this study, we prepared psoralen polymer-lipid hybrid nanoparticles (PSO-PLN) to reverse drug resistant MCF-7/ADR cells in vitro and in vivo. PSO-PLN was prepared by the emulsification evaporation-low temperature solidification method. The formulation, water solubility and bioavailability, particle size, zeta potential and entrapment efficiency, and in vitro release experiments were optimized in order to improve the activity of PSO to reverse MDR. Optimal formulation: soybean phospholipids 50 mg, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) 15 mg, PSO 3 mg, and Tween-80 1%. The PSO-PLN possessed a round appearance, uniform size, exhibited no adhesion. The average particle size was 93.59 ± 2.87 nm, the dispersion co-efficient was 0.249 ± 0.06, the zeta potential was 25.47 ± 2.84 mV. In vitro analyses revealed that PSO resistance index was 3.2, and PSO-PLN resistance index was 5.6, indicating that PSO-PLN versus MCF-7/ADR reversal effect was significant. Moreover, PSO-PLN is somewhat targeted to the liver, and has an antitumor effect in the xenograft model of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells. In conclusion, PSO-PLN not only reverses MDR but also improves therapeutic efficiency by enhancing sustained release of PSO.

  12. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis-Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R D; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  13. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetan Blandin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Forward osmosis (FO is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants, FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling.

  14. Efficiently Combining Water Reuse and Desalination through Forward Osmosis—Reverse Osmosis (FO-RO) Hybrids: A Critical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, Gaetan; Verliefde, Arne R.D.; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Le-Clech, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Forward osmosis (FO) is a promising membrane technology to combine seawater desalination and water reuse. More specifically, in a FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid process, high quality water recovered from the wastewater stream is used to dilute seawater before RO treatment. As such, lower desalination energy needs and/or water augmentation can be obtained while delivering safe water for direct potable reuse thanks to the double dense membrane barrier protection. Typically, FO-RO hybrid can be a credible alternative to new desalination facilities or to implementation of stand-alone water reuse schemes. However, apart from the societal (public perception of water reuse for potable application) and water management challenges (proximity of wastewater and desalination plants), FO-RO hybrid has to overcome technical limitation such as low FO permeation flux to become economically attractive. Recent developments (i.e., improved FO membranes, use of pressure assisted osmosis, PAO) demonstrated significant improvement in water flux. However, flux improvement is associated with drawbacks, such as increased fouling behaviour, lower rejection of trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in PAO operation, and limitation in FO membrane mechanical resistance, which need to be better considered. To support successful implementation of FO-RO hybrid in the industry, further work is required regarding up-scaling to apprehend full-scale challenges in term of mass transfer limitation, pressure drop, fouling and cleaning strategies on a module scale. In addition, refined economics assessment is expected to integrate fouling and other maintenance costs/savings of the FO/PAO-RO hybrid systems, as well as cost savings from any treatment step avoided in the water recycling. PMID:27376337

  15. Magnetization reversal mechanisms in hybrid resin-bonded Nd Fe B magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plusa, D.; Dospial, M.; Slusarek, B.; Kotlarczyk, U.

    2006-11-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic epoxy resin-bonded magnets prepared by mixing a hard magnetic powder made from melt quenched Nd-Fe-Co-B ribbons and a soft magnetic iron powder have been examined. The magnetization reversal processes and the magnetic parameters have been studied by the measurement of the virgin magnetization curves, the major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From these recoil curves the field dependence of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components during the magnetization and demagnetization processes has been derived. The remanence relationship was used to study the nature of magnetic interaction between the grains. A study of interaction domains was conducted using optical microscopy. Groups of domains, each over several grains, were observed. It was found that the reversal process in the samples investigated involves the rotation of magnetization vectors in the iron powder grains and pinning of domain walls at the MQP-B grain boundaries.

  16. Magnetization reversal mechanisms in hybrid resin-bonded Nd-Fe-B magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plusa, D.; Dospial, M.; Slusarek, B.; Kotlarczyk, U.

    2006-01-01

    The magnetic properties of isotropic epoxy resin-bonded magnets prepared by mixing a hard magnetic powder made from melt quenched Nd-Fe-Co-B ribbons and a soft magnetic iron powder have been examined. The magnetization reversal processes and the magnetic parameters have been studied by the measurement of the virgin magnetization curves, the major and minor hysteresis loops and sets of recoil curves. From these recoil curves the field dependence of the reversible and irreversible magnetization components during the magnetization and demagnetization processes has been derived. The remanence relationship was used to study the nature of magnetic interaction between the grains. A study of interaction domains was conducted using optical microscopy. Groups of domains, each over several grains, were observed. It was found that the reversal process in the samples investigated involves the rotation of magnetization vectors in the iron powder grains and pinning of domain walls at the MQP-B grain boundaries

  17. Simulation of lower hybrid current drive in enhanced reversed shear plasmas in the tokamak fusion test reactor using the lower hybrid simulation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Bernabei, S.; Budny, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Enhanced Reversed Shear (ERS) mode has already shown great potential for improving the performance of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and other devices. Sustaining the ERS, however, remains an outstanding problem. Lower hybrid (LH) current drive is a possible method for modifying the current profile and controlling its time evolution. To predict its effectiveness in TFTR, the Lower Hybrid Simulation Code (LSC) model is used in the TRANSP code and the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC). Among the results from the simulations are the following. (1) Single-pass absorption is expected in TFTR ERS plasmas. The simulations show that the LH current follows isotherms of the electron temperature. The ability to control the location of the minimum in the q profile (q min ) has been demonstrated by varying the phase velocity of the launched LH waves and observing the change in the damping location. (2) LH current drive can been used to sustain the q min location. The tendency of qmin to drift inward, as the inductive current diffuses during the formation phase of the reversed shear discharge, is prevented by the LH current driven at a fixed radial location. If this results in an expanded plasma volume with improved confinement as high power neutral beam injection is applied, the high bootstrap currents induced during this phase can then maintain the larger qmin radius. (3) There should be no LH wave damping on energetic beam particles. The values of perpendicular index of refraction in the calculations never exceed about 20, while ions at TFR injection energies are resonant with waves having values closer to 100. Other issues being addressed in the study include the LH current drive efficiency in the presence of high bootstrap currents, and the effect of fast electron diffusion on LH current localization

  18. Impingement heat/mass transfer to hybrid synthetic jets and other reversible pulsating jets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Vít, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 85, June (2015), s. 473-487 ISSN 0017-9310 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-08888S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : impinging jet * reversible pulsating jet * synthetic jet Subject RIV: JU - Aeronautics, Aerodynamics, Aircrafts Impact factor: 2.857, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001793101500143X

  19. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment : Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the

  20. Re-engineering the zinc fingers of PRDM9 reverses hybrid sterility in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Benjamin; Hatton, Edouard; Altemose, Nicolas; Hussin, Julie G; Pratto, Florencia; Zhang, Gang; Hinch, Anjali Gupta; Moralli, Daniela; Biggs, Daniel; Diaz, Rebeca; Preece, Chris; Li, Ran; Bitoun, Emmanuelle; Brick, Kevin; Green, Catherine M; Camerini-Otero, R Daniel; Myers, Simon R; Donnelly, Peter

    2016-02-11

    The DNA-binding protein PRDM9 directs positioning of the double-strand breaks (DSBs) that initiate meiotic recombination in mice and humans. Prdm9 is the only mammalian speciation gene yet identified and is responsible for sterility phenotypes in male hybrids of certain mouse subspecies. To investigate PRDM9 binding and its role in fertility and meiotic recombination, we humanized the DNA-binding domain of PRDM9 in C57BL/6 mice. This change repositions DSB hotspots and completely restores fertility in male hybrids. Here we show that alteration of one Prdm9 allele impacts the behaviour of DSBs controlled by the other allele at chromosome-wide scales. These effects correlate strongly with the degree to which each PRDM9 variant binds both homologues at the DSB sites it controls. Furthermore, higher genome-wide levels of such 'symmetric' PRDM9 binding associate with increasing fertility measures, and comparisons of individual hotspots suggest binding symmetry plays a downstream role in the recombination process. These findings reveal that subspecies-specific degradation of PRDM9 binding sites by meiotic drive, which steadily increases asymmetric PRDM9 binding, has impacts beyond simply changing hotspot positions, and strongly support a direct involvement in hybrid infertility. Because such meiotic drive occurs across mammals, PRDM9 may play a wider, yet transient, role in the early stages of speciation.

  1. Hybrid membrane system for desalination and wastewater treatment: Integrating forward osmosis and low pressure reverse osmosis

    OpenAIRE

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 97% of the water in the world is seawater, desalination technologies have the potential to solve the fresh water crisis. The most used desalination technology nowadays is seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO), where a membrane is used as a physical barrier to separate the salts from the water, using high hydraulic pressure as the driving force. However, the use of high hydraulic pressure imposes a high cost on operation of these systems, in addition to the known persistent fouling p...

  2. Electro-optic chaotic system based on the reverse-time chaos theory and a nonlinear hybrid feedback loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingxing; Cheng, Mengfan; Luo, Fengguang; Deng, Lei; Fu, Songnian; Ke, Changjian; Zhang, Minming; Tang, Ming; Shum, Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-12

    A novel electro-optic chaos source is proposed on the basis of the reverse-time chaos theory and an analog-digital hybrid feedback loop. The analog output of the system can be determined by the numeric states of shift registers, which makes the system robust and easy to control. The dynamical properties as well as the complexity dependence on the feedback parameters are investigated in detail. The correlation characteristics of the system are also studied. Two improving strategies which were established in digital field and analog field are proposed to conceal the time-delay signature. The proposed scheme has the potential to be used in radar and optical secure communication systems.

  3. Reversible structural transformation and enhanced performance of PEDOT:PSS-based hybrid solar cells driven by light intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Joseph Palathinkal; Srivastava, Saurabh; Zhao, Liyan; Abd-Ellah, Marwa; McGillivray, Donald; Kang, Jung Soo; Rahman, Md Anisur; Moghimi, Nafiseh; Heinig, Nina F; Leung, Kam Tong

    2015-04-15

    Hybrid solar cells made of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) and appropriate amounts of a cosolvent and a fluorosurfactant on planar n-type silicon substrates showed a photoconversion efficiency (PCE) of above 13%. These cells also exhibited stable, reproducible, and high external quantum efficiency (EQE) that was not sensitive to light-bias intensity (LBI). In contrast, solar cells made of pristine PSS showed low PCE and high EQE only under certain measurement conditions. The EQE was found to degrade with increasing LBI. Here we report that the LBI-sensitive variation of EQE of the low-PCE cells is related to a reversible structural transformation from a quinoid to a benzoid structure of PEDOT.

  4. A Multi-Stage Reverse Logistics Network Problem by Using Hybrid Priority-Based Genetic Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Gen, Mitsuo; Rhee, Kyong-Gu

    Today remanufacturing problem is one of the most important problems regarding to the environmental aspects of the recovery of used products and materials. Therefore, the reverse logistics is gaining become power and great potential for winning consumers in a more competitive context in the future. This paper considers the multi-stage reverse Logistics Network Problem (m-rLNP) while minimizing the total cost, which involves reverse logistics shipping cost and fixed cost of opening the disassembly centers and processing centers. In this study, we first formulate the m-rLNP model as a three-stage logistics network model. Following for solving this problem, we propose a Genetic Algorithm pri (GA) with priority-based encoding method consisting of two stages, and introduce a new crossover operator called Weight Mapping Crossover (WMX). Additionally also a heuristic approach is applied in the 3rd stage to ship of materials from processing center to manufacturer. Finally numerical experiments with various scales of the m-rLNP models demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our approach by comparing with the recent researches.

  5. Western Blotting of the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wager-Miller, Jim; Mackie, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Measuring expression levels of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is an important step for understanding the distribution, function, and regulation of these receptors. A common approach for detecting proteins from complex biological systems is Western blotting. In this chapter, we describe a general approach to Western blotting protein components of the endocannabinoid system using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nitrocellulose membranes, with a focus on detecting type 1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptors. When this technique is carefully used, specifically with validation of the primary antibodies, it can provide quantitative information on protein expression levels. Additional information can also be inferred from Western blotting such as potential posttranslational modifications that can be further evaluated by specific analytical techniques.

  6. Study of the validity of a combined potential model using the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo method in Fluoride glass system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kotbi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of appropriate interaction models is among the major disadvantages of conventional methods such as Molecular Dynamics (MD and Monte Carlo (MC simulations. On the other hand, the so-called Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC method, based on experimental data, can be applied without any interatomic and/or intermolecular interactions. The RMC results are accompanied by artificial satellite peaks. To remedy this problem, we use an extension of the RMC algorithm, which introduces an energy penalty term into the acceptance criteria. This method is referred to as the Hybrid Reverse Monte Carlo (HRMC method. The idea of this paper is to test the validity of a combined potential model of coulomb and Lennard-Jones in a Fluoride glass system BaMnMF7 (M = Fe,V using HRMC method. The results show a good agreement between experimental and calculated characteristics, as well as a meaningful improvement in partial pair distribution functions (PDFs. We suggest that this model should be used in calculating the structural properties and in describing the average correlations between components of fluoride glass or a similar system. We also suggest that HRMC could be useful as a tool for testing the interaction potential models, as well as for conventional applications.

  7. A hybrid heterojunction with reverse rectifying characteristics fabricated by magnetron sputtered TiOx and plasma polymerized aniline structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarma, Bimal K; Pal, Arup R; Bailung, Heremba; Chutia, Joyanti

    2012-01-01

    A TiO x film produced by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering without substrate heating or post-deposition annealing and a plasma polymerized aniline (PPA) structure deposited in the same reactor by a radio-frequency glow discharge without the assistance of a carrier gas are used for the fabrication of a heterojunction. The gas phase discharge is investigated by a Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The individual layers and the heterojunction are characterized for structural and optoelectronic properties. PPA has polymer-like structure and texture and is characterized by saturated-unsaturated, branched and crosslinked networks. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy reveals a slightly reduced TiO x surface, which exhibits near band edge luminescence. The free radicals trapped in PPA readily react with oxygen when exposed to atmosphere. The heterojunction shows reverse rectifying characteristics under dark and ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The energy levels of TiO x and PPA might exhibit reverse band bending and electrons and holes are accumulated on both sides of the heterojunction. The charge accumulation phenomena at the interface may play a key role in the device performance of a hybrid heterojunction. The current-voltage characteristic of the heterojunction is sensitive to UV light, so the structure may be used for photo-sensing applications. (paper)

  8. Hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine cycle for seawater desalination by reverse osmosis in a hydrocarbon production facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valérie; Rodgers, Peter; Qiu, Linyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Seawater reverse osmosis driven by hybrid gas turbine–organic Rankine power cycle. • High ambient air and seawater temperatures, and high seawater salinity. • Energy–exergy analysis of power and desalination systems for six organic fluids. • Economic viability of waste heat recovery in subsidized utility pricing context. - Abstract: Despite water scarcity, the use of industrial waste heat for seawater desalination has been limited in the Middle East to date. This study evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of integrating on-site gas turbine power generation and reverse osmosis equipment for the production of both electricity and fresh water in a coastal hydrocarbon production facility. Gas turbine exhaust gas waste heat is recovered using an intermediate heat transfer fluid and fed to an organic Rankine cycle evaporator, to generate mechanical power to drive the reverse osmosis high pressure pump. Six candidate organic working fluids are evaluated, namely toluene, benzene, cyclohexane, cyclopentane, n-pentane and R245fa. Thermodynamic and desalination performance are assessed in the harsh climatic and salinity conditions of the Arabian Gulf. The performance metrics considered incorporate electric power and permeate production, thermal and exergy efficiency, specific energy consumption, system size, and permeate quality. Using toluene in the bottoming power cycle, a gain in power generation efficiency of approximately 12% is achieved relative to the existing gas turbine cycle, with an annual average of 2260 m"3/h of fresh water produced. Depending upon the projected evolution of local water prices, the investment becomes profitable after two to four years, with an end-of-life net present value of 220–380 million USD, and internal rate of return of 26–48%.

  9. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell for natural gas/renewable hybrid power generation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yu; Shi, Yixiang; Zheng, Yi; Cai, Ningsheng

    2017-02-01

    Renewable energy (RE) is expected to be the major part of the future energy. Presently, the intermittence and fluctuation of RE lead to the limitation of its penetration. Reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) as the energy storage device can effectively store the renewable energy and build a bidirectional connection with natural gas (NG). In this paper, the energy storage strategy was designed to improve the RE penetration and dynamic operation stability in a distributed system coupling wind generators, internal combustion engine, RSOFC and lithium-ion batteries. By compromising the relative deviation of power supply and demand, RE penetration, system efficiency and capacity requirement, the strategy that no more than 36% of the maximum wind power output is directly supplied to users and the other is stored by the combination of battery and reversible solid oxide fuel cell is optimal for the distributed system. In the case, the RE penetration reached 56.9% and the system efficiency reached 55.2%. The maximum relative deviation of power supply and demand is also lower than 4%, which is significantly superior to that in the wind curtailment case.

  10. Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Eric T; Slotcavage, Daniel J; Dohner, Emma R; Bowring, Andrea R; Karunadasa, Hemamala I; McGehee, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    We report on reversible, light-induced transformations in (CH 3 NH 3 )Pb(Br x I 1- x ) 3 . Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these perovskites develop a new, red-shifted peak at 1.68 eV that grows in intensity under constant, 1-sun illumination in less than a minute. This is accompanied by an increase in sub-bandgap absorption at ∼1.7 eV, indicating the formation of luminescent trap states. Light soaking causes a splitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks, suggesting segregation into two crystalline phases. Surprisingly, these photo-induced changes are fully reversible; the XRD patterns and the PL and absorption spectra revert to their initial states after the materials are left for a few minutes in the dark. We speculate that photoexcitation may cause halide segregation into iodide-rich minority and bromide-enriched majority domains, the former acting as a recombination center trap. This instability may limit achievable voltages from some mixed-halide perovskite solar cells and could have implications for the photostability of halide perovskites used in optoelectronics.

  11. Evaluation of a polymerase chain reaction reverse hybridization line probe assay for the detection and identification of medically important fungi in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meletiadis, J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Meis, J.F.G.M.; Hurk, P.J.J.C. van den; Jannes, G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    An assay system in which polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the ITS-1 region of ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is combined with a reverse-hybridization line probe assay (LiPA) was used for the identification of six Candida species and four Aspergillus species in pure cultures of clinical

  12. Multiplexed Western Blotting Using Microchip Electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Furtaw, Michael D; Chen, Huaxian; Lamb, Don T; Ferguson, Stephen A; Arvin, Natalie E; Dawod, Mohamed; Kennedy, Robert T

    2016-07-05

    Western blotting is a commonly used protein assay that combines the selectivity of electrophoretic separation and immunoassay. The technique is limited by long time, manual operation with mediocre reproducibility, and large sample consumption, typically 10-20 μg per assay. Western blots are also usually used to measure only one protein per assay with an additional housekeeping protein for normalization. Measurement of multiple proteins is possible; however, it requires stripping membranes of antibody and then reprobing with a second antibody. Miniaturized alternatives to Western blot based on microfluidic or capillary electrophoresis have been developed that enable higher-throughput, automation, and greater mass sensitivity. In one approach, proteins are separated by electrophoresis on a microchip that is dragged along a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane so that as proteins exit the chip they are captured on the membrane for immunoassay. In this work, we improve this method to allow multiplexed protein detection. Multiple injections made from the same sample can be deposited in separate tracks so that each is probed with a different antibody. To further enhance multiplexing capability, the electrophoresis channel dimensions were optimized for resolution while keeping separation and blotting times to less than 8 min. Using a 15 μm deep × 50 μm wide × 8.6 cm long channel, it is possible to achieve baseline resolution of proteins that differ by 5% in molecular weight, e.g., ERK1 (44 kDa) from ERK2 (42 kDa). This resolution allows similar proteins detected by cross-reactive antibodies in a single track. We demonstrate detection of 11 proteins from 9 injections from a single Jurkat cell lysate sample consisting of 400 ng of total protein using this procedure. Thus, multiplexed Western blots are possible without cumbersome stripping and reprobing steps.

  13. TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot) and Its Application to Functional Lipidomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    A simple method for transfer of lipids-including phospholipids, glycolipids, and neutral lipids-from a high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) plate to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membrane, TLC-Blot (Far-Eastern Blot), and its biochemical applications are presented. This chapter presents the conventional procedures for separating lipid from tissue samples, cultured cells, and serum and the subsequent development of TLC. Individual lipids separated on an HPTLC plate can be transferred to the PVDF membrane quantitatively and also isolated from the lipid-blotted membrane by a one-step purification procedure. Immunodetection with monoclonal antibodies and treatment with lipid-metabolizing enzymes on the lipid-blotted membrane are possible. The method for identification of individual lipids transferred on the PVDF membrane using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-Blot/MALDI-TOF MS) is shown as a functional lipidomics application.

  14. Colorimetric microwell plate reverse-hybridization assay for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candice Tosi Michelon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Direct smear examination using Ziehl-Neelsen staining for pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB diagnosis is inexpensive and easy to use, but has the major limitation of low sensitivity. Rapid molecular methods are becoming more widely available in centralized laboratories, but they depend on timely reporting of results and strict quality assurance obtainable only from costly commercial kits available in high burden nations. This study describes a pre-commercial colorimetric method, Detect-TB, for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA in which an oligonucleotide probe is fixed onto wells of microwell plates and hybridized with biotinylated polymerase chain reaction amplification products derived from clinical samples. The probe is capable of hybridising with the IS6110 insertion element and was used to specifically recognise the M. tuberculosis complex. When combined with an improved silica-based DNA extraction method, the sensitivity of the test was 50 colony-forming units of the M. tuberculosis reference strain H37Rv. The results that were in agreement with reference detection methods were observed in 95.2% (453/476 of samples included in the analysis. Sensitivity and specificity for 301 induced sputum samples and 175 spontaneous sputum samples were 85% and 98%, and 94% and 100%, respectively. This colorimetric method showed similar specificity to that described for commercially available kits and may provide an important contribution for PTB diagnosis.

  15. Forward osmosis membrane modular configurations for osmotic dilution of seawater by forward osmosis and reverse osmosis hybrid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Ali, Syed Muztuza; Choi, Joon Young; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluates various options for full-scale modular configuration of forward osmosis (FO) process for osmotic dilution of seawater using wastewater for simultaneous desalination and water reuse through FO-reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid system. Empirical relationship obtained from one FO membrane element operation was used to simulate the operational performances of different FO module configurations. The main limiting criteria for module operation is to always maintain the feed pressure higher than the draw pressure throughout the housing module for safe operation without affecting membrane integrity. Experimental studies under the conditions tested in this study show that a single membrane housing cannot accommodate more than four elements as the draw pressure exceeds the feed pressure. This then indicates that a single stage housing with eight elements is not likely to be practical for safe FO operation. Hence, six different FO modular configurations were proposed and simulated. A two-stage FO configuration with multiple housings (in parallel) in the second stage using same or larger spacer thickness reduces draw pressure build-up as the draw flow rates are reduced to half in the second stage thereby allowing more than four elements in the second stage housing. The loss of feed pressure (pressure drop) and osmotic driving force in the second stage are compensated by operating under the pressure assisted osmosis (PAO) mode, which helps enhance permeate flux and maintains positive pressure differences between the feed and draw chamber. The PAO energy penalty is compensated by enhanced permeate throughput, reduced membrane area, and plant footprint. The contribution of FO/PAO to total energy consumption was not significant compared to post RO desalination (90%) indicating that the proposed two-stage FO modular configuration is one way of making the FO full-scale operation practical for FO-RO hybrid system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Better performance of Western blotting: quick vs slow protein transfer, blotting membranes and the visualization methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Ling-Quan; Pu, Ying-Hui; Ma, Shi-Kun

    2008-01-01

    To study how the choices of the quick vs slow protein transfer, the blotting membranes and the visualization methods influence the performance of Western blotting. The cellular proteins were abstracted from human breast cell line MDA-MB-231 for analysis with Western blotting using quick (2 h) and slow (overnight) protein transfer, different blotting membranes (nitrocellulose, PVDF and nylon membranes) and different visualization methods (ECL and DAB). In Western blotting with slow and quick protein transfer, the prestained marker presented more distinct bands on nitrocellulose membrane than on the nylon and PVDF membranes, and the latter also showed clear bands on the back of the membrane to very likely cause confusion, which did not occur with nitrocellulose membrane. PVDF membrane allowed slightly clearer visualization of the proteins with DAB method as compared with nitrocellulose and nylon membranes, and on the latter two membranes, quick protein transfer was likely to result in somehow irregular bands in comparison with slow protein transfer. With slow protein transfer and chemiluminescence for visualization, all the 3 membranes showed clear background, while with quick protein transfer, nylon membrane gave rise to obvious background noise but the other two membranes did not. Different membranes should be selected for immunoblotting according to the actual needs of the experiment. Slow transfer of the proteins onto the membranes often has better effect than quick transfer, and enhanced chemiluminescence is superior to DAB for protein visualization and allows highly specific and sensitive analysis of the protein expressions.

  17. Energy storage in hybrid organic-inorganic materials hexacyanoferrate-doped polypyrrole as cathode in reversible lithium cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres-Gomez, G,; Skaarup, Steen; West, Keld

    2000-01-01

    A study of the hybrid oganic-inorganic hexacyanoferrate-polypyrrole material as a cathode in rechargeable lithium cells is reported as part of a series of functional hybrid materials that represent a new concept in energy storage. The effect of synthesis temperatures of the hybrid in the specific...

  18. Requirement of mitoses for the reversal of X-inactivation in cell hybrids between murine embryonal carcinoma cells and normal female thymocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takagi, N. (Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan))

    1988-04-01

    By means of a 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and acridine orange fluorescence staining method the authors studied reactivation of the inactivated X chromosome (X{sub i}) in newly formed cell hybrids between the near-diploid HPRT-deficient OTF9-63 murine embryonal carcinoma cell (ECC) with an XO sex chromosome constitution and the normal female mouse thymocyte. Synchronization of the late replicating S chromosome in such hybrid cells, indicative of reactivation, was found for the first time on Day 3, and the frequency of reactivation was attained 90% on Day 5. Inhibition of cell cycle progression either by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of polyamine metabolism, or by isoleucine-deficient medium after cell fusion delayed reactivation of the X{sub i}, which implied that the number of cell division cycles traversed by individual cells rather than the length of time after cell fusion is critical for the reactivation. Double-labeling experiments using ({sup 3}H)thymidine and BrdU indicated that hybrid cells had undergone three or four mitoses before reactivation of the X{sub i}. Most probably reactivation of the X{sub i} is consequent to reversion of the thymocyte genome to an undifferentiated state under the influence of OTF9 genome. DNA demethylation or dilution of X{sub i}-specific factors by mitoses may be involved in this process.

  19. Requirement of mitoses for the reversal of X-inactivation in cell hybrids between murine embryonal carcinoma cells and normal female thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, N.

    1988-01-01

    By means of a 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and acridine orange fluorescence staining method the authors studied reactivation of the inactivated X chromosome (X i ) in newly formed cell hybrids between the near-diploid HPRT-deficient OTF9-63 murine embryonal carcinoma cell (ECC) with an XO sex chromosome constitution and the normal female mouse thymocyte. Synchronization of the late replicating S chromosome in such hybrid cells, indicative of reactivation, was found for the first time on Day 3, and the frequency of reactivation was attained 90% on Day 5. Inhibition of cell cycle progression either by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) dihydrochloride, an inhibitor of polyamine metabolism, or by isoleucine-deficient medium after cell fusion delayed reactivation of the X i , which implied that the number of cell division cycles traversed by individual cells rather than the length of time after cell fusion is critical for the reactivation. Double-labeling experiments using [ 3 H]thymidine and BrdU indicated that hybrid cells had undergone three or four mitoses before reactivation of the X i . Most probably reactivation of the X i is consequent to reversion of the thymocyte genome to an undifferentiated state under the influence of OTF9 genome. DNA demethylation or dilution of X i -specific factors by mitoses may be involved in this process

  20. Comparison of hybrid capture and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction methods in terms of diagnosing human cytomegalovirus infection in patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orsal, Arif S.; Ozsan, M.; Dolapci, I.; Tekeli, A.; Becksac, M.

    2006-01-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a life threatening cause of infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients. Developing reliable methods in detecting the CMV infection is important to identify the patients at risk of CMV infection and disease. The aim of this study was to compare the 2 tests- hybrid capture test, which is routinely used in the diagnosis of CMV infection among hematopoietic stem cell recipients, and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) detecting UL21.5 mRNA transcripts of the active virus. In this prospective study, a total of 178 blood samples obtained 35 patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at the Bone Marrow Transplantation Unit of the Hematology Department, Ibn-i-Sina Hospital of Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey between January 2003 and September 2003 were analyzed. Hybrid capture and RT-PCR using UL21.5 gene transcript method to investigate HCMV in blood samples were performed at the department of Microbiology and Clinic Microbiology, Ankara University School of Medicine, Turkey. When Hybrid capture test was accepted as the golden standard, the sensitivity of Rt-PCR was 3%, specificity 100%, false negativity 67%, false positivity 0%, positive predictive value 100%, negative predictive value 74%, and accuracy was 77%. Improving this test by quantification, and application of additional gene transcripts, primarily the late gene transcripts can help increase the sensitivity and feasibility. (author)

  1. Multi-objective optimization of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell – gas turbine hybrid system integrated with seawater reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eveloy, Valerie; Rodgers, Peter; Al Alili, Ali

    2017-01-01

    To improve the capacity and efficiency of distributed power and fresh water generation in coastal industrial facilities affected by regional water scarcity, a natural gas-fueled, pressurized solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT) hybrid is integrated with a bottoming organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) desalination plant. This power and water co-generation system is optimized in terms of two objectives, maximum exergy efficiency and minimum cost rate, using a genetic algorithm. The exergetic and economic performance of three solutions representing maximum exergy efficiency, minimum cost rate, and a compromise between efficiency and cost rate, are compared. When imposing a water production requirement (reference case), the selected compromise multi-objective optimization solution delivers a net power output of 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of permeate, at a co-generation exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. The system payback time is estimated to be less than six years for typical economic parameters, but would become unprofitable in the most unfavorable economic scenario considered. Overall, the results indicate the thermodynamic and economic benefits of reverse osmosis over thermal desalination processes for integration with high-efficiency power generation systems in coastal regions impacted by domestic gas shortages and water scarcity. - Highlights: • Integration of a pressurized SOFC-GT hybrid system with a reverse osmosis unit. • Multi-objective, exergetic and economic optimization using a genetic algorithm. • Optimum solution delivers 2.4 MWe and 636 m"3/day of desalinated water. • Overall exergy efficiency and cost rate of 71.3% and 0.0256 USD/s, respectively. • System payback time estimated at less than six years for typical economic conditions.

  2. Life cycle cost of a hybrid forward osmosis – low pressure reverse osmosis system for seawater desalination and wastewater recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Li, Z.; Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Amy, Gary L.; Leiknes, TorOve; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2015-01-01

    -RO-AOP) for wastewater treatment and reuse. The most important variables affecting economic feasibility are obtained through a sensitivity analysis of a hybrid FO-LPRO system. The main parameters taken into account for the life cycle costs are the water quality

  3. BLOTS AND ALL: A HISTORY OF THE RORSCHACH INK BLOT TEST IN BRITAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Katherine; Hegarty, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the easily recognizable nature of the Rorschach ink blot test very little is known about the history of the test in Britain. We attend to the oft-ignored history of the Rorschach test in Britain and compare it to its history in the US. Prior to the Second World War, Rorschach testing in Britain had attracted advocates and critiques. Afterward, the British Rorschach Forum, a network with a high proportion of women, developed around the Tavistock Institute in London and The Rorschach Newsletter. In 1968, the International Rorschach Congress was held in London but soon after the group became less exclusive, and fell into decline. A comparative account of the Rorschach in Britain demonstrates how different national institutions invested in the 'projective hypothesis' according to the influence of psychoanalysis, the adoption of a nationalized health system, and the social positioning of 'others' throughout the twentieth century. In comparing and contrasting the history of the Rorschach in Britain and the US, we decentralize and particularize the history of North American Psychology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Hybrid fluorescent nanoparticles fabricated from pyridine-functionalized polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer as reversible pH probes over a broad range of acidity-alkalinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, Haijun; Chen, Ying; Li, Lianshan; Tang, Zhiyong; Wu, Yishi; Fu, Hongbing; Tian, Zhiyuan

    2014-01-01

    Conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) were developed based on a polyfluorene-based conjugated polymer with thiophene units carrying pyridyl moieties incorporated in the backbone of polymer chains (PFPyT). Hybrid CPNs fabricated from PFPyT and an amphiphilic polymer (NP1) displayed pH-sensitive fluorescence emission features in the range from pH 4.8 to 13, which makes them an attractive nanomaterial for wide range optical sensing of pH values. The fluorescence of hybrid CPNs based on chemically close polyfluorene derivatives without pyridyl moieties (NP3), in contrast, remains virtually unperturbed by pH values in the same range. The fluorescence emission features of NP1 underwent fully reversible changes upon alternating acidification/basification of aqueous dispersions of the CPNs and also displayed excellent repeatability. The observed pH sensing properties of NP1 are attributed to protonation/deprotonation of the nitrogen atoms of the pyridine moieties. This, in turn, leads to the redistribution of electron density of pyridine moieties and their participation in the π-conjugation within the polymer main chains. The optically transparent amphiphilic polymers also exerted significant influence on the pH sensing features of the CPNs, likely by acting as proton sponge and/or acid chaperone. (author)

  5. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  6. The Design of a Quantitative Western Blot Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean C. Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Western blotting is a technique that has been in practice for more than three decades that began as a means of detecting a protein target in a complex sample. Although there have been significant advances in both the imaging and reagent technologies to improve sensitivity, dynamic range of detection, and the applicability of multiplexed target detection, the basic technique has remained essentially unchanged. In the past, western blotting was used simply to detect a specific target protein in a complex mixture, but now journal editors and reviewers are requesting the quantitative interpretation of western blot data in terms of fold changes in protein expression between samples. The calculations are based on the differential densitometry of the associated chemiluminescent and/or fluorescent signals from the blots and this now requires a fundamental shift in the experimental methodology, acquisition, and interpretation of the data. We have recently published an updated approach to produce quantitative densitometric data from western blots (Taylor et al., 2013 and here we summarize the complete western blot workflow with a focus on sample preparation and data analysis for quantitative western blotting.

  7. Glycosaminoglycan blotting on nitrocellulose membranes treated with cetylpyridinium chloride after agarose-gel electrophoretic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2002-09-01

    We describe a method for blotting and immobilizing several nonsulfated and sulfated complex polysaccharides on membranes made hydrophilic and positively charged by a cationic detergent after their separation by conventional agarose gel electrophoresis. Nitrocellulose membranes were derivatized with the cationic detergent cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) and mixtures of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were capillary-blotted after their separation in agarose gel electrophoresis in barium acetate/1,2-diaminopropane. Single purified species of variously sulfated polysaccharides were transferred onto the derivatized membranes after electrophoresis with an efficiency of 100% and stained with alcian blue (irreversible staining) and toluidine blue (reversible staining) permitting about 0.1 nug threshold of detection. Nonsulfated polyanions, hyaluronic acid, a fructose-containing polysaccharide with a chondroitin backbone purified from Escherichia coli U1-41, and its defructosylated product, were also electrophoretically separated and transferred onto membranes. The limit of detection for desulfated GAGs was about 0.1-0.5 nug after irreversible or reversible staining. GAG extracts from bovine, lung and aorta, and human aorta and urine were separated by agarose gel electrophoresis and blotted on CPC-treated nitrocellulose membranes. The polysaccharide composition of these extracts was determined. The membrane stained with toluidine blue (reversible staining) was destained and the same lanes used for immunological detection or other applications. Reversible staining was also applied to recover single species of polysaccharides after electrophoretic separation of mixtures of GAGs and their transfer onto membranes. Single bands were released from the membrane with an efficiency of 70-100% for further biochemical characterization.

  8. Multistrip western blotting to increase quantitative data output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip western blotting increases the data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold, allows concurrent monitoring of up to nine different proteins from the same loading of the sample, and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data, and therefore is beneficial to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  9. Post-staining electroblotting for efficient and reliable peptide blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Der-Yen; Chang, Geen-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Post-staining electroblotting has been previously described to transfer Coomassie blue-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gel onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes. Actually, stained peptides can also be efficiently and reliably transferred. Because of selective staining procedures for peptides and increased retention of stained peptides on the membrane, even peptides with molecular masses less than 2 kDa such as bacitracin and granuliberin R are transferred with satisfactory results. For comparison, post-staining electroblotting is about 16-fold more sensitive than the conventional electroblotting for visualization of insulin on the membrane. Therefore, the peptide blots become practicable and more accessible to further applications, e.g., blot overlay detection or immunoblotting analysis. In addition, the efficiency of peptide transfer is favorable for N-terminal sequence analysis. With this method, peptide blotting can be normalized for further analysis such as blot overlay assay, immunoblotting, and N-terminal sequencing for identification of peptide in crude or partially purified samples.

  10. Multistrip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Kiyatkin, Anatoly; Aksamitiene, Edita

    2009-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single mem...

  11. Long distance coupling of lower hybrid waves in ITER relevant edge conditions in jet reversed shear plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [Association Euratom-CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Granucci, G. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP-CNR, Milano (Italy); Mailloux, J.; Baranov, Y.; Erents, K.; Lomas, P.J.; McDonald, D.; Stamp, M. [Euratom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom). Culham Lab; Petrzilka, V.; Zacek, F. [Association Euratom-IPP.CR, Praha (Czech Republic); Rantamaki, K. [Assiciation Euratom-Tekes, VTT Processes (Finland); Mantsinen, M. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Association Euratom-Tekes (Finland); Noterdaeme, J.M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association Euratom, Garching (Germany); Gent University, EESA Dept. (Belgium); Pericoli, V.; Tuccillo, A.A. [Association Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Roma (Italy); Sartori, R. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Silva, C. [Associacao Euratom-IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2003-07-01

    A significant step towards demonstrating the feasibility of coupling Lower Hybrid (LH) waves in ITER has been achieved in the latest LH current drive experiments in JET. The local electron density in front of the LH launcher was increased by injecting gas (D{sub 2} or CD{sub 4}) from a dedicated gas injection module magnetically connected to the launcher. P(LHCD) = 3 MW was coupled with an average reflection coefficient of 5%, at a distance between the last closed flux surface and the launcher of 10 cm, in plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) and H-mode edge, with type 1 and type 3 ELMs (edge localized modes). Following a modification of the gas injection system, in order to optimise the gas localisation with respect to the LH launcher, injection of D{sub 2} proved to be more efficient than CD{sub 4}. A D{sub 2} flux of 5-8 x 10{sup 21} el/s was required at 9 cm. The plasma performance (neutron rate, H-factor, ion temperature) was similar with D{sub 2} and CD{sub 4}. An additional advantage with D{sub 2} injection was found, as it reduced the amplitude of the ELMs, which further facilitated the LH coupling. Furthermore, preliminary results of the study of the behaviour of electron density profile in the scrape-off layer during injection of C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} are reported. Finally, the appearance of hot spots, resulting from parasitic absorption of LHCD power in front of the launcher mouth, was studied in the long distance discharges with near gas injection. (authors)

  12. Western Blot of Stained Proteins from Dried Polyacrylamide Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Claudia; Stan-Lotter, Helga

    1996-01-01

    Western blotting of proteins is customarily performed following their separation on polyacrylamide gels, either prior to staining (1) or, as recently reported, following staining (2). We describe here Western blotting with stained gels, which had been dried and some of which had been stored for years. This procedure permits immunological analysis of proteins, to which antisera may have become available only later, or where the application of newly developed sensitive detection methods is desired. Once rehydration of the gels is achieved, proteins can be-transferred to blotting membranes by any appropriate protocol. Proteins stained with Coomassie Blue have to be detected with a non-chromogenic method, such as the film-based enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL)2) procedure (3). Silver stained proteins, which transfer in the colorless form, may be visualized by any detection method, although, because of the usually very low amounts of proteins, detection by ECL is preferable. Blotting of stained proteins from rehydrated gels is as rapid and as quantitative as from freshly prepared gels, in contrast to blotting from wet stained gels, which requires extensive washing and results in low transfer efficiency (2). Together with a photographic record of the gel pattern, unambiguous identification of immunoreactive proteins from complex mixtures is possible. Some further applications of this work are discussed.

  13. Inheritance of resistance to barley yellow dwarf virus detected by northern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorens, G.F.; Falk, B.W.; Qualset, C.O.

    1989-01-01

    Development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars tolerant to the barley yellow dwarf virus disease (BYD) has been limited by lack of precision in rating plants for response to infection, usually done by visual scoring of plant symptoms under field conditions. Other methodologies have been developed to study the host/pathogen relationship and to assess resistance or susceptibility. In this study northern dot blot analysis was used to determine barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA concentrations of six wheat cultivars that differed in visual BYD symptom expression. Plants were infected with the NYPAV (PAV) isolate of BYDV in the greenhouse. At several dates after inoculation crude plant extracts were blotted on nitrocellulose and hybridized with a 32 P-labeled probe of the pPA8 cDNA clone of BYDV. The distribution of PRC for the F 2 population was compared to the distribution of BYD visual symptom scores for 403 F 2 plants of a similar F 2 population of NS 879/4 x Seri 82 under field conditions. The results were qualitatively similar, suggesting that northern dot blot analysis to measure PRC may be useful in understanding the genetics of resistance to BYD. This technique, when incorporated into breeding programs, could be important in the development of highly tolerant wheat cultivars with reduced losses to BYD

  14. Acoustic reverse-time migration using GPU card and POSIX thread based on the adaptive optimal finite-difference scheme and the hybrid absorbing boundary condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Xiaohui; Liu, Yang; Ren, Zhiming

    2018-06-01

    Reverse-time migration (RTM) is a powerful tool for imaging geologically complex structures such as steep-dip and subsalt. However, its implementation is quite computationally expensive. Recently, as a low-cost solution, the graphic processing unit (GPU) was introduced to improve the efficiency of RTM. In the paper, we develop three ameliorative strategies to implement RTM on GPU card. First, given the high accuracy and efficiency of the adaptive optimal finite-difference (FD) method based on least squares (LS) on central processing unit (CPU), we study the optimal LS-based FD method on GPU. Second, we develop the CPU-based hybrid absorbing boundary condition (ABC) to the GPU-based one by addressing two issues of the former when introduced to GPU card: time-consuming and chaotic threads. Third, for large-scale data, the combinatorial strategy for optimal checkpointing and efficient boundary storage is introduced for the trade-off between memory and recomputation. To save the time of communication between host and disk, the portable operating system interface (POSIX) thread is utilized to create the other CPU core at the checkpoints. Applications of the three strategies on GPU with the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming language in RTM demonstrate their efficiency and validity.

  15. Simultaneous detection of viruses and Toxoplasma gondii in cerebrospinal fluid specimens by multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based reverse hybridization assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Prete, Raffaele; Di Taranto, Anna Maria; Lipsi, Maria Rosaria; Natalicchio, Maria Iole; Antonetti, Raffaele; Miragliotta, Giuseppe

    2009-04-01

    The lack of rapidity and the low sensitivity and specificity of traditional laboratory methods limits their usefulness in the laboratory diagnosis of viral central nervous system (CNS) infections. This study describes the use of a commercially available multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR)-based reverse hybridization assay (RHA) for the simultaneous detection of the genomes of 8 viruses and Toxoplasma gondii in cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) from 181 patients suspected of having viral meningitis. Twenty-two/181 (12.15%) CSF samples resulted positive by mPCR. Eighteen/22 were positive for 1 viral pathogen, whereas a dual infection was detected in 4/22 samples. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the most commonly detected virus (6/22), followed by herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) (5/22) and -2 (HSV-2) (4/22). Cytomegalovirus (CMV), human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were detected in 1 specimen each. Two CSF samples were co-infected by HSV-1/HSV-2, 1 sample by HHV-6/T. gondii, and 1 sample by EBV/EV, respectively. Our data support the usefulness of mPCR as a rapid molecular method for the simultaneous detection of major viral pathogens and T. gondii in aseptic meningitis also to allow the earlier application of specific antiviral therapy.

  16. Routine Western blot to check autophagic flux : Cautions and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Sanchez, Ruben; Pizarro-Estrella, Elisa; Yakhine-Diop, Sokhna M. S.; Rodriguez-Arribas, Mario; Bravo-San Pedro, Jose M.; Fuentes, Jose M.; Gonzalez-Polo, Rosa A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, the analysis of autophagic flux by Western blotting (WB), which measures two of the most important markers of autophagy, i.e., microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and p62, is widely accepted in the scientific community. In this study, we addressed the possible

  17. A brief review of other notable protein blotting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2009-01-01

    A plethora of methods have been used for transferring proteins from the gel to the membrane. These include centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low and high molecular weight proteins, blotting of Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to transparencies, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before MALDI tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  18. Other notable protein blotting methods: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2015-01-01

    Proteins have been transferred from the gel to the membrane by a variety of methods. These include vacuum blotting, centrifuge blotting, electroblotting of proteins to Teflon tape and membranes for N- and C-terminal sequence analysis, multiple tissue blotting, a two-step transfer of low- and high-molecular-weight proteins, acid electroblotting onto activated glass, membrane-array method for the detection of human intestinal bacteria in fecal samples, protein microarray using a new black cellulose nitrate support, electrotransfer using square wave alternating voltage for enhanced protein recovery, polyethylene glycol-mediated significant enhancement of the immunoblotting transfer, parallel protein chemical processing before and during western blot and the molecular scanner concept, electronic western blot of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometric-identified polypeptides from parallel processed gel-separated proteins, semidry electroblotting of peptides and proteins from acid-urea polyacrylamide gels, transfer of silver-stained proteins from polyacrylamide gels to polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes, and the display of K(+) channel proteins on a solid nitrocellulose support for assaying toxin binding. The quantification of proteins bound to PVDF membranes by elution of CBB, clarification of immunoblots on PVDF for transmission densitometry, gold coating of nonconductive membranes before matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometric analysis to prevent charging effect for analysis of peptides from PVDF membranes, and a simple method for coating native polysaccharides onto nitrocellulose are some of the methods involving either the manipulation of membranes with transferred proteins or just a passive transfer of antigens to membranes. All these methods are briefly reviewed in this chapter.

  19. In Situ Blotting : A Novel Method for Direct Transfer of Native Proteins from Sectioned Tissue to Blotting Membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Okabe, Masashi; Nyakas, Csaba; Buwalda, Bauke; Luiten, Paul G.M.

    1993-01-01

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  20. Simultaneous detection of the three ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees by nonisotopic molecular hybridization and multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, M; Aparicio, F; Sánchez-Navarro, J A; Herranz, M C; Myrta, A; Di Terlizzi, B; Pallás, V

    2000-12-01

    ABSTRACT The three most economically damaging ilarviruses affecting stone fruit trees on a worldwide scale are the related Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Nonisotopic molecular hybridization and multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodologies were developed that could detect all these viruses simultaneously. The latter technique was advantageous because it was discriminatory. For RT-PCR, a degenerate antisense primer was designed which was used in conjunction with three virus-specific sense primers. The amplification efficiencies for the detection of the three viruses in the multiplex RT-PCR reaction were identical to those obtained in the single RT-PCR reactions for individual viruses. This cocktail of primers was able to amplify sequences from all of the PNRSV, ApMV, and PDV isolates tested in five Prunus spp. hosts (almond, apricot, cherry, peach, and plum) occurring naturally in single or multiple infections. For ApMV isolates, differences in the electrophoretic mobilities of the PCR products were observed. The nucleotide sequence of the amplified products of two representative ApMV isolates was determined, and comparative analysis revealed the existence of a 28-nucleotide deletion in the sequence of isolates showing the faster electrophoretic mobility. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the simultaneous detection of three plant viruses by multiplex RT-PCR in woody hosts. This multiplex RT-PCR could be a useful time and cost saving method for indexing these three ilarviruses, which damage stone fruit tree yields, and for the analysis of mother plants in certification programs.

  1. Blotting from PhastGel to Membranes by Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kost, Joseph; Azagury, Aharon

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound based approach for enhanced protein blotting is proposed. Three minutes of ultrasound exposure (1 MHz, 2.5 W/cm(2)) was sufficient for a clear transfer of proteins from a polyacrylamide gel (PhastGel) to nitrocellulose or Nylon 66 Biotrans membrane. The proteins evaluated were prestained sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide standards (18,500-106,000 Da) and 14C-labeled Rainbow protein molecular weight markers (14,300-200,000 Da).

  2. Multi-strip Western blotting to increase quantitative data output

    OpenAIRE

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B.; Kholodenko, Boris; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2007-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurement of protein abundance and protein modification states are essential in understanding their role in diverse cellular processes. Traditional Western blotting technique, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. We propose a modified immunoblotting procedure, which is based on simultaneous transfer of proteins from multiple gel-strips onto the same membrane, and is compatible wi...

  3. Direct visualization of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in A431 and placental cell membrane by western blot with 125I-EGF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.H.; Selinfreund, R.; Wharton, W.

    1986-01-01

    Using the western blot technique, they have devised a new procedure that allowed the direct visualization of both the 150KD and the 170KD forms of EGFR by its natural ligand, 125 I-EGF. A431, and placental plasmalemma were purified and solubilized in either SDS-PAGE buffer (without DTT, EDTA) or Triton X-100 (0.5%), resolved on PAGE and electrophoretically transferred onto nitrocellulose (NC) paper. In the absence of boiling, SDS did not denature the EGFR. Although EGER band can be detected after hybridization with 125 I-EGF, the receptor signal was considerably improved with the addition of 0.1% Tween-20. The binding of 125 I-EGF to the both the 150KD and the 170KD bands of the EGFR was specific, reversible and increased with the amount of membrane protein present. The direct visualization of the EGFR using its natural ligand eliminated the necessity for the time consuming antibody preparation. Presently, they are using this technique to identify specific receptors for other ligands

  4. Analysis of sperm antigens by sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.Y.G.; Huang, Y.S.; Hu, P.C.; Gomel, V.; Menge, A.C.

    1982-01-01

    A radioimmunobinding method based on the blotting of renatured proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate gels on to nitrocellulose filter papers was developed to analyze the sperm antigens that elicit serum anti-sperm antibodies. In rabbits, serum anti-sperm antibodies were raised by immunization with homologous epididymal spermatozoa mixed with complete Freund's adjuvant. The raised antisera from either male or female rabbits were shown to react with three major sperm protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels with the corresponding molecular weights of about 70,000 +/- 5000, 14,000, and 13,000, respectively. In humans, the monoclonal antibodies against human sperm were raised by a hybridoma technique. Out of six independent hybrid cell lines that were generated, three of them were shown to secrete immunoglobulins that react with the same two protein bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate gels, which have the approximate molecular weight of 10,000. The same procedure was also used to analyze human serum samples that were shown to contain anti-sperm antibodies by the known techniques. Unique sperm antigens that elicit anti-sperm antibodies in humans were identified and correlated. The results of this study suggest that sodium dodecyl sulfate gel/protein blot radioimmunobinding method may be a sensitive and useful tool for the study of sperm antigens that elicit autoimmune responses and their association with human infertility

  5. Determination of Diagnostic Antigens in Cattle Amphistomiasis Using Western Blotting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Halajian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Mixed infection with amphistomes seems common in native cattle of Iran. The aim of this study was to determine diagnostic antigens in cattle mixed amphistomiasis."nMethods: Specific antigens of Cotylophoron cotylophorum, Gastrothylax crumenifer and Paramphisto­mum cervi (mixed infection, the most common species, were collected from cattle was deter­mined. Adult trematodes were collected from the rumen of naturally infected cattle at meat inspec­tion. After their homogenization and centrifugation, somatic antigens were prepared and ana­lyzed by SDS-PAGE. Specific antigens were determinated by western blot with homologous and heterolo­gous sera. SDS-PAGE of whole worms extract was performed at different concentrations and subse­quent gels staining. Immunoblotting analysis using sera from cattle naturally infected with am­phistomes, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, Fasciola spp. and hydatid cyst was performed."nResults: Electrophorese analysis of somatic antigens revealed the presence of 10 and 21 protein bands at 4 µgr/ml and 8 µgr/ml with molecular weights ranging from 25-120 and 25-150 kDa, respectively. The best result was taken at 8 mg/ml concentration. Although western blot of these proteins demon­strate 5 major antigenic polypeptides ranging from 50 to 100 kDa which were recognized by serum of cat­tle naturally infected with mixed amphistomes.

  6. Acid-Urea Gel Electrophoresis and Western Blotting of Histones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazzalin, Catherine A; Mahadevan, Louis C

    2017-01-01

    Acid-urea gel electrophoresis offers significant advantages over SDS-PAGE for analysis of post-translational protein modifications, being capable of resolving proteins of similar size but varying in charge. Hence, it can be used to separate protein variants with small charge-altering differences in primary sequence, and is particularly useful in the analysis of histones whose charge variation arises from post-translational modification, such as phosphorylation or acetylation. On acid-urea gels, histones that carry multiple modifications, each with a characteristic charge, are resolved into distinct bands, the so-called "histone ladder." Thus, the extent and distribution of different modification states of histones can be visualized. Here, we describe the analysis of histone H3 by acid-urea gel electrophoresis and western blotting.

  7. Reverse sample genome probing, a new technique for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization, and its application to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in oil field samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voordouw, G.; Voordouw, J.K.; Karkhoff-Schweizer, R.R.; Fedorak, P.M.; Westlake, D.W.S.

    1991-01-01

    A novel method for identification of bacteria in environmental samples by DNA hybridization is presented. It is based on the fact that, even within a genus, the genomes of different bacteria may have little overall sequence homology. This allows the use of the labeled genomic DNA of a given bacterium (referred to as a standard) to probe for its presence and that of bacteria with highly homologous genomes in total DNA obtained from an environmental sample. Alternatively, total DNA extracted from the sample can be labeled and used to probe filters on which denatured chromosomal DNA from relevant bacterial standards has been spotted. The latter technique is referred to as reverse sample genome probing, since it is the reverse of the usual practice of deriving probes from reference bacteria for analyzing a DNA sample. Reverse sample genome probing allows identification of bacteria in a sample in a single step once a master filter with suitable standards has been developed. Application of reverse sample genome probing to the identification of sulfate-reducing bacteria in 31 samples obtained primarily from oil fields in the province of Alberta has indicated that there are at least 20 genotypically different sulfate-reducing bacteria in these samples

  8. Characterization of Nora Virus Structural Proteins via Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericson, Brad L; Carlson, Darby J; Carlson, Kimberly A

    2016-01-01

    Nora virus is a single stranded RNA picorna-like virus with four open reading frames (ORFs). The coding potentials of the ORFs are not fully characterized, but ORF3 and ORF4 are believed to encode the capsid proteins (VP3, VP4a, VP4b, and VP4c) comprising the virion. To determine the polypeptide composition of Nora virus virions, polypeptides from purified virus were compared to polypeptides detected in Nora virus infected Drosophila melanogaster. Nora virus was purified from infected flies and used to challenge mice for the production of antisera. ORF3, ORF4a, ORF4b, and ORF4c were individually cloned and expressed in E. coli; resultant recombinant proteins purified and were used to make monospecific antisera. Antisera were evaluated via Western blot against whole virus particles and Nora virus infected fly lysates. Viral purification yielded two particle types with densities of ~1.31 g/mL (empty particles) and ~1.33 g/mL (complete virions). Comparison of purified virus polypeptide composition to Nora virus infected D. melanogaster lysate showed the number of proteins in infected cell lysates is less than purified virus. Our results suggest the virion is composed of 6 polypeptides, VP3, VP4a, two forms of VP4b, and two forms of VP4c. This polypeptide composition is similar to other small RNA insect viruses.

  9. Cy5 total protein normalization in Western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagner-McWhirter, Åsa; Laurin, Ylva; Larsson, Anita; Bjerneld, Erik J; Rönn, Ola

    2015-10-01

    Western blotting is a widely used method for analyzing specific target proteins in complex protein samples. Housekeeping proteins are often used for normalization to correct for uneven sample loads, but these require careful validation since expression levels may vary with cell type and treatment. We present a new, more reliable method for normalization using Cy5-prelabeled total protein as a loading control. We used a prelabeling protocol based on Cy5 N-hydroxysuccinimide ester labeling that produces a linear signal response. We obtained a low coefficient of variation (CV) of 7% between the ratio of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) target to Cy5 total protein control signals over the whole loading range from 2.5 to 20.0μg of Chinese hamster ovary cell lysate protein. Corresponding experiments using actin or tubulin as controls for normalization resulted in CVs of 13 and 18%, respectively. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase did not produce a proportional signal and was not suitable for normalization in these cells. A comparison of ERK1/2 signals from labeled and unlabeled samples showed that Cy5 prelabeling did not affect antibody binding. By using total protein normalization we analyzed PP2A and Smad2/3 levels with high confidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reverse Algols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reverse Algols, binary systems with a semidetached configuration in which the more massive component is in contact with the critical equipotential surface, are examined. Observational evidence for reverse Algols is presented and the parameters of seven reverse Algols are listed. The evolution of Algols and reverse Algols is discussed. It is suggested that, because reverse Algols represent the premass-reversal semidetached phase of close binary evolution, the evolutionary time scale between regular and reverse Algols is the ratio of the number of confirmed systems of these two Algol types.

  11. Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    This thesis was focused on the analysis of the concept of reverse logistics and actual reverse processes which are implemented in mining industry and finding solutions for the optimization of reverse logistics in this sphere. The objective of this paper was the assessment of the development of reverse logistics in mining industry on the example of potash production. The theoretical part was based on reverse logistics and mining waste related literature and provided foundations for further...

  12. [Inheritance of reversions to male fertility in male-sterile sorghum hybrids with 9E cytoplasm male sterility induced by environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkonin, L A; Gerashchenkov, G A; Domanina, I V; Rozhnova, N A

    2015-03-01

    Heritable phenotypic alterations occurring during plant ontogenesis under the influence of environmental factors are among the most intriguing genetic phenomena. It was found that male-sterile sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm from the F1 and F2 generations, which were obtained by crossing CMS lines with different fertile lines grown in field conditions, were transferred to greenhouse produce fertile tillers. Lines created by the self-pollination of revertant tillers exhibit complete male fertility upon cultivation under various environments (in the field, Tdry plot,(y) Tirrigated plot(y)). In a number of test-crosses of revertants to CMS lines in the 9E cytoplasm, restoration of male fertility in F1 hybrids was found, indicating that revertants possess functional fertility-restoring genes. A high positive correlation was found between the fertility level of the test-cross hybrids and the hydrothermal coefficient (the ratio of the sum of precipitation to the sum of temperatures) during the booting stage and pollen maturation (r = 0.75...0.91; Pmale fertility are due to up-regulation of fertility-restoring genes by a high level of water availability. Comparative MSAP-analysis of DNA of male-sterile and male-fertile test-cross hybrids using HpaII/MspI restrictases and primers to polygalacturonase gene ADPG2, which is required for cell separation during reproductive development, and gene MYB46, the transcription factor regulating secondary wall biosynthesis, revealed differences in the number and the length of amplified fragments. Changes in the methylation of these genes in conditions of drought stress are apparently the reason for male sterility of sorghum hybrids in the 9E cytoplasm. These data demonstrate that methylation of nuclear genes in sterility-inducing cytoplasm may be one of mechanisms causing the CMS phenomenon.

  13. Northern blot analysis to investigate the abundance of microorganisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, D.O.

    2005-01-01

    areas known as hyper-variable regions which have a high degree of sequence variation. As a result of this structure, it is possible to design signature oligonucleotide probes varying in length from about 15 to 30 nucleotides that are diagnostic of microorganisms at the kingdom, domain, genus and even species level. These signature sequences can be used in a variety of applications such as PCR analysis, construction of clone libraries or direct probing of bulk rRNA. In this chapter, I provide detailed protocols for the analysis of extracted rRNA and give detailed procedures that must be followed to do northern blot analysis of bulk RNA extracted from the rumen

  14. Reverse Osmosis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    many applications, one of which is desalination of seawater. The inaugural Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded in 1901 to van 't Hoff for his seminal work in this area. The present article explains the principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis. Osmosis and Reverse Osmosis. As the name suggests, reverse osmosis is the ...

  15. The effects of hybridization on divergent venom phenotypes: Characterization of venom from Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus × Crotalus oreganus helleri hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Cara Francesca; Mackessy, Stephen P

    2016-09-15

    Hybridization between divergent species can be analyzed to elucidate expression patterns of distinct parental characteristics, as well as to provide information about the extent of reproductive isolation between species. A known hybrid cross between two rattlesnakes with highly divergent venom phenotypes provided the opportunity to examine occurrence of parental venom characteristics in the F1 hybrids as well as ontogenetic shifts in the expression of these characters as the hybrids aged. Although venom phenotypes of adult rattlesnake venoms are known for many species, the effect of hybridization on phenotype inheritance is not well understood, and effects of hybridization on venom ontogeny have not yet been investigated. The current study investigates both phenomena resulting from the hybridization of a male snake with type I degradative venom, Crotalus oreganus helleri (Southern Pacific Rattlesnake), and a female snake with type II highly toxic venom, Crotalus scutulatus scutulatus (Mojave Rattlesnake). SDS-PAGE, enzymology, Western blot and reversed phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) were used to characterize the venom of the C. o. helleri male, the C. s. scutulatus female and their two hybrid offspring as they aged. In general, Crotalus o. helleri × C. s. scutulatus hybrid venoms appeared to exhibit overlapping parental venom profiles, and several different enzyme activity patterns. Both hybrids expressed C. o. helleri father-specific myotoxins as well as C. s. scutulatus mother-specific Mojave toxin. Snake venom metalloprotease activity displayed apparent sex-influenced expression patterns, while hybrid serine protease activities were intermediate to parental activities. The C. s. scutulatus × C. o. helleri hybrid male's venom profile provided the strongest evidence that type I and type II venom characteristics are expressed simultaneously in hybrid venoms, as this snake contained distinctive characteristics of both parental species. However, the possibility of

  16. Rosette Assay: Highly Customizable Dot-Blot for SH2 Domain Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Khong Y; Machida, Kazuya

    2017-01-01

    With a growing number of high-throughput studies, structural analyses, and availability of protein-protein interaction databases, it is now possible to apply web-based prediction tools to SH2 domain-interactions. However, in silico prediction is not always reliable and requires experimental validation. Rosette assay is a dot blot-based reverse-phase assay developed for the assessment of binding between SH2 domains and their ligands. It is conveniently customizable, allowing for low- to high-throughput analysis of interactions between various numbers of SH2 domains and their ligands, e.g., short peptides, purified proteins, and cell lysates. The binding assay is performed in a 96-well plate (MBA or MWA apparatus) in which a sample spotted membrane is incubated with up to 96 labeled SH2 domains. Bound domains are detected and quantified using a chemiluminescence or near-infrared fluorescence (IR) imaging system. In this chapter, we describe a practical protocol for rosette assay to assess interactions between synthesized tyrosine phosphorylated peptides and a library of GST-tagged SH2 domains. Since the methodology is not confined to assessment of SH2-pTyr interactions, rosette assay can be broadly utilized for ligand and drug screening using different protein interaction domains or antibodies.

  17. The Fastest Western in Town: A Contemporary Twist on the Classic Western Blot Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Jillian M.; McMahon, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The Western blot techniques that were originally established in the late 1970s are still actively utilized today. However, this traditional method of Western blotting has several drawbacks that include low quality resolution, spurious bands, decreased sensitivity, and poor protein integrity. Recent advances have drastically improved numerous aspects of the standard Western blot protocol to produce higher qualitative and quantitative data. The Bis-Tris gel system, an alternative to the convent...

  18. Ultrasensitive Detection of Proteins on Western Blots with Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Fangmao; Smith, Polina B.; Wu, Changfeng; Chiu, Daniel T.

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrasensitive fluorescence imaging of proteins on Western blots using a bright, compact, and orange-emitting semiconducting polymer dot (CN-PPV). We achieved a detection limit at the single-picogram level in dot blots; with conventional Western blotting, we detected 50 pg of transferrin and trypsin inhibitor after SDS-PAGE and transfer onto a PVDF membrane. Our method does not require any additional equipment or time compared to the conventional procedure with traditional fluo...

  19. Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of multiplex reverse transcription-PCR-enzyme hybridization assay with immunofluorescence techniques for the detection of four viral respiratory pathogens in pediatric community acquired pneumonia.

  20. Imaging and high-sensitivity quantification of chemiluminescent labeled DNA-blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, G.

    1997-01-01

    The present thesis has for objective the development of both, methods of DNA labeling by chemiluminescence (via the catalytic activity of the enzyme alkaline phosphatase - AP) and an appropriate imaging system. Offering a competitive alternative to the detection of classical radio-labels in molecular-biological experiments of the blotting type, this technique should permit the realization of quantitative studies of gene expression at ultra-high sensitivity necessary in particular for differential-screening experiments. To reach our aim. we separated the project into three different parts. In a first step an imager based on a liquid-nitrogen-cooled CCD coupled to a standard optics (50 mm/fl.2) has been installed and characterized. This system offers a sensitive area of up to 625 cm 2 , a spatial resolution of 0.3-1 mm (depending on the field of view) and a sensitivity sufficient to detect 10 fg/mm 2 labeled DNA. In a second part, the chemiluminescent light-generation process in solution has been investigated to optimize the parameters temperature. pH and concentration of the substrate as well as the enzyme. The substrate offering the highest light yield (CDP-Star in addition with the enhancer EMERALD II) allows quantification of AP down to 10 -15 M within a dynamic range of 10 4 in solution. Finally. preparation, immobilization and detection of AP-labeled DNA probes (via a biotin-streptavidin-biotin-AP bridge) on nylon membranes has been optimized. A linear relation between the light intensities and the amount of DNA was observed in a range of 10 fg/mm 2 - 100 pg/mm 2 . Hybridization of the probes to bacterial cloned target-DNA has been addressed after examination of the best hybridization conditions. Our protocol includes the treatment of a proteinase, which resulted in a significantly lower background on the filter. The results of our investigations suggest that the main conditions for a reliable differential-screening experiment are fulfilled when using

  1. Development of a dot blot assay using gene probes for the detection of enteroviruses in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margolin, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Enteric viruses are viruses which replicate in the intestinal tract of man and animals. One mode of transmission for enteric viruses is the fecal-oral route. Drinking water which has been contaminated with sewage or sewage effluent has been implicated as a means for the spread of enteric viruses. Current methods for the detection of enteric viruses in water requires the use of animal cell culture. This technique has several drawbacks. More rapid techniques, such as fluorescent antibody or radioimmunoassay do not have the needed sensitivity to detect the low levels of virus found in contaminated water. An alternative technique for the detection of viruses in water was sought. Recent advances in recombinant DNA technology now makes it possible to detect viruses without the use of cell culture or antibodies. Gene probes that hybridize to the RNA of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus were tested for their ability to detect different enteric viruses. The probes were labeled with 32 P dCTP and 32 P dATP to a specific activity greater then 1.0 x 10 9 cpm/ug DNA. One infectious unit of poliovirus and hepatitis A virus was detected using labeled cDNA probes. Upon comparison, the dot blot assay was as sensitive as tissue culture for the detection of poliovirus in beef extract, secondary effluent, and tap water. Environmental samples, such as secondary effluent, reclaimed wastewater and unchlorinated drinking water were also assayed for poliovirus and hepatitis A virus with the use of gene probes. The results presented here offer an alternative method for screening water samples for the presence of enteric viruses

  2. A Laboratory Exercise Illustrating the Sensitivity and Specificity of Western Blot Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Mei; Lovett, Janice

    2011-01-01

    Western blot analysis, commonly known as "Western blotting," is a standard tool in every laboratory where proteins are analyzed. It involves the separation of polypeptides in polyacrylamide gels followed by the electrophoretic transfer of the separated polypeptides onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride membrane. A replica of the…

  3. Mammalian α-polymerase: cloning of partial complementary DNA and immunobinding of catalytic subunit in crude homogenate protein blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SenGupta, D.N.; Kumar, P.; Zmudzka, B.Z.; Coughlin, S.; Vishwanatha, J.K.; Robey, F.A.; Parrott, C.; Wilson, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A new polyclonal antibody against the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide was prepared by using homogeneous HeLa cellα-polymerase. The antibody neutralized α-polymerase activity and was strong and specific for the α-polymerase catalytic polypeptide (M/sub r/ 183,000) in Western blot analysis of crude extracts of HeLa cells. The antibody was used to screen a cDNA library of newborn rat brain poly(A+) RNA in λgt11. A positive phage was identified and plaque purified. This phage, designated λpolα1.2, also was found to be positive with an antibody against Drosophila α-polymerase. The insert in λpolα1.2 (1183 base pairs) contained a poly(A) sequence at the 3' terminus and a short in-phase open reading frame at the 5' terminus. A synthetic oligopeptide (eight amino acids) corresponding to the open reading frame was used to raise antiserum in rabbits. Antibody affinity purified from this serum was found to be immunoreactive against purified α-polymerase by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and was capable of immunoprecipitating α-polymerase. This indicated the λpolα1.2 insert encoded an α-polymerase epitope and suggested that the cDNA corresponded to an α-polymerase mRNA. This was confirmed in hybrid selection experiments using pUC9 containing the cDNA insert and poly(A+) RNA from newborn rat brain; the insert hybridized to mRNA capable of encoding α-polymerase catalytic polypeptides. Northern blot analysis of rat brain poly(A+) RNA revealed that this mRNA is ∼5.4 kilobases

  4. Zinc blotting assay for detection of zinc binding prolamin in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddin, Mohammad Nasir; Nielsen, Ane Langkilde-Lauesen; Vincze, Eva

    2014-01-01

    In plants, zinc is commonly found bound to proteins. In barley (Hordeum vulgare), major storage proteins are alcohol-soluble prolamins known as hordeins, and some of them have the potential to bind or store zinc. 65Zn overlay and blotting techniques have been widely used for detecting zinc......-binding protein. However, to our knowledge so far this zinc blotting assay has never been applied to detect a prolamin fraction in barley grains. A radioactive zinc (65ZnCl2) blotting technique was optimized to detect zinc-binding prolamins, followed by development of an easy-to-follow nonradioactive colorimetric...... zinc blotting method with a zinc-sensing dye, dithizone. Hordeins were extracted from mature barley grain, separated by SDS-PAGE, blotted on a membrane, renatured, overlaid, and probed with zinc; subsequently, zinc-binding specificity of certain proteins was detected either by autoradiography or color...

  5. INSITU BLOTTING - A NOVEL METHOD FOR DIRECT TRANSFER OF NATIVE PROTEINS FROM SECTIONED TISSUE TO BLOTTING MEMBRANE - PROCEDURE AND SOME APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OKABE, M; NYAKAS, C; BUWALDA, B; LUITEN, PGM

    We describe a novel technique for direct transfer of native proteins from unfixed frozen tissue sections to an immobilizing matrix, e.g., nitrocellulose, polyvinyliden difluoride, or positively charged nylon membranes. Proteins are directly blotted onto the membrane, providing optimal accessibility

  6. Conditions that allow for effective transfer of membrane proteins onto nitrocellulose membrane in Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyrathne, Priyanka D; Lam, Joseph S

    2007-04-01

    A major hurdle in characterizing bacterial membrane proteins by Western blotting is the ineffectiveness of transferring these proteins from sodium dodecyl sulfate -- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) gel onto nitrocellulose membrane, using standard Western blot buffers and electrophoretic conditions. In this study, we compared a number of modified Western blotting buffers and arrived at a composition designated as the SDS-PAGE-Urea Lysis buffer. The use of this buffer and specific conditions allowed the reproducible transfer of highly hydrophobic bacterial membrane proteins with 2-12 transmembrane-spanning segments as well as soluble proteins onto nitrocellulose membranes. This method should be broadly applicable for immunochemical studies of other membrane proteins.

  7. SDS-Polyacrylamide Electrophoresis and Western Blotting Applied to the Study of Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Solaesa, Virginia; Abad, Sara Ciria

    2016-01-01

    Western blotting is used to analyze proteins after being separated by electrophoresis and subsequently electro-transferred to a membrane. Once immobilized, a specific protein can be identified through its reaction with a labeled antibody or antigen. It is a methodology commonly used in biomedical research such as asthma studies, to assess the pathways of inflammatory mediators involved in the disease.Here, we describe an example of western blotting to determine the factors involved in asthma. In this chapter, the methodology of western blotting is reviewed, paying attention on potential problems and giving interesting recommendations.

  8. Multistrip Western blotting: a tool for comparative quantitative analysis of multiple proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamitiene, Edita; Hoek, Jan B; Kiyatkin, Anatoly

    2015-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative measurements of protein abundance and modification states are essential in understanding their functions in diverse cellular processes. Typical Western blotting, though sensitive, is prone to produce substantial errors and is not readily adapted to high-throughput technologies. Multistrip Western blotting is a modified immunoblotting procedure based on simultaneous electrophoretic transfer of proteins from multiple strips of polyacrylamide gels to a single membrane sheet. In comparison with the conventional technique, Multistrip Western blotting increases data output per single blotting cycle up to tenfold; allows concurrent measurement of up to nine different total and/or posttranslationally modified protein expression obtained from the same loading of the sample; and substantially improves the data accuracy by reducing immunoblotting-derived signal errors. This approach enables statistically reliable comparison of different or repeated sets of data and therefore is advantageous to apply in biomedical diagnostics, systems biology, and cell signaling research.

  9. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes cinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Dunaj; Joanna Maria Zajkowska; Maciej Kondrusik; Lise Gern; Oliver Rais; Anna Moniuszko; Sławomir Pancewicz; Renata Świerzbińska

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for [i]Borrelia burgdorferi [/i]sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among[i] B. burgdorferi[/i] sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. objective. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different [i]Borrelia[/i] genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. ...

  10. Sex reversal in the mouse (Mus musculus) is caused by a recurrent nonreciprocal crossover involving the x and an aberrant y chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, L; Jones, K W

    1982-02-01

    Satellite DNA (Bkm) from the W sex-determining chromosome of snakes, which is related to sequences on the mouse Y chromosome, has been used to analyze the DNA and chromosomes of sex-reversed (Sxr) XXSxr male mice. Such mice exhibit a male-specific Southern blot Bkm hybridization pattern, consistent with the presence of Y-chromosome DNA. In situ hybridization of Bkm to chromosomes of XXSxr mice shows an aberrant concentration of related sequences on the distal terminus of a large mouse chromosome. The XYSxr carrier male, however, shows a pair of small chromosomes, which are presumed to be aberrant Y derivatives. Meiosis in the XYSxr mouse involves transfer of chromatin rich in Bkm-related DNA from the Y-Y1 complex to the X distal terminus. We suggest that this event is responsible for the transmission of the Sxr trait.

  11. Fluorescence-based Western blotting for quantitation of protein biomarkers in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, Maria; Babeluk, Rita; Diestinger, Michael; Pirchegger, Petra; Skeledzic, Senada; Oehler, Rudolf

    2008-09-01

    Since most high throughput techniques used in biomarker discovery are very time and cost intensive, highly specific and quantitative analytical alternative application methods are needed for the routine analysis. Conventional Western blotting allows detection of specific proteins to the level of single isotypes while its quantitative accuracy is rather limited. We report a novel and improved quantitative Western blotting method. The use of fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies strongly extends the dynamic range of the quantitation and improves the correlation with the protein amount (r=0.997). By an additional fluorescent staining of all proteins immediately after their transfer to the blot membrane, it is possible to visualise simultaneously the antibody binding and the total protein profile. This allows for an accurate correction for protein load. Applying this normalisation it could be demonstrated that fluorescence-based Western blotting is able to reproduce a quantitative analysis of two specific proteins in blood platelet samples from 44 subjects with different diseases as initially conducted by 2D-DIGE. These results show that the proposed fluorescence-based Western blotting is an adequate application technique for biomarker quantitation and suggest possibilities of employment that go far beyond.

  12. Improvement of western blot test specificity for detecting equine serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossano, M G; Mansfield, L S; Kaneene, J B; Murphy, A J; Brown, C M; Schott, H C; Fox, J C

    2000-01-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a neurological disease of horses and ponies caused by the apicomplexan protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona. The purposes of this study were to develop the most stringent criteria possible for a positive test result, to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of the EPM Western blot antibody test, and to assess the ability of bovine antibodies to Sarcocystis cruzi to act as a blocking agent to minimize false-positive results in the western blot test for S. neurona. Sarcocystis neurona merozoites harvested from equine dermal cell culture were heat denatured, and the proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in a 12-20% linear gradient gel. Separated proteins were electrophoretically transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes and blocked in 1% bovine serum albumin and 0.5% Tween-Tris-buffered saline. Serum samples from 6 horses with S. neurona infections (confirmed by culture from neural tissue) and 57 horses without infections (horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, where S. neurona does not exist) were tested by Western blot. Horses from both groups had reactivity to the 62-, 30-, 16-, 13-, 11-, 10.5-, and 10-kD bands. Testing was repeated with another step. Blots were treated with bovine S. cruzi antibodies prior to loading the equine samples. After this modification of the Western blot test, positive infection status was significantly associated with reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands (Pblot had a sample sensitivity of 100% and sample specificity of 98%. It is concluded that the specificity of the Western blot test is improved by blocking proteins not specific to S. neurona and using reactivity to the 30- and 16-kD bands as the criterion for a positive test.

  13. Evaluation of two commercial systems for automated processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme borreliosis Western blots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binnicker, M J; Jespersen, D J; Harring, J A; Rollins, L O; Bryant, S C; Beito, E M

    2008-07-01

    The diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) is commonly made by serologic testing with Western blot (WB) analysis serving as an important supplemental assay. Although specific, the interpretation of WBs for diagnosis of LB (i.e., Lyme WBs) is subjective, with considerable variability in results. In addition, the processing, reading, and interpretation of Lyme WBs are laborious and time-consuming procedures. With the need for rapid processing and more objective interpretation of Lyme WBs, we evaluated the performances of two automated interpretive systems, TrinBlot/BLOTrix (Trinity Biotech, Carlsbad, CA) and BeeBlot/ViraScan (Viramed Biotech AG, Munich, Germany), using 518 serum specimens submitted to our laboratory for Lyme WB analysis. The results of routine testing with visual interpretation were compared to those obtained by BLOTrix analysis of MarBlot immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG and by ViraScan analysis of ViraBlot and ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays. BLOTrix analysis demonstrated an agreement of 84.7% for IgM and 87.3% for IgG compared to visual reading and interpretation. ViraScan analysis of the ViraBlot assays demonstrated agreements of 85.7% for IgM and 94.2% for IgG, while ViraScan analysis of the ViraStripe IgM and IgG assays showed agreements of 87.1 and 93.1%, respectively. Testing by the automated systems yielded an average time savings of 64 min/run compared to processing, reading, and interpretation by our current procedure. Our findings demonstrated that automated processing and interpretive systems yield results comparable to those of visual interpretation, while reducing the subjectivity and time required for Lyme WB analysis.

  14. Northern and Southern blot analysis of human RNA and DNA in autopsy material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, S; Rygaard, K; Asnaes, S

    1992-01-01

    was obtained less than two days postmortem. Histological examination showing slight or no autolysis and the presence of ribosomal bands after gel electrophoresis were both indicative parameters of RNA preservation. DNA was appropriate for Southern blotting when the tissue was obtained less than three to five...

  15. Effects of Reusing Gel Electrophoresis and Electrotransfer Buffers on Western Blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heda, Ghanshyam D; Omotola, Oluwabukola B; Heda, Rajiv P; Avery, Jamie

    2016-09-01

    SDS-PAGE and Western blotting are 2 of the most commonly used biochemical methods for protein analysis. Proteins are electrophoretically separated based on their MWs by SDS-PAGE and then electrotransferred to a solid membrane surface for subsequent protein-specific analysis by immunoblotting, a procedure commonly known as Western blotting. Both of these procedures use a salt-based buffer, with the latter procedure consisting of methanol as an additive known for its toxicity. Previous reports present a contradictory view in favor or against reusing electrotransfer buffer, also known as Towbin's transfer buffer (TTB), with an aim to reduce the toxic waste. In this report, we present a detailed analysis of not only reusing TTB but also gel electrophoresis buffer (EB) on proteins of low to high MW range. Our results suggest that EB can be reused for at least 5 times without compromising the electrophoretic separation of mixture of proteins in an MW standard, BSA, and crude cell lysates. Additionally, reuse of EB did not affect the quality of subsequent Western blots. Successive reuse of TTB, on the other hand, diminished the signal of proteins of different MWs in a protein standard and a high MW membrane protein cystic fibrosis transmembrane-conductance regulator (CFTR) in Western blotting.

  16. A simple DNA recombination screening method by RT-PCR as an alternative to Southern blot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Eliene; Sbroggiò, Mauro; Martin Gonzalez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The generation of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), including knock-out (KO) and knock-in (KI) models, often requires genomic screening of many mouse ES cell (mESC) clones by Southern blot. The use of large targeting constructs facilitates the recombination of exogenous DNA in a specific...

  17. COMPARISONS OF ELISA AND WESTERN BLOT ASSAYS FOR DETECTION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM ANTIBODY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A seroprevalence survey was conducted using ELISA and Western blot (WB) assays for antibody to three Cryptosporidium antigens on 380 blood donors in Jackson County, Oregon. The purpose was to determine if either assay could detect serological evidence of an outbreak which occurre...

  18. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 assessment in a case-control study: comparison of fluorescence in situ hybridization and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction performed by central laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehner, Frederick L; Achacoso, Ninah; Maddala, Tara; Shak, Steve; Quesenberry, Charles P; Goldstein, Lynn C; Gown, Allen M; Habel, Laurel A

    2010-10-01

    The optimal method to assess human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status remains highly controversial. Before reporting patient HER2 results, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)/College of American Pathologists (CAP) guidelines mandate that laboratories demonstrate ≥ 95% concordance to another approved laboratory or methodology. Here, we compare central laboratory HER2 assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using Oncotype DX in lymph node-negative, chemotherapy-untreated patients from a large Kaiser Permanente case-control study. Breast cancer specimens from the Kaiser-Genomic Health study were examined. Central FISH assessment of HER2 amplification and polysomy 17 was conducted by PhenoPath Laboratories (ratios > 2.2, 1.8 to 2.2, and < 1.8 define HER2 positive, HER2 equivocal, and HER2 negative, respectively). HER2 expression by RT-PCR was conducted using Oncotype DX by Genomic Health (normalized expression units ≥ 11.5, 10.7 to < 11.5, and < 10.7 define HER2 positive, HER2 equivocal, and HER2 negative, respectively). Concordance analyses followed ASCO/CAP guidelines. HER2 concordance by central FISH and central RT-PCR was 97% (95% CI, 96% to 99%). Twelve percent (67 of 568 patients) and 11% (60 of 568 patients) of patients were HER2 positive by RT-PCR and FISH, respectively. HER2-positive patients had increased odds of dying from breast cancer compared with HER2-negative patients. Polysomy 17 was demonstrated in 12.5% of all patients and 33% of FISH-positive patients. Nineteen of 20 FISH-positive patients with polysomy 17 were also RT-PCR HER2 positive. Although not statistically significantly different, HER2-positive/polysomy 17 patients tended to have the worst prognosis, followed by HER2-positive/eusomic, HER2-negative/polysomy 17, and HER2-negative/eusomic patients. There is a high degree of concordance between central FISH and quantitative RT

  19. [Clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive and negatiwe western blot results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ołdak, Elzbieta; Rozkiewicz, Doroto; Sulik, Artur

    2008-01-01

    In the afforested area of North-Eastern Poland the risk of Borrelia burgdorferi infection seems to be higher compared to the other regions. Because of unspecific clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children the positive ELISA IgM results should be confirmed with Western blot IgM tests. Retrospective analysis of clinical signs and symptoms of Lyme borreliosis in children with positive ELISA IgM and positive Western blot IgM results and in children with positive ELISA IgM and negative Western blot IgM results. The study included 20 children reactive with ELISA IgM (Bellco Biomedica, Austria), hospitalized in Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinic in 2007 due to probable diagnosis of Lyme disease. All children were tested with B. burgdorferi Western blot IgM and/or IgG assay (DRG, Diagnostics, Germany) as a second-step diagnosis. In 10 (50% females, 50% males) out of 20 children the results were positive (borreliosis) and in other 10 (80% females, 20% males) the results were negative (controls). In both groups of patients the retrospective analysis of signs and symptoms was done. The most often clinical manifestation of Lyme borreliosis in children was neuroborreliosis. Children presented Lyme meningitis (30%), facial nerve palsy (10%) and chronic or recurrent headaches (40%), associated with vertigo (20%), weakness (30%), fever (40%), and fatigue syndrome (30%). One patient presented Lyme arthritis. Children of control group presented with unspecific symptoms like isolated headaches (40%), arthralgias (70%), myalgias (10%) and abdomen pain (20%) (1) The most frequent clinical presentation of Lyme borreliosis in analyzed children was neuroborreliosis; (2) Isolated arthralgias in children reactive with B. burgdorferi ELISA IgM need to be confirmed with Western blot assay before implementing the antibiotic therapy.

  20. Reversible Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryggestad, Kjell

    2004-01-01

    The study aims is to describe how the inclusion and exclusion of materials and calculative devices construct the boundaries and distinctions between statistical facts and artifacts in economics. My methodological approach is inspired by John Graunt's (1667) Political arithmetic and more recent work...... within constructivism and the field of Science and Technology Studies (STS). The result of this approach is here termed reversible statistics, reconstructing the findings of a statistical study within economics in three different ways. It is argued that all three accounts are quite normal, albeit...... in different ways. The presence and absence of diverse materials, both natural and political, is what distinguishes them from each other. Arguments are presented for a more symmetric relation between the scientific statistical text and the reader. I will argue that a more symmetric relation can be achieved...

  1. Optimization of northern analysis by vacuum-blotting, RNA-transfer visualization, and ultraviolet fixation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroczek, R.A.; Siebert, E.

    1990-01-01

    We have optimized Northern analysis at several steps. Overnight electrophoresis was replaced by short gel runs and overnight capillary transfer by rapid vacuum-blotting adapted to Northern analysis. Short uv irradiation was used as a substitute for the usual RNA fixation by baking. Direct staining of RNA before electrophoresis made it possible to check RNA integrity and to evaluate the quality of the size separation immediately after electrophoresis. In this system, RNA transfer onto the membrane support could also be quickly assessed after the blotting step. The net result of all modifications was a doubling of the autoradiography signal compared with that obtained by modern Northern protocols. At the same time, the duration of the procedure was shortened drastically, allowing an autoradiography signal to be obtained within 24 h

  2. Solid-phase assay for the phosphorylation of proteins blotted on nitrocellulose membrane filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valtorta, F.; Schiebler, W.; Jahn, R.; Ceccarelli, B.; Greengard, P.

    1986-01-01

    A new procedure for the phosphorylation and assay of phosphoproteins is described. Proteins are solubilized from tissue samples, separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose membrane filters, and the blotted polypeptides are phyosphorylated with the catalytic subunit of cyclic AMP (adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate)-dependent protein kinase. The method was developed for the assay of dephosphosynapsin I, but it has also proven suitable for the phosphorylation of other proteins. The patterns of phosphorylation of tissue samples phosphorylated using the new method are similar to those obtained using the conventional test tube assay. Once phosphorylated, the adsorbed proteins can be digested with proteases and subjected to phosphopeptide mapping. The phosphorylated blotted proteins can also be analyzed by overlay techniques for the immunological detection of polypeptides

  3. DISKRIMINASI KELAMIN PADA IKAN TUNA SIRIP KUNING, Yellowfin tuna MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DOT BLOT DAN ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusti Ngurah Permana

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Pemahaman tentang penentuan jenis kelamin dalam populasi induk merupakan hal yang sangat penting bagi keberhasilan program pembenihan. Pengukuran reaksi antibodi dan aktivitas hormon testosterone, serta estradiol adalah metode dengan potensi yang secara akurat dapat menentukan jenis kelamin ikan tanpa mematikan ikan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui akurasi metode dot blot dan ELISA dengan 11-ketotestorsterone (11-KT yang tersedia secara komersial EIA-kit untuk membedakan jenis kelamin ikan tuna sirip kuning. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa metode dot blot menghasilkan ekspresi vitelogenin tampak jelas pada individu betina dan efek plasma terlihat transparan, jika dibandingkan dengan individu jantan. Interpretasi dari metode ini memerlukan pengalaman dan keahlian dalam akurasi pembacaan hasil. Aktivitas hormon 11-KT dengan sampel klip sirip dan plasma memberikan hasil yang baik dengan aktivitas hormon terlihat jelas.

  4. Western Blotting Using the Invitrogen NuPage Novex Bis Tris MiniGels

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Aubin; Cahalan, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Western Blotting (or immunoblotting) is a standard laboratory procedure allowing investigators to verify the expression of a protein, determine the relative amount of the protein present in different samples, and analyze the results of co-immunoprecipitation experiments. In this method, a target protein is detected with a specific primary antibody in a given sample of tissue homogenate or extract. Protein separation according to molecular weight is achieved using denaturing SDS-PAGE. After tr...

  5. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Ogden, Nicholas H.; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F.; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L. Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographi...

  6. Characterization of the structure of the erythropoietin receptor by ligand blotting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkins, H.L.; Broudy, V.C.; Papayannopoulou, T.

    1991-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) regulates the growth and differentiation of erythroid cells by binding to a specific receptor. We characterized the native Epo receptor on erythroleukemia cell lines by ligand blotting. Solubilized cell membrane proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred onto nitrocellulose, and probed with 125I-Epo. Specificity was demonstrated by inhibition of 125I-Epo binding by unlabeled excess Epo but not other peptide growth factors and by the cellular distribution of the Epo binding protein. A single membrane protein of 61 Kd ± 4 Kd was sufficient to bind 125I Epo in both human (OCIM2, K562) and murine (GM979, Rauscher, DA-1) cell lines. This finding is consistent with the predicted size of the Epo receptor from the murine cDNA clone. However, chemical crosslinking of 125I-Epo to its receptor has identified two Epo binding proteins of 105 Kd and 85 Kd. This difference may occur because the receptor is size fractionated before Epo binding in the ligand blot, but after Epo binding in crosslinking studies. Ligand blotting demonstrates that the native Epo receptor is composed of a single 61-Kd Epo binding protein, and suggests the presence of additional proteins of 20 to 25 Kd that associate with the receptor after Epo binding

  7. Banding pattern indicative of echinococcosis in a commercial cysticercosis western blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tappe D

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective A commercial cysticercosis Western blot was evaluated for serological cross-reactivity of sera from patients with alveolar (AE and cystic echinococcosis (CE. Methods A total of 161 sera were examined, including 31 sera from AE-patients, 11 sera from CE-patients, 9 sera from patients with other parasitic diseases and 109 sera from patients with unrelated medical conditions. All AE-and CE-sera were also examined by the echinococcosis Western blot. Results More sera from patients with AE than with CE showed cross-reactivity in the form of ladder-like patterns ("Mikado aspect" and untypical bands at 6-8 kDa (71% and 77.4% versus 27.3% and 45.5%, respectively. In contrast, triplets of bands in the area above 50 kDa and between 24 and 39-42 kDa were more frequent in CE than in AE sera. The fuzzy band at 50-55 kDa typical for cysticercosis was absent in all AE and CE sera. Conclusions Atypical banding patterns in the cysticercosis Western blot should raise the suspicion of a metacestode infection different from Taenia solium, i.e. Echinococcus multilocularis or E. granulosus, especially when the Mikado aspect and an altered 6-8 kDa band is visible in the absence of a fuzzy 50-55 kDa band.

  8. A streamlined Western blot exercise: An efficient and greener approach in the laboratory classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Traci L; Robinson, Rebekah L; Mojadedi, Wais; Peavy, Lydia; Weiland, Mitch H

    2015-01-01

    SDS-PAGE and western blotting are two commonly taught protein detection techniques in biochemistry and molecular biology laboratory classrooms. A pitfall associated with incorporating these techniques into the laboratory is the significant wait times that do not allow students to obtain timely results. The waiting associated with SDS-PAGE comes from staining and destaining, whereas with western blotting it is the times required for antibody incubations and the numerous wash steps. This laboratory exercise incorporates 2,2,2-trichloroethanol (TCE) into the SDS-PAGE gel allowing for visualization of migrated proteins in a matter of minutes, saving both the time and chemical waste associated with traditional Coomassie staining. Additionally, TCE staining does not affect protein transfer eliminating the requirement for duplicated gels for total protein and western analyses. Protein transfer can be confirmed immediately without the use of Ponceau S staining. Lastly, this western blot procedure has been further shortened by using an HRP-conjugated primary antibody, which eliminates the secondary antibody incubation and washes, and uses a colorimetric detection to allow for visualization by students without the need for specialized equipment. © 2015 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  9. Standardization of Licorice and TCM Formulations Using Eastern Blot Fingerprinting Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukihiro Shoyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To prepare the antiglycyrrhizin (GC monoclonal antibody (MAb, GC was treated with NaIO4 resulting in aldehyde which can be combined with carrier protein. An antigen conjugate was performed by a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization TOF mass spectrometry to determine the hapten numbers in the conjugate. Anti-GC MAb was prepared from a hybridoma which was fixed from the spleen cells producing anti-GC MAb and the myeloma cells after immunization. The TCM and licorice extract were developed by TLC and blotted to a polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF membrane. The membrane was treated by NaIO4 and protein, enzyme labeled secondary MAb, and finally substrate was added. Clear spot appeared on PVDF membrane identifying GC against a background containing large amount of impurities. In eastern blotting, the GC molecule was divided into two functions. The aglycone part is recognized as an epitope and the sugar moiety can be combined to membrane. The specific reactivity of sugar moiety in the GC molecule against anti-GC MAb might be modified by the NaIO4 treatment on the membrane because glycyrrhetic acid 3-O-glucuronide can be stained although the cross-reactivity is only 4.3%. Eastern blotting for GC can not only apply for the standardization of licorice and TCM, but also it can open for the other bioactive products.

  10. Positive IgG Western Blot for Borrelia burgdorferi in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palacios Ricardo

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the presence of specific IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in patients with clinical manifestations associated with Lyme borreliosis in Cali, Colombia, 20 serum samples from patients with dermatologic signs, one cerebrospinal fluid (CSF sample from a patient with chronic neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and twelve serum samples from individuals without clinical signs associated with Lyme borreliosis were analyzed by IgG Western blot. The results were interpreted following the recommendations of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC for IgG Western blots. Four samples fulfilled the CDC criteria: two serum specimens from patients with morphea (localized scleroderma, the CSF from the patient with neurologic and arthritic manifestations, and one of the controls. Interpretation of positive serology for Lyme disease in non-endemic countries must be cautious. However these results suggest that the putative "Lyme-like" disease may correlate with positivity on Western blots, thus raising the possibility that a spirochete genospecies distinct from B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, or a Borrelia species other than B. burgdorferi sensu lato is the causative agent. Future work will focus on a survey of the local tick and rodent population for evidence of spirochete species that could be incriminated as the etiologic agent.

  11. Use of a Western blot technique for the serodiagnosis of glanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Marcilia MA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vivo diagnosis of glanders relies on the highly sensitive complement fixation test (CFT. Frequently observed false positive results are troublesome for veterinary authorities and cause financial losses to animal owners. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop a test with high specificity. Hence, a Western blot assay making use of a partly purified lipopolysaccaride (LPS containing antigen of three Burkholderia mallei strains was developed. The test was validated investigating a comprehensive set of positive and negative sera obtained from horses and mules from endemic and non endemic areas. Results The developed Western blot assay showed a markedly higher diagnostic specificity when compared to the prescribed CFT and therefore can be used as a confirmatory test. However, the CFT remains the test of choice for routine testing of glanders due to its high sensitivity, its feasibility using standard laboratory equipment and its worldwide distribution in diagnostic laboratories. Conclusions The CFT should be amended by the newly validated Western blot to increase the positive likelihood ratio of glanders serodiagnosis in non endemic areas or areas with low glanders prevalence. Its use for international trade of horses and mules should be implemented by the OIE.

  12. Poloidal flux loss in a field-reversed theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, A.L.; Milroy, R.D.; Steinhauer, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Poloidal flux loss has been measured in field-reversed configurations and related to anomalous resistivity near the magnetic field null. The results indicate that mechanisms in addition to the lower-hybrid drift instability are affecting transport

  13. Five Performance Enhancements for Hybrid Hash Join

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Graefe, Goetz

    1992-01-01

    .... We discuss five performance enhancements for hybrid hash join algorithms, namely data compression, large cluster sizes and multi-level recursion, role reversal of build and probe inputs, histogram...

  14. Hybrid electroluminescent devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiang, Joseph John; Duggal, Anil Raj; Michael, Joseph Darryl

    2010-08-03

    A hybrid electroluminescent (EL) device comprises at least one inorganic diode element and at least one organic EL element that are electrically connected in series. The absolute value of the breakdown voltage of the inorganic diode element is greater than the absolute value of the maximum reverse bias voltage across the series. The inorganic diode element can be a power diode, a Schottky barrier diode, or a light-emitting diode.

  15. FANCD2 Western blot as a diagnostic tool for Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Pilonetto

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fanconi anemia is a rare hereditary disease showing genetic heterogeneity due to a variety of mutations in genes involved in DNA repair pathways, which may lead to different clinical manifestations. Phenotypic variability makes diagnosis difficult based only on clinical manifestations, therefore laboratory tests are necessary. New advances in molecular pathogenesis of this disease led researchers to develop a diagnostic test based on Western blot for FANCD2. The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of this method for the diagnosis of 84 Brazilian patients with Fanconi anemia, all of whom tested positive for the diepoxybutane test, and 98 healthy controls. The FANCD2 monoubiquitinated isoform (FANCDS+/FANCD2L- was not detected in 77 patients (91.7%. In 2 patients (2.4%, there was an absence of both the monoubiquitinated and the non-ubiquitinated proteins (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- and 5 patients (5.9% had both isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+. This last phenotype suggests downstream subtypes or mosaicism. All controls were diepoxybutane negative and were also negative on the FANCD2 Western blot. The Western blot for FANCD2 presented a sensitivity of 94% (79/84 and specificity of 100% (98/98. This method was confirmed as an efficient approach to screen Brazilian patients with deleterious mutations on FANCD2 (FANCD2S-/FANCD2L- or other upstream genes of the FA/BRCA pathway (FANCDS+/FANCD2L-, to confirm the chromosome breakage test and to classify patients according to the level of FA/BRCA pathway defects. However, patients showing both FANCD2 isoforms (FANCD2S+/FANCD2L+ require additional studies to confirm mutations on downstream Fanconi anemia genes or the presence of mosaicism.

  16. Blotting Assisted by Heating and Solvent Extraction for DESI-MS Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Elaine C.; Mirabelli, Mario F.; Perez, Consuelo J.; Ifa, Demian R.

    2013-06-01

    Imprints of potato sprout ( Solanum tuberosum L.), gingko leaves (Gingko biloba L. ) and strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. ) were successfully imaged by desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) on TLC plates through blotting assisted by heating and/or solvent extraction. Ion images showing the distribution of significant compounds such as glycoalkaloid toxins in potato sprout, ginkgolic acids and flavonoids in ginkgo leaves, and sugars and anthocyanidin in strawberry were obtained. Practical implications of this work include analysis of a wide range of irregular or soft materials by different imprinting conditions without requiring the addition of matrices or use of specific kinds of surfaces.

  17. Proteínas inmunodominantes de Brucella Melitensis evaluadas por Western Blot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Anaya

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se separaron extractos de proteínas totales de Brucella melitensis en gel 15% SDS-PAGE. Su seroreactividad fue analizada por Western Blot con resultados satisfactorios. Para éste propósito sueros controles negativos (n=03, sueros de pacientes con brucelosis (n=34, cólera (n=12, tifoidea (n=02 y tuberculosis (n=02 fueron usados. Esta prueba inmunodiagnóstica detectó bandas seroreactivas altamente específicas (100% correspondientes a 8,14,18, un complejo de 25-48 y 58kDa. La sensibilidad del test fue del 90% usando los sueros antes mencionados.

  18. Recombinant antigen-based immuno-slot blot method for serodiagnosis of syphilis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Sato

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Three recombinant antigens of Treponema pallidum Nichols strain were fused with GST, cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, resulting in high levels of GST-rTp47 and GST-rTp17 expression, and supplementation with arginine tRNA for the AGR codon was needed to obtain GST-rTp15 overexpression. Purified fusion protein yields were 1.9, 1.7 and 5.3 mg/l of cell culture for GST-rTp47, GST-rTp17 and GST-rTp15, respectively. The identities of the antigens obtained were confirmed by automated DNA sequencing using ABI Prism 310 and peptide mapping by Finningan LC/MS. These recombinant antigens were evaluated by immuno-slot blot techniques applied to 137 serum samples from patients with a clinical and laboratory diagnosis of syphilis (61 samples, from healthy blood donors (50 samples, individuals with sexually transmitted disease other than syphilis (3 samples, and from individuals with other spirochetal diseases such as Lyme disease (20 samples and leptospirosis (3 samples. The assay had sensitivity of 95.1% (95% CI, 86.1 to 98.7% and a specificity of 94.7% (95% CI, 87.0 to 98.7%; a stronger reactivity was observed with fraction rTp17. The immunoreactivity results showed that fusion recombinant antigens based-immuno-slot blot techniques are suitable for use in diagnostic assays for syphilis.

  19. Immunodiagnosis of Echinococcus Infections: Confirmatory Testing and Species Differentiation by a New Commercial Western Blot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liance, Martine; Janin, Veronique; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Vuitton, Dominique-Angele; Houin, Rene; Piarroux, Renaud

    2000-01-01

    The Echinococcus Western Blot IgG (LDBIO Diagnostics, Lyon, France), using a whole larval antigen from Echinococcus multilocularis, was evaluated for serodiagnosis and differentiation between two human parasitic infections of worldwide importance: cystic echinococcosis, due to Echinococcus granulosus, and alveolar echinococcosis, due to E. multilocularis. Fifty and 61 serum samples from patients with cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, respectively, were used for assessing diagnostic sensitivity. The sensitivity of the assay was compared with those of screening tests used for these applications. Sera used for assessing cross-reactivities were from 154 patients with other diseases, either parasitic or not. The assay allowed the detection of serum immunoglobulin G antibodies in 97% of Echinococcus-infected patients. It had a higher sensitivity than screening assays for the detection for each echinococcosis. The assay allowed us to correctly distinguish between E. granulosus- and E. multilocularis-infected patients in 76% of cases. It did not allow us to distinguish active from inactive forms of both echinococcoses. The occurrence of cross-reactivities with neurocysticercosis indicates the necessity for retesting sera with species-specific antigens, for rare patients with neurologic disorders. This study shows the usefulness of the commercially available Echinococcus Western Blot IgG for the serological confirmation of human echinococcosis. PMID:11015390

  20. Checking transfer efficiency and equal loading via qualitative optical way in western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jun-Hua; Gong, Jian-Ping; Zheng, Kai-Wen

    2017-11-01

    The ability to determine that successful transfer and equal loading occur prior to using primary antibodies is important. And total protein staining is commonly used to check transfer efficiency and normalization, which play a crucial role in western blotting. Ponceau S and coomassie blue are commonly used, but there are disadvantages reported in recent years. Therefore, we are interested in finding another method, which is cheap, easy and fast. As we know, protein binding region of PVDF membrane is still hydrophilic when carbinol volatilizes, however, the non-protein binding region of PVDF membrane became hydrophobic again. And this different wettability between non-protein binding region and protein binding region of Polyvinylidene difluoride membrane may be used to check transfer efficiency and equal loading in western blotting. Based on the principle above, we describe an optical approach where an experimenter can observe that the proteins have been transferred to the membrane without any staining within minutes. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Detection of alien genetic introgressions in bread wheat using dot-blot genomic hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H. chilense genomic DNA as a probe. This dot-blot screening reduced the number of plants necessary to be analysed by molecular markers or in situ hybridisation, saving time and money. The technique was sensitive enough to detect a minimum of 5 ng of total genomic DNA immobilised on the membrane or about 1/420 dilution of H. chilense genomic DNA in the wheat background. The robustness of the technique was verified by in situ hybridisation. In addition, the detection of other wheat relative species such as Hordeum vulgare , Secale cereale and Agropyron cristatum in the wheat background was also reported .

  2. Silver and gold nanoparticle coated membranes applied to protein dot blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, F.; Drozdowicz-Tomsia, K.; Shtoyko, T.; Goldys, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    Detection and identification of low abundance biomarker proteins is frequently based on various types of membrane-based devices. Lowering of the protein detection limits is vital in commercial applications such as lateral flow assays and in Western blots widely used in proteomics. These currently suffer from insufficient detection sensitivity and low retention for small 2–5 kDa proteins. In this study, we report the deposition of two types of metal nanoparticles: gold colloids (50–95 nm diameter) and silver fractals onto a range of commonly used types of membranes including polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). Due to strong affinity of proteins to noble metals, such modified membranes have the potential to effectively capture trace proteins preventing their loss. The membranes modified by metal particles were characterized optically and by SEM. The membrane performance in protein dot blots was evaluated using the protein—fluorophore conjugates Deep Purple-bovine serum albumin and fluorescein—human serum albumin. We found that the metal nanoparticles increase light extinction by metals, which is balanced by increased fluorescence, so that the effective fluorescence signal is unchanged. This feature combined with the capture of proteins by the nanoparticles embedded in the membrane increases the detection limit of membrane assays.

  3. Should we ignore western blots when selecting antibodies for other applications?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlén, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    .In the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) program, we have validated more than 24,000 in-house-generated antibodies directed to 17,000 human target proteins2. Although there is often a correlation between performance in different applications, we have observed many examples of antibodies that show strong support...... applications and that this influences the epitopes exposed on the target protein, which might have profound consequences for the ability of a given antibody to bind specifically to its target. As an example, proteins that are analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) are normally first cross-linked with formalin.......In conclusion, western blot and protein array analyses can indeed be useful tools when selecting specific antibodies for other applications. The use of these methods is encouraged both for antibody providers and users, and antibodies with signs of cross-reactivity in these applications should be treated...

  4. Electrospun nitrocellulose and nylon: Design and fabrication of novel high performance platforms for protein blotting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bowlin Gary L

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrospinning is a non-mechanical processing strategy that can be used to process a variety of native and synthetic polymers into highly porous materials composed of nano-scale to micron-scale diameter fibers. By nature, electrospun materials exhibit an extensive surface area and highly interconnected pore spaces. In this study we adopted a biological engineering approach to ask how the specific unique advantages of the electrospinning process might be exploited to produce a new class of research/diagnostic tools. Methods The electrospinning properties of nitrocellulose, charged nylon and blends of these materials are characterized. Results Nitrocellulose electrospun from a starting concentration of Conclusion The flexibility afforded by electrospinning process makes it possible to tailor blotting membranes to specific applications. Electrospinning has a variety of potential applications in the clinical diagnostic field of use.

  5. HIV‑2 antibody detection after indeterminate or negative HIV‑1 Western blot in Cuba, 2005-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Dervel F; Ortiz, Eva; Martín, Dayamí; Nibot, Carmen; Rizo, Adis; Silva, Eladio

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 infection is the first step to understanding HIV transmission, epidemiology and pathogenesis in geographical areas where both viruses circulate. In Cuba, positive results in mixed HIV-1/2 screening assays are confirmed by HIV-1 Western blot. Indeterminate results constitute the main limitation of this test and HIV-2 infection is among their possible causes; hence the importance of second-stage screening and confirmatory tests for HIV-2 infection. OBJECTIVE Investigate the contribution of HIV-2 antibodies to negative or indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot results in serum samples from 2005 through 2008 in Cuba. METHODS HIV-2 reactivity was studied using the ELISA DAVIH-VIH-2 diagnostic kit (Cuba) in 1723 serum samples with negative or indeterminate results for HIV-1 Western blot from January 2005 through December 2008. Duplicate sera reactive by ELISA were confirmed by HIV-2 Western blot, results interpreted according to WHO criteria. The epidemiological interview established by Cuba's National Program for Prevention and Control Sexually-Transmitted Diseases and HIV/AIDS was applied to HIV-2 Western blot-positive patients. RESULTS Among all sera studied, HIV-2 ELISA identified 12 reactive serum samples (0.70%) and 1711 non-reactive (99.30%). Western blot analysis of the 12 ELISA-reactive samples confirmed two positive samples (16.67%), 4 negative (33.33%) and 6 indeterminate (50%). Positive samples reacted against the p16, p26, gp36, p53, p56, p68 and gp105 proteins. All 12 ELISA-reactive samples belonged to the HIV-1 Western blot indeterminate group. The two HIV-2-positive samples showed well defined reactivity to gp160, p53, p55 and p34 of HIV-1. HIV-1 seroconversion was observed in all 10 remaining samples during serological followup. CONCLUSIONS Two new HIV-2 seropositive cases were diagnosed using DAVIH-VIH-2 and HIV-2 Western blot in indeterminate HIV-1 Western blot samples. Results support the recommendation

  6. TSE strain differentiation in mice by immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles and triplex Western blot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Keulen, Lucien J M; Langeveld, Jan P M; Dolstra, Corry H; Jacobs, Jorg; Bossers, Alex; van Zijderveld, Fred G

    2015-10-01

    TSE strains are routinely identified by their incubation period and vacuolation profile in the brain after intracerebral inoculation and serial passaging in inbred mouse lines. There are some major drawbacks to this method that are related to the variation in vacuolation that exists in the brains of mice infected with the same TSE strain and to variation between observers and laboratories in scoring vacuolation and determining the final incubation period. We investigated the potential of PrP(Sc) immunohistochemistry and triplex Western blotting as possible alternative methods to differentiate between TSE strains. TSE reference strains ME7, 87A/87V, 22A/22C, 79A/79V and 301C/301V were intracerebrally inoculated in RIII or VM inbred mice that differ in their PrP genotype. Immunohistochemical PrP(Sc) profiles were drawn up by scanning light microscopy both on coronal and sagittal sections. On the basis of the localization of PrP(Sc) in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex and the overall type of PrP(Sc) staining, all TSE strains could be well differentiated from each other through their typical strain dependent characteristics. In addition, Western blot showed that the combination of glycosylation profile and 12B2 epitope content of PrP(Sc) allowed to distinguish between all reference strains except for ME7 and 22A in VM mice. TSE strains in mice can be identified on the basis of their PrP(Sc) profile alone. The potential to identify TSE strains in ruminants with these PrP(Sc) profiles after a single primary passage in mice will be the topic of future studies. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Total protein analysis as a reliable loading control for quantitative fluorescent Western blotting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Eaton

    Full Text Available Western blotting has been a key technique for determining the relative expression of proteins within complex biological samples since the first publications in 1979. Recent developments in sensitive fluorescent labels, with truly quantifiable linear ranges and greater limits of detection, have allowed biologists to probe tissue specific pathways and processes with higher resolution than ever before. However, the application of quantitative Western blotting (QWB to a range of healthy tissues and those from degenerative models has highlighted a problem with significant consequences for quantitative protein analysis: how can researchers conduct comparative expression analyses when many of the commonly used reference proteins (e.g. loading controls are differentially expressed? Here we demonstrate that common controls, including actin and tubulin, are differentially expressed in tissues from a wide range of animal models of neurodegeneration. We highlight the prevalence of such alterations through examination of published "-omics" data, and demonstrate similar responses in sensitive QWB experiments. For example, QWB analysis of spinal cord from a murine model of Spinal Muscular Atrophy using an Odyssey scanner revealed that beta-actin expression was decreased by 19.3±2% compared to healthy littermate controls. Thus, normalising QWB data to β-actin in these circumstances could result in 'skewing' of all data by ∼20%. We further demonstrate that differential expression of commonly used loading controls was not restricted to the nervous system, but was also detectable across multiple tissues, including bone, fat and internal organs. Moreover, expression of these "control" proteins was not consistent between different portions of the same tissue, highlighting the importance of careful and consistent tissue sampling for QWB experiments. Finally, having illustrated the problem of selecting appropriate single protein loading controls, we demonstrate

  8. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Marisa

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse logistics. The thesis brings insights on reverse logistics decision-making and it lays down theoretical principles for reverse logistics as a research field.In particular it puts together a framework ...

  9. Radioautographic test for genetic cotton transformation by pCaVItoxneo hybrid plasmid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imamkhodjaeva, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Search for novel technologies in biology, application of up-to-date methods in gene engineering, manipulation with the recombinant DNA, in particular, open opportunities for experiments with plants. To identify some DNA fragments in an organism's genome, radioautographic methods, such as dot- and blot-hybridization are frequently used. As a rule, genomic DNA is first isolated from the plant's organ. Its purification and subsequent manipulation is followed by hybridization with a probe labeled with radioactive components. The purified DNA, cDNA of RNA reverse transcription or a DNA fragment cloned in E-coli could serve as the probe. Radioautography shows homologically hybridized fragments. We have performed express dot-hybridization analysis on hybrid plasmid transformation of G.Hirsutum L. (108F) and G. Barbadense L. (C-6037) cotton sorts. pCaVItoxneo plasmid obtained on the basis of independently replicated plasmid-like DNA of the G.Hirsutum L. (pGHm2) cotton mitochondria was used (Yusupov T., 1994). There are hybrid two-domain gene of insectotoxin and enzymatically active kanamycine - phosphotransferase in the plasmid. The whole content is controlled by the plant promoter of cauliflower mosaic virus (19 S SFMV). The plasmid in question was added to the pollen sprouting medium followed by the transfer of the suspension on the pistil stigmas of the pre-prepared cotton flowers. The seed budding as the result of the experiment were analyzed by means of dot-hybridization method. DNA probes used for radioactive hybridization were labeled by method of Fainberg and Vagelstein (1990). To perform that DNA was dissolved in Tris-EDTA (10:1), containing 10mM of Tris HCl and 1mM EDTA, denaturated at 100 d eg C for 2 minutes with subsequent addition of oligonucleotide primers and annealing. DNA synthesis in the presence of 32 P labeled dATP and dCTP (Tashkent) was performed in the reaction mixture of potassium-phosphate buffer containing 67mM of MgCl 2 , 1 mg/ml of

  10. Managing Reverse Logistics or Reversing Logistics Management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIn the past, supply chains were busy fine-tuning the logistics from raw material to the end customer. Today an increasing flow of products is going back in the chain. Thus, companies have to manage reverse logistics as well.This thesis contributes to a better understanding of reverse

  11. Comparison of Multispot EIA with Western blot for confirmatory serodiagnosis of HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torian, Lucia V; Forgione, Lisa A; Punsalang, Amado E; Pirillo, Robert E; Oleszko, William R

    2011-12-01

    Recent improvements in the sensitivity of immunoassays (IA) used for HIV screening, coupled with increasing recognition of the importance of rapid point-of-care testing, have led to proposals to adjust the algorithm for serodiagnosis of HIV so that screening and confirmation can be performed using a dual or triple IA sequence that does not require Western blotting for confirmation. One IA that has been proposed as a second or confirmatory test is the Bio-Rad Multispot(®) Rapid HIV-1/HIV-2 Test. This test would have the added advantage of differentiating between HIV-1 and HIV-2 antibodies. To compare the sensitivity and type-specificity of an algorithm combining a 3rd generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) followed by a confirmatory Multispot with the conventional algorithm that combines a 3rd generation EIA (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1/HIV-2 Plus O EIA) followed by confirmatory Western blot (Bio-Rad GS HIV-1 WB). 8760 serum specimens submitted for HIV testing to the New York City Public Health Laboratory between May 22, 2007, and April 30, 2010, tested repeatedly positive on 3rd generation HIV-1-2+O EIA screening and received parallel confirmatory testing by WB and Multispot (MS). 8678/8760 (99.1%) specimens tested WB-positive; 82 (0.9%) tested WB-negative or indeterminate (IND). 8690/8760 specimens (99.2%) tested MS-positive, of which 14 (17.1%) had been classified as negative or IND by WB. Among the HIV-1 WB-positive specimens, MS classified 26 (0.29%) as HIV-2. Among the HIV-1 WB negative and IND, MS detected 12 HIV-2. MS detected an additional 14 HIV-1 infections among WB negative or IND specimens, differentiated 26 HIV-1 WB positives as HIV-2, and detected 12 additional HIV-2 infections among WB negative/IND. A dual 3rd generation EIA algorithm incorporating MS had equivalent HIV-1 sensitivity to the 3rd generation EIA-WB algorithm and had the added advantage of detecting 12 HIV-2 specimens that were not HIV-1 WB cross-reactors. In this series an algorithm using EIA

  12. [Whole cDNA sequence cloning and expression of chicken L-FABP gene and its relationship with lipid deposition of hybrid chickens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ying; Wang, Dong; Sun, Dong-Xiao; Xu, Gui-Yun; Li, Jun-Ying; Zhang, Yuan

    2011-07-01

    Liver fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) is closely related to intracellular transportation and deposition of lipids. A positive differential displayed fragment was found in the liver tissue among Silkie (CC), CAU-brown chicken (CD), and their reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) at 8 weeks-old using differential display RT-PCR techniques (DDRT-PCR). Through recycling, sequencing, and alignment analysis, the fragment was identified as chicken liver fatty acid-binding protein gene (L-FABP, GenBank accession number AY321365). Reverse Northern dot blot and semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the avian L-FABP gene was over-expressed in the liver tissue of the reciprocal hybrids (CD and DC) compared to their parental lines (CC and DD), which was consistent with the fact that higher abdomen fat weight and wider inter-muscular fat width observed in the reciprocal hybrids. Considering the higher expression of L-FABP may contribute to the increased lipid deposition in the hybrid chickens, the functional study of avian L-FABP is warranted in future.

  13. Reversible Thermoset Adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Murray, Benjamin C. (Inventor); Tong, Tat H. (Inventor); Hreha, Richard D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of a reversible thermoset adhesive formed by incorporating thermally-reversible cross-linking units and a method for making the reversible thermoset adhesive are provided. One approach to formulating reversible thermoset adhesives includes incorporating dienes, such as furans, and dienophiles, such as maleimides, into a polymer network as reversible covalent cross-links using Diels Alder cross-link formation between the diene and dienophile. The chemical components may be selected based on their compatibility with adhesive chemistry as well as their ability to undergo controlled, reversible cross-linking chemistry.

  14. Environmental and economic impacts of fertilizer drawn forward osmosis and nanofiltration hybrid system

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Jung Eun; Phuntsho, Sherub; Chekli, Laura; Hong, Seungkwan; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Leiknes, TorOve; Choi, Joon Yong; Shon, Ho Kyong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental and economic impacts of the fertilizer drawn forward osmosis (FDFO) and nanofiltration (NF) hybrid system were conducted and compared with conventional reverse osmosis (RO) hybrid scenarios using microfiltration (MF) or ultrafiltration

  15. Identification of toxocara canis antigens by Western blot in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MORALES Olga Lucía

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis is a frequent helminthiasis that can cause visceral and ocular damage in humans specially in children. The identification of specific antigens of Toxocara canis is important in order to develop better diagnostic techniques. Ten rabbits were infected orally with a dose of 5000 Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. Rabbits were bled periodically and an ELISA assay was performed to determine levels of specific Toxocara IgG antibodies. ELISA detected antibodies at day 15 after infection. Western blot (WB assay was performed using excretory/secretory antigens (E/S of T. canis second stage larvae. Different antigen concentrations were evaluated: 150, 200, 250 and 300 µg/mL. The concentration of 250 µg/mL was retained for analysis. Rabbit sera were diluted 1:100. Secondary antibody was used at a dilution of 1:1000. Results of WB indicated that in the first month after infection specific antibodies against the 200 KDa, 116 KDa, 92 KDa and 35 KDa antigens were detected; antibodies against the 92 KDa, 80 KDa, 66 KDa, 45 KDa, 31 KDa and 28 KDa antigens appeared later. All positive sera in the ELISA test were also positive in WB. Two antigen bands, 92 KDa and 35 KDa, were identified since the beginning and throughout the course of infection. These antigens merit further evaluation as candidates for use in diagnosis.

  16. Direct tissue blot immunoassay for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled DJELOUAH

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct tissue blot immunoassay (DTBIA technique has been compared with ELISA and PCR for detection of Xylella fastidiosa in olive trees from Apulia (southern Italy. Fresh cross-sections of young twigs and leaf petioles were printed onto nitrocellulose membranes and analyzed in the laboratory. Analyses of a first group of 61 samples gave similar efficiency for the three diagnostic techniques for detection the bacterium (24 positive and 36 negative samples, except for a single sample which was positive only with DTBIA and PCR. Similar results were obtained by separately analyzing suckers and twigs collected from different sectors of tree canopies of a second group of 20 olive trees (ten symptomatic and ten symptomless. In this second test the three diagnostic techniques confirmed the irregular distribution of the bacterium in the tree canopies and erratic detectability of the pathogen in the young suckers. It is therefore necessary to analyse composite samples per tree which should be prepared with twigs collected from different sides of the canopy. The efficiency comparable to ELISA and PCR, combined with the advantages of easier handling, speed and cost, make DTBIA a valid alternative to ELISA in large-scale surveys for occurrence of X. fastidiosa. Moreover, the printing of membranes directly in the field prevents infections spreading to Xylella-free areas, through movement of plant material with pathogen vectors for laboratory testing.

  17. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H Roldán

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-Toxocara IgG antibodies. The EITB-IgG profile of toxocariasis was characterized by comparing 27 sera from patients with toxocariasis, 110 sera from healthy subjects and 186 sera from patients with other helminth diseases (ascariasis, ancylostomiasis, trichuriasis, enterobiasis, strongyloidiasis, hymenolepiasis, diphyllobothriasis, taeniasis, cysticercosis, hydatidosis and fascioliasis. Antigenic bands of 24, 28, 30, 35, 56, 117, 136 and 152 kDa were predominantly recognized in sera from all patients with toxocariasis. However, only bands of 24-35 kDa were highly specific for Toxocara infection (98.3%, whereas other antigenic bands observed displayed cross-reactivity. Additionally, when the results of the EITB-IgG test were compared to those of the ELISA-IgG test, a 100% concordance was observed for positive results in human toxocariasis cases. The concordance for negative results between the two tests for healthy subjects and patients with other helminth diseases were 96.3% and 53.7%, respectively, showing that the EITB-IgG test has a higher specificity than ELISA. In conclusion, the EITB-IgG test is a very useful tool to confirm the serological diagnosis of human toxocariasis.

  18. Use of nitrocellulose blotting for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen electrophoresed in agarose gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, J C; Greisiger, L M; Millman, I [Institute for Cancer Research, Philadelphia, PA (USA). Fox Chase Cancer Center

    1981-08-28

    Nitrocellulose-protein blotting of serum electrophoresed in agarose gels has been adapted for the study of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). /sup 125/I-labeled anti-HBs was used as the antigen probe, and the electrophoretic migration was monitored by autoradiography. The method required 3 ..mu..l or less of serum and could detect as little as 1 pg of purified HBsAg. Typically, the authors observed two bands of HBsAg; a moving band which migrated about one-third the distance moved by human serum albumin and a non-migratory band which remained at the loading site. Some examples of the use of the method include: (1) empirical methods for correlating HBsAg concentration in serum to film darkness; (2) observations of mobility changes in serial sera from dialysis patients with chronic HBsAg antigenemia; and (3) detection of related antigens such as antigen from the PLC/PRF/5 hepatoma tissue culture line and the cross-reacting woodchuck hepatitis virus surface antigen (WHsAg).

  19. Identification of formaldehyde-responsive genes by suppression subtractive hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Min-Ho; Kim, Young-Ae; Na, Tae-Young; Kim, Sung-Hye; Shin, Young Kee; Lee, Byung-Hoon; Shin, Ho-Sang; Lee, Mi-Ock

    2008-01-01

    Formaldehyde is frequently used in indoor household and occupational environments. Inhalation of formaldehyde invokes an inflammatory response, including a variety of allergic signs and symptoms. Therefore, formaldehyde has been considered as the most prevalent cause of sick building syndrome, which has become a major social problem, especially in developing urban areas. Further formaldehyde is classified as a genotoxicant in the respiratory tract of rats and humans. To better understand the molecular mechanisms involved in formaldehyde intoxication, we sought differentially regulated genes by formaldehyde exposure to Hs 680.Tr human trachea cells, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based suppression subtractive hybridization. We identified 27 different formaldehyde-inducible genes, including those coding for the major histocompatibility complex, class IA, calcyclin, glutathione S-transferase pi, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2), platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha, and which are known to be associated with cell proliferation and differentiation, immunity and inflammation, and detoxification. Induction of these genes by formaldehyde treatment was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and western blot analysis. Further, the expression of calcyclin, glutathione S-transferase pi, PDGFRA and MDM2 were significantly induced in the tracheal epithelium of Sprague Dawley rats after formaldehyde inhalation. Our results suggest that the elevated levels of these genes may be associated with the formaldehyde-induced toxicity, and that they deserve evaluation as potential biomarkers for formaldehyde intoxication

  20. Tubal Ligation Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... seal off the fallopian tubes, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, generally aren't reversible. Why ... electrocautery). Some types of sterilization, such as the Essure or Adiana systems, aren't considered reversible. Risks ...

  1. Reverse logistics - a framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we define and compare Reverse Logistics definitions. We start by giving an understanding framework of Reverse Logistics: the why-what-how. By this means, we put in context the driving forces for Reverse Logistics, a typology of return reasons, a classification of

  2. Combination of PCR targeting the VD2 of omp1 and reverse line blot analysis for typing of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis serovars in cervical scrape specimens.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molano, M; Meijer, C.J.L.M.; Morre, S.A.; Pol, R; Brule, van den AJ

    2004-01-01

    50% contained both serovars D and E. The nested VD2 PCR-RLB developed is a simple, fast, and specific method for the identification of individual urogenital C. trachomatis serovars previously detected by using plasmid PCR. Moreover, it is an appropriate method for studying multiple C. trachomatis

  3. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eikan Mishima

    Full Text Available The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A, N6-methyladenosine (m6A, pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  4. Indeterminate human immunodeficiency virus western blot results in Iranian patients with discordant screening assay results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravanshad, M.; Sabahi, F.; Mahboudi, F.; Sabahi, F.

    2006-01-01

    The Western blot (WB) assay is the most widely accepted confirmatory assay for the detection and confirmation of antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and 2 (HIV-2). However, indeterminate WB reactivity to HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteins may occur in individuals who do not appear to be infected with HIV. In this study, we describe the results of indeterminate WB reactivity in Iranian patients with discordant screening assays. The samples were obtained from Iranian Blood Transfusion Center, Tehran, Iran and evaluated in the Biotechnology Process Development Center, Pasteur Institute of Iran, Tehran, Iran between 2003 and 2004. A total of 4707 were tested for the presence of HIV-1 antibodies. Six hundred and four (12.8%) patients tested for HIV were positive for HIV-1 antibody. Nine (1.49%) have discordant results among screening assays and indeterminate WB results as interpreted by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria. Most (66.7%) of these indeterminate WB results were due to p24 reactivity. However, 2(22.2%) display reactivity to both gp41 and gp120 proteins [Positive by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria]. Of 9 WB assays initially indeterminate by the CDC criteria and with follow-up samples 8(88.8%) became negative when retested subsequently while one (11.1%) remained indeterminate for more than a year and were thus considered negative. In addition all the indeterminate samples were negative when assessed by polymerase chain reaction assay. In general, there were was an 88.8% concordance between the CDC and WHO criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria for an indeterminate WB result. The CDC II criteria best met the specified objectives for diagnosis in our setting. (author)

  5. Two-Phase Contiguous Supported Lipid Bilayer Model for Membrane Rafts via Polymer Blotting and Stenciling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Daniel, Susan

    2017-02-07

    The supported lipid bilayer has been portrayed as a useful model of the cell membrane compatible with many biophysical tools and techniques that demonstrate its appeal in learning about the basic features of the plasma membrane. However, some of its potential has yet to be realized, particularly in the area of bilayer patterning and phase/composition heterogeneity. In this work, we generate contiguous bilayer patterns as a model system that captures the general features of membrane domains and lipid rafts. Micropatterned polymer templates of two types are investigated for generating patterned bilayer formation: polymer blotting and polymer lift-off stenciling. While these approaches have been used previously to create bilayer arrays by corralling bilayers patches with various types of boundaries impenetrable to bilayer diffusion, unique to the methods presented here, there are no physical barriers to diffusion. In this work, interfaces between contiguous lipid phases define the pattern shapes, with continuity between them allowing transfer of membrane-bound biomolecules between the phases. We examine effectors of membrane domain stability including temperature and cholesterol content to investigate domain dynamics. Contiguous patterning of supported bilayers as a model of lipid rafts expands the application of the SLB to an area with current appeal and brings with it a useful toolset for characterization and analysis. These combined tools should be helpful to researchers investigating lipid raft dynamics and function and biomolecule partitioning studies. Additionally, this patterning technique may be useful for applications such as bioseparations that exploit differences in lipid phase partitioning or creation of membranes that bind species like viruses preferentially at lipid phase boundaries, to name a few.

  6. Immuno-Northern Blotting: Detection of RNA Modifications by Using Antibodies against Modified Nucleosides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Eikan; Jinno, Daisuke; Akiyama, Yasutoshi; Itoh, Kunihiko; Nankumo, Shinnosuke; Shima, Hisato; Kikuchi, Koichi; Takeuchi, Yoichi; Elkordy, Alaa; Suzuki, Takehiro; Niizuma, Kuniyasu; Ito, Sadayoshi; Tomioka, Yoshihisa; Abe, Takaaki

    2015-01-01

    The biological roles of RNA modifications are still largely not understood. Thus, developing a method for detecting RNA modifications is important for further clarification. We developed a method for detecting RNA modifications called immuno-northern blotting (INB) analysis and herein introduce its various capabilities. This method involves the separation of RNAs using either polyacrylamide or agarose gel electrophoresis, followed by transfer onto a nylon membrane and subsequent immunoblotting using antibodies against modified nucleosides for the detection of specific modifications. We confirmed that INB with the antibodies for 1-methyladenosine (m1A), N6-methyladenosine (m6A), pseudouridine, and 5-methylcytidine (m5C) showed different modifications in a variety of RNAs from various species and organelles. INB with the anti-m5C antibody revealed that the antibody cross-reacted with another modification on DNA, suggesting the application of this method for characterization of the antibody for modified nucleosides. Additionally, using INB with the antibody for m1A, which is a highly specific modification in eukaryotic tRNA, we detected tRNA-derived fragments known as tiRNAs under the cellular stress response, suggesting the application for tracking target RNA containing specific modifications. INB with the anti-m6A antibody confirmed the demethylation of m6A by the specific demethylases fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) and ALKBH5, suggesting its application for quantifying target modifications in separated RNAs. Furthermore, INB demonstrated that the knockdown of FTO and ALKBH5 increased the m6A modification in small RNAs as well as in mRNA. The INB method has high specificity, sensitivity, and quantitative capability, and it can be employed with conventional experimental apparatus. Therefore, this method would be useful for research on RNA modifications and metabolism.

  7. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nicholas H; Arsenault, Julie; Hatchette, Todd F; Mechai, Samir; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2017-01-01

    Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]). Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6)-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  8. Antibody responses to Borrelia burgdorferi detected by western blot vary geographically in Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas H Ogden

    Full Text Available Lyme disease is emerging in eastern and central Canada, and most cases are diagnosed using the two-tier serological test (Enzyme Immuno Assay [EIA] followed by Western blot [WB]. Simplification of this algorithm would be advantageous unless it impacts test performance. In this study, accuracy of individual proteins of the IgG WB algorithm in predicting the overall test result in samples from Canadians was assessed. Because Borrelia burgdorferi strains vary geographically in Canada, geographic variations in serological responses were also explored. Metrics of relative sensitivity, specificity and the kappa statistic measure of concordance were used to assess the capacity of responses to individual proteins to predict the overall IgG WB result of 2524 EIA (C6-positive samples from across Canada. Geographic and interannual variations in proportions of samples testing positive were explored by logistic regression. No one protein was highly concordant with the IgG WB result. Significant variations were found amongst years and geographic regions in the prevalence of samples testing positive using the overall IgG WB algorithm, and for individual proteins of the algorithm. In most cases the prevalence of samples testing positive were highest in Nova Scotia, and lower in samples from Manitoba westwards. These findings suggest that the current two tier test may not be simplified and continued use of the current two-tier test method and interpretation is recommended. Geographic and interannual variations in the prevalence of samples testing positive may be consistent with B. burgdorferi strain variation in Canada, and further studies are needed to explore this.

  9. Hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    The rationale for hybrid fusion-fission reactors is the production of fissile fuel for fission reactors. A new class of reactor, the fission-suppressed hybrid promises unusually good safety features as well as the ability to support 25 light-water reactors of the same nuclear power rating, or even more high-conversion-ratio reactors such as the heavy-water type. One 4000-MW nuclear hybrid can produce 7200 kg of 233 U per year. To obtain good economics, injector efficiency times plasma gain (eta/sub i/Q) should be greater than 2, the wall load should be greater than 1 MW.m -2 , and the hybrid should cost less than 6 times the cost of a light-water reactor. Introduction rates for the fission-suppressed hybrid are usually rapid

  10. Product-selective blot: a technique for measuring enzyme activities in large numbers of samples and in native electrophoresis gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, G.A.; Davies, H.M.; McDonald, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method termed product-selective blotting has been developed for screening large numbers of samples for enzyme activity. The technique is particularly well suited to detection of enzymes in native electrophoresis gels. The principle of the method was demonstrated by blotting samples from glutaminase or glutamate synthase reactions into an agarose gel embedded with ion-exchange resin under conditions favoring binding of product (glutamate) over substrates and other substances in the reaction mixture. After washes to remove these unbound substances, the product was measured using either fluorometric staining or radiometric techniques. Glutaminase activity in native electrophoresis gels was visualized by a related procedure in which substrates and products from reactions run in the electrophoresis gel were blotted directly into a resin-containing image gel. Considering the selective-binding materials available for use in the image gel, along with the possible detection systems, this method has potentially broad application

  11. Simultaneous liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry determination of both polar and "multiresidue" pesticides in food using parallel hydrophilic interaction/reversed-phase liquid chromatography and a hybrid sample preparation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Molina, José; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2017-09-29

    Pesticide testing of foodstuffs is usually accomplished with generic wide-scope multi-residue methods based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). However, this approach does not cover some special pesticides, the so called "single-residue method" compounds, that are hardly compatible with standard reversed-phase (RP) separations due to their specific properties. In this article, we propose a comprehensive strategy for the integration of single residue method compounds and standard multiresidue pesticides within a single run. It is based on the use of a parallel LC column assembly with two different LC gradients performing orthogonal hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) and reversed-phase (RPLC) chromatography within one analytical run. Two sample aliquots were simultaneously injected on each column, using different gradients, being the eluents merged post-column prior to mass spectrometry detection. The approach was tested with 41 multiclass pesticides covering a wide range of physicochemical properties across several orders of log K ow (from -4 to +5.5). With this assembly, distinct separation from the void was attained for all the pesticides studied, keeping similar performance in terms of sensitivity, peak area reproducibility (pesticides) method was evaluated based on solvent extraction with MeOH and acetonitrile followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction, delivering appropriate recoveries for most of the pesticides included in the study within the log K ow in the range from -4 to +5.5. The proposed strategy may be extended to other fields such as sport drug testing or environmental analysis, where the same type of variety of analytes featuring poor retention within a single chromatographic separation occurs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Testing for myositis specific autoantibodies: Comparison between line blot and immunoprecipitation assays in 57 myositis sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavazzana, Ilaria; Fredi, Micaela; Ceribelli, Angela; Mordenti, Cristina; Ferrari, Fabio; Carabellese, Nice; Tincani, Angela; Satoh, Minoru; Franceschini, Franco

    2016-06-01

    To analyze the performance of a line blot assay for the identification of autoantibodies in sera of patients affected by myositis, compared with immunoprecipitation (IP) as gold standard. 66 sera of patients with myositis (23 polymyositis, 8 anti-synthetase syndromes, 29 dermatomyositis and 6 overlap syndromes) were tested by commercial LB (Euroimmun, Lubeck, Germany); 57 sera were analyzed also by IP of K562 cell extract radiolabeled with (35)S-methionine. Inter-rater agreement was calculated with Cohen's k coefficient. Myositis-specific antibodies (MSA) were detected in 36/57 sera (63%) by IP and in 39/66 sera (59%) by LB. The most frequent MSA found by LB were anti-Jo1 and anti-Mi2 found in 15% (10/66) of sera, followed by anti-NXP2 and anti-SRP detected in 106% (7/66) of sera. Anti-TIF1gamma and anti-MDA5 were found in 6 (9%) and 5 sera (7.6%), respectively. A good agreement between methods was found only for anti-TIF1γ, anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP-2 antibodies, while a moderate agreement was estimated for anti-Mi2 and anti-EJ. By contrast, a high discordance rate for the detection of anti-Jo1 antibodies was evident (k: 0.3). Multiple positivity for MSA were found in 11/66 (17%) by LB and 0/57 by IP (p: 0001). Comparing the clinical features of these 11 sera, we found total discrepancies between assays in 3 sera (27.3%), a relative discrepancy due to the occurrence of one discordant autoantibody (not confirmed by IP) in 5 cases (45.5%) and a total discrepancy between LB and IP results, but with a relative concordance with clinical features were found in other 3 sera (27.3%). The semiquantitative results do not support the interpretation of the data. The use of LB assay allowed the detection of new MSA, such as anti-MDA5, anti-MJ and anti-TIF1gamma antibodies, previously not found with routine methods. However, the high prevalence of multiple positivities and the high discondant rate of anti-Jo1 antibodies could create some misinterpretation of the results from the

  13. Reversible flowchart languages and the structured reversible program theorem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Many irreversible computation models have reversible counterparts, but these are poorly understood at present. We introduce reversible flowcharts with an assertion operator and show that any reversible flowchart can be simulated by a structured reversible flowchart using only three control flow...... operators. Reversible flowcharts are r- Turing-complete, meaning that they can simuluate reversible Turing machines without garbage data. We also demonstrate the injectivization of classical flowcharts into reversible flowcharts. The reversible flowchart computation model provides a theoretical...

  14. Introduction to reversible computing

    CERN Document Server

    Perumalla, Kalyan S

    2013-01-01

    Few books comprehensively cover the software and programming aspects of reversible computing. Filling this gap, Introduction to Reversible Computing offers an expanded view of the field that includes the traditional energy-motivated hardware viewpoint as well as the emerging application-motivated software approach. Collecting scattered knowledge into one coherent account, the book provides a compendium of both classical and recently developed results on reversible computing. It explores up-and-coming theories, techniques, and tools for the application of rever

  15. Hybrid composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacob John, Maya

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available mixed short sisal/glass hybrid fibre reinforced low density polyethylene composites was investigated by Kalaprasad et al [25].Chemical surface modifications such as alkali, acetic anhydride, stearic acid, permanganate, maleic anhydride, silane...

  16. Hybrid intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Cetorelli, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    I introduce the concept of hybrid intermediaries: financial conglomerates that control a multiplicity of entity types active in the "assembly line" process of modern financial intermediation, a system that has become known as shadow banking. The complex bank holding companies of today are the best example of hybrid intermediaries, but I argue that financial firms from the "nonbank" space can just as easily evolve into conglomerates with similar organizational structure, thus acquiring the cap...

  17. Reversibility of female sterilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, A M; Hulka, J; Peretz, A

    1985-04-01

    The discussion considers the current status of reversibility of sterilization in the US and describes clinical and experimental efforts for developing techniques designed for reversibility. It focuses on regret following sterilization, reversal potential of current sterilization techniques, patient selection, current reversal techniques, results of sterilization procedures, experimental approaches to reversal of current techniques of sterilization, and sterilization procedures devised for reversibility, in humans and in animals. Request is the 1st stage of reversal, but a request for sterilization reversal (SR) does not always mean regret for a decision made at the time. Frequently it is a wish to restore fertility because life circumstances have changed after a sterilization that was ppropriate at the time it was performed. Schwyhart and Kutner reviewed 22 studies published between 1949-69 in which they found that the percentage of patients regretting the procedure ranged from 1.3-15%. Requests for reversal remain low in most countries, but if sterilization becomes a more popular method of contraception, requests will also increase. The ideal operation considered as a reversaible method of sterilization should include an easy, reliable outpatient method of tubal occlusion with miniml risk or patient discomfort that subsequently could be reversed without the need for a major surgical intervention. Endoscopic methods have progressed toward the 1st objective. A recent search of the literature uncovered few series of SR of more than 50 cases. The 767 operations found were analyzed with regard to pregnancy outcome. The precent of live births varied from 74-78.8%, and the occurance of tubal pregnancies ranged from 1.7-6.5%. All of the confounding variables in patient selection and small numbers of reported procedures preclude any conclusion about the different techniques or the number of operations that give a surgeon a level of expertise. Few authors classify their

  18. Quantum reverse hypercontractivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cubitt, Toby [Department of Computer Science, University College London, London, United Kingdom and Centre for Quantum Information and Foundations, DAMTP, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kastoryano, Michael [NBIA, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Montanaro, Ashley [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol (United Kingdom); Temme, Kristan [Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We develop reverse versions of hypercontractive inequalities for quantum channels. By generalizing classical techniques, we prove a reverse hypercontractive inequality for tensor products of qubit depolarizing channels. We apply this to obtain a rapid mixing result for depolarizing noise applied to large subspaces and to prove bounds on a quantum generalization of non-interactive correlation distillation.

  19. Atrioventricular Pacemaker Lead Reversal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet K Aktas, MD

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During cardiac surgery temporary epicardial atrial and ventricular leads are placed in case cardiac pacing is required postoperatively. We present the first reported series of patients with reversal of atrioventricular electrodes in the temporary pacemaker without any consequent deleterious hemodynamic effect. We review the electrocardiographic findings and discuss the findings that lead to the discovery of atrioventricular lead reversal.

  20. A single-step simultaneous protein staining procedure for polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Jayanta K; Berwal, Sunil K; Soni, Rupali N

    2012-01-01

    A simple method for staining of proteins simultaneously on sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gels and nitrocellulose membranes by Alta during western blot analysis is described. A 5% solution of Alta, a commercially available cosmetic preparation, is added in the upper tank buffer during electrophoresis. On completion of electrophoresis, the gel is washed in distilled water and viewed on a white light plate and a transilluminator to photograph the protein profiles. The gel is processed for western blot transfer of proteins onto a nitrocellulose membrane, and upon completion, the protein profiles on the membrane are viewed and photographed as stated above. The membrane can then be processed for immunostaining as per the standard procedure. Thus, the staining procedure using Alta is simple, rapid (without any need of destaining), and cost-effective.

  1. Detection of Food Spoilage and Pathogenic Bacteria Based on Ligation Detection Reaction Coupled to Flow-Through Hybridization on Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Böhme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional culturing methods are still commonly applied for bacterial identification in the food control sector, despite being time and labor intensive. Microarray technologies represent an interesting alternative. However, they require higher costs and technical expertise, making them still inappropriate for microbial routine analysis. The present study describes the development of an efficient method for bacterial identification based on flow-through reverse dot-blot (FT-RDB hybridization on membranes, coupled to the high specific ligation detection reaction (LDR. First, the methodology was optimized by testing different types of ligase enzymes, labeling, and membranes. Furthermore, specific oligonucleotide probes were designed based on the 16S rRNA gene, using the bioinformatic tool Oligonucleotide Retrieving for Molecular Applications (ORMA. Four probes were selected and synthesized, being specific for Aeromonas spp., Pseudomonas spp., Shewanella spp., and Morganella morganii, respectively. For the validation of the probes, 16 reference strains from type culture collections were tested by LDR and FT-RDB hybridization using universal arrays spotted onto membranes. In conclusion, the described methodology could be applied for the rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of bacterial species, exhibiting special relevance in food safety and quality.

  2. An algebra of reversible computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong

    2016-01-01

    We design an axiomatization for reversible computation called reversible ACP (RACP). It has four extendible modules: basic reversible processes algebra, algebra of reversible communicating processes, recursion and abstraction. Just like process algebra ACP in classical computing, RACP can be treated as an axiomatization foundation for reversible computation.

  3. Explaining Polarization Reversals in STEREO Wave Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breneman, A.; Cattell, C.; Wygant, J.; Kersten, K.; Wilson, L, B., III; Dai, L.; Colpitts, C.; Kellogg, P. J.; Goetz, K.; Paradise, A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently Breneman et al. reported observations of large amplitude lightning and transmitter whistler mode waves from two STEREO passes through the inner radiation belt (Lpaper. We show, with a combination of observations and simulated wave superposition, that these polarization reversals are due to the beating of an incident electromagnetic whistler mode wave at 21.4 kHz and linearly polarized, symmetric lower hybrid sidebands Doppler-shifted from the incident wave by +/-200 Hz. The existence of the lower hybrid waves is consistent with the parametric decay mechanism of Lee and Kuo whereby an incident whistler mode wave decays into symmetric, short wavelength lower hybrid waves and a purely growing (zero-frequency) mode. Like the lower hybrid waves, the purely growing mode is Doppler-shifted by 200 Hz as observed on STEREO. This decay mechanism in the upper ionosphere has been previously reported at equatorial latitudes and is thought to have a direct connection with explosive spread F enhancements. As such it may represent another dissipation mechanism of VLF wave energy in the ionosphere and may help to explain a deficit of observed lightning and transmitter energy in the inner radiation belts as reported by Starks et al.

  4. Sex reversal in vertebrates

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This special topic issue of Sexual Development gives an overview of sex reversal in vertebrates, from fishes naturally changing their sex, to rodents escaping the mammalian SRY-determining system. It offers eight up-to-date reviews on specific subjects in sex reversal, considering fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, marsupials, and placental mammals, including humans. The broad scope of represented animals makes this ideal for students and researchers, especially those interested in the...

  5. Hybrid stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hybrid stars. AsHOK GOYAL. Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India. Abstract. Recently there have been important developments in the determination of neutron ... number and the electric charge. ... available to the system to rearrange concentration of charges for a given fraction of.

  6. On thermodynamic and microscopic reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, Gavin E

    2011-01-01

    The word 'reversible' has two (apparently) distinct applications in statistical thermodynamics. A thermodynamically reversible process indicates an experimental protocol for which the entropy change is zero, whereas the principle of microscopic reversibility asserts that the probability of any trajectory of a system through phase space equals that of the time reversed trajectory. However, these two terms are actually synonymous: a thermodynamically reversible process is microscopically reversible, and vice versa

  7. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N., E-mail: aravalli@umn.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 292, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Park, Chang W. [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Steer, Clifford J., E-mail: steer001@umn.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MMC 36, 420 Delaware Street SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Department of Genetics, Cell Biology and Development, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2016-08-26

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  8. Detection of Sleeping Beauty transposition in the genome of host cells by non-radioactive Southern blot analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aravalli, Rajagopal N.; Park, Chang W.; Steer, Clifford J.

    2016-01-01

    The Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB-Tn) system is being used widely as a DNA vector for the delivery of therapeutic transgenes, as well as a tool for the insertional mutagenesis in animal models. In order to accurately assess the insertional potential and properties related to the integration of SB it is essential to determine the copy number of SB-Tn in the host genome. Recently developed SB100X transposase has demonstrated an integration rate that was much higher than the original SB10 and that of other versions of hyperactive SB transposases, such as HSB3 or HSB17. In this study, we have constructed a series of SB vectors carrying either a DsRed or a human β-globin transgene that was encompassed by cHS4 insulator elements, and containing the SB100X transposase gene outside the SB-Tn unit within the same vector in cis configuration. These SB-Tn constructs were introduced into the K-562 erythroid cell line, and their presence in the genomes of host cells was analyzed by Southern blot analysis using non-radioactive probes. Many copies of SB-Tn insertions were detected in host cells regardless of transgene sequences or the presence of cHS4 insulator elements. Interestingly, the size difference of 2.4 kb between insulated SB and non-insulated controls did not reflect the proportional difference in copy numbers of inserted SB-Tns. We then attempted methylation-sensitive Southern blots to assess the potential influence of cHS4 insulator elements on the epigenetic modification of SB-Tn. Our results indicated that SB100X was able to integrate at multiple sites with the number of SB-Tn copies larger than 6 kb in size. In addition, the non-radioactive Southern blot protocols developed here will be useful to detect integrated SB-Tn copies in any mammalian cell type.

  9. Western blot banding pattern in early Lyme borreliosis among patients from an endemic region of north-eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisiak, R; Wierzbicka, I; Prokopowicz, D

    1998-01-01

    Aim of this study was evaluation of Western blot banding patterns in different clinical forms of early Lyme borreliosis diagnosed in patients from north-eastern Poland, recognized as endemic for tick-borne diseases. Study was performed on serum samples of 48 patients with Lyme borreliosis and 26 healthy volunteers, as controls. Samples tested routinely for total antibody with enzyme immunoassay were subsequently analysed for specific antibodies with Western blot based on antigen extract of European strain of Borrelia burgdorferi. In patients, IgM antibodies were the most frequently directed against 41 kDa and 58 kDa antigens, whereas in control group only antibodies against 45 kDa and 58 kDa were present. Similar response was observed in respect to IgG antibodies. Evaluation of banding pattern in respect to clinical form of the disease revealed the highest prevalence of IgM and IgG anti-41 kDa antibodies in patients with erythema migrans and Lyme arthritis, and anti-58 kDa in neuroborreliosis patients, who had no anti-21 kDa antibodies. Relatively high frequency of IgG antibodies against 21, 30 and 93 kDa antigens was typical for neuroborreliosis. Bands count was significantly higher in different clinical forms of the disease than in controls, and it was the highest in neuroborreliosis. Combined analysis of Western blot results (IgM/IgG) enabled to achieve higher sensitivity (84%) and specificity (100%) than available with the most recommended EIA kits.

  10. La técnica de Western Blot como criterio de identidad para la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B Western Blot technique as an identity criterion for Men B antimeningococcal vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rosario Diéguez Castro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Se desarrolló y validó la técnica de Western Blot aplicada a la vacuna antimeningocócica Men B producida en el Instituto Finlay con el objetivo de demostrar un criterio de identidad. En el estudio de las proteínas antigénicas de la vacuna, P1.15 y P1.4 en vesícula de membrana externa,monograneles y producto final se emplearon en la identificación anticuerpos monoclonales específicos para estas proteínas. Los parámetros desarrollados en la validación de la técnica fueron: especificidad, límite de detección, repetibilidad, precisión intermedia, reproducibilidad y robustez. El método cumplió con los parámetros señalados, por lo que se consideró validado.Western Blot technique was developed and validated, applied to Men B meningococcal vaccine produced in "Carlos J, Finlay" Institute to demonstrate an identity criterion. In study of antigenic proteins of the vaccine, we used P1.15 y P1.4 in vesicle of external membrane, monogranels, and end product to identify the monoclonal antibodies specific of these proteins. Parameters developed in technique validation included: specificity, detection limit, repetition, average accuracy, reproduction, and strength. Method fulfilled with specified parameters, thus considering its validation.

  11. Mere end blot en bid af hverdagen- Måltidet i et leve- og bomiljø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Karen Marie

    2005-01-01

    . Datamaterialet bygger på deltagerobservationer og interviews. Undersøgelsen viste, at den måde måltiderne var organiseret på gav tid og rum til en hjemlig atmosfære, til et levende fællesskab, til det at være noget og at være sig selv og til at have værdifulde gøremål. Måltiderne var ikke blot en bid – men en...

  12. A photoactivated artificial muscle model unit: reversible, photoinduced sliding of nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabetani, Yu; Takamura, Hazuki; Hayasaka, Yuika; Shimada, Tetsuya; Takagi, Shinsuke; Tachibana, Hiroshi; Masui, Dai; Tong, Zhiwei; Inoue, Haruo

    2011-11-02

    A novel photoactivated artificial muscle model unit is reported. Here we show that organic/inorganic hybrid nanosheets reversibly slide horizontally on a giant scale and the interlayer spaces in the layered hybrid structure shrink and expand vertically by photoirradiation. The sliding movement of the system on a giant scale is the first example of an artificial muscle model unit having much similarity with that in natural muscle fibrils. In particular, our layered hybrid molecular system exhibits a macroscopic morphological change on a giant scale (~1500 nm) relative to the molecular size of ~1 nm by means of a reversible sliding mechanism.

  13. Reversible Communicating Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Brown

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reversible distributed programs have the ability to abort unproductive computation paths and backtrack, while unwinding communication that occurred in the aborted paths. While it is natural to assume that reversibility implies full state recovery (as with traditional roll-back recovery protocols, an interesting alternative is to separate backtracking from local state recovery. For example, such a model could be used to create complex transactions out of nested compensable transactions where a programmer-supplied compensation defines the work required to "unwind" a transaction. Reversible distributed computing has received considerable theoretical attention, but little reduction to practice; the few published implementations of languages supporting reversibility depend upon a high degree of central control. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate that a practical reversible distributed language can be efficiently implemented in a fully distributed manner. We discuss such a language, supporting CSP-style synchronous communication, embedded in Scala. While this language provided the motivation for the work described in this paper, our focus is upon the distributed implementation. In particular, we demonstrate that a "high-level" semantic model can be implemented using a simple point-to-point protocol.

  14. Economic impact of reversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Estimations of the Norwegian hydropower production and various reversion models' market value have been made. The value of the Norwegian hydropower production until 01.01.2007 is estimated to about Nok 289 billion after taxes, or about 2,42 Nok/kWh medium production, given an expected future electricity price of around 0,25 Nok/kWh and a discount rate at 6,5 percent in nominal terms after taxes. The estimate is slightly above the level of prices for Norwegian hydropower plants in the last 8-10 years. The value of reversion in private plants which today have a limited licence time is estimated to Nok 5,5 billion. The value of reversion in public-owned Norwegian hydropower plants are about Nok 21 billion with a 60 year licence period from 01.01.2007, and about 12 billion for 75 years (ml)

  15. Reversible deep disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-10-01

    This presentation, given by the national agency of radioactive waste management (ANDRA) at the meeting of October 8, 2009 of the high committee for the nuclear safety transparency and information (HCTISN), describes the concept of deep reversible disposal for high level/long living radioactive wastes, as considered by the ANDRA in the framework of the program law of June 28, 2006 about the sustainable management of radioactive materials and wastes. The document presents the social and political reasons of reversibility, the technical means considered (containers, disposal cavities, monitoring system, test facilities and industrial prototypes), the decisional process (progressive development and blocked off of the facility, public information and debate). (J.S.)

  16. Label-free DNA quantification via a 'pipette, aggregate and blot' (PAB) approach with magnetic silica particles on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingyi; Liu, Qian; Alsamarri, Hussein; Lounsbury, Jenny A; Haversitick, Doris M; Landers, James P

    2013-03-07

    Reliable measurement of DNA concentration is essential for a broad range of applications in biology and molecular biology, and for many of these, quantifying the nucleic acid content is inextricably linked to obtaining optimal results. In its most simplistic form, quantitative analysis of nucleic acids can be accomplished by UV-Vis absorbance and, in more sophisticated format, by fluorimetry. A recently reported new concept, the 'pinwheel assay', involves a label-free approach for quantifying DNA through aggregation of paramagnetic beads in a rotating magnetic field. Here, we describe a simplified version of that assay adapted for execution using only a pipet and filter paper. The 'pipette, aggregate, and blot' (PAB) approach allows DNA to induce bead aggregation in a pipette tip through exposure to a magnetic field, followed by dispensing (blotting) onto filter paper. The filter paper immortalises the extent of aggregation, and digital images of the immortalized bead conformation, acquired with either a document scanner or a cell phone camera, allows for DNA quantification using a noncomplex algorithm. Human genomic DNA samples extracted from blood are quantified with the PAB approach and the results utilized to define the volume of sample used in a PCR reaction that is sensitive to input mass of template DNA. Integrating the PAB assay with paper-based DNA extraction and detection modalities has the potential to yield 'DNA quant-on-paper' devices that may be useful for point-of-care testing.

  17. Profiling EGFR activity in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by using a novel layered membrane Western blot technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vyomesh; Ramesh, Arun; Traicoff, June L; Baibakov, Galina; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Gutkind, J Silvio; Knezevic, Vladimir

    2005-05-01

    Given the role of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), several rational approaches have now been utilized to abrogate tyrosine kinase activity and its disengagement from downstream signal transducers. Monitoring the activity of these molecules could potentially be useful to determine not only drug efficacy but also to identify HNSCC patients most likely to benefit from this type of therapy. In this study we have used a novel high throughput multi-layered Western blotting (MLWestern) method that allows the detection of multiple proteins from a single experiment in order to characterize key components in the EGFR signaling pathway in HNSCC cells. Total and activated forms of EGFR and the downstream effectors, Erk and Akt were readily detected in HNSCC cells, where in the control cells (HaCaT) these proteins could only be detected in EGF stimulated cells. Results from conventional Western blot and MLWestern were comparable. Clustering analysis of protein expression revealed similarities in cellular response between some of the cell lines indicative of similarities in their biological response. The data indicate that MLWestern can be potentially applied to identify molecular targets that could be used for rational therapeutic intervention strategies.

  18. Quantum dot bio-conjugate: as a western blot probe for highly sensitive detection of cellular proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kale, Sonia [Agharkar Research Institute (India); Kale, Anup [University of Alabama, Center for Materials for Information Technology (United States); Gholap, Haribhau; Rana, Abhimanyu [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Desai, Rama [National Centre for Cell Science (India); Banpurkar, Arun [University of Pune, Department of Physics (India); Ogale, Satishchandra, E-mail: sb.ogale@ncl.res.in [National Chemical Laboratory, Physical and Materials Chemistry Division (India); Shastry, Padma, E-mail: padma@nccs.res.in [National Centre for Cell Science (India)

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, we report a quantum dot (QD)-tailored western blot analysis for a sensitive, rapid and flexible detection of the nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. Highly luminescent CdTe and (CdTe)ZnS QDs are synthesized by aqueous method. High resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction are used to characterize the properties of the quantum dots. The QDs are functionalized with antibodies of prostate apoptosis response-4 (Par-4), poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases and {beta} actin to specifically bind with the proteins localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm of the cells, respectively. The QD-conjugated antibodies are used to overcome the limitations of conventional western blot technique. The sensitivity and rapidity of protein detection in QD-based approach is very high, with detection limits up to 10 pg of protein. In addition, these labels provide the capability of enhanced identification and localization of marker proteins in intact cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  19. Mere end blot pirringer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Christian; Østergaard, Per

    2006-01-01

    Med udgangspunkt i en række cases på vellykkede oplevelsesøkonomiske forretningsmodeller argumenterer artiklen for, at oplevelsesprodukter skal bygge på et klart tema, som forbrugeren kan koble sig sanse- og følelsesmæssigt op på. Forbrugeren skal kunne omsætte produktets pirringer til egne erfar...

  20. Ej blot til lyst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leroyer, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to reassert the crucial importance of access to data in lexicographic information tools and, expanding on this, to establish the existence of two distinct lexicographic access modes - consultation and navigation. It is explained how the tools can be decalibrated whe...... balance between user, access, and data is disturbed, and how access to data then is jeopardized. Taking online wine guides as a case in point, it is shown how such multifunctional information tools do benefit from a lexicographic design featuring both access modes....

  1. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of 'cold' and 'warm' materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  2. Thermosensory reversal effect quantified

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2008-01-01

    At room temperature, some materials feel colder than others due to differences in thermal conductivity, heat capacity and geometry. When the ambient temperature is well above skin temperature, the roles of ‘cold’ and ‘warm’ materials are reversed. In this paper, this effect is quantified by

  3. Time reversal communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, James V.; Meyer, Alan W.

    2008-12-02

    A system of transmitting a signal through a channel medium comprises digitizing the signal, time-reversing the digitized signal, and transmitting the signal through the channel medium. The channel medium may be air, earth, water, tissue, metal, and/or non-metal.

  4. Engineering Encounters: Reverse Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Veronica Cassone; Ventura, Marcia; Bell, Philip

    2017-01-01

    This column presents ideas and techniques to enhance your science teaching. This month's issue shares information on how students' everyday experiences can support science learning through engineering design. In this article, the authors outline a reverse-engineering model of instruction and describe one example of how it looked in our fifth-grade…

  5. Sex Reversal in Birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrew T; Smith, Craig A

    2016-01-01

    Sexual differentiation in birds is controlled genetically as in mammals, although the sex chromosomes are different. Males have a ZZ sex chromosome constitution, while females are ZW. Gene(s) on the sex chromosomes must initiate gonadal sex differentiation during embryonic life, inducing paired testes in ZZ individuals and unilateral ovaries in ZW individuals. The traditional view of avian sexual differentiation aligns with that expounded for other vertebrates; upon sexual differentiation, the gonads secrete sex steroid hormones that masculinise or feminise the rest of the body. However, recent studies on naturally occurring or experimentally induced avian sex reversal suggest a significant role for direct genetic factors, in addition to sex hormones, in regulating sexual differentiation of the soma in birds. This review will provide an overview of sex determination in birds and both naturally and experimentally induced sex reversal, with emphasis on the key role of oestrogen. We then consider how recent studies on sex reversal and gynandromorphic birds (half male:half female) are shaping our understanding of sexual differentiation in avians and in vertebrates more broadly. Current evidence shows that sexual differentiation in birds is a mix of direct genetic and hormonal mechanisms. Perturbation of either of these components may lead to sex reversal. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Elastomers with Reversible Nanoporosity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szewczykowski, Piotr Przemyslaw; Andersen, K.; Schulte, Lars

    2009-01-01

    nanostructure and displays liquid-filled cavities. Upon several cycles of swelling and drying the cavities open and close in a reversible fashion. When exposed to a nonsolvent, the material remains collapsed. This discriminating behavior of liquid-material interaction holds potential for the use...

  7. Hybrid Qualifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Against the background of increasing qualification needs there is a growing awareness of the challenge to widen participation in processes of skill formation and competence development. At the same time, the issue of permeability between vocational education and training (VET) and general education...... has turned out as a major focus of European education and training policies and certainly is a crucial principle underlying the European Qualifications Framework (EQF). In this context, «hybrid qualifications» (HQ) may be seen as an interesting approach to tackle these challenges as they serve «two...

  8. Hybrid Gear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handschuh, Robert F. (Inventor); Roberts, Gary D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid gear consisting of metallic outer rim with gear teeth and metallic hub in combination with a composite lay up between the shaft interface (hub) and gear tooth rim is described. The composite lay-up lightens the gear member while having similar torque carrying capability and it attenuates the impact loading driven noise/vibration that is typical in gear systems. The gear has the same operational capability with respect to shaft speed, torque, and temperature as an all-metallic gear as used in aerospace gear design.

  9. Stellarmak a hybrid stellarator: Spheromak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses hybridization of modified Stellarator-like transform windings (T-windings) with a Spheromak or Field-Reversed-Mirror configuration. This configuration, Stellarmak, retains the important topological advantage of the Spheromak or FRM of having no plasma linking conductors or blankets. The T-windings provide rotational transformation in toroidal angle of the outer poloidal field lines, in effect creating a reversed B/sub Toroidal/ Spheromak or adding average B/sub T/ to the FRM producing higher shear, increased limiting β, and possibly greater stability to kinks and tilt. The presence of field ripple in the toroidal direction may be sufficient to inhibit cancellation of directed ion current by electron drag to allow steady state operation with the toroidal as well as poloidal current maintained by neutral beams

  10. Detection of anti-HIV-1 IgG antibodies in whole saliva by GACELISA and Western blot assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matee, M I; Lyamuya, E F; Simon, E; Mbena, E C; Kagoma, C; Samaranayake, L P; Scheutz, F

    1996-05-01

    The present study, based on 158 HIV seropositives and 167 HIV seronegatives, demonstrates that saliva collected with the Omni-SAL device and tested with GACELISA (an IgG antibody capture ELISA) is an effective non-invasive alternative to serum for anti-HIV IgG antibody screening. The study also shows that a conventional serum Western blot kit can be used, with slight modifications, for confirmatory testing of saliva specimens. Collecting saliva with the Omni-SAL device had a very good acceptance rate among Tanzanian subjects, and although this diagnostic method is not yet known by the general public, 65% of the study participants preferred to give saliva instead of blood for HIV testing.

  11. Evaluation of a new eastern blotting technique for the analysis of ginsenoside Re in American ginseng berry pulp extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinaga, Osamu; Uto, Takuhiro; Yuan, Chun-Su; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Shoyama, Yukihiro

    2010-06-01

    A new eastern blotting technique has been established for ginsenoside Re (G-Re) contained in American ginseng berry pulp extracts. G-Re in American ginseng berry pulp was extracted using 100% methanol, 100% ethanol, 50% aqueous methanol, and 50% aqueous ethanol. The combined crude extracts were applied onto a polyethersulfone membrane and developed using the methanol-water-acetic acid solvent system (45:55:1 v/v). Separated components were immunostained using anti-G-Re monoclonal antibody. G-Re was first specifically detected and then quantitatively analyzed using NIH Imaging software. We also confirmed that the most suitable solvent was 50% aqueous methanol for extracting G-Re from American ginseng berry pulp. (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intuitionistic hybrid logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braüner, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area.......Intuitionistic hybrid logic is hybrid modal logic over an intuitionistic logic basis instead of a classical logical basis. In this short paper we introduce intuitionistic hybrid logic and we give a survey of work in the area....

  13. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  14. Southern blot analysis of skin biopsies for human papillomavirus DNA: renal allograft recipients in south-eastern Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenfield, K; Salmond, C A; Pope, J H; Hardie, I R

    1993-01-01

    The 104 skin biopsies from 34 patients who attended a Renal Transplant Unit in Brisbane over 12 months included 40 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), 22 solar keratoses, 4 hyperkeratoses, 18 warts and 11 basal cell carcinoma (BCC). Human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was identified by Southern blot hybridisation using, as individual probes, purified insert DNA from recombinant HPV 1, 2, 3 or 3/10, 4, 5 or 5/8, 7, 11, 16, 18 and 41 under relaxed conditions and characterised by restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blot hybridisation under more stringent conditions. Genomic HPV DNA was characterised in 7 skin biopsies from 4 renal allograft recipients (RARs): HPV 1A in a SCC (20 copies/cell) and a BCC (10 copies/cell) from the one patient, HPV 36 (20 copies/cell) in a SCC, HPV 1A [symbol: see text] 1000 copies/cell) in a wart and HPV 2B (200-800 copies/cell) in 3 warts from the one patient. Only HPV 1A in the SCC exhibited a significant degree of subtype variation. HPV DNA was identified in another 5 skin biopsies from another 4 RARs: HPV 3A in a wart and a hyperkeratosis, HPV 3/10-related DNA in 2 solar keratoses and HPV 5/8-related DNA in another (20-50 copies/cell). The incidence of HPV 5 (or 5-related HPVs) in RAR SCC was very low and that of HPV DNA in RAR warts was lower than that recorded elsewhere but this was not due to insensitivity of the assays. There was no evidence for a role for HPV in the aetiology of skin cancer in RARs in south-eastern Queensland but the possibility remains that as yet unidentified HPV types are involved.

  15. [Western Blot diagnostic yield for simultaneous antibody-detection in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davelois, Kelly; Escalante, Hermes; Jara, César

    2016-01-01

    . To determine the diagnostic yield using western blotting to simultaneously detect antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and human fascioliasis. Materials and methods . Cross-sectional study of diagnostic yield assessment. Excretory/secretory antigens were obtained from Taenia solium larvae, Echinococcus granulosus cysts, and the adult flukes of Fasciola hepática, which were then separated using the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, transferred, and attached to a nitrocellulose membrane to be probed with sera from the patient infected with the three parasites. The sensitivity of the technique was assessed using 300 individual serum samples, 60 pools of two parasites, and 20 pools of three parasites with 75 sera from patients with other parasites, 10 from patients with other diseases, and 15 from patients without parasites. Results . The technique revealed 13 glycoproteins (GP): GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14, and 13 kDa for cysticercosis; GP 8, 16, and 21 kDa for hydatidosis; and GP 17 and 23 kDa for fascioliasis. The test detected the presence of antibodies with a sensitivity of 96% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 94.62-98.54%) in the detection of one or the thirteen bands, a specificity of 100% (95% CI = 99.50-100.00%); individually, there was a sensitivity for cysticercosis of 97% (95% CI = 93.16-100.00%), for hydatidosis of 94% (95% CI = 88.85-99.15%) and for fascioliasis of 96% (95% CI = 91.66-100.00%). Conclusions . Western blotting is effective in the simultaneous detection of antibodies in patients with human cysticercosis, hydatidosis, and fascioliasis, and it can be used as a diagnostic test to either rule out or confirm the presence of antibodies in endemic areas.

  16. Diagnostic potential of Western blot analysis of sera from dogs with leishmaniasis in endemic areas and significance of the pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, M J; Castillejo, S; Gallego, M; Fisa, R; Riera, M C; de Colmenares, M; Torras, S; Roura, X; Sentis, J; Portus, M

    1998-02-01

    Serum samples collected from 237 dogs in Catalonia (northeastern Spain) were screened by Western blot analysis to detect the presence of antibodies specific to different Leishmania infantum polypeptide fractions. Leishmaniasis was confirmed in 72 of these dogs by direct examination and/or culture. Another 165 animals from the Priorat region were studied periodically for 2-8 years between 1987 and 1995, giving a total of 565 determinations. A control group of 93 dogs from nonendemic areas was also studied. Sera from dogs with leishmaniasis recognized antigens with molecular weights ranging from 12 to 85 kD. The most sensitive antigens were those of 70, 65, 46, 30, 28, 14, and 12 kD, which were recognized by 75%, 75%, 78%, 75%, 81%, 79%, and 75%, respectively, of the sera from dogs with positive parasitologic examination results. Antigens of 70 and 65 kD were also recognized by two dogs from nonendemic areas. Antigens of 14 and 12 kD were the first to be recognized by sera of asymptomatic dogs with titers less than the cut-off value of the dot-ELISA that increased during the longitudinal study, and the presence of antibodies specific for these fractions was observed for up to six years before seroconversion observed by dot-ELISA. These antibodies were also the first to disappear in dogs in which the disease was self-limited. The study corroborates the high sensitivity and specificity of Western blots in the diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis when the bands of low molecular weight (less than 46 kD) are considered, and indicates that fractions of 14 and 12 kD are useful in detecting early forms of the disease.

  17. Murine interleukin 1 receptor. Direct identification by ligand blotting and purification to homogeneity of an interleukin 1-binding glycoprotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bird, T.A.; Gearing, A.J.; Saklatvala, J.

    1988-01-01

    Functional receptors (IL1-R) for the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin 1 (IL1) were solubilized from plasma membranes of the NOB-1 subclone of murine EL4 6.1 thymoma cells using the zwitterionic detergent 3[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS). Membrane extracts were subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, transferred to nitrocellulose membranes, and ligand blotted with 125 I-labeled recombinant human IL1 alpha in order to reveal proteins capable of specifically binding IL1. A single polydisperse polypeptide of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 was identified in this way, which bound IL1 alpha and IL1 beta with the same affinity as the IL1-R on intact NOB-1 cells (approximately equal to 10(-10) M). The IL1-binding polypeptide was only seen in membranes from IL1-R-bearing cells and did not react with interleukin 2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or interferon. IL1-R was purified to apparent homogeneity from solubilized NOB-1 membranes by affinity chromatography on wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose and IL1 alpha-Sepharose. Gel electrophoresis and silver staining of purified preparations revealed a single protein of Mr approximately equal to 80,000 which reacted positively in the ligand-blotting procedure and which we identify as the ligand-binding moiety of the murine IL1-R. Purified IL1-R exhibited the same affinity and specificity as the receptor on intact cells. The relationship of this protein to proteins identified by covalent cross-linking studies is discussed

  18. Reversed field pinch diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    The Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) is a toroidal, axisymmetric magnetic confinement configuration characterized by a magnetic field configuration in which the toroidal magnetic field is of similar strength to the poloidal field, and is reversed at the edge compared to the center. The RFP routinely operates at high beta, and is a strong candidate for a compact fusion device. Relevant attributes of the configuration will be presented, together with an overview of present and planned experiments and their diagnostics. RFP diagnostics are in many ways similar to those of other magnetic confinement devices (such as tokamaks); these lectures will point out pertinent differences, and will present some diagnostics which provide special insights into unique attributes of the RFP

  19. Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy (PRES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moron E, Fanny E; Diaz Marchan, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome (PRES) is a clinical Syndrome composed of cephalea, alteration in vision and convulsions, usually observed in patients with sudden elevation of arterial pressure. The imagenologic evidence shows reversible vasogenic brain edema without stroke. Its location is predominantly posterior; it affects the cortex and the subcortical white matter of the occipital, parietal and temporal lobes. The treatment with antihypertensive drugs and the removing of immunosupressor medication are generally associated with complete neurological recovery; this is reflected also in the images which return to their basal condition. The untreated hypertension, on the other side, can result in a progressive defect of the autoregulation system of the central nervous system with cerebral hemorrhage, irreversible brain stroke, coma and death

  20. Reversible infantile mitochondrial diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczonadi, Veronika; Bansagi, Boglarka; Horvath, Rita

    2015-05-01

    Mitochondrial diseases are usually severe and progressive conditions; however, there are rare forms that show remarkable spontaneous recoveries. Two homoplasmic mitochondrial tRNA mutations (m.14674T>C/G in mt-tRNA(Glu)) have been reported to cause severe infantile mitochondrial myopathy in the first months of life. If these patients survive the first year of life by extensive life-sustaining measures they usually recover and develop normally. Another mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of the 5-methylaminomethyl-2-thiouridylate methyltransferase (TRMU) causes severe liver failure in infancy, but similar to the reversible mitochondrial myopathy, within the first year of life these infants may also recover completely. Partial recovery has been noted in some other rare forms of mitochondrial disease due to deficiency of mitochondrial tRNA synthetases and mitochondrial tRNA modifying enzymes. Here we summarize the clinical presentation of these unique reversible mitochondrial diseases and discuss potential molecular mechanisms behind the reversibility. Understanding these mechanisms may provide the key to treatments of potential broader relevance in mitochondrial disease, where for the majority of the patients no effective treatment is currently available.

  1. Positioning paper on reversibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    After having recalled the legal framework adopted in 2006 for the deep geological storage of radioactive wastes, and briefly introduced the concept of reversibility, this publication presents the principle of geological storage, presents high and medium level and long life wastes, highlights the ethical necessity to deal with these radioactive wastes, outlines that geological storage is the generally admitted and adopted solution at the international level, and presents additional means implemented for radioactive waste management. It presents the Cigeo project as the technical answer to the issue of radioactive waste storage, describes the Cigeo development process, its current status and its development planning, and justifies the choice of this technical solution, notably from an ethical point of view. It addresses the issue of reversibility and proposes an overview of the various tools and means which aim at guaranteeing this reversibility. Appendices propose figures illustrating the Cigeo project and its development process, and a rather detailed Power Point presentation of the project by the ANDRA (history, object, planning, installations, and so on)

  2. Hybridization of plant virus ssRNAs Transferred to Hybond N membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudela, O.; Kudelova, K.; Plaschke-Jakubik, K.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present a protocol for the non-denaturating agarose gel electrophoresis of plant virus ssRNAs, their blotting onto Hybond N membrane, and hybridization with [alpha 32 P]dNTP-labelled cDNA probe. The protocol is not pretentious on technical equipment, omits denaturation and neutralization steps and some chemical required in other modifications. (authors)

  3. Alternative reproductive tactics and the propensity of hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tynkkynen, K; Raatikainen, K J; Häkkilä, M; Haukilehto, E; Kotiaho, J S

    2009-12-01

    One explanation for hybridization between species is the fitness benefits it occasionally confers to the hybridizing individuals. This explanation is possible in species that have evolved alternative male reproductive tactics: individuals with inferior tactics might be more prone to hybridization provided it increases their reproductive success and fitness. Here we experimentally tested whether the propensity of hybridization in the wild depends on male reproductive tactic in Calopteryx splendens damselflies. Counter to our expectation, it was males adopting the superior reproductive tactic (territoriality) that had greatest propensity to hybridize than males adopting the inferior tactics (sneakers and floaters). Moreover, among the territorial males, the most ornamented males had greatest propensity to hybridize whereas the pattern was reversed in the sneaker males. Our results suggest that there is fluctuating selection on male mate discrimination against heterospecific females depending on both ornament size and the male's reproductive tactic.

  4. Hybridized Tetraquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Esposito, A.; Polosa, A.D.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new interpretation of the neutral and charged X, Z exotic hadron resonances. Hybridized-tetraquarks are neither purely compact tetraquark states nor bound or loosely bound molecules. The latter would require a negative or zero binding energy whose counterpart in h-tetraquarks is a positive quantity. The formation mechanism of this new class of hadrons is inspired by that of Feshbach metastable states in atomic physics. The recent claim of an exotic resonance in the Bs pi+- channel by the D0 collaboration and the negative result presented subsequently by the LHCb collaboration are understood in this scheme, together with a considerable portion of available data on X, Z particles. Considerations on a state with the same quantum numbers as the X(5568) are also made.

  5. Status of time reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    Time Reversal Invariance is introduced, and theories for its violation are reviewed. The present experimental and theoretical status of Time Reversal Invariance and tests thereof will be presented. Possible future tests will be discussed. 30 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  6. Introduction to time reversal theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henley, E.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theory and reaction mechanisms relevant to time reversal invariance are reviewed. Consequences of time reversal invariance are presented under the headings of CP tests, electromagnetic moments, weak emissions or absorptions, and scattering reactions. 8 refs., 4 figs

  7. Modification of T-cell antigenic properties of tetanus toxoid by SDS-PAGE separation. Implications for T-cell blotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, C B; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20% of the ......Using Tetanus Toxoid (TT) as a model antigen the T-cell Blotting method was evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures were stimulated by blotted nitrocellulose-bound TT or soluble TT. SDS-Poly-Acrylamide-Gel-Electrophoresis separated TT only induced proliferation in 20......% of the PBMC cultures whereas proliferation was induced in 79% of the same cultures offered similar treated TT (except for the PAGE separation). When T-cell blotting was performed with TT separated in a SDS-agarose matrix, proliferation was induced in 80% of donors responding to soluble TT. The results show...... that SDS-PAGE alters the ability of TT to induce T-cell proliferation, possibly due to unpolymerized acrylamide binding to proteins during SDS-PAGE. The use of SDS-PAGE T-cell blotting in the screening for T-cell antigens must therefore be reconsidered. We suggest the use of SDS-Agarose Gel Electrophoresis...

  8. The Causes of Preference Reversal.

    OpenAIRE

    Tversky, Amos; Slovic, Paul; Kahneman, Daniel

    1990-01-01

    Observed preference reversal cannot be adequately explained by violations of independence, the reduction axiom, or transitivity. The primary cause of preference reversal is the failure of procedure invariance, especially the overpricing of low-probability, high-payoff bets. This result violates regret theory and generalized (nonindependent) utility models. Preference reversal and a new reversal involving time preferences are explained by scale compatibility, which implies that payoffs are wei...

  9. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

  10. A Study on Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, Dhananjaya

    2011-01-01

    In the competitive world of manufacturing, companies are often searching for new ways to improve their process, customer satisfaction and stay ahead in the game with their competitors. Reverse logistics has been considered a strategy to bring these things to life for the past decade or so. This thesis work tries to shed some light on the basics of reverse logistics and how reverse logistics can be used as a management strategy. This paper points out the fundamentals of reverse logistics and l...

  11. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElhinny, M W

    1971-04-09

    An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

  12. Dot Blot para determinar la identidad antigénica en vacunas conjugadas contra Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmir Cabrera-Blanco

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Las autoridades regulatorias recomiendan el uso de técnicas de Resonancia Magnética Nuclear o técnicas serológicas para la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos presentes en las vacunas conjugadas. Con la aparición de las vacunas conjugadas multivalentes, se ha hecho necesario recurrir a técnicas inmunoquímicas con la utilización de anticuerpos monoclonales para aumentar la sensibilidad en la determinación de la identidad de los antígenos en dichas vacunas conjugadas. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue establecer las condiciones óptimas de trabajo que permitieran utilizar la técnica del Dot Blot para determinar la identidad de los antígenos en vacunas conjugadas de Streptococcus pneumoniae serotipo 19F. Para ello se estudiaron los tiempos de incubación, la influencia del reactivo en la solución de bloqueo; también las concentraciones óptimas del anticuerpo monoclonal y de los ingredientes farmacéuticos activos, así como los volúmenes de aplicación óptimos para estos y vacunas. Se utilizó un anticuerpo monoclonal contra el polisacárido capsular del serotipo 19F de neumococo. Las muestras empleadas en este trabajo fueron lotes de ingredientes farmacéuticos activos de conjugados de polisacárido capsular 19F y lotes de un candidato vacunal cubano conjugado heptavalente contra neumococos. Los resultados mostraron que para la determinación de la identidad antigénica fueron suficientes 10 µL de muestras de los principios activos a una concentración de 125 µg/mL e igual volumen para las vacunas heptavalentes. Quedó demostrado que una concentración de 1 µg/mL para el anticuerpo monoclonal y tiempos de incubación de 30 min a 37 °C fueron suficientes para la determinación. Estos resultados permiten concluir que quedaron establecidas las condiciones óptimas de trabajo para determinar la identidad antigénica por Dot Blot del polisacárido capsular de S. pneumoniae serotipo 19F presente en las vacunas

  13. Continuity controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation

  14. Continuity Controlled Hybrid Automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  15. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  16. Continuity controlled hybrid automata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the connections between the process algebra for hybrid systems of Bergstra and Middelburg and the formalism of hybrid automata of Henzinger et al. We give interpretations of hybrid automata in the process algebra for hybrid systems and compare them with the standard interpretation of

  17. Detection of hepatitis A virus by the nucleic acid sequence-based amplification technique and comparison with reverse transcription-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jean, J; Blais, B; Darveau, A; Fliss, I

    2001-12-01

    A nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA) technique for the detection of hepatitis A virus (HAV) in foods was developed and compared to the traditional reverse transcription (RT)-PCR technique. Oligonucleotide primers targeting the VP1 and VP2 genes encoding the major HAV capsid proteins were used for the amplification of viral RNA in an isothermal process resulting in the accumulation of RNA amplicons. Amplicons were detected by hybridization with a digoxigenin-labeled oligonucleotide probe in a dot blot assay format. Using the NASBA, as little as 0.4 ng of target RNA/ml was detected per comparison to 4 ng/ml for RT-PCR. When crude HAV viral lysate was used, a detection limit of 2 PFU (4 x 10(2) PFU/ml) was obtained with NASBA, compared to 50 PFU (1 x 10(4) PFU/ml) obtained with RT-PCR. No interference was encountered in the amplification of HAV RNA in the presence of excess nontarget RNA or DNA. The NASBA system successfully detected HAV recovered from experimentally inoculated samples of waste water, lettuce, and blueberries. Compared to RT-PCR and other amplification techniques, the NASBA system offers several advantages in terms of sensitivity, rapidity, and simplicity. This technique should be readily adaptable for detection of other RNA viruses in both foods and clinical samples.

  18. Reversal Strategies for NOACs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Steen; Verheugt, Freek; Comuth, Willemijn

    2015-01-01

    , coagulation factor concentrates or NOAC-specific antidotes could be used. Coagulation factor concentrates can be used in patients with haemophilia and to reverse the effect of VKAs but, in NOAC-treated patients, results are inconsistent and these agents could potentially have pro-thrombotic effects. Specific...... antidotes for NOACs are expected to be on the market soon. Phase III clinical trials with a humanized antibody fragment directed against dabigatran (idarucizumab) and recombinant, modified factor Xa (andexanet alfa) are ongoing. A molecule (aripazine) with broad activity against various anticoagulants...

  19. Reversible brazing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Jim D.; Stephens, John J.; Walker, Charles A.

    1999-01-01

    A method of reversibly brazing surfaces together. An interface is affixed to each surface. The interfaces can be affixed by processes such as mechanical joining, welding, or brazing. The two interfaces are then brazed together using a brazing process that does not defeat the surface to interface joint. Interfaces of materials such as Ni-200 can be affixed to metallic surfaces by welding or by brazing with a first braze alloy. The Ni-200 interfaces can then be brazed together using a second braze alloy. The second braze alloy can be chosen so that it minimally alters the properties of the interfaces to allow multiple braze, heat and disassemble, rebraze cycles.

  20. Demonstration of monoclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) antibody internalization by electron microscopy, western blotting and radioimmunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, G; Ford, C H; Gallant, M

    1992-01-01

    One of the important factors affecting the action of monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) or immunoconjugates on tumour sites depends on whether the Mab is internalized by the cancer cells in question. The underexplored subject of internalization is discussed in this paper, and a number of in vitro techniques for investigating internalization are evaluated, using a model which consists of a well characterized anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (anti-CEA) Mab and a number of CEA expressing human cancer cell lines. Employing two alternative radiolabeling assays, evidence for internalization of the anti-CEA Mab by a CEA-positive colorectal cancer cell line (LS174T) was obtained throughout the time intervals examined (5 min to 150 min). Electronmicroscopy employing horseradish-peroxidase labeled anti-CEA Mab and control antibody permitted direct visualization of anti-CEA Mab-related staining in intracellular compartments of a high CEA-expressor human colorectal cell line (SKCO1). Finally Western blots of samples derived from cytosolic and membrane components of solubilized cells from lung and colonic cancer cell lines provided evidence for internalized anti-CEA Mab throughout seven half hour intervals, starting at 5 minutes. Internalized anti-CEA was detected in all CEA expressing cell lines (LS174T, SKCO1, BENN) but not in the case of a very low CEA expressor line (COLO 320).

  1. Exposure to Sarcocystis spp. in horses from Spain determined by Western blot analysis using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, M; Yeargan, M; Francisco, I; Dangoudoubiyam, S; Becerra, P; Francisco, R; Sánchez-Andrade, R; Paz-Silva, A; Howe, D K

    2012-04-30

    Horses serve as an intermediate host for several species of Sarcocystis, all of which utilize canids as the definitive host. Sarcocystis spp. infection and formation of latent sarcocysts in horses often appears to be subclinical, but morbidity can occur, especially when the parasite burden is large. A serological survey was conducted to determine the presence of antibodies against Sarcocystis spp. in seemingly healthy horses from the Galicia region of Spain. Western blot analyses using Sarcocystis neurona merozoites as heterologous antigen suggested greater than 80% seroprevalance of Sarcocystis spp. in a sample set of 138 horses. The serum samples were further tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on recombinant S. neurona-specific surface antigens (rSnSAGs). As expected for horses from the Eastern Hemisphere, less than 4% of the serum samples were positive when analyzed with either the rSnSAG2 or the rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. An additional 246 horses were tested using the rSnSAG2 ELISA, which revealed that less than 3% of the 384 samples were seropositive. Collectively, the results of this serologic study suggested that a large proportion of horses from this region of Spain are exposed to Sarcocystis spp. Furthermore, the anti-Sarcocystis seroreactivity in these European horses could be clearly distinguished from anti-S. neurona antibodies using the rSnSAG2 and rSnSAG4/3 ELISAs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  3. Corporate Hybrid Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlberg, Johan; Jansson, Anton

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid securities do not constitute a new phenomenon in the Swedish capital markets. Most commonly, hybrids issued by Swedish real estate companies in recent years are preference shares. Corporate hybrid bonds on the other hand may be considered as somewhat of a new-born child in the family of hybrid instruments. These do, as all other hybrid securities, share some equity-like and some debt-like characteristics. Nevertheless, since 2013 the interest for the instrument has grown rapidly and ha...

  4. Reversibly Bistable Flexible Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Alfaraj, Nasir

    2015-05-01

    Introducing the notion of transformational silicon electronics has paved the way for integrating various applications with silicon-based, modern, high-performance electronic circuits that are mechanically flexible and optically semitransparent. While maintaining large-scale production and prototyping rapidity, this flexible and translucent scheme demonstrates the potential to transform conventionally stiff electronic devices into thin and foldable ones without compromising long-term performance and reliability. In this work, we report on the fabrication and characterization of reversibly bistable flexible electronic switches that utilize flexible n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors. The transistors are fabricated initially on rigid (100) silicon substrates before they are peeled off. They can be used to control flexible batches of light-emitting diodes, demonstrating both the relative ease of scaling at minimum cost and maximum reliability and the feasibility of integration. The peeled-off silicon fabric is about 25 µm thick. The fabricated devices are transferred to a reversibly bistable flexible platform through which, for example, a flexible smartphone can be wrapped around a user’s wrist and can also be set back to its original mechanical position. Buckling and cyclic bending of such host platforms brings a completely new dimension to the development of flexible electronics, especially rollable displays.

  5. Particle transport in field-reversed configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1982-05-01

    Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average ..beta.. condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement.

  6. Particle transport in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuszewski, M.; Linford, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    Particle transport in field-reversed configurations is investigated using a one-dimensional, nondecaying, magnetic field structure. The radial profiles are constrained to satisfy an average β condition from two-dimensional equilibrium and a boundary condition at the separatrix to model the balance between closed and open-field-line transport. When applied to the FRX-B experimental data and to the projected performance of the FRX-C device, this model suggests that the particle confinement times obtained with anomalous lower-hybrid-drift transport are in good agreement with the available numerical and experimental data. Larger values of confinement times can be achieved by increasing the ratio of the separatrix radius to the conducting wall radius. Even larger increases in lifetimes might be obtained by improving the open-field-line confinement

  7. Mechanisms of Surface-Mediated DNA Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy was employed in conjunction with resonance energy transfer (RET) to observe the dynamic behavior of donor-labeled ssDNA at the interface between aqueous solution and a solid surface decorated with complementary acceptor-labeled ssDNA. At least 100 000 molecular trajectories were determined for both complementary strands and negative control ssDNA. RET was used to identify trajectory segments corresponding to the hybridized state. The vast majority of molecules from solution adsorbed nonspecifically to the surface, where a brief two-dimensional search was performed with a 7% chance of hybridization. Successful hybridization events occurred with a characteristic search time of ∼0.1 s, and unsuccessful searches resulted in desorption from the surface, ultimately repeating the adsorption and search process. Hybridization was reversible, and two distinct modes of melting (i.e., dehybridization) were observed, corresponding to long-lived (∼15 s) and short-lived (∼1.4 s) hybridized time intervals. A strand that melted back onto the surface could rehybridize after a brief search or desorb from the interface. These mechanistic observations provide guidance for technologies that involve DNA interactions in the near-surface region, suggesting a need to design surfaces that both enhance the complex multidimensional search process and stabilize the hybridized state. PMID:24708278

  8. Hybrid XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckel, J.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: In the last 10 years significant innovations of EDXRF, e.g. total reflection XRF or polarized beam XRF, were utilized in different industrial applications. The decrease of background within the spectra was the goal of these developments. Excellent detection limits and sensitivities demonstrate the success of these new techniques. Nevertheless, further improvements are possible by using Si drift detectors. These detectors allow the processing of input count rates up to 10 6 cps in comparison to 10 5 of Si(Li) detectors. New excitation optics are necessary to produce such count rates. One possibility is the use of doubly curved crystals between tube and sample. These crystals enable the reflection of the primary beam within the given solid angle (0.4π) of an end window tube to the sample. Using such brightness optics excellent sensitivities mainly for light elements are achievable. The combination of a BRAGG crystal as a wavelength dispersive component and a solid state detector as an energy dispersive component creates a new technique: hybrid XRF. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  9. Hybrid mimics and hybrid vigor in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li; Greaves, Ian K.; Groszmann, Michael; Wu, Li Min; Dennis, Elizabeth S.; Peacock, W. James

    2015-01-01

    F1 hybrids can outperform their parents in yield and vegetative biomass, features of hybrid vigor that form the basis of the hybrid seed industry. The yield advantage of the F1 is lost in the F2 and subsequent generations. In Arabidopsis, from F2 plants that have a F1-like phenotype, we have by recurrent selection produced pure breeding F5/F6 lines, hybrid mimics, in which the characteristics of the F1 hybrid are stabilized. These hybrid mimic lines, like the F1 hybrid, have larger leaves than the parent plant, and the leaves have increased photosynthetic cell numbers, and in some lines, increased size of cells, suggesting an increased supply of photosynthate. A comparison of the differentially expressed genes in the F1 hybrid with those of eight hybrid mimic lines identified metabolic pathways altered in both; these pathways include down-regulation of defense response pathways and altered abiotic response pathways. F6 hybrid mimic lines are mostly homozygous at each locus in the genome and yet retain the large F1-like phenotype. Many alleles in the F6 plants, when they are homozygous, have expression levels different to the level in the parent. We consider this altered expression to be a consequence of transregulation of genes from one parent by genes from the other parent. Transregulation could also arise from epigenetic modifications in the F1. The pure breeding hybrid mimics have been valuable in probing the mechanisms of hybrid vigor and may also prove to be useful hybrid vigor equivalents in agriculture. PMID:26283378

  10. Early reversal cells in adult human bone remodeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdelgawad, Mohamed Essameldin; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Hinge, Maja

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism coupling bone resorption and formation is a burning question that remains incompletely answered through the current investigations on osteoclasts and osteoblasts. An attractive hypothesis is that the reversal cells are likely mediators of this coupling. Their nature is a big matter...... of debate. The present study performed on human cancellous bone is the first one combining in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to demonstrate their osteoblastic nature. It shows that the Runx2 and CD56 immunoreactive reversal cells appear to take up TRAcP released by neighboring osteoclasts....... Earlier preclinical studies indicate that reversal cells degrade the organic matrix left behind by the osteoclasts and that this degradation is crucial for the initiation of the subsequent bone formation. To our knowledge, this study is the first addressing these catabolic activities in adult human bone...

  11. Unusual distribution of Zfy and Zfx sequences on the sex chromosomes of the wood lemming, a species exhibiting XY sex reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y F; Yang-Feng, T L; Elder, B; Fredga, K; Wiberg, U H

    1992-01-01

    Sex reversal occurs naturally in the wood lemming (Myopus schisticolor) due to the presence in populations of this species of a variant (mutated) X chromosome, designated X*. Thus, X*Y animals develop into females, whereas XY animals develop into normal males. Chromosome mapping by in situ hybridization of DNA sequences homologous to the human ZFY gene localized the wood lemming Zfx sequences to region p12----p11 on both the wild-type X and the mutated X* chromosomes, at or proximal to a presumed breakpoint (Xp12) involved in the generation of the X* chromosome from the normal X, and Zfy sequences along the entire short arm of the Y chromosome. Differences between Zfx and Zfx* were readily detected by Southern blot analysis. However, both the Zfx and Zfx* genes expressed similarly sized transcripts in all adult somatic tissues investigated. Although the precise molecular difference between the Zfx and Zfx* genes is still unknown, their chromosomal location suggests that either Zfx or some other closely linked gene(s) on the X chromosome may be a major X-linked sex-determining gene, Tdx, which in the X* chromosome fails to interact properly with the Y-linked testis-determining gene, Tdy, thus causing X*Y embryos to develop into females. At least 15 copies of wood lemming Zfy sequences are distributed along the short arm of the Y chromosome. Northern hybridization analyses of adult tissues and somatic cell lines indicated that these Zfy repeats were transcriptionally inactive. Normally, 3-kb Zfy (ZFY) transcripts are readily detected in mouse and human testes, especially in the germ cells. It has therefore been postulated that expression of the Zfy (ZFY) gene may be important for spermatogenesis. Whether the lack of sufficient Zfy transcripts in the testis of the adult wood lemming has any impact on spermatogenesis in this species is still to be elucidated by further studies.

  12. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won; Song, Chang Joon; Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong; Kim, Man Deuk

    2001-01-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  13. Reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Ja; Yu, Won Jong; Ahn, Kook Jin; Jung, So Lyung; Lee, Yeon Soo; Kim, Ji Chang; Kang, Si Won [The Catholic Univ. of Korea, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Song, Chang Joon [Chungnam National Univ. School of Medicine, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon-Young; Koo, Ja Hong [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Myungji Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk [College of Medicine Pochon CHA Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-10-01

    To review reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. We reviewed 22 patients (M:F=3:19; age, 17-46 years) with the characteristic clinical and imaging features of reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome. All underwent brain MRI, and in three cases both CT and MRI were performed. In one, MRA was obtained, and in eleven, follow-up MR images were obtained. We evaluated the causes of this syndrome, its clinical manifestations, and MR findings including the locations of lesions, the presence or absence of contrast enhancement, and the changes seen at follow-up MRI. Of the 22 patients, 13 had eclampsia (six during pregnancy and seven during puerperium). Four were receiving immunosuppressive therapy (three, cyclosporine ; one, FK 506). Four suffered renal failure and one had complicated migraine. The clinical manifestations included headache (n=12), visual disturbance (n=13), seizure (n=15), focal neurologic sign (n=3), and altered mental status (n=2). Fifteen patients had hypertension and the others normotension. MRI revealed that lesions were bilateral (n=20) or unilateral (n=2). In all patients the lesion was found in the cortical and subcortical areas of the parieto-occipital lobes ; other locations were the basal ganglia (n=9), posterior temporal lobe (n=8), frontal lobe (n=5), cerebellum (n=5), pons (n=2), and thalamus (n=1). All lesions were of high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, and of iso to low intensity on T1-weighted images. One was combined with acute hematoma in the left basal ganglia. In eight of 11 patients who underwent postcontrast T1-weighted MRI, there was no definite enhancement ; in one, enhancement was mild, and in tow, patchy. CT studies showed low attenuation, and MRA revealed mild vasospasm. The symptoms of all patients improved. Follow-up MRI in nine of 11 patients depicted complete resolution of the lesions ; in two, small infarctions remained but the extent of the lesions had decreased. Reversible posterior

  14. Quantitative study of fruit flavonoids in citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Katase, E; Ogawa, K; Nonomura-Nakano, M; Nesumi, H; Yoshida, T; Sugiura, M; Yano, M

    2001-08-01

    Twenty-four Citrus hybrids of King (C. nobilis) and Mukaku Kishu (C. kinokuni) were examined for their flavonoid profiles of the edible part by reversed-phase HPLC analysis. Two hybrids (G-155 and G-156) contained higher amounts of natsudaidain than their parents, whereas the remainder of the hybrids had a character intermediate between those of King and Mukaku Kishu on the basis of polymethoxylated flavone composition. Principal component analysis revealed the distribution of the hybrids by quantifying 23 flavonoid contents.

  15. Antibody Banding Patterns of the Enzyme-Linked Immunoelectrotransfer Blot and Brain Imaging Findings in Patients With Neurocysticercosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Gianfranco; Rodriguez, Silvia; Lescano, Andres G; Alroy, Karen A; Bustos, Javier A; Santivañez, Saul; Gonzales, Isidro; Saavedra, Herbert; Pretell, E Javier; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2018-01-06

    The enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay is the reference serological test for neurocysticercosis (NCC). A positive result on EITB does not always correlate with the presence of active infections in the central nervous system (CNS), and patients with a single viable brain cyst may be EITB negative. Nonetheless, EITB antibody banding patterns appears to be related with the expression of 3 protein families of Taenia solium, and in turn with the characteristics of NCC in the CNS (type, stage, and burden of viable cysts). We evaluated EITB antibody banding patterns and brain imaging findings of 548 NCC cases. Similar banding patterns were grouped into homogeneous classes using latent class analysis. The association between classes and brain imaging findings was assessed. Four classes were identified. Class 1 (patients negative or only positive to the GP50 band, related to the protein family of the same name) was associated with nonviable or single viable parenchymal cysticerci; class 2 (patients positive to bands GP42-39 and GP24, related to the T24-42 protein family, with or without anti-GP50 antibodies) was associated with intraparenchymal viable and nonviable infections; classes 3 and 4 (positive to GP50, GP42-39, and GP24 but also responding to low molecular weight bands GP21, GP18, GP14, and GP13, related to the 8 kDa protein family) were associated with extraparenchymal and intraparenchymal multiple viable cysticerci. EITB antibody banding patterns correlate with brain imaging findings and complement imaging information for the diagnosis of NCC and for staging NCC patients. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Detection of Potentially Diagnostic Leishmania Antigens with Western Blot Analysis of Sera from Patients with Cutaneous and Visceral Leishmaniases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Javad SEYYEDTABAEI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL are important public health problems in Iran. We aimed to evaluate the diagnostic potential of Western blot (WB compared with indirect immunofluorescence test (IFAT to serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis.Methods: This study was performed from 2010-2014 and participants were different parts of Iran. Serum samples were obtained from 43 patients with proven CL, 33 patients with proven VL, 39 patients with other parasitic diseases and 23 healthy individuals. Results: WB sensitivity for CL and VL was 100% and 91%, compared to IFA 4.6% and 87.8%, respectively. Sera from patients with CL and VL recognized numerous antigens with molecular weights ranging from 14 to 68 kDa and 12 to 94 kDa, respectively. The most sensitive antigens were 14 and 16 kDa for CL recognized by 100% of the sera from patients with proven CL and 12, 14 and 16 kDa for VL, recognized by 63.6%, 100% and 63.6% of the sera from patients with proven VL respectively. WB analysis is more sensitive than IFAT for the diagnosis of leishmaniasis particularly in cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis. The 12, 14 and 16 kDa can be valuable diagnostic molecules for serodiagnosis of leishmaniasis because at least two immunogenic molecules were simultaneously detected by all patient sera, as well as produced antibodies against these antigens have no cross-reactivity with other control groups.Conclusion: WB could be useful for screening and serodiagnosis of CL and VL in epidemiologic studies in endemic areas.

  17. Reverse osmosis application studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golomb, A.

    1982-02-01

    To assess the feasibility of applying reverse osmosis (RO) and ultrafiltration (UF) for effective treatment of process and waste streams from operations at Ontario Hydro's thermal and nuclear stations, an extensive literature survey has been carried out. It is concluded that RO is not at present economic for pretreatment of Great Lakes water prior to ion exchange demineralization for boiler makeup. Using both conventional and novel commercial membrane modules, RO pilot studies are recommended for treatment of boiler cleaning wastes, fly ash leachates, and flue gas desulphurization scrubber discharges for removal of heavy metals. Volume reduction and decontamination of nuclear station low-level active liquid waste streams by RO/UF also appear promising. Research programmes are proposed

  18. Reverse photoacoustic standoff spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Neste, Charles W [Kingston, TN; Senesac, Lawrence R [Knoxville, TN; Thundat, Thomas G [Knoxville, TN

    2011-04-12

    A system and method are disclosed for generating a reversed photoacoustic spectrum at a greater distance. A source may emit a beam to a target and a detector measures signals generated as a result of the beam being emitted on the target. By emitting a chopped/pulsed light beam to the target, it may be possible to determine the target's optical absorbance by monitoring the intensity of light collected at the detector at different wavelengths. As the wavelength of light is changed, the target may absorb or reject each optical frequency. Rejection may increase the intensity at the sensing element and absorption may decrease the intensity. Accordingly, an identifying spectrum of the target may be made with the intensity variation of the detector as a function of illuminating wavelength.

  19. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMordie Stoughton, Kate; Duan, Xiaoli; Wendel, Emily M.

    2013-08-26

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). ¬The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.¬

  20. Reverse Osmosis Optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-08-01

    This technology evaluation was prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The technology evaluation assesses techniques for optimizing reverse osmosis (RO) systems to increase RO system performance and water efficiency. This evaluation provides a general description of RO systems, the influence of RO systems on water use, and key areas where RO systems can be optimized to reduce water and energy consumption. The evaluation is intended to help facility managers at Federal sites understand the basic concepts of the RO process and system optimization options, enabling them to make informed decisions during the system design process for either new projects or recommissioning of existing equipment. This evaluation is focused on commercial-sized RO systems generally treating more than 80 gallons per hour.

  1. Sex Reversal in Amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have been widely used to study developmental biology due to the fact that embryo development takes place independently of the maternal organism and that observations and experimental approaches are easy. Some amphibians like Xenopus became model organisms in this field. In the first part of this article, the differentiation of the gonads in amphibians and the mechanisms governing this process are reviewed. In the second part, the state of the art about sex reversal, which can be induced by steroid hormones in general and by temperature in some species, is presented. Also information about pollutants found in the environment that could interfere with the development of the amphibian reproductive apparatus or with their reproductive physiology is given. Such compounds could play a part in the amphibian decline, since in the wild, many amphibians are endangered species. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Characterization by Suppression Subtractive Hybridization of Transcripts That Are Differentially Expressed in Leaves of Anthracnose-Resistant Ramie Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuxia, Wang; Jie, Chen; Bo, Wang; Lijun, Liu; Hui, Jiang; Diluo, Tang; Dingxiang, Peng

    2012-01-01

    For the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie ( Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud), a cDNA library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar Huazhu no. 4. The cDNAs from Huazhu no. 4, which were infected with Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , were used as the tester and cDNAs from uninfected Huazhu no. 4 as the driver. Sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, which were assigned to functional categories, including 14 putative cellular functions, according to categories established for Arabidopsis . These 132 genes included 35 disease resistance and stress tolerance-related genes including putative heat-shock protein 90, metallothionein, PR-1.2 protein, catalase gene, WRKY family genes, and proteinase inhibitor-like protein. Partial disease-related genes were further analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and RNA gel blot. These expressed sequence tags are the first anthracnose resistance-related expressed sequence tags reported in ramie.

  3. Evaluation of the radioimmunoassay, indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, and dot blot assay for the identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malin, E; Belden, E L; Roth, D

    1985-09-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA), an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a dot-blot modification of the ELISA were evaluated for detection and identification of Xanthomonas campestris pv. phaseoli (X. c. pv. phaseoli). RIA and the dot blot tests were specific for X. c. pv. phaseoli; however, significant cross reactions occurred in the indirect competitive ELISA when using anti-X. c. pv. phaseoli antiserum against other closely related bacteria. The sensitivity level of all procedures for X. c. pv. phaseoli was approximately l0/sup 5/ colony forming unitsmL. All procedures were unsatisfactory in reliably detecting low levels of X. c. pv. phaseoli directly from extracts of bean seed. However when used in conjunction with ilution plating the dot blot assay and the RIA would be useful in specifically identifying X. c. pv. phaseoli. The relative merits of these tests for identification of X. c. pv. phaseoli are discussed.

  4. 49 CFR 230.89 - Reverse gear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reverse gear. 230.89 Section 230.89 Transportation... Reversing Gear § 230.89 Reverse gear. (a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants... quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear. (b) Air-operated power reverse gear...

  5. Cross-border Intra-group Hybrid Finance and International Taxation

    OpenAIRE

    Eberhartinger, Eva; Pummerer, Erich; Göritzer, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In intra-group finance hybrid instruments allow for tailor-made form of finance. Hence hybrid finance is often used for international tax planning in multinational groups. Due to a lack of international tax harmonization or tax coordination qualification conflict can arise. A specific hybrid instrument is classified as debt in one country, and as equity in the other country. This may lead to double taxation. In the reverse case, double non-taxation can arise. Against this legal background one...

  6. Hybrid Management in Hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Jespersen, Peter Kragh

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer......Artiklen indeholder et litteraturbaseret studium af ledelsesformer i sygehuse, hvor sundhedsfaglig ledelse og generel ledelse mikses til hybride ledelsesformer...

  7. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA and the United Parcel Service (UPS) have developed a hydraulic hybrid delivery vehicle to explore and demonstrate the environmental benefits of the hydraulic hybrid for urban pick-up and delivery fleets.

  8. UV irradiation as a tool for obtaining asymmetric somatic hybrids between Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Lycopersicon esculentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahova, M.; Hinnisdaels, S.; Frulleux, F.; Claeys, M.; Atanassov, A.; Jacobs, M.

    1997-01-01

    UV-irradiated kanamycin-resistant Lycopersicon esculentum leaf protoplasts were fused with wild-type Nicotiana plumbaginifolia leaf protoplasts. Hybrid calli were recovered after selection in kanamycin-containing medium and subsequently regenerated. Cytological analysis of these regenerants showed that several (2–4) tomato chromosomes, or chromosome fragments, were present in addition to a polyploid Nicotiana genome complement. All lines tested had neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII) activity and the presence of the kanamycin gene was shown by Southern blotting. In two cases a different hybridization profile for the kanamycin gene, compared to the tomato donor partner, was observed, suggesting the occurence of intergenomic recombination events. The hybrid nature of the regenerants was further confirmed by Southernblotting experiments using either a ribosomal DNA sequence or a tomato-specific repeat as probes. The hybrids were partially fertile and some progeny could be obtained. Our results demonstrate that UV irradiation is a valuable alternative for asymmetric cell-hybridization experiments. (author)

  9. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1978-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centers the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFC's with a major radius R = 2-6 cm, minor radius a approximately 2 cm, and a total length l approximately 35 cm. The observed temperatures are T/sub e/ approximately 100 eV and T/sub i/ = 150-350 eV with a peak density n approximately 2 x 10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma reaches equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30 μs followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m = 2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behavior of the m = 2 mode qualitatively agrees with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value

  10. Field reversal experiments (FRX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linford, R.K.; Armstrong, W.T.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.

    1979-01-01

    The equilibrium, confinement, and stability properties of the reversed-field configuration (RFC) are being studied in two theta-pinch facilities. The RFC is an elongated toroidal plasma confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. The open field lines of the linear theta pinch support the closed-field RFC much like the vertical field centres the toroidal plasma in a tokamak. Depending on stability and confinement properties, the RFC might be used to greatly reduce the axial losses in linear fusion devices such as mirrors, theta pinches, and liners. The FRX systems produce RFCs with a major radius R=2-6cm, a minor radius a approximately 2cm, and a total length l approximately 35cm. The observed temperatures are Tsub(e) approximately 100eV and Tsub(i)=150-350eV with a peak density n approximately 2x10 15 cm -3 . After the plasma has reached equilibrium, the RFC remains stable for up to 30μs, followed by the rapid growth of the rotational m=2 instability, which terminates the confinement. During the stable equilibrium, the particle and energy confinement times are more than 10 times longer than in an open-field system. The behaviour of the m=2 mode agrees qualitatively with the theoretically predicted instability for rotational velocities exceeding some critical value. (author)

  11. Hybrid incompatibilities are affected by dominance and dosage in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beukeboom, Leo W.; Koevoets, Tosca; Morales, Hernán E.; Ferber, Steven; van de Zande, Louis

    2015-01-01

    Study of genome incompatibilities in species hybrids is important for understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation and speciation. According to Haldane's rule hybridization affects the heterogametic sex more than the homogametic sex. Several theories have been proposed that attribute asymmetry in hybridization effects to either phenotype (sex) or genotype (heterogamety). Here we investigate the genetic basis of hybrid genome incompatibility in the haplodiploid wasp Nasonia using the powerful features of haploid males and sex reversal. We separately investigate the effects of heterozygosity (ploidy level) and sex by generating sex reversed diploid hybrid males and comparing them to genotypically similar haploid hybrid males and diploid hybrid females. Hybrid effects of sterility were more pronounced than of inviability, and were particularly strong in haploid males, but weak to absent in diploid males and females, indicating a strong ploidy level but no sex specific effect. Molecular markers identified a number of genomic regions associated with hybrid inviability in haploid males that disappeared under diploidy in both hybrid males and females. Hybrid inviability was rescued by dominance effects at some genomic regions, but aggravated or alleviated by dosage effects at other regions, consistent with cytonuclear incompatibilities. Dosage effects underlying Bateson–Dobzhansky–Muller (BDM) incompatibilities need more consideration in explaining Haldane's rule in diploid systems. PMID:25926847

  12. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  13. Hybrid quantum information processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furusawa, Akira [Department of Applied Physics, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    I will briefly explain the definition and advantage of hybrid quantum information processing, which is hybridization of qubit and continuous-variable technologies. The final goal would be realization of universal gate sets both for qubit and continuous-variable quantum information processing with the hybrid technologies. For that purpose, qubit teleportation with a continuousvariable teleporter is one of the most important ingredients.

  14. Towards a reversible functional language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2012-01-01

    /equality operator also simplifies inverse computation and program inversion. We discuss the advantages of a reversible functional language using example programs, including run-length encoding. Program inversion is seen to be as lightweight as for imperative reversible languages and realized by recursive descent...

  15. Reverse engineering of RFID devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokslag, W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the relevance and potential impact of both RFID and reverse engineering of RFID technology, followed by a discussion of common protocols and internals of RFID technology. The focus of the paper is on providing an overview of the different approaches to reverse engineering RFID

  16. How decision reversibility affects motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bullens, L.; van Harreveld, F.; Förster, J.; Higgins, T.E.

    2014-01-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making,

  17. Enzymatic reactions in reversed micelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilhorst, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    It has been recognised that enzymes in reversed micelles have potential for application in chemical synthesis. Before these expectations will be realised many problems must be overcome. This thesis deals with some of them.
    In Chapter 1 the present knowledge about reversed micelles and

  18. Reversible networks in supramolecular polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havermans - van Beek, D.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Non–covalent interactions between low molecular weight polymers form the basis of supramolecular polymers. The material properties of such polymers are determined by the strength and lifetime of the non–covalent reversible interactions. Due to the reversibility of the interactions between the low

  19. Reverse genetics of avian metapneumoviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    An overview of avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) infection in turkeys and development of a reverse genetics system for aMPV subgroup C (aMPV-C) virus will be presented. By using reverse genetics technology, we generated recombinant aMPV-C viruses containing a different length of glycoprotein (G) gene or...

  20. A hybrid energy efficient building ventilation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calay, Rajnish Kaur; Wang, Wen Chung

    2013-01-01

    The present paper presents a high performance cooling/heating ventilation system using a rotary heat exchanger (RHE), together with a reverse-cycle heat pump (RCHP) that can be integrated with various heat sources. Energy consumption in the building sector is largely dominated by the energy consumed in maintaining comfortable conditions indoors. For example in many developed countries the building heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems consume up to 50% of the total energy consumed in buildings. Therefore energy efficient HVAC solutions in buildings are critical for realising CO 2 targets at local and global level. There are many heating/cooling concepts that rely upon renewable energy sources and/or use natural low temperature heat sources in the winter and heat sinks in the summer. In the proposed system, waste energy from the exhaust air stream is used to precondition the outdoor air before it is supplied into the building. The hybrid system provides heating in the winter and cooling in the summer without any need for additional heating or cooling devices as required in conventional systems. Its performance is better than a typical reheat or air conditioning system in providing the same indoor air quality (IAQ) levels. It is shown that an energy saving up to 60% (heat energy) is achieved by using the proposed hybrid system in building ventilation applications. -- Highlights: • Hybrid ventilation system: the hybrid ventilation system uses a rotating regenerator and a reversible heat pump. • Heat recovery: heat recovery from exhaust air stream by rotary wheel type heat exchanger. • Reversible cycle heat pump (RCHP): additional heating or cooling of the supply air is provided by the RCHP. • Energy efficiency: energy savings of up to 60% using the proposed system are achievable

  1. MODELS OF PROJECT REVERSE ENGINEERING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Віктор Володимирович ІВАНОВ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Reverse engineering decided important scientific and technical problems of increasing the cost of the existing technical product by transforming it into a product with other features or design. Search ideas of the new application of existing products on the base of heuristic analysis were created. The concept of reverse engineering and its division into three types: conceptual, aggregate and complete was expanded. The use of heuristic methods for reverse engineering concept was showed. The modification model of Reverse engineering based on the model of РМВОК was developed. Our model includes two new phases: identification and transformation. At the identification phase, technical control is made. At the transformation phase, search heuristic idea of the new applied existing technical product was made. The model of execution phase that included heuristic methods, metrological equipment, and CAD/CAM/CAE program complex was created. The model that connected economic indicators of reverse engineering project was developed.

  2. What do reversible programs compute?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Reversible computing is the study of computation models that exhibit both forward and backward determinism. Understanding the fundamental properties of such models is not only relevant for reversible programming, but has also been found important in other fields, e.g., bidirectional model...... transformation, program transformations such as inversion, and general static prediction of program properties. Historically, work on reversible computing has focussed on reversible simulations of irreversible computations. Here, we take the viewpoint that the property of reversibility itself should...... are not strictly classically universal, but that they support another notion of universality; we call this RTM-universality. Thus, even though the RTMs are sub-universal in the classical sense, they are powerful enough as to include a self-interpreter. Lifting this to other computation models, we propose r...

  3. Fundamentals of reversible flowchart languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Axelsen, Holger Bock; Glück, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents the fundamentals of reversible flowcharts. They are intended to naturally represent the structure and control flow of reversible (imperative) programming languages in a simple computation model, in the same way classical flowcharts do for conventional languages......, structured reversible flowcharts are as expressive as unstructured ones, as shown by a reversible version of the classic Structured Program Theorem. We illustrate how reversible flowcharts can be concretized with two example programming languages, complete with syntax and semantics: a low-level unstructured...... language and a high-level structured language. We introduce concrete tools such as program inverters and translators for both languages, which follow the structure suggested by the flowchart model. To further illustrate the different concepts and tools brought together in this paper, we present two major...

  4. ANCA-GBM dot-blot : Evaluation of an assay in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Abraham; Damoiseaux, Jan; Roozendaal, Caroline; Limburg, Pieter C; Stegeman, Coen A; Tervaert, Jan Willem Cohen

    Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) is characterized by rapid and progressive loss of renal function and the presence of crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN). Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment is mandatory to prevent death and/or renal failure. We have evaluated an ANCA-GBM dot-blot

  5. Dot-blot immunoassay of Fasciola gigantica infection using 27 kDa and adult worm regurge antigens in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Hanan H; Saad, Ghada A; Sarhan, Rania M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential role of the 27-Kilodalton (KDa) antigen versus Fasciola gigantica adult worm regurge antigens in a DOT-Blot assay and to assess this assay as a practical tool for diagnosis fascioliasis in Egyptian patients. Fasciola gigantica antigen of an approximate molecular mass 27-(KDa) was obtained from adult worms by a simple elution SDS-PAGE. A Dot-Blot was developed comparatively to adult worm regurge antigens for the detection of specific antibodies from patients infected with F. gigantica in Egypt. Control sera were obtained from patients with other parasitic infections and healthy volunteers to assess the test and compare between the antigens. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of Dot-Blot using the adult worm regurge were 80%, 90%, 94.1%, and 69.2% respectively, while those using 27-KDa were 100% which confirms the diagnostic potential of this antigen. All patients infected with Fasciola were positive, with cross reactivity reported with Schistosoma mansoni serum samples. This 27-KDa Dot-Blot assay showed to be a promising test which can be used for serodiagnosis of fascioliasis in Egyptian patients especially, those presenting with hepatic disease. It is specific, sensitive and easy to perform method for the rapid diagnosis particularly when more complex laboratory tests are unavailable.

  6. Reversible photoluminescence in spiropyran-modified porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Hu, Chih-Hsuan; Cheng, Sheng-Lin; Chu, Chih-Chien; Hsiao, Vincent K.S.

    2015-01-01

    Spiropyran-modified porous silicon (spiro-PS) was used for the first time as an organic–inorganic hybrid material by using reversible photoluminescence (PL). Before spiropyran modification, the peak wavelength from PS was approximately 600 nm. Subsequent spiropyran modification strongly quenched the PL intensity, from 15,000 to 2000 counts. However, under UV light irradiation, the PL intensity from spiro-PS was increased gradually to 20,000 counts because of the photoinduced ring opening from a colorless spiropyran (SP-form) to a colored merocyanine (MC-form). Furthermore, the resulting peak wavelength of the PL of an MC–PS sample red-shifted from 600 to 650 nm, and the PL intensity was higher than that of unmodified PS. Because the fluorescence emission band (500–700 nm) of PS substantially overlapped the absorption band (500–700 nm) of the MC-form of spiropyran, the energy transfer from the PS (donor) to the open-ring-state MC-form (acceptor) occurs efficiently. The intensity of the PL from spiro-PS can be reversibly modulated using a heat stimulus. The current demonstrations have potential in reversible solid-state lighting or data storage applications. - Highlights: • Spiropyran-modified porous silicon (spiro-PS) was used for the first time as an organic–inorganic hybrid material with reversible photoluminescence (PL). • UV light irradiation make PL intensity from spiro-PS increased due to the photo-induced ring opening process. • The energy transfer from the PS (donor) to the open-ring state of spiropyran (acceptor) was to be efficient due to the fluorescence emission band of PS substantially overlapped with the absorption band of the ring-opened spiro. • The intensity of the PL from spiro-PS can be reversibly modulated using a heat stimulus

  7. Environmentally responsive optical microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizenberg, Joanna; Aizenberg, Michael; Kim, Philseok

    2016-01-05

    Microstructured hybrid actuator assemblies in which microactuators carrying designed surface properties to be revealed upon actuation are embedded in a layer of responsive materials. The microactuators in a microactuator array reversibly change their configuration in response to a change in the environment without requiring an external power source to switch their optical properties.

  8. Near infrared photodetector based on polymer and indium nitride nanorod organic/inorganic hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Wei-Jung; Li, Shao-Sian; Lin, Chih-Cheng; Kuo, Chun-Chiang; Chen, Chun-Wei; Chen, Kuei-Hsien; Chen, Li-Chyong

    2010-01-01

    We propose a nanostructured near infrared photodetector based on indium nitride (InN) nanorod/poly(3-hexylthiophene) hybrids. The current-voltage characteristic of the hybrid device demonstrates the typical p-n heterojunction diode behavior, consisting of p-type polymer and n-type InN nanorods. The device shows a photoresponse range of 900-1260 nm under various reverse biases. An external quantum efficiency of 3.4% at 900 nm operated at -10 V reverse bias was obtained, which is comparable with devices based on lead sulfide and lead selenide hybrid systems.

  9. The Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heirtzler, James R.

    2003-01-01

    By modifying the IGRF it is possible to learn what may happen to the geomagnetic field during a geomagnetic reversal. If the entire IGRF reverses then the declination and inclination only reverse when the field strength is zero. If only the dipole component of the IGRF reverses a large geomagnetic field remains when the dipole component is zero and he direction of the field at the end of the reversal is not exactly reversed from the directions at the beginning of the reversal.

  10. A novel hybridization approach for detection of citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcia, N; Serra, P; Olmos, A; Duran-Vila, N

    2009-04-01

    Citrus plants are natural hosts of several viroid species all belonging to the family Pospiviroidae. Previous attempts to detect viroids from field-grown species and cultivars yielded erratic results unless analyses were performed using Etrog citron a secondary bio-amplification host. To overcome the use of Etrog citron a number of RT-PCR approaches have been proposed with different degrees of success. Here we report the suitability of an easy to handle northern hybridization protocol for viroid detection of samples collected from field-grown citrus species and cultivars. The protocol involves: (i) Nucleic acid preparations from bark tissue samples collected from field-grown trees regardless of the growing season and storage conditions; (ii) Separation in 5% PAGE or 1% agarose, blotting to membrane and fixing; (iii) Hybridization with viroid-specific DIG-labelled probes and detection with anti-DIG-alkaline phosphatase conjugate and autoradiography with the CSPD substrate. The method has been tested with viroid-infected trees of sweet orange, lemon, mandarin, grapefruit, sour orange, Swingle citrumello, Tahiti lime and Mexican lime. This novel hybridization approach is extremely sensitive, easy to handle and shortens the time needed for reliable viroid indexing tests. The suitability of PCR generated DIG-labelled probes and the sensitivity achieved when the samples are separated and blotted from non-denaturing gels are discussed.

  11. Reversal of methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus aureus by thioridazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitgaard, Janne K; Skov, Marianne N; Kallipolitis, Birgitte H

    2008-01-01

    of thioridazine in the presence of a fixed amount of oxacillin. Furthermore, the protein level of PBP2a was reduced when bacteria were treated with the combination of oxacillin and thioridazine. The two drugs also affected the mRNA level of the beta-lactamase gene, blaZ. Conclusions The present study indicates......Objectives Thioridazine has been shown to reverse oxacillin resistance in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. The aim of this study was to investigate whether thioridazine alone or in combination with oxacillin affects the transcription of the methicillin resistance gene...... blotting in the presence of thioridazine and oxacillin. Results We observed an increased susceptibility of MRSA towards oxacillin in the presence of thioridazine compared with bacteria grown with oxacillin or thioridazine alone. Transcription of mecA was reduced with increasing concentrations...

  12. How decision reversibility affects motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullens, Lottie; van Harreveld, Frenk; Förster, Jens; Higgins, Tory E

    2014-04-01

    The present research examined how decision reversibility can affect motivation. On the basis of extant findings, it was suggested that 1 way it could affect motivation would be to strengthen different regulatory foci, with reversible decision making, compared to irreversible decision making, strengthening prevention-related motivation relatively more than promotion-related motivation. If so, then decision reversibility should have effects associated with the relative differences between prevention and promotion motivation. In 5 studies, we manipulated the reversibility of a decision and used different indicators of regulatory focus motivation to test these predictions. Specifically, Study 1 tested for differences in participants' preference for approach versus avoidance strategies toward a desired end state. In Study 2, we used speed and accuracy performance as indicators of participants' regulatory motivation, and in Study 3, we measured global versus local reaction time performance. In Study 4, we approached the research question in a different way, making use of the value-from-fit hypothesis (Higgins, 2000, 2002). We tested whether a fit between chronic regulatory focus and focus induced by the reversibility of the decision increased participants' subjective positive feelings about the decision outcome. Finally, in Study 5, we tested whether regulatory motivation, induced by decision reversibility, also influenced participants' preference in specific product features. The results generally support our hypothesis showing that, compared to irreversible decisions, reversible decisions strengthen a prevention focus more than a promotion focus. Implications for research on decision making are discussed.

  13. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-04-01

    Natural hybridization is reproduction (without artificial influence) between two or more species/populations which are distinguishable from each other by heritable characters. Natural hybridizations among marine fishes were highly underappreciated due to limited research effort; it seems that this phenomenon occurs more often than is commonly recognized. As hybridization plays an important role in biodiversity processes in the marine environment, detecting hybridization events and investigating hybridization is important to understand and protect biodiversity. The first chapter sets the framework for this disseration study. The Cohesion Species Concept was selected as the working definition of a species for this study as it can handle marine fish hybridization events. The concept does not require restrictive species boundaries. A general history and background of natural hybridization in marine fishes is reviewed during in chapter as well. Four marine fish hybridization cases were examed and documented in Chapters 2 to 5. In each case study, at least one diagnostic nuclear marker, screened from among ~14 candidate markers, was found to discriminate the putative hybridizing parent species. To further investigate genetic evidence to support the hybrid status for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations together, the potential reasons that triggered each hybridization events and the potential genetic/ecology effects could be discussed. In the last chapter, sequences from 82 pairs of hybridizing parents species (for which COI barcoding sequences were available either on GenBank or in our lab) were collected. By comparing the COI fragment p-distance between each hybridizing parent species, some general questions about marine fish hybridization were discussed: Is

  14. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  15. Nano-functionalized filamentous fungus hyphae with fast reversible macroscopic assembly & disassembly features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haiying; Li, Xiaorui; Chai, Liyuan; Zhang, Liyuan

    2015-05-18

    A uniform decoration of hyphae by polyaniline nanoparticles (PANI NPs) was achieved here. This novel hybrid structure can be effectively assembled into a film by filtration and disassembled in water by shaking. This reversible process is very fast, which promises applications in nanomaterials including adsorption.

  16. Reverse engineering for quality systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, A.J.

    1995-01-01

    When the age of software engineering began, many companies were faced with a problem of how to support the older, pre-software-engineering, programs. The techniques of reverse engineering and re-engineering were developed to bridge the gap between the past and the present. Although reverse engineering can be used for generating missing documentation, it can also be used as a means to demonstrate quality in these older programs. This paper presents, in the form of a case study, how Rolls-Royce and Associates Limited addressed the quality issues of reverse engineering and re-engineering. (author)

  17. Field reversal in mirror machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, L.D.; Anderson, D.V.; Boozer, A.H.

    1978-01-01

    This report discusses some of the physics issues anticipated in field-reversed mirrors. The effect of current cancellation due to electrons is described. An estimate is made of the required impurity level to maintain a field-reversed configuration. The SUPERLAYER code is used to simulate the high-β 2XIIB results, and favorable comparisons require inclusion of quasilinear RF turbulence. Impact of a quadrupole field on field-line closure and resonant transport is discussed. A simple self-consistent model of ion currents is presented. Conditions for stability of field-reversed configurations to E x B driven rotations are determined

  18. Zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, E. B.; Utari; Purnama, B.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discussed about zero field reversal probability in thermally assisted magnetization reversal (TAMR). Appearance of reversal probability in zero field investigated through micromagnetic simulation by solving stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gibert (LLG). The perpendicularly anisotropy magnetic dot of 50×50×20 nm3 is considered as single cell magnetic storage of magnetic random acces memory (MRAM). Thermally assisted magnetization reversal was performed by cooling writing process from near/almost Curie point to room temperature on 20 times runs for different randomly magnetized state. The results show that the probability reversal under zero magnetic field decreased with the increase of the energy barrier. The zero-field probability switching of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T and the reversal probability become zero noted at energy barrier of 2348 k B T. The higest zero-field switching probability of 55% attained for energy barrier of 60 k B T which corespond to magnetif field of 150 Oe for switching.

  19. "Rocking-Chair"-Type Metal Hybrid Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hyun Deog; Han, Sang-Don; Bayliss, Ryan D; Gewirth, Andrew A; Genorio, Bostjan; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Persson, Kristin A; Burrell, Anthony K; Cabana, Jordi

    2016-11-16

    Hybrid supercapacitors that follow a "rocking-chair"-type mechanism were developed by coupling divalent metal and activated carbon electrodes in nonaqueous electrolytes. Conventional supercapacitors require a large amount of electrolyte to provide a sufficient quantity of ions to the electrodes, due to their Daniell-type mechanism that depletes the ions from the electrolyte while charging. The alternative "rocking-chair"-type mechanism effectively enhances the energy density of supercapacitors by minimizing the necessary amount of electrolyte, because the ion is replenished from the metal anode while it is adsorbed to the cathode. Newly developed nonaqueous electrolytes for Mg and Zn electrochemistry, based on bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (TFSI) salts, made the metal hybrid supercapacitors possible by enabling reversible deposition on the metal anodes and reversible adsorption on an activated carbon cathode. Factoring in gains through the cell design, the energy density of the metal hybrid supercapacitors is projected to be a factor of 7 higher than conventional devices thanks to both the "rocking-chair"-type mechanism that minimizes total electrolyte volume and the use of metal anodes, which have substantial merits in capacity and voltage. Self-discharge was also substantially alleviated compared to conventional supercapacitors. This concept offers a route to build supercapacitors that meet dual criteria of power and energy densities with a simple cell design.

  20. A Typology of Reverse Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Zedtwitz, Max; Corsi, Simone; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2015-01-01

    secondary market introduction, this study expands the espoused definition of reverse innovation beyond its market-introduction focus with reversals in the flow of innovation in the ideation and product development phases. Recognizing that each phase can take place in different geographical locations...... taking place in an emerging country. This analytical framework allows recasting of current research at the intersection between innovation and international business. Of the 10 reverse innovation flows, six are new and have not been covered in the literature to date. The study addresses questions......’s portfolio of global innovation competence and capability. The implications for management are concerned with internal and external resistance to reverse innovation. Most significantly, while greater recognition and power of innovation in formerly subordinate organizational units is inconvenient to some...

  1. Spontaneous direct and reverse osmosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valitov, N.Kh.

    1996-01-01

    It has been ascertained experimentally that in the course of separation of CsCl, KCl, NaCl aqueous solutions by semi-permeable membrane from distilled water the direct and then reverse osmosis are observed. The same sequence is observed in case of separation of CsCl aqueous solutions from NaCl of different concentrations. The reason for the direct and reverse osmosis has been explained. 5 refs.; 3 figs. 1 tab

  2. Detection of hepatitis C virus RNA using reverse transcription PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, S.F.

    1998-01-01

    Detection of the viral genome (HCV RNA) is by a combination of cDNA synthesis and PCR followed by gel analysis and/or hybridization assay. In principle, cDNA is synthesized using the viral RNA as template and the enzyme, reverse transcriptase. The cDNA is then amplified by PCR and the product detected. Agarose gel electrophoresis provides a rapid and simple detection method; however, it is non-quantitative. The assay protocol described in this paper is adapted from that published by Chan et al. Comments on various aspects of the assay are based on experience with the method in our laboratory

  3. Garbage collection for reversible functional languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2015-01-01

    Reversible languages are programming languages where all programs can run both forwards and backwards. Reversible functional languages have been proposed that use symmetric pattern matching and data construction. To be reversible, these languages require linearity: Every variable must be used...

  4. Characterization of Sm14 related components in different helminths by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Thaumaturgo

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Sm14 was the first fatty acid-binding protein homologue identified in helminths. Thereafter, members of the same family were identified in several helminth species, with high aminoacid sequence homology between them. In addition, immune crossprotection was also reported against Fasciola hepatica infection, in animals previously immunized with the Schistosoma mansoni vaccine candidate, r-Sm14. In the present study, data on preliminary sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting analysis of nine different helminth extracts focusing the identification of Sm14 related proteins, is reported. Out of these, three extracts - Ascaris suum (males and females, Echinostoma paraensei, and Taenia saginata - presented components that comigrated with Sm14 in SDS-PAGE, and that were recognized by anti-rSm14 policlonal serum, in Western blotting tests.

  5. Henkin and Hybrid Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blackburn, Patrick Rowan; Huertas, Antonia; Manzano, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Leon Henkin was not a modal logician, but there is a branch of modal logic that has been deeply influenced by his work. That branch is hybrid logic, a family of logics that extend orthodox modal logic with special proposition symbols (called nominals) that name worlds. This paper explains why...... Henkin’s techniques are so important in hybrid logic. We do so by proving a completeness result for a hybrid type theory called HTT, probably the strongest hybrid logic that has yet been explored. Our completeness result builds on earlier work with a system called BHTT, or basic hybrid type theory...... is due to the first-order perspective, which lies at the heart of Henin’s best known work and hybrid logic....

  6. Establishment and application of a modified membrane-blot assay for Rhizomucor miehei lipases aimed at improving their methanol tolerance and thermostability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Luo, Wen; Wang, Zhiyuan; Lv, Pengmei; Yuan, Zhenhong; Huang, Shaowei; Xv, Jingliang

    2017-07-01

    Directed evolution has been proved an effective way to improve the stability of proteins, but high throughput screening assays for directed evolution with simultaneous improvement of two or more properties are still rare. In this study, we aimed to establish a membrane-blot assay for use in the high-throughput screening of Rhizomucor miehei lipases (RMLs). With the assistance of the membrane-blot screening assay, a mutant E47K named G10 that showed improved thermal stability was detected in the first round of error-prone PCR. Using G10 as the parent, two variants G10-11 and G10-20 that showed improved thermal stability and methanol tolerance without loss of activity compared to the wild type RML were obtained. The T 50 60 -value of G10-11 and G10-20 increased by 12°C and 6.5°C, respectively. After incubation for 1h, the remaining residual activity of G10-11 and G10-20 was 63.45% and 74.33%, respectively, in 50% methanol, and 15.98% and 30.22%, respectively, in 80% methanol. Thus, we successfully developed a membrane-blot assay that could be used for the high-throughput screening of RMLs with improved thermostability and methanol tolerance. Based on our findings, we believe that our newly developed membrane-blot assay will have potential applications in directed evolution in the future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid Action Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronkko, Mauno; Ravn, Anders P.

    1997-01-01

    a differential action, which allows differential equations as primitive actions. The extension allows us to model hybrid systems with both continuous and discrete behaviour. The main result of this paper is an extension of such a hybrid action system with parallel composition. The extension does not change...... the original meaning of the parallel composition, and therefore also the ordinary action systems can be composed in parallel with the hybrid action systems....

  8. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.

    2010-08-20

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Nanoscale Organic Hybrid Electrolytes

    KAUST Repository

    Nugent, Jennifer L.; Moganty, Surya S.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Nanoscale organic hybrid electrolytes are composed of organic-inorganic hybrid nanostructures, each with a metal oxide or metallic nanoparticle core densely grafted with an ion-conducting polyethylene glycol corona - doped with lithium salt. These materials form novel solvent-free hybrid electrolytes that are particle-rich, soft glasses at room temperature; yet manifest high ionic conductivity and good electrochemical stability above 5V. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. HYBRID VEHICLE CONTROL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Dvadnenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The hybrid vehicle control system includes a start–stop system for an internal combustion engine. The system works in a hybrid mode and normal vehicle operation. To simplify the start–stop system, there were user new possibilities of a hybrid car, which appeared after the conversion. Results of the circuit design of the proposed system of basic blocks are analyzed.

  11. Hybrid radiator cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    France, David M.; Smith, David S.; Yu, Wenhua; Routbort, Jules L.

    2016-03-15

    A method and hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus for implementing enhanced radiator-cooling are provided. The hybrid radiator-cooling apparatus includes an air-side finned surface for air cooling; an elongated vertically extending surface extending outwardly from the air-side finned surface on a downstream air-side of the hybrid radiator; and a water supply for selectively providing evaporative cooling with water flow by gravity on the elongated vertically extending surface.

  12. Development of EMab-51, a Sensitive and Specific Anti-Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Monoclonal Antibody in Flow Cytometry, Western Blot, and Immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itai, Shunsuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Handa, Saori; Chang, Yao-Wen; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Harada, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-10-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the human epidermal growth factor receptor (HER) family of receptor tyrosine kinases and is involved in cell growth and differentiation. EGFR homodimers or heterodimers with other HER members, such as HER2 and HER3, activate downstream signaling cascades in many cancers. In this study, we developed novel anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and characterized their efficacy in flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. First, we expressed the full-length or ectodomain of EGFR in LN229 glioblastoma cells and then immunized mice with LN229/EGFR or ectodomain of EGFR, and performed the first screening using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Subsequently, we selected mAbs according to their efficacy in flow cytometry (second screening), Western blot (third screening), and immunohistochemical (fourth screening) analyses. Among 100 mAbs, only one clone EMab-51 (IgG 1 , kappa) reacted with EGFR in Western blot analysis. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses with EMab-51 showed sensitive and specific reactions against oral cancer cells, warranting the use of EMab-51 to detect EGFR in pathological analyses of EGFR-expressing cancers.

  13. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, M. [CrossChasm Technologies, Cambridge, ON (Canada); Marans, B. [Toronto Atmospheric Fund, ON (Canada)

    2009-10-15

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO{sub 2} emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  14. Managing hybrid marketing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, R T; Moran, U

    1990-01-01

    As competition increases and costs become critical, companies that once went to market only one way are adding new channels and using new methods - creating hybrid marketing systems. These hybrid marketing systems hold the promise of greater coverage and reduced costs. But they are also hard to manage; they inevitably raise questions of conflict and control: conflict because marketing units compete for customers; control because new indirect channels are less subject to management authority. Hard as they are to manage, however, hybrid marketing systems promise to become the dominant design, replacing the "purebred" channel strategy in all kinds of businesses. The trick to managing the hybrid is to analyze tasks and channels within and across a marketing system. A map - the hybrid grid - can help managers make sense of their hybrid system. What the chart reveals is that channels are not the basic building blocks of a marketing system; marketing tasks are. The hybrid grid forces managers to consider various combinations of channels and tasks that will optimize both cost and coverage. Managing conflict is also an important element of a successful hybrid system. Managers should first acknowledge the inevitability of conflict. Then they should move to bound it by creating guidelines that spell out which customers to serve through which methods. Finally, a marketing and sales productivity (MSP) system, consisting of a central marketing database, can act as the central nervous system of a hybrid marketing system, helping managers create customized channels and service for specific customer segments.

  15. Toronto hybrid taxi pilot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, M.; Marans, B.

    2009-10-01

    This paper provided details of a hybrid taxi pilot program conducted to compare the on-road performance of Toyota Camry hybrid vehicles against conventional vehicles over a 1-year period in order to determine the business case and air emission reductions associated with the use of hybrid taxi cabs. Over 750,000 km worth of fuel consumption was captured from 10 Toyota Camry hybrids, a Toyota Prius, and 5 non-hybrid Camry vehicles over an 18-month period. The average real world fuel consumption for the taxis demonstrated that the Toyota Prius has the lowest cost of ownership, while the non-hybrid Camry has the highest cost of ownership. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) reductions associated with the 10 Camry hybrid taxis were calculated at 236 tonnes over a 7-year taxi service life. Results suggested that the conversion of Toronto's 5680 taxis would yield annual CO 2 emission reductions of over 19,000 tonnes. All hybrid purchasers identified themselves as highly likely to purchase a hybrid again. 5 tabs., 9 figs.

  16. Hybrid FOSS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Armstrong researchers are continuing their efforts to further develop FOSS technologies. A hybrid FOSS technique (HyFOSS) employs conventional continuous grating...

  17. Brazilian hybrid electric fuel cell bus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, P.E.V.; Carreira, E.S. [Coppe-Federal Univ. of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Hydrogen Lab.

    2010-07-01

    The first prototype of a hybrid electric fuel cell bus developed with Brazilian technology is unveiled. It is a 12 m urban-type, low-floor, air-conditioned bus that possesses three doors, air suspension, 29 seats and reversible wheelchair site. The bus body was built based on a double-deck type monoblock vehicle that is able to sustain important load on its roof. This allowed positioning of the type 3 hydrogen tanks and the low weight traction batteries on the roof of the vehicles without dynamic stabilization problems. A novel hybrid energy configuration was designed in such a way that the low-power (77 kWe) fuel cell works on steady-state operation mode, not responding directly to the traction motor load demand. The rate of kinetic energy regeneration upon breaking was optimized by the use of an electric hybrid system with predominance of batteries and also by utilizing supercapacitors. The electric-electronic devices and the security control softwares for the auxiliary and traction systems were developed in-house. The innovative hybrid-electric traction system configuration led to the possibility to decrease the fuel cell power, with positive impact on weight and system volume reduction, as well as to significantly decrease the hydrogen consumption. (orig.)

  18. The combination of quantitative PCR and western blot detecting CP4-EPSPS component in Roundup Ready soy plant tissues and commercial soy-related foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Wu, Honghong; Zhou, Xinghu; Xu, Sheng; He, Jian; Shen, Wenbiao; Zhou, Guanghong; Huang, Ming

    2012-06-01

    With the widespread use of Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) (RRS), the comprehensive detection of genetically modified component in foodstuffs is of significant interest, but few protein-based approaches have been found useful in processed foods. In this report, the combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different RRS plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing both meat and plant protein concentrates. The validity of the 2 methods was confirmed first. We also showed that the CP4-EPSPS protein existed in different RRS plant tissues. In certain cases, the results from the western blot and the qPCR were not consistent. To be specific, at least 2 degraded fragments of CP4-EPSPS protein (35.5 and 24.6 kDa) were observed. For dried bean curd crust and deep-fried bean curd, a degraded protein fragment with the size of 24.6 kDa appeared, while cp4-epsps gene could not be traced by qPCR. In contrast, we found a signal of cp4-epsps DNA in 3 foodstuffs, including soy-containing ham cutlet product, meat ball, and sausage by qPCR, while CP4-EPSPS protein could not be detected by western blot in such samples. Our study therefore concluded that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods would compensate each other, thus resulting in a more comprehensive detection from nucleic acid and protein levels. The combination of quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blot was used to detect cp4-epsps gene and its protein product in different Roundup Ready soy (event 40-3-2) plant tissues and commercial soy-containing foodstuffs. The foods included those of plant origin produced by different processing procedures and also some products containing a combination of both meat and plant protein concentrates. This study indicated that the combination of DNA- and protein-based methods

  19. From hybrid swarms to swarms of hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Szalanski, Allen L; Gaskin, John F.; Young, Nicholas E.; West, Amanda; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Tripodi, Amber

    2014-01-01

    Science has shown that the introgression or hybridization of modern humans (Homo sapiens) with Neanderthals up to 40,000 YBP may have led to the swarm of modern humans on earth. However, there is little doubt that modern trade and transportation in support of the humans has continued to introduce additional species, genotypes, and hybrids to every country on the globe. We assessed the utility of species distributions modeling of genotypes to assess the risk of current and future invaders. We evaluated 93 locations of the genus Tamarix for which genetic data were available. Maxent models of habitat suitability showed that the hybrid, T. ramosissima x T. chinensis, was slightly greater than the parent taxa (AUCs > 0.83). General linear models of Africanized honey bees, a hybrid cross of Tanzanian Apis mellifera scutellata and a variety of European honey bee including A. m. ligustica, showed that the Africanized bees (AUC = 0.81) may be displacing European honey bees (AUC > 0.76) over large areas of the southwestern U.S. More important, Maxent modeling of sub-populations (A1 and A26 mitotypes based on mDNA) could be accurately modeled (AUC > 0.9), and they responded differently to environmental drivers. This suggests that rapid evolutionary change may be underway in the Africanized bees, allowing the bees to spread into new areas and extending their total range. Protecting native species and ecosystems may benefit from risk maps of harmful invasive species, hybrids, and genotypes.

  20. Modulation of tyrosine hydroxylase gene expression in the central nervous system visualized by in situ hybridization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berod, A.; Biguet, N.F.; Dumas, S.; Bloch, B.; Mallet, J.

    1987-01-01

    cDNA probe was used for in situ hybridization studies on histological sections through the locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, and the ventral tegmental area of the rat brain. Experimental conditions were established that yielded no background and no signal when pBR322 was used as control probe. Using the tyrosine hydroxylase probe, the authors ascertained the specificity of the labeling over catecholaminergic cells by denervation experiments and comparison of the hybridization pattern with that of immunoreactivity. The use of 35 S-labeled probe enabled the hybridization signal to be resolved at the cellular level. A single injection of reserpine into the rat led to an increase of the intensity of the autoradiographic signal over the locus coeruleus area, confirming an RNA gel blot analysis. The potential of in situ hybridization to analyze patterns of modulation of gene activity as a result of nervous activity is discussed

  1. Vasectomy reversal: a clinical update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek P Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasectomy is a safe and effective method of contraception used by 42-60 million men worldwide. Approximately 3%-6% of men opt for a vasectomy reversal due to the death of a child or divorce and remarriage, change in financial situation, desire for more children within the same marriage, or to alleviate the dreaded postvasectomy pain syndrome. Unlike vasectomy, vasectomy reversal is a much more technically challenging procedure that is performed only by a minority of urologists and places a larger financial strain on the patient since it is usually not covered by insurance. Interest in this procedure has increased since the operating microscope became available in the 1970s, which consequently led to improved patency and pregnancy rates following the procedure. In this clinical update, we discuss patient evaluation, variables that may influence reversal success rates, factors to consider in choosing to perform vasovasostomy versus vasoepididymostomy, and the usefulness of vasectomy reversal to alleviate postvasectomy pain syndrome. We also review the use of robotics for vasectomy reversal and other novel techniques and instrumentation that have emerged in recent years to aid in the success of this surgery.

  2. Interspecific somatic hybrid plants between eggplant (Solanum melongena) and Solanum torvum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guri, A; Sink, K C

    1988-10-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts of eggplant (cv Black Beauty) and of Solanum torvum (both 2n=2x=24) were fused using a modification of the Menczel and Wolfe PEG/DMSO procedure. Protoplasts post-fusion were plated at 1 × 10(5)/ml in modified KM medium, which inhibited division of S. torvum protoplasts. One week prior to shoot regeneration, ten individual calluses had a unique light-green background and were verified as cell hybrids by the presence of the dimer isozyme patterns for phosphoglucoisomerase (PGI) and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT). Hybridity was also confirmed at the plant stage by DNA-DNA hybridization to a pea 45S ribosomal RNA gene probe. The ten somatic hybrid plants were established in the greenhouse and exhibited intermediate morphological characteristics such as leaf size and shape, flower size, shape, color and plant stature. Their chromosome number ranged from 46-48 (expected 2n=4x=48) and pollen viability was 5%-70%. In vitro shoots taken from the ten hybrid plants exhibited resistance to a verticillium wilt extract. Total DNA from the ten hybrids was restricted and hybridized with a 5.9 kb Oenothera chloroplast cytochrome f gene probe, a 2.4 kb EcoRI clone encoding mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit II from maize and a 22.1 kb Sal I mitochondrial clone from Nicotiana sylvestris. Southern blot hybridization patterns showed that eight of ten somatic hybrids contained the eggplant cpDNA, while two plants contained the cpDNA hybridization patterns of both parents. The mtDNA analysis revealed the presence of novel bands, loss of some specific parental bands and mixture of specific bands from both parents in the restriction hybridization profiles of the hybrids.

  3. Reverse Knowledge Transfer in MNEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mudambi, Ram; Piscitello, Lucia; Rabbiosi, Larissa

    2014-01-01

    a positive correlation with the extent of reverse knowledge transfers to the parent MNE. Relying on the headquarters-subsidiary view of the MNE, we argue that, beyond a point, increasing subsidiary innovativeness will be associated with lower reverse knowledge transfers. Further, we argue......It is now well recognized that multinational enterprises (MNEs) are differentiated networks wherein subsidiaries vary in terms of their ability to create new knowledge and competencies for their parent groups. In much of this theory, it is taken for granted that subsidiary innovativeness has...... that this relationship is sensitive to the subsidiary entry mode. Using data from a sample of 293 Italian subsidiaries, we find strong support for our hypotheses. In particular, our results confirm that the effect of subsidiary innovativeness on reverse knowledge transfers displays an inverted-U shape...

  4. Ice ages and geomagnetic reversals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    There have been speculations on the relationship between climatic cooling and polarity reversals of the earth's magnetic field during the Pleistocene. Two of the common criticisms on this relationship have been the reality of these short duration geomagnetic events and the accuracy of their dates. Champion et al. (1988) have reviewed recent progress in this area. They identified a total of 10 short-duration polarity events in the last 1 Ma and 6 of these events have been found in volcanic rocks, which also have K-Ar dates. Supposing that the speculated relationship between climatic cooling and geomagnetic reversals actually exist, two mechanisms that assume climatic cooling causes short period magnetic reversals will be investigated. These two methods are core-mantle boundary topography and transfer of the rotational energy to the core.

  5. Reverse innovation in maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoz, Tabassum; Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Nathan, Hannah L; Payne, Beth; Magee, Laura A

    2017-09-01

    Reverse innovation, defined as the flow of ideas from low- to high-income settings, is gaining traction in healthcare. With an increasing focus on value, investing in low-cost but effective and innovative solutions can be of mutual benefit to both high- and low-income countries. Reverse innovation has a role in addressing maternal health challenges in high-income countries by harnessing these innovative solutions for vulnerable populations especially in rural and remote regions. In this paper, we present three examples of 'reverse innovation' for maternal health: a low-cost, easy-to-use blood pressure device (CRADLE), a diagnostic algorithm (mini PIERS) and accompanying mobile app (PIERS on the Move), and a novel method for mapping maternal outcomes (MOM).

  6. Reverse Transfection Using Gold Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shigeru; Fujita, Satoshi; Uchimura, Eiichiro; Miyake, Masato; Miyake, Jun

    Reverse transfection from a solid surface has the potential to deliver genes into various types of cell and tissue more effectively than conventional methods of transfection. We present a method for reverse transfection using a gold colloid (GC) as a nanoscaffold by generating nanoclusters of the DNA/reagentcomplex on a glass surface, which could then be used for the regulation of the particle size of the complex and delivery of DNA into nuclei. With this method, we have found that the conjugation of gold nanoparticles (20 nm in particle size) to the pEGFP-N1/Jet-PEI complex resulted in an increase in the intensity of fluorescence of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) (based on the efficiency of transfection) from human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), as compared with the control without GC. In this manner, we constructed a method for reverse transfection using GC to deliver genes into the cells effectively.

  7. Designing the Reverse Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the impact of the product residual value (PRV) and the loss of value over time of returned products in the reverse supply chain configuration. It also examines whether or not the distinction of Fisher's functional and innovative products holds...... that allows for recapturing most of the PRV. These notions have then been tested by analyzing two reverse supply chains with a case study research methodology. Findings – The findings show that low PRV is associated with second-class recovery options (recycling and energy recovery) and that high PRV...... is associated with first-class recovery options (reconditioning and remarketing). When the recovery option is recycling, time is not relevant, the primary objective is cost reduction (efficiency), the chain is centralized, and actors and phases of the reverse chain are determined by the specificity...

  8. Hybridization in geese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ottenburghs, Jente; Hooft, van Pim; Wieren, van Sipke E.; Ydenberg, Ronald C.; Prins, Herbert H.T.

    2016-01-01

    The high incidence of hybridization in waterfowl (ducks, geese and swans) makes this bird group an excellent study system to answer questions related to the evolution and maintenance of species boundaries. However, knowledge on waterfowl hybridization is biased towards ducks, with a large

  9. Mirror hybrid reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bender, D.J.

    1978-01-01

    The hybrid reactor studies are reviewed. The optimization of the point design and work on a reference design are described. The status of the nuclear analysis of fast spectrum blankets, systems studies for fissile fuel producing hybrid reactor, and the mechanical design of the machine are reviewed

  10. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  11. Cardiac hybrid imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaemperli, Oliver [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Nuclear Cardiology, Cardiovascular Center, Zurich (Switzerland); Kaufmann, Philipp A. [University Hospital Zurich, Cardiac Imaging, Zurich (Switzerland); Alkadhi, Hatem [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2014-05-15

    Hybrid cardiac single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/CT imaging allows combined assessment of anatomical and functional aspects of cardiac disease. In coronary artery disease (CAD), hybrid SPECT/CT imaging allows detection of coronary artery stenosis and myocardial perfusion abnormalities. The clinical value of hybrid imaging has been documented in several subsets of patients. In selected groups of patients, hybrid imaging improves the diagnostic accuracy to detect CAD compared to the single imaging techniques. Additionally, this approach facilitates functional interrogation of coronary stenoses and guidance with regard to revascularization procedures. Moreover, the anatomical information obtained from CT coronary angiography or coronary artery calcium scores (CACS) adds prognostic information over perfusion data from SPECT. The use of cardiac hybrid imaging has been favoured by the dissemination of dedicated hybrid systems and the release of dedicated image fusion software, which allow simple patient throughput for hybrid SPECT/CT studies. Further technological improvements such as more efficient detector technology to allow for low-radiation protocols, ultra-fast image acquisition and improved low-noise image reconstruction algorithms will be instrumental to further promote hybrid SPECT/CT in research and clinical practice. (orig.)

  12. Hybrid job shop scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutten, Johannes M.J.

    1995-01-01

    We consider the problem of scheduling jobs in a hybrid job shop. We use the term 'hybrid' to indicate that we consider a lot of extensions of the classic job shop, such as transportation times, multiple resources, and setup times. The Shifting Bottleneck procedure can be generalized to deal with

  13. Hybrid Shipboard Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman @ Marzuki, Muzaidi Bin; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    Strict regulation on emissions of air pollutants imposed by the maritime authorities has led to the introduction of hybrid microgrids to the shipboard power systems (SPSs) which acts toward energy efficient ships with less pollution. A hybrid energy system can include different means of generation...

  14. Hybrid intelligent engineering systems

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, L C; Adelaide, Australia University of

    1997-01-01

    This book on hybrid intelligent engineering systems is unique, in the sense that it presents the integration of expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems, genetic algorithms, and chaos engineering. It shows that these new techniques enhance the capabilities of one another. A number of hybrid systems for solving engineering problems are presented.

  15. Editorial: Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olderog, Ernst-Rüdiger; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2007-01-01

    An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005.......An introduction to three papers in a special issue on Hybrid Systems. These paper were first presented at an IFIP WG 2.2 meeting in Skagen 2005....

  16. Reverse genetics with animal viruses. NSV reverse genetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mebatsion, T.

    2005-01-01

    New strategies to genetically manipulate the genomes of several important animal pathogens have been established in recent years. This article focuses on the reverse genetics techniques, which enables genetic manipulation of the genomes of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. Recovery of a negative-sense RNA virus entirely from cDNA was first achieved for rabies virus in 1994. Since then, reverse genetic systems have been established for several pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Based on the reverse genetics technique, it is now possible to design safe and more effective live attenuated vaccines against important viral agents. In addition, genetically tagged recombinant viruses can be designed to facilitate serological differentiation of vaccinated animals from infected animals. The approach of delivering protective immunogens of different pathogens using a single vector was made possible with the introduction of the reverse genetics system, and these novel broad-spectrum vaccine vectors have potential applications in improving animal health in developing countries. (author)

  17. Course on hybrid calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weill, J.; Tellier; Bonnemay; Craigne; Chareton; Di Falco

    1969-02-01

    After a definition of hybrid calculation (combination of analogue and digital calculation) with a distinction between series and parallel hybrid computing, and a description of a hybrid computer structure and of task sharing between computers, this course proposes a description of hybrid hardware used in Saclay and Cadarache computing centres, and of operations performed by these systems. The next part addresses issues related to programming languages and software. The fourth part describes how a problem is organised for its processing on these computers. Methods of hybrid analysis are then addressed: resolution of optimisation problems, of partial differential equations, and of integral equations by means of different methods (gradient, maximum principle, characteristics, functional approximation, time slicing, Monte Carlo, Neumann iteration, Fischer iteration)

  18. Hybrid functional pseudopotentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Tan, Liang Z.; Rappe, Andrew M.

    2018-02-01

    The consistency between the exchange-correlation functional used in pseudopotential construction and in the actual density functional theory calculation is essential for the accurate prediction of fundamental properties of materials. However, routine hybrid density functional calculations at present still rely on generalized gradient approximation pseudopotentials due to the lack of hybrid functional pseudopotentials. Here, we present a scheme for generating hybrid functional pseudopotentials, and we analyze the importance of pseudopotential density functional consistency for hybrid functionals. For the PBE0 hybrid functional, we benchmark our pseudopotentials for structural parameters and fundamental electronic gaps of the Gaussian-2 (G2) molecular dataset and some simple solids. Our results show that using our PBE0 pseudopotentials in PBE0 calculations improves agreement with respect to all-electron calculations.

  19. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  20. Reverse Zymography: Overview and Pitfalls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kanika; Bhattacharyya, Debasish

    2017-01-01

    Reverse zymography is a technique by which protease inhibitor(s) in a sample could be electrophoretically separated in a substrate-impregnated acrylamide gel and their relative abundance could be semi-quantified. The gel after electrophoresis is incubated with a protease when the impregnated substrate and all other proteins of the sample are degraded into small peptides except the inhibitor(s) that show clear bands against a white background. Since reverse zymography cannot distinguish between a protease inhibitor and a protein that is resistant against proteolysis, the results should be confirmed from inhibition of protease activity by solution state assay.

  1. Reference counting for reversible languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Torben Ægidius

    2014-01-01

    inverses: Freeing a block of memory is done by running the allocation procedure backwards. Axelsen and Glück use this heap manager to sketch implementation of a simple reversible functional language where pattern matching a constructor is the inverse of construction, so pattern-matching implies......Modern programming languages and operating systems use heap memory that allows allocation and deallocation of memory to be decoupled, so they don't follow a stack discipline. Axelsen and Glück have presented a reversible heap manager where allocation and deallocation are each other's logical...

  2. A functional language for describing reversible logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal

    2012-01-01

    Reversible logic is a computational model where all gates are logically reversible and combined in circuits such that no values are lost or duplicated. This paper presents a novel functional language that is designed to describe only reversible logic circuits. The language includes high....... Reversibility of descriptions is guaranteed with a type system based on linear types. The language is applied to three examples of reversible computations (ALU, linear cosine transformation, and binary adder). The paper also outlines a design flow that ensures garbage- free translation to reversible logic...... circuits. The flow relies on a reversible combinator language as an intermediate language....

  3. Detection of Canine Distemper Virus Nucleoprotein RNA by Reverse Transcription-PCR Using Serum, Whole Blood, and Cerebrospinal Fluid from Dogs with Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, A. L.; König, M.; Moritz, A.; Baumgärtner, W.

    1999-01-01

    Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was used to detect canine distemper virus (CDV) nucleoprotein (NP) RNA in serum, whole blood, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 38 dogs with clinically suspected distemper. Results were correlated to clinical findings, anti-CDV neutralizing antibody titers, postmortem findings, and demonstration of CDV NP antigen by immunohistochemistry. The specificity of the RT-PCR was ensured by amplification of RNA from various laboratory CDV strains, restriction enzyme digestion, and Southern blot hybridization. In 29 of 38 dogs, CDV infection was confirmed by postmortem examination and immunohistochemistry. The animals displayed the catarrhal, systemic, and nervous forms of distemper. Seventeen samples (serum, whole blood, or CSF) from dogs with distemper were tested with three sets of primers targeted to different regions of the NP gene of the CDV Onderstepoort strain. Expected amplicons were observed in 82, 53, and 41% of the 17 samples, depending upon the primer pair used. With the most sensitive primer pair (primer pair I), CDV NP RNA was detected in 25 of 29 (86%) serum samples and 14 of 16 (88%) whole blood and CSF samples from dogs with distemper but not in body fluids from immunohistochemically negative dogs. Nucleotide sequence analysis of five RT-PCR amplicons from isolates from the field revealed few silent point mutations. These isolates exhibited greater homology to the Rockborn (97 to 99%) than to the Onderstepoort (95 to 96%) CDV strain. In summary, although the sensitivity of the RT-PCR for detection of CDV is strongly influenced by the location of the selected primers, this nucleic acid detection system represents a highly specific and sensitive method for the antemortem diagnosis of distemper in dogs, regardless of the form of distemper, humoral immune response, and viral antigen distribution. PMID:10523566

  4. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  5. Contribution of dot-blot assay to the diagnosis and management of myositis: a three-year practice at a university hospital centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Clothilde; Vignaud, Guillaume; Liozon, Eric; Magy, Laurent; Gallouedec, Gael; Ly, Kim; Bezanahary, Holly; Cypierre, Anne; Lapébie, François-Xavier; Palat, Sylvain; Gondran, Guillaume; Jauberteau, Marie-Odile; Fauchais, Anne-Laure

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) are heterogeneous autoimmune diseases with wide clinical spectrum that may lead to delayed diagnosis. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of IIM-specific dot-blot assay on diagnostic process of patients presenting with muscular or systemic symptoms evocating of IIM. We collected all the prescriptions of an IIM specific dot-blot assay (8 autoantigens including Jo-1, PL-7, PL-12, SRP, Mi-2, Ku, PM/Scl and Scl-70) over a 38-month period. 316 myositis dot-blot assays (MSD) were performed in 274 patients (156 women, mean age 53±10.6 years) referring for muscular and/or systemic symptoms suggesting IIM. The timing of dot prescription through the diagnostic process was highly variable: without (35%), concomitantly (16%) or after electromyographic studies (35%). Fifty-nine patients (22%) had IIM according to Bohan and Peter's criteria. Among them, 29 (49%) had positive dot (8 Jo-1, 6 PM-Scl, 5 PL-12, 5 SRP, 2 Mi-2, 2 PL-7 and 1 Ku). Various other diagnoses were performed including 35 autoimmune disease or granulomatosis (12%), 19 inflammatory rheumatic disease (7%), 16 non inflammatory muscular disorders (6%), 10 drug-induced myalgia (4%), 11 infectious myositis (4%). Except 11 borderline SRP results and one transient PM-Scl, MSD was positive only in one case of IIM. Dot allowed clinicians to correct diagnosis in 4 cases and improved the diagnosis of IIM subtypes in 4 cases. This study reflects the interest of myositis dot in the rapid diagnosis process of patients with non-specific muscular symptoms leading to various diagnoses including IIM.

  6. CAPSULE REPORT: REVERSE OSMOSIS PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A failure analysis has been completed for the reverse osmosis (RO) process. The focus was on process failures that result in releases of liquids and vapors to the environment. The report includes the following: 1) A description of RO and coverage of the principles behind the proc...

  7. Time reversal and parity tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terwilliger, K.

    1975-01-01

    A recent review by Henley discusses the present status of Time Reversal and Parity symmetry violations, and comments on the implications for high energy hadron scattering. This note will briefly summarize the situation with particular attention to the sizes of possible effects, relating them to experimental accuracy available or reasonably possible at the ZGS

  8. A Framework for Reverse Logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. de Brito (Marisa); R. Dekker (Rommert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractReverse Logistics has been stretching out worldwide, involving all the layers of supply chains in various industry sectors. While some actors in the chain have been forced to take products back, others have pro-actively done so, attracted by the value in used products One way or the

  9. Reverse ventilation--perfusion mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmaz, J.C.; Barnett, C.A.; Reich, S.B.; Krumpe, P.E.; Farrer, P.A.

    1984-01-01

    Patients having lobar airway obstruction or consolidation usually have decreases of both ventilation and perfusion on lung scans. We report three patients in whom hypoxic vasoconstriction was apparently incomplete, resulting in a ''reversed'' ventilation-perfusion mismatch. Perfusion of the hypoxic lobe on the radionuclide scan was associated with metabolic alkalosis, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension in these patients

  10. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  11. Standardization of micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using extracts from Mexican strains as antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, B; Monteón, V; Reyes, P A; Espinoza, B

    2001-01-01

    This report describes two assays for the detection of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies using Mexican strains of the parasite and the concordance with two assays previously evaluated at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez in Mexico City. Micro-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot were used for the detection of T. cruzi antibodies with a total extract of epimastigote from Ninoa and Queretaro, which are Mexican strains of T. cruzi. To standardize these methods, a total of 246 serum samples was used. In addition, sera from six confirmed Mexican chronic individuals in the asymptomatic phase were also used for comparison with the Argentinean antigen. ELISA was 100% specific in that no false positive results were found with sera of both healthy individuals and non-Chagasic cardiopaths. Sera from individuals infected with Leishmania sp. showed approximately 16% of cross-reaction with ELISA. The test showed a positive predictive value of 90% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Western blot was also a highly sensitive test for detecting chronic Chagasic symptomatic patients from Mexico because no false negative results were obtained. Furthermore, it was possible to use Western blot to detect seven immunodominant antigens of approximately 30, 32, 40, 42, 65, 70, and 83 kDa. Concordance with two previous standardized tests at the Instituto Nacional de Cardiología showed a Kappa index of 0.96, indicating high concordance between the results obtained at these two laboratories. Finally, ELISA using Ninoa antigen extract was more sensitive than ELISA with an Argentinean extract, which failed to detect individuals in the chronic asymptomatic phase (undetermined phase) of infection. This study indicates that ELISA and Western blot using Ninoa and/or Queretaro extracts of T. cruzi as antigens are useful tools in the detection of individuals who have been exposed to T. cruzi both in the undetermined/asymptomatic and symptomatic phases

  12. Use of the water-soluble fluor sodium salicylate for fluorographic detection of tritium in thin-layer chromatograms and nitrocellulose blots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucher, L.A.; Lego, T.

    1989-01-01

    We have determined that sodium salicylate, a water-soluble fluor which we use routinely for fluorography with polyacrylamide gels, is also useful for fluorography with thin-layer media. Detection of 3 H-labeled material applied to thin-layer chromatography plates, or nitrocellulose membranes, can be enhanced up to 150-fold after treatment with an aqueous solution of 2 M sodium salicylate, while detection of 35 S-labeled material is enhanced only about 2-fold. We demonstrate the utility of sodium salicylate fluorography in detecting 3H-labeled palmitic acid following thin-layer chromatography and 3 H-labeled proteins following blotting to nitrocellulose

  13. Reverse amblyopia with atropine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Bryan C; Sprunger, Derek C; Plager, David A; Neely, Daniel E; Guess, Matthew G

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion, pharmacologic pernalization and combined therapy have been documented in controlled studies to effectively treat amblyopia with few complications. However, there remain concerns about the effectiveness and complications when, as in this case, there are not standardized treatment protocols. A retrospective chart review of 133 consecutive patients in one community based ophthalmology practice treated for amblyopia was performed. Treatments evaluated were occlusion only, atropine penalization, and combination of occlusion and atropine. Reverse amblyopia was defined as having occured when the visual acuity of the sound eye was 3 LogMar units worse than visual acuity of the amblyopia eye after treatment. Improvement in vision after 6 months and 1 year of amblyopia therapy was similar among all three groups: 0.26 LogMar lines and 0.30 in the atropine group, 0.32 and 0.34 in the occlusion group, and 0.24 and 0.32 in the combined group. Eight (6%) patients demonstrated reverse amblyopia. The mean age of those who developed reverse amblyopia was 3.5 years, 1.5 years younger than the mean age of the study population, 7/8 had strabismic amblyopia, 6/8 were on daily atropine and had a mean refractive error of +4.77 diopters in the amblyopic eye and +5.06 diopters in the sound eye. Reverse amblyopia did not occur with occlusion only therapy. In this community based ophthalmology practice, atropine, patching, and combination therapy appear to be equally effective modalities to treat ambyopia. Highly hyperopic patients under 4 years of age with dense, strabismic amblyopia and on daily atropine appeared to be most at risk for development of reverse amblyopia.

  14. Reversible photo-induced trap formation in mixed-halide hybrid perovskites for photovoltaics† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, PL, PDS spectra and XRD patterns. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sc03141e Click here for additional data file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Eric T.; Slotcavage, Daniel J.; Dohner, Emma R.; Bowring, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    We report on reversible, light-induced transformations in (CH3NH3)Pb(BrxI1–x)3. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of these perovskites develop a new, red-shifted peak at 1.68 eV that grows in intensity under constant, 1-sun illumination in less than a minute. This is accompanied by an increase in sub-bandgap absorption at ∼1.7 eV, indicating the formation of luminescent trap states. Light soaking causes a splitting of X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks, suggesting segregation into two crystalline phases. Surprisingly, these photo-induced changes are fully reversible; the XRD patterns and the PL and absorption spectra revert to their initial states after the materials are left for a few minutes in the dark. We speculate that photoexcitation may cause halide segregation into iodide-rich minority and bromide-enriched majority domains, the former acting as a recombination center trap. This instability may limit achievable voltages from some mixed-halide perovskite solar cells and could have implications for the photostability of halide perovskites used in optoelectronics. PMID:28706629

  15. Hybrid electric vehicles TOPTEC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-21

    This one-day TOPTEC session began with an overview of hybrid electric vehicle technology. Updates were given on alternative types of energy storage, APU control for low emissions, simulation programs, and industry and government activities. The keynote speech was about battery technology, a key element to the success of hybrids. The TOPEC concluded with a panel discussion on the mission of hybrid electric vehicles, with a perspective from industry and government experts from United States and Canada on their view of the role of this technology.

  16. Hybrid systems with constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Daafouz, Jamal; Sigalotti, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Control theory is the main subject of this title, in particular analysis and control design for hybrid dynamic systems.The notion of hybrid systems offers a strong theoretical and unified framework to cope with the modeling, analysis and control design of systems where both continuous and discrete dynamics interact. The theory of hybrid systems has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade and a large number of diverse and challenging problems have been investigated. Nevertheless, many important mathematical problems remain open.This book is dedicated mainly to

  17. Towers of hybrid mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semay, Claude; Buisseret, Fabien; Silvestre-Brac, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    A hybrid meson is a quark-antiquark pair in which, contrary to ordinary mesons, the gluon field is in an excited state. In the framework of constituent models, the interaction potential is assumed to be the energy of an excited string. An approximate, but accurate, analytical solution of the Schroedinger equation with such a potential is presented. When applied to hybrid charmonia and bottomonia, towers of states are predicted in which the masses are a linear function of a harmonic oscillator band number for the quark-antiquark pair. Such a formula could be a reliable guide for the experimental detection of heavy hybrid mesons.

  18. Hybrid Bloch brane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Lima, Elisama E.M.; Losano, L. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    This work reports on models described by two real scalar fields coupled with gravity in the five-dimensional spacetime, with a warped geometry involving one infinite extra dimension. Through a mechanism that smoothly changes a thick brane into a hybrid brane, one investigates the appearance of hybrid branes hosting internal structure, characterized by the splitting on the energy density and the volcano potential, induced by the parameter which controls interactions between the two scalar fields. In particular, we investigate distinct symmetric and asymmetric hybrid brane scenarios. (orig.)

  19. Role of NLRC5 in progression and reversal of hepatic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xuejiao, E-mail: liuxuejiao0615@163.com [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Key Laboratory of Bioactivity of Natural Products, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Wu, Yuting; Yang, Yang; Li, Wanxia; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Key Laboratory of Bioactivity of Natural Products, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Li, Jun, E-mail: lj@ahmu.edu.cn [School of Pharmacy, Anhui Key Laboratory of Bioactivity of Natural Products, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); Institute for Liver Diseases, Anhui Medical University, Hefei 230032 (China); School of Pharmacy, Anhui Medical University, Mei Shan load, Hefei 230032, Anhui Province (China)

    2016-03-01

    Background: NLRC5, as the largest member of NLRs family, has recently been identified as a critical regulator of immune responses through negatively regulating NF-κB which is associated with the development of hepatic fibrosis. However, the expression and potential roles of NLRC5 in hepatic fibrosis and its reversal are still to be defined. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were treatment with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) induce hepatic fibrosis and its reversal. In vitro, models of hepatic fibrosis and its reversal are established by the treatment with TGF-β and MDI. The expression of NLRC5 was determined by RT-PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Consequently, NLRC5 was overexpressed or knockdown by transfecting PEGFP-C2-NLRC5 or NLRC5-siRNA respectively in the reversal of hepatic fibrosis, and the expression of fibrogenic genes such as α-SMA and Col1α1 was quantified. The NF-κB activity was detected as well. Results: Immunohistochemistry, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis with liver tissues and primary HSCs showed that NLRC5 was highly expressed in hepatic fibrosis and correspondingly decreased in the reversal stage. The differential expression of NLRC5 was confirmed in vitro. Enforced NLRC5 expression increased the expression of α-SMA and Col1α1, and blockade of NLRC5 reduced the fibrotic response. While the opposite expression of phosphorylated NF-kB p65 and phospho-IκBα was found. Conclusion: NLRC5 is differentially expressed in hepatic tissues and hepatic stellate cells during hepatic fibrosis and its reversal. All the data indicated that NLRC5 may play a crucial role in regulating the reversal of hepatic fibrosis through NF-κB signaling pathway. - Highlights: • The activated HSCs can be reverted to quiescent HSCs by MDI treatment. • NLRC5 expressed differentially during different stages of hepatic fibrosis and its reversal. • Enforced NLRC5 in reverted LX-c cells boosted the expression of α-SMA and Col1α1. • Blockade of NLRC5 diminished

  20. Demonstration of functional low-density lipoprotein receptors by protein blotting in fibroblasts from a subject with homozygous receptor-negative familial hypercholesterolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semenkovich, C.F.; Ostlund, R.E. Jr.; Yang, J.; Reaban, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    We report the detection of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptors by the technique of receptor blotting in fibroblasts from a patient with homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FHC) previously classified as ''receptor negative.'' Solubilized receptors were electrophoresed, transferred to nitrocellulose paper, treated with LDL followed by radiolabeled antibody to LDL, and visualized by autoradiography. GM 2000 FHC fibroblasts revealed LDL receptors with an apparent molecular weight of approximately 140,000, the same as in normal cells. LDL receptor activity by blotting in GM 2000 cells was greatly diminished in comparison with normal cells, but was calcium dependent. Receptor activity was also detectable by conventional monolayer binding and degradation assays. Thus, GM 2000 cells have profoundly diminished LDL receptor activity, but retain the genetic capacity to make LDL receptor material of normal molecular weight that is capable of binding LDL. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of trace amounts of immunoreactive LDL receptor protein in fibroblasts from some receptor-negative FHC homozygotes. These studies are extended by demonstrating the ability of this material to bind LDL

  1. Application of FTA sample collection and DNA purification system on the determination of CTG trinucleotide repeat size by PCR-based Southern blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, K M; Lin, H M; Pan, H; Li, T C; Chen, S S; Jou, S B; Chiu, Y L; Wu, M F; Lin, C C; Li, S Y

    1999-01-01

    Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is caused by a CTG trinucleotide expansion mutation at exon 15 of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase gene. The clinical severity of this disease correlates with the length of the CTG trinucleotide repeats. Determination of the CTG repeat length has been primarily relied on by Southern blot analysis of restriction enzyme-digested genomic DNA. The development of PCR-based Southern blotting methodology provides a much more sensitive and simpler protocol for DM diagnosis. However, the quality of the template and the high (G+C) ratio of the amplified region hamper the use of PCR on the diagnosis of DM. A modified PCR protocol to amplify different lengths of CTG repeat region using various concentrations of 7deaza-dGTP has been reported (1). Here we describe a procedure including sample collection, DNA purification, and PCR analysis of CTG repeat length without using 7-deaza-dGTP. This protocol is very sensitive and convenient because only a small number of nucleate cells are needed for detection of CTG expansion. Therefore, it could be very useful in clinical and prenatal diagnosis as well as in prevalence study of DM.

  2. From reverse transcription to human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrenko V. V.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcriptase from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV was the subject of the study, from which the investi- gations of the Department of biosynthesis of nucleic acids were started. Production of AMV in grams quantities and isolation of AMV reverse transcriptase were established in the laboratory during the seventies of the past cen- tury and this initiated research on the cDNA synthesis, cloning and investigation of the structure and functions of the eukaryotic genes. Structures of salmon insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF family genes and their transcripts were determined during long-term investigations. Results of two modern techniques, microarray-ba- sed hybridization and SAGE, were used for the identification of the genes differentially expressed in astrocytic gliomas and human normal brain. Comparison of SAGE results on the genes overexpressed in glioblastoma with the results of microarray analysis revealed a limited number of common genes. 105 differentially expressed genes, common to both methods, can be included in the list of candidates for the molecular typing of glioblastoma. The first experiments on the classification of glioblastomas based on the data of the 20 genes expression were conducted by using of artificial neural network analysis. The results of these experiments showed that the expression profiles of these genes in 224 glioblastoma samples and 74 normal brain samples could be according to the Koho- nen’s maps. The CHI3L1 and CHI3L2 genes of chitinase-like cartilage protein were revealed among the most overexpressed genes in glioblastoma, which could have prognostic and diagnostic potential. Results of in vitro experiments demonstrated that both proteins, CHI3L1 and CHI3L2, may initiate the phosphorylation of ERK1/ ERK2 and AKT kinases leading to the activation of MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling cascades in human embryonic kidney 293 cells, human glioblastoma U87MG, and U373 cells. The new human cell line

  3. Tough Self-Healing Elastomers by Molecular Enforced Integration of Covalent and Reversible Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinrong; Cai, Li-Heng; Weitz, David A

    2017-10-01

    Self-healing polymers crosslinked by solely reversible bonds are intrinsically weaker than common covalently crosslinked networks. Introducing covalent crosslinks into a reversible network would improve mechanical strength. It is challenging, however, to apply this concept to "dry" elastomers, largely because reversible crosslinks such as hydrogen bonds are often polar motifs, whereas covalent crosslinks are nonpolar motifs. These two types of bonds are intrinsically immiscible without cosolvents. Here, we design and fabricate a hybrid polymer network by crosslinking randomly branched polymers carrying motifs that can form both reversible hydrogen bonds and permanent covalent crosslinks. The randomly branched polymer links such two types of bonds and forces them to mix on the molecular level without cosolvents. This enables a hybrid "dry" elastomer that is very tough with fracture energy 13500 Jm -2 comparable to that of natural rubber. Moreover, the elastomer can self-heal at room temperature with a recovered tensile strength 4 MPa, which is 30% of its original value, yet comparable to the pristine strength of existing self-healing polymers. The concept of forcing covalent and reversible bonds to mix at molecular scale to create a homogenous network is quite general and should enable development of tough, self-healing polymers of practical usage. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Formula hybrid SAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    User-friendly tools are needed for undergraduates to learn about component sizing, powertrain integration, and control : strategies for student competitions involving hybrid vehicles. A TK Solver tool was developed at the University of Idaho for : th...

  5. Hybrid adsorptive membrane reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsotsis, Theodore T [Huntington Beach, CA; Sahimi, Muhammad [Altadena, CA; Fayyaz-Najafi, Babak [Richmond, CA; Harale, Aadesh [Los Angeles, CA; Park, Byoung-Gi [Yeosu, KR; Liu, Paul K. T. [Lafayette Hill, PA

    2011-03-01

    A hybrid adsorbent-membrane reactor in which the chemical reaction, membrane separation, and product adsorption are coupled. Also disclosed are a dual-reactor apparatus and a process using the reactor or the apparatus.

  6. Hybrid plasmachemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lelevkin, V. M., E-mail: lelevkin44@mail.ru; Smirnova, Yu. G.; Tokarev, A. V. [Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University (Kyrgyzstan)

    2015-04-15

    A hybrid plasmachemical reactor on the basis of a dielectric barrier discharge in a transformer is developed. The characteristics of the reactor as functions of the dielectric barrier discharge parameters are determined.

  7. Marine Fish Hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    He, Song

    2017-01-01

    for each hybrid offspring in each case, haploweb analysis on diagnostic markers (nuclear and/or mitochondrial) and the DAPC/PCA analysis on microsatellite data were used. By combining the genetic evidences, morphological traits, and ecological observations

  8. 1-D hybrid code for FRM start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, R.A.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A one-D hybrid has been developed to study the start-up of the FRM via neutral-beam injection. The code uses a multi-group numerical model originally developed by J. Willenberg to describe fusion product dynamics in a solenoidal plasma. Earlier we described such a model for use in determining self-consistent ion currents and magnetic fields in FRM start-up. However, consideration of electron dynamics during start-up indicate that the electron current will oppose the injected ion current and may even foil the attempt to achieve reversal. For this reason, we have combined the multi-group ion (model) with a fluid treatment for electron dynamics to form the hybrid code FROST (Field Reversed One-dimensional STart-up). The details of this merger, along with sample results of operation of FROST, are given

  9. Hybrid vertical cavity laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chung, Il-Sug; Mørk, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide.......A new hybrid vertical cavity laser structure for silicon photonics is suggested and numerically investigated. It incorporates a silicon subwavelength grating as a mirror and a lateral output coupler to a silicon ridge waveguide....

  10. Isolation of probes specific to human chromosomal region 6p21 from immunoselected irradiation-fusion gene transfer hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ragoussis, J.; Jones, T.A.; Sheer, D.; Shrimpton, A.E.; Goodfellow, P.N.; Trowsdale, J.; Ziegler, A.

    1991-01-01

    A hybrid cell line (R21/B1) containing a truncated human chromosome 6 (6pter-6q21) and a human Y chromosome on a hamster background was irradiated and fused to A23 (TK-) or W3GH (HPRT-) hamster cells. Clones containing expressed HLA class I genes (4/40) were selected using monoclonal antibodies. These clones were recloned and analyzed with a panel of probes from the HLA region. One hybrid (4G6) contained the entire HLA complex. Two other hybrids (4J4 and 4H2) contained only the HLA class I region, while the fourth hybrid (5P9) contained HLA class I and III genes in addition to other genes located in the 6p21 chromosomal region. In situ hybridization showed that the hybrid cells contained more than one fragment of human DNA. Alu and LINE PCR products were derived from these cells and compared to each other as well as to products from two somatic cell hybrids having the 6p21 region in common. The PCR fragments were then screened on conventional Southern blots of the somatic cell hybrids to select a panel of novel probes encompassing the 6p21 region. In addition, the origin of the human DNA fragments in hybrid 4J4 was determined by regional mapping of PCR products

  11. Reversal agents in anaesthesia and critical care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nibedita Pani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the advent of short and ultra-short acting drugs, an in-depth knowledge of the reversal agents used is a necessity for any anaesthesiologist. Reversal agents are defined as any drug used to reverse the effects of anaesthetics, narcotics or potentially toxic agents. The controversy on the routine reversal of neuromuscular blockade still exists. The advent of newer reversal agents like sugammadex have made the use of steroidal neuromuscular blockers like rocuronium feasible in rapid sequence induction situations. We made a review of the older reversal agents and those still under investigation for drugs that are regularly used in our anaesthesia practice.

  12. Kan du blot blive buddreng..

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    ADHD? Adfærdsvanskelig? Diagnoserne står i kø, når vi i dag skal forklare, hvorfor Emil ikke kan følge med i skolen. Men startskuddet til den videnskabelige opdeling af de børn, der ikke følger flertallets læringskurve, lød allerede for 100 år siden.......ADHD? Adfærdsvanskelig? Diagnoserne står i kø, når vi i dag skal forklare, hvorfor Emil ikke kan følge med i skolen. Men startskuddet til den videnskabelige opdeling af de børn, der ikke følger flertallets læringskurve, lød allerede for 100 år siden....

  13. Reverse osmosis water purification system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlstrom, H. G.; Hames, P. S.; Menninger, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    A reverse osmosis water purification system, which uses a programmable controller (PC) as the control system, was designed and built to maintain the cleanliness and level of water for various systems of a 64-m antenna. The installation operates with other equipment of the antenna at the Goldstone Deep Space Communication Complex. The reverse osmosis system was designed to be fully automatic; with the PC, many complex sequential and timed logic networks were easily implemented and are modified. The PC monitors water levels, pressures, flows, control panel requests, and set points on analog meters; with this information various processes are initiated, monitored, modified, halted, or eliminated as required by the equipment being supplied pure water.

  14. Trend towards reverse leach process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The South African gold mining industry is making notable strides in improving recovery methods for both gold and uranium with significant additions to profits because of higher efficiencies and reductions in costs in the recovery processes. The most notable step on the gold side recently is the adoption of the reverse leach process at Buffelsfontein and Western Deep Levels. This process was pioneered at Hartebeesfontein as far back as 1975 and when introduced there resulted in a two and a half per cent improvement in recovery efficiencies. The essence of reverse leaching under which the uranium is recovered before the gold is the fact that the gold partly coated with iron oxide or locked in uranite, is exposed to be recovered later by cyanidation

  15. Reversible evolution of charged ergoregions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkotas, K.; Spyrou, N.

    1987-07-01

    The reversible evolution of a charged rotating ergoregion, due to the injection into it of particles with mass-energy and angular momentum, is studied systematically. As in the uncharged case, a bulge always forms on the outer boundary of the ergoregion due to the latter's angular momentum. The behavior of the bulge's position, relative to the black hole's rotation axis and equatorial plane, is studied, on the basis of the cosmic censorship hypothesis, during the ergoregion's reversible evolution. The range of the permitted values of the ergoregion's linear dimensions along the rotation axis and perpendicular to it is specified. Finally the differences with the evolution of an uncharged ergoregion are pointed out and discussed.

  16. Borrelia burgdorferi genospecies detection by RLB hybridization in Ixodes ricinus ticks from different sites of North-Eastern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunaj, Justyna; Zajkowska, Joanna Maria; Kondrusik, Maciej; Gern, Lise; Rais, Oliver; Moniuszko, Anna; Pancewicz, Sławomir; Świerzbińska, Renata

    2014-01-01

    RLB (Reverse Line Blot Hybridization) is a molecular biology technique that might be used for Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (sl) DNA detection with genospecies specification. Among B. burgdorferi sl genospecies at least 7 are regarded as pathogenic in Europe. The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of different Borrelia genospecies DNA detection in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the endemic area of North-Eastern Poland by using RLB. Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in May - June, from 6 different sites in North-Eastern Poland (Jakubin, Kolno, Grajewo, Suwałki, Siemiatycze, Białowieża) by flagging. Extracted DNA was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the intergenic spacer 5S 23S of B. burgdorferi sl. PCR products were hybridised to 15 different oligonucleotide probes for 9 different Borrelia genospecies (B. burgdorferi sl, B. burgdorferi ss, B. garinii, B. afzelii, B. valaisiana, B. lusitaniae, B. spielmanii, B. bissettii and B. relapsing fever-like spirochetes (B. myamotoi)) by RLB. Borrelia genospecies DNA was detected in 205 Ixodes ricinus ticks. Among 14 infected with Borrelia ticks, 4 were identified as B. garinii and 10 as B. afzelii. Higher numbers of infected ticks were noticed in the eastern part of the research area, where large forest complexes dominate. Nymphs appeared to be the most frequently infected tick stage, which has an epidemiological meaning in the incidence of Lyme borreliosis. The study demonstrated that RLB might be easily used in Borrelia DNA detection with genospecies-identification, and indicated the domination of B. afzelii and B. garinii in ticks from North-Eastern Poland.

  17. Human hybrid hybridoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiebout, R.F.; van Boxtel-Oosterhof, F.; Stricker, E.A.M.; Zeijlemaker, W.P.

    1987-11-15

    Hybrid hybridomas are obtained by fusion of two cells, each producing its own antibody. Several authors have reported the construction of murine hybrid hybridomas with the aim to obtain bispecific monoclonal antibodies. The authors have investigated, in a model system, the feasibility of constructing a human hybrid hybridoma. They fused two monoclonal cell lines: an ouabain-sensitive and azaserine/hypoxanthine-resistant Epstein-Barr virus-transformed human cell line that produces an IgG1kappa antibody directed against tetanus toxiod and an azaserine/hypoxanthine-sensitive and ouabain-resistant human-mouse xenohybrid cell line that produces a human IgG1lambda antibody directed against hepatitis-B surface antigen. Hybrid hybridoma cells were selected in culture medium containing azaserine/hypoxanthine and ouabain. The hybrid nature of the secreted antibodies was analyzed by means of two antigen-specific immunoassay. The results show that it is possible, with the combined use of transformation and xenohybridization techniques, to construct human hybrid hybridomas that produce bispecific antibodies. Bispecific antibodies activity was measured by means of two radioimmunoassays.

  18. Systems for hybrid cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsche, Otmar; Gutmann, Guenter

    Not only sharp competition but also legislation are pushing development of hybrid drive trains. Based on conventional internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles, these drive trains offer a wide range of benefits from reduced fuel consumption and emission to multifaceted performance improvements. Hybrid electric drive trains may also facilitate the introduction of fuel cells (FC). The battery is the key component for all hybrid drive trains, as it dominates cost and performance issues. The selection of the right battery technology for the specific automotive application is an important task with an impact on costs of development and use. Safety, power, and high cycle life are a must for all hybrid applications. The greatest pressure to reduce cost is in soft hybrids, where lead-acid embedded in a considerate management presents the cheapest solution, with a considerable improvement in performance needed. From mild to full hybridization, an improvement in specific power makes higher costs more acceptable, provided that the battery's service life is equivalent to the vehicle's lifetime. Today, this is proven for the nickel-metal hydride system. Lithium ion batteries, which make use of a multiple safety concept, and with some development anticipated, provide even better prospects in terms of performance and costs. Also, their scalability permits their application in battery electric vehicles—the basis for better performance and enhanced user acceptance. Development targets for the batteries are discussed with a focus on system aspects such as electrical and thermal management and safety.

  19. Malware analysis and reverse engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Šváb, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Focus of this thesis is reverse engineering in information technology closely linked with the malware analysis. It explains fundamentals of IA-32 processors architecture and basics of operating system Microsoft Windows. Main part of this thesis is dedicated to the malware analysis, including description of creating a tool for simplification of static part of the analysis. In Conclusion various approaches to the malware analysis, which were described in previous part of the thesis, are practic...

  20. How to play Reverse Hex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Bjarne; Hayward, Ryan B.; Henderson, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We present new results on how to play Reverse Hex, also known as Rex, or Misère Hex, on n × n boards. We give new proofs – and strengthened versions – of Lagarias and Sleator’s theorem (for n × n boards, each player can prolong the game until the board is full, so the first/second player can alwa...

  1. Theory of field reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, L.C.

    1990-01-01

    This final report surveys the results of work conducted on the theory of field reversed configurations. This project has spanned ten years, beginning in early 1980. During this period, Spectra Technology was one of the leading contributors to the advances in understanding FRC. The report is organized into technical topic areas, FRC formation, equilibrium, stability, and transport. Included as an appendix are papers published in archival journals that were generated in the course of this report. 33 refs

  2. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Gregory H.; Eckmann, Steven T.; Lain, Christopher M.; Veroff, Robert L.

    2003-01-01

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  3. Risperidone-induced reversible neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattalai Kailasam, Vasanth; Chima, Victoria; Nnamdi, Uchechukwu; Sharma, Kavita; Shah, Kairav

    2017-01-01

    This case report presents a 44-year-old man with a history of schizophrenia who developed neutropenia on risperidone therapy. The patient's laboratory reports showed a gradual decline of leukocytes and neutrophils after resolution and rechallenging. This was reversed with the discontinuation of risperidone and by switching to olanzapine. In this case report, we also discuss the updated evidence base for management of risperidone-induced neutropenia.

  4. CONCEPTUAL ISSUES REGARDING REVERSE LOGISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Olariu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available As the power of consumers is growing, the product return for customer service and customer retention has become a common practice in the competitive market, which propels the recent practice of reverse logistics in companies. Many firms attracted by the value available in the flow, have proactively participated in handling returned products at the end of their usefulness or from other parts of the product life cycle. Reverse logistics is the flow and management of products, packaging, components and information from the point of consumption to the point of origin. It is a collection of practices similar to those of supply chain management, but in the opposite direction, from downstream to upstream. It involves activities such as reuse, repair, remanufacture, refurbish, reclaim and recycle. For the conventional forward logistics systems, the flow starts upstream as raw materials, later as manufactured parts and components to be assembled and continues downstream to reach customers as final products to be disposed once they reach their economic or useful lives. In reverse logistics, the disposed products are pushed upstream to be repaired, remanufactured, refurbished, and disassembled into components to be reused or as raw material to be recycled for later use.

  5. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of exchange-coupled SmCo/NdFeB nanocomposite alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Mingxiang; Zhang, Pengyue; Ge, Hongliang; Yu, Nengjun; Wu, Qiong

    2014-01-01

    Exchange-coupled SmCo 5 /Nd 2 Fe 14 B nanocomposite magnets have been fabricated by ball milling of the micrometer sized SmCo 5 and Nd 2 Fe 14 B powders. The influence of Nd 2 Fe 14 B content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these hybrid alloys was investigated. The alloys that show strong intergrain exchange-coupling behavior with (BH) max =2.95 MGOe was obtained when the two hard phases are well coupled. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both SmCo 5 single-phase magnet and SmCo 5 /Nd 2 Fe 14 B hybrid magnet; the FORC diagrams results show two major peaks for the hybrid magnets. In both cases, the magnetization reversal behaviors for these alloys were discussed in detail and are consistent with the results of δM plots. - Highlights: • Exchange-coupled SmCo 5 /Nd 2 Fe 14 B nanocomposite magnets were studied. • Magnetization reversal behaviors of the hybrid magnet were discussed. • The FORCs analysis is taken to identify the optimal conditions for hybrid magnet

  6. First-order-reversal-curve analysis of exchange-coupled SmCo/NdFeB nanocomposite alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Mingxiang; Zhang, Pengyue, E-mail: Zhang_pengyue@cjlu.edu.cn; Ge, Hongliang; Yu, Nengjun; Wu, Qiong

    2014-06-01

    Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets have been fabricated by ball milling of the micrometer sized SmCo{sub 5} and Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B powders. The influence of Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B content on the microstructure and magnetic properties of these hybrid alloys was investigated. The alloys that show strong intergrain exchange-coupling behavior with (BH){sub max}=2.95 MGOe was obtained when the two hard phases are well coupled. A first-order-reversal-curve (FORC) analysis was performed for both SmCo{sub 5} single-phase magnet and SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B hybrid magnet; the FORC diagrams results show two major peaks for the hybrid magnets. In both cases, the magnetization reversal behaviors for these alloys were discussed in detail and are consistent with the results of δM plots. - Highlights: • Exchange-coupled SmCo{sub 5}/Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B nanocomposite magnets were studied. • Magnetization reversal behaviors of the hybrid magnet were discussed. • The FORCs analysis is taken to identify the optimal conditions for hybrid magnet.

  7. SELECTED PROBLEMS OF REVERSE LOGISTICS IN POLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Mesjasz-Lech

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the essence of reverse logistics and directions of physical and information flows between logistic network partners. It also analyses effects of implementation of the principles of reverse logistics in Poland in the years 2004-2007

  8. Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program 250K Hybrid Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, George; Zoladz, Tom; Arves, Joe; Kearney, Darren; Abel, Terry; Park, O.

    2003-01-01

    The Hybrid Propulsion Demonstration Program (HPDP) program was formed to mature hybrid propulsion technology to a readiness level sufficient to enable commercialization for various space launch applications. The goal of the HPDP was to develop and test a 250,000 pound vacuum thrust hybrid booster in order to demonstrate hybrid propulsion technology and enable manufacturing of large hybrid boosters for current and future space launch vehicles. The HPDP has successfully conducted four tests of the 250,000 pound thrust hybrid rocket motor at NASA's Stennis Space Center. This paper documents the test series.

  9. Serum detection of IgG antibodies against Demodex canis by western blot in healthy dogs and dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravera, Ivan; Ferreira, Diana; Gallego, Laia Solano; Bardagí, Mar; Ferrer, Lluís

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of canine immunoglobulins (Ig) G against Demodex proteins in the sera of healthy dogs and of dogs with juvenile generalized demodicosis (CanJGD) with or without secondary pyoderma. Demodex mites were collected from dogs with CanJGD. Protein concentration was measured and a western blot technique was performed. Pooled sera from healthy dogs reacted mainly with antigen bands ranging from 55 to 72 kDa. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD without secondary pyoderma reacted either with 10 kDa antigen band or 55 to 72 kDa bands. Pooled sera from dogs with CanJGD with secondary pyoderma reacted only with a 10 kDa antigen band. The results of this study suggest that both healthy dogs and dogs with CanJGD develop a humoral response against different proteins of Demodex canis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Periodicity and Immortality in Reversible Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Kari , Jarkko; Ollinger , Nicolas

    2008-01-01

    Additional material available on the web at http://www.lif.univ-mrs.fr/~nollinge/rec/gnirut/; We investigate the decidability of the periodicity and the immortality problems in three models of reversible computation: reversible counter machines, reversible Turing machines and reversible one-dimensional cellular automata. Immortality and periodicity are properties that describe the behavior of the model starting from arbitrary initial configurations: immortality is the property of having at le...

  11. Fusion-fission hybrid reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the range of characteristics attainable from hybrid reactor blankets; blanket design considerations; hybrid reactor designs; alternative fuel hybrid reactors; multi-purpose hybrid reactors; and hybrid reactors and the energy economy. Hybrid reactors are driven by a fusion neutron source and include fertile and/or fissile material. The fusion component provides a copious source of fusion neutrons which interact with a subcritical fission component located adjacent to the plasma or pellet chamber. Fissile fuel and/or energy are the main products of hybrid reactors. Topics include high F/M blankets, the fissile (and tritium) breeding ratio, effects of composition on blanket properties, geometrical considerations, power density and first wall loading, variations of blanket properties with irradiation, thermal-hydraulic and mechanical design considerations, safety considerations, tokamak hybrid reactors, tandem-mirror hybrid reactors, inertial confinement hybrid reactors, fusion neutron sources, fissile-fuel and energy production ability, simultaneous production of combustible and fissile fuels, fusion reactors for waste transmutation and fissile breeding, nuclear pumped laser hybrid reactors, Hybrid Fuel Factories (HFFs), and scenarios for hybrid contribution. The appendix offers hybrid reactor fundamentals. Numerous references are provided

  12. A Secondary Antibody-Detecting Molecular Weight Marker with Mouse and Rabbit IgG Fc Linear Epitopes for Western Blot Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Wei; Chen, I-Ju; Cheng, Ta-Chun; Tung, Yi-Ching; Chu, Pei-Yu; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Hsieh, Yuan-Chin; Huang, Chien-Chiao; Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Kao, Chien-Han; Roffler, Steve R; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Molecular weight markers that can tolerate denaturing conditions and be auto-detected by secondary antibodies offer great efficacy and convenience for Western Blotting. Here, we describe M&R LE protein markers which contain linear epitopes derived from the heavy chain constant regions of mouse and rabbit immunoglobulin G (IgG Fc LE). These markers can be directly recognized and stained by a wide range of anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies. We selected three mouse (M1, M2 and M3) linear IgG1 and three rabbit (R1, R2 and R3) linear IgG heavy chain epitope candidates based on their respective crystal structures. Western blot analysis indicated that M2 and R2 linear epitopes are effectively recognized by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit secondary antibodies, respectively. We fused the M2 and R2 epitopes (M&R LE) and incorporated the polypeptide in a range of 15-120 kDa auto-detecting markers (M&R LE protein marker). The M&R LE protein marker can be auto-detected by anti-mouse and anti-rabbit IgG secondary antibodies in standard immunoblots. Linear regression analysis of the M&R LE protein marker plotted as gel mobility versus the log of the marker molecular weights revealed good linearity with a correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.9965, indicating that the M&R LE protein marker displays high accuracy for determining protein molecular weights. This accurate, regular and auto-detected M&R LE protein marker may provide a simple, efficient and economical tool for protein analysis.

  13. r-Universal reversible logic gates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, A de; Storme, L

    2004-01-01

    Reversible logic plays a fundamental role both in ultra-low power electronics and in quantum computing. It is therefore important to know which reversible logic gates can be used as building block for the reversible implementation of an arbitrary boolean function and which cannot

  14. THEORETICAL FRAMES FOR DESIGNING REVERSE LOGISTICS PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    Janusz K. Grabara; Sebastian Kot

    2009-01-01

    Logistics processes of return flow became more and more important in present business practice. Because of better customer satisfaction, environmental and financial aspects many enterprises deal with reverse logistics performance. The paper is a literature review focused on the design principles of reverse logistics processes Keywords: reverse logistics, designing.

  15. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; van Iersel, L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks

  16. Prefix reversals on binary and ternary strings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurkens, C.A.J.; Iersel, van L.J.J.; Keijsper, J.C.M.; Kelk, S.M.; Stougie, L.; Tromp, J.T.

    2007-01-01

    Given a permutation $\\pi$, the application of prefix reversal $f^{(i)}$ to $\\pi$ reverses the order of the first $i$ elements of $\\pi$. The problem of sorting by prefix reversals (also known as pancake flipping), made famous by Gates and Papadimitriou (Discrete Math., 27 (1979), pp. 47–57), asks for

  17. Research on Hybrid Vehicle Drivetrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Zhongzhi

    Hybrid cars as a solution to energy saving, emission reduction measures, have received widespread attention. Motor drive system as an important part of the hybrid vehicles as an important object of study. Based on the hybrid electric vehicle powertrain control system for permanent magnet synchronous motor as the object of study. Can be applied to hybrid car compares the characteristics of traction motors, chose permanent magnet synchronous Motors as drive motors for hybrid vehicles. Building applications in hybrid cars in MATLAB/Simulink simulation model of permanent-magnet synchronous motor speed control system and analysis of simulation results.

  18. New hybrid systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardin, B.

    2001-01-01

    New hybrid systems are made up of a subcritical core, a spallation target and a proton accelerator. The neutrons that are produced in the target by the flux of protons are necessary to maintain the chain reaction of fission. Some parameters that are important for a classical nuclear reactor like doppler coefficient or delayed neutron fraction do not matter in a hybrid system. In a PWR-type reactor or in a fast reactor the concentration of actinides has a bad impact on these 2 parameters, so it is justified to study hybrid systems as actinide transmuters. The hybrid system, because of its external source of neutrons can put aside an important reactivity margin. This reactivity margin can be used to design safer nuclear reactors (particularly in some situations of reactivity accidents) or to irradiate fuel elements containing high concentrations of minor actinides that could not be allowed in a classical reactor. This article reviews various ways of integrating hybrid systems in a population of already existing nuclear reactors in order to manage quantities of plutonium, of minor actinides or of long-life fission products. (A.C.)

  19. Remote Whispering Applying Time Reversal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Brian Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-16

    The purpose of this project was to explore the use of time reversal technologies as a means for communication to a targeted individual or location. The idea is to have the privacy of whispering in one’s ear, but to do this remotely from loudspeakers not located near the target. Applications of this work include communicating with hostages and survivors in rescue operations, communicating imaging and operational conditions in deep drilling operations, monitoring storage of spent nuclear fuel in storage casks without wires, or clandestine activities requiring signaling between specific points. This technology provides a solution in any application where wires and radio communications are not possible or not desired. It also may be configured to self calibrate on a regular basis to adjust for changing conditions. These communications allow two people to converse with one another in real time, converse in an inaudible frequency range or medium (i.e. using ultrasonic frequencies and/or sending vibrations through a structure), or send information for a system to interpret (even allowing remote control of a system using sound). The time reversal process allows one to focus energy to a specific location in space and to send a clean transmission of a selected signal only to that location. In order for the time reversal process to work, a calibration signal must be obtained. This signal may be obtained experimentally using an impulsive sound, a known chirp signal, or other known signals. It may also be determined from a numerical model of a known environment in which the focusing is desired or from passive listening over time to ambient noise.

  20. Repeatable Reverse Engineering with PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-08

    necessary layout information for the Android 2.3 and 4.2 SDK kernels. See Section IV-C for an example of the kind of deep reverse engineering of Android apps ...code re-use and simplifying complex analysis development. We demonstrate PANDA’s effectiveness via a number of use cases, including enabling an old but...continue to function. 2) Identify critical vulnerabilities . 3) Understand the true purpose and actions of code. It is common for legacy code to stop

  1. Corrosion protected reversing heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawierucha, R.

    1984-01-01

    A reversing heat exchanger of the plate and fin type having multiple aluminum parting sheets in a stacked arrangement with corrugated fins separating the sheets to form multiple flow paths, means for closing the ends of the sheets, an input manifold arrangement of headers for the warm end of of the exchanger and an output manifold arrangement for the cold end of the exchanger with the input air feed stream header and the waste gas exhaust header having an alloy of zinc and aluminum coated on the inside surface for providing corrosion protection to the stack

  2. Presbycusis: reversible with anesthesia drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocher, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    Age-related hearing impairment, or presbycusis, is a degenerative condition not currently treatable by medication. It is therefore significant that the author, as a patient, experienced a reversal of high-frequency hearing loss during a 2-day period following abdominal surgery with general anesthesia. This report documents the surgery and the subsequent restoration of hearing, which was bilateral and is estimated to have exceeded 50dB at 4kHz. A possible role is noted for anesthetic agents such as lidocaine, propofol, or fentanyl. This experience may hold a clue for research toward the development of medical treatments for presbycusis.

  3. Field-reversed mirror reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    The reactor design is a multicell arrangement wherein a series of field-reversed plasma layers are arranged along the axis of a long superconducting solenoid which provides the background magnetic field. Normal copper mirror coils and Ioffe bars placed at the first wall radius provide shallow axial and radial magnetic wells for each plasma layer. Each of 11 plasma layers requires the injection of 3.6 MW of 200 keV deuterium and tritium and produces 20 MW of fusion power. The reactor has a net electric output of 74 MWe and an estimated direct capital cost of $1200/kWe

  4. The Hybrid Museum: Hybrid Economies of Meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Vitus

    2013-01-01

    Social media has created new ways of communicating and has brought about a new distinctive ethos. New literacies are not simply about new technology but also about this new ethos. Many museums are embracing this ethos by what is often called participatory practices. From a sociocultural perspective...... this article shows that there are two different museum mindsets where the second mindset leans towards participatory practices. It is shown how a museum can support a hybrid economy of meaning that builds on both a user generated economy of meaning and an institutional economy of meaning and adds value to both...

  5. Poly(NIPAM-co-MPS-grafted multimodal porous silica nanoparticles as reverse thermoresponsive drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushilkumar A. Jadhav

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid drug delivery systems (DDS have been prepared by grafting poly(NIPAM-co-MPS chains on multimodal porous silica nanoparticles having an inner mesoporous structure and an outer thin layer of micropores. The hybrid thermoresponsive DDS were fully characterized and loaded with a model drug. The in vitro drug release tests are carried out at below and above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST of the copolymer. The results have revealed that due to the presence of small diameter (~1.3 nm micropores at the periphery of the particles, the collapsed globules of the thermoresponsive copolymer above its LCST hinders the complete release of the drug which resulted in a reverse thermoresponsive drug release profile by the hybrid DDS.

  6. Kinematic reversal schemes for the geomagnetic dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Fluctuations in the distribution of cyclonic convective cells, in the earth's core, can reverse the sign of the geomagnetic field. Two kinematic reversal schemes are discussed. In the first scheme, a field maintained by cyclones concentrated at low latitude is reversed by a burst of cyclones at high latitude. Conversely, in the second scheme, a field maintained predominantly by cyclones in high latitudes is reversed by a fluctuation consisting of a burst of cyclonic convection at low latitude. The precise fluid motions which produce the geomagnetic field are not known. However, it appears that, whatever the details are, a fluctuation in the distribution of cyclonic cells over latitude can cause a geomagnetic reversal.

  7. Hybrid system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landeyro, P.A.

    1995-01-01

    Hybrid systems studied for fissile material production, were reconsidered for minor actinide and long-lived fission product destruction as alternative to the traditional final disposal of nuclear waste. Now there are attempts to extend the use of the concepts developed for minor actinide incineration to plutonium burning. The most promising hybrid system concept considers fuel and target both as liquids. From the results obtained, the possibility to adopt composite targets seems the most promising solution, but still there remains the problem of Pu production, not acceptable in a burning system. This kind of targets can be mainly used for fissile material production, while for accelerator driven burners it is most convenient to use a liquid lead target. The most suitable solvent is heavy water for minor actinide annihilation in the blanket of a hybrid system. Due to the criticality conditions and the necessity of electric energy production, the blanket using plutonium dissolved in molten salts is the most convenient one. (author)

  8. Hybrid strategies in nanolithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra, Hector M; Mullen, Thomas J; Zhang Pengpeng; Dewey, Daniel C; Claridge, Shelley A; Weiss, Paul S [Department of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)], E-mail: psw@cnsi.ucla.edu

    2010-03-15

    Hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies combine the registration and addressability of conventional lithographic techniques with the chemical and physical functionality enabled by intermolecular, electrostatic and/or biological interactions. This review aims to highlight and to provide a comprehensive description of recent developments in hybrid nanoscale patterning strategies that enhance existing lithographic techniques or can be used to fabricate functional chemical patterns that interact with their environment. These functional structures create new capabilities, such as the fabrication of physicochemical surfaces that can recognize and capture analytes from complex liquid or gaseous mixtures. The nanolithographic techniques we describe can be classified into three general areas: traditional lithography, soft lithography and scanning-probe lithography. The strengths and limitations of each hybrid patterning technique will be discussed, along with the current and potential applications of the resulting patterned, functional surfaces.

  9. Exogenous selection rather than cytonuclear incompatibilities shapes asymmetrical fitness of reciprocal Arabidopsis hybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Graham; Ruiz-Duarte, Paola; Hohmann, Nora; Mable, Barbara K; Novikova, Polina; Schmickl, Roswitha; Guggisberg, Alessia; Koch, Marcus A

    2015-04-01

    Reciprocal crosses between species often display an asymmetry in the fitness of F1 hybrids. This pattern, referred to as isolation asymmetry or Darwin's corollary to Haldane's rule, is a general feature of reproductive isolation in plants, yet factors determining its magnitude and direction remain unclear. We evaluated reciprocal species crosses between two naturally hybridizing diploid species of Arabidopsis to assess the degree of isolation asymmetry at different postmating life stages. We found that pollen from Arabidopsis arenosa will usually fertilize ovules from Arabidopsis lyrata; the reverse receptivity being less complete. Maternal A. lyrata parents set more F1 hybrid seed, but germinate at lower frequency, reversing the asymmetry. As predicted by theory, A. lyrata (the maternal parent with lower seed viability in crosses) exhibited accelerated chloroplast evolution, indicating that cytonuclear incompatibilities may play a role in reproductive isolation. However, this direction of asymmetrical reproductive isolation is not replicated in natural suture zones, where delayed hybrid breakdown of fertility at later developmental stages, or later-acting selection against A. arenosa maternal hybrids (unrelated to hybrid fertility, e.g., substrate adaptation) may be responsible for an excess of A. lyrata maternal hybrids. Exogenous selection rather than cytonuclear incompatibilities thus shapes the asymmetrical postmating isolation in nature.

  10. Fabrication of Self-Healable and Patternable Polypyrrole/Agarose Hybrid Hydrogels for Smart Bioelectrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nokyoung; Chae, Seung Chul; Kim, Il Tae; Hur, Jaehyun

    2016-02-01

    We present a new class of electrically conductive, mechanically moldable, and thermally self-healable hybrid hydrogels. The hybrid gels consist of polypyrrole and agarose as the conductive component and self-healable matrix, respectively. By using the appropriate oxidizing agent under conditions of mild temperature, the polymerization of pyrrole occurred along the three-dimensional network of the agarose hydrogel matrix. In contrast to most commercially available hydrogels, the physical crosslinking of agarose gel allows for reversible gelation in the case of our hybrid gel, which could be manipulated by temperature variation, which controls the electrical on/off behavior of the hybrid gel electrode. Exploiting this property, we fabricated a hybrid conductive hydrogel electrode which also self-heals thermally. The novel composite material we report here will be useful for many technological and biological applications, especially in reactive biomimetic functions and devices, artificial muscles, smart membranes, smart full organic batteries, and artificial chemical synapses.

  11. The tokamak hybrid reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.L.; Rose, R.P.

    1981-01-01

    At a time when the potential benefits of various energy options are being seriously evaluated in many countries through-out the world, it is both timely and important to evaluate the practical application of fusion reactors for their economical production of nuclear fissile fuels from fertile fuels. The fusion hybrid reactor represents a concept that could assure the availability of adequate fuel supplies for a proven nuclear technology and have the potential of being an electrical energy source as opposed to an energy consumer as are the present fuel enrichment processes. Westinghouse Fusion Power Systems Department, under Contract No. EG-77-C-02-4544 with the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, has developed a preliminary conceptual design for an early twenty-first century fusion hybrid reactor called the commercial Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (CTHR). This design was developed as a first generation commercial plant producing fissile fuel to support a significant number of client Light Water Reactor (LWR) Plants. To the depth this study has been performed, no insurmountable technical problems have been identified. The study has provided a basis for reasonable cost estimates of the hybrid plants as well as the hybrid/LWR system busbar electricity costs. This energy system can be optimized to have a net cost of busbar electricity that is equivalent to the conventional LWR plant, yet is not dependent on uranium ore prices or standard enrichment costs, since the fusion hybrid can be fueled by numerous fertile fuel resources. A nearer-term concept is also defined using a beam driven fusion driver in lieu of the longer term ignited operating mode. (orig.)

  12. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaiotto, Davide [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Kapustin, Anton [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Komargodski, Zohar [Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science,Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Seiberg, Nathan [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2017-05-17

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  13. Exercise prescription to reverse frailty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Nick W; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-10-01

    Frailty is a clinical geriatric syndrome caused by physiological deficits across multiple systems. These deficits make it challenging to sustain homeostasis required for the demands of everyday life. Exercise is likely the best therapy to reverse frailty status. Literature to date suggests that pre-frail older adults, those with 1-2 deficits on the Cardiovascular Health Study-Frailty Phenotype (CHS-frailty phenotype), should exercise 2-3 times a week, for 45-60 min. Aerobic, resistance, flexibility, and balance training components should be incorporated but resistance and balance activities should be emphasized. On the other hand, frail (CHS-frailty phenotype ≥ 3 physical deficits) older adults should exercise 3 times per week, for 30-45 min for each session with an emphasis on aerobic training. During aerobic, balance, and flexibility training, both frail and pre-frail older adults should work at an intensity equivalent to a rating of perceived exertion of 3-4 ("somewhat hard") on the Borg CR10 scale. Resistance-training intensity should be based on a percentage of 1-repetition estimated maximum (1RM). Program onset should occur at 55% of 1RM (endurance) and progress to higher intensities of 80% of 1RM (strength) to maximize functional gains. Exercise is the medicine to reverse or mitigate frailty, preserve quality of life, and restore independent functioning in older adults at risk of frailty.

  14. Theta, time reversal and temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaiotto, Davide; Kapustin, Anton; Komargodski, Zohar; Seiberg, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    SU(N) gauge theory is time reversal invariant at θ=0 and θ=π. We show that at θ=π there is a discrete ’t Hooft anomaly involving time reversal and the center symmetry. This anomaly leads to constraints on the vacua of the theory. It follows that at θ=π the vacuum cannot be a trivial non-degenerate gapped state. (By contrast, the vacuum at θ=0 is gapped, non-degenerate, and trivial.) Due to the anomaly, the theory admits nontrivial domain walls supporting lower-dimensional theories. Depending on the nature of the vacuum at θ=π, several phase diagrams are possible. Assuming area law for space-like loops, one arrives at an inequality involving the temperatures at which CP and the center symmetry are restored. We also analyze alternative scenarios for SU(2) gauge theory. The underlying symmetry at θ=π is the dihedral group of 8 elements. If deconfined loops are allowed, one can have two O(2)-symmetric fixed points. It may also be that the four-dimensional theory around θ=π is gapless, e.g. a Coulomb phase could match the underlying anomalies.

  15. Hybride textuelle Strukturen und hybride textuelle Einheiten. Ein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    carrying set of all hybrid hierarchical structures are element-heterogeneous whilst the structure- carrying set of all ... grams of hierarchical hybrid article structures, the nodes for those text segments that establish the hybrid status of .... der; d ∈ ArtA ⊣ G|WAr (= Artikelangabe, anhand derer das Genus (= G) und zugleich die ...

  16. Optimized reversible binary-coded decimal adders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Michael Kirkedal; Glück, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Babu and Chowdhury [H.M.H. Babu, A.R. Chowdhury, Design of a compact reversible binary coded decimal adder circuit, Journal of Systems Architecture 52 (5) (2006) 272-282] recently proposed, in this journal, a reversible adder for binary-coded decimals. This paper corrects and optimizes...... their design. The optimized 1-decimal BCD full-adder, a 13 × 13 reversible logic circuit, is faster, and has lower circuit cost and less garbage bits. It can be used to build a fast reversible m-decimal BCD full-adder that has a delay of only m + 17 low-power reversible CMOS gates. For a 32-decimal (128-bit....... Keywords: Reversible logic circuit; Full-adder; Half-adder; Parallel adder; Binary-coded decimal; Application of reversible logic synthesis...

  17. Kinetic Line Voronoi Operations and Their Reversibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mioc, Darka; Anton, François; Gold, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In Geographic Information Systems the reversibility of map update operations has not been explored yet. In this paper we are using the Voronoi based Quad-edge data structure to define reversible map update operations. The reversibility of the map operations has been formalised at the lowest level...... mechanisms and dynamic map visualisations. In order to use the reversibility within the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments, we need to assure that reversing the map commands will produce exactly the changes in the map equivalent to the previous map states. To prove...... that reversing the map update operations produces the exact reverse changes, we show an isomorphism between the set of complex operations on the kinetic Voronoi diagram of points and open oriented line segments and the sets of numbers of new / deleted Voronoi regions induced by these operations, and its...

  18. Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications | Transportation Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle Publications The following technical papers and fact sheets provide information about NREL's hydraulic hybrid fleet vehicle evaluations . Refuse Trucks Project Startup: Evaluating the Performance of Hydraulic Hybrid Refuse Vehicles. Bob

  19. Doubts about hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The natural draught wet cooling tower with a height of 160 m is considerably taller than the 80 m high hybrid cooling tower, but the latter has a considerably larger diameter. Spray losses for both types are about 4.5 kg/sec for a thermal output of 2500 MW. Apart from the pump load, the natural cooling tower requires no power. Apart from higher pump loads, the hybrid cooling tower requires power for the fans. The energy demand for this purpose is 1.5 to 3% of the nett powerstation output. For the Isar 2 nuclear powerstation this would mean a reduction in puput of about 35 MW. (orig.) [de

  20. Analog and hybrid computing

    CERN Document Server

    Hyndman, D E

    2013-01-01

    Analog and Hybrid Computing focuses on the operations of analog and hybrid computers. The book first outlines the history of computing devices that influenced the creation of analog and digital computers. The types of problems to be solved on computers, computing systems, and digital computers are discussed. The text looks at the theory and operation of electronic analog computers, including linear and non-linear computing units and use of analog computers as operational amplifiers. The monograph examines the preparation of problems to be deciphered on computers. Flow diagrams, methods of ampl

  1. Toyota hybrid synergy drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautschi, H.

    2008-07-01

    This presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by Hannes Gautschi, director of service and training at the Toyota company in Switzerland, takes a look at Toyota's hybrid drive vehicles. The construction of the vehicles and their combined combustion engines and electric generators and drives is presented and the combined operation of these components is described. Braking and energy recovery are discussed. Figures on the performance, fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} output of the hybrid vehicles are compared with those of conventional vehicles.

  2. Note sur la présence de lames aménagées par technique de Kostienki dans les couches gravettiennes du Blot (Cerzat,Haute-Loire).

    OpenAIRE

    Klaric , Laurent

    2000-01-01

    International audience; The unprecedented presence of Kostienki-technique prepared blades (also called Kostienki knives) in the Gravettian layers at Le Blot leads to a new analysis of these artefacts. Thorough technological study has pointed to the possible role of these items as cores, in association with or complementary to burin-forms, in particular context of backed-bladelet production. Le Blot is the second French site yielding such artefacts, the other being Corbiac (Dordogne). The aim ...

  3. Mirror fusion--fission hybrids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1978-01-01

    The fusion-fission concept and the mirror fusion-fission hybrid program are outlined. Magnetic mirror fusion drivers and blankets for hybrid reactors are discussed. Results of system analyses are presented and a reference design is described

  4. Tumorigenic hybrids between mesenchymal stem cells and gastric cancer cells enhanced cancer proliferation, migration and stemness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, Jianguo; Zhu, Yuan; Sun, Zixuan; Ji, Runbi; Zhang, Xu; Xu, Wenrong; Yuan, Xiao; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Yongmin; Yin, Lei; Xu, Huijuan; Zhang, Leilei; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that inappropriate cell-cell fusion might contribute to cancer progression. Similarly, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can also fuse with other cells spontaneously and capable of adopting the phenotype of other cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of MSCs participated cell fusion in the tumorigenesis of gastric cancer. We fused human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hucMSCs) with gastric cancer cells in vitro by polyethylene glycol (PEG), the hybrid cells were sorted by flow cytometer. The growth and migration of hybrids were assessed by cell counting, cell colony formation and transwell assays. The proteins and genes related to epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stemness were tested by western blot, immunocytochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. The expression of CD44 and CD133 was examined by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The xenograft assay was used to evaluation the tumorigenesis of the hybrids. The obtained hybrids exhibited epithelial- mesenchymal transition (EMT) change with down-regulation of E-cadherin and up-regulation of Vimentin, N-cadherin, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and fibroblast activation protein (FAP). The hybrids also increased expression of stemness factors Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Lin28. The expression of CD44 and CD133 on hybrid cells was stronger than parental gastric cancer cells. Moreover, the migration and proliferation of heterotypic hybrids were enhanced. In addition, the heterotypic hybrids promoted the growth abilities of gastric xenograft tumor in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that cell fusion between hucMSCs and gastric cancer cells could contribute to tumorigenic hybrids with EMT and stem cell-like properties, which may provide a flexible tool for investigating the roles of MSCs in gastric cancer. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1780-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  5. Security in hybrid cloud computing

    OpenAIRE

    Koudelka, Ondřej

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the area of hybrid cloud computing, specifically with its security. The major aim of the thesis is to analyze and compare the chosen hybrid cloud providers. For the minor aim this thesis compares the security challenges of hybrid cloud as opponent to other deployment models. In order to accomplish said aims, this thesis defines the terms cloud computing and hybrid cloud computing in its theoretical part. Furthermore the security challenges for cloud computing a...

  6. Rendimiento diagnóstico del Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Davelois

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el rendimiento diagnóstico de la técnica de Western Blot para detectar simultáneamente anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana. Materiales y métodos. Estudio transversal de evaluación de prueba diagnóstica. Se obtuvieron los antígenos de excreción-secreción de las larvas de Taenia solium, quistes de Echinococcus granulosus; y la forma adulta de Fasciola hepática; que luego fueron separados electroforéticamente en geles de poliacrilamida individuales, transferidos y fijados a una membrana de nitrocelulosa para ser enfrentados con sueros de pacientes con las tres parasitosis. La sensibilidad de la técnica se evaluó empleando 300 sueros individuales, 60 pools de dos parasitosis y 20 pools de tres parasitosis y la especificidad con 75 sueros de pacientes con otras parasitosis, 10 de pacientes con otras enfermedades y 15 sueros de personas no parasitadas. Resultados. La técnica reconoció trece glicoproteínas (GP: GP 35, 31, 24, 23, 18, 17, 14 y 13 kDa para cisticercosis, GP 8,16 y 21 kDa para hidatidosis y GP: 17 y 23 kDa para fascioliasis. La prueba detectó la presencia de anticuerpos alcanzando una sensibilidad de 96% (IC95%: 94,62-98,54% en la detección de una o las trece bandas, una especificidad de 100% (IC95%: 99,50 - 100,00%; individualmente, se tuvo una sensibilidad para cisticercosis de 97% (IC95%: 93,16-100%, para hidatidosis de 94% (IC95%: 88,85-99,15% y para fascioliasis de 96% (IC95%: 91,66-100%. Conclusiones. La prueba de Western blot es eficaz en la detección, simultanea de anticuerpos en pacientes con cisticercosis, hidatidosis y fascioliasis humana, y puede ser utilizada como prueba de descarte o confirmatoria en zonas endémicas.

  7. Hybrid Ventilation Air Flow Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    The scope of this annex is therefore to obtain better knowledge of the use of hybrid ventilation technologies. The annex focus on development of control strategies for hybrid ventilation, on development of methods to predict hybrid ventilation performance in office buildings and on implementation...

  8. Teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, R.D.; Paauw, J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    Om de mogelijkheden van de teelt van hybride wintertarwerassen onder Nederlandse omstandigheden in beeld te brengen zijn er van 2000-2002 proeven uitgevoerd op het PPO-proefbedrijf te Lelystad. In deze proeven zijn een 4-tal hybriderassen (Hybnos, Hyno-braba, Hyno-esta, Mercury) vergeleken met een

  9. Hybrid FSAE Vehicle Realization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    The goal of this multi-year project is to create a fully functional University of Idaho entry in the hybrid FSAE competition. Vehicle integration is underway as part of a variety of 2010-11 senior design projects. This leverages a variety of analytic...

  10. Electric and hybrid vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Report characterizes state-of-the-art electric and hybrid (combined electric and heat engine) vehicles. Performance data for representative number of these vehicles were obtained from track and dynamometer tests. User experience information was obtained from fleet operators and individual owners of electric vehicles. Data on performance and physical characteristics of large number of vehicles were obtained from manufacturers and available literature.

  11. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, Vivek; Tawfik, Magdy S.

    2015-02-01

    The nuclear hybrid energy concept is becoming a reality for the US energy infrastructure where combinations of the various potential energy sources (nuclear, wind, solar, biomass, and so on) are integrated in a hybrid energy system. This paper focuses on challenges facing a hybrid system with a Small Modular Reactor at its core. The core of the paper will discuss efforts required to develop supervisory control center that collects data, supports decision-making, and serves as an information hub for supervisory control center. Such a center will also be a model for integrating future technologies and controls. In addition, advanced operations research, thermal cycle analysis, energy conversion analysis, control engineering, and human factors engineering will be part of the supervisory control center. Nuclear hybrid energy infrastructure would allow operators to optimize the cost of energy production by providing appropriate means of integrating different energy sources. The data needs to be stored, processed, analyzed, trended, and projected at right time to right operator to integrate different energy sources.

  12. Hybridization of biomedical circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinard, G. A.

    1978-01-01

    The design and fabrication of low power hybrid circuits to perform vital signs monitoring are reported. The circuits consist of: (1) clock; (2) ECG amplifier and cardiotachometer signal conditioner; (3) impedance pneumobraph and respiration rate processor; (4) hear/breath rate processor; (5) temperature monitor; and (6) LCD display.

  13. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-09-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates.

  14. Hybrid wars’ information component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Nevskaya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The war of the new generation - hybrid war, the information component which is directed not so much on the direct destruction of the enemy, how to achieve the goals without warfare. Fighting in the information field is no less important than immediate military action.

  15. Glueballs, Hybrids and Exotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, M. A.; Moreno, G.

    2006-01-01

    We comment on the physics analysis carried out by the Experimental High Energy Physics (EHEP) group of the Instituto de Fisica of the University of Guanajuato (IFUG), Mexico. In particular, this group has been involved in analysis carried out to search for glueball, hybrid and exotic candidates

  16. Hybrid quantum computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehrawat, Arun; Englert, Berthold-Georg; Zemann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    We present a hybrid model of the unitary-evolution-based quantum computation model and the measurement-based quantum computation model. In the hybrid model, part of a quantum circuit is simulated by unitary evolution and the rest by measurements on star graph states, thereby combining the advantages of the two standard quantum computation models. In the hybrid model, a complicated unitary gate under simulation is decomposed in terms of a sequence of single-qubit operations, the controlled-z gates, and multiqubit rotations around the z axis. Every single-qubit and the controlled-z gate are realized by a respective unitary evolution, and every multiqubit rotation is executed by a single measurement on a required star graph state. The classical information processing in our model requires only an information flow vector and propagation matrices. We provide the implementation of multicontrol gates in the hybrid model. They are very useful for implementing Grover's search algorithm, which is studied as an illustrative example.

  17. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish; Munagala, Kamesh

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer's estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer's prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The hybrid

  18. Hybrid keyword search auctions

    KAUST Repository

    Goel, Ashish

    2009-01-01

    Search auctions have become a dominant source of revenue generation on the Internet. Such auctions have typically used per-click bidding and pricing. We propose the use of hybrid auctions where an advertiser can make a per-impression as well as a per-click bid, and the auctioneer then chooses one of the two as the pricing mechanism. We assume that the advertiser and the auctioneer both have separate beliefs (called priors) on the click-probability of an advertisement. We first prove that the hybrid auction is truthful, assuming that the advertisers are risk-neutral. We then show that this auction is superior to the existing per-click auction in multiple ways: 1. We show that risk-seeking advertisers will choose only a per-impression bid whereas risk-averse advertisers will choose only a per-click bid, and argue that both kind of advertisers arise naturally. Hence, the ability to bid in a hybrid fashion is important to account for the risk characteristics of the advertisers. 2. For obscure keywords, the auctioneer is unlikely to have a very sharp prior on the click-probabilities. In such situations, we show that having the extra information from the advertisers in the form of a per-impression bid can result in significantly higher revenue. 3. An advertiser who believes that its click-probability is much higher than the auctioneer\\'s estimate can use per-impression bids to correct the auctioneer\\'s prior without incurring any extra cost. 4. The hybrid auction can allow the advertiser and auctioneer to implement complex dynamic programming strategies to deal with the uncertainty in the click-probability using the same basic auction. The per-click and per-impression bidding schemes can only be used to implement two extreme cases of these strategies. As Internet commerce matures, we need more sophisticated pricing models to exploit all the information held by each of the participants. We believe that hybrid auctions could be an important step in this direction. The

  19. Reverse transcriptase sequences from mulberry LTR retrotransposons: characterization analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Bi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Copia and Gypsy play important roles in structural, functional and evolutionary dynamics of plant genomes. In this study, a total of 106 and 101, Copia and Gypsy reverse transcriptase (rt were amplified respectively in the Morus notabilis genome using degenerate primers. All sequences exhibited high levels of heterogeneity, were rich in AT and possessed higher sequence divergence of Copia rt in comparison to Gypsy rt. Two reasons are likely to account for this phenomenon: a these elements often experience deletions or fragmentation by illegitimate or unequal homologous recombination in the transposition process; b strong purifying selective pressure drives the evolution of these elements through “selective silencing” with random mutation and eventual deletion from the host genome. Interestingly, mulberry rt clustered with other rt from distantly related taxa according to the phylogenetic analysis. This phenomenon did not result from horizontal transposable element transfer. Results obtained from fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed that most of the hybridization signals were preferentially concentrated in pericentromeric and distal regions of chromosomes, and these elements may play important roles in the regions in which they are found. Results of this study support the continued pursuit of further functional studies of Copia and Gypsy in the mulberry genome.

  20. Reversal of diaschisis by zolpidem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, R.P.; Nel, H.W.; Sathekge, M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Recent literature has reported on clinical improvement after zolpidem, a GABAergic anti insomnia drug, in brain injury and stroke patients. In this study, the effect of zolpidem on crossed cerebellar diaschisis was investigated in such patients. Method: Four patients with crossed cerebellar diaschisis after brain injury or stroke were investigated before and after application of 10 mg zolpidem by 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT. Result: Apart from clinical improvements, 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT studies showed reversal of the crossed cerebellar diaschisis and improvement of perfusion defects after zolpidem. Conclusion: 99mTc HMPAO brain SPECT may have a role to pre-select brain injury and stroke patients who will benefit clinically from zolpidem therapy. (author)