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Sample records for reveals widespread chimpanzee

  1. Incomplete lineage sorting patterns among human, chimpanzee and orangutan suggest recent orangutan speciation and widespread selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Hawks, John

    2011-01-01

    We search the complete orangutan genome for regions where humans are more closely related to orangutans than to chimpanzees due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in the ancestor of human and chimpanzees. The search uses our recently developed coalescent HMM framework. We find ILS present in ~1%...

  2. Chimpanzee genomic diversity reveals ancient admixture with bonobos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Manuel, Marc; Kuhlwilm, Martin; Frandsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Our closest living relatives, chimpanzees and bonobos, have a complex demographic history. We analyzed the high-coverage whole genomes of 75 wild-born chimpanzees and bonobos from 10 countries in Africa. We found that chimpanzee population substructure makes genetic information a good predictor...

  3. DNA barcoding of schistosome cercariae reveals a novel sub-lineage within Schistosoma rodhaini from Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Lake Victoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, C J; Stothard, J R

    2012-10-01

    While Schistosoma rodhaini is typically considered a parasite of small mammals and is very scantly distributed in the Lake Victoria basin, it is known to hybridize with the more widespread Schistosoma mansoni, the causative agent of intestinal schistosomiasis. As part of broader parasitological and malacological surveys for S. mansoni across Lake Victoria, schistosome cercariae were harvested from a field-caught Biomphalaria choanomphala taken on Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary, Uganda. Upon DNA barcoding, these cercariae were found to be a mixture of both S. rodhaini and S. mansoni, with further phylogenetic analysis revealing a hitherto unknown sub-lineage within S. rodhaini. Despite repeated sampling for eggs and miracidia from both chimpanzees and staff on Ngamba Island Sanctuary, detection of S. rodhaini within local definitive hosts awaits additional efforts, which should be mindful of a potential host role of spotted-necked otters.

  4. Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible pathways of adaptation to human hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D.; Rayner, Julian C.; Bö hme, Ulrike; Pain, Arnab; Spottiswoode, Natasha; Sanders, Mandy; Quail, Michael; Ollomo, Benjamin; Renaud, Franç ois; Thomas, Alan W.; Prugnolle, Franck; Conway, David J.; Newbold, Chris; Berriman, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    related chimpanzee parasite species P. reichenowi, and obtaining partial sequence data from a more distantly related chimpanzee parasite (P. gaboni). The close relationship between P. reichenowi and P. falciparum is emphasized by almost complete

  5. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  6. Revealing the Determinants of Widespread Alternative Splicing Perturbation in Cancer

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    Yongsheng Li

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly appreciated that alternative splicing plays a key role in generating functional specificity and diversity in cancer. However, the mechanisms by which cancer mutations perturb splicing remain unknown. Here, we developed a network-based strategy, DrAS-Net, to investigate more than 2.5 million variants across cancer types and link somatic mutations with cancer-specific splicing events. We identified more than 40,000 driver variant candidates and their 80,000 putative splicing targets deregulated in 33 cancer types and inferred their functional impact. Strikingly, tumors with splicing perturbations show reduced expression of immune system-related genes and increased expression of cell proliferation markers. Tumors harboring different mutations in the same gene often exhibit distinct splicing perturbations. Further stratification of 10,000 patients based on their mutation-splicing relationships identifies subtypes with distinct clinical features, including survival rates. Our work reveals how single-nucleotide changes can alter the repertoires of splicing isoforms, providing insights into oncogenic mechanisms for precision medicine.

  7. Widespread alternative and aberrant splicing revealed by lariat sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepankiw, Nicholas; Raghavan, Madhura; Fogarty, Elizabeth A.; Grimson, Andrew; Pleiss, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    Alternative splicing is an important and ancient feature of eukaryotic gene structure, the existence of which has likely facilitated eukaryotic proteome expansions. Here, we have used intron lariat sequencing to generate a comprehensive profile of splicing events in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, amongst the simplest organisms that possess mammalian-like splice site degeneracy. We reveal an unprecedented level of alternative splicing, including alternative splice site selection for over half of all annotated introns, hundreds of novel exon-skipping events, and thousands of novel introns. Moreover, the frequency of these events is far higher than previous estimates, with alternative splice sites on average activated at ∼3% the rate of canonical sites. Although a subset of alternative sites are conserved in related species, implying functional potential, the majority are not detectably conserved. Interestingly, the rate of aberrant splicing is inversely related to expression level, with lowly expressed genes more prone to erroneous splicing. Although we validate many events with RNAseq, the proportion of alternative splicing discovered with lariat sequencing is far greater, a difference we attribute to preferential decay of aberrantly spliced transcripts. Together, these data suggest the spliceosome possesses far lower fidelity than previously appreciated, highlighting the potential contributions of alternative splicing in generating novel gene structures. PMID:26261211

  8. Genome sequencing of chimpanzee malaria parasites reveals possible pathways of adaptation to human hosts

    KAUST Repository

    Otto, Thomas D.

    2014-09-09

    Plasmodium falciparum causes most human malaria deaths, having prehistorically evolved from parasites of African Great Apes. Here we explore the genomic basis of P. falciparum adaptation to human hosts by fully sequencing the genome of the closely related chimpanzee parasite species P. reichenowi, and obtaining partial sequence data from a more distantly related chimpanzee parasite (P. gaboni). The close relationship between P. reichenowi and P. falciparum is emphasized by almost complete conservation of genomic synteny, but against this strikingly conserved background we observe major differences at loci involved in erythrocyte invasion. The organization of most virulence-associated multigene families, including the hypervariable var genes, is broadly conserved, but P. falciparum has a smaller subset of rif and stevor genes whose products are expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface. Genome-wide analysis identifies other loci under recent positive selection, but a limited number of changes at the host–parasite interface may have mediated host switching.

  9. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Wittig, Roman M; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-11-19

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Primate archaeology reveals cultural transmission in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V.; Wittig, Roman M.; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Recovering evidence of past human activities enables us to recreate behaviour where direct observations are missing. Here, we apply archaeological methods to further investigate cultural transmission processes in percussive tool use among neighbouring chimpanzee communities in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Differences in the selection of nut-cracking tools between neighbouring groups are maintained over time, despite frequent female transfer, which leads to persistent cultural diversity between chimpanzee groups. Through the recovery of used tools in the suggested natal territory of immigrants, we have been able to reconstruct the tool material selection of females prior to migration. In combination with direct observations of tool selection of local residents and immigrants after migration, we uncovered temporal changes in tool selection for immigrating females. After controlling for ecological differences between territories of immigrants and residents our data suggest that immigrants abandoned their previous tool preference and adopted the pattern of their new community, despite previous personal proficiency of the same foraging task. Our study adds to the growing body of knowledge on the importance of conformist tendencies in animals. PMID:26483527

  11. Comparative kinomics of human and chimpanzee reveal unique kinship and functional diversity generated by new domain combinations

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    Martin Juliette

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphorylation by protein kinases is a common event in many cellular processes. Further, many kinases perform specialized roles and are regulated by non-kinase domains tethered to kinase domain. Perturbation in the regulation of kinases leads to malignancy. We have identified and analysed putative protein kinases encoded in the genome of chimpanzee which is a close evolutionary relative of human. Result The shared core biology between chimpanzee and human is characterized by many orthologous protein kinases which are involved in conserved pathways. Domain architectures specific to chimp/human kinases have been observed. Chimp kinases with unique domain architectures are characterized by deletion of one or more non-kinase domains in the human kinases. Interestingly, counterparts of some of the multi-domain human kinases in chimp are characterized by identical domain architectures but with kinase-like non-kinase domain. Remarkably, out of 587 chimpanzee kinases no human orthologue with greater than 95% sequence identity could be identified for 160 kinases. Variations in chimpanzee kinases compared to human kinases are brought about also by differences in functions of domains tethered to the catalytic kinase domain. For example, the heterodimer forming PB1 domain related to the fold of ubiquitin/Ras-binding domain is seen uniquely tethered to PKC-like chimpanzee kinase. Conclusion Though the chimpanzee and human are evolutionary very close, there are chimpanzee kinases with no close counterpart in the human suggesting differences in their functions. This analysis provides a direction for experimental analysis of human and chimpanzee protein kinases in order to enhance our understanding on their specific biological roles.

  12. Chimpanzee autarky.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F Brosnan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter.Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse. However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small.Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains.

  13. Chimpanzee autarky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; Grady, Mark F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Beran, Michael J

    2008-01-30

    Economists believe that barter is the ultimate cause of social wealth--and even much of our human culture--yet little is known about the evolution and development of such behavior. It is useful to examine the circumstances under which other species will or will not barter to more fully understand the phenomenon. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are an interesting test case as they are an intelligent species, closely related to humans, and known to participate in reciprocal interactions and token economies with humans, yet they have not spontaneously developed costly barter. Although chimpanzees do engage in noncostly barter, in which otherwise value-less tokens are exchanged for food, this lack of risk is not typical of human barter. Thus, we systematically examined barter in chimpanzees to ascertain under what circumstances chimpanzees will engage in costly barter of commodities, that is, trading food items for other food items with a human experimenter. We found that chimpanzees do barter, relinquishing lower value items to obtain higher value items (and not the reverse). However, they do not trade in all beneficial situations, maintaining possession of less preferred items when the relative gains they stand to make are small. Two potential explanations for this puzzling behavior are that chimpanzees lack ownership norms, and thus have limited opportunity to benefit from the gains of trade, and that chimpanzees' risk of defection is sufficiently high that large gains must be imminent to justify the risk. Understanding the conditions that support barter in chimpanzees may increase understanding of situations in which humans, too, do not maximize their gains.

  14. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee ‘material cultures’ was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4–6 The debate has less to do w...

  15. Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations

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    Aurélien Chateigner

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Viruses rely on widespread genetic variation and large population size for adaptation. Large DNA virus populations are thought to harbor little variation though natural populations may be polymorphic. To measure the genetic variation present in a dsDNA virus population, we deep sequenced a natural strain of the baculovirus Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus. With 124,221X average genome coverage of our 133,926 bp long consensus, we could detect low frequency mutations (0.025%. K-means clustering was used to classify the mutations in four categories according to their frequency in the population. We found 60 high frequency non-synonymous mutations under balancing selection distributed in all functional classes. These mutants could alter viral adaptation dynamics, either through competitive or synergistic processes. Lastly, we developed a technique for the delimitation of large deletions in next generation sequencing data. We found that large deletions occur along the entire viral genome, with hotspots located in homologous repeat regions (hrs. Present in 25.4% of the genomes, these deletion mutants presumably require functional complementation to complete their infection cycle. They might thus have a large impact on the fitness of the baculovirus population. Altogether, we found a wide breadth of genomic variation in the baculovirus population, suggesting it has high adaptive potential.

  16. Magnetoencephalography Reveals a Widespread Increase in Network Connectivity in Idiopathic/Genetic Generalized Epilepsy.

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    Adham Elshahabi

    Full Text Available Idiopathic/genetic generalized epilepsy (IGE/GGE is characterized by seizures, which start and rapidly engage widely distributed networks, and result in symptoms such as absences, generalized myoclonic and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. Although routine magnetic resonance imaging is apparently normal, many studies have reported structural alterations in IGE/GGE patients using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry. Changes have also been reported in functional networks during generalized spike wave discharges. However, network function in the resting-state without epileptiforme discharges has been less well studied. We hypothesize that resting-state networks are more representative of the underlying pathophysiology and abnormal network synchrony. We studied functional network connectivity derived from whole-brain magnetoencephalography recordings in thirteen IGE/GGE and nineteen healthy controls. Using graph theoretical network analysis, we found a widespread increase in connectivity in patients compared to controls. These changes were most pronounced in the motor network, the mesio-frontal and temporal cortex. We did not, however, find any significant difference between the normalized clustering coefficients, indicating preserved gross network architecture. Our findings suggest that increased resting state connectivity could be an important factor for seizure spread and/or generation in IGE/GGE, and could serve as a biomarker for the disease.

  17. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Elizabeth G; Sanderson, Brian J; McNeil, Casey L; Long, Anthony D; Macdonald, Stuart J

    2014-05-01

    Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  18. Genetic dissection of the Drosophila melanogaster female head transcriptome reveals widespread allelic heterogeneity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G King

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern genetic mapping is plagued by the "missing heritability" problem, which refers to the discordance between the estimated heritabilities of quantitative traits and the variance accounted for by mapped causative variants. One major potential explanation for the missing heritability is allelic heterogeneity, in which there are multiple causative variants at each causative gene with only a fraction having been identified. The majority of genome-wide association studies (GWAS implicitly assume that a single SNP can explain all the variance for a causative locus. However, if allelic heterogeneity is prevalent, a substantial amount of genetic variance will remain unexplained. In this paper, we take a haplotype-based mapping approach and quantify the number of alleles segregating at each locus using a large set of 7922 eQTL contributing to regulatory variation in the Drosophila melanogaster female head. Not only does this study provide a comprehensive eQTL map for a major community genetic resource, the Drosophila Synthetic Population Resource, but it also provides a direct test of the allelic heterogeneity hypothesis. We find that 95% of cis-eQTLs and 78% of trans-eQTLs are due to multiple alleles, demonstrating that allelic heterogeneity is widespread in Drosophila eQTL. Allelic heterogeneity likely contributes significantly to the missing heritability problem common in GWAS studies.

  19. Spontaneous reoccurrence of “scooping”, a wild tool-use behaviour, in naïve chimpanzees

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    Elisa Bandini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Modern human technological culture depends on social learning. A widespread assumption for chimpanzee tool-use cultures is that they, too, are dependent on social learning. However, we provide evidence to suggest that individual learning, rather than social learning, is the driver behind determining the form of these behaviours within and across individuals. Low-fidelity social learning instead merely facilitates the reinnovation of these behaviours, and thus helps homogenise the behaviour across chimpanzees, creating the population-wide patterns observed in the wild (what here we call “socially mediated serial reinnovations”. This is the main prediction of the Zone of Latent Solutions (ZLS hypothesis. This study directly tested the ZLS hypothesis on algae scooping, a wild chimpanzee tool-use behaviour. We provided naïve chimpanzees (n = 14, Mage = 31.33, SD = 10.09 with ecologically relevant materials of the wild behaviour but, crucially, without revealing any information on the behavioural form required to accomplish this task. This study found that naïve chimpanzees expressed the same behavioural form as their wild counterparts, suggesting that, as the ZLS theory predicts, individual learning is the driver behind the frequency of this behavioural form. As more behaviours are being found to be within chimpanzee’s ZLS, this hypothesis now provides a parsimonious explanation for chimpanzee tool cultures.

  20. Proteome-wide analysis of arginine monomethylation reveals widespread occurrence in human cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Sara C; Sylvestersen, Kathrine B; Mund, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    to the frequency of somatic mutations at arginine methylation sites throughout the proteome, we observed that somatic mutations were common at arginine methylation sites in proteins involved in mRNA splicing. Furthermore, in HeLa and U2OS cells, we found that distinct arginine methyltransferases differentially...... kidney 293 cells, indicating that the occurrence of this modification is comparable to phosphorylation and ubiquitylation. A site-level conservation analysis revealed that arginine methylation sites are less evolutionarily conserved compared to arginines that were not identified as modified...... as coactivator-associated arginine methyltransferase 1 (CARM1)] or PRMT1 increased the RNA binding function of HNRNPUL1. High-content single-cell imaging additionally revealed that knocking down CARM1 promoted the nuclear accumulation of SRSF2, independent of cell cycle phase. Collectively, the presented human...

  1. Analysis of clock-regulated genes in Neurospora reveals widespread posttranscriptional control of metabolic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Jennifer M.; Dasgupta, Arko; Emerson, Jillian M.; Zhou, Xiaoying; Ringelberg, Carol S.; Knabe, Nicole; Lipzen, Anna M.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Daum, Christopher G.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Smith, Kristina M.; Galagan, James E.; Bell-Pedersen, Deborah; Freitag, Michael; Cheng, Chao; Loros, Jennifer J.; Dunlap, Jay C.

    2014-01-01

    Neurospora crassa has been for decades a principal model for filamentous fungal genetics and physiology as well as for understanding the mechanism of circadian clocks. Eukaryotic fungal and animal clocks comprise transcription-translation–based feedback loops that control rhythmic transcription of a substantial fraction of these transcriptomes, yielding the changes in protein abundance that mediate circadian regulation of physiology and metabolism: Understanding circadian control of gene expression is key to understanding eukaryotic, including fungal, physiology. Indeed, the isolation of clock-controlled genes (ccgs) was pioneered in Neurospora where circadian output begins with binding of the core circadian transcription factor WCC to a subset of ccg promoters, including those of many transcription factors. High temporal resolution (2-h) sampling over 48 h using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) identified circadianly expressed genes in Neurospora, revealing that from ∼10% to as much 40% of the transcriptome can be expressed under circadian control. Functional classifications of these genes revealed strong enrichment in pathways involving metabolism, protein synthesis, and stress responses; in broad terms, daytime metabolic potential favors catabolism, energy production, and precursor assembly, whereas night activities favor biosynthesis of cellular components and growth. Discriminative regular expression motif elicitation (DREME) identified key promoter motifs highly correlated with the temporal regulation of ccgs. Correlations between ccg abundance from RNA-Seq, the degree of ccg-promoter activation as reported by ccg-promoter–luciferase fusions, and binding of WCC as measured by ChIP-Seq, are not strong. Therefore, although circadian activation is critical to ccg rhythmicity, posttranscriptional regulation plays a major role in determining rhythmicity at the mRNA level. PMID:25362047

  2. Stable carbon isotope analysis reveals widespread drought stress in boreal black spruce forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Xanthe J; Mack, Michelle C; Johnstone, Jill F

    2015-08-01

    Unprecedented rates of climate warming over the past century have resulted in increased forest stress and mortality worldwide. Decreased tree growth in association with increasing temperatures is generally accepted as a signal of temperature-induced drought stress. However, variations in tree growth alone do not reveal the physiological mechanisms behind recent changes in tree growth. Examining stable carbon isotope composition of tree rings in addition to tree growth can provide a secondary line of evidence for physiological drought stress. In this study, we examined patterns of black spruce growth and carbon isotopic composition in tree rings in response to climate warming and drying in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We examined trees at three nested scales: landscape, toposequence, and a subsample of trees within the toposequence. At each scale, we studied the potential effects of differences in microclimate and moisture availability by sampling on northern and southern aspects. We found that black spruce radial growth responded negatively to monthly metrics of temperature at all examined scales, and we examined ∆(13)C responses on a subsample of trees as representative of the wider region. The negative ∆(13)C responses to temperature reveal that black spruce trees are experiencing moisture stress on both northern and southern aspects. Contrary to our expectations, ∆(13)C from trees on the northern aspect exhibited the strongest drought signal. Our results highlight the prominence of drought stress in the boreal forest of interior Alaska. We conclude that if temperatures continue to warm, we can expect drought-induced productivity declines across large regions of the boreal forest, even for trees located in cool and moist landscape positions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds.

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    Yao Xu

    Full Text Available Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus and Qinchuan (Bos taurus are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 to 12 fold on average of 97.86% and 98.98% coverage of genomes, respectively. Comparison with the Bos_taurus_UMD_3.1 reference assembly yielded 9,010,096 SNPs for Nanyang, and 6,965,062 for Qinchuan cattle, 51% and 29% of which were novel SNPs, respectively. A total of 154,934 and 115,032 small indels (1 to 3 bp were found in the Nanyang and Qinchuan genomes, respectively. The SNP and indel distribution revealed that Nanyang showed a genetically high diversity as compared to Qinchuan cattle. Furthermore, a total of 2,907 putative cases of copy number variation (CNV were identified by aligning Nanyang to Qinchuan genome, 783 of which (27% encompassed the coding regions of 495 functional genes. The gene ontology (GO analysis revealed that many CNV genes were enriched in the immune system and environment adaptability. Among several CNV genes related to lipid transport and fat metabolism, Lepin receptor gene (LEPR overlapping with CNV_1815 showed remarkably higher copy number in Qinchuan than Nanyang (log2 (ratio = -2.34988; P value = 1.53E-102. Further qPCR and association analysis investigated that the copy number of the LEPR gene presented positive correlations with transcriptional expression and phenotypic traits, suggesting the LEPR CNV may contribute to the higher fat deposition in muscles of Qinchuan cattle. Our findings provide evidence that the distinct phenotypes of Nanyang and Qinchuan breeds may be due to the different genetic variations including SNPs

  4. Widespread Micropollutant Monitoring in the Hudson River Estuary Reveals Spatiotemporal Micropollutant Clusters and Their Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Corey M G; Helbling, Damian E

    2018-06-05

    The objective of this study was to identify sources of micropollutants in the Hudson River Estuary (HRE). We collected 127 grab samples at 17 sites along the HRE over 2 years and screened for up to 200 micropollutants. We quantified 168 of the micropollutants in at least one of the samples. Atrazine, gabapentin, metolachlor, and sucralose were measured in every sample. We used data-driven unsupervised methods to cluster the micropollutants on the basis of their spatiotemporal occurrence and normalized-concentration patterns. Three major clusters of micropollutants were identified: ubiquitous and mixed-use (core micropollutants), sourced from sewage treatment plant outfalls (STP micropollutants), and derived from diffuse upstream sources (diffuse micropollutants). Each of these clusters was further refined into subclusters that were linked to specific sources on the basis of relationships identified through geospatial analysis of watershed features. Evaluation of cumulative loadings of each subcluster revealed that the Mohawk River and Rondout Creek are major contributors of most core micropollutants and STP micropollutants and the upper HRE is a major contributor of diffuse micropollutants. These data provide the first comprehensive evaluation of micropollutants in the HRE and define distinct spatiotemporal micropollutant clusters that are linked to sources and conserved across surface water systems around the world.

  5. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jechalke, Sven; Schreiter, Susanne; Wolters, Birgit; Dealtry, Simone; Heuer, Holger; Smalla, Kornelia

    2013-01-01

    Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ 1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ 1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ 1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ 1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real-time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ 1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the analyzed soils.

  6. Widespread dissemination of class 1 integron components in soils and related ecosystems as revealed by cultivation-independent analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven eJechalke

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Class 1 integrons contribute to the emerging problem of antibiotic resistance in human medicine by acquisition, exchange, and expression of resistance genes embedded within gene cassettes. Besides the clinical setting they were recently reported from environmental habitats and often located on plasmids and transposons, facilitating their transfer and spread within bacterial communities. In this study we aimed to provide insights into the occurrence of genes typically associated with the class 1 integrons in previously not studied environments with or without human impact and their association with IncP-1 plasmids. Total community DNA was extracted from manure-treated and untreated soils, lettuce and potato rhizosphere, digestates, and an on-farm biopurification system and screened by PCR with subsequent Southern blot hybridization for the presence of the class 1 integrase gene intI1 as well as qacE and qacEΔ1 resistance genes. The results revealed a widespread dissemination of class 1 integrons in the environments analyzed, mainly related to the presence of qacEΔ1 genes. All 28 IncP-1ε plasmids carrying class 1 integrons, which were captured exogenously in a recent study from piggery manure and soils treated with manure, carried qacEΔ1 genes. Based on the strong hybridization signals in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to the potato rhizosphere, the abundances of intI1, qacE/qacEΔ1, and sul1 genes were quantified relative to the 16S rRNA gene abundance by real time PCR in the rhizosphere of lettuce planted in three different soils and in the corresponding bulk soil. A significant enrichment of intI1 and qacE/qacEΔ1 genes was confirmed in the rhizosphere of lettuce compared to bulk soil. Additionally, the relative abundance of korB genes specific for IncP-1 plasmids was enriched in the rhizosphere and correlated to the intI1 gene abundance indicating that IncP-1 plasmids might have contributed to the spread of class 1 integrons in the

  7. Deep sequencing of amplicons reveals widespread intraspecific hybridization and multiple origins of polyploidy in big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata, Asteraceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryce A. Richardson; Justin T. Page; Prabin Bajgain; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joshua A. Udall

    2012-01-01

    Premise of the study: Hybridization has played an important role in the evolution and ecological adaptation of diploid and polyploid plants. Artemisia tridentata (Asteraceae) tetraploids are extremely widespread and of great ecological importance. These tetraploids are often taxonomically identified as A. tridentata subsp. wyomingensis or as autotetraploids of diploid...

  8. Autonomy in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Tom L; Wobber, Victoria

    2014-04-01

    Literature on the mental capacities and cognitive mechanisms of the great apes has been silent about whether they can act autonomously. This paper provides a philosophical theory of autonomy supported by psychological studies of the cognitive mechanisms that underlie chimpanzee behavior to argue that chimpanzees can act autonomously even though their psychological mechanisms differ from those of humans. Chimpanzees satisfy the two basic conditions of autonomy: (1) liberty (the absence of controlling influences) and (2) agency (self-initiated intentional action), each of which is specified here in terms of conditions of understanding, intention, and self-control. In this account, chimpanzees make knowledge-based choices reflecting a richly information-based and socially sophisticated understanding of the world. Finally, two major theories of autonomy (Kantian theory and two-level theory) are rejected as too narrow to adequately address these issues, necessitating the modifications made in the present approach.

  9. Chimpanzees share forbidden fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley J Hockings

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of wild plant foods is infrequent in chimpanzees, but in chimpanzee communities that engage in hunting, meat is frequently used as a 'social tool' for nurturing alliances and social bonds. Here we report the only recorded example of regular sharing of plant foods by unrelated, non-provisioned wild chimpanzees, and the contexts in which these sharing behaviours occur. From direct observations, adult chimpanzees at Bossou (Republic of Guinea, West Africa very rarely transferred wild plant foods. In contrast, they shared cultivated plant foods much more frequently (58 out of 59 food sharing events. Sharing primarily consists of adult males allowing reproductively cycling females to take food that they possess. We propose that hypotheses focussing on 'food-for-sex and -grooming' and 'showing-off' strategies plausibly account for observed sharing behaviours. A changing human-dominated landscape presents chimpanzees with fresh challenges, and our observations suggest that crop-raiding provides adult male chimpanzees at Bossou with highly desirable food commodities that may be traded for other currencies.

  10. Chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), maintained for more than twenty years in captive chimpanzees in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Udono, Toshifumi

    2007-08-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916), was found in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, reared in Kumamoto Primate Research Park, Sanwa Kagaku Kenkyusho Co., Ltd., Kumamoto, Japan, in 2006. Because the chimpanzees in this institution originated from chimpanzees imported from Africa before 1984, it is considered that E. anthropopitheci infection has persisted for more than 20 yr in the chimpanzees. Analysis of pinworm specimens preserved in the institution revealed that transition of predominant pinworm species occurred, responding to the change of anthelmintics used for pinworm treatment. Present dominance of E. anthropopitheci is surmised to be caused by fenbendazole, which has been adopted from 2002. Scarcity of mixed infection with E. anthropopitheci and Enterobius vermicularis suggests interspecific competition between the pinworms.

  11. The knowns and unknowns of chimpanzee culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2010-05-01

    Claims of culture in chimpanzees appeared soon after the launch of the first field studies in africa.1 The notion of chimpanzee 'material cultures' was coined,2 and this was followed by a first formal comparison, which revealed an astonishing degree of behavioural diversity between the different study communities, mainly in terms of tool use.3 Although this behavioural diversity is still undisputed, the question of chimpanzee cultures has remained controversial.4-6 The debate has less to do with the definition of culture (most animal behaviour researchers accept the notion for behaviour that is 'transmitted repeatedly through social or observational learning to become a population-level characteristic' 3), but more with whether some key criteria are met.

  12. DNA barcodes reveal that the widespread European tortricid moth Phalonidia manniana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a mixture of two species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutanen, Marko; Aarvik, Leif; Huemer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    During efforts to generate DNA barcodes for all North European Lepidoptera, Phalonidia manniana (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1839) was found to comprise two genetically distinct clusters. Morphological investigation further supports the existence of two distinct taxa, P. manniana and P. udana Guenée......, 1845, sp. rev. Their biologies also differ, P. manniana feeding in stems of Mentha and Lycopus (Lamiaceae) and P. udana feeding in stems of Lysimachia thyrsiflora and L. vulgaris (Primulaceae). We provide re-descriptions of both taxa and DNA barcodes for North European Phalonidia and Gynnidomorpha....... Phalonidia tolli Razowski, 1960, syn. nov., is considered a junior synonym of Pudana. Phalonidia udana is widely distributed in the North Palaearctic, whereas it seems to be rare or missing in large parts of Central Europe. The study demonstrates the usefulness of DNA barcoding in revealing cryptic species....

  13. In-depth mapping of the mouse brain N-glycoproteome reveals widespread N-glycosylation of diverse brain proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Pan; Wang, Xin-Jian; Xue, Yu; Liu, Ming-Qi; Zeng, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xing; Yan, Guo-Quan; Yao, Jun; Shen, Hua-Li; Yang, Peng-Yuan

    2016-06-21

    N-glycosylation is one of the most prominent and abundant posttranslational modifications of proteins. It is estimated that over 50% of mammalian proteins undergo glycosylation. However, the analysis of N-glycoproteins has been limited by the available analytical technology. In this study, we comprehensively mapped the N-glycosylation sites in the mouse brain proteome by combining complementary methods, which included seven protease treatments, four enrichment techniques and two fractionation strategies. Altogether, 13492 N-glycopeptides containing 8386 N-glycosylation sites on 3982 proteins were identified. After evaluating the performance of the above methods, we proposed a simple and efficient workflow for large-scale N-glycosylation site mapping. The optimized workflow yielded 80% of the initially identified N-glycosylation sites with considerably less effort. Analysis of the identified N-glycoproteins revealed that many of the mouse brain proteins are N-glycosylated, including those proteins in critical pathways for nervous system development and neurological disease. Additionally, several important biomarkers of various diseases were found to be N-glycosylated. These data confirm that N-glycosylation is important in both physiological and pathological processes in the brain, and provide useful details about numerous N-glycosylation sites in brain proteins.

  14. Animal culture: chimpanzee conformity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-05-22

    Culture-like phenomena in wild animals have received much attention, but how good is the evidence and how similar are they to human culture? New data on chimpanzees suggest their culture may even have an element of conformity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Specific Image Characteristics Influence Attitudes about Chimpanzee Conservation and Use as Pets

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Stephen R.; Vreeman, Vivian M.; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V.

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determ...

  16. Genetic and 'cultural' similarity in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Boesch, Christophe; Inoue, Eiji; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Mitani, John C; Nishida, Toshisada; Pusey, Anne; Reynolds, Vernon; Schubert, Grit; Wrangham, Richard W; Wroblewski, Emily; Vigilant, Linda

    2011-02-07

    The question of whether animals possess 'cultures' or 'traditions' continues to generate widespread theoretical and empirical interest. Studies of wild chimpanzees have featured prominently in this discussion, as the dominant approach used to identify culture in wild animals was first applied to them. This procedure, the 'method of exclusion,' begins by documenting behavioural differences between groups and then infers the existence of culture by eliminating ecological explanations for their occurrence. The validity of this approach has been questioned because genetic differences between groups have not explicitly been ruled out as a factor contributing to between-group differences in behaviour. Here we investigate this issue directly by analysing genetic and behavioural data from nine groups of wild chimpanzees. We find that the overall levels of genetic and behavioural dissimilarity between groups are highly and statistically significantly correlated. Additional analyses show that only a very small number of behaviours vary between genetically similar groups, and that there is no obvious pattern as to which classes of behaviours (e.g. tool-use versus communicative) have a distribution that matches patterns of between-group genetic dissimilarity. These results indicate that genetic dissimilarity cannot be eliminated as playing a major role in generating group differences in chimpanzee behaviour.

  17. Use of "entertainment" chimpanzees in commercials distorts public perception regarding their conservation status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara K Schroepfer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often used in movies, commercials and print advertisements with the intention of eliciting a humorous response from audiences. The portrayal of chimpanzees in unnatural, human-like situations may have a negative effect on the public's understanding of their endangered status in the wild while making them appear as suitable pets. Alternatively, media content that elicits a positive emotional response toward chimpanzees may increase the public's commitment to chimpanzee conservation. To test these competing hypotheses, participants (n = 165 watched a series of commercials in an experiment framed as a marketing study. Imbedded within the same series of commercials was one of three chimpanzee videos. Participants either watched 1 a chimpanzee conservation commercial, 2 commercials containing "entertainment" chimpanzees or 3 control footage of the natural behavior of wild chimpanzees. Results from a post-viewing questionnaire reveal that participants who watched the conservation message understood that chimpanzees were endangered and unsuitable as pets at higher levels than those viewing the control footage. Meanwhile participants watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees showed a decrease in understanding relative to those watching the control footage. In addition, when participants were given the opportunity to donate part of their earnings from the experiment to a conservation charity, donations were least frequent in the group watching commercials with entertainment chimpanzees. Control questions show that participants did not detect the purpose of the study. These results firmly support the hypothesis that use of entertainment chimpanzees in the popular media negatively distorts the public's perception and hinders chimpanzee conservation efforts.

  18. Cars kill chimpanzees: case report of a wild chimpanzee killed on a road at Bulindi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R; Asiimwe, Caroline

    2016-07-01

    Roads have broadly adverse impacts on wildlife, including nonhuman primates. One direct effect is mortality from collisions with vehicles. While highly undesirable, roadkills provide valuable information on the health and condition of endangered species. We present a case report of a wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) killed crossing a road in Bulindi, Uganda, where chimpanzees inhabit forest fragments amid farmland. Details of the collision are constructed from eyewitness accounts of pedestrians. Physical examination of the cadaver indicated good overall body condition; at 40 kg, the deceased female was heavier than usual for an adult female East African chimpanzee. No external wounds or fractures were noted. Coprological assessment demonstrated infection by several gastrointestinal parasites commonly reported in living wild chimpanzees. Histopathology revealed eosinophilic enteritis and biliary hyperplasia potentially caused by parasite infection. However, eosinophilia was not widely spread into the submucosa, while egg/cyst counts suggested low-intensity parasite infections compared to healthy female chimpanzees of similar age in nearby Budongo Forest. No behavioral indicators of ill health were noted in the deceased female in the month prior to the accident. We conclude that cause of death was acute, i.e., shock from the collision, and was probably unrelated to parasite infection or any other underlying health condition. Notably, this female had asymmetrical polythelia, and, while nursing at the time of her death, had one functioning mammary gland only. In Uganda, where primates often inhabit human-dominated landscapes, human population growth and economic development has given rise to increasing motor traffic, while road development is enabling motorists to travel at greater speeds. Thus, the danger of roads to apes and other wildlife is rising, necessitating urgent strategies to reduce risks. Installation of simple speed-bumps-common on Ugandan

  19. Multilocus phylogeography of a widespread savanna-woodland-adapted rodent reveals the influence of Pleistocene geomorphology and climate change in Africa's Zambezi region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Molly M; Šumbera, Radim; Mazoch, Vladimír; Ferguson, Adam W; Phillips, Caleb D; Bryja, Josef

    2015-10-01

    Understanding historical influences of climate and physiographic barriers in shaping patterns of biodiversity remains limited for many regions of the world. For mammals of continental Africa, phylogeographic studies, particularly for West African lineages, implicate both geographic barriers and climate oscillations in shaping small mammal diversity. In contrast, studies for southern African species have revealed conflicting phylogenetic patterns for how mammalian lineages respond to both climate change and geologic events such as river formation, especially during the Pleistocene. However, these studies were often biased by limited geographic sampling or exclusively focused on large-bodied taxa. We exploited the broad southern African distribution of a savanna-woodland-adapted African rodent, Gerbilliscus leucogaster (bushveld gerbil) and generated mitochondrial, autosomal and sex chromosome data to quantify regional signatures of climatic and vicariant biogeographic phenomena. Results indicate the most recent common ancestor for all G. leucogaster lineages occurred during the early Pleistocene. We documented six divergent mitochondrial lineages that diverged ~0.270-0.100 mya, each of which was geographically isolated during periods characterized by alterations to the course of the Zambezi River and its tributaries as well as regional 'megadroughts'. Results demonstrate the presence of a widespread lineage exhibiting demographic expansion ~0.065-0.035 mya, a time that coincides with savanna-woodland expansion across southern Africa. A multilocus autosomal perspective revealed the influence of the Kafue River as a current barrier to gene flow and regions of secondary contact among divergent mitochondrial lineages. Our results demonstrate the importance of both climatic fluctuations and physiographic vicariance in shaping the distribution of southern African biodiversity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Influence of personality, age, sex, and estrous state on chimpanzee problem-solving success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Price, Sara A; Freeman, Hani D

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of individual problem solvers for group- and individual-level fitness, the correlates of individual problem-solving success are still an open topic of investigation. In addition to demographic factors, such as age or sex, certain personality dimensions have also been revealed...... as reliable correlates of problem-solving by animals. Such correlates, however, have been little-studied in chimpanzees. To empirically test the influence of age, sex, estrous state, and different personality factors on chimpanzee problem-solving, we individually tested 36 captive chimpanzees with two novel...... with the luteinizing hormone surge of a female's estrous cycle) and again when it was detumescent. Although we found no correlation between the chimpanzees' success with either puzzle and their age or sex, the chimpanzees' personality ratings did correlate with responses to the novel foraging puzzles. Specifically...

  1. Ontogenetic trajectories of chimpanzee social play: similarities with humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giada Cordoni

    Full Text Available Social play, a widespread phenomenon in mammals, is a multifunctional behavior, which can have many different roles according to species, sex, age, relationship quality between playmates, group membership, context, and habitat. Play joins and cuts across a variety of disciplines leading directly to inquiries relating to individual developmental changes and species adaptation, thus the importance of comparative studies appears evident. Here, we aim at proposing a possible ontogenetic pathway of chimpanzee play (Pan troglodytes and contrast our data with those of human play. Chimpanzee play shows a number of changes from infancy to juvenility. Particularly, solitary and social play follows different developmental trajectories. While solitary play peaks in infancy, social play does not show any quantitative variation between infancy and juvenility but shows a strong qualitative variation in complexity, asymmetry, and playmate choice. Like laughter in humans, the playful expressions in chimpanzees (at the different age phases seem to have a role in advertising cooperative dispositions and intentions thus increasing the likelihood of engaging in solid social relationships. In conclusion, in chimpanzees, as in humans, both play behavior and the signals that accompany play serve multiple functions according to the different age phases.

  2. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen R Ross

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  3. Specific image characteristics influence attitudes about chimpanzee conservation and use as pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephen R; Vreeman, Vivian M; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2011-01-01

    Chimpanzees are endangered in their native Africa but in the United States, they are housed not only in zoos and research centers but owned privately as pets and performers. In 2008, survey data revealed that the public is less likely to think that chimpanzees are endangered compared to other great apes, and that this is likely the result of media misportrayals in movies, television and advertisements. Here, we use an experimental survey paradigm with composite images of chimpanzees to determine the effects of specific image characteristics. We found that those viewing a photograph of a chimpanzee with a human standing nearby were 35.5% more likely to consider wild populations to be stable/healthy compared to those seeing the exact same picture without a human. Likewise, the presence of a human in the photograph increases the likelihood that they consider chimpanzees as appealing as a pet. We also found that respondents seeing images in which chimpanzees are shown in typically human settings (such as an office space) were more likely to perceive wild populations as being stable and healthy compared to those seeing chimpanzees in other contexts. These findings shed light on the way that media portrayals of chimpanzees influence public attitudes about this important and endangered species.

  4. Captive chimpanzee foraging in a social setting: a test of problem solving, flexibility, and spatial discounting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtycz, Laura M.; Ross, Stephen R.; Bonnie, Kristin E.

    2015-01-01

    In the wild, primates are selective over the routes that they take when foraging and seek out preferred or ephemeral food. Given this, we tested how a group of captive chimpanzees weighed the relative benefits and costs of foraging for food in their environment when a less-preferred food could be obtained with less effort than a more-preferred food. In this study, a social group of six zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could collect PVC tokens and exchange them with researchers for food rewards at one of two locations. Food preference tests had revealed that, for these chimpanzees, grapes were a highly-preferred food while carrot pieces were a less-preferred food. The chimpanzees were tested in three phases, each comprised of 30 thirty-minute sessions. In phases 1 and 3, if the chimpanzees exchanged a token at the location they collected them they received a carrot piece (no travel) or they could travel ≥10 m to exchange tokens for grapes at a second location. In phase 2, the chimpanzees had to travel for both rewards (≥10 m for carrot pieces, ≥15 m for grapes). The chimpanzees learned how to exchange tokens for food rewards, but there was individual variation in the time it took for them to make their first exchange and to discover the different exchange locations. Once all the chimpanzees were proficient at exchanging tokens, they exchanged more tokens for grapes (phase 3). However, when travel was required for both rewards (phase 2), the chimpanzees were less likely to work for either reward. Aside from the alpha male, all chimpanzees exchanged tokens for both reward types, demonstrating their ability to explore the available options. Contrary to our predictions, low-ranked individuals made more exchanges than high-ranked individuals, most likely because, in this protocol, chimpanzees could not monopolize the tokens or access to exchange locations. Although the chimpanzees showed a preference for exchanging tokens for their more-preferred food, they

  5. Social Learning and Culture in Child and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew

    2017-01-03

    A few decades ago, we knew next to nothing about the behavior of our closest animal relative, the chimpanzee, but long-term field studies have since revealed an undreamed-of richness in the diversity of their cultural traditions across Africa. These discoveries have been complemented by a substantial suite of experimental studies, now bridging to the wild through field experiments. These field and experimental studies, particularly those in which direct chimpanzee-child comparisons have been made, delineate a growing set of commonalities between the phenomena of social learning and culture in the lives of chimpanzees and humans. These commonalities in social learning inform our understanding of the evolutionary roots of the cultural propensities the species share. At the same time, such comparisons throw into clearer relief the unique features of the distinctive human capacity for cumulative cultural evolution, and new research has begun to probe the key psychological attributes that may explain it.

  6. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...

  7. 4,300-Year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology

    OpenAIRE

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The “Chimpanzee St...

  8. Chimpanzees help each other upon request.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Yamamoto

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees' targeted helping in a tool transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner's request on chimpanzees' targeted helping.We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool transfer events occurred predominantly following recipients' request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required help.These results provide further evidence for altruistic helping in chimpanzees in the absence of direct personal gain or even immediate reciprocation. Our findings additionally highlight the importance of request as a proximate mechanism motivating prosocial behavior in chimpanzees whether between kin or non-kin individuals and the possible confounding effect of dominance on the symmetry of such interactions. Finally, in contrast to humans, our study suggests that chimpanzees rarely perform acts of voluntary altruism. Voluntary altruism in chimpanzees is not necessarily prompted by simple observation of another's struggle to attain a goal

  9. Subjective assessment of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) personality: reliability and stability of trait ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Diane M

    2008-10-01

    A 46-item rating scale was used to obtain personality ratings from 75 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from 7 zoological parks. Factor analysis revealed five personality dimensions similar to those found in previous research on primate personality: Agreeableness, Dominance, Neuroticism, Extraversion and Intellect. There were significant sex and age differences in ratings on these dimensions, with males rated more highly on Dominance and older chimpanzees rated as more agreeable but less extraverted than younger chimpanzees. Interobserver agreement for most individual trait items was high, but tended to be less reliable for trait terms expressing more subtle social or cognitive abilities. Personality ratings for one zoo were found to be largely stable across a 3-year period, but highlighted the effects of environmental factors on the expression of personality in captive chimpanzees.

  10. Non-invasive genetic monitoring of wild central chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi Arandjelovic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An assessment of population size and structure is an important first step in devising conservation and management plans for endangered species. Many threatened animals are elusive, rare and live in habitats that prohibit directly counting individuals. For example, a well-founded estimate of the number of great apes currently living in the wild is lacking. Developing methods to obtain accurate population estimates for these species is a priority for their conservation management. Genotyping non-invasively collected faecal samples is an effective way of evaluating a species' population size without disruption, and can also reveal details concerning population structure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We opportunistically collected wild chimpanzee faecal samples for genetic capture-recapture analyses over a four-year period in a 132 km(2 area of Loango National Park, Gabon. Of the 444 samples, 46% yielded sufficient quantities of DNA for genotyping analysis and the consequent identification of 121 individuals. Using genetic capture-recapture, we estimate that 283 chimpanzees (range: 208-316 inhabited the research area between February 2005 and July 2008. Since chimpanzee males are patrilocal and territorial, we genotyped samples from males using variable Y-chromosome microsatellite markers and could infer that seven chimpanzee groups are present in the area. Genetic information, in combination with field data, also suggested the occurrence of repeated cases of intergroup violence and a probable group extinction. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The poor amplification success rate resulted in a limited number of recaptures and hence only moderate precision (38%, measured as the entire width of the 95% confidence interval, but this was still similar to the best results obtained using intensive nest count surveys of apes (40% to 63%. Genetic capture-recapture methods applied to apes can provide a considerable amount of novel information on

  11. Phylogeography of the sergeants Abudefduf sexfasciatus and A. vaigiensis reveals complex introgression patterns between two widespread and sympatric Indo-West Pacific reef fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Joris A M; Borsa, Philippe; Chen, Wei-Jen

    2017-05-01

    On evolutionary timescales, sea level oscillations lead to recurrent spatio-temporal variation in species distribution and population connectivity. In this situation, applying classical concepts of biogeography is challenging yet necessary to understand the mechanisms underlying biodiversity in highly diverse marine ecosystems such as coral reefs. We aimed at studying the outcomes of such complex biogeographic dynamics on reproductive isolation by sampling populations across a wide spatial range of a species-rich fish genus: the sergeants (Pomacentridae: Abudefduf). We generated a mutlilocus data set that included ten morpho-species from 32 Indo-West Pacific localities. We observed a pattern of mito-nuclear discordance in two common and widely distributed species: Abudefduf sexfasciatus and Abudefduf vaigiensis. The results showed three regional sublineages (Indian Ocean, Coral Triangle region, western Pacific) in A. sexfasciatus (0.6-1.5% divergence at cytb). The other species, A. vaigiensis, is polyphyletic and consists of three distinct genetic lineages (A, B and C) (9% divergence at cytb) whose geographic ranges overlap. Although A. vaigiensis A and A. sexfasciatus were found to be distinct based on nuclear information, A. vaigiensis A was found to be nested within A. sexfasciatus in the mitochondrial gene tree. A. sexfasciatus from the Coral Triangle region and A. vaigiensis A were not differentiated from each other at the mitochondrial locus. We then used coalescent-based simulation to characterize a spatially widespread but weak gene flow between the two species. We showed that these fishes are good candidates to investigate the evolutionary complexity of the discrepancies between phenotypic and genetic similarity in closely related species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Activity of a potent hepatitis C virus polymerase inhibitor in the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Ming; He, Yupeng; Lu, Liangjun; Lim, Hock Ben; Tripathi, Rakesh L; Middleton, Tim; Hernandez, Lisa E; Beno, David W A; Long, Michelle A; Kati, Warren M; Bosse, Todd D; Larson, Daniel P; Wagner, Rolf; Lanford, Robert E; Kohlbrenner, William E; Kempf, Dale J; Pilot-Matias, Tami J; Molla, Akhteruzzaman

    2007-12-01

    A-837093 is a potent and specific nonnucleoside inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. It possesses nanomolar potencies in both enzymatic and replicon-based cell culture assays. In rats and dogs this compound demonstrated an oral plasma half-life of greater than 7 h, and its bioavailability was >60%. In monkeys it had a half-life of 1.9 h and 15% bioavailability. Its antiviral efficacy was evaluated in two chimpanzees infected with HCV in a proof-of-concept study. The design included oral dosing of 30 mg per kg of body weight twice a day for 14 days, followed by a 14-day posttreatment observation. Maximum viral load reductions of 1.4 and 2.5 log(10) copies RNA/ml for genotype 1a- and 1b-infected chimpanzees, respectively, were observed within 2 days after the initiation of treatment. After this initial drop in the viral load, a rebound of plasma HCV RNA was observed in the genotype 1b-infected chimpanzee, while the genotype 1a-infected chimpanzee experienced a partial rebound that lasted throughout the treatment period. Clonal analysis of NS5B gene sequences derived from the plasma of A-837093-treated chimpanzees revealed the presence of several mutations associated with resistance to A-837093, including Y448H, G554D, and D559G in the genotype 1a-infected chimpanzee and C316Y and G554D in the genotype 1b-infected chimpanzee. The identification of resistance-associated mutations in both chimpanzees is consistent with the findings of in vitro selection studies, in which many of the same mutations were selected. These findings validate the antiviral efficacy and resistance development of benzothiadiazine HCV polymerase inhibitors in vivo.

  13. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) relational matching: playing by their own (analogical) rules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Timothy M; Kennedy, Erica Hoy

    2011-05-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been known to exhibit rudimentary abilities in analogical reasoning (Flemming, Beran, Thompson, Kleider, & Washburn, 2008; Gillian, Premack, & Woodruff, 1981; Haun & Call, 2009; Thompson & Oden, 2000; Thompson, Oden, & Boysen, 1997). With a wide array of individual differences, little can be concluded about the species' capacity for analogies, much less their strategies employed for solving such problems. In this study, we examined analogical strategies in 3 chimpanzees using a 3-dimensional search task (e.g., Kennedy & Fragaszy, 2008). Food items were hidden under 1 of 2 or 3 plastic cups of varying sizes. Subsequently, chimpanzees searched for food under the cup of the same relative size in their own set of cups--reasoning by analogy. Two chimpanzees initially appeared to fail the first relational phase of the task. Meta-analyses revealed, however, that they were instead using a secondary strategy not rewarded by the contingencies of the task--choosing on the basis of the same relative position in the sample. Although this was not the intended strategy of the task, it was nonetheless analogical. In subsequent phases of the task, chimpanzees eventually learned to shift their analogical reasoning strategy to match the reward contingencies of the task and successfully choose on the basis of relative size. This evidence not only provides support for the analogical ape hypothesis (Thompson & Oden, 2000), but also exemplifies how foundational conceptually mediated analogical behavior may be for the chimpanzee. 2011 APA, all rights reserved

  14. Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heissig, Florian; Krause, Johannes; Bryk, Jaroslaw; Khaitovich, Philipp; Enard, Wolfgang; Pääbo, Svante

    2005-01-01

    It has long been argued that changes in gene expression may provide an additional and crucial perspective on the evolutionary differences between humans and chimpanzees. To investigate how often expression differences seen in tissues are caused by sequence differences in the proximal promoters, we tested the expression activity in cultured cells of human and chimpanzee promoters from genes that differ in mRNA expression between human and chimpanzee tissues. Twelve promoters for which the corresponding gene had been shown to be differentially expressed between humans and chimpanzees in liver or brain were tested. Seven showed a significant difference in activity between the human promoter and the orthologous chimpanzee promoter in at least one of the two cell lines used. However, only three of them showed a difference in the same direction as in the tissues. Differences in proximal promoter activity are likely to be common between humans and chimpanzees, but are not linked in a simple fashion to gene-expression levels in tissues. This suggests that several genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees might be responsible for a single expression difference and thus that relevant expression differences between humans and chimpanzees will be difficult to predict from cell culture experiments or DNA sequences.

  15. Isolation and RFLP Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii in Free-Range Chickens (Gallus domesticus) in Grenada, West Indies, Revealed Widespread and Dominance of Clonal Type III Parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikweto, Alfred; Sharma, Ravindra N; Tiwari, Keshaw P; Verma, Shiv K; Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Jiang, Tiantian; Su, Chunlei; Kwok, Oliver C; Dubey, Jitender P

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of the present cross-sectional study were to isolate and genotype Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from Grenada, West Indies. Using the modified agglutination test, antibodies to T. gondii were found in 39 (26.9%) of 145 free-range chickens with titers of 25 in 7 chickens, 50 in 6 chickens, 100 in 2 chickens, and 200 or higher in 24 chickens. The hearts of the 39 seropositive chickens were bioassayed in mice; viable T. gondii was isolated from 20 and further propagated in cell culture. Genotyping of T. gondii DNA extracted from cell-cultured tachyzoites using the 10 PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers SAG1, SAG2, SAG3, BTUB, GRA6, c22-8, c29-2, L358, PK1, and Apico revealed 4 genotypes, including ToxoDB PCR-RFLP no. 2 (Type III), no. 7, no. 13, and no. 259 (new). These results indicated that T. gondii population genetics in free-range chickens seems to be moderately diverse with ToxoDB no. 2 (Type III) as the most frequent (15/20 = 75%) compared to other genotypes in Grenada.

  16. Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Pruett, John R.; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2017-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human–chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS). Here, we augment our prior CSRS sample with 25 zoo chimpanzees at three sites: combined N = 54. The CSRS demonstrated strong interrater reliability, and low-ranked chimpanzees, on average, displayed higher CSRS scores. The CSRS continues to discriminate variation in chimpanzee social responsiveness, and the association of higher scores with lower chimpanzee social standing has implications for the relationship between autistic traits and human social status. Continued comparative investigations of social responsiveness will enhance our understanding of underlying impairments in ASD, improve early diagnosis, and inform future therapies. PMID:25312279

  17. The importance of witnessed agency in chimpanzee social learning of tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    Social learning refers to individuals learning from others, including information gained through indirect social influences, such as the results of others' actions and changes in the physical environment. One method to determine the relative influence of these varieties of information is the 'ghost display', in which no model is involved, but subjects can watch the results that a model would produce. Previous research has shown mixed success by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) learning from ghost displays, with some studies suggesting learning only in relatively simple tasks. To explore whether the failure of chimpanzees to learn from a ghost display may be due to neophobia when tested singly or a requirement for more detailed information for complex tasks, we presented ghost displays of a tool-use task to chimpanzees in their home social groups. Previous tests have revealed that chimpanzees are unable to easily solve this tool-use task asocially, or learn from ghost displays when tested singly, but can learn after observing conspecifics in a group setting. In the present study, despite being tested in a group situation, chimpanzees still showed no success in solving the task via trial-and-error learning, in a baseline condition, nor in learning the task from the ghost display. Simply being in the presence of their group mates and being shown the affordances of the task was not sufficient to encourage learning. Following this, in an escalating series of tests, we examined the chimpanzees' ability to learn from a demonstration by models with agency: (1) a human; (2) video footage of a chimpanzee; (3) a live chimpanzee model. In the first two of these 'social' conditions, subjects showed limited success. By the end of the final open diffusion phase, which was run to determine whether this new behavior would be transmitted among the group after seeing a successful chimpanzee use the task, 83% of chimpanzees were now successful. This confirmed a marked overall effect of

  18. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Vale, Gillian; Harrison, Rachel A; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Whiten, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing" models. In each of four captive groups, either a single high-rank (HR, n = 2) or a low-rank (LR, n = 2) chimpanzee model was trained on one method of opening a two-action puzzle-box, before demonstrating the trained method in a group context. This was followed by 8 hr of group-wide, open-access to the puzzle-box. Successful manipulations and observers of each manipulation were recorded. Barnard's exact tests showed that individuals in the LR groups used the seeded method as their first-choice option at significantly above chance levels, whereas those in the HR groups did not. Furthermore, individuals in the LR condition used the seeded method on their first attempt significantly more often than those in the HR condition. A network-based diffusion analysis (NBDA) revealed that the best supported statistical models were those in which social transmission occurred only in groups with subordinate models. Finally, we report an innovation by a subordinate individual that built cumulatively on existing methods of opening the puzzle-box and was subsequently copied by a dominant observer. These findings illustrate that chimpanzees are motivated to copy rewarding novel behaviors that are demonstrated by subordinate individuals and that, in some cases, social transmission may be constrained by high-rank demonstrators. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The influence of ecology on chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) cultural behavior: a case study of five Ugandan chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Potts, Kevin B; Krupenye, Christopher; Byrne, Maisie-Rose; Mackworth-Young, Constance; McGrew, William C; Reynolds, Vernon; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2012-11-01

    The influence of ecology on the development of behavioral traditions in animals is controversial, particularly for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), for which it is difficult to rule out environmental influences as a cause of widely observed community-specific behavioral differences. Here, we investigated 3 potential scenarios that could explain the natural variation in a key extractive tool behavior, "fluid-dip," among several communities of chimpanzees of the Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii subspecies in Uganda. We compared data from previous behavioral ecological studies, field experiments, and long-term records of chimpanzee tool-using behavior. We focused on the quality of the available food, dietary preferences, and tool sets of 5 different communities, and carried out a standardized field experiment to test systematically for the presence of fluid-dip in 4 of these communities. Our results revealed major differences in habitat, available diet, and tool use behavior between geographically close communities. However, these differences in ecology and feeding behavior failed to explain the differences in tool use across communities. We conclude that ecological variables may lead both to innovation and loss of behavioral traditions, while contributing little to their transmission within the community. Instead, as soon as a behavioral tradition is established, sociocognitive factors likely play a key maintenance role as long as the ecological conditions do not change sufficiently for the tradition to be abandoned.

  20. Comparative Serum Challenges Show Divergent Patterns of Gene Expression and Open Chromatin in Human and Chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzollo, Jason; Nielsen, William J; Shibata, Yoichiro; Safi, Alexias; Crawford, Gregory E; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2018-03-01

    Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer. Here, we explored genetic differences between humans and chimpanzees in a well-defined experimental assay that mimics gene expression changes that happen during cancer progression: A fibroblast serum challenge. We used this assay with fibroblasts isolated from humans and chimpanzees to explore species-specific differences in gene expression and chromatin state with RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. Our data reveal that human fibroblasts increase expression of genes associated with wound healing and cancer pathways; in contrast, chimpanzee gene expression changes are not concentrated around particular functional categories. Chromatin accessibility dramatically increases in human fibroblasts, yet decreases in chimpanzee cells during the serum response. Many regions of opening and closing chromatin are in close proximity to genes encoding transcription factors or genes involved in wound healing processes, further supporting the link between changes in activity of regulatory elements and changes in gene expression. Together, these expression and open chromatin data show that humans and chimpanzees have dramatically different responses to the same physiological stressor, and how a core physiological process can evolve quickly over relatively short evolutionary time scales.

  1. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.

  2. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, M.; Votýpka, J.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, E.; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, C.; Modrý, D.; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282 ISSN 0020-7519 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 4.242, year: 2015

  3. Chimpanzee culture extends beyond matrilineal family units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mundry, Roger; Cronin, Katherine A; Bodamer, Mark; Haun, Daniel B M

    2017-06-19

    The 'grooming handclasp' is one of the most well-established cultural traditions in chimpanzees. A recent study by Wrangham et al.[1] reduced the cultural scope of grooming-handclasp behavior by showing that grooming-handclasp style convergence is "explained by matrilineal relationship rather than conformity" [1]. Given that we previously reported cultural differences in grooming-handclasp style preferences in captive chimpanzees [2], we tested the alternative view posed by Wrangham et al.[1] in the chimpanzee populations that our original results were based on. Using the same outcome variable as Wrangham et al.[1] - the proportion of high-arm grooming featuring palm-to-palm clasping - we found that matrilineal relationships explained neither within-group homogeneity nor between-group heterogeneity, thereby corroborating our original conclusion that grooming-handclasp behavior can represent a group-level cultural tradition in chimpanzees. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Toshisada Nishida (1941–2011: Chimpanzee Rapport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans B. M. de Waal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Frans de Waal pays tribute to pioneering primatologist Toshisada Nishida, who transformed our understanding of chimpanzee behavior and culture and galvanized efforts to ensure their conservation.

  5. Hyperprogesteronemia in response to Vitex fischeri consumption in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery Thompson, Melissa; Wilson, Michael L; Gobbo, Grace; Muller, Martin N; Pusey, Anne E

    2008-11-01

    Chimpanzees in Gombe National Park consume fruits of Vitex fischeri during a short annual fruiting season. This fruit species is a member of a genus widely studied for phytoestrogen composition and varied physiological effects. One particularly well-studied species, V. agnus-castus, is noted for its documented effects on female reproductive function, evidenced in increased progesterone levels and consequent regulation of luteal function. We examined reproductive hormone levels in both male and female chimpanzees during a 6-week period of intense V. fischeri consumption. V. fischeri consumption was associated with an abrupt and dramatic increase in urinary progesterone levels of female chimpanzees to levels far exceeding the normal range of variation. Female estrogen levels were not significantly impacted, nor were male testosterone levels. These are some of the first data indicating that phytochemicals in the natural diet of a primate can have significant impacts on the endocrine system, though the fluctuating nature of chimpanzee diet and reproductive function does not allow us to determine whether the effects observed during this short period had a broader positive or negative impact on female fertility. Given the widespread use of various Vitex species by African primates and the as-yet-undescribed phytochemical properties of these species, we predict that our observations may be indicative of a broader phenomenon. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees

    OpenAIRE

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G.

    2015-01-01

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer...

  7. Subspecies identification of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes (Primates: Hominidae from the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago, Chile, using mitochondrial DNA sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Vega

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Natural populations of Chimpanzees Pan troglodytes are declining because of hunting and illegal live animal trafficking. Four subspecies of Chimpanzee have been reported: Pan troglodytes troglodytes, P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. ellioti, which have remained geographically separated by natural barriers such as the rivers Niger, Sanaga and Ubangi in central Africa. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA has been used for the determination of these subspecies, which indirectly can also suggest their geographic origin. It was decided to identify the subspecies and the geographic origin of three captive chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile, by analyzing their mitochondrial DNA. DNA was extracted from the saliva of three adult chimpanzees (two males and one female. After the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial hypervariable region (HVI, a phylogenetic tree was constructed using mitochondrial sequences of known Pan troglodytes subspecies. Molecular phylogeny analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are likely to belong to three different subspecies: P.t. schweinfurthii, P.t. verus and P.t. troglodytes. Identification of subspecies of the three chimpanzees of the National Zoo of the Metropolitan Park of Santiago (Chile was possible due to mtDNA analysis. Future identification of chimpanzees will allow the development of a studbook for the chimpanzee subspecies in other Latin American zoos.

  8. Spontaneous altruism by chimpanzees and young children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Warneken

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available People often act on behalf of others. They do so without immediate personal gain, at cost to themselves, and even toward unfamiliar individuals. Many researchers have claimed that such altruism emanates from a species-unique psychology not found in humans' closest living evolutionary relatives, such as the chimpanzee. In favor of this view, the few experimental studies on altruism in chimpanzees have produced mostly negative results. In contrast, we report experimental evidence that chimpanzees perform basic forms of helping in the absence of rewards spontaneously and repeatedly toward humans and conspecifics. In two comparative studies, semi-free ranging chimpanzees helped an unfamiliar human to the same degree as did human infants, irrespective of being rewarded (experiment 1 or whether the helping was costly (experiment 2. In a third study, chimpanzees helped an unrelated conspecific gain access to food in a novel situation that required subjects to use a newly acquired skill on behalf of another individual. These results indicate that chimpanzees share crucial aspects of altruism with humans, suggesting that the roots of human altruism may go deeper than previous experimental evidence suggested.

  9. Translating chimpanzee personality to humans: Investigating the transportability of chimpanzee-derived personality scales to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D; Sauvigné, Katheryn C; Hopkins, William D

    2016-06-01

    There is a growing interest in the study of personality in chimpanzees with repeated findings of a similar structure of personality in apes to that found in humans. To date, however, the direct translational value of instruments used to assess chimpanzee personality to humans has yet to be explicitly tested. As such, in the current study we sought to determine the transportability of factor analytically-derived chimpanzee personality scales to humans in a large human sample (N = 301). Human informants reporting on target individuals they knew well completed chimpanzee-derived and human-derived measures of personality from the two most widely studied models of human personality: Big Five and Big Three. The correspondence between informant-reported chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales was then investigated. Results indicated high convergence for corresponding scales across most chimpanzee- and human-derived personality scales. Findings from the current study provide evidence that chimpanzee-derived scales translate well to humans and operate quite similarly to the established human-derived personality scales in a human sample. This evidence of transportability lends support to the translational nature of chimpanzee personality research suggesting clear relevance of this growing literature to humans. Am. J. Primatol. 78:601-609, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Brief Report: Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness Scale (CSRS) Detects Individual Variation in Social Responsiveness for Captive Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faughn, Carley; Marrus, Natasha; Shuman, Jeremy; Ross, Stephen R.; Constantino, John N.; Pruett, John R., Jr.; Povinelli, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Comparative studies of social responsiveness, a core impairment in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), will enhance our understanding of typical and atypical social behavior. We previously reported a quantitative, cross-species (human-chimpanzee) social responsiveness measure, which included the development of the Chimpanzee Social Responsiveness…

  11. 4,300-year-old chimpanzee sites and the origins of percussive stone technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader, Julio; Barton, Huw; Gillespie, Jason; Harris, Jack; Kuhn, Steven; Tyler, Robert; Boesch, Christophe

    2007-02-27

    Archaeological research in the African rainforest reveals unexpected results in the search for the origins of hominoid technology. The ancient Panin sites from Côte d'Ivoire constitute the only evidence of prehistoric ape behavior known to date anywhere in the world. Recent archaeological work has yielded behaviorally modified stones, dated by chronometric means to 4,300 years of age, lodging starch residue suggestive of prehistoric dietary practices by ancient chimpanzees. The "Chimpanzee Stone Age" pre-dates the advent of settled farming villages in this part of the African rainforest and suggests that percussive material culture could have been inherited from an common human-chimpanzee clade, rather than invented by hominins, or have arisen by imitation, or resulted from independent technological convergence.

  12. Bonobos fall within the genomic variation of chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Fischer

    Full Text Available To gain insight into the patterns of genetic variation and evolutionary relationships within and between bonobos and chimpanzees, we sequenced 150,000 base pairs of nuclear DNA divided among 15 autosomal regions as well as the complete mitochondrial genomes from 20 bonobos and 58 chimpanzees. Except for western chimpanzees, we found poor genetic separation of chimpanzees based on sample locality. In contrast, bonobos consistently cluster together but fall as a group within the variation of chimpanzees for many of the regions. Thus, while chimpanzees retain genomic variation that predates bonobo-chimpanzee speciation, extensive lineage sorting has occurred within bonobos such that much of their genome traces its ancestry back to a single common ancestor that postdates their origin as a group separate from chimpanzees.

  13. Detection and characterization of two chimpanzee polyomavirus genotypes from different subspecies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Deuzing (Ilona); Z. Fagrouch (Zahra); M.J. Groenewoud (Marlous); H. Niphuis (Henk); I. Kondova (Ivanela); W. Bogers (Willy); E.J. Verschoor (Ernst)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe complete nucleotide sequences of three chimpanzee polyomavirus genetic variants were determined. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the viruses form two different genotypes of ChPyV. Comparison with other primate polyomaviruses revealed a putative agnogene, and an unusually long

  14. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of 'Laugh Faces' when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates' open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  15. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2015-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution. PMID:26659967

  16. Chimpanzee Food Preferences, Associative Learning, and the Origins of Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J.; Hopper, Lydia M.; de Waal, Frans B.M.; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F.

    2016-01-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  17. Chimpanzee food preferences, associative learning, and the origins of cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Sayers, Ken; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offer alternate explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, without invoking the understanding of cooking as a process. We discuss broader issues surrounding the use of chimpanzees in modeling hominid behavior and understanding aspects of human evolution.

  18. Fournier's gangrene syndrome in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okeson, Danelle M; Marrow, Judilee; Carpenter, James W; Armbrust, Laura J; Ragsdale, John M; Klocke, Emily

    2010-03-01

    A 37-yr-old male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) was evaluated for intermittent diarrhea, scrotal swelling, and lethargy of 2 days duration. Physical examination revealed marked swelling of the scrotum and perineal tissues with mild pitting edema and crepitus. Computed tomography revealed a mixed gas and soft-tissue density extending from the caudal ventral subcutaneous tissues caudally to the scrotum and perineal tissues. Surgical exploration and castration were performed to establish drainage, and culture revealed a polymicrobial infection. A diagnosis of scrotal and fascial plane abscessation consistent with Fournier's gangrene was made. Although castration with open drainage was performed, the animal died 36 hr after surgery. Postmortem examination and histopathology revealed necrotizing fasciitis of the penis, vaginal tunic, and subcutaneous perineal and perianal tissues.

  19. Gas solubilities widespread applications

    CERN Document Server

    Gerrard, William

    1980-01-01

    Gas Solubilities: Widespread Applications discusses several topics concerning the various applications of gas solubilities. The first chapter of the book reviews Henr's law, while the second chapter covers the effect of temperature on gas solubility. The third chapter discusses the various gases used by Horiuti, and the following chapters evaluate the data on sulfur dioxide, chlorine data, and solubility data for hydrogen sulfide. Chapter 7 concerns itself with solubility of radon, thoron, and actinon. Chapter 8 tackles the solubilities of diborane and the gaseous hydrides of groups IV, V, and

  20. An Exon-Based Comparative Variant Analysis Pipeline to Study the Scale and Role of Frameshift and Nonsense Mutation in the Human-Chimpanzee Divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GongXin Yu

    2009-01-01

    important biological processes such as T cell lineage development, the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, and antigen induced cell death. A “less-is-more” model was previously established to illustrate the role of the gene inactivation and disruptions during human evolution. Here this analysis suggested a different model where the chimpanzee-specific exon-disrupting mutations may act as additional evolutionary force that drove the human-chimpanzee divergence. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of sequencing errors in the chimpanzee and human genome sequences and further illustrated that they could be corrected without resequencing.

  1. Evaluation of lung immunity in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bice, D.E.; Harris, D.L.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Bowen, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defenses in the lung can be studied in several animal species. To assure that the data obtained can be extrapolated to man, it is essential that the development of lung immunity is similar in the experimental animal selected and in humans. Because of the similarity of immune responses in chimpanzees and in humans, the development of immunity in the chimpanzee after lung immunization was evaluated. The results from the chimpanzees were qualitatively the same as those from previous studies in which single lung lobes of dogs were immunized. It was concluded that immunotoxicology data obtained in dogs can be used to estimate the effects of inhaled pollutants on the immune defense mechanism in the human lung

  2. Travel fosters tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Neumann, Christof

    2016-07-19

    Ecological variation influences the appearance and maintenance of tool use in animals, either due to necessity or opportunity, but little is known about the relative importance of these two factors. Here, we combined long-term behavioural data on feeding and travelling with six years of field experiments in a wild chimpanzee community. In the experiments, subjects engaged with natural logs, which contained energetically valuable honey that was only accessible through tool use. Engagement with the experiment was highest after periods of low fruit availability involving more travel between food patches, while instances of actual tool-using were significantly influenced by prior travel effort only. Additionally, combining data from the main chimpanzee study communities across Africa supported this result, insofar as groups with larger travel efforts had larger tool repertoires. Travel thus appears to foster tool use in wild chimpanzees and may also have been a driving force in early hominin technological evolution.

  3. Controlled studies of chimpanzee cultural transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2009-01-01

    Following the first long-term field studies of chimpanzees in the 1960s, researchers began to suspect that chimpanzees from different African populations varied in their behavior, and that some of these variations were transmitted through social learning, thus suggesting culture. Additional reports of chimpanzee culture have since accumulated, which involve an increasing amount of behavioral variation that has no obvious ecological or genetic explanation. To date, close to 50 cultural variants have been reported, including subsistence behavior, tool-use, communication signals, and grooming patterns. Nevertheless, field studies lack the experimental controls and manipulations necessary to conclusively demonstrate that the observed variation results from differential invention and social transmission of behavior. This would require that behavioral variants have been learned from others, a question best addressed in a controlled experimental setting. The following chapter details a series of experimental studies at Yerkes National Primate Research Center of Emory University. In each case, the behavior of two captive groups (each N=12 individuals) was compared before and after the introduction of a novel foraging behavior by a trained conspecific "inventor." The studies were designed to investigate (i) the conditions under which chimpanzees learn from one another, (ii) how behaviors are transmitted, (iii) how cultures are maintained over generations. The results emphasize the importance of integrating both fieldwork and experimental approaches. Previous studies have reported deficits in chimpanzees' cultural capacities, but did so after testing them with human models, which are largely irrelevant to the problem at hand. A representative understanding of culture can only be gained when efforts are made to create a naturalistic learning environment in which chimpanzees have opportunities to learn spontaneously from conspecifics in a familiar social setting.

  4. Extensive X-linked adaptive evolution in central chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Qian, Yu; Bataillon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    on the dominance of beneficial (adaptive) and deleterious mutations. Here we capture and sequence the complete exomes of 12 chimpanzees and present the largest set of protein-coding polymorphism to date. We report extensive adaptive evolution specifically targeting the X chromosome of chimpanzees with as much...... to humans, we find that purifying selection is stronger on the X chromosome than on the autosomes in chimpanzees. We therefore conclude that most adaptive mutations are recessive. We also document dramatically reduced synonymous diversity in the chimpanzee X chromosome relative to autosomes and stronger...... purifying selection than for the human X chromosome. If similar processes were operating in the human-chimpanzee ancestor as in central chimpanzees today, our results therefore provide an explanation for the much-discussed reduction in the human-chimpanzee divergence at the X chromosome....

  5. A Longitudinal Study on Feeding Behaviour and Activity Patterns of Released Chimpanzees in Conkouati-Douli National Park, Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Ross

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild chimpanzee populations are still declining due to logging, disease transmission and hunting. The bushmeat trade frequently leads to an increase in the number of orphaned primates. HELP Congo was the first project to successfully release wild-born orphan chimpanzees into an existing chimpanzee habitat. A collection of post monitoring data over 16 years now offers the unique opportunity to investigate possible behavioural adaptations in these chimpanzees. We investigated the feeding and activity patterns in eight individuals via focal observation techniques from 1997–1999 and 2001–2005. Our results revealed a decline in the number of fruit and insect species in the diet of released chimpanzees over the years, whereas within the same period of time, the number of consumed seed species increased. Furthermore, we found a decline in time spent travelling, but an increase in time spent on social activities, such as grooming, as individuals matured. In conclusion, the observed changes in feeding and activity patterns seem to reflect important long-term behavioural and ecological adaptations in wild-born orphan released chimpanzees, demonstrating that the release of chimpanzees can be successful, even if it takes time for full adaptation.

  6. Chimpanzees create and modify probe tools functionally: A study with zoo-housed chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Tennie, Claudio; Ross, Stephen R; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2015-02-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use tools to probe for out-of-reach food, both in the wild and in captivity. Beyond gathering appropriately-sized materials to create tools, chimpanzees also perform secondary modifications in order to create an optimized tool. In this study, we recorded the behavior of a group of zoo-housed chimpanzees when presented with opportunities to use tools to probe for liquid foods in an artificial termite mound within their enclosure. Previous research with this group of chimpanzees has shown that they are proficient at gathering materials from within their environment in order to create tools to probe for the liquid food within the artificial mound. Extending beyond this basic question, we first asked whether they only made and modified probe tools when it was appropriate to do so (i.e. when the mound was baited with food). Second, by collecting continuous data on their behavior, we also asked whether the chimpanzees first (intentionally) modified their tools prior to probing for food or whether such modifications occurred after tool use, possibly as a by-product of chewing and eating the food from the tools. Following our predictions, we found that tool modification predicted tool use; the chimpanzees began using their tools within a short delay of creating and modifying them, and the chimpanzees performed more tool modifying behaviors when food was available than when they could not gain food through the use of probe tools. We also discuss our results in terms of the chimpanzees' acquisition of the skills, and their flexibility of tool use and learning. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. From forest to farm: systematic review of cultivar feeding by chimpanzees--management implications for wildlife in anthropogenic landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockings, Kimberley J; McLennan, Matthew R

    2012-01-01

    Crop-raiding is a major source of conflict between people and wildlife globally, impacting local livelihoods and impeding conservation. Conflict mitigation strategies that target problematic wildlife behaviours such as crop-raiding are notoriously difficult to develop for large-bodied, cognitively complex species. Many crop-raiders are generalist feeders. In more ecologically specialised species crop-type selection is not random and evidence-based management requires a good understanding of species' ecology and crop feeding habits. Comprehensive species-wide studies of crop consumption by endangered wildlife are lacking but are important for managing human-wildlife conflict. We conducted a comprehensive literature search of crop feeding records by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), a ripe-fruit specialist. We assessed quantitatively patterns of crop selection in relation to species-specific feeding behaviour, agricultural exposure, and crop availability. Crop consumption by chimpanzees is widespread in tropical Africa. Chimpanzees were recorded to eat a considerable range of cultivars (51 plant parts from 36 species). Crop part selection reflected a species-typical preference for fruit. Crops widely distributed in chimpanzee range countries were eaten at more sites than sparsely distributed crops. We identified 'high' and 'low' conflict crops according to their attractiveness to chimpanzees, taking account of their importance as cash crops and/or staple foods to people. Most (86%) high conflict crops were fruits, compared to 13% of low conflict crops. Some widely farmed cash or staple crops were seldom or never eaten by chimpanzees. Information about which crops are most frequently consumed and which are ignored has enormous potential for aiding on-the-ground stakeholders (i.e. farmers, wildlife managers, and conservation and agricultural extension practitioners) develop sustainable wildlife management schemes for ecologically specialised and protected species in

  8. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Jirků

    2015-12-01

    Finally, we demonstrated that the mandrill serum was able to efficiently lyse T. b. brucei and T. b. rhodesiense, and to some extent T. b. gambiense, while the chimpanzee serum failed to lyse any of these subspecies.

  9. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Schel, Anne Marijke; Langergraber, Kevin; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data

  10. 'Adoption' by maternal siblings in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    Full Text Available The adoption of unrelated orphaned infants is something chimpanzees and humans have in common. Providing parental care has fitness implications for both the adopter and orphan, and cases of adoption have thus been cited as evidence for a shared origin of an altruistic behaviour. We provide new data on adoptions in the free-living Sonso chimpanzee community in Uganda, together with an analysis of published data from other long-term field sites. As a default pattern, we find that orphan chimpanzees do not become adopted by adult group members but wherever possible associate with each other, usually as maternal sibling pairs. This occurs even if both partners are still immature, with older individuals effectively becoming 'child household heads'. Adoption of orphans by unrelated individuals does occur but usually only if no maternal siblings or other relatives are present and only after significant delays. In conclusion, following the loss of their mother, orphaned chimpanzees preferentially associate along pre-existing social bonds, which are typically strongest amongst maternal siblings.

  11. Gestation period and twinning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    PEACOCK, L J; ROGERS, C M

    1959-04-10

    The length of the gestation period in 118 births in a colony of chimpanzees was found to be 226.8 days, with a standard deviation of 13.3 and a range of 196 to 260 days. Six pairs of twins were born in 120 parturitions; thus the apparent twinning rate is higher than that in man.

  12. Bipedal tool use strengthens chimpanzee hand preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braccini, Stephanie; Lambeth, Susan; Schapiro, Steve

    2010-01-01

    The degree to which non-human primate behavior is lateralized, at either individual or population levels, remains controversial. We investigated the relationship between hand preference and posture during tool use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) during bipedal tool use. We experimentally induced...

  13. Deadly Respiratory Disease in Wild Chimpanzees

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-04-19

    Dr. Tony Goldberg, Professor of Epidemiology at the School of Veterinary Medicine and Associate Director for Research at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Global Health Institute, discusses an outbreak of rhinovirus C in chimpanzees in Uganda.  Created: 4/19/2018 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/19/2018.

  14. Hierarchy and social status in Budongo chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2004-04-01

    The status hierarchy is fundamental in the lives of male chimpanzees. This study describes the dominance interactions and social status among adult male chimpanzees of the Sonso community in the Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, during the period that they were first studied (1994 and 1995). Social dominance is typically measured using the behaviour of either the subordinate or the dominant individual, but a relationship is dependent on the behaviour of both parties and this study explicitly used both subordinate and dominant behaviours to investigate the status hierarchy. Among adult males of the Sonso community, agonistic interactions occurred at a low rate and pant-grunts were rare, but males could be ranked into separate hierarchies of agonistic dominance and pant-grunting (labelled 'respect') using ratios of behaviour performed/behaviour received. These hierarchies were combined to form a single hierarchy of social status that divided the males among five distinct status levels. The highest status level was held by an alliance between two males who replaced the previous alpha male during the first part of the study. Neither male in this alliance partnership pant-grunted to the other, although the reason for cooperative behaviour was unclear. Although the nominally beta male was treated as such by other adult males, he achieved surprisingly little mating success. Budongo Forest chimpanzees do not warrant the sometimes-expressed view that they are non-aggressive and peaceable and the broad pattern of their status interactions matches with that seen in other chimpanzee populations.

  15. Sexual exchange relationships in captive chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemelrijk, C.K.; Van Laere, G.J.; Van Hooff, J.A.R.A.M.

    1992-01-01

    In a group of captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), we studied whether females received more social benefits from males when they were in oestrus than at other times and whether males distributed their beneficial acts especially to females with whom they mated more frequently. When in oestrus,

  16. Wild chimpanzees are infected by Trypanosoma brucei

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků, Milan; Votýpka, Jan; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Kriegová, Eva; Vodička, R.; Lankester, F.; Leendertz, S. A. J.; Wittig, R. M.; Boesch, C.; Modrý, David; Ayala, F. J.; Leendertz, F. H.; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2015), s. 277-282 ISSN 2213-2244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316304 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Trypanosomes * Chimpanzee * Non-human primates * Transmission * Diagnostics Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  17. Chimpanzees, cooking, and a more comparative psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Hopper, Lydia M; de Waal, Frans B M; Brosnan, Sarah F; Sayers, Ken

    2016-06-01

    A recent report suggested that chimpanzees demonstrate the cognitive capacities necessary to understand cooking (Warneken & Rosati, 2015). We offered alternative explanations and mechanisms that could account for the behavioral responses of those chimpanzees, and questioned the manner in which the data were used to examine human evolution (Beran, Hopper, de Waal, Sayers, & Brosnan, 2015). Two commentaries suggested either that we were overly critical of the original report's claims and methodology (Rosati & Warneken, 2016), or that, contrary to our statements, early biological thinkers contributed little to questions concerning the evolutionary importance of cooking (Wrangham, 2016). In addition, both commentaries took issue with our treatment of chimpanzee referential models in human evolutionary studies. Our response offers points of continued disagreement as well as points of conciliation. We view Warneken and Rosati's general conclusions as a case of affirming the consequent-a logical conundrum in which, in this case, a demonstration of a partial list of the underlying abilities required for a cognitive trait/suite (understanding of cooking) are suggested as evidence for that ability. And although we strongly concur with both Warneken and Rosati (2015) and Wrangham (2016) that chimpanzee research is invaluable and essential to understanding humanness, it can only achieve its potential via the holistic inclusion of all available evidence-including that from other animals, evolutionary theory, and the fossil and archaeological records.

  18. Chimpanzees return favors at a personal cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelz, Martin; Grueneisen, Sebastian; Kabalak, Alihan; Jost, Jürgen; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-07-11

    Humans regularly provide others with resources at a personal cost to themselves. Chimpanzees engage in some cooperative behaviors in the wild as well, but their motivational underpinnings are unclear. In three experiments, chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) always chose between an option delivering food both to themselves and a partner and one delivering food only to themselves. In one condition, a conspecific partner had just previously taken a personal risk to make this choice available. In another condition, no assistance from the partner preceded the subject's decision. Chimpanzees made significantly more prosocial choices after receiving their partner's assistance than when no assistance was given (experiment 1) and, crucially, this was the case even when choosing the prosocial option was materially costly for the subject (experiment 2). Moreover, subjects appeared sensitive to the risk of their partner's assistance and chose prosocially more often when their partner risked losing food by helping (experiment 3). These findings demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees are willing to incur a material cost to deliver rewards to a conspecific, but only if that conspecific previously assisted them, and particularly when this assistance was risky. Some key motivations involved in human cooperation thus may have deeper phylogenetic roots than previously suspected.

  19. Skewed matrilineal genetic composition in a small wild chimpanzee community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Makoto K; Hayakawa, Sachiko; Fujita, Shiho; Sugiyama, Yukimaru; Saitou, Naruya

    2009-01-01

    Maternal kinship is important in primate societies because it affects individual behaviour as well as the sustainability of populations. All members of the Bossou chimpanzee community are descended from 8 individuals (herein referred to as original adults) who were already adults or subadults when field observations were initiated in 1976 and whose genetic relationships were unknown. Sequencing of the control region on the maternally inherited mtDNA revealed that 4 (1 male and 3 females) of the 8 original adults shared an identical haplotype. We investigated the effects of the skewed distribution of mtDNA haplotypes on the following two outcomes. First, we demonstrated that the probability of mtDNA haplotype extinction would be increased under such a skewed composition in a small community. Second, the ratio of potential mating candidates to competitors is likely to decrease if chimpanzees become aware of maternal kinship and avoid incest. We estimated that the magnitude of the decrease in the ratio is 10 times greater in males than in females. Here we demonstrate a scenario in which this matrilineal skewness in a small community accelerates extinction of mtDNA haplotype, which will make it more difficult to find a suitable mate within the community. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Chaînes opératoires and resource-exploitation strategies in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) nut cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Susana; Cunha, Eugénia; Sousa, Cláudia; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2008-07-01

    We apply archaeological methods to extend our knowledge of chimpanzee material culture. The chaîne opératoire conceptual framework, as introduced by ethnography, established technology as a phased process. Prehistoric archaeology adopted this concept to elucidate technological variability in tool-making procedures, based on knowledge of tool functions or subsistence patterns. We focused on the detection of operational sequences by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) when nut cracking with lithic implements at the sites of Bossou and Diecké, Guinea, West Africa. Thus, while it has recently been claimed that chimpanzees leave behind recognizable assemblages of stone hammers that can be morphologically distinguished from Oldowan hammers, this is the first study to focus specifically on the existence of operational sequences during the utilization of stone tools by wild chimpanzees. By combining primatological and archaeological methods and examining ecological areas inhabited by different chimpanzee groups, we sought technological variability and identified variables influencing regional diversity in tool typology and technology. We compared three case studies: (1) Bossou-direct recording of experimental nut-cracking sessions; (2) Bossou- direct and indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild; (3) Diecké-indirect monitoring of nut-cracking sites in the wild. Results suggest that chimpanzees perform sequences of repeated tool transport and nut cracking. Data show discrimination of tool functions based on tool features. We identified the most technologically complex tool for nut cracking, which was composed of four stones. We found regional diversity in chimpanzee stone assemblages. Raw-material type and tool mobility constrain technological development in human and nonhuman primates. Spatial analysis of tool distribution indicates a pattern of resource-exploitation strategy, revealing affinities with Oldowan.

  1. Assessing chimpanzee personality and subjective well-being in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Hong, Kyung-Won; Inoue, Eiji; Udono, Toshifumi; Ochiai, Tomomi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi; King, James E

    2009-04-01

    We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies, older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not affected by the culture of the raters.

  2. Signs of mood and anxiety disorders in chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope R Ferdowsian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In humans, traumatic experiences are sometimes followed by psychiatric disorders. In chimpanzees, studies have demonstrated an association between traumatic events and the emergence of behavioral disturbances resembling posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and depression. We addressed the following central question: Do chimpanzees develop posttraumatic symptoms, in the form of abnormal behaviors, which cluster into syndromes similar to those described in human mood and anxiety disorders? METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In phase 1 of this study, we accessed case reports of chimpanzees who had been reportedly subjected to traumatic events, such as maternal separation, social isolation, experimentation, or similar experiences. We applied and tested DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and major depression to published case reports of 20 chimpanzees identified through PrimateLit. Additionally, using the DSM-IV criteria and ethograms as guides, we developed behaviorally anchored alternative criteria that were applied to the case reports. A small number of chimpanzees in the case studies met DSM-IV criteria for PTSD and depression. Measures of inter-rater reliability, including Fleiss' kappa and percentage agreement, were higher with use of the alternative criteria for PTSD and depression. In phase 2, the alternative criteria were applied to chimpanzees living in wild sites in Africa (n = 196 and chimpanzees living in sanctuaries with prior histories of experimentation, orphanage, illegal seizure, or violent human conflict (n = 168. In phase 2, 58% of chimpanzees living in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for depression, compared with 3% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04, and 44% of chimpanzees in sanctuaries met the set of alternative criteria for PTSD, compared with 0.5% of chimpanzees in the wild (p = 0.04. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Chimpanzees display behavioral clusters similar to PTSD and depression in their key

  3. DNA recovery from wild chimpanzee tools.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona A Stewart

    Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of wild chimpanzee behaviour stems from fewer than 10 long-term field sites. This bias limits studies to a potentially unrepresentative set of communities known to show great behavioural diversity on small geographic scales. Here, we introduce a new genetic approach to bridge the gap between behavioural material evidence in unhabituated chimpanzees and genetic advances in the field of primatology. The use of DNA analyses has revolutionised archaeological and primatological fields, whereby extraction of DNA from non-invasively collected samples allows researchers to reconstruct behaviour without ever directly observing individuals. We used commercially available forensic DNA kits to show that termite-fishing by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii leaves behind detectable chimpanzee DNA evidence on tools. We then quantified the recovered DNA, compared the yield to that from faecal samples, and performed an initial assessment of mitochondrial and microsatellite markers to identify individuals. From 49 termite-fishing tools from the Issa Valley research site in western Tanzania, we recovered an average of 52 pg/μl chimpanzee DNA, compared to 376.2 pg/μl in faecal DNA extracts. Mitochondrial DNA haplotypes could be assigned to 41 of 49 tools (84%. Twenty-six tool DNA extracts yielded >25 pg/μl DNA and were selected for microsatellite analyses; genotypes were determined with confidence for 18 tools. These tools were used by a minimum of 11 individuals across the study period and termite mounds. These results demonstrate the utility of bio-molecular techniques and a primate archaeology approach in non-invasive monitoring and behavioural reconstruction of unhabituated primate populations.

  4. Chimpanzee Adenovirus Vector Ebola Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgerwood, Julie E; DeZure, Adam D; Stanley, Daphne A; Coates, Emily E; Novik, Laura; Enama, Mary E; Berkowitz, Nina M; Hu, Zonghui; Joshi, Gyan; Ploquin, Aurélie; Sitar, Sandra; Gordon, Ingelise J; Plummer, Sarah A; Holman, LaSonji A; Hendel, Cynthia S; Yamshchikov, Galina; Roman, Francois; Nicosia, Alfredo; Colloca, Stefano; Cortese, Riccardo; Bailer, Robert T; Schwartz, Richard M; Roederer, Mario; Mascola, John R; Koup, Richard A; Sullivan, Nancy J; Graham, Barney S

    2017-03-09

    The unprecedented 2014 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD) prompted an international response to accelerate the availability of a preventive vaccine. A replication-defective recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 3-vectored ebolavirus vaccine (cAd3-EBO), encoding the glycoprotein from Zaire and Sudan species, that offers protection in the nonhuman primate model, was rapidly advanced into phase 1 clinical evaluation. We conducted a phase 1, dose-escalation, open-label trial of cAd3-EBO. Twenty healthy adults, in sequentially enrolled groups of 10 each, received vaccination intramuscularly in doses of 2×10 10 particle units or 2×10 11 particle units. Primary and secondary end points related to safety and immunogenicity were assessed throughout the first 8 weeks after vaccination; in addition, longer-term vaccine durability was assessed at 48 weeks after vaccination. In this small study, no safety concerns were identified; however, transient fever developed within 1 day after vaccination in two participants who had received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose. Glycoprotein-specific antibodies were induced in all 20 participants; the titers were of greater magnitude in the group that received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose than in the group that received the 2×10 10 particle-unit dose (geometric mean titer against the Zaire antigen at week 4, 2037 vs. 331; P=0.001). Glycoprotein-specific T-cell responses were more frequent among those who received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose than among those who received the 2×10 10 particle-unit dose, with a CD4 response in 10 of 10 participants versus 3 of 10 participants (P=0.004) and a CD8 response in 7 of 10 participants versus 2 of 10 participants (P=0.07) at week 4. Assessment of the durability of the antibody response showed that titers remained high at week 48, with the highest titers in those who received the 2×10 11 particle-unit dose. Reactogenicity and immune responses to cAd3-EBO vaccine were dose-dependent. At

  5. Do wild chimpanzee populations develop diverse cultures? [Latest Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, C.

    2017-01-01

    Humans pride themselves on having extensive and diverse cultures. However, cultures can also be observed in animals. The research presented in this video aims at understanding the cultures of wild chimpanzee populations in several African countries and how they differ from each other. As chimpanzees avoid human contact, CHRISTOPHE BOESCH explains, the research team conducted the study by setting up camera traps to catch chimpanzee behavior on video. Forty locations were carefully selected to ...

  6. Intergroup aggression in chimpanzees and war in nomadic hunter-gatherers: evaluating the chimpanzee model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Glowacki, Luke

    2012-03-01

    Chimpanzee and hunter-gatherer intergroup aggression differ in important ways, including humans having the ability to form peaceful relationships and alliances among groups. This paper nevertheless evaluates the hypothesis that intergroup aggression evolved according to the same functional principles in the two species-selection favoring a tendency to kill members of neighboring groups when killing could be carried out safely. According to this idea chimpanzees and humans are equally risk-averse when fighting. When self-sacrificial war practices are found in humans, therefore, they result from cultural systems of reward, punishment, and coercion rather than evolved adaptations to greater risk-taking. To test this "chimpanzee model," we review intergroup fighting in chimpanzees and nomadic hunter-gatherers living with other nomadic hunter-gatherers as neighbors. Whether humans have evolved specific psychological adaptations for war is unknown, but current evidence suggests that the chimpanzee model is an appropriate starting point for analyzing the biological and cultural evolution of warfare.

  7. Different early rearing experiences have long-term effects on cortical organization in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogart, Stephanie L; Bennett, Allyson J; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    -reared chimpanzees have greater global white-to-grey matter volume, more cortical folding and thinner grey matter within the cortical folds than nursery-reared animals. The findings reported here are the first to demonstrate that differences in early rearing conditions have significant consequences on brain......Consequences of rearing history in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been explored in relation to behavioral abnormalities and cognition; however, little is known about the effects of rearing conditions on anatomical brain development. Human studies have revealed that experiences of maltreatment...... and neglect during infancy and childhood can have detrimental effects on brain development and cognition. In this study, we evaluated the effects of early rearing experience on brain morphology in 92 captive chimpanzees (ages 11-43) who were either reared by their mothers (n = 46) or in a nursery (n = 46...

  8. Tool-use in excavation of underground food by captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Implication for wild chimpanzee behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Majlesi, Parandis

    2014-01-01

    Extractive foraging of underground storage organs (USOs) is believed to have played an important role in human evolution. This behavior is also present in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), who sometimes use tools in the task. Despite the importance of studying this behavior in chimpanzees to model how early hominins may have used tools in the context of USO excavation, it remains to be directly observed due to the chimpanzees lack of habituation in the two study sites that yielded evidence...

  9. Franco-Japanese and other collaborative contributions to understanding chimpanzee culture at Bossou and the Nimba Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, Tatyana

    2016-07-01

    The Japanese approach to science has permitted theoretical leaps in our understanding of culture in non-human animals and challenged human uniqueness, as it is not embedded in the Western traditional dualisms of human/animal and nature/culture. This paper highlights the value of an interdisciplinary approach and combining methodological approaches in exploring putative cultural variation among chimpanzees. I focus particularly on driver ants (Dorylus sp.) and oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) consumption among the Bossou and Nimba chimpanzees, in south-eastern Guinea at the border with Côte d'Ivoire and Liberia, and hand use across different tool use tasks commonly witnessed at Bossou, i.e. ant-dipping, nut-cracking, pestle-pounding, and algae-scooping. Observed variation in resource use was addressed across differing scales exploring both within- and between-community differences. Our findings have highlighted a tight interplay between ecology, social dynamics and culture, and between social and individual learning and maternal contribution to tool-use acquisition. Exploration of hand use by chimpanzees revealed no evidence for individual-level hand or community-level task specialisation. However, more complex types of tool use such as nut-cracking showed distinct lateralization, while the equivalent of a haptic manual action revealed a strong right hand bias. The data also suggest an overall population tendency for a right hand preference. As well as describing these sites' key contributions to our understanding of chimpanzees and to challenging our perceptions of human uniqueness, this paper also highlights the critical condition and high levels of threats facing this emblematic chimpanzee population, and several questions that remain to be addressed. In the spirit of the Japanese approach to science, I recommend that an interdisciplinary and collaborative research approach can best help us to challenge perceptions of human uniqueness and to further our

  10. A newborn infant chimpanzee snatched and cannibalized immediately after birth: Implications for "maternity leave" in wild chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishie, Hitonaru; Nakamura, Michio

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the first observed case of a wild chimpanzee infant being snatched immediately after delivery and consequently cannibalized by an adult male in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. We demonstrate "maternity leave" from long-term data from the Mahale M group and suggest that it functions as a possible counterstrategy of mother chimpanzees against the risk of infanticide soon after delivery. The subjects of this study were the M group chimpanzees at Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. The case of cannibalism was observed on December 2, 2014. We used the long-term daily attendance record of the M group chimpanzees between 1990 and 2010 to calculate the lengths of "maternity leave," a perinatal period during which a mother chimpanzee tends to hide herself and gives birth alone. We observed a very rare case of delivery in a wild chimpanzee group. A female chimpanzee gave birth in front of other members, and an adult male snatched and cannibalized the newborn infant immediately after birth. Using the long-term data, we demonstrate that the length of "maternity leave" is longer than that of nonmaternity leave among adult and adolescent female chimpanzees. We argue that this cannibalism event immediately after birth occurred due to the complete lack of "maternity leave" of the mother chimpanzee of the victim, who might lack enough experience of delivery. We suggest that "maternity leave" taken by expecting mothers may function as a possible counterstrategy against infanticide soon after delivery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. How chimpanzees cooperate in a competitive world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchak, Malini; Eppley, Timothy M.; Campbell, Matthew W.; Feldman, Rebecca A.; Quarles, Luke F.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2016-01-01

    Our species is routinely depicted as unique in its ability to achieve cooperation, whereas our closest relative, the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), is often characterized as overly competitive. Human cooperation is assisted by the cost attached to competitive tendencies through enforcement mechanisms, such as punishment and partner choice. To examine if chimpanzees possess the same ability to mitigate competition, we set up a cooperative task in the presence of the entire group of 11 adults, which required two or three individuals to pull jointly to receive rewards. This open-group set-up provided ample opportunity for competition (e.g., freeloading, displacements) and aggression. Despite this unique set-up and initial competitiveness, cooperation prevailed in the end, being at least five times as common as competition. The chimpanzees performed 3,565 cooperative acts while using a variety of enforcement mechanisms to overcome competition and freeloading, as measured by (attempted) thefts of rewards. These mechanisms included direct protest by the target, third-party punishment in which dominant individuals intervened against freeloaders, and partner choice. There was a marked difference between freeloading and displacement; freeloading tended to elicit withdrawal and third-party interventions, whereas displacements were met with a higher rate of direct retaliation. Humans have shown similar responses in controlled experiments, suggesting shared mechanisms across the primates to mitigate competition for the sake of cooperation. PMID:27551075

  12. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) Produce the Same Types of ‘Laugh Faces’ when They Emit Laughter and when They Are Silent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Jesus, Goncalo; Osborne, Jade; Bard, Kim A.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to flexibly produce facial expressions and vocalizations has a strong impact on the way humans communicate, as it promotes more explicit and versatile forms of communication. Whereas facial expressions and vocalizations are unarguably closely linked in primates, the extent to which these expressions can be produced independently in nonhuman primates is unknown. The present work, thus, examined if chimpanzees produce the same types of facial expressions with and without accompanying vocalizations, as do humans. Forty-six chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) were video-recorded during spontaneous play with conspecifics at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage. ChimpFACS was applied, a standardized coding system to measure chimpanzee facial movements, based on FACS developed for humans. Data showed that the chimpanzees produced the same 14 configurations of open-mouth faces when laugh sounds were present and when they were absent. Chimpanzees, thus, produce these facial expressions flexibly without being morphologically constrained by the accompanying vocalizations. Furthermore, the data indicated that the facial expression plus vocalization and the facial expression alone were used differently in social play, i.e., when in physical contact with the playmates and when matching the playmates’ open-mouth faces. These findings provide empirical evidence that chimpanzees produce distinctive facial expressions independently from a vocalization, and that their multimodal use affects communicative meaning, important traits for a more explicit and versatile way of communication. As it is still uncertain how human laugh faces evolved, the ChimpFACS data were also used to empirically examine the evolutionary relation between open-mouth faces with laugh sounds of chimpanzees and laugh faces of humans. The ChimpFACS results revealed that laugh faces of humans must have gradually emerged from laughing open-mouth faces of ancestral apes. This work examines the main evolutionary

  13. Chimpanzee females queue but males compete for social status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Steffen; Franz, Mathias; Murray, Carson M.; Gilby, Ian C.; Feldblum, Joseph T.; Walker, Kara K.; Pusey, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are widespread in animal social groups and often have measureable effects on individual health and reproductive success. Dominance ranks are not static individual attributes, however, but instead are influenced by two independent processes: 1) changes in hierarchy membership and 2) successful challenges of higher-ranking individuals. Understanding which of these processes dominates the dynamics of rank trajectories can provide insights into fitness benefits of within-sex competition. This question has yet to be examined systematically in a wide range of taxa due to the scarcity of long-term data and a lack of appropriate methodologies for distinguishing between alternative causes of rank changes over time. Here, we expand on recent work and develop a new likelihood-based Elo rating method that facilitates the systematic assessment of rank dynamics in animal social groups, even when interaction data are sparse. We apply this method to characterize long-term rank trajectories in wild eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and find remarkable sex differences in rank dynamics, indicating that females queue for social status while males actively challenge each other to rise in rank. Further, our results suggest that natal females obtain a head start in the rank queue if they avoid dispersal, with potential fitness benefits. PMID:27739527

  14. Training a young Chimpanzee to attend to acoustic stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bierens de Haan, J.A.

    1949-01-01

    For certain reasons I wished to train a young chimpanzee to choose from two similar boxes the one characterised by the ticking of a metronome inside it. My subject was a young male chimpanzee (Pan leucoprymnus Lesson), approximately three years old, Tommy by name. He was a good-natured chap, quite

  15. Chimpanzees in AIDS research: A biomedical and bioethical perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van den Akker (Ruud); M. Balls; J.W. Eichberg; J. Goodall; J.L. Heeney (Jonathan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); A.M. Prince; I. Spruit

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe present article represents a consensus view of the appropriate utilization of chimpanzees in AIDS research arrived at as a result of a meeting of a group of scientists involved in AIDS research with chimpanzees and bioethicists. The paper considers which types of studies are

  16. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., Isolated from Feces of Human-Habituated Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A.; Petrželková, Klára J.; Taylor, Nancy S.; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Paster, Bruce J.; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G.

    2011-01-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease. PMID:21278267

  17. Campylobacter troglodytis sp. nov., isolated from feces of human-habituated wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Taranjit; Singh, Jatinder; Huffman, Michael A; Petrzelková, Klára J; Taylor, Nancy S; Xu, Shilu; Dewhirst, Floyd E; Paster, Bruce J; Debruyne, Lies; Vandamme, Peter; Fox, James G

    2011-04-01

    The transmission of simian immunodeficiency and Ebola viruses to humans in recent years has heightened awareness of the public health significance of zoonotic diseases of primate origin, particularly from chimpanzees. In this study, we analyzed 71 fecal samples collected from 2 different wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations with different histories in relation to their proximity to humans. Campylobacter spp. were detected by culture in 19/56 (34%) group 1 (human habituated for research and tourism purposes at Mahale Mountains National Park) and 0/15 (0%) group 2 (not human habituated but propagated from an introduced population released from captivity over 30 years ago at Rubondo Island National Park) chimpanzees, respectively. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, all isolates were virtually identical (at most a single base difference), and the chimpanzee isolates were most closely related to Campylobacter helveticus and Campylobacter upsaliensis (94.7% and 95.9% similarity, respectively). Whole-cell protein profiling, amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of genomic DNA, hsp60 sequence analysis, and determination of the mol% G+C content revealed two subgroups among the chimpanzee isolates. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both subgroups represented distinct genomic species. In the absence of differential biochemical characteristics and morphology and identical 16S rRNA gene sequences, we propose to classify all isolates into a single novel nomenspecies, Campylobacter troglodytis, with strain MIT 05-9149 as the type strain; strain MIT 05-9157 is suggested as the reference strain for the second C. troglodytis genomovar. Further studies are required to determine whether the organism is pathogenic to chimpanzees and whether this novel Campylobacter colonizes humans and causes enteric disease.

  18. Age-related effects in the neocortical organization of chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Autrey, Michelle M; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2014-01-01

    chimpanzees. We used the BrainVisa software to measure total brain volume, gray and white matter volumes, gray matter thickness, and gyrification index in a cross-sectional sample of 219 captive chimpanzees (8-53 years old), with 38 subjects being 40 or more years of age. Mean depth and cortical fold opening...... of 11 major sulci of the chimpanzee brains were also measured. We found that chimpanzees showed increased gyrification with age and a cubic relationship between age and white matter volume. For the association between age and sulcus depth and width, the results were mostly non......Among primates, humans exhibit the most profound degree of age-related brain volumetric decline in particular regions, such as the hippocampus and the frontal lobe. Recent studies have shown that our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees, experience little to no volumetric decline in gray...

  19. Social comparison mediates chimpanzees' responses to loss, not frustration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, Lydia M; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Why do chimpanzees react when their partner gets a better deal than them? Do they note the inequity or do their responses reflect frustration in response to unattainable rewards? To tease apart inequity and contrast, we tested chimpanzees in a series of conditions that created loss through...... individual contrast, through inequity, or by both. Chimpanzees were tested in four social and two individual conditions in which they received food rewards in return for exchanging tokens with an experimenter. In conditions designed to create individual contrast, after completing an exchange, the chimpanzees...... were given a relatively less-preferred reward than the one they were previously shown. The chimpanzees' willingness to accept the less-preferred rewards was independent of previously offered foods in both the social and individual conditions. In conditions that created frustration through inequity...

  20. Chimpanzees, conflicts and cognition : The functions and mechanisms of chimpanzee conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koski, S.E.

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis I studied conflict resolution in captive chimpanzees of the Arnhem Zoo, NL. Specifically, I investigated the occurrence and functions of various post-conflict strategies. Furthermore, I addressed the likely proximate cognitive and emotional mechanisms used in post-conflict

  1. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF LESIONS IN PERIPHERAL GANGLIA IN CHIMPANZEE AND IN HUMAN POLIOMYELITIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodian, David; Howe, Howard A.

    1947-01-01

    1. The peripheral ganglia of eighteen inoculated chimpanzees and thirteen uninoculated controls, and of eighteen fatal human poliomyelitis cases, were studied for histopathological evidence of the route of transmission of virus from the alimentary tract to the CNS. 2. Lesions thought to be characteristic of poliomyelitis in inoculated chimpanzees could not be sharply differentiated from lesions of unknown origin in uninoculated control animals. Moreover, although the inoculated animals as a group, in comparison with the control animals, had a greater number of infiltrative lesions in sympathetic as well as in sensory ganglia, it was not possible to make satisfactory correlations between the distribution of these lesions and the routes of inoculation. 3. In sharp contrast with chimpanzees, the celiac and stellate ganglia of the human poliomyelitis cases were free of any but insignificant infiltrative lesions. Lesions in human trigeminal and spinal sensory ganglia included neuronal damage as well as focal and perivascular inflitrative lesions, as is well known. In most ganglia, as in monkey and chimpanzee sensory ganglia, these were correlated in intensify with the degree of severity of lesions in the region of the CNS receiving their axons. This suggested that lesions in sensory ganglia probably resulted from spread of virus centrifugally from the CNS, in accord with considerable experimental evidence. 4. Two principal difficulties in the interpretation of histopathological findings in peripheral ganglia were revealed by this study. The first is that the specificity of lesions in sympathetic ganglia has not been established beyond doubt as being due to poliomyelitis. The second is that the presence of characteristic lesions in sensory ganglia does not, and cannot, reveal whether the virus reached the ganglia from the periphery or from the central nervous system, except in very early preparalytic stages or in exceptional cases of early arrest of virus spread and of

  2. Evidence for widespread degradation of gene control regions in hominid genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter D Keightley

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Although sequences containing regulatory elements located close to protein-coding genes are often only weakly conserved during evolution, comparisons of rodent genomes have implied that these sequences are subject to some selective constraints. Evolutionary conservation is particularly apparent upstream of coding sequences and in first introns, regions that are enriched for regulatory elements. By comparing the human and chimpanzee genomes, we show here that there is almost no evidence for conservation in these regions in hominids. Furthermore, we show that gene expression is diverging more rapidly in hominids than in murids per unit of neutral sequence divergence. By combining data on polymorphism levels in human noncoding DNA and the corresponding human-chimpanzee divergence, we show that the proportion of adaptive substitutions in these regions in hominids is very low. It therefore seems likely that the lack of conservation and increased rate of gene expression divergence are caused by a reduction in the effectiveness of natural selection against deleterious mutations because of the low effective population sizes of hominids. This has resulted in the accumulation of a large number of deleterious mutations in sequences containing gene control elements and hence a widespread degradation of the genome during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees.

  3. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle

  4. Chimpanzee malaria parasites related to Plasmodium ovale in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Duval

    Full Text Available Since the 1970's, the diversity of Plasmodium parasites in African great apes has been neglected. Surprisingly, P. reichenowi, a chimpanzee parasite, is the only such parasite to have been molecularly characterized. This parasite is closely phylogenetically related to P. falciparum, the principal cause of the greatest malaria burden in humans. Studies of malaria parasites from anthropoid primates may provide relevant phylogenetic information, improving our understanding of the origin and evolutionary history of human malaria species. In this study, we screened 130 DNA samples from chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla from Cameroon for Plasmodium infection, using cytochrome b molecular tools. Two chimpanzees from the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes presented single infections with Plasmodium strains molecularly related to the human malaria parasite P. ovale. These chimpanzee parasites and 13 human strains of P. ovale originated from a various sites in Africa and Asia were characterized using cytochrome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 mitochondrial partial genes and nuclear ldh partial gene. Consistent with previous findings, two genetically distinct types of P. ovale, classical and variant, were observed in the human population from a variety of geographical locations. One chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was genetically identical, on all three markers tested, to variant P. ovale type. The other chimpanzee Plasmodium strain was different from P. ovale strains isolated from humans. This study provides the first evidence of possibility of natural cross-species exchange of P. ovale between humans and chimpanzees of the subspecies Pan t. troglodytes.

  5. The genetic signature of sex-biased migration in patrilocal chimpanzees and humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E Langergraber

    Full Text Available A large body of theoretical work suggests that analyses of variation at the maternally inherited mitochondrial (mtDNA and the paternally inherited non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY are a potentially powerful way to reveal the differing migratory histories of men and women across human societies. However, the few empirical studies comparing mtDNA and NRY variation and known patterns of sex-biased migration have produced conflicting results. Here we review some methodological reasons for these inconsistencies, and take them into account to provide an unbiased characterization of mtDNA and NRY variation in chimpanzees, one of the few mammalian taxa where males routinely remain in and females typically disperse from their natal groups. We show that patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation are more strongly contrasting in patrilocal chimpanzees compared with patrilocal human societies. The chimpanzee data we present here thus provide a valuable comparative benchmark of the patterns of mtDNA and NRY variation to be expected in a society with extremely female-biased dispersal.

  6. Semi-wild chimpanzees open hard-shelled fruits differently across communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, Bruce; Davila-Ross, Marina; Boysen, Sarah T

    2014-07-01

    Researchers investigating the evolutionary roots of human culture have turned to comparing behaviours across nonhuman primate communities, with tool-based foraging in particular receiving much attention. This study examined whether natural extractive foraging behaviours other than tool selection differed across nonhuman primate colonies that had the same foods available. Specifically, the behaviours applied to open the hard-shelled fruits of Strychnos spp. were examined in three socially separate, semi-wild colonies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) that lived under shared ecological conditions at Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage, and were comparable in their genetic makeup. The chimpanzees (N=56) consistently applied six techniques to open these fruits. GLMM results revealed differences in the number of combined technique types to open fruits across the colonies. They also showed colony differences in the application of three specific techniques. Two techniques (full biting and fruit cracking) were entirely absent in some colonies. This study provides empirical evidence that natural hard-shelled fruit-opening behaviours are distinct across chimpanzee colonies, differences that most likely have not resulted from ecological and genetic reasons.

  7. Form and function of the human and chimpanzee forefoot: implications for early hominin bipedalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Peter J.; Holowka, Nicholas B.; Demes, Brigitte; Jungers, William L.

    2016-01-01

    During bipedal walking, modern humans dorsiflex their forefoot at the metatarsophalangeal joints (MTPJs) prior to push off, which tightens the plantar soft tissues to convert the foot into a stiff propulsive lever. Particular features of metatarsal head morphology such as “dorsal doming” are thought to facilitate this stiffening mechanism. In contrast, chimpanzees are believed to possess MTPJ morphology that precludes high dorsiflexion excursions during terrestrial locomotion. The morphological affinity of the metatarsal heads has been used to reconstruct locomotor behavior in fossil hominins, but few studies have provided detailed empirical data to validate the assumed link between morphology and function at the MTPJs. Using three-dimensional kinematic and morphometric analyses, we show that humans push off with greater peak dorsiflexion angles at all MTPJs than do chimpanzees during bipedal and quadrupedal walking, with the greatest disparity occurring at MTPJ 1. Among MTPJs 2–5, both species exhibit decreasing peak angles from medial to lateral. This kinematic pattern is mirrored in the morphometric analyses of metatarsal head shape. Analyses of Australopithecus afarensis metatarsals reveal morphology intermediate between humans and chimpanzees, suggesting that this species used different bipedal push-off kinematics than modern humans, perhaps resulting in a less efficient form of bipedalism. PMID:27464580

  8. Subspecies composition and founder contribution of the captive U.S. chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, John J; Dye, Brent; Frels, William I; Fritz, Jo; Gagneux, Pascal; Khun, Henry H; Switzer, William M; Lee, D Rick

    2005-10-01

    Chimpanzees are presently classified into three subspecies: Pan troglodytes verus from west Africa, P.t. troglodytes from central Africa, and P.t. schweinfurthii from east Africa. A fourth subspecies (P.t. vellerosus), from Cameroon and northern Nigeria, has been proposed. These taxonomic designations are based on geographical origins and are reflected in sequence variation in the first hypervariable region (HVR-I) of the mtDNA D-loop. Although advances have been made in our understanding of chimpanzee phylogenetics, little has been known regarding the subspecies composition of captive chimpanzees. We sequenced part of the mtDNA HVR-I region in 218 African-born population founders and performed a phylogenetic analysis with previously characterized African sequences of known provenance to infer subspecies affiliations. Most founders were P.t. verus (95.0%), distantly followed by the troglodytes schweinfurthii clade (4.6%), and a single P.t. vellerosus (0.4%). Pedigree-based estimates of genomic representation in the descendant population revealed that troglodytes schweinfurthii founder representation was reduced in captivity, vellerosus representation increased due to prolific breeding by a single male, and reproductive variance resulted in uneven representation among male P.t.verus founders. No increase in mortality was evident from between-subspecies interbreeding, indicating a lack of outbreeding depression. Knowledge of subspecies and their genomic representation can form the basis for phylogenetically informed genetic management of extant chimpanzees to preserve rare genetic variation for research, conservation, or possible future breeding. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Technical intelligence and culture: Nut cracking in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Bombjaková, Daša; Boyette, Adam; Meier, Amelia

    2017-06-01

    According to the technical intelligence hypothesis, humans are superior to all other animal species in understanding and using tools. However, the vast majority of comparative studies between humans and chimpanzees, both proficient tool users, have not controlled for the effects of age, prior knowledge, past experience, rearing conditions, or differences in experimental procedures. We tested whether humans are superior to chimpanzees in selecting better tools, using them more dexteriously, achieving higher performance and gaining access to more resource as predicted under the technical intelligence hypothesis. Aka and Mbendjele hunter-gatherers in the rainforest of Central African Republic and the Republic of Congo, respectively, and Taï chimpanzees in the rainforest of Côte d'Ivoire were observed cracking hard Panda oleosa nuts with different tools, as well as the soft Coula edulis and Elaeis guinensis nuts. The nut-cracking techniques, hammer material selection and two efficiency measures were compared. As predicted, the Aka and the Mbendjele were able to exploit more species of hard nuts in the forest than chimpanzees. However, the chimpanzees were sometimes more efficient than the humans. Social roles differed between the two species, with the Aka and especially the Mbendjele exhibiting cooperation between nut-crackers whereas the chimpanzees were mainly individualistic. Observations of nut-cracking by humans and chimpanzees only partially supported the technical intelligence hypothesis as higher degrees of flexibility in tool selection seen in chimpanzees compensated for use of less efficient tool material than in humans. Nut cracking was a stronger social undertaking in humans than in chimpanzees. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. 3D-structured illumination microscopy reveals clustered DNA double-strand break formation in widespread γH2AX foci after high LET heavy-ion particle radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Yoshihiko; Niimi, Atsuko; Isono, Mayu; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Yasuhara, Takaaki; Limsirichaikul, Siripan; Oike, Takahiro; Sato, Hiro; Held, Kathryn D; Nakano, Takashi; Shibata, Atsushi

    2017-12-12

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) induced by ionising radiation are considered the major cause of genotoxic mutations and cell death. While DSBs are dispersed throughout chromatin after X-rays or γ-irradiation, multiple types of DNA damage including DSBs, single-strand breaks and base damage can be generated within 1-2 helical DNA turns, defined as a complex DNA lesion, after high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) particle irradiation. In addition to the formation of complex DNA lesions, recent evidence suggests that multiple DSBs can be closely generated along the tracks of high LET particle irradiation. Herein, by using three dimensional (3D)-structured illumination microscopy, we identified the formation of 3D widespread γH2AX foci after high LET carbon-ion irradiation. The large γH2AX foci in G 2 -phase cells encompassed multiple foci of replication protein A (RPA), a marker of DSBs undergoing resection during homologous recombination. Furthermore, we demonstrated by 3D analysis that the distance between two individual RPA foci within γH2AX foci was approximately 700 nm. Together, our findings suggest that high LET heavy-ion particles induce clustered DSB formation on a scale of approximately 1 μm 3 . These closely localised DSBs are considered to be a risk for the formation of chromosomal rearrangement after heavy-ion irradiation.

  11. Cognitive capacities for cooking in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warneken, Felix; Rosati, Alexandra G

    2015-06-22

    The transition to a cooked diet represents an important shift in human ecology and evolution. Cooking requires a set of sophisticated cognitive abilities, including causal reasoning, self-control and anticipatory planning. Do humans uniquely possess the cognitive capacities needed to cook food? We address whether one of humans' closest relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), possess the domain-general cognitive skills needed to cook. Across nine studies, we show that chimpanzees: (i) prefer cooked foods; (ii) comprehend the transformation of raw food that occurs when cooking, and generalize this causal understanding to new contexts; (iii) will pay temporal costs to acquire cooked foods; (iv) are willing to actively give up possession of raw foods in order to transform them; and (v) can transport raw food as well as save their raw food in anticipation of future opportunities to cook. Together, our results indicate that several of the fundamental psychological abilities necessary to engage in cooking may have been shared with the last common ancestor of apes and humans, predating the control of fire. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  12. The chromosomal radiosensitivity of lymphocytes from the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.; Decat, G.; Leonard, E.D.; Mortelmans, J.

    1977-01-01

    The yield of chromosomal aberrations induced by exposure to X-irradiation in vitro was studied in the lymphocytes of the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes), a hominoid ape phylogenically and chromosomally closely related to man. In agreement with the similarity of the chromosome characteristics, no significant difference was observed between man and chimpanzee with respect to the incidence of dicentrics and fragments. It is obvious that the nuclear area, which apparently constitutes the most evident difference between the nuclei of man and chimpanzee lymphocytes, did not play an important role in the yields of aberrations

  13. Genetic analysis of Enterobius vermicularis isolated from a chimpanzee with lethal hemorrhagic colitis and pathology of the associated lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaguchi, Yuji; Okabayashi, Sachi; Abe, Niichiro; Masatou, Haruhisa; Iida, Shinya; Teramoto, Isao; Matsubayashi, Makoto; Shibahara, Tomoyuki

    2014-11-01

    Human pinworms, Enterobius vermicularis, are normally recognized as minor pathogens. However, a fatal case of human pinworm infection has been reported in a nonhuman primate, a zoo reared chimpanzee. Here, we histopathologically examined the lesions in tissues from the deceased chimpanzee and genetically characterized the isolated worms to investigate the pathogenicity and determine the phylogeny. We identified ulcers deep in the submucosa where many parasites were found to have invaded the lamina propria mucosa or submucous tissue. An inflammatory reaction consisting mainly of neutrophils and lymphocytes but not eosinophils was observed around the parasites, and intense hemorrhage in the lamina propria was confirmed. The parasites were morphologically similar to E. vermicularis based on the shape of the copulatory spicules. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene products were amplified from worm DNA by PCR and were genetically identified as E. vermicularis based on >98.7% similarity of partial sequences. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the sequences clustered together with other chimpanzee E. vermicularis isolates in a group which has been referred to as type C and which differs from human isolates (type A). The samples were negative for bacterial pathogens and Entamoeba histolytica indicating that E. vermicularis could be pathogenic in chimpanzees. Phylogenetic clustering of the isolates indicated that the parasite may be host specific.

  14. Androgen and androgen metabolite levels in serum and urine of East African chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii): comparison of EIA and LC-MS analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preis, Anna; Mugisha, Lawrence; Hauser, Barbara; Weltring, Anja; Deschner, Tobias

    2011-12-01

    The primary male androgen testosterone (T) is often used as an endocrinological marker to investigate androgen-behaviour interactions in males. In chimpanzees and bonobos, studies investigating the relationship between T levels and dominance rank or aggressive behaviour have revealed contradictory results. The immunoassays used in these studies were originally developed for the measurement of steroids in serum. Their application to non-invasively collected samples, however, can lead to methodological problems due to cross-reacting metabolites, which might occur in urine or faeces but not in blood. The overall aim of this study, therefore, is to clarify whether a T enzyme immunoassay (EIA) is an applicable method to monitor testicular function in adult male chimpanzees. To estimate the impact of cross-reacting androgens on the used T EIA, we compared the results of an EIA measurement with a set of androgen metabolite levels measured by LC-MS. In urine from male chimpanzees, cross-reactivities appear to exist mainly with T and its exclusive metabolites, 5α-dihydrotestosterone (5α-DHT) and 5α-androstanediol (androstanediol). Both urinary and serum T levels of male chimpanzees were significantly higher than female T levels when measured with the T EIA, indicating a reliable measurement of testicular androgens and their exclusive metabolites with the used EIA. In urine from female chimpanzees, the comparison between LC-MS and T EIA results indicated a higher impact of cross-reactions with adrenal androgen metabolites. Therefore, the investigation of urinary T levels in female chimpanzees with a T EIA seems to be problematic. Overall our results show that a T EIA can be a reliable method to monitor testicular function in male chimpanzee urine and that LC-MS is a valuable tool for the validation of immunoassays. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Chimpanzees and bonobos differ in intrinsic motivation for tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-06-16

    Tool use in nonhuman apes can help identify the conditions that drove the extraordinary expansion of hominin technology. Chimpanzees and bonobos are our closest living relatives. Whereas chimpanzees are renowned for their tool use, bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. We investigated whether extrinsic (ecological and social opportunities) or intrinsic (predispositions) differences explain this contrast by comparing chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (DRC). We assessed ecological opportunities based on availability of resources requiring tool use. We examined potential opportunities for social learning in immature apes. Lastly, we investigated predispositions by measuring object manipulation and object play. Extrinsic opportunities did not explain the tool use difference, whereas intrinsic predispositions did. Chimpanzees manipulated and played more with objects than bonobos, despite similar levels of solitary and social play. Selection for increased intrinsic motivation to manipulate objects likely also played an important role in the evolution of hominin tool use.

  16. Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Rocío Carvajal Contreras

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of Wild Cultures: A Comparison between Chimpanzee and Human Cultures. Christophe Boesch. 2012. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 276, 68 b & w illustrations, 11 tables. £60 (hardback. ISBN 9781109025370.

  17. Chimpanzees' socially maintained food preferences indicate both conservatism and conformity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopper, LM; Schapiro, Steve; Lambeth, SP

    2011-01-01

    . This study provides the first evidence that chimpanzees show such conservatism even when the new method employs the identical required behaviour as the first, but for a different reward. Groups of chimpanzees could choose to exchange one of two types of inedible tokens, with each token type being associated...... with a different food reward: one type was rewarded with a highly preferred food (grape) and the other type was rewarded with a less preferred food (carrot). Individuals first observed a model chimpanzee from their social group trained to choose one of the two types of tokens. In one group, this token earned...... a carrot, while in the other, control, group the token earned a grape. In both groups, chimpanzees conformed to the trained model’s choice. This was especially striking for those gaining the pieces of carrot, the less favoured reward. This resulted in a population-level trend of food choices, even when...

  18. Social disappointment explains chimpanzees' behaviour in the inequity aversion task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Clift, Jeremy B; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-08-30

    Chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food when an experimenter has previously provided preferred food to a conspecific has been taken as evidence for a sense of fairness. Here, we present a novel hypothesis-the social disappointment hypothesis-according to which food refusals express chimpanzees' disappointment in the human experimenter for not rewarding them as well as they could have. We tested this hypothesis using a two-by-two design in which food was either distributed by an experimenter or a machine and with a partner present or absent. We found that chimpanzees were more likely to reject food when it was distributed by an experimenter rather than by a machine and that they were not more likely to do so when a partner was present. These results suggest that chimpanzees' refusal of less-preferred food stems from social disappointment in the experimenter and not from a sense of fairness. © 2017 The Author(s).

  19. The bonobo genome compared with the chimpanzee and human genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prüfer, Kay; Munch, Kasper; Hellmann, Ines; Akagi, Keiko; Miller, Jason R.; Walenz, Brian; Koren, Sergey; Sutton, Granger; Kodira, Chinnappa; Winer, Roger; Knight, James R.; Mullikin, James C.; Meader, Stephen J.; Ponting, Chris P.; Lunter, Gerton; Higashino, Saneyuki; Hobolth, Asger; Dutheil, Julien; Karakoç, Emre; Alkan, Can; Sajjadian, Saba; Catacchio, Claudia Rita; Ventura, Mario; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Eichler, Evan E.; André, Claudine; Atencia, Rebeca; Mugisha, Lawrence; Junhold, Jörg; Patterson, Nick; Siebauer, Michael; Good, Jeffrey M.; Fischer, Anne; Ptak, Susan E.; Lachmann, Michael; Symer, David E.; Mailund, Thomas; Schierup, Mikkel H.; Andrés, Aida M.; Kelso, Janet; Pääbo, Svante

    2012-01-01

    Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours1–4, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the bonobo genome to study its evolutionary relationship with the chimpanzee and human genomes. We find that more than three per cent of the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than these are to each other. These regions allow various aspects of the ancestry of the two ape species to be reconstructed. In addition, many of the regions that overlap genes may eventually help us understand the genetic basis of phenotypes that humans share with one of the two apes to the exclusion of the other. PMID:22722832

  20. High diversity at PRDM9 in chimpanzees and bonobos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linn Fenna Groeneveld

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The PRDM9 locus in mammals has increasingly attracted research attention due to its role in mediating chromosomal recombination and possible involvement in hybrid sterility and hence speciation processes. The aim of this study was to characterize sequence variation at the PRDM9 locus in a sample of our closest living relatives, the chimpanzees and bonobos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PRDM9 contains a highly variable and repetitive zinc finger array. We amplified this domain using long-range PCR and determined the DNA sequences using conventional Sanger sequencing. From 17 chimpanzees representing three subspecies and five bonobos we obtained a total of 12 alleles differing at the nucleotide level. Based on a data set consisting of our data and recently published Pan PRDM9 sequences, we found that at the subspecies level, diversity levels did not differ among chimpanzee subspecies or between chimpanzee subspecies and bonobos. In contrast, the sample of chimpanzees harbors significantly more diversity at PRDM9 than samples of humans. Pan PRDM9 shows signs of rapid evolution including no alleles or ZnFs in common with humans as well as signals of positive selection in the residues responsible for DNA binding. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: The high number of alleles specific to the genus Pan, signs of positive selection in the DNA binding residues, and reported lack of conservation of recombination hotspots between chimpanzees and humans suggest that PRDM9 could be active in hotspot recruitment in the genus Pan. Chimpanzees and bonobos are considered separate species and do not have overlapping ranges in the wild, making the presence of shared alleles at the amino acid level between the chimpanzee and bonobo species interesting in view of the hypothesis that PRDM9 plays a universal role in interspecific hybrid sterility.

  1. The chimpanzee as a flight candidate. [for cardiovascular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Some of the characteristics that make the chimpanzee an attractive animal model (anatomy, size, intelligence, and durability) also create some very unique problems. The universally recognized problems of availability and expensive maintenance, combined with the often underestimated problems associated with routine housing, husbandry, restraint, and medical management, severely limit the availabe avenues of approach. Problems involved in using implantable, multichannel radiotelemetry systems to monitor cardiodynamics in chimpanzees are discussed.

  2. Chimpanzee responding during matching to sample: control by exclusion.

    OpenAIRE

    Beran, Michael J; Washburn, David A

    2002-01-01

    Three chimpanzees performed a computerized matching-to-sample task in which samples were photographs of items and comparison stimuli were geometric symbols called lexigrams. In Experiment 1, samples were either defined (i.e., they represented items that were associated already with a specific lexigram label by the chimpanzees) or undefined (i.e., they did not have an already learned association with a specific lexigram). On each trial, the foil (incorrect) comparison could be either a defined...

  3. Differential serotonergic innervation of the amygdala in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stimpson, Cheryl D; Barger, Nicole; Taglialatela, Jared P; Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Annette; Hof, Patrick R; Hopkins, William D; Sherwood, Chet C

    2016-03-01

    Humans' closest living relatives are bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), yet these great ape species differ considerably from each other in terms of social behavior. Bonobos are more tolerant of conspecifics in competitive contexts and often use sexual behavior to mediate social interactions. Chimpanzees more frequently employ aggression during conflicts and actively patrol territories between communities. Regulation of emotional responses is facilitated by the amygdala, which also modulates social decision-making, memory and attention. Amygdala responsiveness is further regulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. We hypothesized that the amygdala of bonobos and chimpanzees would differ in its neuroanatomical organization and serotonergic innervation. We measured volumes of regions and the length density of serotonin transporter-containing axons in the whole amygdala and its lateral, basal, accessory basal and central nuclei. Results showed that accessory basal nucleus volume was larger in chimpanzees than in bonobos. Of particular note, the amygdala of bonobos had more than twice the density of serotonergic axons than chimpanzees, with the most pronounced differences in the basal and central nuclei. These findings suggest that variation in serotonergic innervation of the amygdala may contribute to mediating the remarkable differences in social behavior exhibited by bonobos and chimpanzees. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Object-based attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushitani, Tomokazu; Imura, Tomoko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2010-03-17

    We conducted three experiments to investigate how object-based components contribute to the attentional processes of chimpanzees and to examine how such processes operate with regard to perceptually structured objects. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees responded to a spatial cueing task that required them to touch a target appearing at either end of two parallel rectangles. We compared the time involved in shifting attention (cost of attentional shift) when the locations of targets were cued and non cued. Results showed that the cost of the attentional shift within one rectangle was smaller than that beyond the object's boundary, demonstrating object-based attention in chimpanzees. The results of Experiment 2, conducted with different stimulus configurations, replicated the results of Experiment 1, supporting that object-based attention operates in chimpanzees. In Experiment 3, the cost of attentional shift within a cued but partly occluded rectangle was shorter than that within a rectangle that was cued but divided in the middle. The results suggest that the attention of chimpanzees is activated not only by an explicit object but also by fragmented patches represented as an object at a higher-order perceptual level. Chimpanzees' object-based attention may be similar to that of humans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural representation of face familiarity in an awake chimpanzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokata Fukushima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1 and human faces (Experiment 2. The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces.

  6. Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L; Muller, Martin N

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the proposal that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans have similar rates of death from intraspecific aggression, whereas chimpanzees have higher rates of non-lethal physical attack (Boehm 1999, Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press). First, we assembled data on lethal aggression from long-term studies of nine communities of chimpanzees living in five populations. We calculated rates of death from intraspecific aggression both within and between communities. Variation among communities in mortality rates from aggression was high, and rates of death from intercommunity and intracommunity aggression were not correlated. Estimates for average rates of lethal violence for chimpanzees proved to be similar to average rates for subsistence societies of hunter-gatherers and farmers. Second, we compared rates of non-lethal physical aggression for two populations of chimpanzees and one population of recently settled hunter-gatherers. Chimpanzees had rates of aggression between two and three orders of magnitude higher than humans. These preliminary data support Boehm's hypothesis.

  7. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  8. Agricultural expansion as risk to endangered wildlife: Pesticide exposure in wild chimpanzees and baboons displaying facial dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Berny, Philippe; Gumisiriza, Francis; Gross, Régine; Demeneix, Barbara; Fini, Jean Baptiste; Chapman, Colin A; Chapman, Lauren J; Seguya, Andrew; Wasswa, John

    2017-11-15

    Prenatal exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors can affect development and induce irreversible abnormalities in both humans and wildlife. The northern part of Kibale National Park, a mid-altitude rainforest in western Uganda, is largely surrounded by industrial tea plantations and wildlife using this area (Sebitoli) must cope with proximity to human populations and their activities. The chimpanzees and baboons in this area raid crops (primarily maize) in neighboring gardens. Sixteen young individuals of the 66 chimpanzees monitored (25%) exhibit abnormalities including reduced nostrils, cleft lip, limb deformities, reproductive problems and hypopigmentation. Each pathology could have a congenital component, potentially exacerbated by environmental factors. In addition, at least six of 35 photographed baboons from a Sebitoli troop (17%) have similar severe nasal deformities. Our inquiries in villages and tea factories near Sebitoli revealed use of eight pesticides (glyphosate, cypermethrin, profenofos, mancozeb, metalaxyl, dimethoate, chlorpyrifos and 2,4-D amine). Chemical analysis of samples collected from 2014 to 2016 showed that mean levels of pesticides in fresh maize stems and seeds, soils, and river sediments in the vicinity of the chimpanzee territory exceed recommended limits. Notably, excess levels were found for total DDT and its metabolite pp'-DDE and for chlorpyrifos in fresh maize seeds and in fish from Sebitoli. Imidacloprid was detected in coated maize seeds planted at the edge the forest and in fish samples from the Sebitoli area, while no pesticides were detected in fish from central park areas. Since some of these pesticides are thyroid hormone disruptors, we postulate that excessive pesticide use in the Sebitoli area may contribute to facial dysplasia in chimpanzees and baboons through this endocrine pathway. Chimpanzees are considered as endangered by IUCN and besides their intrinsic value and status as closely related to humans, they

  9. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Osvath

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes. As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  10. Spontaneous innovation for future deception in a male chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osvath, Mathias; Karvonen, Elin

    2012-01-01

    The ability to invent means to deceive others, where the deception lies in the perceptually or contextually detached future, appears to require the coordination of sophisticated cognitive skills toward a single goal. Meanwhile innovation for a current situation has been observed in a wide range of species. Planning, on the one hand, and the social cognition required for deception on the other, have been linked to one another, both from a co-evolutionary and a neuroanatomical perspective. Innovation and deception have also been suggested to be connected in their nature of relying on novelty. We report on systematic observations suggesting innovation for future deception by a captive male chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). As an extension of previously described behaviour--caching projectiles for later throwing at zoo visitors--the chimpanzee, again in advance, manufactured concealments from hay, as well as used naturally occurring concealments. All were placed near the visitors' observation area, allowing the chimpanzee to make throws before the crowd could back off. We observed what was likely the first instance of this innovation. Further observations showed that the creation of future-oriented concealments became the significantly preferred strategy. What is more, the chimpanzee appeared consistently to combine two deceptive strategies: hiding projectiles and inhibiting dominance display behaviour. The findings suggest that chimpanzees can represent the future behaviours of others while those others are not present, as well as take actions in the current situation towards such potential future behaviours. Importantly, the behaviour of the chimpanzee produced a future event, rather than merely prepared for an event that had been reliably re-occurring in the past. These findings might indicate that the chimpanzee recombined episodic memories in perceptual simulations.

  11. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

    1982-01-01

    Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (orig.)

  12. Spatial Construction Skills of Chimpanzees ("Pan Troglodytes") and Young Human Children ("Homo Sapiens Sapiens")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poti, Patrizia; Hayashi, Misato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-01-01

    Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children…

  13. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knight Andrew

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments – particularly within the US – therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of

  14. Comprehension of functional support by enculturated chimpanzees Pan troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M. YOCOM, Sarah T. BOYSEN

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of causal understanding of tool relationships in captive chimpanzees have yielded disparate findings, particularly those reported by Povinelli & colleagues (2000 for tool tasks by laboratory chimpanzees. The present set of experiments tested nine enculturated chimpanzees on three versions of a support task, as described by Povinelli (2000, during which food rewards were presented in different experimental configurations. In Experiment 1, stimulus pairs included a choice between a cloth with a reward on the upper right corner or with a second reward off the cloth, adjacent to a corner, with the second pair comprised of a cloth with food on the upper right corner, and a second cloth with the reward on the substrate, partially covered. All subjects were successful with both test conditions in Experiment 1. In a second study, the experimental choices included one of two possible correct options, paired with one of three incorrect options, with the three incorrect choices all involving varying degrees of perceptual containment. All nine chimpanzees scored significantly above chance across all six conditions. In Experiment 3, four unique conditions were presented, combining one of two possible correct choices with one of two incorrect choices. Six of the subjects scored significantly above chance across the four conditions, and group performance on individual conditions was also significant. Superior performance was demonstrated by female subjects in Experiment 3, similar to sex differences in tool use previously reported for wild chimpanzees and some tool tasks in captive chimpanzees. The present results for Experiments 2 & 3 were significantly differed from those reported by Povinelli et al. (2000 for laboratory-born, peer-reared chimpanzees. One contribution towards the dramatic differences between the two study populations may be the significant rearing and housing differences of the chimpanzee groups. One explanation is that under

  15. The beginning of the end for chimpanzee experiments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild – as many older research chimpanzees once were – and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements. However, a recent large-scale systematic review indicates that invasive chimpanzee experiments rarely provide benefits in excess of their profound animal welfare, bioethical and financial costs. The approval of large numbers of these experiments – particularly within the US – therefore indicates a failure of the ethics committee system. By 2008, legislative or policy bans or restrictions on invasive great ape experimentation existed in seven European countries, Japan, Australia and New Zealand. In continuing to conduct such experiments on chimpanzees and other great apes, the US was almost completely isolated internationally. In 2007, however, the US National Institutes of Health National Center for Research Resources implemented a permanent funding moratorium on chimpanzee breeding, which is expected to result in a major decline in laboratory chimpanzee numbers over the next 30 years, as most are retired or die. Additionally, in 2008, The Great Ape Protection Act was introduced to Congress. The bill proposed to end invasive research and testing on an estimated 1,200 chimpanzees confined within US laboratories, and, for approximately 600 federally-owned, to ensure their permanent retirement to sanctuaries. These events have created an unprecedented opportunity for US legislators, researchers, and others, to consider a global ban on invasive chimpanzee research. Such a ban would not only uphold the best interests of chimpanzees, and other research

  16. A neuroanatomical predictor of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, E E; Mahovetz, L M; Preuss, T M; Hopkins, W D

    2017-01-01

    The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging. Successful self-recognition was associated with greater rightward asymmetry in the white matter of SLFII and SLFIII, and in SLFIII's gray matter terminations in Broca's area. We observed a visible progression of SLFIII's prefrontal extension in apes that show negative, ambiguous, and compelling evidence of MSR. Notably, SLFIII's terminations in Broca's area are not right-lateralized or particularly pronounced at the population level in chimpanzees, as they are in humans. Thus, chimpanzees with more human-like behavior show more human-like SLFIII connectivity. These results suggest that self-recognition may have co-emerged with adaptations to frontoparietal circuitry. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press.

  17. Can Chimpanzee Biology Highlight Human Origin and Evolution?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itai Roffman

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The closest living relatives of humans are their chimpanzee/bonobo (Pan sister species, members of the same subfamily “Homininae”. This classification is supported by over 50 years of research in the fields of chimpanzee cultural diversity, language competency, genomics, anatomy, high cognition, psychology, society, self-consciousness and relation to others, tool use/production, as well as Homo level emotions, symbolic competency, memory recollection, complex multifaceted problem-solving capabilities, and interspecies communication. Language competence and symbolism can be continuously bridged from chimpanzee to man. Emotions, intercommunity aggression, body language, gestures, facial expressions, and vocalization of intonations seem to parallel between the sister taxa Homo and Pan. The shared suite of traits between Pan and Homo genus demonstrated in this article integrates old and new information on human–chimpanzee evolution, bilateral informational and cross-cultural exchange, promoting the urgent need for Pan cultures in the wild to be protected, as they are part of the cultural heritage of mankind. Also, we suggest that bonobos, Pan paniscus, based on shared traits with Australopithecus, need to be included in Australopithecine’s subgenus, and may even represent living-fossil Australopithecines. Unfolding bonobo and chimpanzee biology highlights our common genetic and cultural evolutionary origins.

  18. Emotional engagements predict and enhance social cognition in young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Kim A; Bakeman, Roger; Boysen, Sarah T; Leavens, David A

    2014-09-01

    Social cognition in infancy is evident in coordinated triadic engagements, that is, infants attending jointly with social partners and objects. Current evolutionary theories of primate social cognition tend to highlight species differences in cognition based on human-unique cooperative motives. We consider a developmental model in which engagement experiences produce differential outcomes. We conducted a 10-year-long study in which two groups of laboratory-raised chimpanzee infants were given quantifiably different engagement experiences. Joint attention, cooperativeness, affect, and different levels of cognition were measured in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees, and compared to outcomes derived from a normative human database. We found that joint attention skills significantly improved across development for all infants, but by 12 months, the humans significantly surpassed the chimpanzees. We found that cooperativeness was stable in the humans, but by 12 months, the chimpanzee group given enriched engagement experiences significantly surpassed the humans. Past engagement experiences and concurrent affect were significant unique predictors of both joint attention and cooperativeness in 5- to 12-month-old chimpanzees. When engagement experiences and concurrent affect were statistically controlled, joint attention and cooperation were not associated. We explain differential social cognition outcomes in terms of the significant influences of previous engagement experiences and affect, in addition to cognition. Our study highlights developmental processes that underpin the emergence of social cognition in support of evolutionary continuity. © 2014 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Personality in the chimpanzees of Gombe National Park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; Wilson, Michael L.; Collins, D. Anthony; Mjungu, Deus; Kamenya, Shadrack; Foerster, Steffen; Pusey, Anne E.

    2017-01-01

    Researchers increasingly view animal personality traits as products of natural selection. We present data that describe the personalities of 128 eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) currently living in or who lived their lives in the Kasekela and Mitumba communities of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We obtained ratings on 24 items from an established, reliable, well-validated questionnaire used to study personality in captive chimpanzee populations. Ratings were made by former and present Tanzanian field assistants who followed individual chimpanzees for years and collected detailed behavioral observations. Interrater reliabilities across items ranged from acceptable to good, but the personality dimensions they formed were not as interpretable as those from captive samples. However, the personality dimensions corresponded to ratings of 24 Kasekela chimpanzees on a different questionnaire in 1973 that assessed some similar traits. These correlations established the repeatability and construct validity of the present ratings, indicating that the present data can facilitate historical and prospective studies that will lead to better understanding of the evolution of personality in chimpanzees and other primates. PMID:29064463

  20. Untrained chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii fail to imitate novel actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning.Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context has been conducted--with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study. Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy--and he did so across several contexts.Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions.

  1. Untrained Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) Fail to Imitate Novel Actions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennie, Claudio; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Background Social learning research in apes has focused on social learning in the technical (problem solving) domain - an approach that confounds action and physical information. Successful subjects in such studies may have been able to perform target actions not as a result of imitation learning but because they had learnt some technical aspect, for example, copying the movements of an apparatus (i.e., different forms of emulation learning). Methods Here we present data on action copying by non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees when physical information is removed from demonstrations. To date, only one such study (on gesture copying in a begging context) has been conducted – with negative results. Here we have improved this methodology and have also added non-begging test situations (a possible confound of the earlier study). Both familiar and novel actions were used as targets. Prior to testing, a trained conspecific demonstrator was rewarded for performing target actions in view of observers. All but one of the tested chimpanzees already failed to copy familiar actions. When retested with a novel target action, also the previously successful subject failed to copy – and he did so across several contexts. Conclusion Chimpanzees do not seem to copy novel actions, and only some ever copy familiar ones. Due to our having tested only non-enculturated and untrained chimpanzees, the performance of our test subjects speak more than most other studies of the general (dis-)ability of chimpanzees to copy actions, and especially novel actions. PMID:22905102

  2. Transmission of HCV to a chimpanzee using virus particles produced in an RNA-transfected HepG2 cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, S; Kalkeri, G; McClure, H M; Garry, R F; Clejan, S; Thung, S N; Murthy, K K

    2001-10-01

    It was demonstrated previously that HepG2 cells produce negative strand RNA and virus-like particles after transfection with RNA transcribed from a full-length hepatitis C virus (HCV) cDNA clone [Dash et al. (1997) American Journal of Pathology, 151:363-373]. To determine in vivo infectivity of these in vitro synthesized viral particles, a chimpanzee was inoculated intravenously with HCV derived from HepG2 cells. The infected chimpanzee was examined serially for elevation of liver enzymes, for the presence of HCV RNA in the serum by reverse transcription nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), anti-HCV antibodies in the serum, and inflammation in the liver. The chimpanzee developed elevated levels of liver enzymes after the second week, but the levels fluctuated over a 10-week period. HCV RNA was detected in the serum of the chimpanzee at the second, seventh and ninth weeks after inoculation, and remained positive up to 25 weeks. Liver biopsies at Weeks 18 and 19 revealed of mild inflammation. Nucleotide sequence analysis of HCV recovered from the infected chimpanzee at the second and ninth weeks showed 100% sequence homology with the clone used for transfection studies. Serum anti-HCV antibodies were not detected by EIA during the 25 weeks follow-up period. These results suggest that intravenous administration of the virus-like particles derived from RNA-transfected HepG2 cells are infectious, and therefore, the pMO9.6-T7 clone is an infectious clone. These results provide new information that in vitro synthesized HCV particles produced from full-length HCV clone can cause infection in a chimpanzee. This study will facilitate the use of innovative approaches to the study of assembly of HCV particles and mechanisms of virus infectivity in cell culture. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Specificity of chimpanzee antibodies binding a strain-specific HIV-1 neutralization epitope of the external envelope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, M.; Smit, L.; Meloen, R. H.

    1989-01-01

    Sera from three chimpanzees infected with a primary lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV-1) or human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-IIIB) passage, from two chimpanzees infected with blood from the primary infected chimpanzees, and from one chimpanzee infected with blood from a secondary

  4. Camera-trapping and seed-labelling reveals widespread granivory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many plant–animal interactions can be challenging to directly observe, due to species being small, cryptic and/or nocturnal. Previous research on seed predation and dispersal by rodents in the Fynbos Biome of South Africa has relied on indirect evidence, as methods for directly monitoring rodent–seed interactions were ...

  5. Genetic influences on receptive joint attention in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Keebaugh, Alaine C; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    Despite their genetic similarity to humans, our understanding of the role of genes on cognitive traits in chimpanzees remains virtually unexplored. Here, we examined the relationship between genetic variation in the arginine vasopressin V1a receptor gene (AVPR1A) and social cognition in chimpanzees...... cognition task was significantly heritable. Furthermore, males with one DupB(+) allele performed significantly better and were more responsive to socio-communicative cues than males homozygous for the DupB- deletion. Performance on a non-social cognition task was not associated with the AVPR1A genotype....... The collective findings show that AVPR1A polymorphisms are associated with individual differences in performance on a receptive joint attention task in chimpanzees....

  6. Distal Communication by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Evidence for Common Ground?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine; Russell, Jamie L; Wilson, Daniel; Schapiro, Steven J; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    van der Goot et al. (2014) proposed that distal, deictic communication indexed the appreciation of the psychological state of a common ground between a signaler and a receiver. In their study, great apes did not signal distally, which they construed as evidence for the human uniqueness of a sense of common ground. This study exposed 166 chimpanzees to food and an experimenter, at an angular displacement, to ask, "Do chimpanzees display distal communication?" Apes were categorized as (a) proximal or (b) distal signalers on each of four trials. The number of chimpanzees who communicated proximally did not statistically differ from the number who signaled distally. Therefore, contrary to the claim by van der Goot et al., apes do communicate distally. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  7. Differences in the cognitive skills of bonobos and chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Herrmann

    Full Text Available While bonobos and chimpanzees are both genetically and behaviorally very similar, they also differ in significant ways. Bonobos are more cautious and socially tolerant while chimpanzees are more dependent on extractive foraging, which requires tools. The similarities suggest the two species should be cognitively similar while the behavioral differences predict where the two species should differ cognitively. We compared both species on a wide range of cognitive problems testing their understanding of the physical and social world. Bonobos were more skilled at solving tasks related to theory of mind or an understanding of social causality, while chimpanzees were more skilled at tasks requiring the use of tools and an understanding of physical causality. These species differences support the role of ecological and socio-ecological pressures in shaping cognitive skills over relatively short periods of evolutionary time.

  8. Hand use and gestural communication in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W D; Leavens, D A

    1998-03-01

    Hand use in gestural communication was examined in 115 captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Hand use was measured in subjects while they gestured to food placed out of their reach. The distribution of hand use was examined in relation to sex, age, rearing history, gesture type, and whether the subjects vocalized while gesturing. Overall, significantly more chimpanzees, especially females and adults, gestured with their right than with their left hand. Foods begs were more lateralized to the right hand than pointing, and a greater prevalence of right-hand gesturing was found in subjects who simultaneously vocalized than those who did not. Taken together, these data suggest that referential, intentional communicative behaviors, in the form of gestures, are lateralized to the left hemisphere in chimpanzees.

  9. Evolutionary Divergence of Gene and Protein Expression in the Brains of Humans and Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauernfeind, Amy L; Soderblom, Erik J; Turner, Meredith E; Moseley, M Arthur; Ely, John J; Hof, Patrick R; Sherwood, Chet C; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2015-07-10

    Although transcriptomic profiling has become the standard approach for exploring molecular differences in the primate brain, very little is known about how the expression levels of gene transcripts relate to downstream protein abundance. Moreover, it is unknown whether the relationship changes depending on the brain region or species under investigation. We performed high-throughput transcriptomic (RNA-Seq) and proteomic (liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry) analyses on two regions of the human and chimpanzee brain: The anterior cingulate cortex and caudate nucleus. In both brain regions, we found a lower correlation between mRNA and protein expression levels in humans and chimpanzees than has been reported for other tissues and cell types, suggesting that the brain may engage extensive tissue-specific regulation affecting protein abundance. In both species, only a few categories of biological function exhibited strong correlations between mRNA and protein expression levels. These categories included oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis and modification, indicating that the expression levels of mRNA transcripts supporting these biological functions are more predictive of protein expression compared with other functional categories. More generally, however, the two measures of molecular expression provided strikingly divergent perspectives into differential expression between human and chimpanzee brains: mRNA comparisons revealed significant differences in neuronal communication, ion transport, and regulatory processes, whereas protein comparisons indicated differences in perception and cognition, metabolic processes, and organization of the cytoskeleton. Our results highlight the importance of examining protein expression in evolutionary analyses and call for a more thorough understanding of tissue-specific protein expression levels. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular

  10. The emergence of social cognition in three young chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasello, Michael; Carpenter, Malinda

    2005-01-01

    We report a series of 10 studies on the social-cognitive abilities of three young chimpanzees. The studies were all ones previously conducted with human infants. The chimpanzees were 1-5 years of age, had been raised mostly by humans, and were tested mostly directly by a familiar human experimenter. First, in a longitudinal investigation with repeated measurements from a social-cognitive test battery, the three young chimpanzees were similar in many ways to human infants; the major difference was a total lack of attempts to share attention with others either in joint attentional interactions or through declarative gestures. Second, in imitation-based tests of the understanding of intentional action, the chimpanzees, like human infants, showed an understanding of failed attempts and accidents; but they did not pay attention to the behavioral style of the actor or the actor's reasons for choosing a particular behavioral means. Third, in tests of their understanding of visual perception, the chimpanzees followed the gaze direction of a human to an out-of-sight location behind a barrier and gestured more to a human who could see them than to one who could not; but they showed no understanding that perceivers can focus their attention on one thing, or one aspect of a thing, within their perceptual fields for a reason. Finally, in tests of joint intentions and joint attention, the chimpanzees showed no ability to either reverse roles with a partner in a collaborative interaction or to set up a joint attentional framework for understanding the communicative intentions behind a pointing gesture. Taken together, these findings support the idea that the early ontogeny of human social cognition comprises two distinct trajectories, each with its own evolutionary history: one for understanding the basics of goal-directed action and perception, common to all apes, and another for sharing psychological states with others in collaborative acts involving joint intentions and

  11. The first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan: an attempt to care for the "surplus" of biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimura, Naruki; Idani, Gen'ichi; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-03-01

    This article specifically examines several aspects of the human-captive chimpanzee bond and the effort to create the first chimpanzee sanctuary in Japan. We discuss our ethical responsibility for captive chimpanzees that have been used in biomedical research. On April 1, 2007, the Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto (CSU) was established as the first sanctuary for retired laboratory chimpanzees in Japan. This initiative was the result of the continuous efforts by members of Support for African/Asian Great Apes (SAGA), and the Great Ape Information Network to provide a solution to the large chimpanzee colony held in biomedical facilities. However, the cessation of invasive biomedical studies using chimpanzees has created a new set of challenges because Japan lacks registration and laws banning invasive ape experiments and lacks a national policy for the life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees. Therefore, CSU has initiated a relocation program in which 79 retired laboratory chimpanzees will be sent to domestic zoos and receive life-long care. By the end of 2009, the number of chimpanzees living at CSU had decreased from 79 to 59 individuals. A nationwide network of care facilities and CSU to provide life-long care of retired laboratory chimpanzees is growing across Japan. This will result in humane treatment of these research animals. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Socially transmitted diffusion of a novel behavior from subordinate chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Stuart K; Reamer, Lisa A; Mareno, Mary Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) demonstrate much cultural diversity in the wild, yet a majority of novel behaviors do not become group-wide traditions. Since many such novel behaviors are introduced by low-ranking individuals, a bias toward copying dominant individuals ("rank-bias") has been proposed...... as an explanation for their limited diffusion. Previous experimental work showed that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) preferentially copy dominant over low-rank models. We investigated whether low ranking individuals may nevertheless successfully seed a beneficial behavior as a tradition if there are no "competing...

  13. Neocortical synaptophysin asymmetry and behavioral lateralization in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherwood, Chet C; Duka, Tetyana; Stimpson, Cheryl D

    2010-01-01

    Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin-immunoreacti......Although behavioral lateralization is known to correlate with certain aspects of brain asymmetry in primates, there are limited data concerning hemispheric biases in the microstructure of the neocortex. In the present study, we investigated whether there is asymmetry in synaptophysin...... density. In contrast, puncta densities were symmetrical in right-handed chimpanzees. These findings support the conclusion that synapse asymmetry is modulated by lateralization of skilled motor behavior in chimpanzees....

  14. Chronic widespread pain in spondyloarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Atzeni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The pain associated with spondyloarthritis (SpA can be intense, persistent and disabling. It frequently has a multifactorial, simultaneously central and peripheral origin, and may be due to currently active inflammation, or joint damage and tissue destruction arising from a previous inflammatory condition. Inflammatory pain symptoms can be reduced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, but many patients continue to experience moderate pain due to alterations in the mechanisms that regulate central pain, as in the case of the chronic widespread pain (CWP that characterises fibromyalgia (FM. The importance of distinguishing SpA and FM is underlined by the fact that SpA is currently treated with costly drugs such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF inhibitors, and direct costs are higher in patients with concomitant CWP or FM than in those with FM or SpA alone. Optimal treatment needs to take into account symptoms such as fatigue, mood, sleep, and the overall quality of life, and is based on the use of tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as fluoxetine, rather than adjustments in the dose of anti-TNF agents or disease-modifying drugs.

  15. Morphology of chimpanzee pinworms, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), collected from chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, on Rubondo Island, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Ikeda, Yatsukaho; Fujisaki, Akiko; Moscovice, Liza R; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kaur, Taranjit; Huffman, Michael A

    2005-12-01

    The chimpanzee pinworm, Enterobius (Enterobius) anthropopitheci (Gedoelst, 1916) (Nematoda: Oxyuridae), is redescribed based on light and scanning electron microscopy of both sexes collected from the feces of chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes, of an introduced population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania. Enterobius (E.) anthropopitheci is characterized by having a small body (males 1.13-1.83 mm long, females 3.33-4.73 mm long), a rather straight spicule with a ventral membranous formation in males, double-crested lateral alae in females, small eggs (53-58 by 24-28 microm), and a smooth eggshell with 3 longitudinal thickenings. Morphological comparison is made between the present and previous descriptions.

  16. Characterization of a chromosome-specific chimpanzee alpha satellite subset: Evolutionary relationship to subsets on human chromosomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warburton, P.E.; Gosden, J.; Lawson, D. [Western General Hospital, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1996-04-15

    Alpha satellite DNA is a tandemly repeated DNA family found at the centromeres of all primate chromosomes examined. The fundamental repeat units of alpha satellite DNA are diverged 169- to 172-bp monomers, often found to be organized in chromosome-specific higher-order repeat units. The chromosomes of human (Homo sapiens (HSA)), chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes (PTR) and Pan paniscus), and gorilla (Gorilla gorilla) share a remarkable similarity and synteny. It is of interest to ask if alpha satellite arrays at centromeres of homologous chromosomes between these species are closely related (evolving in an orthologous manner) or if the evolutionary processes that homogenize and spread these arrays within and between chromosomes result in nonorthologous evolution of arrays. By using PCR primers specific for human chromosome 17-specific alpha satellite DNA, we have amplified, cloned, and characterized a chromosome-specific subset from the PTR chimpanzee genome. Hybridization both on Southern blots and in situ as well as sequence analysis show that this subset is most closely related, as expected, to sequences on HSA 17. However, in situ hybridization reveals that this subset is not found on the homologous chromosome in chimpanzee (PTR 19), but instead on PTR 12, which is homologous to HSA 2p. 40 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Personality in sanctuary-housed chimpanzees: A comparative approach of psychobiological and penta-factorial human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Úbeda, Yulán; Llorente, Miquel

    2015-02-18

    We evaluate a sanctuary chimpanzee sample (N = 11) using two adapted human assessment instruments: the Five-Factor Model (FFM) and Eysenck's Psychoticism-Extraversion-Neuroticism (PEN) model. The former has been widely used in studies of animal personality, whereas the latter has never been used to assess chimpanzees. We asked familiar keepers and scientists (N = 28) to rate 38 (FFM) and 12 (PEN) personality items. The personality surveys showed reliability in all of the items for both instruments. These were then analyzed in a principal component analysis and a regularized exploratory factor analysis, which revealed four and three components, respectively. The results indicate that both questionnaires show a clear factor structure, with characteristic factors not just for the species, but also for the sample type. However, due to its brevity, the PEN may be more suitable for assessing personality in a sanctuary, where employees do not have much time to devote to the evaluation process. In summary, both models are sensitive enough to evaluate the personality of a group of chimpanzees housed in a sanctuary.

  18. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapua, Mwanahamisi I; Pafčo, Barbora; Burgunder, Jade; Profousová-Pšenková, Ilona; Todd, Angelique; Hashimoto, Chie; Qablan, Moneeb A; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára J

    2017-04-26

    Although a high genetic diversity of Plasmodium spp. circulating in great apes has been revealed recently due to non-invasive methods enabling detection in faecal samples, little is known about the actual mechanisms underlying the presence of Plasmodium DNA in faeces. Great apes are commonly infected by strongylid nematodes, including hookworms, which cause intestinal bleeding. The impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium DNA in faeces was assessed in wild, western, lowland gorillas from Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic and eastern chimpanzees from Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda. Fifty-one faecal samples from 22 habituated gorillas and 74 samples from 15 habituated chimpanzees were analysed using Cytochrome-b PCR assay and coprological methods. Overall, 26.4% of the analysed samples were positive for both Plasmodium spp. and strongylids. However, the results showed no significant impact of intensity of infections of strongylids on detection of Plasmodium DNA in gorilla and chimpanzee faeces. Bleeding caused by strongylid nematode Necator spp. cannot explain the presence of Plasmodium DNA in ape faeces.

  19. Comparative investigations of manual action representations: evidence that chimpanzees represent the costs of potential future actions involving tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Scott H; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2012-01-12

    The ability to adjust one's ongoing actions in the anticipation of forthcoming task demands is considered as strong evidence for the existence of internal action representations. Studies of action selection in tool use reveal that the behaviours that we choose in the present moment differ depending on what we intend to do next. Further, they point to a specialized role for mechanisms within the human cerebellum and dominant left cerebral hemisphere in representing the likely sensory costs of intended future actions. Recently, the question of whether similar mechanisms exist in other primates has received growing, but still limited, attention. Here, we present data that bear on this issue from a species that is a natural user of tools, our nearest living relative, the chimpanzee. In experiment 1, a subset of chimpanzees showed a non-significant tendency for their grip preferences to be affected by anticipation of the demands associated with bringing a tool's baited end to their mouths. In experiment 2, chimpanzees' initial grip preferences were consistently affected by anticipation of the forthcoming movements in a task that involves using a tool to extract a food reward. The partial discrepancy between the results of these two studies is attributed to the ability to accurately represent differences between the motor costs associated with executing the two response alternatives available within each task. These findings suggest that chimpanzees are capable of accurately representing the costs of intended future actions, and using those predictions to select movements in the present even in the context of externally directed tool use.

  20. Prospective Memory in a Language-Trained Chimpanzee ("Pan Troglodytes")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J.; Perdue, Bonnie M.; Bramlett, Jessica L.; Menzel, Charles R.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory involves the encoding, retention, and implementation of an intended future action. Although humans show many forms of prospective memory, less is known about the future oriented processes of nonhuman animals, or their ability to use prospective memory. In this experiment, a chimpanzee named Panzee, who had learned to associate…

  1. Contrasting demographic histories of the neighboring bonobo and chimpanzee

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Heller, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    of the neighboring bonobo remained constant. The changes in population size are likely linked to changes in habitat area due to climate oscillations during the late Pleistocene. Furthermore, the timing of population expansion for the rainforest-adapted chimpanzee is concurrent with the expansion of the savanna...

  2. Chimpanzees copy dominant and knowledgeable individuals: implications for cultural diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendal, Rachel; Hopper, Lydia M; Whiten, Andrew; Brosnan, Sarah F; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Hoppitt, Will

    2015-01-01

    Evolutionary theory predicts that natural selection will fashion cognitive biases to guide when, and from whom, individuals acquire social information, but the precise nature of these biases, especially in ecologically valid group contexts, remains unknown. We exposed four captive groups of chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) to a novel extractive foraging device and, by fitting statistical models, isolated four simultaneously operating transmission biases. These include biases to copy (i) higher-ranking and (ii) expert individuals, and to copy others when (iii) uncertain or (iv) of low rank. High-ranking individuals were relatively un-strategic in their use of acquired knowledge, which, combined with the bias for others to observe them, may explain reports that high innovation rates (in juveniles and subordinates) do not generate a correspondingly high frequency of traditions in chimpanzees. Given the typically low rank of immigrants in chimpanzees, a 'copying dominants' bias may contribute to the observed maintenance of distinct cultural repertoires in neighboring communities despite sharing similar ecology and knowledgeable migrants. Thus, a copying dominants strategy may, as often proposed for conformist transmission, and perhaps in concert with it, restrict the accumulation of traditions within chimpanzee communities whilst maintaining cultural diversity.

  3. Intranasal Oxytocin Failed to Affect Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) Social Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcutt, Sarah E.; Burke, Kimberly; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2017-01-01

    Oxytocin has been suggested as a treatment to promote positive social interactions in people with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). However, it is difficult to test this effect outside of the laboratory in realistic social situations. One way to resolve this issue is to study behavioral changes in closely related species with complex social relationships, such as chimpanzees. Here, we use captive, socially housed chimpanzees to evaluate the effects of oxytocin in a socially complex environment. After administering intranasal oxytocin or a placebo to an individual chimpanzee (total n = 8), she was returned to her social group. An experimenter blind to the condition measured the subject's social behavior. We failed to find a behavioral difference between conditions. As one of the goals for oxytocin administration as a treatment for ASD is increasing prosocial behaviors during ‘real world’ encounters, it is problematic that we failed to detect behavioral changes in our closest living relatives. However, our null findings may be related to methodological challenges such as determining an effective dose of oxytocin for chimpanzees and how long oxytocin takes to cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, more research on intranasal oxytocin dosing and uptake are needed to continue exploring whether oxytocin changes social behavior in naturalistic settings and as a treatment for ASD. PMID:28845444

  4. Mineral acquisition from clay by budongo forest chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W.; English, Christopher J.; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay

  5. Human children rely more on social information than chimpanzees do.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Call, Josep; Haun, Daniel B M

    2014-11-01

    Human societies are characterized by more cultural diversity than chimpanzee communities. However, it is currently unclear what mechanism might be driving this difference. Because reliance on social information is a pivotal characteristic of culture, we investigated individual and social information reliance in children and chimpanzees. We repeatedly presented subjects with a reward-retrieval task on which they had collected conflicting individual and social information of equal accuracy in counterbalanced order. While both species relied mostly on their individual information, children but not chimpanzees searched for the reward at the socially demonstrated location more than at a random location. Moreover, only children used social information adaptively when individual knowledge on the location of the reward had not yet been obtained. Social information usage determines information transmission and in conjunction with mechanisms that create cultural variants, such as innovation, it facilitates diversity. Our results may help explain why humans are more culturally diversified than chimpanzees. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Do chimpanzees use weight to select hammer tools?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Schrauf

    Full Text Available The extent to which tool-using animals take into account relevant task parameters is poorly understood. Nut cracking is one of the most complex forms of tool use, the choice of an adequate hammer being a critical aspect in success. Several properties make a hammer suitable for nut cracking, with weight being a key factor in determining the impact of a strike; in general, the greater the weight the fewer strikes required. This study experimentally investigated whether chimpanzees are able to encode the relevance of weight as a property of hammers to crack open nuts. By presenting chimpanzees with three hammers that differed solely in weight, we assessed their ability to relate the weight of the different tools with their effectiveness and thus select the most effective one(s. Our results show that chimpanzees use weight alone in selecting tools to crack open nuts and that experience clearly affects the subjects' attentiveness to the tool properties that are relevant for the task at hand. Chimpanzees can encode the requirements that a nut-cracking tool should meet (in terms of weight to be effective.

  7. Can Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") Discriminate Appearance from Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krachun, Carla; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A milestone in human development is coming to recognize that how something looks is not necessarily how it is. We tested appearance-reality understanding in chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with a task requiring them to choose between a small grape and a big grape. The apparent relative size of the grapes was reversed using magnifying and…

  8. Parasitic nematodes in the chimpanzee population on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrželková, Klára Judita; Hasegawa, H.; Moscovice, L. R.; Kaur, T.; Issa, M. H.; Huffman, M. A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2006), s. 767-777 ISSN 0164-0291 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * introduced population * nematode * new parasite record * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.331, year: 2006

  9. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  10. Complexity in behavioural organization and strongylid infection among wild chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Burgunder, J.; Pafčo, B.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Modrý, D.; Hashimoto, C.; MacIntosh, A. J. J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 129, July (2017), s. 257-268 ISSN 0003-3472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : behavioural complexity * chimpanzees * fractal analysis * health monitoring * Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii * strongylid infection Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.869, year: 2016

  11. The Development of a Greeting Signal in Wild Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, Marion N. C.; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Adult chimpanzees produce a unique vocal signal, the pant-grunt, when encountering higher-ranking group members. The behaviour is typically directed to a specific receiver and has thus been interpreted as a "greeting" signal. The alpha male obtains a large share of these calls, followed by the other adult males of the group. In this study, we…

  12. Genetic and phylogenetic characterization of novel bocaparvovirus infecting chimpanzee

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brožová, K.; Hrazdilová, K.; Slaninková, E.; Modrý, David; Černý, Jiří; Celer, V.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 37, JAN (2016), s. 231-236 ISSN 1567-1348 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Bocavirus * phylogeny * primate * recombination * Bocaparvovirus * chimpanzee * Pan troglodytes Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology Impact factor: 2.885, year: 2016

  13. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-07-16

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces among non-facial objects rapidly. We report that chimpanzees detected chimpanzee faces among non-facial objects quite efficiently. This efficient search was not limited to own-species faces. They also found human adult and baby faces--but not monkey faces--efficiently. Additional testing showed that a front-view face was more readily detected than a profile, suggesting the important role of eye-to-eye contact. Chimpanzees also detected a photograph of a banana as efficiently as a face, but a further examination clearly indicated that the banana was detected mainly due to a low-level feature (i.e., color). Efficient face detection was hampered by an inverted presentation, suggesting that configural processing of faces is a critical element of efficient face detection in both species. This conclusion was supported by a simple simulation experiment using the saliency model.

  14. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit divergent spatial memory development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2012-11-01

    Spatial cognition and memory are critical cognitive skills underlying foraging behaviors for all primates. While the emergence of these skills has been the focus of much research on human children, little is known about ontogenetic patterns shaping spatial cognition in other species. Comparative developmental studies of nonhuman apes can illuminate which aspects of human spatial development are shared with other primates, versus which aspects are unique to our lineage. Here we present three studies examining spatial memory development in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (P. paniscus). We first compared memory in a naturalistic foraging task where apes had to recall the location of resources hidden in a large outdoor enclosure with a variety of landmarks (Studies 1 and 2). We then compared older apes using a matched memory choice paradigm (Study 3). We found that chimpanzees exhibited more accurate spatial memory than bonobos across contexts, supporting predictions from these species' different feeding ecologies. Furthermore, chimpanzees - but not bonobos - showed developmental improvements in spatial memory, indicating that bonobos exhibit cognitive paedomorphism (delays in developmental timing) in their spatial abilities relative to chimpanzees. Together, these results indicate that the development of spatial memory may differ even between closely related species. Moreover, changes in the spatial domain can emerge during nonhuman ape ontogeny, much like some changes seen in human children. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Etienne

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee's main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4(+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses.

  16. Personality disparity in chronic regional and widespread pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Chung; Chen, Po-Fei; Lung, For-Wey

    2017-08-01

    Chronic pain has high comorbidity with psychiatric disorders, therefore, better understanding of the relationship between chronic pain and mental illness is needed. This study aimed to investigate the pathway relationships among parental attachment, personality characteristics, alexithymic trait and mental health in patients with chronic widespread pain, those with chronic regional pain, and controls. Two hundred and thirty participants were recruited. The parental Bonding Inventory, Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), Chinese Health Questionnaire, and Short-Form 36 were filled out. The pathway relationships revealed that patients of mothers who were more protective were more neurotic, had more difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), worse mental health, and a higher association with chronic widespread pain. No differences were found between patients with chronic regional pain and the controls. The predisposing factors for chronic widespread pain, when compared with chronic regional pain, may be more closely related to psychiatric disorders. The pathways to chronic regional pain and chronic widespread pain differ, with neuroticism and the alexithymic DIF trait being the main factors defining chronic widespread pain. Therefore, besides therapies targeting pain symptoms, psychiatric consultation, medication and psychotherapy are also recommended for those with chronic widespread pain to alleviate their mental health conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chimpanzee insectivory in the northern half of Uganda's Rift Valley: do Bulindi chimpanzees conform to a regional pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Matthew R

    2014-04-01

    Insects are a nutritious food source for many primates. In chimpanzees, insectivory is most prevalent among communities that manufacture tools to harvest social insects, particularly ants and termites. In contrast to other long-term study sites, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Budongo Forest and Kibale National Park, Uganda, rarely eat insects and have small foraging tool kits, supporting speculation that infrequent insectivory--technically aided or otherwise--characterises chimpanzees in this part of Uganda's Rift Valley. To expand the dataset for this region, insect foraging was investigated at Bulindi (25 km from Budongo) over 19 months during two studies in 2007-2008 and 2012-2013. Systematic faecal analysis demonstrated that insectivory is a habitual foraging activity at this site. Overall levels of insect consumption varied considerably across months but were not predicted by monthly changes in rainfall or fruit intake. Unlike their Budongo and Kibale counterparts, Bulindi chimpanzees often consume ants (principally weaver ants, Oecophylla longinoda) and use sticks to dig out stingless bee (Meliponini) ground nests. In other respects, however, insectivory at Bulindi conforms to the pattern observed elsewhere in this region: they do not manufacture 'fishing' or 'dipping' tools to harvest termites and aggressive or hard-to-access ants (e.g., army ants, Dorylus spp.), despite availability of suitable prey. The Bulindi data lend support to the supposition that chimpanzees in this part of the Rift Valley rarely exploit termites and Dorylus ants, apparently lacking the 'cultural knowledge' that would enable them to do so most efficiently (i.e., tool use). The study's findings contribute to current debates about the relative influence of genetics, environment and culture in shaping regional and local variability in Pan foraging ecology.

  18. A Guttman-Based Approach to Identifying Cumulativeness Applied to Chimpanzee Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Graber, RB; de Cock, DR; Burton, ML

    2012-01-01

    Human culture appears to build on itself-that is, to be to some extent cumulative. Whether this property is shared by culture in the common chimpanzee is controversial. The question previously has been approached, qualitatively (and inconclusively), by debating whether any chimpanzee culture traits have resulted from individuals building on one another's work ("ratcheting"). The fact that the chimpanzees at different sites have distinctive repertoires of traits affords a different avenue of a...

  19. Head-mounted eye tracking of a chimpanzee under naturalistic conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available This study offers a new method for examining the bodily, manual, and eye movements of a chimpanzee at the micro-level. A female chimpanzee wore a lightweight head-mounted eye tracker (60 Hz on her head while engaging in daily interactions with the human experimenter. The eye tracker recorded her eye movements accurately while the chimpanzee freely moved her head, hands, and body. Three video cameras recorded the bodily and manual movements of the chimpanzee from multiple angles. We examined how the chimpanzee viewed the experimenter in this interactive setting and how the eye movements were related to the ongoing interactive contexts and actions. We prepared two experimentally defined contexts in each session: a face-to-face greeting phase upon the appearance of the experimenter in the experimental room, and a subsequent face-to-face task phase that included manual gestures and fruit rewards. Overall, the general viewing pattern of the chimpanzee, measured in terms of duration of individual fixations, length of individual saccades, and total viewing duration of the experimenter's face/body, was very similar to that observed in previous eye-tracking studies that used non-interactive situations, despite the differences in the experimental settings. However, the chimpanzee viewed the experimenter and the scene objects differently depending on the ongoing context and actions. The chimpanzee viewed the experimenter's face and body during the greeting phase, but viewed the experimenter's face and hands as well as the fruit reward during the task phase. These differences can be explained by the differential bodily/manual actions produced by the chimpanzee and the experimenter during each experimental phase (i.e., greeting gestures, task cueing. Additionally, the chimpanzee's viewing pattern varied depending on the identity of the experimenter (i.e., the chimpanzee's prior experience with the experimenter. These methods and results offer new

  20. Cladistic analyses of behavioural variation in wild Pan troglodytes: exploring the chimpanzee culture hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2009-10-01

    Long-term field studies have revealed considerable behavioural differences among groups of wild Pan troglodytes. Here, we report three sets of cladistic analyses that were designed to shed light on issues relating to this interpopulation variation that are of particular relevance to palaeoanthropology. In the first set of analyses, we focused on the proximate cause of the variation. Some researchers have argued that it is cultural, while others have suggested that it is the result of genetic differences. Because the eastern and western subspecies of P. troglodytes are well differentiated genetically while groups within the subspecies are not, we reasoned that if the genetic hypothesis is correct, the phylogenetic signal should be stronger when data from the eastern and western subspecies are analysed together compared to when data from only the eastern subspecies are analysed. Using randomisation procedures, we found that the phylogenetic signal was substantially stronger with in a single subspecies rather than with two. The results of the first sets of analyses, therefore, were inconsistent with the predictions of the genetic hypothesis. The other two sets of analyses built on the results of the first and assumed that the intergroup behavioural variation is cultural in nature. Recent work has shown that, contrary to what anthropologists and archaeologists have long believed, vertical intergroup transmission is often more important than horizontal intergroup transmission in human cultural evolution. In the second set of analyses, we sought to determine how important vertical transmission has been in the evolution of chimpanzee cultural diversity. The first analysis we carried out indicated that the intergroup similarities and differences in behaviour are consistent with the divergence of the western and eastern subspecies, which is what would be expected if vertical intergroup transmission has been the dominant process. In the second analysis, we found that the

  1. Social Attention in the Two Species of Pan: Bonobos Make More Eye Contact than Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiro Kano

    Full Text Available Humans' two closest primate living relatives, bonobos and chimpanzees, differ behaviorally, cognitively, and emotionally in several ways despite their general similarities. While bonobos show more affiliative behaviors towards conspecifics, chimpanzees display more overt and severe aggression against conspecifics. From a cognitive standpoint, bonobos perform better in social coordination, gaze-following and food-related cooperation, while chimpanzees excel in tasks requiring extractive foraging skills. We hypothesized that attention and motivation play an important role in shaping the species differences in behavior, cognition, and emotion. Thus, we predicted that bonobos would pay more attention to the other individuals' face and eyes, as those are related to social affiliation and social coordination, while chimpanzees would pay more attention to the action target objects, as they are related to foraging. Using eye-tracking we examined the bonobos' and chimpanzees' spontaneous scanning of pictures that included eyes, mouth, face, genitals, and action target objects of conspecifics. Although bonobos and chimpanzees viewed those elements overall similarly, bonobos viewed the face and eyes longer than chimpanzees, whereas chimpanzees viewed the other elements, the mouth, action target objects and genitals, longer than bonobos. In a discriminant analysis, the individual variation in viewing patterns robustly predicted the species of individuals, thus clearly demonstrating species-specific viewing patterns. We suggest that such attentional and motivational differences between bonobos and chimpanzees could have partly contributed to shaping the species-specific behaviors, cognition, and emotion of these species, even in a relatively short period of evolutionary time.

  2. Cues to Personality and Health in the Facial Appearance of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin S. S. Kramer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans (Homo sapiens and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes can extract socially-relevant information from the static, non-expressive faces of conspecifics. In humans, the face is a valid signal of both personality and health. Recent evidence shows that, like humans, chimpanzee faces also contain personality information, and that humans can accurately judge aspects of chimpanzee personality relating to extraversion from the face alone (Kramer, King, and Ward, 2011. These findings suggest the hypothesis that humans and chimpanzees share a system of personality and facial morphology for signaling socially-relevant traits from the face. We sought to test this hypothesis using a new group of chimpanzees. In two studies, we found that chimpanzee faces contained health information, as well as information of characteristics relating to extraversion, emotional stability, and agreeableness, using average judgments from pairs of individual photographs. In a third study, information relating to extraversion and health was also present in composite images of individual chimpanzees. We therefore replicate and extend previous findings using a new group of chimpanzees and demonstrate two methods for minimizing the variability associated with individual photographs. Our findings support the hypothesis that chimpanzees and humans share a personality signaling system.

  3. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Reynolds

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  4. Mineral Acquisition from Clay by Budongo Forest Chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Vernon; Lloyd, Andrew W; English, Christopher J; Lyons, Peter; Dodd, Howard; Hobaiter, Catherine; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas; Mullins, Caroline; Lamon, Noemie; Schel, Anne Marijke; Fallon, Brittany

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees of the Sonso community, Budongo Forest, Uganda were observed eating clay and drinking clay-water from waterholes. We show that clay, clay-rich water, and clay obtained with leaf sponges, provide a range of minerals in different concentrations. The presence of aluminium in the clay consumed indicates that it takes the form of kaolinite. We discuss the contribution of clay geophagy to the mineral intake of the Sonso chimpanzees and show that clay eaten using leaf sponges is particularly rich in minerals. We show that termite mound soil, also regularly consumed, is rich in minerals. We discuss the frequency of clay and termite soil geophagy in the context of the disappearance from Budongo Forest of a formerly rich source of minerals, the decaying pith of Raphia farinifera palms.

  5. When maths trumps logic: probabilistic judgements in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanus, Daniel; Call, Josep

    2014-12-01

    When searching for hidden food, do chimpanzees take into account both the number of hidden items and the number of potential hiding locations? We presented chimpanzees with two trays, each of them containing a different food/cup ratio and therefore a different likelihood of finding a baited cup among empty alternatives. Subjects' performance was directly influenced by the relative difference (probability ratio (PR)) between the two given probabilities. Interestingly, however, they did not appreciate the special value of a truly safe option (with P = 1.0). Instead, they seemed to 'blindly' rely on the PR between the two options, systematically preferring the more likely one once a certain threshold had been reached. A control condition ruled out the possibility of low-level learning explanations for the observed performance. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jake A Funkhouser

    Full Text Available Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  7. Bayesian inference of shared recombination hotspots between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Rannala, Bruce

    2014-12-01

    Recombination generates variation and facilitates evolution. Recombination (or lack thereof) also contributes to human genetic disease. Methods for mapping genes influencing complex genetic diseases via association rely on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in human populations, which is influenced by rates of recombination across the genome. Comparative population genomic analyses of recombination using related primate species can identify factors influencing rates of recombination in humans. Such studies can indicate how variable hotspots for recombination may be both among individuals (or populations) and over evolutionary timescales. Previous studies have suggested that locations of recombination hotspots are not conserved between humans and chimpanzees. We made use of the data sets from recent resequencing projects and applied a Bayesian method for identifying hotspots and estimating recombination rates. We also reanalyzed SNP data sets for regions with known hotspots in humans using samples from the human and chimpanzee. The Bayes factors (BF) of shared recombination hotspots between human and chimpanzee across regions were obtained. Based on the analysis of the aligned regions of human chromosome 21, locations where the two species show evidence of shared recombination hotspots (with high BFs) were identified. Interestingly, previous comparative studies of human and chimpanzee that focused on the known human recombination hotspots within the β-globin and HLA regions did not find overlapping of hotspots. Our results show high BFs of shared hotspots at locations within both regions, and the estimated locations of shared hotspots overlap with the locations of human recombination hotspots obtained from sperm-typing studies. Copyright © 2014 by the Genetics Society of America.

  8. Response to: Chimpanzee culture extends beyond matrilineal family units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Worthington, Steven; Bernard, Andrew B; Koops, Kathelijne; Machanda, Zarin P; Muller, Martin N

    2017-06-19

    We thank van Leeuwen et al.[1] for their response to our finding that matrilineal relationships strongly influence the style of high-arm grooming in wild chimpanzees of the Kanyawara community. We agree with them that grooming styles could be transmitted by different mechanisms in different contexts, and we appreciate their effort to assess whether the transmission of grooming styles within two captive groups in Chimfunshi accords with our result. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Task design influences prosociality in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey R House

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial behavior provides an important foundation for future research exploring these animals' social preferences. A number of studies have been designed to assess chimpanzees' preferences for outcomes that benefit others (prosocial preferences, but these studies vary greatly in both the results obtained and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been offered to explain why different experimental designs produce different results: (a chimpanzees are less likely to deliver food to others when they obtain food for themselves, and (b evidence of prosociality may be obscured by more "complex" experimental apparatuses (e.g., those including more components or alternative choices. Our results suggest that the complexity of laboratory tasks may generate observed variation in prosocial behavior in laboratory experiments, and highlights the need for more naturalistic research designs while also providing one example of such a paradigm.

  10. Social network and dominance hierarchy analyses at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jake A; Mayhew, Jessica A; Mulcahy, John B

    2018-01-01

    Different aspects of sociality bear considerable weight on the individual- and group-level welfare of captive nonhuman primates. Social Network Analysis (SNA) is a useful tool for gaining a holistic understanding of the dynamic social relationships of captive primate groups. Gaining a greater understanding of captive chimpanzees through investigations of centrality, preferred and avoided relationships, dominance hierarchy, and social network diagrams can be useful in advising current management practices in sanctuaries and other captive settings. In this study, we investigated the dyadic social relationships, group-level social networks, and dominance hierarchy of seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at Chimpanzee Sanctuary Northwest. We used focal-animal and instantaneous scan sampling to collect 106.75 total hours of associative, affiliative, and agonistic data from June to September 2016. We analyzed our data using SOCPROG to derive dominance hierarchies and network statistics, and we diagrammed the group's social networks in NetDraw. Three individuals were most central in the grooming network, while two others had little connection. Through agonistic networks, we found that group members reciprocally exhibited agonism, and the group's dominance hierarchy was statistically non-linear. One chimpanzee emerged as the most dominant through agonism but was least connected to other group members across affiliative networks. Our results indicate that the conventional methods used to calculate individuals' dominance rank may be inadequate to wholly depict a group's social relationships in captive sanctuary populations. Our results have an applied component that can aid sanctuary staff in a variety of ways to best ensure the improvement of group welfare.

  11. Efficient search for a face by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    OpenAIRE

    Tomonaga, Masaki; Imura, Tomoko

    2015-01-01

    The face is quite an important stimulus category for human and nonhuman primates in their social lives. Recent advances in comparative-cognitive research clearly indicate that chimpanzees and humans process faces in a special manner; that is, using holistic or configural processing. Both species exhibit the face-inversion effect in which the inverted presentation of a face deteriorates their perception and recognition. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that humans detect human faces amon...

  12. Rates of genomic divergence in humans, chimpanzees and their lice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kevin P; Allen, Julie M; Olds, Brett P; Mugisha, Lawrence; Reed, David L; Paige, Ken N; Pittendrigh, Barry R

    2014-02-22

    The rate of DNA mutation and divergence is highly variable across the tree of life. However, the reasons underlying this variation are not well understood. Comparing the rates of genetic changes between hosts and parasite lineages that diverged at the same time is one way to begin to understand differences in genetic mutation and substitution rates. Such studies have indicated that the rate of genetic divergence in parasites is often faster than that of their hosts when comparing single genes. However, the variation in this relative rate of molecular evolution across different genes in the genome is unknown. We compared the rate of DNA sequence divergence between humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasitic lice for 1534 protein-coding genes across their genomes. The rate of DNA substitution in these orthologous genes was on average 14 times faster for lice than for humans and chimpanzees. In addition, these rates were positively correlated across genes. Because this correlation only occurred for substitutions that changed the amino acid, this pattern is probably produced by similar functional constraints across the same genes in humans, chimpanzees and their ectoparasites.

  13. Comprehension of iconic gestures by chimpanzees and human children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohn, Manuel; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Iconic gestures-communicative acts using hand or body movements that resemble their referent-figure prominently in theories of language evolution and development. This study contrasted the abilities of chimpanzees (N=11) and 4-year-old human children (N=24) to comprehend novel iconic gestures. Participants learned to retrieve rewards from apparatuses in two distinct locations, each requiring a different action. In the test, a human adult informed the participant where to go by miming the action needed to obtain the reward. Children used the iconic gestures (more than arbitrary gestures) to locate the reward, whereas chimpanzees did not. Some children also used arbitrary gestures in the same way, but only after they had previously shown comprehension for iconic gestures. Over time, chimpanzees learned to associate iconic gestures with the appropriate location faster than arbitrary gestures, suggesting at least some recognition of the iconicity involved. These results demonstrate the importance of iconicity in referential communication. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sex differences in wild chimpanzee behavior emerge during infancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth V Lonsdorf

    Full Text Available The role of biological and social influences on sex differences in human child development is a persistent topic of discussion and debate. Given their many similarities to humans, chimpanzees are an important study species for understanding the biological and evolutionary roots of sex differences in human development. In this study, we present the most detailed analyses of wild chimpanzee infant development to date, encompassing data from 40 infants from the long-term study of chimpanzees at Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Our goal was to characterize age-related changes, from birth to five years of age, in the percent of observation time spent performing behaviors that represent important benchmarks in nutritional, motor, and social development, and to determine whether and in which behaviors sex differences occur. Sex differences were found for indicators of social behavior, motor development and spatial independence with males being more physically precocious and peaking in play earlier than females. These results demonstrate early sex differentiation that may reflect adult reproductive strategies. Our findings also resemble those found in humans, which suggests that biologically-based sex differences may have been present in the common ancestor and operated independently from the influences of modern sex-biased parental behavior and gender socialization.

  15. Transmission of multiple traditions within and between chimpanzee groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; Spiteri, Antoine; Horner, Victoria; Bonnie, Kristin E; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; de Waal, Frans B M

    2007-06-19

    Field reports provide increasing evidence for local behavioral traditions among fish, birds, and mammals. These findings are significant for evolutionary biology because social learning affords faster adaptation than genetic change and has generated new (cultural) forms of evolution. Orangutan and chimpanzee field studies suggest that like humans, these apes are distinctive among animals in each exhibiting over 30 local traditions. However, direct evidence is lacking in apes and, with the exception of vocal dialects, in animals generally for the intergroup transmission that would allow innovations to spread widely and become evolutionarily significant phenomena. Here, we provide robust experimental evidence that alternative foraging techniques seeded in different groups of chimpanzees spread differentially not only within groups but serially across two further groups with substantial fidelity. Combining these results with those from recent social-diffusion studies in two larger groups offers the first experimental evidence that a nonhuman species can sustain unique local cultures, each constituted by multiple traditions. The convergence of these results with those from the wild implies a richness in chimpanzees' capacity for culture, a richness that parsimony suggests was shared with our common ancestor.

  16. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-06-13

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function.

  17. Conservatism and "copy-if-better" in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Call, Josep

    2017-05-01

    Social learning is predicted to evolve in socially living animals provided the learning process is not random but biased by certain socio-ecological factors. One bias of particular interest for the emergence of (cumulative) culture is the tendency to forgo personal behaviour in favour of relatively better variants observed in others, also known as the "copy-if-better" strategy. We investigated whether chimpanzees employ copy-if-better in a simple token-exchange paradigm controlling for individual and random social learning. After being trained on one token-type, subjects were confronted with a conspecific demonstrator who either received the same food reward as the subject (control condition) or a higher value food reward than the subject (test condition) for exchanging another token-type. In general, the chimpanzees persisted in exchanging the token-type they were trained on individually, indicating a form of conservatism consistent with previous studies. However, the chimpanzees were more inclined to copy the demonstrator in the test compared to the control condition, indicating a tendency to employ a copy-if-better strategy. We discuss the validity of our results by considering alternative explanations and relate our findings to the emergence of cumulative culture.

  18. Responses to a simple barter task in chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosnan, Sarah F; de Waal, Frans B M

    2005-07-01

    Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) frequently participate in social exchange involving multiple goods and services of variable value, yet they have not been tested in a formalized situation to see whether they can barter using multiple tokens and rewards. We set up a simple barter economy with two tokens and two associated rewards and tested chimpanzees on their ability to obtain rewards by returning the matching token in situations in which their access to tokens was unlimited or limited. Chimpanzees easily learned to associate value with the tokens, as expected, and did barter, but followed a simple strategy of favoring the higher-value token, regardless of the reward proffered, instead of a more complex but more effective strategy of returning the token that matched the reward. This response is similar to that shown by capuchin monkeys in our previous study. We speculate that this response, while not ideal, may be sufficient to allow for stability of the social exchange system in these primates, and that the importance of social barter to both species may have led to this convergence of strategies.

  19. Synchrony and motor mimicking in chimpanzee observational learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Delia; Ravignani, Andrea; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Cumulative tool-based culture underwrote our species' evolutionary success, and tool-based nut-cracking is one of the strongest candidates for cultural transmission in our closest relatives, chimpanzees. However the social learning processes that may explain both the similarities and differences between the species remain unclear. A previous study of nut-cracking by initially naïve chimpanzees suggested that a learning chimpanzee holding no hammer nevertheless replicated hammering actions it witnessed. This observation has potentially important implications for the nature of the social learning processes and underlying motor coding involved. In the present study, model and observer actions were quantified frame-by-frame and analysed with stringent statistical methods, demonstrating synchrony between the observer's and model's movements, cross-correlation of these movements above chance level and a unidirectional transmission process from model to observer. These results provide the first quantitative evidence for motor mimicking underlain by motor coding in apes, with implications for mirror neuron function. PMID:24923651

  20. Chimpanzees and humans mimic pupil-size of conspecifics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariska E Kret

    Full Text Available Group-living typically provides benefits to individual group members but also confers costs. To avoid incredulity and betrayal and allow trust and cooperation, individuals must understand the intentions and emotions of their group members. Humans attend to other's eyes and from gaze and pupil-size cues, infer information about the state of mind of the observed. In humans, pupil-size tends to mimic that of the observed. Here we tested whether pupil-mimicry exists in our closest relative, the chimpanzee (P. troglodytes. We conjectured that if pupil-mimicry has adaptive value, e.g. to promote swift communication of inner states and facilitate shared understanding and coordination, pupil-mimicry should emerge within but not across species. Pupillometry data was collected from human and chimpanzee subjects while they observed images of the eyes of both species with dilating/constricting pupils. Both species showed enhanced pupil-mimicry with members of their own species, with effects being strongest in humans and chimpanzee mothers. Pupil-mimicry may be deeply-rooted, but probably gained importance from the point in human evolution where the morphology of our eyes became more prominent. Humans' white sclera surrounding the iris, and the fine muscles around their eyes facilitate non-verbal communication via eye signals.

  1. Evidence for cultural differences between neighboring chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Mundry, Roger; Boesch, Christophe

    2012-05-22

    The majority of evidence for cultural behavior in animals has come from comparisons between populations separated by large geographical distances that often inhabit different environments. The difficulty of excluding ecological and genetic variation as potential explanations for observed behaviors has led some researchers to challenge the idea of animal culture. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, crack Coula edulis nuts using stone and wooden hammers and tree root anvils. In this study, we compare for the first time hammer selection for nut cracking across three neighboring chimpanzee communities that live in the same forest habitat, which reduces the likelihood of ecological variation. Furthermore, the study communities experience frequent dispersal of females at maturity, which eliminates significant genetic variation. We compared key ecological factors, such as hammer availability and nut hardness, between the three neighboring communities and found striking differences in group-specific hammer selection among communities despite similar ecological conditions. Differences were found in the selection of hammer material and hammer size in response to changes in nut resistance over time. Our findings highlight the subtleties of cultural differences in wild chimpanzees and illustrate how cultural knowledge is able to shape behavior, creating differences among neighboring social groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Understanding geographic origins and history of admixture among chimpanzees in European zoos, with implications for future breeding programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Frandsen, Peter; Børsting, Claus

    2013-01-01

    Despite ample focus on this endangered species, conservation planning for chimpanzees residing outside Africa has proven a challenge because of the lack of ancestry information. Here, we analysed the largest number of chimpanzee samples to date, examining microsatellites in >100 chimpanzees from ...

  3. Pestle-pounding and nut-cracking by wild chimpanzees at Kpala, Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohashi, Gaku

    2015-04-01

    Bossou in Guinea is one of the longitudinal study sites of wild chimpanzees, and is located only a few kilometers away from the national border between Guinea and Liberia. The forests in the area spread over the national border of Guinea, and the Bossou chimpanzees have been found to use the neighboring Liberian forest. Local assistants and I started surveying these forests in Liberia, and found that additional groups of chimpanzees lived in Nimba County, Liberia. The present study reports tool use behaviors by chimpanzees living in forests of the Kpala area in Nimba County. We directly observed pestle-pounding behavior, which had been confirmed only in the Bossou group of wild chimpanzees. Moreover, we heard sounds of nut-cracking, and successfully filmed chimpanzees cracking open oil palm nuts with stones. The uniqueness of stone-tool use behaviors has been emphasized with the group of chimpanzees that have been longitudinally studied at Bossou, but the behaviors probably have a wide distribution in this area. Emigrant chimpanzees are thought to contribute to the propagation of the cultural tool-use behaviors. It is also thought that, if the distantly located groups share similar cultural behaviors, there might be genetic exchange between them. Conservation efforts should be needed not only at Bossou, but also in a wider area including nonprotected forests beyond the national border.

  4. Different Social Motives in the Gestural Communication of Chimpanzees and Human Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Anke F.; Zimmermann, Felizitas; Kaminski, Juliane; Tomasello, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Both chimpanzees and human infants use the pointing gesture with human adults, but it is not clear if they are doing so for the same social motives. In two studies, we presented chimpanzees and human 25-month-olds with the opportunity to point for a hidden tool (in the presence of a non-functional distractor). In one condition it was clear that…

  5. Identification of chimpanzee leukocyte antigens (ChL-A) and their relation to HL-A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balner, H.

    1971-01-01

    The identification of a number of leukocyte antigens of chimpanzees is described. Suggestive evidence was obtained that some of the isoantisera recognize specificities of a hypothetical genetic system of chimpanzee antigens which, in analogy with the human HL-A system, is tentatively called ChL-A.

  6. Probable transmission of coxsackie B3 virus from human to chimpanzee, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sandra Cathrine Abel; Mourier, Tobias; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, a chimpanzee died at Copenhagen Zoo following an outbreak of respiratory disease among chimpanzees in the zoo. Identification of coxsackie B3 virus, a common human pathogen, as the causative agent, and its severe manifestation, raise questions about pathogenicity and transmissibility among...

  7. The behavioral development of free-living chimpanzee babies and infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plooij, Fransiscus Xaverius

    1980-01-01

    This study aims to achieve an ontogenetically oriented understanding of behavioural phenomena during early development (first 2 years) of free-living chimpanzees. For this purpose, six chimpanzee babies and infants were observed in the Gombe National Park, Tanzania. The main question which dominates

  8. A critical role for the chimpanzee model in the study of hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukh, Jens

    2004-06-01

    Chimpanzees remain the only recognized animal model for the study of hepatitis C virus (HCV). Studies performed in chimpanzees played a critical role in the discovery of HCV and are continuing to play an essential role in defining the natural history of this important human pathogen. In the absence of a reproducible cell culture system, the infectivity titer of HCV challenge pools can be determined only in chimpanzees. Recent studies in chimpanzees have provided new insight into the nature of host immune responses-particularly the intrahepatic responses-following primary and secondary experimental HCV infections. The immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccine candidates against HCV can be tested only in chimpanzees. Finally, it would not have been possible to demonstrate the infectivity of infectious clones of HCV without chimpanzees. Chimpanzees became infected when RNA transcripts from molecular clones were inoculated directly into the liver. The infection generated by such transfection did not differ significantly from that observed in animals infected intravenously with wild-type HCV. The RNA inoculated into chimpanzees originated from a single sequence, and the animals therefore had a monoclonal HCV infection. Monoclonal infection simplifies studies of HCV, because virus interaction with the host is not confounded by the quasispecies invariably present in a natural infection. It furthermore permits true homologous challenge in studies of protective immunity and in testing the efficacy of vaccine candidates. Finally, this in vivo transfection system has made it possible to test for the first time the importance of genetic elements for HCV infectivity.

  9. Differences in Cognitive Processes Underlying the Collaborative Activities of Children and Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Grace E.; Warneken, Felix; Tomasello, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We compared the performance of 3- and 5-year-old children with that of chimpanzees in two tasks requiring collaboration via complementary roles. In both tasks, children and chimpanzees were able to coordinate two complementary roles with peers and solve the problem cooperatively. This is the first experimental demonstration of the coordination of…

  10. Timescales and conditions of crystallization in the Pokai and Chimpanzee Ignimbrites, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connor, M.; Gualda, G. A.; Gravley, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Silicic magmas give rise to explosive eruptions that are both of scientific and societal interest. The central Taupo Volcanic Zone in New Zealand has been volcanically active for 2 Ma and represents the most active volcanic area in the world today. Particularly intense volcanic activity took place as part of a flare-up event that occurred from ~340 to ~240 ka, when 7 large ignimbrite eruptions took place, as well as many smaller eruptions, which erupted a total of at least 3000 km3 of magma. This project seeks to identify the conditions and timescales over which magma bodies that gave rise to these ignimbrite eruptions evolved. We aim to understand how much of the tens of thousands of years between successive eruptions were characterized by the presence of large bodies of silicic magma within the crust, as well the magma distribution within the crust during those times. We focus on the Chimpanzee and Pokai ignimbrites, which together erupted ~150 km3 of magma. The Pokai ignimbrite erupted at ~275 ka, while the Chimpanzee ignimbrite (undated) erupted between ~320 and 275 ka. Pumice clasts from the Chimpanzee and Pokai ignimbrite were collected in the field. Pumice bulk densities were measured using a submersion technique. Quartz and plagioclase crystals were extracted through a crushing, sieving, and winnowing procedure. Whole crystals were hand-picked under a conventional microscope, mounted on epoxy, and polished to expose grain interiors. Grain mounts were analyzed under an SEM using back-scattered electron, cathodoluminescence (CL), and energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) imaging. Bulk-densities vary from 0.42 to 0.81 g/cm3 for Pokai and between 0.52 and 0.64 g/cm3 for Chimpanzee pumice clasts. Plagioclase is the dominant crystal phase in both units. Several plagioclase crystals have inclusions of orthopyroxene, ilmenite, magnetite, and zircon, which in some cases form clusters. Quartz is rare but is present in pumice from both deposits. Both plagioclase and quartz

  11. Humans with chimpanzee-like major histocompatibility complex-specificities control HIV-1 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoof, Ilka; Kesmir, Can; Lund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    and the progression rate to AIDS. Chimpanzees control HIV-1 viral replication and develop a chronic infection without progressing to AIDS. A similar course of disease is observed in human long-term non-progressors. Objective: To investigate if long-term non-progressors and chimpanzees have functional similarities...... in their MHC class I repertoire. Methods: We compared the specificity of groups of human MHC molecules associated with different levels of viremia in HIV-1 infected individuals with those of chimpanzee. Results and conclusion: We demonstrate that human MHC with control of HIV-1 viral load share binding motifs...... with chimpanzee MHC. Moreover, we find that chimpanzee and human MHC associated with low viral load are predicted to elicit broader Gag-specific immune responses than human MHC associated with high viral load, thus supporting earlier findings that Gag-specific immune responses are essential for HIV-1 control....

  12. First observation of Dorylus ant feeding in Budongo chimpanzees supports absence of stick-tool culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Steven; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    The use of stick- or probe-tools is a chimpanzee universal, recorded in all long-term study populations across Africa, except one: Budongo, Uganda. Here, after 25 years of observation, stick-tool use remains absent under both natural circumstances and strong experimental scaffolding. Instead, the chimpanzees employ a rich repertoire of leaf-tools for a variety of dietary and hygiene tasks. One use of stick-tools in other communities is in feeding on the aggressive Dorylus 'army ant' species, consumed by chimpanzees at all long-term study sites outside of mid-Western Uganda. Here we report the first observation of army-ant feeding in Budongo, in which individuals from the Waibira chimpanzee community employed detached leaves to feed on a ground swarm. We describe the behaviour and discuss whether or not it can be considered tool use, together with its implication for the absence of stick-tool 'culture' in Budongo chimpanzees.

  13. Inference of purifying and positive selection in three subspecies of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) from exome sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bataillon, Thomas; Duan, Jinjie; Hvilsom, Christina

    2015-01-01

    of recent gene flow from Western into Eastern chimpanzees. The striking contrast in X-linked vs. autosomal polymorphism and divergence previously reported in Central chimpanzees is also found in Eastern and Western chimpanzees. We show that the direction of selection (DoS) statistic exhibits a strong non......-monotonic relationship with the strength of purifying selection S, making it inappropriate for estimating S. We instead use counts in synonymous vs. non-synonymous frequency classes to infer the distribution of S coefficients acting on non-synonymous mutations in each subspecies. The strength of purifying selection we...... infer is congruent with the differences in effective sizes of each subspecies: Central chimpanzees are undergoing the strongest purifying selection followed by Eastern and Western chimpanzees. Coding indels show stronger selection against indels changing the reading frame than observed in human...

  14. Preliminary insights into the impact of dietary starch on the ciliate, Neobalantidium coli, in captive chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Schovancová

    Full Text Available Infections caused by the intestinal ciliate Neobalantidium coli are asymptomatic in most hosts. In humans and captive African great apes clinical infections occasionally occur, manifested mainly by dysentery; however, factors responsible for development of clinical balantidiasis have not been fully clarified. We studied the effect of dietary starch on the intensities of infection by N. coli in two groups of captive chimpanzees. Adult chimpanzees infected by N. coli from the Hodonín Zoo and from the Brno Zoo, Czech Republic, were fed with a high starch diet (HSD (average 14.7% of starch for 14 days, followed by a five-day transition period and subsequently with a period of low starch diet (LoSD (average 0.1% of starch for another 14 days. We collected fecal samples during the last seven days of HSD and LoSD and fixed them in 10% formalin. We quantified trophozoites of N. coli using the FLOTAC method. The numbers of N. coli trophozoites were higher during the HSD (mean ± SD: 49.0 ± 134.7 than during the LoSD (3.5 ± 6.8. A generalized linear mixed-effects model revealed significantly lower numbers of the N. coli trophozoites in the feces during the LoSD period in comparison to the HSD period (treatment contrast LoSD vs. HSD: 2.7 ± 0.06 (SE, z = 47.7; p<<0.001. We conclude that our data provide a first indication that starch-rich diet might be responsible for high intensities of infection of N. coli in captive individuals and might predispose them for clinically manifested balantidiasis. We discuss the potential nutritional modifications to host diets that can be implemented in part to control N. coli infections.

  15. A longitudinal assessment of vocabulary retention in symbol-competent chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Heimbauer, Lisa A

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies from the 1960s to 1990s assessed the symbolic competence of great apes and other animals. These studies provided varying forms of evidence that some species were capable of symbolically representing their worlds, both through productive symbol use and comprehension of symbolic stimuli. One such project at the Language Research Center involved training chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to use lexigram symbols (geometric visual stimuli that represented objects, actions, locations, and individuals). Those studies now are more than 40 years old, and only a few of the apes involved in those studies are still alive. Three of these chimpanzees (and a fourth, control chimpanzee) were assessed across a 10-year period from 1999 to 2008 for their continued knowledge of lexigram symbols and, in the case of one chimpanzee, the continued ability to comprehend human speech. This article describes that longitudinal assessment and outlines the degree to which symbol competence was retained by these chimpanzees across that decade-long period. All chimpanzees showed retention of lexigram vocabularies, although there were differences in the number of words that were retained across the individuals. One chimpanzee also showed continual retention of human speech perception. These retained vocabularies largely consisted of food item names, but also names of inedible objects, locations, individuals, and some actions. Many of these retained words were for things that are not common in the daily lives of the chimpanzees and for things that are rarely requested by the chimpanzees. Thus, the early experiences of these chimpanzees in symbol-rich environments have produced long-lasting memories for symbol meaning, and those competencies have benefited research in a variety of topics in comparative cognition.

  16. Captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) behavior as a function of space per animal and enclosure type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal Webb, Sarah J; Hau, Jann; Schapiro, Steven J

    2018-03-01

    Space per animal, or animal density, and enclosure type are important elements of functionally appropriate captive environments (FACEs) for chimpanzees. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that captive chimpanzees be maintained in areas of >250 ft 2 /animal. Several studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to space per animal, but only two studies have examined these variables while attempting to hold environmental complexity constant. Both have found few, if any, significant differences in behavior associated with increased space per animal. The NIH does not provide recommendations pertaining to enclosure type. Although Primadomes™ and corrals are considered acceptable FACE housing, no studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to these two common types of enclosures. We examined the NIH space per animal recommendation, and the effects of enclosure type, while maintaining similar levels of environmental complexity. We used focal animal observations to record the behavior of 22 chimpanzees in three social groups following within-facility housing transfers. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the NIH recommendation to the same type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to double dome) exhibited significantly more locomotion and behavioral diversity post-transfer. Chimpanzees that were moved from an area with space below the recommendation to a different type of enclosure with space above the recommendation (dome to corral) exhibited significant increases in foraging and behavioral diversity, and a decrease in rough scratching. Lastly, chimpanzees that were moved from an area above the recommendation to a different enclosure type with space equal to the recommendation (corral to double dome) exhibited an increase in behavioral diversity. These results add to the body of literature that addresses the concept of specific minimum space requirements per chimpanzee, and highlight the

  17. Widespread pain: is an improved classification possible?

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    MacFarlane, G J; Croft, P R; Schollum, J; Silman, A J

    1996-09-01

    The classification of widespread pain, proposed by the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) for use in the clinic as a screen for fibromyalgia, as described, does not require truly widespread pain. Studies considering the epidemiology of widespread pain per se may therefore require a definition with greater face validity, which might also show enhanced associations with other physical and psychological measures. We aimed to develop a more coherent definition of widespread pain for use in epidemiological studies and to compare performance in identifying individuals with significant morbidity. A group of 172 subjects who had participated in a community based study on the occurrence of pain were identified and categorized by their pain experience as indicated on line drawings of the body according to ACR definition and to a new, more stringent definition that required the presence of more diffuse limb pain. A number of other clinical and psychological measures were recorded for these individuals and the association between their pain status measures and these other variables was assessed and compared. Persons satisfying the newly proposed definition for chronic widespread pain, in comparison with those who satisfied only the present ACR definition, had a significantly higher score on the General Health Questionnaire [median difference (MD) 7.95% CI 1.13], a higher score on the Health and Fatigue Questionnaire (MD 10.95% CI 0.15), and greater problems with sleep (sleep problem score MD 4.95% CI 0.9). Those satisfying the new definition also had a greater number of tender points on examination (MD 3.95% CI -1.7). The morbidity of those satisfying only the present ACR definition was closer to persons who had regional pain. A redefinition of widespread pain has produced a group of subjects whose pain is (a) likely to be more "widespread" and (b) is associated more strongly with factors such as psychological disturbance, fatigue, sleep problems, and tender points, and

  18. Diet and seasonal changes in sympatric gorillas and chimpanzees at Kahuzi-Biega National Park.

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    Yamagiwa, Juichi; Basabose, Augustin Kanyunyi

    2006-01-01

    Based on 8 years of observations of a group of western lowland gorillas (Gorilla beringei graueri) and a unit-group of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) living sympatrically in the montane forest at Kahuzi-Biega National Park, we compared their diet and analyzed dietary overlap between them in relation to fruit phenology. Data on fruit consumption were collected mainly from fecal samples, and phenology of preferred ape fruits was estimated by monitoring. Totals of 231 plant foods (116 species) and 137 plant foods (104 species) were recorded for gorillas and chimpanzees, respectively. Among these, 38% of gorilla foods and 64% of chimpanzee foods were eaten by both apes. Fruits accounted for the largest overlap between them (77% for gorillas and 59% for chimpanzees). Gorillas consumed more species of vegetative foods (especially bark) exclusively whereas chimpanzees consumed more species of fruits and animal foods exclusively. Although the number of fruit species available in the montane forest of Kahuzi is much lower than that in lowland forest, the number of fruit species per chimpanzee fecal sample (average 2.7 species) was similar to that for chimpanzees in the lowland habitats. By contrast, the number of fruit species per gorilla fecal sample (average 0.8 species) was much lower than that for gorillas in the lowland habitats. Fruit consumption by both apes tended to increase during the dry season when ripe fruits were more abundant in their habitat. However, the number of fruit species consumed by chimpanzees did not change according to ripe fruit abundance. The species differences in fruit consumption may be attributed to the wide ranging of gorillas and repeated usage of a small range by chimpanzees and/or to avoidance of inter-specific contact by chimpanzees. The different staple foods (leaves and bark for gorillas and fig fruits for chimpanzees) characterize the dietary divergence between them in the montane forest of Kahuzi, where fruit is

  19. Chimpanzees, bonobos and children successfully coordinate in conflict situations.

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    Sánchez-Amaro, Alejandro; Duguid, Shona; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-06-14

    Social animals need to coordinate with others to reap the benefits of group-living even when individuals' interests are misaligned. We compare how chimpanzees, bonobos and children coordinate their actions with a conspecific in a Snowdrift game, which provides a model for understanding how organisms coordinate and make decisions under conflict. In study 1, we presented pairs of chimpanzees, bonobos and children with an unequal reward distribution. In the critical condition, the preferred reward could only be obtained by waiting for the partner to act, with the risk that if no one acted, both would lose the rewards. Apes and children successfully coordinated to obtain the rewards. Children used a 'both-partner-pull' strategy and communicated during the task, while some apes relied on an 'only-one-partner-pulls' strategy to solve the task, although there were also signs of strategic behaviour as they waited for their partner to pull when that strategy led to the preferred reward. In study 2, we presented pairs of chimpanzees and bonobos with the same set-up as in study 1 with the addition of a non-social option that provided them with a secure reward. In this situation, apes had to actively decide between the unequal distribution and the alternative. In this set-up, apes maximized their rewards by taking their partners' potential actions into account. In conclusion, children and apes showed clear instances of strategic decision-making to maximize their own rewards while maintaining successful coordination. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Ontogenetic study of the skull in modern humans and the common chimpanzees: neotenic hypothesis reconsidered with a tridimensional Procrustes analysis.

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    Penin, Xavier; Berge, Christine; Baylac, Michel

    2002-05-01

    Heterochronic studies compare ontogenetic trajectories of an organ in different species: here, the skulls of common chimpanzees and modern humans. A growth trajectory requires three parameters: size, shape, and ontogenetic age. One of the great advantages of the Procrustes method is the precise definition of size and shape for whole organs such as the skull. The estimated ontogenetic age (dental stages) is added to the plot to give a graphical representation to compare growth trajectories. We used the skulls of 41 Homo sapiens and 50 Pan troglodytes at various stages of growth. The Procrustes superimposition of all specimens was completed by statistical procedures (principal component analysis, multivariate regression, and discriminant function) to calculate separately size-related shape changes (allometry common to chimpanzees and humans), and interspecific shape differences (discriminant function). The results confirm the neotenic theory of the human skull (sensu Gould [1977] Ontogeny and Phylogeny, Cambridge: Harvard University Press; Alberch et al. [1979] Paleobiology 5:296-317), but modify it slightly. Human growth is clearly retarded in terms of both the magnitude of changes (size-shape covariation) and shape alone (size-shape dissociation) with respect to the chimpanzees. At the end of growth, the adult skull in humans reaches an allometric shape (size-related shape) which is equivalent to that of juvenile chimpanzees with no permanent teeth, and a size which is equivalent to that of adult chimpanzees. Our results show that human neoteny involves not only shape retardation (paedomorphosis), but also changes in relative growth velocity. Before the eruption of the first molar, human growth is accelerated, and then strongly decelerated, relative to the growth of the chimpanzee as a reference. This entails a complex process, which explains why these species reach the same overall (i.e., brain + face) size in adult stage. The neotenic traits seem to concern

  1. Comparative social grooming networks in captive chimpanzees and bonobos.

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    Rodrigues, Michelle A; Boeving, Emily R

    2018-06-21

    Despite similar dispersal patterns, models of Pan sociality emphasize sex differences in social bonding between the two species. Such disparities are attributed to hypothesized differences in environmental selective pressures that structure association patterns. However, recent research documents greater within-species variation in social bonds in both species. Here, we examine grooming networks in captive chimpanzees at the North Carolina Zoo, and captive bonobos at the Columbus Zoo. We hypothesized that male-female grooming relationships would be the strongest in both species, but that males and females of both species would not significantly differ between centrality, strength, or clustering. Via Mantel tests, we found that neither bonobos (t = - 0.070, r = - 0.009, two-tailed p = 0.942) nor chimpanzees (t = - 0.495, r = - 0.0939, two-tailed p = 0.6205) had significant differences in grooming between or within sexes. Neither species had significant sex differences in centrality, strength, or clustering. To account for idiosyncratic factors affecting grooming distribution, we examined the effect of origin, kinship, and group tenure on social network position. We found that wild-born bonobos exhibited greater eigenvector centrality (t = - 2.592, df = 9, p = 0.29) and strength (t = - 2.401; df = 9, p = 0.040), and group tenure was significantly correlated with strength (r = 0.608; N = 11, p - 0 = 0.47). None of these factors varied with social network position in chimpanzees. Our findings suggest that in captive settings, idiosyncratic factors related to individual history play a greater role in structuring social networks. Such variation may point to the behavioral flexibility inherent in fission-fusion networks, and mirror between-site variation found in wild chimpanzees. However, some idiosyncratic factors shaping captive networks may be an artifact of captivity.

  2. Obesity Related Alterations in Plasma Cytokines and Metabolic Hormones in Chimpanzees

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    Pramod Nehete

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is characterized by chronic low-grade inflammation and serves as a major risk factor for hypertension, coronary artery disease, dyslipidemias, and type-2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in metabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines, and immune function, in lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees in a controlled environment. We observed increased plasma circulating levels of proinflammatory TH-1 cytokines, Interferon gamma, interleukin-6, interleukin-12p40, tumor necrosis factor, soluble CD40 ligand, and Interleukin-1β and anti-inflammatory TH-2 cytokines, Interleukin-4, Interleukin-RA, Interleukin-10, and Interleukin-13 in overweight and obese chimpanzees. We also observed increased levels of metabolic hormones glucagon-like-peptide-1, glucagon, connecting peptide, insulin, pancreatic peptide YY3–36, and leptin in the plasma of overweight and obese chimpanzees. Chemokine, eotaxin, fractalkine, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were higher in lean compared to obese chimpanzees, while chemokine ligand 8 increased in plasma of obese chimpanzees. We also observed an obesity-related effect on immune function as demonstrated by lower mitogen induced proliferation, and natural killer activity and higher production of IFN-γ by PBMC in Elispot assay, These findings suggest that lean, overweight, and obese chimpanzees share circulating inflammatory cytokines and metabolic hormone levels with humans and that chimpanzees can serve as a useful animal model for human studies.

  3. Delay of Gratification by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in Working and Waiting Situations

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    Beran, Michael J.; Evans, Theodore A.

    2009-01-01

    We tested four chimpanzees in a self-control task in which food rewards accumulated as long as they were not eaten. In one condition, the chimpanzees had to perform a computer task that directly led to the delivery of the food rewards. In another condition, working on the computerized task was not required and any such work was not linked to the delivery of rewards. The third condition offered no computerized task (chimpanzees simply waited for food rewards to be delivered). Three of four chimpanzees showed no effect of the work scenario on delay of gratification. The one chimpanzee that showed an influence of work scenario on self-control was the overall poorest performing animal. This animal delayed gratification the longest, however, when work was required and reward delivery was directly linked to that work. Therefore, although there is little evidence linking delay of gratification to work requirements in chimpanzees, chimpanzees with lower overall self-control might benefit from having some work available if reward accumulation is contingent on performing that work. PMID:19084581

  4. The extent of cultural variation between adjacent chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) communities; a microecological approach.

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    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Chimpanzees show cultural differences among populations across Africa but also between neighboring communities. The extent of these differences among neighbors, however, remains largely unknown. Comparing three neighboring chimpanzee community in the Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, we found 27 putative cultural traits, including tool use, foraging, social interaction, communication and hunting behavior, exceeding by far previously known diversity. As foraging behavior is predominantly influenced by the environment, we further compared in detail ecological circumstances underlying insectivore feeding behavior to analyze whether foraging differences on Dorylus ants and Thoracotermes termites seen between neighboring chimpanzee communities were caused by environmental factors. Differences in the prey characteristics of Dorylus ants (aggression level, running speed, and nest structure) that could influence the behavior of chimpanzees were excluded, suggesting that the observed group-specific variation is not ecologically driven. Only one community preyed on Thoracotermes termites despite a similar abundance of termite mounds in all three territories, supporting the idea that this difference is also not shaped by the environment. Therefore, our study suggests that transmission of cultural knowledge plays a role in determining insectivory prey behavior. This behavioral plasticity, independent of ecological conditions, can lead to large numbers of cultural diversification between neighboring chimpanzee communities. These findings not only deepen our understanding of the cultural abilities of chimpanzees in the wild but also open up possible future comparisons of the origin of cultural diversification among humans and chimpanzees. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Occurrence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) and wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys (Procolobus kirkii).

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    Debenham, John J; Atencia, Rebeca; Midtgaard, Fred; Robertson, Lucy J

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in primates and determine their zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. Direct immunofluorescence was used to identify Giardia and Cryptosporidium from faecal samples. PCR and DNA sequencing was performed on positive results. Giardia cysts were identified from 5.5% (5/90) of captive chimpanzees and 0% (0/11) of captive mandrills in the Republic of Congo; 0% (0/10) of captive chimpanzees in Norway; and 0% of faecal samples (n = 49) from wild Zanzibar red colobus monkeys. Two Giardia positive samples were also positive on PCR, and sequencing revealed identical isolates of Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were not detected in any of the samples. In these primate groups, in which interactions with humans and human environments are quite substantial, Giardia and Cryptosporidium are rare pathogens. In chimpanzees, Giardia may have a zoonotic or anthropozoonotic potential. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Gastrointestinal parasite infections and self-medication in wild chimpanzees surviving in degraded forest fragments within an agricultural landscape mosaic in Uganda.

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    Matthew R McLennan

    Full Text Available Monitoring health in wild great apes is integral to their conservation and is especially important where they share habitats with humans, given the potential for zoonotic pathogen exchange. We studied the intestinal parasites of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii inhabiting degraded forest fragments amid farmland and villages in Bulindi, Uganda. We first identified protozoan and helminth parasites infecting this population. Sixteen taxa were demonstrated microscopically (9 protozoa, 5 nematodes, 1 cestode, and 1 trematode. DNA sequence analysis enabled more precise identification of larval nematodes (e.g. Oesophagostomum stephanostomum, O. bifurcum, Strongyloides fuelleborni, Necator sp. Type II and tapeworm proglottids (genus Bertiella. To better understand the ecology of infections, we used multidimensional scaling analysis to reveal general patterns of association among parasites, climate, and whole leaf swallowing-a prevalent self-medicative behaviour at Bulindi linked to control of nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.. Prevalence of parasites varied with climate in diverse ways. For example, Oesophagostomum sp. was detected in faeces at higher frequencies with increasing rainfall but was most clearly associated with periods of low temperature. Certain parasites occurred together within chimpanzee hosts more or less frequently than expected by chance. For example, the commensal ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti was negatively associated with Balantidium coli and Oesophagostomum sp., possibly because the latter taxa make the large intestine less suitable for T. abrassarti. Whole leaves in faeces showed independent associations with the prevalence of Oesophagostomum sp., Strongyloides sp., and hookworm by microscopic examination, and with egestion of adult O. stephanostomum by macroscopic inspection. All parasites identified to species or genus have been reported in wild chimpanzees inhabiting less-disturbed environments than

  7. Comparing infant and juvenile behavior in bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a preliminary study.

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    De Lathouwers, Mieke; Van Elsacker, Linda

    2006-10-01

    The dichotomy between the two Pan species, the bonobo (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) has been strongly emphasized until very recently. Given that most studies were primarily based on adult individuals, we shifted the "continuity versus discontinuity" discussion to the infant and juvenile stage. Our aim was to test quantitatively, some conflicting statements made in literature considering species differences between immature bonobos and chimpanzees. On one hand it is suggested that infant bonobos show retardation in motor and social development when compared with chimpanzees. Additionally it is expected that the weaning process is more traumatic to chimpanzee than bonobo infants. But on the other hand the development of behaviors is expected to be very similar in both species. We observed eight mother-infant pairs of each species in several European zoos. Our preliminary research partially confirms that immature chimpanzees seem spatially more independent, spending more time at a larger distance from their mother than immature bonobos. However, the other data do not seem to support the hypothesis that bonobo infants show retardation of motor or social development. The development of solitary play, environmental exploration, social play, non-copulatory mounts and aggressive interactions do not differ between the species. Bonobo infants in general even groom other group members more than chimpanzee infants. We also found that older bonobo infants have more nipple contact than same aged chimpanzees and that the weaning process seems to end later for bonobos than for immature chimpanzee. Additionally, although immature bonobos show in general more signs of distress, our data suggest that the weaning period itself is more traumatic for chimpanzees.

  8. Favorable ecological circumstances promote life expectancy in chimpanzees similar to that of human hunter-gatherers.

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    Wood, Brian M; Watts, David P; Mitani, John C; Langergraber, Kevin E

    2017-04-01

    Demographic data on wild chimpanzees are crucial for understanding the evolution of chimpanzee and hominin life histories, but most data come from populations affected by disease outbreaks and anthropogenic disturbance. We present survivorship data from a relatively undisturbed and exceptionally large community of eastern chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. We monitored births, deaths, immigrations, and emigrations in the community between 1995 and 2016. Using known and estimated ages, we calculated survivorship curves for the whole community, for males and females separately, and for individuals ≤2 years old when identified. We used a novel method to address age estimation error by calculating stochastic survivorship curves. We compared Ngogo life expectancy, survivorship, and mortality rates to those from other chimpanzee communities and human hunter-gatherers. Life expectancy at birth for both sexes combined was 32.8 years, far exceeding estimates of chimpanzee life expectancy in other communities, and falling within the range of human hunter-gatherers (i.e., 27-37 years). Overall, the pattern of survivorship at Ngogo was more similar to that of human hunter-gatherers than to other chimpanzee communities. Maximum lifespan for the Ngogo chimpanzees, however, was similar to that reported at other chimpanzee research sites and was less than that of human-hunter gatherers. The absence of predation by large carnivores may contribute to some of the higher survivorship at Ngogo, but this cannot explain the much higher survivorship at Ngogo than at Kanyawara, another chimpanzee community in the same forest, which also lacks large carnivores. Higher survivorship at Ngogo appears to be an adaptive response to a food supply that is more abundant and varies less than that of Kanyawara. Future analyses of hominin life history evolution should take these results into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  9. Chimpanzees and bonobos exhibit emotional responses to decision outcomes.

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    Alexandra G Rosati

    Full Text Available The interface between cognition, emotion, and motivation is thought to be of central importance in understanding complex cognitive functions such as decision-making and executive control in humans. Although nonhuman apes have complex repertoires of emotional expression, little is known about the role of affective processes in ape decision-making. To illuminate the evolutionary origins of human-like patterns of choice, we investigated decision-making in humans' closest phylogenetic relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and bonobos (Pan paniscus. In two studies, we examined these species' temporal and risk preferences, and assessed whether apes show emotional and motivational responses in decision-making contexts. We find that (1 chimpanzees are more patient and more risk-prone than are bonobos, (2 both species exhibit affective and motivational responses following the outcomes of their decisions, and (3 some emotional and motivational responses map onto species-level and individual-differences in decision-making. These results indicate that apes do exhibit emotional responses to decision-making, like humans. We explore the hypothesis that affective and motivational biases may underlie the psychological mechanisms supporting value-based preferences in these species.

  10. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

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    Thibaud Gruber

    Full Text Available Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  11. Vocal recruitment for joint travel in wild chimpanzees.

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    Gruber, Thibaud; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Joint travel is a common social activity of many group-living animals, which requires some degree of coordination, sometimes through communication signals. Here, we studied the use of an acoustically distinct vocalisation in chimpanzees, the 'travel hoo', a signal given specifically in the travel context. We were interested in how this call type was produced to coordinate travel, whether it was aimed at specific individuals and how recipients responded. We found that 'travel hoos' were regularly given prior to impending departures and that silent travel initiations were less successful in recruiting than vocal initiations. Other behaviours associated with departure were unrelated to recruitment, suggesting that 'travel hoos' facilitated joint travel. Crucially, 'travel hoos' were more often produced in the presence of allies than other individuals, with high rates of recruitment success. We discuss these findings as evidence for how motivation to perform a specific social activity can lead to the production of a vocal signal that qualifies as 'intentional' according to most definitions, suggesting that a key psychological component of human language may have already been present in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  12. Psychological health of orphan bonobos and chimpanzees in African sanctuaries.

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    Victoria Wobber

    Full Text Available Facilities across Africa care for apes orphaned by the trade for "bushmeat." These facilities, called sanctuaries, provide housing for apes such as bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes who have been illegally taken from the wild and sold as pets. Although these circumstances are undoubtedly stressful for the apes, most individuals arrive at the sanctuaries as infants and are subsequently provided with rich physical and social environments that can facilitate the expression of species-typical behaviors.We tested whether bonobo and chimpanzee orphans living in sanctuaries show any behavioral, physiological, or cognitive abnormalities relative to other individuals in captivity as a result of the early-life stress they experience. Orphans showed lower levels of aberrant behaviors, similar levels of average cortisol, and highly similar performances on a broad battery of cognitive tests in comparisons with individuals of the same species who were either living at a zoo or were reared by their mothers at the sanctuaries.Taken together, these results support the rehabilitation strategy used by sanctuaries in the Pan-African Sanctuary Alliance (PASA and suggest that the orphans we examined did not show long-term signs of stress as a result of their capture. Our findings also show that sanctuary apes are as psychologically healthy as apes in other captive settings and thus represent a valuable resource for non-invasive research.

  13. Morphological integration in the gorilla, chimpanzee, and human neck.

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    Arlegi, Mikel; Gómez-Robles, Aida; Gómez-Olivencia, Asier

    2018-06-01

    Although integration studies are important to understand the evolution of organisms' traits across phylogenies, vertebral integration in primates is still largely unexplored. Here we describe and quantify patterns of morphological integration and modularity in the subaxial cervical vertebrae (C3-C7) in extant hominines incorporating the potential influence of size. Three-dimensional landmarks were digitized on 546 subaxial cervical vertebrae from 141 adult individuals of Gorilla gorilla, Pan troglodytes, and Homo sapiens. Integration and modularity, and the influence of size effects, were quantified using geometric morphometric approaches. All subaxial cervical vertebrae from the three species show a strong degree of integration. Gorillas show the highest degree of integration; conversely, humans have the lowest degree of integration. Analyses of allometric regression residuals show that size is an important factor promoting integration in gorillas, with lesser influence in chimpanzees and almost no effect in humans. Results point to a likely ancestral pattern of integration in non-human hominines, whereby the degree of integration decreases from cranial to caudal positions. Humans deviate from this pattern in the cranialmost (C3) and, to a lesser extent, in the caudalmost (C7) vertebrae, which are less integrated. These differences can be tentatively related to the emergence of bipedalism due to the presence of modern human-like C3 in australopiths, which still preserve a more chimpanzee-like C7. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Origins of De Novo Genes in Human and Chimpanzee.

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    Ruiz-Orera, Jorge; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jessica; Chiva, Cristina; Sabidó, Eduard; Kondova, Ivanela; Bontrop, Ronald; Marqués-Bonet, Tomàs; Albà, M Mar

    2015-12-01

    The birth of new genes is an important motor of evolutionary innovation. Whereas many new genes arise by gene duplication, others originate at genomic regions that did not contain any genes or gene copies. Some of these newly expressed genes may acquire coding or non-coding functions and be preserved by natural selection. However, it is yet unclear which is the prevalence and underlying mechanisms of de novo gene emergence. In order to obtain a comprehensive view of this process, we have performed in-depth sequencing of the transcriptomes of four mammalian species--human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse--and subsequently compared the assembled transcripts and the corresponding syntenic genomic regions. This has resulted in the identification of over five thousand new multiexonic transcriptional events in human and/or chimpanzee that are not observed in the rest of species. Using comparative genomics, we show that the expression of these transcripts is associated with the gain of regulatory motifs upstream of the transcription start site (TSS) and of U1 snRNP sites downstream of the TSS. In general, these transcripts show little evidence of purifying selection, suggesting that many of them are not functional. However, we find signatures of selection in a subset of de novo genes which have evidence of protein translation. Taken together, the data support a model in which frequently-occurring new transcriptional events in the genome provide the raw material for the evolution of new proteins.

  15. Pasteurella multocida Involved in Respiratory Disease of Wild Chimpanzees

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    Köndgen, Sophie; Leider, Michaela; Lankester, Felix; Bethe, Astrid; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Leendertz, Fabian H.; Ewers, Christa

    2011-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida can cause a variety of diseases in various species of mammals and birds throughout the world but nothing is known about its importance for wild great apes. In this study we isolated P. multocida from wild living, habituated chimpanzees from Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire. Isolates originated from two chimpanzees that died during a respiratory disease outbreak in 2004 as well as from one individual that developed chronic air-sacculitis following this outbreak. Four isolates were subjected to a full phenotypic and molecular characterisation. Two different clones were identified using pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) enabled the identification of previous unknown alleles and two new sequence types, ST68 and ST69, were assigned. Phylogenetic analysis of the superoxide dismutase (sodA) gene and concatenated sequences from seven MLST-housekeeping genes showed close clustering within known P. multocida isolated from various hosts and geographic locations. Due to the clinical relevance of the strains described here, these results make an important contribution to our knowledge of pathogens involved in lethal disease outbreaks among endangered great apes. PMID:21931664

  16. Vocal learning in the functionally referential food grunts of chimpanzees.

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    Watson, Stuart K; Townsend, Simon W; Schel, Anne M; Wilke, Claudia; Wallace, Emma K; Cheng, Leveda; West, Victoria; Slocombe, Katie E

    2015-02-16

    One standout feature of human language is our ability to reference external objects and events with socially learned symbols, or words. Exploring the phylogenetic origins of this capacity is therefore key to a comprehensive understanding of the evolution of language. While non-human primates can produce vocalizations that refer to external objects in the environment, it is generally accepted that their acoustic structure is fixed and a product of arousal states. Indeed, it has been argued that the apparent lack of flexible control over the structure of referential vocalizations represents a key discontinuity with language. Here, we demonstrate vocal learning in the acoustic structure of referential food grunts in captive chimpanzees. We found that, following the integration of two groups of adult chimpanzees, the acoustic structure of referential food grunts produced for a specific food converged over 3 years. Acoustic convergence arose independently of preference for the food, and social network analyses indicated this only occurred after strong affiliative relationships were established between the original subgroups. We argue that these data represent the first evidence of non-human animals actively modifying and socially learning the structure of a meaningful referential vocalization from conspecifics. Our findings indicate that primate referential call structure is not simply determined by arousal and that the socially learned nature of referential words in humans likely has ancient evolutionary origins. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chimpanzees trust conspecifics to engage in low-cost reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmann, Jan M; Herrmann, Esther; Tomasello, Michael

    2015-02-22

    Many of humans' most important social interactions rely on trust, including most notably among strangers. But little is known about the evolutionary roots of human trust. We presented chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) with a modified version of the human trust game--trust in reciprocity--in which subjects could opt either to obtain a small but safe reward on their own or else to send a larger reward to a partner and trust her to reciprocate a part of the reward that she could not access herself. In a series of three studies, we found strong evidence that in interacting with a conspecific, chimpanzees show spontaneous trust in a novel context; flexibly adjust their level of trust to the trustworthiness of their partner and develop patterns of trusting reciprocity over time. At least in some contexts then, trust in reciprocity is not unique to humans, but rather has its evolutionary roots in the social interactions of humans' closest primate relatives. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...... to be consoled. Furthermore, we show that high levels of threat during the robbery increased the likelihood of receiving consolation afterwards. These patterns resemble post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees and suggest that emotions of empathic concern are involved in consolation across humans...... and chimpanzees....

  19. Terrestrial nest-building by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): implications for the tree-to-ground sleep transition in early hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; McGrew, William C; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Knapp, Leslie A

    2012-07-01

    Nest-building is a great ape universal and arboreal nesting in chimpanzees and bonobos suggests that the common ancestor of Pan and Homo also nested in trees. It has been proposed that arboreal nest-building remained the prevailing pattern until Homo erectus, a fully terrestrial biped, emerged. We investigated the unusual occurrence of ground-nesting in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), which may inform on factors influencing the tree-to-ground sleep transition in the hominin lineage. We used a novel genetic approach to examine ground-nesting in unhabituated chimpanzees at Seringbara in the Nimba Mountains, Guinea. Previous research showed that ground-nesting at Seringbara was not ecologically determined. Here, we tested a possible mate-guarding function of ground-nesting by analyzing DNA from shed hairs collected from ground nests and tree nests found in close proximity. We examined whether or not ground-nesting was a group-level behavioral pattern and whether or not it occurred in more than one community. We used multiple genetic markers to identify sex and to examine variation in mitochondrial DNA control region (HV1, HV2) sequences. Ground-nesting was a male-biased behavior and males constructed more elaborate ("night") nests than simple ("day") nests on the ground. The mate-guarding hypothesis was not supported, as ground and associated tree nests were built either by maternally-related males or possibly by the same individuals. Ground-nesting was widespread and likely habitual in two communities. We suggest that terrestrial nest-building may have already occurred in arboreally-adapted early hominins before the emergence of H. erectus. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The higher the farther: distance-specific referential gestures in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonseth, Chloe; Kawakami, Fumito; Ichino, Etsuko; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2017-11-01

    Referential signals, such as manual pointing or deictic words, allow individuals to efficiently locate a specific entity in the environment, using distance-specific linguistic and/or gestural units. To explore the evolutionary prerequisites of such deictic ability, the present study investigates the ability of chimpanzees to adjust their communicative signals to the distance of a referent. A food-request paradigm in which the chimpanzees had to request a close or distant piece of food on a table in the presence/absence of an experimenter was employed. Our main finding concerns the chimpanzees adjusting their requesting behaviours to the distance of the food such that higher manual gestures and larger mouth openings were used to request the distant piece of food. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that chimpanzees are able to use distance-specific gestures. © 2017 The Authors.

  1. Chimpanzee choice rates in competitive games match equilibrium game theory predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher Flynn; Bhui, Rahul; Bossaerts, Peter; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Camerer, Colin

    2014-06-05

    The capacity for strategic thinking about the payoff-relevant actions of conspecifics is not well understood across species. We use game theory to make predictions about choices and temporal dynamics in three abstract competitive situations with chimpanzee participants. Frequencies of chimpanzee choices are extremely close to equilibrium (accurate-guessing) predictions, and shift as payoffs change, just as equilibrium theory predicts. The chimpanzee choices are also closer to the equilibrium prediction, and more responsive to past history and payoff changes, than two samples of human choices from experiments in which humans were also initially uninformed about opponent payoffs and could not communicate verbally. The results are consistent with a tentative interpretation of game theory as explaining evolved behavior, with the additional hypothesis that chimpanzees may retain or practice a specialized capacity to adjust strategy choice during competition to perform at least as well as, or better than, humans have.

  2. Serological cross-reactivity between Merkel cell polyomavirus and two closely related chimpanzee polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme T J Nicol

    Full Text Available Phylogenetic analyses based on the major capsid protein sequence indicate that Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV and chimpanzee polyomaviruses (PtvPyV1, PtvPyV2, and similarly Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSPyV and the orangutan polyomavirus (OraPyV1 are closely related. The existence of cross-reactivity between these polyomaviruses was therefore investigated. The findings indicated serological identity between the two chimpanzee polyomaviruses investigated and a high level of cross-reactivity with Merkel cell polyomavirus. In contrast, cross-reactivity was not observed between TSPyV and OraPyV1. Furthermore, specific antibodies to chimpanzee polyomaviruses were detected in chimpanzee sera by pre-incubation of sera with the different antigens, but not in human sera.

  3. Human fibroblasts display a differential focal adhesion phenotype relative to chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advani, Alexander S; Chen, Annie Y; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of documented differences between humans and our closest relatives in responses to wound healing and in disease susceptibilities, suggesting a differential cellular response to certain environmental factors. In this study, we sought to look at a specific cell type, fibroblasts, to examine differences in cellular adhesion between humans and chimpanzees in visualized cells and in gene expression. We have found significant differences in the number of focal adhesions between primary human and chimpanzee fibroblasts. Additionally, we see that adhesion related gene ontology categories are some of the most differentially expressed between human and chimpanzee in normal fibroblast cells. These results suggest that human and chimpanzee fibroblasts may have somewhat different adhesive properties, which could play a role in differential disease phenotypes and responses to external factors. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Foundation for Evolution, Medicine, and Public Health.

  4. Non-invasive body temperature measurement of wild chimpanzees using fecal temperature decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Siv Aina; Mundry, Roger; Nunn, Charles L; Boesch, Christophe; Leendertz, Fabian H

    2009-04-01

    New methods are required to increase our understanding of pathologic processes in wild mammals. We developed a noninvasive field method to estimate the body temperature of wild living chimpanzees habituated to humans, based on statistically fitting temperature decline of feces after defecation. The method was established with the use of control measures of human rectal temperature and subsequent changes in fecal temperature over time. The method was then applied to temperature data collected from wild chimpanzee feces. In humans, we found good correspondence between the temperature estimated by the method and the actual rectal temperature that was measured (maximum deviation 0.22 C). The method was successfully applied and the average estimated temperature of the chimpanzees was 37.2 C. This simple-to-use field method reliably estimates the body temperature of wild chimpanzees and probably also other large mammals.

  5. Microwave Photonics: current challenges towards widespread application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmany, José; Li, Guifang; Lim, Christina; Yao, Jianping

    2013-09-23

    Microwave Photonics, a symbiotic field of research that brings together the worlds of optics and radio frequency is currently facing several challenges in its transition from a niche to a truly widespread technology essential to support the ever-increasing values for speed, bandwidth, processing capability and dynamic range that will be required in next generation hybrid access networks. We outline these challenges, which are the subject of the contributions to this focus issue.

  6. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma K Wallace

    Full Text Available Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees' use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare.

  7. Chimpanzees routinely fish for algae with tools during the dry season in Bakoun, Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesch, Christophe; Kalan, Ammie K; Agbor, Anthony; Arandjelovic, Mimi; Dieguez, Paula; Lapeyre, Vincent; Kühl, Hjalmar S

    2017-03-01

    Wild chimpanzees regularly use tools, made from sticks, leaves, or stone, to find flexible solutions to the ecological challenges of their environment. Nevertheless, some studies suggest strong limitations in the tool-using capabilities of chimpanzees. In this context, we present the discovery of a newly observed tool-use behavior in a population of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) living in the Bakoun Classified Forest, Guinea, where a temporary research site was established for 15 months. Bakoun chimpanzees of every age-sex class were observed to fish for freshwater green algae, Spirogrya sp., from rivers, streams, and ponds using long sticks and twigs, ranging from 9 cm up to 4.31 m in length. Using remote camera trap footage from 11 different algae fishing sites within an 85-km 2 study area, we found that algae fishing occurred frequently during the dry season and was non-existent during the rainy season. Chimpanzees were observed algae fishing for as little as 1 min to just over an hour, with an average duration of 9.09 min. We estimate that 364 g of Spirogyra algae could be retrieved in this time, based on human trials in the field. Only one other chimpanzee population living in Bossou, Guinea, has been described to customarily scoop algae from the surface of the water using primarily herbaceous tools. Here, we describe the new behavior found at Bakoun and compare it to the algae scooping observed in Bossou chimpanzees and the occasional variant reported in Odzala, Republic of the Congo. As these algae are reported to be high in protein, carbohydrates, and minerals, we hypothesize that chimpanzees are obtaining a nutritional benefit from this seasonally available resource. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Genetic subspecies diversity of the chimpanzee CD4 virus-receptor gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsom, Christina; Carlsen, Frands; Siegismund, Hans R

    2008-01-01

    six among the subspecies of chimpanzees. We found the CD4 receptor to be conserved in individuals belonging to the P. t. verus subspecies and divergent from the other three subspecies, which harbored highly variable CD4 receptors. The CD4 receptor of chimpanzees differed from that of humans. We...... question whether the observed diversity can explain the species-specific differences in susceptibility to and pathogenicity of SIV/HIV....

  9. Innate Immune Responses to TLR2 and TLR4 Agonists Differ between Baboons, Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkworth, Jessica F.; Pechenkina, Ekaterina A.; Silver, Jack; Goyert, Sanna M.

    2012-01-01

    Background African catarrhine primates differ in bacterial disease susceptibility. Methods Human, chimpanzee, and baboon blood was stimulated with TLR-detected bacterial agonists and cytokine/chemokine induction assessed by real-time pcr. Results Humans and chimpanzees shared similar cytokine/chemokine responses, while baboon cytokine/chemokine induction differed. Generally, responses were agonist-independent. Conclusions These primates tend to generate species rather than agonist–specific responses to bacterial agonists. PMID:22978822

  10. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Emma K; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M; Slocombe, Katie E

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees' use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare.

  11. Male yawning is more contagious than female yawning among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg J M Massen

    Full Text Available Yawn contagion is not restricted to humans and has also been reported for several non-human animal species, including chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Contagious yawning may lead to synchronisation of behaviour. However, the function of contagious yawning is relatively understudied. In this study, we investigated the function of contagious yawning by focusing on two types of signal providers: close social associates and leaders. We provided a captive chimpanzee colony with videos of all individuals of their own group that were either yawning, or at rest. Consistent with other studies, we demonstrated that yawning is contagious for chimpanzees, yet we did not find any effect of relationship quality on yawn contagion. However, we show that yawn contagion is significantly higher when the video model is a yawning male than when the video model was a yawning female, and that this effect is most apparent among males. As males are dominant in chimpanzee societies, male signals may be more relevant to the rest of the group than female signals. Moreover, since chimpanzees form male-bonded societies, male signals are especially relevant for other males. Therefore, we suggest that the sex-differences of yawning contagion among chimpanzees reflect the function of yawning in the synchronisation of behaviour.

  12. The malagarasi river does not form an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movement in Western Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex K Piel

    Full Text Available The Malagarasi River has long been thought to be a barrier to chimpanzee movements in western Tanzania. This potential geographic boundary could affect chimpanzee ranging behavior, population connectivity and pathogen transmission, and thus has implications for conservation strategies and government policy. Indeed, based on mitochondrial DNA sequence comparisons it was recently argued that chimpanzees from communities to the north and to the south of the Malagarasi are surprisingly distantly related, suggesting that the river prevents gene flow. To investigate this, we conducted a survey along the Malagarasi River. We found a ford comprised of rocks that researchers could cross on foot. On a trail leading to this ford, we collected 13 fresh fecal samples containing chimpanzee DNA, two of which tested positive for SIVcpz. We also found chimpanzee feces within the riverbed. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the Malagarasi River is not an absolute barrier to chimpanzee movements and communities from the areas to the north and south should be considered a single population. These results have important consequences for our understanding of gene flow, disease dynamics and conservation management.

  13. The Human Semicircular Canals Orientation Is More Similar to the Bonobos than to the Chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Khoury, Marwan; Braga, José; Dumoncel, Jean; Nancy, Javotte; Esclassan, Remi; Vaysse, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    For some traits, the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than they are to each other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand whether and how morphostructural differences between humans, chimpanzees and bonobos reflect the well known phylogeny. Here we comparatively investigated intra and extra labyrinthine semicircular canals orientation using 260 computed tomography scans of extant humans (Homo sapiens), bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Humans and bonobos proved more similarities between themselves than with chimpanzees. This finding did not fit with the well established chimpanzee – bonobo monophyly. One hypothesis was convergent evolution in which bonobos and humans produce independently similar phenotypes possibly in response to similar selective pressures that may be associated with postural adaptations. Another possibility was convergence following a “random walk” (Brownian motion) evolutionary model. A more parsimonious explanation was that the bonobo-human labyrinthine shared morphology more closely retained the ancestral condition with chimpanzees being subsequently derived. Finally, these results might be a consequence of genetic diversity and incomplete lineage sorting. The remarkable symmetry of the Semicircular Canals was the second major finding of this article with possible applications in taphonomy. It has the potential to investigate altered fossils, inferring the probability of post-mortem deformation which can lead to difficulties in understanding taxonomic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and functional morphology. PMID:24710502

  14. The human semicircular canals orientation is more similar to the bonobos than to the chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan El Khoury

    Full Text Available For some traits, the human genome is more closely related to either the bonobo or the chimpanzee genome than they are to each other. Therefore, it becomes crucial to understand whether and how morphostructural differences between humans, chimpanzees and bonobos reflect the well known phylogeny. Here we comparatively investigated intra and extra labyrinthine semicircular canals orientation using 260 computed tomography scans of extant humans (Homo sapiens, bonobos (Pan paniscus and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. Humans and bonobos proved more similarities between themselves than with chimpanzees. This finding did not fit with the well established chimpanzee - bonobo monophyly. One hypothesis was convergent evolution in which bonobos and humans produce independently similar phenotypes possibly in response to similar selective pressures that may be associated with postural adaptations. Another possibility was convergence following a "random walk" (Brownian motion evolutionary model. A more parsimonious explanation was that the bonobo-human labyrinthine shared morphology more closely retained the ancestral condition with chimpanzees being subsequently derived. Finally, these results might be a consequence of genetic diversity and incomplete lineage sorting. The remarkable symmetry of the Semicircular Canals was the second major finding of this article with possible applications in taphonomy. It has the potential to investigate altered fossils, inferring the probability of post-mortem deformation which can lead to difficulties in understanding taxonomic variation, phylogenetic relationships, and functional morphology.

  15. Interactional synchrony in chimpanzees: Examination through a finger-tapping experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2015-05-11

    Humans often unconsciously coordinate behaviour with that of others in daily life. This interpersonal coordination, including mimicry and interactional synchrony, has been suggested to play a fundamental role in social interaction. If this coordinative behavior is socially adaptive, it may be shared with other highly social animal species. The current study targeted chimpanzees, which phylogenetically are the closest living relatives of humans and live in complex social groups, and examined whether interactional synchrony would emerge in pairs of chimpanzees when auditory information about a partner's movement was provided. A finger-tapping task was introduced via touch panels to elicit repetitive and rhythmic movement from each chimpanzee. We found that one of four chimpanzees produced significant changes in both tapping tempo and timing of the tapping relative to its partner's tap when auditory sounds were provided. Although the current results may have limitations in generalizing to chimpanzees as a species, we suggest that a finger-tapping task is one potential method to investigate interactional synchrony in chimpanzees under a laboratory setup.

  16. Using reporter gene assays to identify cis regulatory differences between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot, Adrien; Shrit, Ralla A; Blekhman, Ran; Gilad, Yoav

    2007-08-01

    Most phenotypic differences between human and chimpanzee are likely to result from differences in gene regulation, rather than changes to protein-coding regions. To date, however, only a handful of human-chimpanzee nucleotide differences leading to changes in gene regulation have been identified. To hone in on differences in regulatory elements between human and chimpanzee, we focused on 10 genes that were previously found to be differentially expressed between the two species. We then designed reporter gene assays for the putative human and chimpanzee promoters of the 10 genes. Of seven promoters that we found to be active in human liver cell lines, human and chimpanzee promoters had significantly different activity in four cases, three of which recapitulated the gene expression difference seen in the microarray experiment. For these three genes, we were therefore able to demonstrate that a change in cis influences expression differences between humans and chimpanzees. Moreover, using site-directed mutagenesis on one construct, the promoter for the DDA3 gene, we were able to identify three nucleotides that together lead to a cis regulatory difference between the species. High-throughput application of this approach can provide a map of regulatory element differences between humans and our close evolutionary relatives.

  17. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1 1 / 2 years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2 1 / 2 years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1 1 / 2 years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied

  18. Depression of T lymphocyte function in chimpanzees receiving thymectomy and irradiation. [X Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbertsen, R.B.; Metzgar, R.S.

    1978-03-01

    In studies analogous to those in which the thymus dependency of immune functions in murine systems was determined, three chimpanzees were thymectomized, splenectomized, exposed to lethal doses of whole body x-irradiation with limited bone marrow shielding, and subsequently evaluated for lymphocyte markers and functions over a period of years. In the oldest animal studied (Irena, 7.2 years at surgery), the percentage of peripheral blood T cells decreased to about 60% of control values and remained at that level for approximately 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years before returning to normal. In the two youngest chimpanzees T cell rosette values dropped to 15 to 40% of control values after irradiation. T cell percentages in one of these young chimpanzees returned to about 75% of the controls 2/sup 1///sub 2/ years after x-irradiation. Phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A mitogen responses were less affected in the oldest chimpanzee. However, even in the oldest animal, the responses to phytohemagglutinin and concanavalin A began to show a gradual and consistent decline 1/sup 1///sub 2/ years after irradiation. Mixed leukocyte culture responsiveness was most affected by the experimental procedures, being greatly reduced in all three chimpanzees during varying time intervals. In general, the effects of the experimental procedures used to produce T cell deficiencies varied with the age of the chimpanzee at surgery, the time after irradiation when the animal was tested, and the lymphocyte marker or function studied.

  19. Emulation, imitation, over-imitation and the scope of culture for child and chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, Andrew; McGuigan, Nicola; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Hopper, Lydia M

    2009-08-27

    We describe our recent studies of imitation and cultural transmission in chimpanzees and children, which question late twentieth-century characterizations of children as imitators, but chimpanzees as emulators. As emulation entails learning only about the results of others' actions, it has been thought to curtail any capacity to sustain cultures. Recent chimpanzee diffusion experiments have by contrast documented a significant capacity for copying local behavioural traditions. Additionally, in recent 'ghost' experiments with no model visible, chimpanzees failed to replicate the object movements on which emulation is supposed to focus. We conclude that chimpanzees rely more on imitation and have greater cultural capacities than previously acknowledged. However, we also find that they selectively apply a range of social learning processes that include emulation. Recent studies demonstrating surprisingly unselective 'over-imitation' in children suggest that children's propensity to imitate has been underestimated too. We discuss the implications of these developments for the nature of social learning and culture in the two species. Finally, our new experiments directly address cumulative cultural learning. Initial results demonstrate a relative conservatism and conformity in chimpanzees' learning, contrasting with cumulative cultural learning in young children. This difference may contribute much to the contrast in these species' capacities for cultural evolution.

  20. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jeffrey R; Marewski, Julian N; Schooler, Lael J; Gilby, Ian C

    2016-08-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition.

  1. Auditory ERPs to stimulus deviance in an awake chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes: towards hominid cognitive neurosciences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Ueno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For decades, the chimpanzee, phylogenetically closest to humans, has been analyzed intensively in comparative cognitive studies. Other than the accumulation of behavioral data, the neural basis for cognitive processing in the chimpanzee remains to be clarified. To increase our knowledge on the evolutionary and neural basis of human cognition, comparative neurophysiological studies exploring endogenous neural activities in the awake state are needed. However, to date, such studies have rarely been reported in non-human hominid species, due to the practical difficulties in conducting non-invasive measurements on awake individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured auditory event-related potentials (ERPs of a fully awake chimpanzee, with reference to a well-documented component of human studies, namely mismatch negativity (MMN. In response to infrequent, deviant tones that were delivered in a uniform sound stream, a comparable ERP component could be detected as negative deflections in early latencies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study reports the MMN-like component in a chimpanzee for the first time. In human studies, various ERP components, including MMN, are well-documented indicators of cognitive and neural processing. The results of the present study validate the use of non-invasive ERP measurements for studies on cognitive and neural processing in chimpanzees, and open the way for future studies comparing endogenous neural activities between humans and chimpanzees. This signifies an essential step in hominid cognitive neurosciences.

  2. Reflections of the social environment in chimpanzee memory: applying rational analysis beyond humans

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    Marewski, Julian N.; Schooler, Lael J.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    In cognitive science, the rational analysis framework allows modelling of how physical and social environments impose information-processing demands onto cognitive systems. In humans, for example, past social contact among individuals predicts their future contact with linear and power functions. These features of the human environment constrain the optimal way to remember information and probably shape how memory records are retained and retrieved. We offer a primer on how biologists can apply rational analysis to study animal behaviour. Using chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as a case study, we modelled 19 years of observational data on their social contact patterns. Much like humans, the frequency of past encounters in chimpanzees linearly predicted future encounters, and the recency of past encounters predicted future encounters with a power function. Consistent with the rational analyses carried out for human memory, these findings suggest that chimpanzee memory performance should reflect those environmental regularities. In re-analysing existing chimpanzee memory data, we found that chimpanzee memory patterns mirrored their social contact patterns. Our findings hint that human and chimpanzee memory systems may have evolved to solve similar information-processing problems. Overall, rational analysis offers novel theoretical and methodological avenues for the comparative study of cognition. PMID:27853606

  3. The Number of Cultural Traits Is Correlated with Female Group Size but Not with Male Group Size in Chimpanzee Communities

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    Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants’ potential for social learning towards their ...

  4. Snakes as hazards: modelling risk by chasing chimpanzees.

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    McGrew, William C

    2015-04-01

    Snakes are presumed to be hazards to primates, including humans, by the snake detection hypothesis (Isbell in J Hum Evol 51:1-35, 2006; Isbell, The fruit, the tree, and the serpent. Why we see so well, 2009). Quantitative, systematic data to test this idea are lacking for the behavioural ecology of living great apes and human foragers. An alternative proxy is snakes encountered by primatologists seeking, tracking, and observing wild chimpanzees. We present 4 years of such data from Mt. Assirik, Senegal. We encountered 14 species of snakes a total of 142 times. Almost two-thirds of encounters were with venomous snakes. Encounters occurred most often in forest and least often in grassland, and more often in the dry season. The hypothesis seems to be supported, if frequency of encounter reflects selective risk of morbidity or mortality.

  5. The effect of climate fluctuation on chimpanzee birth sex ratio.

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    Hjalmar S Kühl

    Full Text Available Climate and weather conditions, such as the North Atlantic Oscillation, precipitation and temperature influence the birth sex ratio (BSR of various higher latitude species, including deer, elephant seals or northern human populations. Although, tropical regions show only little variation in temperature, climate and weather conditions can fluctuate with consequences for phenology and food resource availability. Here, we evaluate, whether the BSR of chimpanzees, inhabiting African tropical forests, is affected by climate fluctuations as well. Additionally, we evaluate, if variation in consumption of a key food resource with high nutritional value, Coula edulis nuts, is linked to both climate fluctuations and variation in BSR. We use long-term data from two study groups located in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire to assess the influence of local weather conditions and the global climate driver El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO on offspring sex. Côte d'Ivoire has experienced considerable climate variation over the last decades, with increasing temperature and declining precipitation. For both groups we find very similar time windows around the month of conception, in which offspring sex is well predicted by ENSO, with more males following low ENSO values, corresponding to periods of high rainfall. Furthermore, we find that the time spent cracking and feeding on Coula nuts is strongly influenced by climate conditions. Although, some of our analysis suggest that a higher proportion of males is born after periods with higher nut consumption frequency, we cannot conclude decisively at this point that nut consumption may influence shifts in BSR. All results combined suggest that also chimpanzees may experience climate related shifts in offspring sex ratios as response to climate fluctuation.

  6. Chimpanzees prefer African and Indian music over silence.

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    Mingle, Morgan E; Eppley, Timothy M; Campbell, Matthew W; Hall, Katie; Horner, Victoria; de Waal, Frans B M

    2014-10-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 40(4) of Journal of Experimental Psychology: Animal Learning and Cognition (see record 2014-35305-001). For the article, the below files were used to create the audio used in this study. The original West African akan and North Indian raga pieces were used in their entirety and the Japanese taiko piece was used from the 0:19 second mark through the end. The tempo of each piece was adjusted so that they maintained an identical base tempo of 90 beats per minute, then looped to create 40 minutes of continuous music. Additionally, the volume of the music was standardized at 50 dB so that the all music maintained the same average amplitude. All audio manipulations were completed using GarageBand © (Apple Inc.).] All primates have an ability to distinguish between temporal and melodic features of music, but unlike humans, in previous studies, nonhuman primates have not demonstrated a preference for music. However, previous research has not tested the wide range of acoustic parameters present in many different types of world music. The purpose of the present study is to determine the spontaneous preference of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) for 3 acoustically contrasting types of world music: West African akan, North Indian raga, and Japanese taiko. Sixteen chimpanzees housed in 2 groups were exposed to 40 min of music from a speaker placed 1.5 m outside the fence of their outdoor enclosure; the proximity of each subject to the acoustic stimulus was recorded every 2 min. When compared with controls, subjects spent significantly more time in areas where the acoustic stimulus was loudest in African and Indian music conditions. This preference for African and Indian music could indicate homologies in acoustic preferences between nonhuman and human primates. .

  7. Chimpanzees demonstrate individual differences in social information use.

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    Watson, Stuart K; Vale, Gillian L; Hopper, Lydia M; Dean, Lewis G; Kendal, Rachel L; Price, Elizabeth E; Wood, Lara A; Davis, Sarah J; Schapiro, Steven J; Lambeth, Susan P; Whiten, Andrew

    2018-06-19

    Studies of transmission biases in social learning have greatly informed our understanding of how behaviour patterns may diffuse through animal populations, yet within-species inter-individual variation in social information use has received little attention and remains poorly understood. We have addressed this question by examining individual performances across multiple experiments with the same population of primates. We compiled a dataset spanning 16 social learning studies (26 experimental conditions) carried out at the same study site over a 12-year period, incorporating a total of 167 chimpanzees. We applied a binary scoring system to code each participant's performance in each study according to whether they demonstrated evidence of using social information from conspecifics to solve the experimental task or not (Social Information Score-'SIS'). Bayesian binomial mixed effects models were then used to estimate the extent to which individual differences influenced SIS, together with any effects of sex, rearing history, age, prior involvement in research and task type on SIS. An estimate of repeatability found that approximately half of the variance in SIS was accounted for by individual identity, indicating that individual differences play a critical role in the social learning behaviour of chimpanzees. According to the model that best fit the data, females were, depending on their rearing history, 15-24% more likely to use social information to solve experimental tasks than males. However, there was no strong evidence of an effect of age or research experience, and pedigree records indicated that SIS was not a strongly heritable trait. Our study offers a novel, transferable method for the study of individual differences in social learning.

  8. The nucleus pararaphales in the human, chimpanzee, and macaque monkey.

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    Baizer, Joan S; Weinstock, Nadav; Witelson, Sandra F; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R

    2013-03-01

    The human cerebral cortex and cerebellum are greatly expanded compared to those of other mammals, including the great apes. This expansion is reflected in differences in the size and organization of precerebellar brainstem structures, such as the inferior olive. In addition, there are cell groups unique to the human brainstem. One such group may be the nucleus pararaphales (PRa); however, there is disagreement among authors about the size and location of this nucleus in the human brainstem. The name "pararaphales" has also been used for neurons in the medulla shown to project to the flocculus in the macaque monkey. We have re-examined the existence and status of the PRa in eight humans, three chimpanzees, and four macaque monkeys using Nissl-stained sections as well as immunohistochemistry. In the human we found a cell group along the midline of the medulla in all cases; it had the form of interrupted cell columns and was variable among cases in rostrocaudal and dorsoventral extent. Cells and processes were highly immunoreactive for non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP); somata were immunoreactive to the synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase, and for calretinin. In macaque monkey, there was a much smaller oval cell group with NPNFP immunoreactivity. In the chimpanzee, we found a region of NPNFP-immunoreactive cells and fibers similar to what was observed in macaques. These results suggest that the "PRa" in the human may not be the same structure as the flocculus-projecting cell group described in the macaque. The PRa, like the arcuate nucleus, therefore may be unique to humans.

  9. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees.

  10. Able-bodied wild chimpanzees imitate a motor procedure used by a disabled individual to overcome handicap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Byrne, Richard W

    2010-08-05

    Chimpanzee culture has generated intense recent interest, fueled by the technical complexity of chimpanzee tool-using traditions; yet it is seriously doubted whether chimpanzees are able to learn motor procedures by imitation under natural conditions. Here we take advantage of an unusual chimpanzee population as a 'natural experiment' to identify evidence for imitative learning of this kind in wild chimpanzees. The Sonso chimpanzee community has suffered from high levels of snare injury and now has several manually disabled members. Adult male Tinka, with near-total paralysis of both hands, compensates inability to scratch his back manually by employing a distinctive technique of holding a growing liana taut while making side-to-side body movements against it. We found that seven able-bodied young chimpanzees also used this 'liana-scratch' technique, although they had no need to. The distribution of the liana-scratch technique was statistically associated with individuals' range overlap with Tinka and the extent of time they spent in parties with him, confirming that the technique is acquired by social learning. The motivation for able-bodied chimpanzees copying his variant is unknown, but the fact that they do is evidence that the imitative learning of motor procedures from others is a natural trait of wild chimpanzees.

  11. Ultraviolet vision may be widespread in bats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Bonaccorso, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Insectivorous bats are well known for their abilities to find and pursue flying insect prey at close range using echolocation, but they also rely heavily on vision. For example, at night bats use vision to orient across landscapes, avoid large obstacles, and locate roosts. Although lacking sharp visual acuity, the eyes of bats evolved to function at very low levels of illumination. Recent evidence based on genetics, immunohistochemistry, and laboratory behavioral trials indicated that many bats can see ultraviolet light (UV), at least at illumination levels similar to or brighter than those before twilight. Despite this growing evidence for potentially widespread UV vision in bats, the prevalence of UV vision among bats remains unknown and has not been studied outside of the laboratory. We used a Y-maze to test whether wild-caught bats could see reflected UV light and whether such UV vision functions at the dim lighting conditions typically experienced by night-flying bats. Seven insectivorous species of bats, representing five genera and three families, showed a statistically significant ‘escape-toward-the-light’ behavior when placed in the Y-maze. Our results provide compelling evidence of widespread dim-light UV vision in bats.

  12. Infrequent widespread microsatellite instability in hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, H; Itoh, F; Fukushima, H; Kaneto, H; Sasaki, S; Ohmura, T; Satoh, T; Karino, Y; Endo, T; Toyota, J; Imai, K

    2000-03-01

    Widespread or high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI) due to the defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR) occurs in the majority of hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer and a subset of sporadic malignant tumors. The incidence of MSI and underlying DNA MMR defects have been well characterized in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis, but not in hepatocarcinogenesis. To address the issue, we analyzed 55 Japanese hepatocellular carcinomas using several indicators of DNA MMR defects, such as microsatellite analysis, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and mutation analysis of MMR genes, methylation of hMLH1 promoter, and frameshift mutations of mononucleotide repeat sequences within possible target genes. Mutation of beta2-microglobulin gene, which is presumably involved in MSI-positive tumor cell escape from immune surveillance was also examined. Some of these analyses were also carried out in 9 human liver cancer cell lines. None of the 3 quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide markers sensitive for MSI, BAT26, BAT25, and BAT34C4 presented shortened unstable alleles in any of the carcinoma, cirrhosis, chronic hepatitis tissues, or cell lines. LOH at MMR genes was infrequent (4.4 approximately 7.1%), and no mutations were detected. Neither hMLH1 hypermethylation nor frameshift mutation in the target genes was detected. No mutations were found in beta2-microglobulin. Widespread MSI due to the defective DNA MMR appears to play little if any part in Japanese hepatocarcinogenesis.

  13. Gastrointestinal parasites of the chimpanzee population introduced onto Rubondo Island National Park, Tanzania.

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    Petrzelková, Klára J; Hasegawa, Hideo; Appleton, Chris C; Huffman, Michael A; Archer, Colleen E; Moscovice, Liza R; Mapua, Mwanahamissi Issa; Singh, Jatinder; Kaur, Taranjit

    2010-04-01

    The release of any species into a novel environment can evoke transmission of parasites that do not normally parasitize the host as well as potentially introducing new parasites into the environment. Species introductions potentially incur such risks, yet little is currently known about the parasite fauna of introduced primate species over the long term. We describe the results of long-term monitoring of the intestinal parasite fauna of an unprovisioned, reproducing population of chimpanzees introduced 40 years earlier (1966-1969) onto Rubondo Island in Lake Victoria, Tanzania, a non-native habitat for chimpanzees. Two parasitological surveys (March 1997-October 1998 and October 2002-December 2005) identified Entamoeba spp. including E. coli, Iodamoeba buetschlii, Troglodytella abrassarti, Chilomastix mesnili, Trichuris sp., Anatrichosoma sp., Strongyloides spp., Strongylida fam. gen. sp., Enterobius anthropopitheci, Subulura sp., Ascarididae gen. sp., and Protospirura muricola. The parasite fauna of the Rubondo chimpanzees is similar to wild chimpanzees living in their natural habitats, but Rubondo chimpanzees have a lower prevalence of strongylids (9%, 3.8%) and a higher prevalence of E. anthropopitheci (8.6%, 17.9%) than reported elsewhere. Species prevalence was similar between our two surveys, with the exception of Strongyloides spp. being higher in the first survey. None of these species are considered to pose a serious health risk to chimpanzees, but continued monitoring of the population and surveys of the parasitic fauna of the two coinhabitant primate species and other animals, natural reservoir hosts of some of the same parasites, is important to better understand the dynamics of host-parasite ecology and potential long-term implications for chimpanzees introduced into a new habitat. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Evolution of the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes

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    Maughan Peter J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The NANOG gene is expressed in mammalian embryonic stem cells where it maintains cellular pluripotency. An unusually large family of pseudogenes arose from it with one unprocessed and ten processed pseudogenes in the human genome. This article compares the NANOG gene and its pseudogenes in the human and chimpanzee genomes and derives an evolutionary history of this pseudogene family. Results The NANOG gene and all pseudogenes except NANOGP8 are present at their expected orthologous chromosomal positions in the chimpanzee genome when compared to the human genome, indicating that their origins predate the human-chimpanzee divergence. Analysis of flanking DNA sequences demonstrates that NANOGP8 is absent from the chimpanzee genome. Conclusion Based on the most parsimonious ordering of inferred source-gene mutations, the deduced evolutionary origins for the NANOG pseudogene family in the human and chimpanzee genomes, in order of most ancient to most recent, are NANOGP6, NANOGP5, NANOGP3, NANOGP10, NANOGP2, NANOGP9, NANOGP7, NANOGP1, and NANOGP4. All of these pseudogenes were fixed in the genome of the human-chimpanzee common ancestor. NANOGP8 is the most recent pseudogene and it originated exclusively in the human lineage after the human-chimpanzee divergence. NANOGP1 is apparently an unprocessed pseudogene. Comparison of its sequence to the functional NANOG gene's reading frame suggests that this apparent pseudogene remained functional after duplication and, therefore, was subject to selection-driven conservation of its reading frame, and that it may retain some functionality or that its loss of function may be evolutionarily recent.

  15. The price of play: self-organized infant mortality cycles in chimpanzees.

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    Hjalmar S Kuehl

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees have been used extensively as a model system for laboratory research on infectious diseases. Ironically, we know next to nothing about disease dynamics in wild chimpanzee populations. Here, we analyze long-term demographic and behavioral data from two habituated chimpanzee communities in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, where previous work has shown respiratory pathogens to be an important source of infant mortality. In this paper we trace the effect of social connectivity on infant mortality dynamics. We focus on social play which, as the primary context of contact between young chimpanzees, may serve as a key venue for pathogen transmission. Infant abundance and mortality rates at Taï cycled regularly and in a way that was not well explained in terms of environmental forcing. Rather, infant mortality cycles appeared to self-organize in response to the ontogeny of social play. Each cycle started when the death of multiple infants in an outbreak synchronized the reproductive cycles of their mothers. A pulse of births predictably arrived about twelve months later, with social connectivity increasing over the following two years as the large birth cohort approached the peak of social play. The high social connectivity at this play peak then appeared to facilitate further outbreaks. Our results provide the first evidence that social play has a strong role in determining chimpanzee disease transmission risk and the first record of chimpanzee disease cycles similar to those seen in human children. They also lend more support to the view that infectious diseases are a major threat to the survival of remaining chimpanzee populations.

  16. Is music enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)?

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    Wallace, Emma K.; Altschul, Drew; Körfer, Karoline; Benti, Benjamin; Kaeser, Amanda; Lambeth, Susan; Waller, Bridget M.; Slocombe, Katie E.

    2017-01-01

    Many facilities that house captive primates play music for animal enrichment or for caregiver enjoyment. However, the impact on primates is unknown as previous studies have been inconclusive. We conducted three studies with zoo-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and one with group-housed chimpanzees at the National Centre for Chimpanzee Care to investigate the effects of classical and pop/rock music on various variables that may be indicative of increased welfare. Study one compared the behaviour and use of space of 18 animals when silence, classical or pop/rock music was played into one of several indoor areas. Overall, chimpanzees did not actively avoid the area when music was playing but were more likely to exit the area when songs with higher beats per minute were broadcast. Chimpanzees showed significantly fewer active social behaviours when music, rather than silence, was playing. They also tended to be more active and engage in less abnormal behaviour during the music but there was no change to either self-grooming or aggression between music and silent conditions. The genre of music had no differential effects on the chimpanzees’ use of space and behaviour. In the second study, continuous focal observations were carried out on three individuals with relatively high levels of abnormal behaviour. No differences in behaviour between music and silence periods were found in any of the individuals. The final two studies used devices that allowed chimpanzees to choose if they wanted to listen to music of various types or silence. Both studies showed that there were no persistent preferences for any type of music or silence. When taken together, our results do not suggest music is enriching for group-housed captive chimpanzees, but they also do not suggest that music has a negative effect on welfare. PMID:28355212

  17. Forest chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) remember the location of numerous fruit trees.

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    Normand, Emmanuelle; Ban, Simone Dagui; Boesch, Christophe

    2009-11-01

    It is assumed that spatial memory contributes crucially to animal cognition since animals' habitats entail a large number of dispersed and unpredictable food sources. Spatial memory has been investigated under controlled conditions, with different species showing and different conditions leading to varying performance levels. However, the number of food sources investigated is very low compared to what exists under natural conditions, where food resources are so abundant that it is difficult to precisely identify what is available. By using a detailed botanical map containing over 12,499 trees known to be used by the Taï chimpanzees, we created virtual maps of all productive fruit trees to simulate potential strategies used by wild chimpanzees to reach resources without spatial memory. First, we simulated different assumptions concerning the chimpanzees' preference for a particular tree species, and, second, we varied the detection field to control for the possible use of smell to detect fruiting trees. For all these assumptions, we compared simulated distance travelled, frequencies of trees visited, and revisit rates with what we actually observed in wild chimpanzees. Our results show that chimpanzees visit rare tree species more frequently, travel shorter distances to reach them, and revisit the same trees more often than if they had no spatial memory. In addition, we demonstrate that chimpanzees travel longer distances to reach resources where they will eat for longer periods of time, and revisit resources more frequently where they ate for a long period of time during their first visit. Therefore, this study shows that forest chimpanzees possess a precise spatial memory which allows them to remember the location of numerous resources and use this information to select the most attractive resources.

  18. The costs of living at the edge: Seasonal stress in wild savanna-dwelling chimpanzees.

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    Wessling, Erin G; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Mundry, Roger; Deschner, Tobias; Pruetz, Jill D

    2018-04-20

    Adaptations associated with shifting from a predominately forested habitat to a more open environment are considered a crucial step in hominin evolution. Understanding how chimpanzees, one of our closest-living relatives, are exposed to the selection pressures associated with living in a relatively sparse, hot, and dry environment can inform us about the relative importance of potential environmental stressors involved in adaptations to drier environments. We investigated the extent to which chimpanzees living in an extreme savanna habitat experience seasonal variability in either energy balance or thermoregulation (dehydration and heat exposure), as well as whether these potential environmental constraints are taxing to chimpanzee individuals. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that savanna environments impose seasonally-relevant costs to chimpanzees. To this end, we collected 368 urine samples from one community of chimpanzees at Fongoli, Senegal, and measured c-peptide, creatinine, and cortisol as measures of physiological responses to environmental food, water, and heat constraints, respectively. We then evaluated the influence of climatic and phenological factors on these indicators. Results illustrated significant seasonal variation in all biomarkers, which corresponded to relevant ecological correlates. Furthermore, creatinine but not c-peptide correlated with cortisol levels, suggesting that chimpanzees in this environment endure periods of heat and dehydration stress, but are able to avoid stressful levels of negative energy balance. Using savanna chimpanzees as a referential model, our research lends support to the notion that thermoregulatory challenges were a significant factor in hominin evolution, and suggests these challenges may have overshadowed the challenges of maintaining adequate energetic balance during the expansion of the hominin range from wetter to drier environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Causal knowledge and imitation/emulation switching in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens).

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    Horner, Victoria; Whiten, Andrew

    2005-07-01

    This study explored whether the tendency of chimpanzees and children to use emulation or imitation to solve a tool-using task was a response to the availability of causal information. Young wild-born chimpanzees from an African sanctuary and 3- to 4-year-old children observed a human demonstrator use a tool to retrieve a reward from a puzzle-box. The demonstration involved both causally relevant and irrelevant actions, and the box was presented in each of two conditions: opaque and clear. In the opaque condition, causal information about the effect of the tool inside the box was not available, and hence it was impossible to differentiate between the relevant and irrelevant parts of the demonstration. However, in the clear condition causal information was available, and subjects could potentially determine which actions were necessary. When chimpanzees were presented with the opaque box, they reproduced both the relevant and irrelevant actions, thus imitating the overall structure of the task. When the box was presented in the clear condition they instead ignored the irrelevant actions in favour of a more efficient, emulative technique. These results suggest that emulation is the favoured strategy of chimpanzees when sufficient causal information is available. However, if such information is not available, chimpanzees are prone to employ a more comprehensive copy of an observed action. In contrast to the chimpanzees, children employed imitation to solve the task in both conditions, at the expense of efficiency. We suggest that the difference in performance of chimpanzees and children may be due to a greater susceptibility of children to cultural conventions, perhaps combined with a differential focus on the results, actions and goals of the demonstrator.

  20. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20–30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is

  1. Egalitarian despots: hierarchy steepness, reciprocity and the grooming-trade model in wild chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-01-01

    Biological market theory models the action of natural selection as a marketplace in which animals are viewed as traders with commodities to offer and exchange. Studies of female Old World monkeys have suggested that grooming might be employed as a commodity to be reciprocated or traded for alternative services, yet previous tests of this grooming-trade model in wild adult male chimpanzees have yielded mixed results. Here we provide the strongest test of the model to date for male chimpanzees: we use data drawn from two social groups (communities) of chimpanzees from different populations and give explicit consideration to variation in dominance hierarchy steepness, as such variation results in differing conditions for biological markets. First, analysis of data from published accounts of other chimpanzee communities, together with our own data, showed that hierarchy steepness varied considerably within and across communities and that the number of adult males in a community aged 20-30 years predicted hierarchy steepness. The two communities in which we tested predictions of the grooming-trade model lay at opposite extremes of this distribution. Second, in accord with the grooming-trade model, we found evidence that male chimpanzees trade grooming for agonistic support where hierarchies are steep (despotic) and consequent effective support is a rank-related commodity, but not where hierarchies are shallow (egalitarian). However, we also found that grooming was reciprocated regardless of hierarchy steepness. Our findings also hint at the possibility of agonistic competition, or at least exclusion, in relation to grooming opportunities compromising the free market envisioned by biological market theory. Our results build on previous findings across chimpanzee communities to emphasize the importance of reciprocal grooming exchanges among adult male chimpanzees, which can be understood in a biological markets framework if grooming by or with particular individuals is a

  2. Suitable habitats for endangered frugivorous mammals: small-scale comparison, regeneration forest and chimpanzee density in Kibale National Park, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bortolamiol

    Full Text Available Landscape patterns and chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii densities in Kibale National Park show important variation among communities that are geographically close to one another (from 1.5 to 5.1 chimpanzees/km2. Anthropogenic activities inside the park (past logging activities, current encroachment and outside its limits (food and cash crops may impact the amount and distribution of food resources for chimpanzees (frugivorous species and their spatial distribution within the park. Spatial and temporal patterns of fruit availability were recorded over 18 months at Sebitoli (a site of intermediate chimpanzee density and higher anthropic pressure with the aim of understanding the factors explaining chimpanzee density there, in comparison to results from two other sites, also in Kibale: Kanyawara (low chimpanzee density and Ngogo (high density, and furthest from Sebitoli. Because of the post-logging regenerating status of the forest in Sebitoli and Kanyawara, smaller basal area (BA of fruiting trees most widely consumed by the chimpanzees in Kanyawara and Sebitoli was expected compared to Ngogo (not logged commercially. Due to the distance between sites, spatial and temporal fruit abundance in Sebitoli was expected to be more similar to Kanyawara than to Ngogo. While species functional classes consumed by Sebitoli chimpanzees (foods eaten during periods of high or low fruit abundance differ from the two other sites, Sebitoli is very similar to Kanyawara in terms of land-cover and consumed species. Among feeding trees, Ficus species are particularly important resources for chimpanzees at Sebitoli, where their basal area is higher than at Kanywara or Ngogo. Ficus species provided a relatively consistent supply of food for chimpanzees throughout the year, and we suggest that this could help to explain the unusually high density of chimpanzees in such a disturbed site.

  3. Comparative phylogeography of two widespread magpies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Ruiying; Song, Gang; Qu, Yanhua

    2012-01-01

    Historical geological events and climatic changes are believed to have played important roles in shaping the current distribution of species. However, sympatric species may have responded in different ways to such climatic fluctuations. Here we compared genetic structures of two corvid species......, the Azure-winged Magpie Cyanopica cyanus and the Eurasian Magpie Pica pica, both widespread but with different habitat dependence and some aspects of breeding behavior. Three mitochondrial genes and two nuclear introns were used to examine their co-distributed populations in East China and the Iberian...... Peninsula. Both species showed deep divergences between these two regions that were dated to the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene. In the East Chinese clade of C. cyanus, populations were subdivided between Northeast China and Central China, probably since the early to mid-Pleistocene, and the Central...

  4. International arrivals: widespread bioinvasions in European Seas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galil, B S; Marchini, A; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, A; Minchin, D; Narščius, A; Ojaveer, H; Olenin, S

    2014-04-01

    The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present.

  5. Raking it in: the impact of enculturation on chimpanzee tool use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furlong, E E; Boose, K J; Boysen, S T

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence for different tool kits, proposed to be based upon culture-like transmission, have been observed across different chimpanzee communities across Western Africa. In light of these findings, the reported failures by seven captive juvenile chimpanzees tested with 27 tool use tasks (Povinelli 2000) seem enigmatic. Here we report successful performance by a group of nine captive, enculturated chimpanzees, and limited success by a group of six semi-enculturated chimpanzees, on two of the Povinelli tasks, the Flimsy Tool task, and the Hybrid Tool task. All chimpanzees were presented with a rake with a flimsy head and a second rake with a rigid head, either of which could be used to attempt to retrieve a food reward that was out of reach. The rigid rake was constructed such that it had the necessary functional features to permit successful retrieval, while the flimsy rake did not. Both chimpanzee groups in the present experiment selected the functional rigid tool correctly to use during the Flimsy Tool task. All animals were then presented with two "hybrid rakes" A and B, with one half of each rake head constructed from flimsy, non-functional fabric, and the other half of the head was made of wood. Food rewards were placed in front of the rigid side of Rake A and the flimsy side of Rake B. To be successful, the chimps needed to choose the rake that had the reward in front of the rigid side of the rake head. The fully enculturated animals were successful in selecting the functional rake, while the semi-enculturated subjects chose randomly between the two hybrid tools. Compared with findings from Povinelli, whose non-enculturated animals failed both tasks, our results demonstrate that chimpanzees reared under conditions of semi-enculturation could learn to discriminate correctly the necessary tool through trial-and-error during the Flimsy Tool task, but were unable to recognize the functional relationship necessary for retrieving the reward with the "hybrid

  6. Learning the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game: chimpanzees versus children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Su, Yanjie; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) could learn a transverse pattern by being trained in the rules of the rock-paper-scissors game in which "paper" beats "rock," "rock" beats "scissors," and "scissors" beats "paper." Additionally, this study compared the learning processes between chimpanzees and children. Seven chimpanzees were tested using a computer-controlled task. They were trained to choose the stronger of two options according to the game rules. The chimpanzees first engaged in the paper-rock sessions until they reached the learning criterion. Subsequently, they engaged in the rock-scissors and scissors-paper sessions, before progressing to sessions with all three pairs mixed. Five of the seven chimpanzees completed training after a mean of 307 sessions, which indicates that they learned the circular pattern. The chimpanzees required more scissors-paper sessions (14.29 ± 6.89), the third learnt pair, than paper-rock (1.71 ± 0.18) and rock-scissors (3.14 ± 0.70) sessions, suggesting they had difficulty finalizing the circularity. The chimpanzees then received generalization tests using new stimuli, which they learned quickly. A similar procedure was performed with children (35-71 months, n = 38) who needed the same number of trials for all three pairs during single-paired sessions. Their accuracy during the mixed-pair sessions improved with age and was better than chance from 50 months of age, which indicates that the ability to solve the transverse patterning problem might develop at around 4 years of age. The present findings show that chimpanzees were able to learn the task but had difficulties with circularity, whereas children learned the task more easily and developed the relevant ability at approximately 4 years of age. Furthermore, the chimpanzees' performance during the mixed-pair sessions was similar to that of 4-year-old children during the corresponding stage of training.

  7. From colour photographs to black-and-white line drawings: an assessment of chimpanzees' (Pan troglodytes') transfer behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, James; Call, Josep

    2015-03-01

    Over two experiments, we investigated the ability of two adolescent and two adult chimpanzees to generalise a learnt, pictorial categorisation to increasingly degraded and abstract stimuli. In Experiment 2, we further assessed the ability of the adolescent chimpanzees to engage in open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings. The current results confirmed and extended previous findings, showing that sub-adult chimpanzees outperform adult chimpanzees in the categorisation of pictorial stimuli, particularly when the stimuli are more degraded and abstract in nature. However, none of the four chimpanzees showed positive transfer of their category learning to a set of black-and-white line drawings, and neither of the adolescent chimpanzees evidenced reliable open-ended categorisation of the black-and-white line drawings. The latter findings suggest that both sub-adult and adult chimpanzees find it difficult to recognise black-and-white line drawings, and that open-ended categorisation of black-and-white line drawings is challenging for chimpanzees.

  8. Gimme Gimme Gimme. The recent signing behaviour of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) in interactions with longterm human companions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, E.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation starts with a critical analysis of the scientific projects with signing chimpanzees, which were set up to see if chimpanzees could learn a human language. These projects consist of the research by the Gardners, the Fouts and the Terrace group. After the results of these projects

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 neutralization epitope with conserved architecture elicits early type-specific antibodies in experimentally infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Debouck, C.; Meloen, R. H.; Smit, L.; Bakker, M.; Asher, D. M.; Wolff, A. V.; Gibbs, C. J.; Gajdusek, D. C.

    1988-01-01

    Chimpanzees are susceptible to infection by divergent strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), none of which cause clinical or immunological abnormalities. Chimpanzees were inoculated with one of four strains of HIV-1: human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type IIIB, lymphadenopathy virus

  10. Characterization and potential functional significance of human-chimpanzee large INDEL variation

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    Polavarapu Nalini

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although humans and chimpanzees have accumulated significant differences in a number of phenotypic traits since diverging from a common ancestor about six million years ago, their genomes are more than 98.5% identical at protein-coding loci. This modest degree of nucleotide divergence is not sufficient to explain the extensive phenotypic differences between the two species. It has been hypothesized that the genetic basis of the phenotypic differences lies at the level of gene regulation and is associated with the extensive insertion and deletion (INDEL variation between the two species. To test the hypothesis that large INDELs (80 to 12,000 bp may have contributed significantly to differences in gene regulation between the two species, we categorized human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in or around genes and determined whether this variation is significantly correlated with previously determined differences in gene expression. Results Extensive, large INDEL variation exists between the human and chimpanzee genomes. This variation is primarily attributable to retrotransposon insertions within the human lineage. There is a significant correlation between differences in gene expression and large human-chimpanzee INDEL variation mapping in genes or in proximity to them. Conclusions The results presented herein are consistent with the hypothesis that large INDELs, particularly those associated with retrotransposons, have played a significant role in human-chimpanzee regulatory evolution.

  11. Stereotypical Behaviors in Chimpanzees Rescued from the African Bushmeat and Pet Trade

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    Ashlynn Dube

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many orphaned chimpanzees whose mothers are illegally killed for their meat (bushmeat in Africa are sold as pets or kept caged at hotels and businesses to attract tourists. As a result of being separated from their mothers and other chimpanzees at an early age, and spending years in impoverished captive conditions, some of these individuals engage in abnormal behaviors, including stereotypically scratching at their flesh and repetitively rocking back and forth. This paper presents case studies of Poco and Safari, two chimpanzees who were rescued by sanctuaries after living alone on display for humans at businesses for the first 7 to 8 years of their lives. Decades after their rescue, they still engage in stereotypical behaviors as a result of the psychological and physical trauma they endured early on. This paper combines data from in depth interviews with caregivers and direct observations of abnormal behaviors to assess psychological distress in captive-living chimpanzees. Our results highlight some lesser known harms of the bushmeat trade and the detrimental life-long consequences that keeping chimpanzees as “pets” can have on their mental health.

  12. Stable isotope evidence of meat eating and hunting specialization in adult male chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E.; Richards, Michael; Riedel, Julia; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Observations of hunting and meat eating in our closest living relatives, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), suggest that among primates, regular inclusion of meat in the diet is not a characteristic unique to Homo. Wild chimpanzees are known to consume vertebrate meat, but its actual dietary contribution is, depending on the study population, often either unknown or minimal. Constraints on continual direct observation throughout the entire hunting season mean that behavioral observations are limited in their ability to accurately quantify meat consumption. Here we present direct stable isotope evidence supporting behavioral observations of frequent meat eating among wild adult male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d’Ivoire. Meat eating among some of the male chimpanzees is significant enough to result in a marked isotope signal detectable on a short-term basis in their hair keratin and long-term in their bone collagen. Although both adult males and females and juveniles derive their dietary protein largely from daily fruit and seasonal nut consumption, our data indicate that some adult males also derive a large amount of dietary protein from hunted meat. Our results reinforce behavioral observations of male-dominated hunting and meat eating in adult Taï chimpanzees, suggesting that sex differences in food acquisition and consumption may have persisted throughout hominin evolution, rather than being a recent development in the human lineage. PMID:23530185

  13. Raw material procurement for termite fishing tools by wild chimpanzees in the Issa valley, Western Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida-Warren, Katarina; Sommer, Volker; Piel, Alex K; Pascual-Garrido, Alejandra

    2017-10-01

    Chimpanzee termite fishing has been studied for decades, yet the selective processes preceding the manufacture of fishing tools remain largely unexplored. We investigate raw material selection and potential evidence of forward planning in the chimpanzees of Issa valley, western Tanzania. Using traditional archaeological methods, we surveyed the location of plants from where chimpanzees sourced raw material to manufacture termite fishing tools, relative to targeted mounds. We measured raw material abundance to test for availability and selection. Statistics included Chi-Squared, two-tailed Wilcoxon, and Kruskall-Wallace tests. Issa chimpanzees manufactured extraction tools only from bark, despite availability of other suitable materials (e.g., twigs), and selected particular plant species as raw material sources, which they often also exploit for food. Most plants were sourced 1-16 m away from the mound, with a maximum of 33 m. The line of sight from the targeted mound was obscured for a quarter of these plants. The exclusive use of bark tools despite availability of other suitable materials indicates a possible cultural preference. The fact that Issa chimpanzees select specific plant species and travel some distance to source them suggests some degree of selectivity and, potentially, forward planning. Our results have implications for the reconstruction of early hominin behaviors, particularly with regard to the use of perishable tools, which remain archaeologically invisible. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Phylogenetic analyses of behavior support existence of culture among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J; Collard, Mark; McGrew, William C

    2007-11-06

    Culture has long been considered to be not only unique to humans, but also responsible for making us qualitatively different from all other forms of life. In recent years, however, researchers studying chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have challenged this idea. Natural populations of chimpanzees have been found to vary greatly in their behavior. Because many of these interpopulation differences cannot be readily explained by ecological factors, it has been argued that they result from social learning and, therefore, can be regarded as cultural variations. Recent studies showing social transmission in captive chimpanzee populations suggest that this hypothesis is plausible. However, the culture hypothesis has been questioned on the grounds that the behavioral variation may be explained at a proximate level by genetic differences between subspecies. Here we use cladistic analyses of the major cross-site behavioral data set to test the hypothesis that the behavioral differences among the best-documented chimpanzee populations are genetically determined. If behavioral diversity is primarily the product of genetic differences between subspecies, then population data should show less phylogenetic structure when data from a single subspecies (P. t. schweinfurthii) are compared with data from two subspecies (P. t. verus and P. t. schweinfurthii) analyzed together. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that the observed behavioral patterns of wild chimpanzee populations can be explained primarily by genetic differences between subspecies. Instead, our results support the suggestion that the behavioral patterns are the product of social learning and, therefore, can be considered cultural.

  15. Chimpanzee social intelligence: selfishness, altruism, and the mother-infant bond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    To better understand the human mind from an evolutionary perspective, a great deal of research has focused on the closest living relative of humans, the chimpanzee, using various approaches, including studies of social intelligence. Here, I review recent research related to several aspects of social intelligence, including deception, understanding of perception and intention, social learning, trading, cooperation, and regard for others. Many studies have demonstrated that chimpanzees are proficient in using their social intelligence for selfish motives to benefit from their interactions with others. In contrast, it is not yet clear whether chimpanzees engage in prosocial behaviors that benefit others; however, chimpanzee mother-infant interactions indicate the possibility of such behaviors. Therefore, I propose that chimpanzees possess rudimentary traits of human mental competence not only in terms of theory of mind in a broader sense but also in terms of prosociality involving regard for others. Mother-infant interactions appear to be particularly important to understanding the manifestation of social intelligence from an evolutionary perspective.

  16. Aping expressions? Chimpanzees produce distinct laugh types when responding to laughter of others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila-Ross, Marina; Allcock, Bethan; Thomas, Chris; Bard, Kim A

    2011-10-01

    Humans have the ability to replicate the emotional expressions of others even when they undergo different emotions. Such distinct responses of expressions, especially positive expressions, play a central role in everyday social communication of humans and may give the responding individuals important advantages in cooperation and communication. The present work examined laughter in chimpanzees to test whether nonhuman primates also use their expressions in such distinct ways. The approach was first to examine the form and occurrence of laugh replications (laughter after the laughter of others) and spontaneous laughter of chimpanzees during social play and then to test whether their laugh replications represented laugh-elicited laugh responses (laughter triggered by the laughter of others) by using a quantitative method designed to measure responses in natural social settings. The results of this study indicated that chimpanzees produce laugh-elicited laughter that is distinct in form and occurrence from their spontaneous laughter. These findings provide the first empirical evidence that nonhuman primates have the ability to replicate the expressions of others by producing expressions that differ in their underlying emotions and social implications. The data further showed that the laugh-elicited laugh responses of the subjects were closely linked to play maintenance, suggesting that chimpanzees might gain important cooperative and communicative advantages by responding with laughter to the laughter of their social partners. Notably, some chimpanzee groups of this study responded more with laughter than others, an outcome that provides empirical support of a socialization of expressions in great apes similar to that of humans.

  17. Serological responses in chimpanzees inoculated with human immunodeficiency virus glycoprotein (gp120) subunit vaccine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, L.O.; Pyle, S.W.; Nara, P.L.

    1987-01-01

    The major envelope glycoprotein of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been purified and was utilized as a prototype vaccine in chimpanzees. The 120,000-dalton glycoprotein (gp120) was purified from membranes of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-IIIB-infected cells and the final preparation contained low levels to no detectable HTLV-IIIB core antigen (p24) and low levels of endotoxin. Chimpanzees inoculated with gp120 responded by developing antibodies that precipitated radiolabeled gp120 and neutralized in vitro infection of HTLV-IIIB. Antibodies to HTLV-IIIB p24 were not detected in the gp120-immunized chimpanzees. Peripheral blood leukocytes from the vaccinated animals were examined for T4 + and T8 + cells, and no decrease in the T4/T8 ratio was found, indicating that immunization with a ligand (gp120) that binds to T4 has not detectable adverse effect on the population of T4 + cells. The only current animal model that can be reproducibly infected with HIV is the chimpanzee. Immunization of chimpanzees with HIV proteins will provide an experimental system for testing the effectiveness of prototype vaccines for preventing HIV infection in vivo

  18. Does geography or ecology best explain 'cultural' variation among chimpanzee communities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Marshack, Joshua L

    2012-02-01

    Much attention has been paid to geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior, but few studies have applied quantitative techniques to explain this variation. Here, we apply methods typically utilized in macroecology to explain variation in the putative cultural traits of chimpanzees. We analyzed published data containing 39 behavioral traits from nine chimpanzee communities. We used a canonical correspondence analysis to examine the relative importance of environmental characteristics and geography, which may be a proxy for inter-community gene flow and/or social transmission, for explaining geographic variation in chimpanzee behavior. We found that geography, and longitude in particular, was the best predictor of behavioral variation. Chimpanzee communities in close longitudinal proximity to each other exhibit similar behavioral repertoires, independent of local ecological factors. No ecological variables were significantly related to behavioral variation. These results support the idea that inter-community dispersal patterns have played a major role in structuring behavioral variation. We cannot be certain whether behavioral variation has a genetic basis, is the result of innovation and diffusion, or a combination of the two. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G.; Hare, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a ‘framed’ option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive ‘gain’ event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative ‘loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive ‘gain’ frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. PMID:25672997

  20. Cortical cell and neuron density estimates in one chimpanzee hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Christine E; Turner, Emily C; Sawyer, Eva Kille; Reed, Jamie L; Young, Nicole A; Flaherty, David K; Kaas, Jon H

    2016-01-19

    The density of cells and neurons in the neocortex of many mammals varies across cortical areas and regions. This variability is, perhaps, most pronounced in primates. Nonuniformity in the composition of cortex suggests regions of the cortex have different specializations. Specifically, regions with densely packed neurons contain smaller neurons that are activated by relatively few inputs, thereby preserving information, whereas regions that are less densely packed have larger neurons that have more integrative functions. Here we present the numbers of cells and neurons for 742 discrete locations across the neocortex in a chimpanzee. Using isotropic fractionation and flow fractionation methods for cell and neuron counts, we estimate that neocortex of one hemisphere contains 9.5 billion cells and 3.7 billion neurons. Primary visual cortex occupies 35 cm(2) of surface, 10% of the total, and contains 737 million densely packed neurons, 20% of the total neurons contained within the hemisphere. Other areas of high neuron packing include secondary visual areas, somatosensory cortex, and prefrontal granular cortex. Areas of low levels of neuron packing density include motor and premotor cortex. These values reflect those obtained from more limited samples of cortex in humans and other primates.

  1. Bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit human-like framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupenye, Christopher; Rosati, Alexandra G; Hare, Brian

    2015-02-01

    Humans exhibit framing effects when making choices, appraising decisions involving losses differently from those involving gains. To directly test for the evolutionary origin of this bias, we examined decision-making in humans' closest living relatives: bonobos (Pan paniscus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). We presented the largest sample of non-humans to date (n = 40) with a simple task requiring minimal experience. Apes made choices between a 'framed' option that provided preferred food, and an alternative option that provided a constant amount of intermediately preferred food. In the gain condition, apes experienced a positive 'gain' event in which the framed option was initially presented as one piece of food but sometimes was augmented to two. In the loss condition, apes experienced a negative 'loss' event in which they initially saw two pieces but sometimes received only one. Both conditions provided equal pay-offs, but apes chose the framed option more often in the positive 'gain' frame. Moreover, male apes were more susceptible to framing than were females. These results suggest that some human economic biases are shared through common descent with other apes and highlight the importance of comparative work in understanding the origins of individual differences in human choice. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, David I; Liu, Kyle T; Reid, Bryan J; Hawkins, Emily; Sevier, Andrew; Pyle, Michelle; Robinson, Jacob W; Ouellette, Pierre H R; Ballantyne, James S

    2015-01-01

    Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans), fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays), the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM), intestine of lobster (138 μM) gills of the surf clam (100 μM)) had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  3. Widespread Natural Occurrence of Hydroxyurea in Animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David I Fraser

    Full Text Available Here we report the widespread natural occurrence of a known antibiotic and antineoplastic compound, hydroxyurea in animals from many taxonomic groups. Hydroxyurea occurs in all the organisms we have examined including invertebrates (molluscs and crustaceans, fishes from several major groups, amphibians and mammals. The species with highest concentrations was an elasmobranch (sharks, skates and rays, the little skate Leucoraja erinacea with levels up to 250 μM, high enough to have antiviral, antimicrobial and antineoplastic effects based on in vitro studies. Embryos of L. erinacea showed increasing levels of hydroxyurea with development, indicating the capacity for hydroxyurea synthesis. Certain tissues of other organisms (e.g. skin of the frog (64 μM, intestine of lobster (138 μM gills of the surf clam (100 μM had levels high enough to have antiviral effects based on in vitro studies. Hydroxyurea is widely used clinically in the treatment of certain human cancers, sickle cell anemia, psoriasis, myeloproliferative diseases, and has been investigated as a potential treatment of HIV infection and its presence at high levels in tissues of elasmobranchs and other organisms suggests a novel mechanism for fighting disease that may explain the disease resistance of some groups. In light of the known production of nitric oxide from exogenously applied hydroxyurea, endogenous hydoxyurea may play a hitherto unknown role in nitric oxide dynamics.

  4. Complex tasks force hand laterality and technological behaviour in naturalistically housed chimpanzees: inferences in hominin evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera, M; Geribàs, N; Bargalló, A; Llorente, M; Riba, D

    2012-01-01

    Clear hand laterality patterns in humans are widely accepted. However, humans only elicit a significant hand laterality pattern when performing complementary role differentiation (CRD) tasks. Meanwhile, hand laterality in chimpanzees is weaker and controversial. Here we have reevaluated our results on hand laterality in chimpanzees housed in naturalistic environments at Fundació Mona (Spain) and Chimfunshi Wild Orphanage (Zambia). Our results show that the difference between hand laterality in humans and chimpanzees is not as great as once thought. Furthermore, we found a link between hand laterality and task complexity and also an even more interesting connection: CRD tasks elicited not only the hand laterality but also the use of tools. This paper aims to turn attention to the importance of this threefold connection in human evolution: the link between CRD tasks, hand laterality, and tool use, which has important evolutionary implications that may explain the development of complex behaviour in early hominins.

  5. Captive chimpanzee takes down a drone: tool use toward a flying object.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Jan A R A M; Lukkenaar, Bas

    2015-10-01

    On 10 April 2015, a Dutch TV crew was filming at the Royal Burgers Zoo in Arnhem, The Netherlands. It was the intention to film the chimpanzees in the enclosure from close-by and from above with the means of a drone. When the drone came a bit closer to the chimpanzees, a female individual made two sweeps with a branch that she held in one hand. The second one was successful and downed the drone. The use of the stick in this context was a unique action. It seemed deliberate given the decision to collect it and carry it to a place where the drone might be attacked. This episode adds to the indications that chimpanzees engage in forward planning of tool-use acts.

  6. An evaluation of video cameras for collecting observational data on sanctuary-housed chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bethany K; Fultz, Amy L; Hopper, Lydia M; Ross, Stephen R

    2018-05-01

    Video cameras are increasingly being used to monitor captive animals in zoo, laboratory, and agricultural settings. This technology may also be useful in sanctuaries with large and/or complex enclosures. However, the cost of camera equipment and a lack of formal evaluations regarding the use of cameras in sanctuary settings make it challenging for facilities to decide whether and how to implement this technology. To address this, we evaluated the feasibility of using a video camera system to monitor chimpanzees at Chimp Haven. We viewed a group of resident chimpanzees in a large forested enclosure and compared observations collected in person and with remote video cameras. We found that via camera, the observer viewed fewer chimpanzees in some outdoor locations (GLMM post hoc test: est. = 1.4503, SE = 0.1457, Z = 9.951, p sanctuaries to facilitate animal care and observational research. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. On the possible adaptive value of coprophagy in free-ranging chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krief, Sabrina; Jamart, Aliette; Hladik, Claude-Marcel

    2004-04-01

    Coprophagy occurred during major periods of feeding on fruits of Dialium spp. (Caesalpiniaceae) in a group of orphaned chimpanzees released in Conkouati Douli National Park, Republic of Congo. Since stress, boredom or food scarcity could not explain coprophagy according to our daily behavioral and veterinary control observations, we suggest that Dialium seeds were the item of interest in the feces. Two types of Dialium seeds were commonly found in the feces after chimpanzees swallowed the mesocarp and whole seeds together. These seeds were either whole and hard or whole/broken and soft imbibed. A mechanical and/or chemical effect of the gut passage may enable the chimpanzees to chew and ingest the seeds, thus providing nutritional intake.

  8. Expression of Siglec-11 by human and chimpanzee ovarian stromal cells, with uniquely human ligands: implications for human ovarian physiology and pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Chow, Renee; Deng, Liwen; Anderson, Dan; Weidner, Noel; Godwin, Andrew K; Bewtra, Chanda; Zlotnik, Albert; Bui, Jack; Varki, Ajit; Varki, Nissi

    2011-01-01

    Siglecs (Sialic acid-binding Immunoglobulin Superfamily Lectins) are cell surface signaling receptors of the I-type lectin group that recognize sialic acid-bearing glycans. CD33-related-Siglecs are a subset with expression primarily in cells of hematopoietic origin and functional relevance to immune reactions. Earlier we reported a human-specific gene conversion event that markedly changed the coding region for the extracellular domain of Siglec-11, associated with human-specific expression in microglia (Hayakawa T, Angata T, Lewis AL, Mikkelsen TS, Varki NM, Varki A. 2005. A human-specific gene in microglia. Science. 309:1693). Analyzing human gene microarrays to define new patterns of expression, we observed high levels of SIGLEC11 transcript in the ovary and adrenal cortex. Thus, we examined human and chimpanzee tissues using a well-characterized anti-Siglec-11 mouse monoclonal antibody. Although adrenal expression was variable and confined to infiltrating macrophages in capillaries, ovarian expression of Siglec-11 in both humans and chimpanzees was on fibroblasts, the first example of Siglec expression on mesenchyme-derived stromal cells. Cytokines from such ovarian stromal fibroblasts play important roles in follicle development and ovulation. Stable transfection of SIGLEC11 into a primary human ovarian stromal fibroblast cell line altered the secretion of growth-regulated oncogene α, interleukin (IL)-10, IL-7, transforming growth factor β1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, cytokines involved in ovarian physiology. Probing for Siglec-11 ligands revealed distinct and strong mast cell expression in human ovaries, contrasting to diffuse stromal ligands in chimpanzee ovaries. Interestingly, there was a trend of increased Siglec-11 expression in post-menopausal ovaries compared with pre-menopausal ones. Siglec-11 expression was also found on human ovarian stromal tumors and in polycystic ovarian syndrome, a human-specific disease. These results indicate potential

  9. How abnormal is the behaviour of captive, zoo-living chimpanzees?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy P Birkett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes show a variety of serious behavioural abnormalities, some of which have been considered as possible signs of compromised mental health. The provision of environmental enrichments aimed at reducing the performance of abnormal behaviours is increasing the norm, with the housing of individuals in (semi-natural social groups thought to be the most successful of these. Only a few quantitative studies of abnormal behaviour have been conducted, however, particularly for the captive population held in zoological collections. Consequently, a clear picture of the level of abnormal behaviour in zoo-living chimpanzees is lacking. METHODS: We present preliminary findings from a detailed observational study of the behaviour of 40 socially-housed zoo-living chimpanzees from six collections in the United States of America and the United Kingdom. We determined the prevalence, diversity, frequency, and duration of abnormal behaviour from 1200 hours of continuous behavioural data collected by focal animal sampling. RESULTS, CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: Our overall finding was that abnormal behaviour was present in all sampled individuals across six independent groups of zoo-living chimpanzees, despite the differences between these groups in size, composition, housing, etc. We found substantial variation between individuals in the frequency and duration of abnormal behaviour, but all individuals engaged in at least some abnormal behaviour and variation across individuals could not be explained by sex, age, rearing history or background (defined as prior housing conditions. Our data support a conclusion that, while most behaviour of zoo-living chimpanzees is 'normal' in that it is typical of their wild counterparts, abnormal behaviour is endemic in this population despite enrichment efforts. We suggest there is an urgent need to understand how the chimpanzee mind copes with captivity, an issue with both

  10. Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences: a study of orangutans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Alexander; King, James E

    2015-04-01

    Human personality development evinces increased emotional stability, prosocial tendencies, and responsibility. One hypothesis offered to explain this pattern is Social-Investment Theory, which posits that culturally defined social roles, including marriage and employment, are responsible for the increased maturity. Alternatively, Five-Factor Theory emphasizes the role of biological factors, such as those governing physical development, which may predate the emergence of humans. Five-Factor Theory, unlike Social-Investment Theory, predicts that all or some of the human personality developmental trends should be present in great apes, our closest evolutionary relatives. To test this prediction and to better understand the evolutionary origins of sex differences, we examined age and sex differences in the chimpanzee and orangutan personality domains Extraversion, Dominance, Neuroticism, and Agreeableness. We also examined the Activity and Gregariousness facets of Extraversion and the orangutan Intellect domain. Extraversion and Neuroticism declined across age groups in both species, in common with humans. A significant interaction indicated that Agreeableness declined in orangutans but increased in chimpanzees, as it does in humans, though this may reflect differences in how Agreeableness was defined in each species. Significant interactions indicated that male chimpanzees, unlike male orangutans, displayed higher Neuroticism scores than females and maintained higher levels of Activity and Dominance into old age than female chimpanzees, male orangutans, and female orangutans. Personality-age correlations were comparable across orangutans and chimpanzees and were similar to those reported in human studies. Sex differences were stronger in chimpanzees than in humans or orangutans. These findings support Five-Factor Theory, suggest the role of gene-culture coevolution in shaping personality development, and suggest that sex differences evolved independently in different

  11. Trading or coercion? Variation in male mating strategies between two communities of East African chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaburu, Stefano S K; Newton-Fisher, Nicholas E

    2015-06-01

    Across taxa, males employ a variety of mating strategies, including sexual coercion and the provision, or trading, of resources. Biological market theory (BMT) predicts that trading of commodities for mating opportunities should exist only when males cannot monopolize access to females and/or obtain mating by force, in situations where power differentials between males are low; both coercion and trading have been reported for chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes ). Here, we investigate whether the choice of strategy depends on the variation in male power differentials, using data from two wild communities of East African chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ): the structurally despotic Sonso community (Budongo, Uganda) and the structurally egalitarian M-group (Mahale, Tanzania). We found evidence of sexual coercion by male Sonso chimpanzees, and of trading-of grooming for mating-by M-group males; females traded sex for neither meat nor protection from male aggression. Our results suggest that the despotism-egalitarian axis influences strategy choice: male chimpanzees appear to pursue sexual coercion when power differentials are large and trading when power differentials are small and coercion consequently ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that trading and coercive strategies are not restricted to particular chimpanzee subspecies; instead, their occurrence is consistent with BMT predictions. Our study raises interesting, and as yet unanswered, questions regarding female chimpanzees' willingness to trade sex for grooming, if doing so represents a compromise to their fundamentally promiscuous mating strategy. It highlights the importance of within-species cross-group comparisons and the need for further study of the relationship between mating strategy and dominance steepness.

  12. Adolescent male chimpanzees do not form a dominance hierarchy with their peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandel, Aaron A; Reddy, Rachna B; Mitani, John C

    2017-01-01

    Dominance hierarchies are a prominent feature of the lives of many primate species. These hierarchies have important fitness consequences, as high rank is often positively correlated with reproduction. Although adult male chimpanzees strive for status to gain fitness benefits, the development of dominance relationships is not well understood. While two prior studies found that adolescent males do not display dominance relationships with peers, additional research at Ngogo in Kibale National Park, Uganda, indicates that adolescents there form a linear dominance hierarchy. These conflicting findings could reflect different patterns of rank acquisition across sites. An alternate possibility arises from a recent re-evaluation of age estimates at Ngogo and suggests that the report describing decided dominance relationships between adolescent males may have been due to the accidental inclusion of young adult males in the sample. To investigate these issues, we conducted a study of 23 adolescent male chimpanzees of known age during 12 months at Ngogo. Adolescent male chimpanzees exchanged pant grunts, a formal signal of submission, only 21 times. Recipients of pant grunts were late adolescent males, ranging between 14 and 16 years old. In contrast, younger adolescent males never received pant grunts from other males. Aggression between adolescent males was also rare. Analysis of pant grunts and aggressive interactions did not produce a linear dominance hierarchy among adolescent males. These data indicate that adolescent male chimpanzees do not form decided dominance relationships with their peers and are consistent with the hypothesis that the hierarchy described previously at Ngogo resulted from inaccurate age estimates of male chimpanzees. Because dominance relationships develop before adulthood in other primates, our finding that adolescent male chimpanzees do not do so is surprising. We offer possible explanations for why this is the case and suggest future studies

  13. Selective insectivory at Toro-Semliki, Uganda: comparative analyses suggest no 'savanna' chimpanzee pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Timothy H; McGrew, William C; Marchant, Linda F; Payne, Charlotte L R; Hunt, Kevin D

    2014-06-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) insectivory across Africa is ubiquitous. Insects provide a significant nutritional payoff and may be important for chimpanzees in dry, open habitats with narrow diets. We tested this hypothesis at Semliki, Uganda, a long-term dry study site. We evaluated prospects for insectivory by measuring insect abundance along de novo transects and trails, monitoring social insect colonies, and surveying available raw materials for elementary technology. We determined the frequency and nature of insectivory through behavioral observation and fecal analysis. We then compared our results with those from 15 other long-term chimpanzee study sites using a cluster analysis. We found that Semliki chimpanzees are one of the most insectivorous populations studied to date in terms of frequency of consumption, but they are very selective in their insectivory, regularly consuming only weaver ants (Oecophylla longinoda) and honey and bees from hives of Apis mellifera. This selectivity obtains despite having a full range of typical prey species available in harvestable quantities. We suggest that Semliki chimpanzees may face ecological time constraints and therefore bias their predation toward prey taxa that can be quickly consumed. Geographical proximity correlated with the results of the cluster analysis, while rainfall, a relatively gross measure of environment, did not. Because broad taxonomic groups of insects were used in analyses, prey availability was unlikely to have a strong effect on this pattern. Instead, we suggest that transmission of cultural knowledge may play a role in determining chimpanzee prey selection across Africa. Further study is needed to test these hypotheses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

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    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  15. Widespread EEG changes precede focal seizures.

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    Piero Perucca

    Full Text Available The process by which the brain transitions into an epileptic seizure is unknown. In this study, we investigated whether the transition to seizure is associated with changes in brain dynamics detectable in the wideband EEG, and whether differences exist across underlying pathologies. Depth electrode ictal EEG recordings from 40 consecutive patients with pharmacoresistant lesional focal epilepsy were low-pass filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. Predefined EEG sections were selected immediately before (immediate preictal, and 30 seconds before the earliest EEG sign suggestive of seizure activity (baseline. Spectral analysis, visual inspection and discrete wavelet transform were used to detect standard (delta, theta, alpha, beta and gamma and high-frequency bands (ripples and fast ripples. At the group level, each EEG frequency band activity increased significantly from baseline to the immediate preictal section, mostly in a progressive manner and independently of any modification in the state of vigilance. Preictal increases in each frequency band activity were widespread, being observed in the seizure-onset zone and lesional tissue, as well as in remote regions. These changes occurred in all the investigated pathologies (mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis, local/regional cortical atrophy, and malformations of cortical development, but were more pronounced in mesial temporal atrophy/sclerosis. Our findings indicate that a brain state change with distinctive features, in the form of unidirectional changes across the entire EEG bandwidth, occurs immediately prior to seizure onset. We postulate that these changes might reflect a facilitating state of the brain which enables a susceptible region to generate seizures.

  16. A Scan for Positively Selected Genes in the Genomes of Humans and Chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Bustamente, Carlos; Clark, Andrew G.

    2005-01-01

    Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect...... such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved...

  17. Robust retention and transfer of tool construction techniques in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Gill L.; Flynn, Emma G.; Pender, Lydia

    2016-01-01

    months since initial experiences with a tool use task, were retained and subsequently executed more quickly by experienced than by naïve chimpanzees. Ten of the 11 retested chimpanzees displayed impressive long-term procedural memory, creating elongated tools using the same methods employed years...... previously, either combining 2 tools or extending a single tool. The complex tool behaviors were also transferred to a different task context, showing behavioral flexibility. This represents some of the first evidence for appreciable long-term procedural memory, and improvements in the utility of complex...

  18. Molecular ecology and natural history of simian foamy virus infection in wild-living chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weimin Liu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Identifying microbial pathogens with zoonotic potential in wild-living primates can be important to human health, as evidenced by human immunodeficiency viruses types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2 and Ebola virus. Simian foamy viruses (SFVs are ancient retroviruses that infect Old and New World monkeys and apes. Although not known to cause disease, these viruses are of public health interest because they have the potential to infect humans and thus provide a more general indication of zoonotic exposure risks. Surprisingly, no information exists concerning the prevalence, geographic distribution, and genetic diversity of SFVs in wild-living monkeys and apes. Here, we report the first comprehensive survey of SFVcpz infection in free-ranging chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes using newly developed, fecal-based assays. Chimpanzee fecal samples (n = 724 were collected at 25 field sites throughout equatorial Africa and tested for SFVcpz-specific antibodies (n = 706 or viral nucleic acids (n = 392. SFVcpz infection was documented at all field sites, with prevalence rates ranging from 44% to 100%. In two habituated communities, adult chimpanzees had significantly higher SFVcpz infection rates than infants and juveniles, indicating predominantly horizontal rather than vertical transmission routes. Some chimpanzees were co-infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVcpz; however, there was no evidence that SFVcpz and SIVcpz were epidemiologically linked. SFVcpz nucleic acids were recovered from 177 fecal samples, all of which contained SFVcpz RNA and not DNA. Phylogenetic analysis of partial gag (616 bp, pol-RT (717 bp, and pol-IN (425 bp sequences identified a diverse group of viruses, which could be subdivided into four distinct SFVcpz lineages according to their chimpanzee subspecies of origin. Within these lineages, there was evidence of frequent superinfection and viral recombination. One chimpanzee was infected by a foamy virus from a Cercopithecus monkey

  19. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    OpenAIRE

    Reading, C. J.; Luiselli, L. M.; Akani, G. C.; Bonnet, X.; Amori, G.; Ballouard, J. M.; Filippi, E.; Naulleau, G.; Pearson, D.; Rugiero, L.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined ...

  20. Visual search by chimpanzees (Pan): assessment of controlling relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomonaga, M

    1995-03-01

    Three experimentally sophisticated chimpanzees (Pan), Akira, Chloe, and Ai, were trained on visual search performance using a modified multiple-alternative matching-to-sample task in which a sample stimulus was followed by the search display containing one target identical to the sample and several uniform distractors (i.e., negative comparison stimuli were identical to each other). After they acquired this task, they were tested for transfer of visual search performance to trials in which the sample was not followed by the uniform search display (odd-item search). Akira showed positive transfer of visual search performance to odd-item search even when the display size (the number of stimulus items in the search display) was small, whereas Chloe and Ai showed a transfer only when the display size was large. Chloe and Ai used some nonrelational cues such as perceptual isolation of the target among uniform distractors (so-called pop-out). In addition to the odd-item search test, various types of probe trials were presented to clarify the controlling relations in multiple-alternative matching to sample. Akira showed a decrement of accuracy as a function of the display size when the search display was nonuniform (i.e., each "distractor" stimulus was not the same), whereas Chloe and Ai showed perfect performance. Furthermore, when the sample was identical to the uniform distractors in the search display, Chloe and Ai never selected an odd-item target, but Akira selected it when the display size was large. These results indicated that Akira's behavior was controlled mainly by relational cues of target-distractor oddity, whereas an identity relation between the sample and the target strongly controlled the performance of Chloe and Ai.

  1. Puberty in the male chimpanzee: progressive maturation of semen characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marson, J; Meuris, S; Cooper, R W; Jouannet, P

    1991-03-01

    Cellular and biochemical characteristics of semen obtained by masturbation were studied in 5 pubertal chimpanzees during 1.5 yr. The dental age corresponding to the beginning of the pubertal testicular growth (Po) ranged from 5.0 to 8.3 years (mean = 6.7 +/- 1.2 yr). Time-related variations of all studied parameters were analyzed according to Po and, therefore, independently of the dental age. The emission of first ejaculates, and therefore the onset of activity of the accessory sex gland, was estimated to occur 4 mo after Po. The ejaculate volume (n = 132, r = 0.704, p less than 0.001), as well as the total amounts of l-carnitine (n = 65, r = 0.649, p less than 0.001), fructose (r = 0.522, p less than 0.001), citrate (r = 0.748, p less than 0.001), and acid phosphatase (r = 0.756, p less than 0.001) increased with time. First-obtained ejaculates contained no spermatozoa. Spermarche was estimated to occur 9.4 mo after Po. Total sperm count increased with time (r = 0.595, p less than 0.001). The motility and viability of spermatozoa increased with time (r = 0.474, p less than 0.01 and r = 0.632, p less than 0.001, respectively) while their morphology did not vary. The volume of the liquefied fraction and its content in free spermatozoa considered as available for fecundation remained low until the end of the study, most likely because of a delayed maturation of the prostate. This study shows that the maturation of the male genital tract is a progressive process. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Third-party grooming in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Yvan I

    2010-01-01

    Social grooming is ubiquitous among the captive chimpanzees at Chester Zoo. Seven individuals were chosen here for a study of third-party social dynamics. The grooming decisions of five adult males were analysed, but only insofar as they directed attention to a mother-daughter pair. Uniquely, the daughter was an unpopular and physically disabled subadult whose congenital motor impairments prevented her from grooming others effectively. The impetus for this study was the observation that some males increased their grooming towards the disabled daughter during days when the mother had a tumescent anogenital swelling (sexually attractive to males) compared to days when the mother was not tumescent (less attractive). Apparently, males were grooming the daughter with no possibility of payback (because the daughter could never "return the favour"). A "grooming rate" (avg. grooming time/hour) was calculated that showed the grooming efforts of all five males towards both mother and daughter. These rates were compared on days when (1) the mother's anogenital swelling was tumescent, and (2) days when the swelling was not tumescent. Each male showed a different pattern of behaviour. Two males groomed the daughter significantly more when the mother was tumescent. Results for all males were graphed against the quality of the social relationship between each male and the mother. Apparently, only males that had a weaker relationship to the mother groomed the daughter more when the mother was tumescent. This pattern did not exist for males with a stronger relationship to the mother. Possibly, the insecure males were using the disabled daughter as a way to curry favour with the attractive mother. If this is confirmed, then this type of triadic situation is a possible setting for indirect reciprocity to occur.

  3. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

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    Johan Lind

    Full Text Available What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  4. The number of cultural traits is correlated with female group size but not with male group size in chimpanzee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, Johan; Lindenfors, Patrik

    2010-03-24

    What determines the number of cultural traits present in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) communities is poorly understood. In humans, theoretical models suggest that the frequency of cultural traits can be predicted by population size. In chimpanzees, however, females seem to have a particularly important role as cultural carriers. Female chimpanzees use tools more frequently than males. They also spend more time with their young, skewing the infants' potential for social learning towards their mothers. In Gombe, termite fishing has been shown to be transmitted from mother to offspring. Lastly, it is female chimpanzees that transfer between communities and thus have the possibility of bringing in novel cultural traits from other communities. From these observations we predicted that females are more important cultural carriers than males. Here we show that the reported number of cultural traits in chimpanzee communities correlates with the number of females in chimpanzee communities, but not with the number of males. Hence, our results suggest that females are the carriers of chimpanzee culture.

  5. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) and Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Preparation for Tool Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Furuichi, Takeshi; Hashimoto, Chie; van Schaik, Carel P

    2015-01-01

    Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda) and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo). We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry). Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks) with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early) object manipulation (i.e., object play) in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays). In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed future work is

  6. Sex Differences in Object Manipulation in Wild Immature Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii and Bonobos (Pan paniscus: Preparation for Tool Use?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathelijne Koops

    Full Text Available Sex differences in immatures predict behavioural differences in adulthood in many mammal species. Because most studies have focused on sex differences in social interactions, little is known about possible sex differences in 'preparation' for adult life with regards to tool use skills. We investigated sex and age differences in object manipulation in immature apes. Chimpanzees use a variety of tools across numerous contexts, whereas bonobos use few tools and none in foraging. In both species, a female bias in adult tool use has been reported. We studied object manipulation in immature chimpanzees at Kalinzu (Uganda and bonobos at Wamba (Democratic Republic of Congo. We tested predictions of the 'preparation for tool use' hypothesis. We confirmed that chimpanzees showed higher rates and more diverse types of object manipulation than bonobos. Against expectation, male chimpanzees showed higher object manipulation rates than females, whereas in bonobos no sex difference was found. However, object manipulation by male chimpanzees was play-dominated, whereas manipulation types of female chimpanzees were more diverse (e.g., bite, break, carry. Manipulation by young immatures of both species was similarly dominated by play, but only in chimpanzees did it become more diverse with age. Moreover, in chimpanzees, object types became more tool-like (i.e., sticks with age, further suggesting preparation for tool use in adulthood. The male bias in object manipulation in immature chimpanzees, along with the late onset of tool-like object manipulation, indicates that not all (early object manipulation (i.e., object play in immatures prepares for subsistence tool use. Instead, given the similarity with gender differences in human children, object play may also function in motor skill practice for male-specific behaviours (e.g., dominance displays. In conclusion, even though immature behaviours almost certainly reflect preparation for adult roles, more detailed

  7. Acupuncture as an Adjunct Therapy for Osteoarthritis in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees. PMID:23849446

  8. A chimpanzee recognizes synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbauer, Lisa A; Beran, Michael J; Owren, Michael J

    2011-07-26

    A long-standing debate concerns whether humans are specialized for speech perception, which some researchers argue is demonstrated by the ability to understand synthetic speech with significantly reduced acoustic cues to phonetic content. We tested a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) that recognizes 128 spoken words, asking whether she could understand such speech. Three experiments presented 48 individual words, with the animal selecting a corresponding visuographic symbol from among four alternatives. Experiment 1 tested spectrally reduced, noise-vocoded (NV) synthesis, originally developed to simulate input received by human cochlear-implant users. Experiment 2 tested "impossibly unspeechlike" sine-wave (SW) synthesis, which reduces speech to just three moving tones. Although receiving only intermittent and noncontingent reward, the chimpanzee performed well above chance level, including when hearing synthetic versions for the first time. Recognition of SW words was least accurate but improved in experiment 3 when natural words in the same session were rewarded. The chimpanzee was more accurate with NV than SW versions, as were 32 human participants hearing these items. The chimpanzee's ability to spontaneously recognize acoustically reduced synthetic words suggests that experience rather than specialization is critical for speech-perception capabilities that some have suggested are uniquely human. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  10. Structural differences among serum IgA proteins of chimpanzee, rhesus monkey and rat origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endo, T.; Radl, J.; Mestecky, J.

    1997-01-01

    Asparagine-linked sugar chains were quantitatively released from chimpanzee, Rhesus monkey and rat IgA proteins as oligosaccharides by hydrazinolysis, converted to radioactive oligosaccharides by reduction with NaB3H4, and separated into neutral and two acidic fractions by paper electrophoresis. The

  11. A comparative analysis of viral peptides presented by contemporary human and chimpanzee MHC class I molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deutekom, Hanneke W. M.; Hoof, Ilka; Bontrop, Ronald E.; Keşmir, Can

    2011-01-01

    Genetic factors such as the MHC influence the immunocompetence of an individual. MHC genes are the most polymorphic genes in primates, which is often interpreted as an adaptation to establish good T cell responses to a wide range of (evolving) pathogens. Chimpanzee MHC (Patr) genes are less

  12. An effort to use human-based exome capture methods to analyze chimpanzee and macaque exomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xin; He, Mingze; Ferguson, Betsy

    2012-01-01

    -human primate specific reagents that would expedite such research, such as exon-capture tools, are lacking. We evaluated the efficiency of using a human exome capture design for the selective enrichment of exonic regions of non-human primates. We compared the exon sequence recovery in nine chimpanzees, two crab...

  13. Taï chimpanzees anticipate revisiting high-valued fruit trees from further distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Simone D; Boesch, Christophe; Janmaat, Karline R L

    2014-11-01

    The use of spatio-temporal memory has been argued to increase food-finding efficiency in rainforest primates. However, the exact content of this memory is poorly known to date. This study investigated what specific information from previous feeding visits chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, take into account when they revisit the same feeding trees. By following five adult females for many consecutive days, we tested from what distance the females directed their travels towards previously visited feeding trees and how previous feeding experiences and fruit tree properties influenced this distance. To exclude the influence of sensory cues, the females' approach distance was measured from their last significant change in travel direction until the moment they entered the tree's maximum detection field. We found that chimpanzees travelled longer distances to trees at which they had previously made food grunts and had rejected fewer fruits compared to other trees. In addition, the results suggest that the chimpanzees were able to anticipate the amount of fruit that they would find in the trees. Overall, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that chimpanzees act upon a retrieved memory of their last feeding experiences long before they revisit feeding trees, which would indicate a daily use of long-term prospective memory. Further, the results are consistent with the possibility that positive emotional experiences help to trigger prospective memory retrieval in forest areas that are further away and have fewer cues associated with revisited feeding trees.

  14. Public information use in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and children (Homo sapiens)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vale, Gill L; Flynn, Emma G; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    The discernment of resource quality is pertinent to many daily decisions faced by animals. Public information is a critical information source that promotes quality assessments, attained by monitoring others' performance. Here we provide the first evidence, to our knowledge, that chimpanzees (Pan...

  15. The Extraordinary Nature of Barney's Drumming : A Complementary Study of Ordinary Noise Making in Chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dufour, Valérie; Pasquaretta, Cristian; Gayet, Pierre; Sterck, Elisabeth H M

    In a previous study (Dufour et al., 2015) we reported the unusual characteristics of the drumming performance of a chimpanzee named Barney. His sound production, several sequences of repeated drumming on an up-turned plastic barrel, shared features typical for human musical drumming: it was

  16. Consolation in the aftermath of robberies resembles post-aggression consolation in chimpanzees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Rosenkrantz; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä; Bernasco, Wim

    2017-01-01

    Post-aggression consolation is assumed to occur in humans as well as in chimpanzees. While consolation following peer aggression has been observed in children, systematic evidence of consolation in human adults is rare. We used surveillance camera footage of the immediate aftermath of nonfatal...

  17. Fruit availability, chimpanzee diet, and grouping patterns on Rubondo Island, Tanzania

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moscovice, L. R.; Issa, M. H.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Keuler, N. S.; Snowdon, C. T.; Huffman, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 69, č. 1 (2007), s. 1-16 ISSN 0275-2565 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB600930615 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : chimpanzee * release site * fecal analyses * fallback food * Rubondo Island Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.582, year: 2007

  18. Acupuncture as an adjunct therapy for osteoarthritis in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magden, Elizabeth R; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J; Buchl, Stephanie J; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J

    2013-07-01

    Acupuncture is an ancient practice that is currently used to treat disorders ranging from osteoarthritis to cardiomyopathy. Acupuncture involves the insertion of thin, sterile needles into defined acupuncture points that stimulate physiologic processes through neural signaling. Numerous scientific studies have proven the benefits of acupuncture, and given this scientific support, we hypothesized that acupuncture could benefit the nonhuman primates at our facility. As our chimpanzee colony ages, we are observing an increase in osteoarthritis and have focused our initial acupuncture treatments on this condition. We successfully trained 3 chimpanzees, by using positive-reinforcement training techniques, to voluntarily participate in acupuncture treatments for stifle osteoarthritis. We used 3 acupuncture points that correlate with alleviation of stifle pain and inflammation in humans. A mobility scoring system was used to assess improvements in mobility as a function of the acupuncture treatments. The 2 chimpanzees with the most severe osteoarthritis showed significant improvement in mobility after acupuncture treatments. Acupuncture therapy not only resulted in improved mobility, but the training sessions also served as enrichment for the animals, as demonstrated by their voluntary participation in the training and treatment sessions. Acupuncture is an innovative treatment technique that our data show to be safe, inexpensive, and, most importantly, effective for chimpanzees.

  19. Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) tool use in the Ngotto Forest, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Thurston C; Fouts, Roger S; Fouts, Deborah H

    2005-03-01

    Over a 7-month period, stick tools constructed by chimpanzees were collected and measured at the Ngotto Forest site in Central African Republic. The chimpanzees were found to use tools to dip for ants and to probe for honey. The basic descriptions of these tools and the contexts in which they were found are presented. The lengths of two of the tool types were compared with the use of a t-test for independent groups. It was found that the lengths of the tools differed significantly depending upon their function. The location and habitat type of each tool site were plotted on a map. The tool types were distributed throughout the southern part of the study area, and with one exception all tool sites were found in the same type of habitat. Two tool sites with two other types of tools (honey hammer/club and ant club) were found. The tool types at Ngotto are compared with those found at other chimpanzee field sites, and the implications for diversity in chimpanzee material culture are discussed. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Environmental management procedures following fatal melioidosis in a captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Kasantikul, Tanit; Somsa, Wachirawit; Wongratanacheewin, Surasakdi; Sermswan, Rasana W; Kongmakee, Piyaporn; Thomas, Warissara; Kamolnorranath, Sumate; Siriaroonrat, Boripat; Bush, Mitchell; Banlunara, Wijit

    2013-06-01

    A 40-yr-old male captive chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presented with depression and anorexia for 7 days. The tentative diagnosis, following a physical examination under anesthesia, was pneumonia with sepsis. Despite antibiotic treatment and supportive care the chimpanzee died a week following presentation. Gross pathology confirmed severe purulent pneumonia and diffuse hepatosplenic abscesses. Detected in serum at the time of the initial examination, the melioidosis serum antibody titer was elevated (> 1:512). Soil samples were collected from three sites in the exhibit at three depths of 5, 15, and 30 cm. By direct and enrichment culture, positive cultures for Burkholderia pseudomallei were found at 5 and 15 cm in one site. The other two sites were positive by enrichment culture at the depth of 5 cm. To prevent disease in the remaining seven troop members, they were relocated to permit a soil treatment with calcium oxide. The exhibit remained empty for approximately 1 yr before the chimpanzees were returned. During that period, the soil in the exhibit area was again cultured as before and all samples were negative for B. pseudomallei. Following the soil treatment in the exhibit, all chimpanzees have remained free of clinical signs consistent with melioidosis.

  1. Cultural assemblages show nested structure in humans and chimpanzees but not orangutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilar, Jason M; Atkinson, Quentin D

    2014-01-07

    The evolution of hominin culture is well-documented in the archeological and fossil record, but such a record is largely absent for nonhuman primates. An alternative approach to studying cultural evolution is to examine patterns of modern cultural variation. In this article we measure nestedness across human and great ape "cultural repertoires" to gain insight into the accumulation and maintenance of putative cultural diversity in these species. Cultural assemblages are nested if cultures with a small repertoire of traits tend to comprise a proper subset of those traits present in more complex cultures. This nesting will occur if some traits are sequentially gained or lost, which may be because of the differential dispersal or extinction of traits. Here we apply statistical tools from ecology to examine the degree of nestedness in four datasets documenting the presence or absence of specific cultural traits across indigenous human populations in North America and New Guinea. We then compare the human data to patterns observed for putative cultural traits in chimpanzee and orangutan populations. In both humans and chimpanzees, cultural diversity is highly nonrandom, showing significant nested structure for all of the datasets examined. We find no evidence for nestedness in the orangutan cultural data. These findings are consistent with a sequential "layering" of cultural diversity in humans and chimpanzees, but not orangutans. Such an interpretation implies that the traits required for sequential cultural evolution first appeared in the last common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans.

  2. Cultural differences in ant-dipping tool length between neighbouring chimpanzee communities at Kalinzu, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Schöning, Caspar; Isaji, Mina; Hashimoto, Chie

    2015-07-22

    Cultural variation has been identified in a growing number of animal species ranging from primates to cetaceans. The principal method used to establish the presence of culture in wild populations is the method of exclusion. This method is problematic, since it cannot rule out the influence of genetics and ecology in geographically distant populations. A new approach to the study of culture compares neighbouring groups belonging to the same population. We applied this new approach by comparing ant-dipping tool length between two neighbouring communities of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in the Kalinzu Forest, Uganda. Ant-dipping tool length varies across chimpanzee study sites in relation to army ant species (Dorylus spp.) and dipping location (nest vs. trail). We compared the availability of army ant species and dipping tool length between the two communities. M-group tools were significantly longer than S-group tools, despite identical army ant target species availabilities. Moreover, tool length in S-group was shorter than at all other sites where chimpanzees prey on epigaeic ants at nests. Considering the lack of ecological differences between the two communities, the tool length difference appears to be cultural. Our findings highlight how cultural knowledge can generate small-scale cultural diversification in neighbouring chimpanzee communities.

  3. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and the question of cumulative culture: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Whiten, Andrew

    2008-07-01

    There is increasing evidence for cultural variations in behaviour among non-human species, but human societies additionally display elaborate cumulative cultural evolution, with successive generations building on earlier achievements. Evidence for cumulative culture in non-human species remains minimal and controversial. Relevant experiments are also lacking. Here we present a first experiment designed to examine chimpanzees' capacity for cumulative social learning. Eleven young chimpanzees were presented with a foraging device, which afforded both a relatively simple and a more complex tool-use technique for extracting honey. The more complex 'probing' technique incorporated the core actions of the simpler 'dipping' one and was also much more productive. In a baseline, exploration condition only two subjects discovered the dipping technique and a solitary instance of probing occurred. Demonstrations of dipping by a familiar human were followed by acquisition of this technique by the five subjects aged three years or above, whilst younger subjects showed a significant increase only in the elements of the dipping technique. By contrast, subsequent demonstrations of the probing task were not followed by acquisition of this more productive technique. Subjects stuck to their habitual dipping method despite an escalating series of demonstrations eventually exceeding 200. Supplementary tests showed this technique is within the capability of chimpanzees of this age. We therefore tentatively conclude that young chimpanzees exhibit a tendency to become 'stuck' on a technique they initially learn, inhibiting cumulative social learning and possibly constraining the species' capacity for cumulative cultural evolution.

  4. Parasites of chimpanzees in Kalinzu Forest Reserve, Uganda, with emphasis on comensal protozoans

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Petrášová, J.; Pomajbíková, K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Jirků, M.; Profousová, Ilona; Modrý, David; Hashimoto, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 5 (2008), s. 370 ISSN 0015-5713. [Congress of the European Federation for Primatology /2./. 03.09.2007-07.09.2007, Prague] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/06/0264 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : parasites * chimpanzee * Uganda Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  5. A review of studies of the activation of the blood coagulation mechanism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, H.; Schenk, B. E.; Biemond, B. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; van der Poll, T.; Buller, H. R.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies of blood coagulation activation in the chimpanzee which were carried out employing sensitive immunoassays that measure activation markers of blood coagulation in plasma. Infused factor VIIa activated both factors IX and X in vivo; this reaction depended on the

  6. Functional Analysis and Treatment of Human-Directed Undesirable Behavior Exhibited by a Captive Chimpanzee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Allison L.; Bloomsmith, Mollie A.; Kelley, Michael E.; Marr, M. Jackson; Maple, Terry L.

    2011-01-01

    A functional analysis identified the reinforcer maintaining feces throwing and spitting exhibited by a captive adult chimpanzee ("Pan troglodytes"). The implementation of a function-based treatment combining extinction with differential reinforcement of an alternate behavior decreased levels of inappropriate behavior. These findings further…

  7. Initial Description of a Quantitative, Cross-Species (Chimpanzee-Human) Social Responsiveness Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrus, Natasha; Faughn, Carley; Shuman, Jeremy; Petersen, Steve E.; Constantino, John N.; Povinelli, Daniel J.; Pruett, John R., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Comparative studies of social responsiveness, an ability that is impaired in autism spectrum disorders, can inform our understanding of both autism and the cognitive architecture of social behavior. Because there is no existing quantitative measure of social responsiveness in chimpanzees, we generated a quantitative, cross-species…

  8. Children, chimpanzees, and bonobos adjust the visibility of their actions for cooperators and competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grueneisen, Sebastian; Duguid, Shona; Saur, Heiko; Tomasello, Michael

    2017-08-17

    Chimpanzees and bonobos are highly capable of tracking other's mental states. It has been proposed, however, that in contrast to humans, chimpanzees are only able to do this in competitive interactions but this has rarely been directly tested. Here, pairs of chimpanzees or bonobos (Study 1) and 4-year-old children (Study 2) were presented with two almost identical tasks differing only regarding the social context. In the cooperation condition, players' interests were matched: they had to make corresponding choices to be mutually rewarded. To facilitate coordination, subjects should thus make their actions visible to their partner whose view was partially occluded. In the competition condition, players' interests were directly opposed: the partner tried to match the subject's choice but subjects were only rewarded if they chose differently, so that they benefited from hiding their actions. The apes successfully adapted their decisions to the social context and their performance was markedly better in the cooperation condition. Children also distinguished between the two contexts, but somewhat surprisingly, performed better in the competitive condition. These findings demonstrate experimentally that chimpanzees and bonobos can take into account what others can see in cooperative interactions. Their social-cognitive skills are thus more flexible than previously assumed.

  9. Dogs (Canis familiaris, but not chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, understand imperative pointing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina C Kirchhofer

    Full Text Available Chimpanzees routinely follow the gaze of humans to outside targets. However, in most studies using object choice they fail to use communicative gestures (e.g. pointing to find hidden food. Chimpanzees' failure to do this may be due to several difficulties with this paradigm. They may, for example, misinterpret the gesture as referring to the opaque cup instead of the hidden food. Or perhaps they do not understand informative communicative intentions. In contrast, dogs seem to be skilful in using human communicative cues in the context of finding food, but as of yet there is not much data showing whether they also use pointing in the context of finding non-food objects. Here we directly compare chimpanzees' (N = 20 and dogs' (N = 32 skills in using a communicative gesture directed at a visible object out of reach of the human but within reach of the subject. Pairs of objects were placed in view of and behind the subjects. The task was to retrieve the object the experimenter wanted. To indicate which one she desired, the experimenter pointed imperatively to it and directly rewarded the subject for handing over the correct one. While dogs performed well on this task, chimpanzees failed to identify the referent. Implications for great apes' and dogs' understanding of human communicative intentions are discussed.

  10. Interleukin-12 induces sustained activation of multiple host inflammatory mediator systems in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauw, F. N.; Dekkers, P. E.; te Velde, A. A.; Speelman, P.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; Kurimoto, M.; Hack, C. E.; van Deventer, S. J.; van der Poll, T.

    1999-01-01

    To determine in vivo effects of interleukin (IL)-12 on host inflammatory mediator systems, 4 healthy chimpanzees received recombinant human IL-12 (1 microg/kg) by intravenous injection. IL-12 induced increases in plasma concentrations of IL-15, IL-18, and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), plus a marked

  11. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, K.; Čepička, I.; Kalousová, B.; Jirků, M.; Stewart, F.; Levecke, B.; Modrý, D.; Piel, A. K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2016), s. 741-748 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Entamoeba * molecular diversity * great apes * chimpanzee * savannah Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  12. Molecular identification of Entamoeba species in savanna woodland chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirků-Pomajbíková, Kateřina; Čepička, I.; Kalousová, B.; Jirků, Milan; Stewart, F.; Levecke, B.; Modrý, David; Piel, A. K.; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 143, č. 6 (2016), s. 741-748 ISSN 0031-1820 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Entamoeba * molecular diversity * great apes * chimpanzee * savannah Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.713, year: 2016

  13. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steven J; Brosnan, Sarah F

    2011-10-01

    Copulation preferences in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee, suggest that males prefer older females who have had previous offspring. However, this finding is counter to some behavioral models, which predict that chimpanzee males, as promiscuous breeders with minimal costs to mating, should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility, possibly indicating a two-pronged social investment strategy. Male selectivity seems to have evolved to effectively distribute costly social resources in a pattern which may increase their overall reproductive success. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Using the NCBI Genome Databases to Compare the Genes for Human & Chimpanzee Beta Hemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offner, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The beta hemoglobin protein is identical in humans and chimpanzees. In this tutorial, students see that even though the proteins are identical, the genes that code for them are not. There are many more differences in the introns than in the exons, which indicates that coding regions of DNA are more highly conserved than non-coding regions.

  15. Muscle-specific integrins in masseter muscle fibers of chimpanzees: an immunohistochemical study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluigi Vaccarino

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Most notably, recent comparative genomic analyses strongly indicate that the marked differences between modern human and chimpanzees are likely due more to changes in gene regulation than to modifications of the genes. The most peculiar aspect of hominoid karyotypes is that human have 46 chromosomes whereas gorillas and chimpanzees have 48. Interestingly, human and chimpanzees do share identical inversions on chromosome 7 and 9 that are not evident in the gorilla karyotype. Thus, the general phylogeny suggests that humans and chimpanzees are sister taxa; based on this, it seems that human-chimpanzee sequence similarity is an astonishing 99%. At this purpose, of particular interest is the inactivation of the myosin heavy chain 16 (MYH16 gene, most prominently expressed in the masticatory muscle of mammals. It has been showed that the loss of this gene in humans may have resulted in smaller masticatory muscle and consequential changes to cranio-facial morphology and expansion of the human brain case. Powerful masticatory muscles are found in most primates; contrarily, in both modern and fossil member Homo, these muscles are considerably smaller. The evolving hominid masticatory apparatus shifted towards a pattern of gracilization nearly simultaneously with accelerated encephalization in early Homo. To better comprehend the real role of the MYH16 gene, we studied the primary proteins present in the muscle fibers of humans and non-humans, in order to understand if they really can be influenced by MYH16 gene. At this aim we examined the muscle-specific integrins, alpha 7B and beta 1D-integrins, and their relative fetal isoforms, alpha 7A and beta 1A-integrins, analyzing, by immunohistochemistry, muscle biopsies of two components of a chimpanzee's group in captivity, an alpha male and a non-alpha male subjects; all these integrins participate in vital biological processes such as maintenance of tissue integrity, embryonic development, cell

  16. Are snake populations in widespread decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reading, C J; Luiselli, L M; Akani, G C; Bonnet, X; Amori, G; Ballouard, J M; Filippi, E; Naulleau, G; Pearson, D; Rugiero, L

    2010-12-23

    Long-term studies have revealed population declines in fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals. In birds, and particularly amphibians, these declines are a global phenomenon whose causes are often unclear. Among reptiles, snakes are top predators and therefore a decline in their numbers may have serious consequences for the functioning of many ecosystems. Our results show that, of 17 snake populations (eight species) from the UK, France, Italy, Nigeria and Australia, 11 have declined sharply over the same relatively short period of time with five remaining stable and one showing signs of a marginal increase. Although the causes of these declines are currently unknown, we suspect that they are multi-faceted (such as habitat quality deterioration, prey availability), and with a common cause, e.g. global climate change, at their root.

  17. Seasonal effects on great ape health: a case study of wild chimpanzees and Western gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available Among factors affecting animal health, environmental influences may directly or indirectly impact host nutritional condition, fecundity, and their degree of parasitism. Our closest relatives, the great apes, are all endangered and particularly sensitive to infectious diseases. Both chimpanzees and western gorillas experience large seasonal variations in fruit availability but only western gorillas accordingly show large changes in their degree of frugivory. The aim of this study is to investigate and compare factors affecting health (through records of clinical signs, urine, and faecal samples of habituated wild ape populations: a community (N = 46 individuals of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes in Kanyawara, Kibale National Park (Uganda, and a western gorilla (G. gorilla group (N = 13 in Bai Hokou in the Dzanga-Ndoki National Park (Central African Republic. Ape health monitoring was carried out in the wet and dry seasons (chimpanzees: July-December 2006; gorillas: April-July 2008 and December 2008-February 2009. Compared to chimpanzees, western gorillas were shown to have marginally greater parasite diversity, higher prevalence and intensity of both parasite and urine infections, and lower occurrence of diarrhea and wounds. Parasite infections (prevalence and load, but not abnormal urine parameters, were significantly higher during the dry season of the study period for western gorillas, who thus appeared more affected by the large temporal changes in the environment in comparison to chimpanzees. Infant gorillas were the most susceptible among all the age/sex classes (of both apes having much more intense infections and urine blood concentrations, again during the dry season. Long term studies are needed to confirm the influence of seasonal factors on health and parasitism of these great apes. However, this study suggest climate change and forest fragmentation leading to potentially larger seasonal fluctuations of the environment may affect

  18. Spontaneous cross-species imitation in interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Tomas; Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina; Madsen, Elainie Alenkær

    2018-01-01

    Imitation is a cornerstone of human development, serving both a cognitive function (e.g. in the acquisition and transmission of skills and knowledge) and a social-communicative function, whereby the imitation of familiar actions serves to maintain social interaction and promote prosociality. In nonhuman primates, this latter function is poorly understood, or even claimed to be absent. In this observational study, we documented interactions between chimpanzees and zoo visitors and found that the two species imitated each other at a similar rate, corresponding to almost 10% of all produced actions. Imitation appeared to accomplish a social-communicative function, as cross-species interactions that contained imitative actions lasted significantly longer than interactions without imitation. In both species, physical proximity promoted cross-species imitation. Overall, imitative precision was higher among visitors than among chimpanzees, but this difference vanished in proximity contexts, i.e. in the indoor environment. Four of five chimpanzees produced imitations; three of them exhibited comparable imitation rates, despite large individual differences in level of cross-species interactivity. We also found that chimpanzees evidenced imitation recognition, yet only when visitors imitated their actions (as opposed to postures). Imitation recognition was expressed by returned imitation in 36% of the cases, and all four imitating chimpanzees engaged in so-called imitative games. Previously regarded as unique to early human socialization, such games serve to maintain social engagement. The results presented here indicate that nonhuman apes exhibit spontaneous imitation that can accomplish a communicative function. The study raises a number of novel questions for imitation research and highlights the imitation of familiar behaviours as a relevant-yet thus far understudied-research topic.

  19. Integration of a hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) infant into a social group of conspecifics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thunström, Maria; Persson, Tomas; Björklund, Mats

    2013-01-01

    Rejections of infants among non-human primates occasionally occur in the wild as well as in captive settings. Controlled adoptions of orphans and introductions of individuals into new groups are therefore sometimes necessary in captivity. Consequently, behavioral research on integration procedures and on the acceptance of infants by adoptive mothers is much needed. In this study, the introduction and subsequent adoption were examined in an 18-month-old hand-reared chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The infant was introduced into an age/sex-diversified social group of conspecifics at Furuvik Zoo, Gävle, Sweden, and continuous focal data was collected during the final stage of integration, including infant care exhibited by the group members and the infant's secure base behavior. The infant was successfully integrated into the group and engaged in positive social interactions with all group members. An adult primiparous female chimpanzee formed a bond resembling a mother-infant relationship with the infant, which continues to be maintained at publication. However, the female initially showed very limited interest in the infant. It was, in fact, two other younger female group members that exhibited most infant care. The infant's secure base behavior patterns indicate that she adapted well to the new circumstances in the chimpanzee group as the integration progressed. This provides evidence that a final adopter does not necessarily initially show maternal interest and that there can be flexibility in maternal behavior in adult chimpanzee females. Moreover, the methods applied employing gradual familiarization with all the group members and the use of an integration enclosure, may have contributed to a successful result. These findings extend our knowledge of introduction procedures in captivity as well as provide information on foster mother-infant attachment in chimpanzees.

  20. The nature of culture: technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, Caspar; Humle, Tatyana; Möbius, Yasmin; McGrew, W C

    2008-07-01

    Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) predation on army ants (Dorylus, subgenus Anomma) is an impressive example of skillful use of elementary technology, and it has been suggested to reflect cultural differences among chimpanzee communities. Alternatively, the observed geographic diversity in army-ant-eating may represent local behavioral responses of the chimpanzees to the anti-predator traits of the army ant species present at the different sites. We examined assemblages of available prey species, their behavior and morphology, consumption by chimpanzees, techniques employed, and tool lengths at 14 sites in eastern, central, and western Africa. Where army ants are eaten, tool length and concomitant technique are a function of prey type. Epigaeically foraging species with aggressive workers that inflict painful bites are harvested with longer tools and usually by the "pull-through" technique; species foraging in leaf-litter with less aggressive workers that inflict less painful bites are harvested with short tools and by the "direct-mouthing" technique. However, prey species characteristics do not explain several differences in army-ant-eating between Bossou (Guinea) and Taï (Ivory Coast), where the same suite of prey species is available and is consumed. Moreover, the absence of army-ant-eating at five sites cannot be explained by the identity of available prey species, as all the species found at these sites are eaten elsewhere. We conclude that some of the observed variation in the predator-prey relationship of chimpanzees and army ants reflects environmental influences driven by the prey, while other variation is not linked to prey characteristics and may be solely sociocultural.

  1. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fillos Dimitri

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. Results ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4 and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs, hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. Conclusion These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  2. Postnatal stem/progenitor cells derived from the dental pulp of adult chimpanzee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Pei-Hsun; Snyder, Brooke; Fillos, Dimitri; Ibegbu, Chris C; Huang, Anderson Hsien-Cheng; Chan, Anthony W S

    2008-04-22

    Chimpanzee dental pulp stem/stromal cells (ChDPSCs) are very similar to human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hBMSCs) as demonstrated by the expression pattern of cell surface markers and their multipotent differentiation capability. ChDPSCs were isolated from an incisor and a canine of a forty-seven year old female chimpanzee. A homogenous population of ChDPSCs was established in early culture at a high proliferation rate and verified by the expression pattern of thirteen cell surface markers. The ChDPSCs are multipotent and were capable of differentiating into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages under appropriate in vitro culture conditions. ChDPSCs also express stem cell (Sox-2, Nanog, Rex-1, Oct-4) and osteogenic (Osteonectin, osteocalcin, osteopontin) markers, which is comparable to reported results of rhesus monkey BMSCs (rBMSCs), hBMSCs and hDPSCs. Although ChDPSCs vigorously proliferated during the initial phase and gradually decreased in subsequent passages, the telomere length indicated that telomerase activity was not significantly reduced. These results demonstrate that ChDPSCs can be efficiently isolated from post-mortem teeth of adult chimpanzees and are multipotent. Due to the almost identical genome composition of humans and chimpanzees, there is an emergent need for defining the new role of chimpanzee modeling in comparative medicine. Teeth are easy to recover at necropsy and easy to preserve prior to the retrieval of dental pulp for stem/stromal cells isolation. Therefore, the establishment of ChDPSCs would preserve and maximize the applications of such a unique and invaluable animal model, and could advance the understanding of cellular functions and differentiation control of adult stem cells in higher primates.

  3. Chemical immobilization of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) using a combination of detomidine and ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Sanne; Schauvliege, Stijn; van Bolhuis, Hester; Hoyer, Mark; Gasthuys, Frank

    2012-09-01

    To determine if a combination of detomidine and ketamine can be used for effective chemical immobilization of chimpanzees. Observational study. Twenty-one adult captive chimpanzees (12 males, nine females), age 8-46 years, weighing 40.4-68.4 kg. The chimpanzees were immobilized with intramuscular (IM) detomidine and ketamine by a darting system. Based on estimated weights, doses administered were 50 μg kg(-1) detomidine and 4 mg kg(-1) ketamine in groups 1 and 2, and 60 μg kg(-1) and 5 mg kg(-1) respectively in group 3. Eight minutes in group 1 and 15 minutes in groups 2 and 3 were allowed from the time of apparent immobilization before removing the animals from their enclosures. Body temperature, arterial haemoglobin saturation and pulse rate were measured. The time from injection to induction (recumbency and absence of voluntary movement), total anaesthetic and recovery times (with or without atipamezole) were recorded. Immobilization occurred within 5 minutes after darting in most animals. Early handling of the chimpanzees often resulted in arousal and required further doses of ketamine IM. Most animals were hypoxaemic and hypothermic. Occasionally, bradycardia was observed. Atipamezole resulted in an acceptable quality of recovery 10 minutes after IM injection. The duration of immobilization varied widely when no antagonist was administered. The combination detomidine (60 μg kg(-1) ) and ketamine (5-6 mg kg(-1) ) can be used for the immobilization of chimpanzees for non- to minimally invasive procedures. A period of 15 minutes should be allowed before handling to avoid unwanted arousal. Oxygen administration is recommended to reduce hypoxaemia. Administration of atipamezole is justified to hasten recovery. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia. © 2012 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesiologists.

  4. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witting, Nanna; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic......, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest...

  5. Prevalence of muzzle-rubbing and hand-rubbing behavior in wild chimpanzees in Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corp, Nadia; Hayaki, Hitoshige; Matsusaka, Takahisa; Fujita, Shiho; Hosaka, Kazuhiko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki; Nakamura, Michio; Nakamura, Miho; Nishie, Hitonaru; Shimada, Masaki; Zamma, Koichiro; Wallauer, William; Nishida, Toshisada

    2009-04-01

    In 1998, four chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania, were observed wiping their mouths with non-detached leaves or stalks of grass, or rubbing their mouths with a tree trunk or branch, especially while eating lemons. The number of mouth-wiping/rubbing individuals increased to 18 in 1999. By 2005, 29 chimpanzees were documented wiping/rubbing their muzzles in this way. Although it is difficult to determine whether the chimpanzees acquired this behavior as a result of trial and error or social learning, the fact that chimpanzees at other sites perform this behavior with detached leaves or leafy twigs much more often than with intact items suggests the possibility that cleaning with intact plant parts at Mahale spread via social learning.

  6. Social influences on ant-dipping acquisition in the wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humle, Tatyana; Snowdon, Charles T; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2009-10-01

    We currently have little understanding of the influence of learning opportunity, whether social or environmental, and maternal role on tool-use acquisition in young wild chimpanzees. This study aims to fill this gap by focusing on the acquisition of ant-dipping among chimpanzees of Bossou, Guinea. Ant-dipping is a hazardous tool-use behaviour aimed at army ants (Dorylus spp.). Bossou chimpanzees target these ants both at nests (high risk) and trails (low risk) and employ two techniques to consume them: direct mouthing and pull-through. We present data for 13 mother-offspring pairs (1-10 years old). Mothers with young chimpanzee material culture is a product of a complex interaction between social processes and ecological factors.

  7. Stable nitrogen isotope analysis of dentine serial sections elucidate sex differences in weaning patterns of wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahy, Geraldine E; Richards, Michael P; Fuller, Benjamin T; Deschner, Tobias; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Offspring provisioning is one of the most energetically demanding aspects of reproduction for female mammals. Variation in lactation length and weaning strategies between chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), our closest living relative, and modern human societies have been reported. When and why these changes occurred is frequently debated. Our study used stable nitrogen isotope data of tooth root dentine from wild Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Taï National Park, Côte d'Ivoire, to quantify weaning in these chimpanzees and explore if infant sex plays a role in maternal investment. We analyzed serial sections of deciduous lateral incisor root dentine from four Taï chimpanzees to establish the δ(15) N signal of nursing infants; we then analyzed serial sections of first permanent mandibular molar root dentine from 12 Taï chimpanzees to provide quantitative δ(15) N data on weaning in this population. Up to 2 years of age both sexes exhibited dentine δ(15) N values ≈2-3‰ higher than adult female Taï chimpanzees, consistent with a nursing signal. Thereafter a steady decrease in δ(15) N values consistent with the onset, and progression, of weaning, was visible. Sex differences were also evident, where male δ(15) N values decreased at a significantly slower rate compared to females. Confirmation of sex differences in maternal investment among Taï chimpanzees, demonstrates the viability of using isotope analysis to investigate weaning in non-human primates. Additionally, assuming that behaviors observed in the Taï chimpanzees are illustrative of the ancestral pattern, our results provide a platform to enable the trajectory of weaning in human evolution to be further explored. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Åkerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjärnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Ström, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Ström, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Strömquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Börjeson, Hans; Mörner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-12-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  9. Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lennart; Hägerroth, Per-Åke; Gustavsson, Hanna; Sigg, Lisa; Akerman, Gun; Ruiz Muñoz, Yolanda; Honeyfield, Dale C.; Tjarnlund, Ulla; Oliveira, Kenneth; Strom, Karin; McCormick, Stephen D.; Karlsson, Simon; Strom, Marika; van Manen, Mathijs; Berg, Anna-Lena; Halldórsson, Halldór P.; Stromquist, Jennie; Collier, Tracy K.; Borjeson, Hans; Morner, Torsten; Hansson, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiamine-dependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  10. The interdigital brace and other grips for termite nest perforation by chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle, Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesnik, Julie J; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B

    2015-06-01

    Studies of chimpanzee termite foraging enlighten our understanding of early hominin tool use not only by modeling the cognitive ability of our ancestors but also by emphasizing the possible role of social insects in the hominin diet. The chimpanzees of the Goualougo Triangle are known to have one of the largest and most complex tool repertoires reported for wild chimpanzees. One tool set habitually used by this population includes a perforating tool to penetrate the hard outer crust of elevated termite nests before fishing for termite prey with an herbaceous stem. Here, we report the variation present in the grips used on the perforating tool. Our analysis of video recordings of chimpanzee visitation to termite nests over a 3-year period shows that these chimpanzees use a variety of grips to navigate the challenges encountered in opening a termite nest. For situations in which the soil is most hardened, perforating requires force and a power grip is often used. When the soil in the passageway is loose, precision grips are suitable for the task. One of the preferred grips reported here is an interdigital brace, which has previously been described in studies of how some people hold a pencil. In this study, for the first time, the interdigital brace has been thoroughly described for chimpanzees. The various strategies and grips used during perforation emphasize the importance of termites as a nutritional resource that should be considered more strongly as a food used by early hominins. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. In vivo neutralization of hepatitis B virus infection by an anti-preS1 humanized antibody in chimpanzees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Hyo Jeong; Ryu, Chun Jeih; Hur, Hyangsuk; Kim, Seho; Oh, Han Kyu; Oh, Mee Sook; Park, Song Yong

    2004-01-01

    Previously, we generated a murine monoclonal antibody (mAb), KR127, that recognizes amino acids (aa) 37-45 of the preS1 of hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this study, we have constructed a humanized version of KR127 and evaluated its HBV-neutralizing activity in chimpanzees. A study chimpanzee was given a single intravenous dose of the humanized antibody, followed by intravenous challenge with adr subtype of wild type HBV, while a control chimpanzee was only challenged with the virus. The result showed that the study chimpanzee did not develop HBV infection during 1 year, while the control chimpanzee was infected, indicating that the humanized antibody exhibited in vivo virus-neutralizing activity and thus protected the chimpanzee from HBV infection. In addition, the humanized antibody bound to the preS1 of all subtypes of HBV. We first demonstrate that an anti-preS1 mAb can neutralize HBV infection in vivo. This humanized antibody will be useful for the immunoprophylaxis of HBV infection

  12. The effect of canopy closure on chimpanzee nest abundance in Lagoas de Cufada National Park, Guinea-Bissau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Joana; Casanova, Catarina; Barata, André V; Sousa, Cláudia

    2014-04-01

    The present study aimed to gather baseline information about chimpanzee nesting and density in Lagoas de Cufada Natural Park (LCNP), in Guinea-Bissau. Old and narrow trails were followed to estimate chimpanzee density through marked-nest counts and to test the effect of canopy closure (woodland savannah, forest with a sparse canopy, and forest with a dense canopy) on nest distribution. Chimpanzee abundance was estimated at 0.79 nest builders/km(2), the lowest among the areas of Guinea-Bissau with currently studied chimpanzee populations. Our data suggest that sub-humid forest with a dense canopy accounts for significantly higher chimpanzee nest abundance (1.50 nests/km of trail) than sub-humid forest with a sparse canopy (0.49 nests/km of trail) or woodland savannah (0.30 nests/km of trail). Dense-canopy forests play an important role in chimpanzee nesting in the patchy and highly humanized landscape of LCNP. The tree species most frequently used for nesting are Dialium guineense (46%) and Elaeis guineensis (28%). E. guineensis contain nests built higher in the canopy, while D. guineense contain nests built at lower heights. Nests observed during baseline sampling and replications suggest seasonal variations in the tree species used for nest building.

  13. Poor receptive joint attention skills are associated with atypical gray matter asymmetry in the posterior superior temporal gyrus of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hopkins, William D; Misiura, Maria; Reamer, Lisa A

    2014-01-01

    and behavioral data on receptive joint attention (RJA) was obtained from a sample of 191 chimpanzees. We found that chimpanzees that performed poorly on the RJA task had less GM in the right compared to left hemisphere in the posterior but not anterior superior temporal gyrus. We further found that middle......-aged and elderly chimpanzee performed more poorly on the RJA task and had significantly less GM than young-adult and sub-adult chimpanzees. The results are consistent with previous studies implicating the posterior temporal gyrus in the processing of socially relevant information....

  14. Cocirculation of Two env Molecular Variants, of Possible Recombinant Origin, in Gorilla and Chimpanzee Simian Foamy Virus Strains from Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Rua, Réjane; Betsem, Edouard; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Kazanji, Mirdad; Leroy, Eric; Njouom, Richard; Buseyne, Florence; Afonso, Philippe V; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-12-01

    Simian foamy virus (SFV) is a ubiquitous retrovirus in nonhuman primates (NHPs) that can be transmitted to humans, mostly through severe bites. In the past few years, our laboratory has identified more than 50 hunters from central Africa infected with zoonotic SFVs. Analysis of the complete sequences of five SFVs obtained from these individuals revealed that env was the most variable gene. Furthermore, recombinant SFV strains, some of which involve sequences in the env gene, were recently identified. Here, we investigated the variability of the env genes of zoonotic SFV strains and searched for possible recombinants. We sequenced the complete env gene or its surface glycoprotein region (SU) from DNA amplified from the blood of (i) a series of 40 individuals from Cameroon or Gabon infected with a gorilla or chimpanzee foamy virus (FV) strain and (ii) 1 gorilla and 3 infected chimpanzees living in the same areas as these hunters. Phylogenetic analyses revealed the existence of two env variants among both the gorilla and chimpanzee FV strains that were present in zoonotic and NHP strains. These variants differ greatly (>30% variability) in a 753-bp-long region located in the receptor-binding domain of SU, whereas the rest of the gene is very conserved. Although the organizations of the Env protein sequences are similar, the potential glycosylation patterns differ between variants. Analysis of recombination suggests that the variants emerged through recombination between different strains, although all parental strains could not be identified. SFV infection in humans is a great example of a zoonotic retroviral infection that has not spread among human populations, in contrast to human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs) and human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs). Recombination was a major mechanism leading to the emergence of HIV. Here, we show that two SFV molecular envelope gene variants circulate among ape populations in Central Africa and that both can be transmitted to

  15. Task Design Influences Prosociality in Captive Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    House, Bailey R; Silk, Joan B; Lambeth, Susan P

    2014-01-01

    Chimpanzees confer benefits on group members, both in the wild and in captive populations. Experimental studies of how animals allocate resources can provide useful insights about the motivations underlying prosocial behavior, and understanding the relationship between task design and prosocial...... and the methods used, and in most cases employ procedures that reduce critical features of naturalistic social interactions, such as partner choice. The focus of the current study is on understanding the link between experimental methodology and prosocial behavior in captive chimpanzees, rather than on describing...... these animals' social motivations themselves. We introduce a task design that avoids isolating subjects and allows them to freely decide whether to participate in the experiment. We explore key elements of the methods utilized in previous experiments in an effort to evaluate two possibilities that have been...

  16. Male chimpanzees' grooming rates vary by female age, parity, and fertility status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proctor, Darby P; Lambeth, Susan P; Schapiro, Steve

    2011-01-01

    , should show little or no preference when choosing mating partners (e.g. should mate indiscriminately). To determine if the preferences indicated by copulations appear in other contexts as well as how they interact, we examined how male chimpanzees' grooming patterns varied amongst females. We found...... that males' preferences were based on interactions among females' fertility status, age, and parity. First, grooming increased with increasing female parity. We further found an effect of the estrous cycle on grooming; when females were at the lowest point of their cycle, males preferentially groomed parous...... females at peak reproductive age, but during maximal tumescence, males preferred the oldest multiparous females. Nulliparous females received relatively little grooming regardless of age or fertility. Thus, male chimpanzees apparently chose grooming partners based on both female's experience and fertility...

  17. The nature of culture: technological variation in chimpanzee predation on army ants revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöning, Caspar; Humle, Tatyana; Möbius, Yasmin

    2008-01-01

    -eating may represent local behavioral responses of the chimpanzees to the anti-predator traits of the army ant species present at the different sites. We examined assemblages of available prey species, their behavior and morphology, consumption by chimpanzees, techniques employed, and tool lengths at 14...... sites in eastern, central, and western Africa. Where army ants are eaten, tool length and concomitant technique are a function of prey type. Epigaeically foraging species with aggressive workers that inflict painful bites are harvested with longer tools and usually by the "pull-through" technique......; species foraging in leaf-litter with less aggressive workers that inflict less painful bites are harvested with short tools and by the "direct-mouthing" technique. However, prey species characteristics do not explain several differences in army-ant-eating between Bossou (Guinea) and Taï (Ivory Coast...

  18. Ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning by chimpanzees supports link to empathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Campbell

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Humans favor others seen as similar to themselves (ingroup over people seen as different (outgroup, even without explicitly stated bias. Ingroup-outgroup bias extends to involuntary responses, such as empathy for pain. However, empathy biases have not been tested in our close primate relatives. Contagious yawning has been theoretically and empirically linked to empathy. If empathy underlies contagious yawning, we predict that subjects should show an ingroup-outgroup bias by yawning more in response to watching ingroup members yawn than outgroup. Twenty-three chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes from two separate groups watched videos of familiar and unfamiliar individuals yawning or at rest (control. The chimpanzees yawned more when watching the familiar yawns than the familiar control or the unfamiliar yawns, demonstrating an ingroup-outgroup bias in contagious yawning. These results provide further empirical support that contagious yawning is a measure of empathy, which may be useful for evolutionary biology and mental health.

  19. Imitation of the sequential structure of actions by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiten, A

    1998-09-01

    Imitation was studied experimentally by allowing chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to observe alternative patterns of actions for opening a specially designed "artificial fruit." Like problematic foods primates deal with naturally, with the test fruit several defenses had to be removed to gain access to an edible core, but the sequential order and method of defense removal could be systematically varied. Each subject repeatedly observed 1 of 2 alternative techniques for removing each defense and 1 of 2 alternative sequential patterns of defense removal. Imitation of sequential organization emerged after repeated cycles of demonstration and attempts at opening the fruit. Imitation in chimpanzees may thus have some power to produce cultural convergence, counter to the supposition that individual learning processes corrupt copied actions. Imitation of sequential organization was accompanied by imitation of some aspects of the techniques that made up the sequence.

  20. The spread of a novel behavior in wild chimpanzees: New insights into the ape cultural mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Thibaud; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Hobaiter, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    For years, the animal culture debate has been dominated by the puzzling absence of direct evidence for social transmission of behavioral innovations in the flagship species of animal culture, the common chimpanzee. Although social learning of novel behaviors has been documented in captivity, critics argue that these findings lack ecological validity and therefore may not be relevant for understanding the evolution of culture. For the wild, it is possible that group-specific behavioral differences emerge because group members respond individually to unspecified environmental differences, rather than learning from each other. In a recent paper, we used social network analyses in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) to provide direct evidence for social transmission of a behavioral innovation, moss-sponging, to extract water from a tree hole. Here, we discuss the implications of our findings and how our new methodological approach could help future studies of social learning and culture in wild apes.

  1. Frequency of removal movements during social versus self-grooming among wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamma, Koichiro

    2011-10-01

    Grooming was observed in 11 wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in Mahale, Tanzania, and the number of removal and stroke movements and grooming duration were recorded. Removal movements were more frequent during social grooming than during self-grooming. Chimpanzees used one or both hands for grooming, and grooming using both hands was more efficient for removing small objects. Due to physical constraints, self-grooming of the arms was almost always done using only one hand. The removal movement frequency during arm grooming was lower when self-grooming than when grooming another. They were more likely to use both hands during grooming another than during self-grooming, and fewer physical constraints during social grooming enabled a higher level of hygienic grooming.

  2. Y-Chromosome variation in hominids: intraspecific variation is limited to the polygamous chimpanzee.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Greve

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We have previously demonstrated that the Y-specific ampliconic fertility genes DAZ (deleted in azoospermia and CDY (chromodomain protein Y varied with respect to copy number and position among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. In comparison, seven Y-chromosomal lineages of the bonobo (Pan paniscus, the chimpanzee's closest living relative, showed no variation. We extend our earlier comparative investigation to include an analysis of the intraspecific variation of these genes in gorillas (Gorilla gorilla and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus, and examine the resulting patterns in the light of the species' markedly different social and mating behaviors. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH of DAZ and CDY in 12 Y-chromosomal lineages of western lowland gorilla (G. gorilla gorilla and a single lineage of the eastern lowland gorilla (G. beringei graueri showed no variation among lineages. Similar findings were noted for the 10 Y-chromosomal lineages examined in the Bornean orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus, and 11 Y-chromosomal lineages of the Sumatran orangutan (P. abelii. We validated the contrasting DAZ and CDY patterns using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR in chimpanzee and bonobo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: High intraspecific variation in copy number and position of the DAZ and CDY genes is seen only in the chimpanzee. We hypothesize that this is best explained by sperm competition that results in the variant DAZ and CDY haplotypes detected in this species. In contrast, bonobos, gorillas and orangutans-species that are not subject to sperm competition-showed no intraspecific variation in DAZ and CDY suggesting that monoandry in gorillas, and preferential female mate choice in bonobos and orangutans, probably permitted the fixation of a single Y variant in each taxon. These data support the notion that the evolutionary history of a primate Y chromosome is not simply encrypted in its DNA

  3. Discovery of human inversion polymorphisms by comparative analysis of human and chimpanzee DNA sequence assemblies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available With a draft genome-sequence assembly for the chimpanzee available, it is now possible to perform genome-wide analyses to identify, at a submicroscopic level, structural rearrangements that have occurred between chimpanzees and humans. The goal of this study was to investigate chromosomal regions that are inverted between the chimpanzee and human genomes. Using the net alignments for the builds of the human and chimpanzee genome assemblies, we identified a total of 1,576 putative regions of inverted orientation, covering more than 154 mega-bases of DNA. The DNA segments are distributed throughout the genome and range from 23 base pairs to 62 mega-bases in length. For the 66 inversions more than 25 kilobases (kb in length, 75% were flanked on one or both sides by (often unrelated segmental duplications. Using PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization we experimentally validated 23 of 27 (85% semi-randomly chosen regions; the largest novel inversion confirmed was 4.3 mega-bases at human Chromosome 7p14. Gorilla was used as an out-group to assign ancestral status to the variants. All experimentally validated inversion regions were then assayed against a panel of human samples and three of the 23 (13% regions were found to be polymorphic in the human genome. These polymorphic inversions include 730 kb (at 7p22, 13 kb (at 7q11, and 1 kb (at 16q24 fragments with a 5%, 30%, and 48% minor allele frequency, respectively. Our results suggest that inversions are an important source of variation in primate genome evolution. The finding of at least three novel inversion polymorphisms in humans indicates this type of structural variation may be a more common feature of our genome than previously realized.

  4. Immunogenicity and efficacy of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored Rift Valley fever vaccine in mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Warimwe, GM; Lorenzo, G; Lopez-Gil, E; Reyes-Sandoval, A; Cottingham, MG; Spencer, AJ; Collins, KA; Dicks, MD; Milicic, A; Lall, A; Furze, J; Turner, AV; Hill, AV; Brun, A; Gilbert, SC

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rift Valley Fever (RVF) is a viral zoonosis that historically affects livestock production and human health in sub-Saharan Africa, though epizootics have also occurred in the Arabian Peninsula. Whilst an effective live-attenuated vaccine is available for livestock, there is currently no licensed human RVF vaccine. Replication-deficient chimpanzee adenovirus (ChAd) vectors are an ideal platform for development of a human RVF vaccine, given the low prevalence of neutralizing antibod...

  5. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Hobaiter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  6. Social network analysis shows direct evidence for social transmission of tool use in wild chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobaiter, Catherine; Poisot, Timothée; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Hoppitt, William; Gruber, Thibaud

    2014-09-01

    Social network analysis methods have made it possible to test whether novel behaviors in animals spread through individual or social learning. To date, however, social network analysis of wild populations has been limited to static models that cannot precisely reflect the dynamics of learning, for instance, the impact of multiple observations across time. Here, we present a novel dynamic version of network analysis that is capable of capturing temporal aspects of acquisition--that is, how successive observations by an individual influence its acquisition of the novel behavior. We apply this model to studying the spread of two novel tool-use variants, "moss-sponging" and "leaf-sponge re-use," in the Sonso chimpanzee community of Budongo Forest, Uganda. Chimpanzees are widely considered the most "cultural" of all animal species, with 39 behaviors suspected as socially acquired, most of them in the domain of tool-use. The cultural hypothesis is supported by experimental data from captive chimpanzees and a range of observational data. However, for wild groups, there is still no direct experimental evidence for social learning, nor has there been any direct observation of social diffusion of behavioral innovations. Here, we tested both a static and a dynamic network model and found strong evidence that diffusion patterns of moss-sponging, but not leaf-sponge re-use, were significantly better explained by social than individual learning. The most conservative estimate of social transmission accounted for 85% of observed events, with an estimated 15-fold increase in learning rate for each time a novice observed an informed individual moss-sponging. We conclude that group-specific behavioral variants in wild chimpanzees can be socially learned, adding to the evidence that this prerequisite for culture originated in a common ancestor of great apes and humans, long before the advent of modern humans.

  7. Locating chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees with an unmanned aerial vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Andel, Alexander C; Wich, Serge A; Boesch, Christophe; Koh, Lian Pin; Robbins, Martha M; Kelly, Joseph; Kuehl, Hjalmar S

    2015-10-01

    Monitoring of animal populations is essential for conservation management. Various techniques are available to assess spatiotemporal patterns of species distribution and abundance. Nest surveys are often used for monitoring great apes. Quickly developing technologies, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) can be used to complement these ground-based surveys, especially for covering large areas rapidly. Aerial surveys have been used successfully to detect the nests of orang-utans. It is unknown if such an approach is practical for African apes, which usually build their nests at lower heights, where they might be obscured by forest canopy. In this 2-month study, UAV-derived aerial imagery was used for two distinct purposes: testing the detectability of chimpanzee nests and identifying fruiting trees used by chimpanzees in Loango National Park (Gabon). Chimpanzee nest data were collected through two approaches: we located nests on the ground and then tried to detect them in UAV photos and vice versa. Ground surveys were conducted using line transects, reconnaissance trails, and opportunistic sampling during which we detected 116 individual nests in 28 nest groups. In complementary UAV images we detected 48% of the individual nests (68% of nest groups) in open coastal forests and 8% of individual nests (33% of nest groups) in closed canopy inland forests. The key factor for nest detectability in UAV imagery was canopy openness. Data on fruiting trees were collected from five line transects. In 122 UAV images 14 species of trees (N = 433) were identified, alongside 37 tree species (N = 205) in complementary ground surveys. Relative abundance of common tree species correlated between ground and UAV surveys. We conclude that UAVs have great potential as a rapid assessment tool for detecting chimpanzee presence in forest with open canopy and assessing fruit tree availability. UAVs may have limited applicability for nest detection in closed canopy forest.

  8. Early social deprivation negatively affects social skill acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Mulenga, Innocent Chitalu; Chidester, Diana Lisensky

    2014-03-01

    In a highly social species like chimpanzees, the process by which individuals become attuned to their social environment may be of vital importance to their chances of survival. Typically, this socialization process, defined by all acquisition experiences and fine-tuning efforts of social interaction patterns during ontogeny, occurs in large part through parental investment. In this study, we investigated whether maternal presence enhances the socialization process in chimpanzees by comparing the social interactions of orphaned and mother-reared individuals at the Chimfunshi Wildlife Orphanage Trust in Zambia. As response variables, we selected social interactions during which an elaborate level of fine-tuning is assumed to be necessary for sustaining the interaction and preventing escalation: social play. Comparing orphaned (n = 8) to sex- and age-matched mother-reared juvenile chimpanzees (n = 9), we hypothesized that the orphaned juveniles would play less frequently than the mother-reared and would be less equipped for fine-tuning social play (which we assayed by rates of aggression) because of the lack of a safe and facilitating social environment provided by the mother. First, contrary to our hypothesis, results showed that the orphaned juveniles engaged in social play more frequently than the mother-reared juveniles, although for significantly shorter amounts of time. Second, in support of our hypothesis, results showed that social play of the orphaned juveniles more often resulted in aggression than social play of the mother-reared juveniles. In conjunction, these results may indicate that, just like in humans, chimpanzee mothers provide their offspring with adequate social skills that might be of pivotal importance for future challenges like successful group-living and securing competitive fitness advantages.

  9. Comment on "Satellites reveal contrasting responses of regional climate to the widespread greening of Earth".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Zeng, Zhenzhong; Huang, Ling; Lian, Xu; Piao, Shilong

    2018-06-15

    Forzieri et al (Reports, 16 June 2017, p. 1180) used satellite data to show that boreal greening caused regional warming. We show that this positive sensitivity of temperature to the greening can be derived from the positive response of vegetation to boreal warming, which indicates that results from a statistical regression with satellite data should be carefully interpreted. Copyright © 2018, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Whole-genome sequencing reveals mutational landscape underlying phenotypic differences between two widespread Chinese cattle breeds

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yao; Jiang, Yu; Shi, Tao; Cai, Hanfang; Lan, Xianyong; Zhao, Xin; Plath, Martin; Chen, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Whole-genome sequencing provides a powerful tool to obtain more genetic variability that could produce a range of benefits for cattle breeding industry. Nanyang (Bos indicus) and Qinchuan (Bos taurus) are two important Chinese indigenous cattle breeds with distinct phenotypes. To identify the genetic characteristics responsible for variation in phenotypes between the two breeds, in the present study, we for the first time sequenced the genomes of four Nanyang and four Qinchuan cattle with 10 ...

  11. A comprehensive analysis of microProteins reveals their potentially widespread mechanism of transcriptional regulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magnani, Enrico; de Klein, Niek; Nam, Hye-In; Kim, Jung-Gun; Pham, Kimberly; Fiume, Elisa; Mudgett, Mary Beth; Rhee, Seung Yon

    2014-01-01

    Truncated transcription factor-like proteins called microProteins (miPs) can modulate transcription factor activities, thereby increasing transcriptional regulatory complexity. To understand their prevalence, evolution, and function, we predicted over 400 genes that encode putative miPs from

  12. A Proteome-wide, Quantitative Survey of In Vivo Ubiquitylation Sites Reveals Widespread Regulatory Roles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Sebastian Alexander; Beli, Petra; Weinert, Brian Tate

    2011-01-01

    Post-translational modification of proteins by ubiquitin is a fundamentally important regulatory mechanism. However, proteome-wide analysis of endogenous ubiquitylation remains a challenging task, and almost always has relied on cells expressing affinity tagged ubiquitin. Here we combine single...

  13. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) use markers to monitor the movement of a hidden item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Beran, Mary M; Menzel, Charles R

    2005-10-01

    Four chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) monitored the movement of hidden items in arrays of opaque cups. A chocolate candy was hidden in an array of four cups and temporarily presented paper markers indicated the location of the candy (which otherwise was not visible). These markers were either non-symbolic or symbolic (lexigram) stimuli that in other contexts acted as a label for the hidden candy, and the array was either rotated 180 degrees after the marker was removed or the array remained in the same location. For three of four chimpanzees, performance was better than chance in all conditions and there was no effect of the type of marker. These experiments indicate that chimpanzees can track the movement of a hidden item in an array of identical cups even when they never see the item itself, but only see a temporarily presented marker for the location of that item. However, there was no benefit to the use of symbolic as opposed to non-symbolic stimuli in this performance.

  14. Chimpanzee subspecies and ‘robust’ australopithecine holotypes, in the context of comments by Darwin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prat

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of comparative anatomy (including chimpanzees, gorillas and other primates, Darwin1 suggested that Africa was the continent from which ‘progenitors’ of humankind evolved. Hominin fossils from this continent proved him correct. We present the results of morphometric analyses based on cranial data obtained from chimpanzee taxa currently recognised as distinct subspecies, namely Pan troglodytes troglodytes and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, as well as Pan paniscus (bonobo. Our objective was to use a morphometric technique2 to quantify the degree of similarity between pairs of specimens, in the context of a statistical (probabilistic definition of a species.3–5 Results obtained from great apes, including two subspecies of chimpanzee, were assessed in relation to same-scale comparisons between the holotypes of ‘robust’ australopithecine (Plio-Pleistocene hominin taxa which have traditionally been distinguished at a species level, notably Paranthropus robustus from South Africa, and Paranthropus (Australopithecus/ Zinjanthropus boisei from East Africa. The question arises as to whether the holotypes of these two taxa, TM 1517 from Kromdraai6 and OH 5 from Olduvai,7 respectively, are different at the subspecies rather than at the species level.

  15. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  16. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement. PMID:26132703

  17. Neuromandibular integration in humans and chimpanzees: Implications for dental and mandibular reduction in Homo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziano, Alessio; Meloro, Carlo; Irish, Joel D; Stringer, Chris; Profico, Antonio; De Groote, Isabelle

    2018-05-08

    Although the evolution of the hominin masticatory apparatus has been linked to diet and food processing, the physical connection between neurocranium and lower jaw suggests a role of encephalization in the trend of dental and mandibular reduction. Here, the hypothesis that tooth size and mandibular robusticity are influenced by morphological changes in the neurocranium was tested. Three-dimensional landmarks, alveolar lengths, and mandibular robusticity data were recorded on a sample of chimpanzee and human skulls. The morphological integration between the neurocranium and the lower jaw was analyzed by means of Singular Warps Analysis. Redundancy Analysis was performed to understand if the pattern of neuromandibular integration affects tooth size and mandibular robusticity. There is significant morphological covariation between neurocranium and lower jaw in both chimpanzees and humans. In humans, changes in the temporal fossa seem to produce alterations of the relative orientation of jaw parts, while the influence of similar neurocranial changes in chimpanzees are more localized. In both species, postcanine alveolar lengths and mandibular robusticity are associated with shape changes of the temporal fossa. The results of this study support the hypothesis that the neurocranium is able to affect the evolution and development of the lower jaw, although most likely through functional integration of mandible, teeth, and muscles within the masticatory apparatus. This study highlights the relative influence of structural constraints and adaptive factors in the evolution of the human skull. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Comparing children's Homo sapiens and chimpanzees' Pan troglodytes quantity judgments of sequentially presented sets of items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. BERAN, Julie S. JOHNSON-PYNN, Christopher READY

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We presented a quantity judgment task that involved comparing two sequentially presented sets of items to preschoolers and chimpanzees using nearly identical procedures that excluded verbal instructions to children. Trial difficulty in this task reflected the ratio difference between sets of discrete items where larger ratios (e.g., 0.80 as from comparing 4 to 5 were more difficult than smaller ones (e.g., 0.50 as from comparing 4 to 8. Children also completed verbal-based tasks probing the relationship between counting proficiency and performance on the quantity judgment task of sequentially presented identical sized items. Both species’ performance was best when ratios between comparison sets were small regardless of set size in all types of tasks. Generally, chimpanzees and older children performed better than younger children except at larger ratios. Children’s counting proficiency was not related to success in choosing the larger of two quantities of identical-sized items. These results indicate that chimpanzees and children share an approximate number sense that is reflected through analog magnitude estimation when comparing quantities [Current Zoology 57 (4: 419–428, 2011].

  19. Flexibility and persistence of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) foraging behavior in a captive environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnie, Kristin E; Milstein, Marissa S; Calcutt, Sarah E; Ross, Stephen R; Wagner, Kathy E; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V

    2012-07-01

    As a result of environmental variability, animals may be confronted with uncertainty surrounding the presence of, or accessibility to, food resources at a given location or time. While individuals can rely on personal experience to manage this variability, the behavior of members of an individual's social group can also provide information regarding the availability or location of a food resource. The purpose of the present study was to measure how captive chimpanzees individually and collectively adjust their foraging strategies at an artificial termite mound, as the availability of resources provided by the mound varied over a number of weeks. As predicted, fishing activity at the mound was related to resource availability. However, chimpanzees continued to fish at unbaited locations on the days and weeks after a location had last contained food. Consistent with previous studies, our findings show that chimpanzees do not completely abandon previously learned habits despite learning individually and/or socially that the habit is no longer effective. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Visuoauditory mappings between high luminance and high pitch are shared by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Vera U.; Adachi, Ikuma; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Humans share implicit preferences for certain cross-sensory combinations; for example, they consistently associate higher-pitched sounds with lighter colors, smaller size, and spikier shapes. In the condition of synesthesia, people may experience such cross-modal correspondences to a perceptual degree (e.g., literally seeing sounds). So far, no study has addressed the question whether nonhuman animals share cross-modal correspondences as well. To establish the evolutionary origins of cross-modal mappings, we tested whether chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) also associate higher pitch with higher luminance. Thirty-three humans and six chimpanzees were required to classify black and white squares according to their color while hearing irrelevant background sounds that were either high-pitched or low-pitched. Both species performed better when the background sound was congruent (high-pitched for white, low-pitched for black) than when it was incongruent (low-pitched for white, high-pitched for black). An inherent tendency to pair high pitch with high luminance hence evolved before the human lineage split from that of chimpanzees. Rather than being a culturally learned or a linguistic phenomenon, this mapping constitutes a basic feature of the primate sensory system. PMID:22143791

  1. Surgical technique for ambulatory management of airsacculitis in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, L R; Lee, D R; Keeling, M E

    2001-02-01

    Bacterial infections of the air sac have been reported in many nonhuman primates. Approaches to the management of airsacculitis have included combinations of medical and surgical therapies. These strategies have often required repeated attempts to drain exudate from the affected air sac, as well as necessitating that the animal endure isolation or undergo intensive postoperative care before returning to its social group. A stoma was created via deliberate apposition of the air sac lining and skin to allow continuous drainage. Antibiotic therapy based on culture and antimicrobial susceptibility of the air sac contents was administered while the chimpanzee remained in its social group. We were able to attain complete resolution of the infection after a course of oral antibiotic therapy. The stoma closed gradually over a three-week period, and the chimpanzee has remained free of infection since that time. Despite the severity of the air sac infection in this chimpanzee, we were able to resolve the infection easily, using a simple surgical technique. This method allowed treatment without interfering with social standing or subjection to repeated anesthetic and treatment episodes. This method could be a simple, useful alternative for managing airsacculitis in nonhuman primates.

  2. Skill mastery inhibits adoption of observed alternative solutions among chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubesch, Christine; Preuschoft, Signe; van Schaik, Carel

    2009-03-01

    Geographic variation in socially transmitted skills and signals, similar to human culture, has been well documented for great apes. The rules governing the adoption of novel behaviours, however, are still largely unknown. We conducted an innovation-and-transmission experiment with two groups of chimpanzees living at hopE Primate Sanctuary Gänserndorf, Austria, presenting a board on which food had to be manoeuvred around obstacles to be acquired. Most chimpanzees used sticks to acquire the food, but five adults independently invented a novel technique, rattling, which was subsequently tested by almost all group members. However, individuals who had become proficient with sticks were reluctant to switch to rattling, despite it being more efficient. Similarly, after rattling was prevented, rattle specialists kept trying to rattle and made no attempt to use the stick technique, despite their knowledge about its existence. We conclude that innovators stimulate others to experiment with the solutions they display, but that chimpanzees are nevertheless conservative; mastery of a skill inhibits further exploration, and hence adoption of alternative techniques even if these are more efficient. Consequently, conformity among group members should not be expected in great apes when individuals develop proficiency at different techniques. Conservatism thus joins conformity as a mechanism to bring about cultural uniformity and stability.

  3. Extensive changes in the expression of the opioid genes between humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Gordillo, Peter; Fedrigo, Olivier; Wray, Gregory A; Babbitt, Courtney C

    2010-01-01

    The various means by which the body perceives, transmits, and resolves the experiences of pain and nociception are mediated by a host of molecules, including neuropeptides within the opioid gene signaling pathway. The peptide ligands and receptors encoded by this group of genes have been linked to behavioral disorders as well as a number of psychiatric affective disorders. Our aim was to explore the recent evolutionary history of these two gene families by taking a comparative genomics approach, specifically through a comparison between humans and chimpanzees. Our analyses indicate differential expression of these genes between the two species, more than expected based on genome-wide comparisons, indicating that differential expression is pervasive among the opioid genes. Of the 8 family members, three genes showed significant expression differences (PENK, PNOC, and OPRL1), with two others marginally significant (OPRM1 and OPRD1). Accelerated substitution rates along human and chimpanzee lineages within the putative regulatory regions of OPRM1, POMC, and PDYN between the human and chimpanzee branches are consistent with positive selection. Collectively, these results suggest that there may have been a selective advantage to modulating the expression of the opioid genes in humans compared with our closest living relatives. Information about the cognitive roles mediated by these genes in humans may help to elucidate the trait consequences of these putatively adaptive expression changes. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther H D Carlitz

    Full Text Available Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates, compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129 = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178 = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC. With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88 = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  5. Cognitive and physiological markers of emotional awareness in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, L A

    2001-11-01

    The ability to understand emotion in others is one of the most important factors involved in regulating social interactions in primates. Such emotional awareness functions to coordinate activity among group members, enable the formation of long-lasting individual relationships, and facilitate the pursuit of shared interests. Despite these important evolutionary implications, comparative studies of emotional processing in humans and great apes are practically nonexistent, constituting a major gap in our understanding of the extent to which emotional awareness has played an important role in shaping human behavior and societies. This paper presents the results of two experiments that examine chimpanzees' responses to emotional stimuli. First, changes in peripheral skin temperature were measured while subjects viewed three categories of emotionally negative video scenes; conspecifics being injected with needles (INJ), darts and needles alone (DART), and conspecific directing agonism towards the veterinarians (CHASE). Second, chimpanzees were required to use facial expressions to categorize emotional video scenes, i.e., favorite food and objects and veterinarian procedures, according to their positive and negative valence. With no prior training, subjects spontaneously matched the emotional videos to conspecific facial expressions according to their shared emotional meaning, indicating that chimpanzee facial expressions are processed emotionally, as are human expressions. Decreases in peripheral skin temperature, indicative of negative sympathetic arousal, were significantly lower when subjects viewed the INJ and DART videos, compared to the CHASE videos, indicating greater negative arousal when viewing conspecifics being injected with needles, and needles themselves, than when viewing conspecifics engaged in general agonism.

  6. An 8-year longitudinal study of mirror self-recognition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veer, Monique W; Gallup, Gordon G; Theall, Laura A; van den Bos, Ruud; Povinelli, Daniel J

    2003-01-01

    In a previous cross-sectional study of mirror self-recognition involving 92 chimpanzees, Povinelli et al. [Journal of Comparative Psychology 107 (1993) 347] reported a peak in the proportion of animals exhibiting self-recognition in the adolescent/young adult sample (8-15 years), with 75% being classified as positive. In contrast, only 26% of the older animals (16-39 years) were classified as positive, suggesting a marked decline in self-recognition in middle to late adulthood. In the present study, all of the chimpanzees from the 8-15-year-old group in the Povinelli et al. study (n=12) were again tested for self-recognition, 8 years later. Using the same criteria, 67% of the animals were classified the same. Although a higher proportion of the adult animals in this study (50%) exhibited self-recognition than would be inferred on the basis of the previous study (25%), all changes in self-recognition status were in the negative direction. These results show that mirror self-recognition is a highly stable trait in many chimpanzees, but may be subject to decline with age. Connections with human research are briefly discussed.

  7. Ground-nesting by the chimpanzees of the Nimba Mountains, Guinea: environmentally or socially determined?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koops, Kathelijne; Humle, Tatyana; Sterck, Elisabeth H M; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2007-04-01

    The chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) of the Nimba Mountains, Guinea, West Africa, commonly make both elaborate ("night") and simple ("day") nests on the ground. In this study we investigated which factors might influence ground-nesting in this population, and tested two ecological hypotheses: 1) climatic conditions, such as high wind speeds at high altitudes, may deter chimpanzees from nesting in trees; and 2) a lack of appropriate arboreal nesting opportunities may drive the chimpanzees to nest on the ground. In addition to testing these two hypotheses, we explored whether ground-nesting is a sex-linked behavior. Data were collected monthly between August 2003 and May 2004 along transects and ad libitum. To identify the sex of ground-nesting individuals, we used DNA extracted from hair samples. The results showed that the occurrence and distribution of ground nests were not affected by climatic conditions or a lack of appropriate nest trees. Support was found for the notion that ground-nesting is a sex-linked behavior, as males were responsible for building all of the elaborate ground nests and most of the simple ground nests sampled. Elaborate ground nests occurred mostly in nest groups associated with tree nests, whereas simple ground nests usually occurred without tree nests in their vicinity. These results suggest that ground-nesting may be socially, rather than ecologically, determined.

  8. Limited evidence for third-party affiliation during development in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan A; Stanton, Margaret A; Lonsdorf, Elizabeth V; Wellens, Kaitlin R; Markham, A Catherine; Murray, Carson M

    2017-09-01

    Examining the ontogeny of conflict-mitigating behaviours in our closest living relatives is an important component of understanding the evolutionary origins of cooperation in our species. In this study, we used 26 years of data to investigate the emergence of third-party affiliation (TPA), defined as affiliative contact given to recipients of aggression by uninvolved bystanders (regardless of initiation), in wild immature eastern chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii ) of Gombe National Park, Tanzania. We also characterized TPA by mothers in the same dataset as an adult benchmark for interpreting immature TPA patterns. In summary, we found that immatures did not express TPA as measured by grooming between the ages of 1.5 and 12.0 years, and that there was limited evidence that immatures expressed TPA via play. We also found that mothers did express TPA to offspring, although mothers did not show TPA towards non-offspring. Cases of TPA by mothers to other adults were too few to analyse separately. These results contrast with findings from captive studies which found that chimpanzees as young as 6 years of age demonstrated TPA. We argue that within-species variation in the expression of TPA, both in immatures and adulthood, provides evidence that the conflict management behaviours of young chimpanzees may be heavily influenced by social, ecological and demographic factors.

  9. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hattori

    Full Text Available Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking. Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse, suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  10. Distractor Effect of Auditory Rhythms on Self-Paced Tapping in Chimpanzees and Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2015-01-01

    Humans tend to spontaneously align their movements in response to visual (e.g., swinging pendulum) and auditory rhythms (e.g., hearing music while walking). Particularly in the case of the response to auditory rhythms, neuroscientific research has indicated that motor resources are also recruited while perceiving an auditory rhythm (or regular pulse), suggesting a tight link between the auditory and motor systems in the human brain. However, the evolutionary origin of spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms is unclear. Here, we report that chimpanzees and humans show a similar distractor effect in perceiving isochronous rhythms during rhythmic movement. We used isochronous auditory rhythms as distractor stimuli during self-paced alternate tapping of two keys of an electronic keyboard by humans and chimpanzees. When the tempo was similar to their spontaneous motor tempo, tapping onset was influenced by intermittent entrainment to auditory rhythms. Although this effect itself is not an advanced rhythmic ability such as dancing or singing, our results suggest that, to some extent, the biological foundation for spontaneous responses to auditory rhythms was already deeply rooted in the common ancestor of chimpanzees and humans, 6 million years ago. This also suggests the possibility of a common attentional mechanism, as proposed by the dynamic attending theory, underlying the effect of perceiving external rhythms on motor movement.

  11. Measuring Hair Cortisol Concentrations to Assess the Effect of Anthropogenic Impacts on Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlitz, Esther H D; Miller, Robert; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Gao, Wei; Hänni, Daniel C; van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates face major environmental changes due to increased human impacts all over the world. Although some species are able to survive in certain landscapes with anthropogenic impact, their long-term viability and fitness may be decreased due to chronic stress. Here we assessed long-term stress levels through cortisol analysis in chimpanzee hair obtained from sleeping nests in northwestern Uganda, in order to estimate welfare in the context of ecotourism, forest fragmentation with human-wildlife conflicts, and illegal logging with hunting activity (albeit not of primates), compared with a control without human contact or conflict. Concerning methodological issues, season [F(2,129) = 37.4, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.18] and the age of nests [F(2,178) = 20.3, p < 0.0001, r2 = 0.11] significantly predicted hair cortisol concentrations (HCC). With regard to effects of anthropogenic impacts, our results neither showed elevation of HCC due to ecotourism, nor due to illegal logging compared to their control groups. We did, however, find significantly increased HCC in the fragment group compared to chimpanzees living in a nearby intact forest [F(1,88) = 5.0, p = 0.03, r2 = 0.20]. In conclusion, our results suggest that hair cortisol analysis is a powerful tool that can help understanding the impact of anthropogenic disturbances on chimpanzee well-being and could be applied to other great ape species.

  12. The contribution of genetics and early rearing experiences to hierarchical personality dimensions in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzman, Robert D.; Freeman, Hani D.; Schapiro, Steven J.; Hopkins, William D.

    2015-01-01

    A reliable literature finds that traits are related to each other in an organized hierarchy encompassing various conceptualizations of personality (e.g., Big Three, Five Factor Model). Recent work suggests the potential of a similar organization among our closest nonhuman relative, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), with significant links to neurobiology suggesting an evolutionarily- and neurobiologically-based hierarchical structure of personality. The current study investigated this hierarchical structure, the heritability of the various personality dimensions across levels of the hierarchy, and associations with early social rearing experience in a large sample (N = 238) of socially-housed, captive chimpanzees residing in two independent colonies of apes. Results provide support for a hierarchical structure of personality in chimpanzees with significant associations with early rearing experiences. Further, heritabilities of the various dimensions varied by early rearing, with affective dimensions found to be significantly heritable among mother-reared apes, while personality dimensions were largely independent of relatedness among the nursery-reared apes. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for the influence of both genetic and environmental factors on personality profiles across levels of the hierarchy, supporting the importance of considering environmental variation in models of quantitative trait evolution. PMID:25915132

  13. Virtual dissection and comparative connectivity of the superior longitudinal fasciculus in chimpanzees and humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Erin E.; Gutman, David A.; Bradley, Bruce A.; Preuss, Todd M.; Stout, Dietrich

    2015-01-01

    Many of the behavioral capacities that distinguish humans from other primates rely on fronto-parietal circuits. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is the primary white matter tract connecting lateral frontal with lateral parietal regions; it is distinct from the arcuate fasciculus, which interconnects the frontal and temporal lobes. Here we report a direct, quantitative comparison of SLF connectivity using virtual in vivo dissection of the SLF in chimpanzees and humans. SLF I, the superior-most branch of the SLF, showed similar patterns of connectivity between humans and chimpanzees, and was proportionally volumetrically larger in chimpanzees. SLF II, the middle branch, and SLF III, the inferior-most branch, showed species differences in frontal connectivity. In humans, SLF II showed greater connectivity with dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas in chimps SLF II showed greater connectivity with the inferior frontal gyrus. SLF III was right-lateralized and proportionally volumetrically larger in humans, and human SLF III showed relatively reduced connectivity with dorsal premotor cortex and greater extension into the anterior inferior frontal gyrus, especially in the right hemisphere. These results have implications for the evolution of fronto-parietal functions including spatial attention to observed actions, social learning, and tool use, and are in line with previous research suggesting a unique role for the right anterior inferior frontal gyrus in the evolution of human fronto-parietal network architecture. PMID:25534109

  14. isoenzyme analysis of five endemic and one widespread kniphofia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ISOENZYME ANALYSIS OF FIVE ENDEMIC AND ONE WIDESPREAD ... plants. The over all mean inbreeding coefficient (F) was positive indicating slight deficiency in the number of ...... populations, indicates rather recent speciation.

  15. Widespread abundance of functional bacterial amyloid in Mycolata and other Gram-positive bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordal, Peter Bruun; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Larsen, Poul

    2009-01-01

    extracellular fibrils were also produced. In three cases, FuBA was only revealed after extensive removal of extracellular material by saponification, indicating an integrated attachment within the cellular envelope. Spores from species within the genera Streptomyces, Bacillus and Nocardia were all coated...... analysis. We conclude that amyloid is widespread among Gram-positive bacteria and may in many species constitute a hitherto overlooked integral part of the spores and the cellular envelope....

  16. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Resnick, D; Pineda, C; Trudell, D

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare.

  17. Widespread osteonecrosis of the foot in systemic lupus erythematosus: Radiographic and gross pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, D.; Pineda, C.; Trudell, D.; California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla

    1985-01-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus required an amputation of the foot related to the presence of vascular disease and infection. Radiographs obtained prior to amputation revealed osteonecrosis in virtually every bone of the foot. Radiographic-pathologic correlation documented this widespread osseous involvement. Although ischemic necrosis of bone is a well-known feature of systemic lupus erythematosus, its localization in the small bones of the foot is rare. (orig.)

  18. Evidence for widespread convergent evolution around human microsatellites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J Vowles

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites are a major component of the human genome, and their evolution has been much studied. However, the evolution of microsatellite flanking sequences has received less attention, with reports of both high and low mutation rates and of a tendency for microsatellites to cluster. From the human genome we generated a database of many thousands of (AC(n flanking sequences within which we searched for common characteristics. Sequences flanking microsatellites of similar length show remarkable levels of convergent evolution, indicating shared mutational biases. These biases extend 25-50 bases either side of the microsatellite and may therefore affect more than 30% of the entire genome. To explore the extent and absolute strength of these effects, we quantified the observed convergence. We also compared homologous human and chimpanzee loci to look for evidence of changes in mutation rate around microsatellites. Most models of DNA sequence evolution assume that mutations are independent and occur randomly. Allowances may be made for sites mutating at different rates and for general mutation biases such as the faster rate of transitions over transversions. Our analysis suggests that these models may be inadequate, in that proximity to even very short microsatellites may alter the rate and distribution of mutations that occur. The elevated local mutation rate combined with sequence convergence, both of which we find evidence for, also provide a possible resolution for the apparently contradictory inferences of mutation rates in microsatellite flanking sequences.

  19. Inactivation of 10(15) chimpanzee-infectious doses of hepatitis B virus during preparation of a heat-inactivated hepatitis B vaccine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelie, P. N.; Reesink, H. W.; Niessen, J.; Brotman, B.; Prince, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    The safety of a plasma-derived hepatitis-B vaccine inactivated by two heating steps (90 sec at 103 degrees C followed by 10 hr pasteurization at 65 degrees C) was validated in chimpanzees; 10(3) chimpanzee-infectious doses (CID50) of hepatitis-B virus (HBV), subjected to the purification steps

  20. Challenge pools of hepatitis C virus genotypes 1-6 prototype strains: replication fitness and pathogenicity in chimpanzees and human liver-chimeric mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukh, Jens; Meuleman, Philip; Tellier, Raymond

    2010-01-01

    Chimpanzees represent the only animal model for studies of the natural history of hepatitis C virus (HCV). To generate virus stocks of important HCV variants, we infected chimpanzees with HCV strains of genotypes 1-6 and determined the infectivity titer of acute-phase plasma pools in additional a...

  1. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Benito-Calvo

    Full Text Available Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry, and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils, which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  2. First GIS analysis of modern stone tools used by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) in Bossou, Guinea, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benito-Calvo, Alfonso; Carvalho, Susana; Arroyo, Adrian; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; de la Torre, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    Stone tool use by wild chimpanzees of West Africa offers a unique opportunity to explore the evolutionary roots of technology during human evolution. However, detailed analyses of chimpanzee stone artifacts are still lacking, thus precluding a comparison with the earliest archaeological record. This paper presents the first systematic study of stone tools used by wild chimpanzees to crack open nuts in Bossou (Guinea-Conakry), and applies pioneering analytical techniques to such artifacts. Automatic morphometric GIS classification enabled to create maps of use wear over the stone tools (anvils, hammers, and hammers/ anvils), which were blind tested with GIS spatial analysis of damage patterns identified visually. Our analysis shows that chimpanzee stone tool use wear can be systematized and specific damage patterns discerned, allowing to discriminate between active and passive pounders in lithic assemblages. In summary, our results demonstrate the heuristic potential of combined suites of GIS techniques for the analysis of battered artifacts, and have enabled creating a referential framework of analysis in which wild chimpanzee battered tools can for the first time be directly compared to the early archaeological record.

  3. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernal Matarrita-Carranza

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary success of hymenopteran insects has been associated with complex physiological and behavioral defense mechanisms against pathogens and parasites. Among these strategies are symbiotic associations between Hymenoptera and antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, which provide protection to insect hosts. Herein, we examine associations between culturable Actinobacteria and 29 species of tropical hymenopteran insects that span five families, including Apidae (bees, Vespidae (wasps, and Formicidae (ants. In total, 197 Actinobacteria isolates were obtained from 22 of the 29 different insect species sampled. Through 16S rRNA gene sequences of 161 isolates, we show that 91% of the symbionts correspond to members of the genus Streptomyces with less common isolates belonging to Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous bacteria with Streptomyces morphology in brood chambers of two different species of the eusocial wasps. Four fungal strains in the family Ophiocordycipitacea (Hypocreales known to be specialized insect parasites were also isolated. Bioassay challenges between the Actinobacteria and their possible targeted pathogenic antagonist (both obtained from the same insect at the genus or species level provide evidence that different Actinobacteria isolates produced antifungal activity, supporting the hypothesis of a defensive association between the insects and these microbe species. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and gyrB demonstrate the presence of five Streptomyces lineages associated with a broad range of insect species. Particularly our Clade I is of much interest as it is composed of one 16S rRNA phylotype repeatedly isolated from different insect groups in our sample. This phylotype corresponds to a previously described lineage of host-associated Streptomyces. These results suggest Streptomyces Clade I is a Hymenoptera host-associated lineage spanning several new insect

  4. Evidence for Widespread Associations between Neotropical Hymenopteran Insects and Actinobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matarrita-Carranza, Bernal; Moreira-Soto, Rolando D.; Murillo-Cruz, Catalina; Mora, Marielos; Currie, Cameron R.; Pinto-Tomas, Adrián A.

    2017-01-01

    The evolutionary success of hymenopteran insects has been associated with complex physiological and behavioral defense mechanisms against pathogens and parasites. Among these strategies are symbiotic associations between Hymenoptera and antibiotic-producing Actinobacteria, which provide protection to insect hosts. Herein, we examine associations between culturable Actinobacteria and 29 species of tropical hymenopteran insects that span five families, including Apidae (bees), Vespidae (wasps), and Formicidae (ants). In total, 197 Actinobacteria isolates were obtained from 22 of the 29 different insect species sampled. Through 16S rRNA gene sequences of 161 isolates, we show that 91% of the symbionts correspond to members of the genus Streptomyces with less common isolates belonging to Pseudonocardia and Amycolatopsis. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of filamentous bacteria with Streptomyces morphology in brood chambers of two different species of the eusocial wasps. Four fungal strains in the family Ophiocordycipitacea (Hypocreales) known to be specialized insect parasites were also isolated. Bioassay challenges between the Actinobacteria and their possible targeted pathogenic antagonist (both obtained from the same insect at the genus or species level) provide evidence that different Actinobacteria isolates produced antifungal activity, supporting the hypothesis of a defensive association between the insects and these microbe species. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and gyrB demonstrate the presence of five Streptomyces lineages associated with a broad range of insect species. Particularly our Clade I is of much interest as it is composed of one 16S rRNA phylotype repeatedly isolated from different insect groups in our sample. This phylotype corresponds to a previously described lineage of host-associated Streptomyces. These results suggest Streptomyces Clade I is a Hymenoptera host-associated lineage spanning several new insect taxa and

  5. Distamycin A/DAPI bands and the effects of 5-azacytidine on the chromosomes of the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Haaf, T

    1984-01-01

    The chromosomes of the chimpanzee were stained with distamycin A/DAPI, which labels specific C-bands. Bright distamycin A/DAPI fluorescence was found in the heterochromatic regions of chromosomes 6, 11, 14 to 16, 18 to 20, and 23 and the Y. Lymphocyte cultures from chimpanzees were treated with low doses of 5-azacytidine during the last hours of culture. This cytosine analog induces highly distinct undercondensations in 28 heterochromatic regions of 19 chromosomes. These 5-azacytidine-sensitive regions are predominantly located in the terminal C-bands of the chromosomes. In vitro treatment with 5-azacytidine also preserves into the metaphase stage somatic pairings between the 5-azacytidine-sensitive heterochromatic regions in interphase nuclei. The homologies and differences regarding the chromosomal localization of distamycin A/DAPI-bright C-bands, 5-azacytidine-sensitive heterochromatin, 5-methylcytosine-rich DNA sequences, and satellite DNAs in the chimpanzee and man are discussed.

  6. The importance of history in definitions of culture: Implications from phylogenetic approaches to the study of social learning in chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lycett, Stephen J

    2010-08-01

    Some have claimed that wild chimpanzees possess multiple socially learned traditions that might constitute cultural patterns. Others, however, have suggested that even fundamental alternative explanations, such as proximate genetic mechanisms, have not been addressed satisfactorily. Multiple analyses using phylogenetic (cladistic) methods, however, have been shown not to support the genetic proposition. Rather, such analyses are more consistent with the growing body of evidence from studies of both wild and captive animals suggesting that behavioral patterns in wild chimpanzees are socially learned. The question remains, however, as to whether, from a scientific viewpoint, it is useful to term such patterns cultural. It is argued here that cultural mosaics of multiple behaviors that differ intercommunally, both in humans and chimpanzees, are an emergent property of a phylogenetic (i.e., historical) process of descent with modification, mediated by mechanisms of social transmission, variation, and sorting through time. This historical perspective is productive when attempting to consider the phenomenon of culture across species.

  7. Heterologous prime-boost regimens with a recombinant chimpanzee adenoviral vector and adjuvanted F4 protein elicit polyfunctional HIV-1-specific T-Cell responses in macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorin, Clarisse; Vanloubbeeck, Yannick; Baudart, Sébastien; Ska, Michaël; Bayat, Babak; Brauers, Geoffroy; Clarinval, Géraldine; Donner, Marie-Noëlle; Marchand, Martine; Koutsoukos, Marguerite; Mettens, Pascal; Cohen, Joe; Voss, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes are important for HIV-1 replication control. F4/AS01 consists of F4 recombinant fusion protein (containing clade B Gag/p24, Pol/RT, Nef and Gag/p17) formulated in AS01 Adjuvant System, and was shown to induce F4-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses in humans. While replication-incompetent recombinant HIV-1/SIV antigen-expressing human adenoviral vectors can elicit high-frequency antigen-specific CD8+ T-cell responses, their use is hampered by widespread pre-existing immunity to human serotypes. Non-human adenovirus serotypes associated with lower prevalence may offer an alternative strategy. We evaluated the immunogenicity of AdC7-GRN ('A'), a recombinant chimpanzee adenovirus type 7 vector expressing clade B Gag, RT and Nef, and F4/AS01 ('P'), when delivered intramuscularly in homologous (PP or AA) and heterologous (AAPP or PPAA) prime-boost regimens, in macaques and mice. Vaccine-induced HIV-1-antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood (macaques), liver, spleen, and intestinal and genital mucosa (mice) were characterized by intracellular cytokine staining. Vaccine-specific IgG antibodies (macaques) were detected using ELISA. In macaques, only the heterologous prime-boost regimens induced polyfunctional, persistent and balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses specific to each HIV-1 vaccine antigen. AdC7-GRN priming increased the polyfunctionality of F4/AS01-induced CD4+ T cells. Approximately 50% of AdC7-GRN-induced memory CD8+ T cells exhibited an effector-memory phenotype. HIV-1-specific antibodies were detected with each regimen. In mice, antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were detected in the mucosal and systemic anatomical compartments assessed. When administered in heterologous prime-boost regimens, AdC7-GRN and F4/AS01 candidate vaccines acted complementarily in inducing potent and persistent peripheral blood HIV-1-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses and antibodies in macaques. Besides

  8. Brief Communication: Quantitative- and molecular-genetic differentiation in humans and chimpanzees: implications for the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Estimates of the amount of genetic differentiation in humans among major geographic regions (e.g., Eastern Asia vs. Europe) from quantitative-genetic analyses of cranial measurements closely match those from classical- and molecular-genetic markers. Typically, among-region differences account for ∼10% of the total variation. This correspondence is generally interpreted as evidence for the importance of neutral evolutionary processes (e.g., genetic drift) in generating among-region differences in human cranial form, but it was initially surprising because human cranial diversity was frequently assumed to show a strong signature of natural selection. Is the human degree of similarity of cranial and DNA-sequence estimates of among-region genetic differentiation unusual? How do comparisons with other taxa illuminate the evolutionary processes underlying cranial diversification? Chimpanzees provide a useful starting point for placing the human results in a broader comparative context, because common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and bonobos (Pan paniscus) are the extant species most closely related to humans. To address these questions, I used 27 cranial measurements collected on a sample of 861 humans and 263 chimpanzees to estimate the amount of genetic differentiation between pairs of groups (between regions for humans and between species or subspecies for chimpanzees). Consistent with previous results, the human cranial estimates are quite similar to published DNA-sequence estimates. In contrast, the chimpanzee cranial estimates are much smaller than published DNA-sequence estimates. It appears that cranial differentiation has been limited in chimpanzees relative to humans. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Genomic tools for evolution and conservation in the chimpanzee: Pan troglodytes ellioti is a genetically distinct population.

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    Rory Bowden

    Full Text Available In spite of its evolutionary significance and conservation importance, the population structure of the common chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes, is still poorly understood. An issue of particular controversy is whether the proposed fourth subspecies of chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes ellioti, from parts of Nigeria and Cameroon, is genetically distinct. Although modern high-throughput SNP genotyping has had a major impact on our understanding of human population structure and demographic history, its application to ecological, demographic, or conservation questions in non-human species has been extremely limited. Here we apply these tools to chimpanzee population structure, using ∼700 autosomal SNPs derived from chimpanzee genomic data and a further ∼100 SNPs from targeted re-sequencing. We demonstrate conclusively the existence of P. t. ellioti as a genetically distinct subgroup. We show that there is clear differentiation between the verus, troglodytes, and ellioti populations at the SNP and haplotype level, on a scale that is greater than that separating continental human populations. Further, we show that only a small set of SNPs (10-20 is needed to successfully assign individuals to these populations. Tellingly, use of only mitochondrial DNA variation to classify individuals is erroneous in 4 of 54 cases, reinforcing the dangers of basing demographic inference on a single locus and implying that the demographic history of the species is more complicated than that suggested analyses based solely on mtDNA. In this study we demonstrate the feasibility of developing economical and robust tests of individual chimpanzee origin as well as in-depth studies of population structure. These findings have important implications for conservation strategies and our understanding of the evolution of chimpanzees. They also act as a proof-of-principle for the use of cheap high-throughput genomic methods for ecological questions.

  10. Species association of hepatitis B virus (HBV in non-human apes; evidence for recombination between gorilla and chimpanzee variants.

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    Sinéad Lyons

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV infections are widely distributed in humans, infecting approximately one third of the world's population. HBV variants have also been detected and genetically characterised from Old World apes; Gorilla gorilla (gorilla, Pan troglodytes (chimpanzee, Pongo pygmaeus (orang-utan, Nomascus nastusus and Hylobates pileatus (gibbons and from the New World monkey, Lagothrix lagotricha (woolly monkey. To investigate species-specificity and potential for cross species transmission of HBV between sympatric species of apes (such as gorillas and chimpanzees in Central Africa or between humans and chimpanzees or gorillas, variants of HBV infecting captive wild-born non-human primates were genetically characterised. 9 of 62 chimpanzees (11.3% and two from 11 gorillas (18% were HBV-infected (15% combined frequency, while other Old world monkey species were negative. Complete genome sequences were obtained from six of the infected chimpanzee and both gorillas; those from P. t .ellioti grouped with previously characterised variants from this subspecies. However, variants recovered from P. t. troglodytes HBV variants also grouped within this clade, indicative of transmission between sub-species, forming a paraphyletic clade. The two gorilla viruses were phylogenetically distinct from chimpanzee and human variants although one showed evidence for a recombination event with a P.t.e.-derived HBV variant in the partial X and core gene region. Both of these observations provide evidence for circulation of HBV between different species and sub-species of non-human primates, a conclusion that differs from the hypothesis if of strict host specificity of HBV genotypes.

  11. The influence of body mass index, age and sex on inflammatory disease risk in semi-captive Chimpanzees.

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    Vincent Obanda

    Full Text Available Obesity and ageing are emerging issues in the management of captive primates, including Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Studies on humans show that obesity and old age can independently increase the risk of inflammatory-associated diseases indicated by elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cells and proteins in the blood of older or obese compared to levels in younger or non-obese individuals. In humans, sex can influence the outcomes of these risks. Health management of these problems in chimpanzee populations requires an understanding of similarities and differences of factors influencing inflammatory disease risks in humans and in chimpanzees. We examined the relationship between age, sex and Body Mass Index (BMI with hematological biomarkers of inflammatory disease risk established for humans which include the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, and neutrophil, white blood cell (WBC, platelet microparticle and platelet counts. We found that higher values of NLR, neutrophil count and platelet microparticle count were associated with higher BMI values and older age indicating increased inflammation risk in these groups; a similar pattern to humans. There was a strong sex by age interaction on inflammation risk, with older males more at risk than older females. In contrast to human studies, total WBC count was not influenced by BMI, but like humans, WBC and platelet counts were lower in older individuals compared to younger individuals. Our findings are similar to those of humans and suggest that further insight on managing chimpanzees can be gained from extensive studies of ageing and obesity in humans. We suggest that managing BMI should be an integral part of health management in captive chimpanzee populations in order to partially reduce the risk of diseases associated with inflammation. These results also highlight parallels in inflammation risk between humans and chimpanzees and have implications for understanding the evolution of

  12. Social grooming network in captive chimpanzees: does the wild or captive origin of group members affect sociality?

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    Levé, Marine; Sueur, Cédric; Petit, Odile; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Hirata, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Many chimpanzees throughout the world are housed in captivity, and there is an increasing effort to recreate social groups by mixing individuals with captive origins with those with wild origins. Captive origins may entail restricted rearing conditions during early infant life, including, for example, no maternal rearing and a limited social life. Early rearing conditions have been linked with differences in tool-use behavior between captive- and wild-born chimpanzees. If physical cognition can be impaired by non-natural rearing, what might be the consequences for social capacities? This study describes the results of network analysis based on grooming interactions in chimpanzees with wild and captive origins living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary in Kumamoto, Japan. Grooming is a complex social activity occupying up to 25% of chimpanzees' waking hours and plays a role in the emergence and maintenance of social relationships. We assessed whether the social centralities and roles of chimpanzees might be affected by their origin (captive vs wild). We found that captive- and wild-origin chimpanzees did not differ in their grooming behavior, but that theoretical removal of individuals from the network had differing impacts depending on the origin of the individual. Contrary to findings that non-natural early rearing has long-term effects on physical cognition, living in social groups seems to compensate for the negative effects of non-natural early rearing. Social network analysis (SNA) and, in particular, theoretical removal analysis, were able to highlight differences between individuals that would have been impossible to show using classical methods. The social environment of captive animals is important to their well-being, and we are only beginning to understand how SNA might help to enhance animal welfare.

  13. The role of the placenta in the initiation of spiral artery remodelling in an early pregnant chimpanzee uterus

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    Vercruysse, L; Carter, A. M.; Pijnenborg, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In this study we evaluated the full extent of placental bed changes (centre to periphery) in a pregnant chimpanzee uterus, kept at the Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. According to placental size the specimen was equivalent to an 8 weeks pregnant human uterus. Methods...... to be a feature of the placental bed as a whole, being significantly less prominent in the adjacent non-placental bed part of the uterus, indicating an effect of the presence of the placenta. The different time-course of early spiral artery remodelling in the chimpanzee as compared to the human may have had...

  14. Factors affecting initial training success of blood glucose testing in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

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    Reamer, Lisa A; Haller, Rachel L; Thiele, Erica J

    2014-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes can be a problem for captive chimpanzees. Accurate blood glucose (BG) readings are necessary to monitor and treat this disease. Thus, obtaining voluntary samples from primates through positive reinforcement training (PRT) is critical. The current study assessed the voluntary...... participation of 123 chimpanzees in BG sampling and investigated factors that may contribute to individual success. All subjects participate in regular PRT sessions as part of a comprehensive behavioral management program. Basic steps involved in obtaining BG values include: voluntarily presenting a finger...

  15. Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy and a non-sense mutation of exon 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting, N; Duno, M; Vissing, J

    2013-01-01

    Becker muscular dystrophy features progressive proximal weakness, wasting and often focal hypertrophy. We present a patient with pain and cramps from adolescence. Widespread muscle hypertrophy, preserved muscle strength and a 10-20-fold raised CPK were noted. Muscle biopsy was dystrophic, and Western blot showed a 95% reduction of dystrophin levels. Genetic analyses revealed a non-sense mutation in exon 2 of the dystrophin gene. This mutation is predicted to result in a Duchenne phenotype, but resulted in a mild Becker muscular dystrophy with widespread muscle hypertrophy. We suggest that this unusual phenotype is caused by translation re-initiation downstream from the mutation site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interdisciplinary rehabilitation of patients with chronic widespread pain:

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    Amris, Kirstine; Wæhrens, Eva E; Christensen, Robin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the functional and psychological outcomes of a 2-week, group-based multicomponent treatment course that targeted patients with chronic widespread pain. Patients (192 included in the intention-to-treat population), all fulfilling the 1990 American College of Rheumatology...

  17. Are neonicotinoid insecticides driving declines of widespread butterflies?

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    Andre S. Gilburn

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There has been widespread concern that neonicotinoid pesticides may be adversely impacting wild and managed bees for some years, but recently attention has shifted to examining broader effects they may be having on biodiversity. For example in the Netherlands, declines in insectivorous birds are positively associated with levels of neonicotinoid pollution in surface water. In England, the total abundance of widespread butterfly species declined by 58% on farmed land between 2000 and 2009 despite both a doubling in conservation spending in the UK, and predictions that climate change should benefit most species. Here we build models of the UK population indices from 1985 to 2012 for 17 widespread butterfly species that commonly occur at farmland sites. Of the factors we tested, three correlated significantly with butterfly populations. Summer temperature and the index for a species the previous year are both positively associated with butterfly indices. By contrast, the number of hectares of farmland where neonicotinoid pesticides are used is negatively associated with butterfly indices. Indices for 15 of the 17 species show negative associations with neonicotinoid usage. The declines in butterflies have largely occurred in England, where neonicotinoid usage is at its highest. In Scotland, where neonicotinoid usage is comparatively low, butterfly numbers are stable. Further research is needed urgently to show whether there is a causal link between neonicotinoid usage and the decline of widespread butterflies or whether it simply represents a proxy for other environmental factors associated with intensive agriculture.

  18. Intraspecific gestural laterality in chimpanzees and gorillas and the impact of social propensities.

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    Prieur, Jacques; Pika, Simone; Barbu, Stéphanie; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2017-09-01

    A relevant approach to address the mechanisms underlying the emergence of the right-handedness/left-hemisphere language specialization of humans is to investigate both proximal and distal causes of language lateralization through the study of non-human primates' gestural laterality. We carried out the first systematic, quantitative comparison of within-subjects' and between-species' laterality by focusing on the laterality of intraspecific gestures of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) living in six different captive groups. We addressed the following two questions: (1) Do chimpanzees and gorillas exhibit stable direction of laterality when producing different types of gestures at the individual level? If yes, is it related to the strength of laterality? (2) Is there a species difference in gestural laterality at the population level? If yes, which factors could explain this difference? During 1356 observation hours, we recorded 42335 cases of dyadic gesture use in the six groups totalling 39 chimpanzees and 35 gorillas. Results showed that both species could exhibit either stability or flexibility in their direction of gestural laterality. These results suggest that both stability and flexibility may have differently modulated the strength of laterality depending on the species social structure and dynamics. Furthermore, a multifactorial analysis indicates that these particular social components may have specifically impacted gestural laterality through the influence of gesture sensory modality and the position of the recipient in the signaller's visual field during interaction. Our findings provide further support to the social theory of laterality origins proposing that social pressures may have shaped laterality through natural selection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The relationship between event-based prospective memory and ongoing task performance in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

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    Theodore A Evans

    Full Text Available Prospective memory is remembering to do something at a future time. A growing body of research supports that prospective memory may exist in nonhuman animals, but the methods used to test nonhuman prospective memory differ from those used with humans. The current work tests prospective memory in chimpanzees using a method that closely approximates a typical human paradigm. In these experiments, the prospective memory cue was embedded within an ongoing task. Tokens representing food items could be used in one of two ways: in a matching task with pictures of items (the ongoing task or to request a food item hidden in a different location at the beginning of the trial. Chimpanzees had to disengage from the ongoing task in order to use the appropriate token to obtain a higher preference food item. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees effectively matched tokens to pictures, when appropriate, and disengaged from the ongoing task when the token matched the hidden item. In Experiment 2, performance did not differ when the target item was either hidden or visible. This suggested no effect of cognitive load on either the prospective memory task or the ongoing task, but performance was near ceiling, which may have contributed to this outcome. In Experiment 3, we created a more challenging version of the task. More errors on the matching task occurred before the prospective memory had been carried out, and this difference seemed to be limited to the hidden condition. This finding parallels results from human studies and suggests that working memory load and prospective memory may have a similar relationship in nonhuman primates.

  20. Social bonds in the dispersing sex: partner preferences among adult female chimpanzees.

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    Foerster, Steffen; McLellan, Karen; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara; Murray, Carson M; Krupenye, Christopher; Gilby, Ian C; Pusey, Anne E

    2015-07-01

    In most primate societies, strong and enduring social bonds form preferentially among kin, who benefit from cooperation through direct and indirect fitness gains. Chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes , differ from most species by showing consistent female-biased dispersal and strict male philopatry. In most East African populations, females tend to forage alone in small core areas and were long thought to have weak social bonds of little biological significance. Recent work in some populations is challenging this view. However, challenges remain in quantifying the influence of shared space use on association patterns, and in identifying the drivers of partner preferences and social bonds. Here, we use the largest data set on wild chimpanzee behaviour currently available to assess potential determinants of female association patterns. We quantify pairwise similarities in ranging, dyadic association and grooming for 624 unique dyads over 38 years, including 17 adult female kin dyads. To search for social preferences that could not be explained by spatial overlap alone, we controlled for expected association based on pairwise kernel volume intersections of core areas. We found that association frequencies among females with above-average overlap correlated positively with grooming rates, suggesting that associations reflected social preferences in these dyads. Furthermore, when available, females preferred kin over nonkin partners for association and grooming, and variability was high among nonkin dyads. While variability in association above and below expected values was high, on average, nonkin associated more frequently if they had immature male offspring, while having female offspring had the opposite effect. Dominance rank, an important determinant of reproductive success at Gombe, influenced associations primarily for low-ranking females, who associated preferentially with each other. Our findings support the hypothesis that female chimpanzees form well

  1. Three counting methods agree on cell and neuron number in chimpanzee primary visual cortex

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    Daniel James Miller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Determining the cellular composition of specific brain regions is crucial to our understanding of the function of neurobiological systems. It is therefore useful to identify the extent to which different methods agree when estimating the same properties of brain circuitry. In this study, we estimated the number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the primary visual cortex (area 17 or V1 of both hemispheres from a single chimpanzee. Specifically, we processed samples distributed across V1 of the right hemisphere after cortex was flattened into a sheet using two variations of the isotropic fractionator cell and neuron counting method. We processed the left hemisphere as serial brain slices for stereological investigation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the agreement between these methods in the most direct manner possible by comparing estimates of cell density across one brain region of interest in a single individual. In our hands, these methods produced similar estimates of the total cellular population (approximately 1 billion as well as the number of neurons (approximately 675 million in chimpanzee V1, providing evidence that both techniques estimate the same parameters of interest. In addition, our results indicate the strengths of each distinct tissue preparation procedure, highlighting the importance of attention to anatomical detail. In summary, we found that the isotropic fractionator and the stereological optical fractionator produced concordant estimates of the cellular composition of V1, and that this result supports the conclusion that chimpanzees conform to the primate pattern of exceptionally high packing density in V1. Ultimately, our data suggest that investigators can optimize their experimental approach by using any of these counting methods to obtain reliable cell and neuron counts.

  2. Evidence for emulation in chimpanzees in social settings using the floating peanut task.

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    Claudio Tennie

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is still unclear which observational learning mechanisms underlie the transmission of difficult problem-solving skills in chimpanzees. In particular, two different mechanisms have been proposed: imitation and emulation. Previous studies have largely failed to control for social factors when these mechanisms were targeted. METHODS: In an attempt to resolve the existing discrepancies, we adopted the 'floating peanut task', in which subjects need to spit water into a tube until it is sufficiently full for floating peanuts to be grasped. In a previous study only a few chimpanzees were able to invent the necessary solution (and they either did so in their first trials or never. Here we compared success levels in baseline tests with two experimental conditions that followed: 1 A full model condition to test whether social demonstrations would be effective, and 2 A social emulation control condition, in which a human experimenter poured water from a bottle into the tube, to test whether results information alone (present in both experimental conditions would also induce successes. Crucially, we controlled for social factors in both experimental conditions. Both types of demonstrations significantly increased successful spitting, with no differences between demonstration types. We also found that younger subjects were more likely to succeed than older ones. Our analysis showed that mere order effects could not explain our results. CONCLUSION: The full demonstration condition (which potentially offers additional information to observers, in the form of actions, induced no more successes than the emulation condition. Hence, emulation learning could explain the success in both conditions. This finding has broad implications for the interpretation of chimpanzee traditions, for which emulation learning may perhaps suffice.

  3. Development of a cognitive bias methodology for measuring low mood in chimpanzees

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    Melissa Bateson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an ethical and scientific need for objective, well-validated measures of low mood in captive chimpanzees. We describe the development of a novel cognitive task designed to measure ‘pessimistic’ bias in judgments of expectation of reward, a cognitive marker of low mood previously validated in a wide range of species, and report training and test data from three common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes. The chimpanzees were trained on an arbitrary visual discrimination in which lifting a pale grey paper cone was associated with reinforcement with a peanut, whereas lifting a dark grey cone was associated with no reward. The discrimination was trained by sequentially presenting the two cone types until significant differences in latency to touch the cone types emerged, and was confirmed by simultaneously presenting both cone types in choice trials. Subjects were subsequently tested on their latency to touch unrewarded cones of three intermediate shades of grey not previously seen. Pessimism was indicated by the similarity between the latency to touch intermediate cones and the latency to touch the trained, unreinforced, dark grey cones. Three subjects completed training and testing, two adult males and one adult female. All subjects learnt the discrimination (107–240 trials, and retained it during five sessions of testing. There was no evidence that latencies to lift intermediate cones increased over testing, as would have occurred if subjects learnt that these were never rewarded, suggesting that the task could be used for repeated testing of individual animals. There was a significant difference between subjects in their relative latencies to touch intermediate cones (pessimism index that emerged following the second test session, and was not changed by the addition of further data. The most dominant male subject was least pessimistic, and the female most pessimistic. We argue that the task has the potential to be used to assess

  4. Immunodominant B-cell clones responsive to an HIV-1 neutralization and cell fusion inhibition epitope in chimpanzee-to-chimpanzee passages of HTLV-IIIB and LAV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Bakker, M.; Smit, L.

    1989-01-01

    Chimpanzees infected with the HIV-1 strains HTLV-IIIB or LAV-1 in primary, secondary or tertiary passages developed neutralizing antibodies binding to variable domain V3 in the carboxyl terminal half of the external envelope (amino acids 309-317). Nonapeptide antigens reflecting either the

  5. Thermal Non-equilibrium Consistent with Widespread Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winebarger, A.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Linker, J.; Mok, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Time correlation analysis has been used to show widespread cooling in the solar corona; this cooling has been interpreted as a result of impulsive (nanoflare) heating. In this work, we investigate wide-spread cooling using a 3D model for a solar active region which has been heated with highly stratified heating. This type of heating drives thermal non-equilibrium solutions, meaning that though the heating is effectively steady, the density and temperature in the solution are not. We simulate the expected observations in narrowband EUV images and apply the time correlation analysis. We find that the results of this analysis are qualitatively similar to the observed data. We discuss additional diagnostics that may be applied to differentiate between these two heating scenarios.

  6. Assessment of gastrointestinal parasites in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drakulovski, Pascal; Bertout, Sébastien; Locatelli, Sabrina; Butel, Christelle; Pion, Sébastien; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Mallié, Michèle

    2014-07-01

    We tested 114 faecal samples from wild simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-positive (n = 43) and SIV-negative (n = 71) chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) in southeast Cameroon for the presence of gastrointestinal parasites by direct smear. We observed cysts from different protozoa (Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba histolytica / Entamoeba dispar, Endolimax nana, Iodamoeba butschlii, Chilomastix mesnili, Balantidium coli and Blastocystis cells) and trophozoites from Troglodytella abrassarti and Balantidium coli. Eggs from different helminths (strongylids, Ascaris lumbricoides, Abbreviata caucasica, Trichuris sp., Capillaria sp., Enterobius anthropopeci, Bertiella sp., Hymenolepis diminuta and an undetermined fluke) were also observed. Finally, we observed eggs that could not be properly identified and classified. We did not observe any differences between the SIV+ and SIV- samples except for the unidentified eggs. The studied chimpanzees were highly parasitised by strongylid (85.1% of prevalence), Troglodytella (43.8%) and Blastocystis (2.9%), and the frequency of the other parasites ranged from 0.9 to 8.8%. These high levels of parasite infections could represent an additional burden in a population where there is a high rate of the SIV virus in circulation.

  7. Nucleotide sequences of immunoglobulin eta genes of chimpanzee and orangutan: DNA molecular clock and hominoid evolution

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    Sakoyama, Y.; Hong, K.J.; Byun, S.M.; Hisajima, H.; Ueda, S.; Yaoita, Y.; Hayashida, H.; Miyata, T.; Honjo, T.

    1987-02-01

    To determine the phylogenetic relationships among hominoids and the dates of their divergence, the complete nucleotide sequences of the constant region of the immunoglobulin eta-chain (C/sub eta1/) genes from chimpanzee and orangutan have been determined. These sequences were compared with the human eta-chain constant-region sequence. A molecular clock (silent molecular clock), measured by the degree of sequence divergence at the synonymous (silent) positions of protein-encoding regions, was introduced for the present study. From the comparison of nucleotide sequences of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin and ..beta..- and delta-globulin genes between humans and Old World monkeys, the silent molecular clock was calibrated: the mean evolutionary rate of silent substitution was determined to be 1.56 x 10/sup -9/ substitutions per site per year. Using the silent molecular clock, the mean divergence dates of chimpanzee and orangutan from the human lineage were estimated as 6.4 +/- 2.6 million years and 17.3 +/- 4.5 million years, respectively. It was also shown that the evolutionary rate of primate genes is considerably slower than those of other mammalian genes.

  8. A scan for positively selected genes in the genomes of humans and chimpanzees.

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    Rasmus Nielsen

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the divergence of humans and chimpanzees about 5 million years ago, these species have undergone a remarkable evolution with drastic divergence in anatomy and cognitive abilities. At the molecular level, despite the small overall magnitude of DNA sequence divergence, we might expect such evolutionary changes to leave a noticeable signature throughout the genome. We here compare 13,731 annotated genes from humans to their chimpanzee orthologs to identify genes that show evidence of positive selection. Many of the genes that present a signature of positive selection tend to be involved in sensory perception or immune defenses. However, the group of genes that show the strongest evidence for positive selection also includes a surprising number of genes involved in tumor suppression and apoptosis, and of genes involved in spermatogenesis. We hypothesize that positive selection in some of these genes may be driven by genomic conflict due to apoptosis during spermatogenesis. Genes with maximal expression in the brain show little or no evidence for positive selection, while genes with maximal expression in the testis tend to be enriched with positively selected genes. Genes on the X chromosome also tend to show an elevated tendency for positive selection. We also present polymorphism data from 20 Caucasian Americans and 19 African Americans for the 50 annotated genes showing the strongest evidence for positive selection. The polymorphism analysis further supports the presence of positive selection in these genes by showing an excess of high-frequency derived nonsynonymous mutations.

  9. The association between imitation recognition and socio-communicative competencies in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sarah M; Russell, Jamie L; Hopkins, William D

    2015-01-01

    Imitation recognition provides a viable platform from which advanced social cognitive skills may develop. Despite evidence that non-human primates are capable of imitation recognition, how this ability is related to social cognitive skills is unknown. In this study, we compared imitation recognition performance, as indicated by the production of testing behaviors, with performance on a series of tasks that assess social and physical cognition in 49 chimpanzees. In the initial analyses, we found that males were more responsive than females to being imitated and engaged in significantly greater behavior repetitions and testing sequences. We also found that subjects who consistently recognized being imitated performed better on social but not physical cognitive tasks, as measured by the Primate Cognitive Test Battery. These findings suggest that the neural constructs underlying imitation recognition are likely associated with or among those underlying more general socio-communicative abilities in chimpanzees. Implications regarding how imitation recognition may facilitate other social cognitive processes, such as mirror self-recognition, are discussed.

  10. Changes in Frontoparietotemporal Connectivity following Do-As-I-Do Imitation Training in Chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Sarah M; Taglialatela, Jared P; Skiba, Sara A; Hopkins, William D

    2018-03-01

    Human imitation is supported by an underlying "mirror system" principally composed of inferior frontal, inferior parietal, and superior temporal cortical regions. Across primate species, differences in frontoparietotemporal connectivity have been hypothesized to explain phylogenetic variation in imitative abilities. However, if and to what extent these regions are involved in imitation in nonhuman primates is unknown. We hypothesized that "Do As I Do" (DAID) imitation training would enhance white matter integrity within and between frontoparietotemporal regions. To this end, four captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) were trained to reproduce 23 demonstrated actions, and four age-/sex-matched controls were trained to produce basic husbandry behaviors in response to manual cues. Diffusion tensor images were acquired before and after 600 min of training over an average of 112 days. Bilateral and asymmetrical changes in frontoparietotemporal white matter integrity were compared between DAID trained subjects and controls. We found that imitation trained subjects exhibited leftward shifts in both mean fractional anisotropy and tract strength asymmetry measures in brain regions within the mirror system. This is the first report of training-induced changes in white matter integrity in chimpanzees and suggests that frontoparietotemporal connectivity, particularly in the left hemisphere, may have facilitated the emergence of increasingly complex imitation learning abilities.

  11. Impartial third-party interventions in captive chimpanzees: a reflection of community concern.

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    Claudia Rudolf von Rohr

    Full Text Available Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., impartial interventions by bystanders, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon "community concern." However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.

  12. Impartial third-party interventions in captive chimpanzees: a reflection of community concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Rohr, Claudia Rudolf; Koski, Sonja E; Burkart, Judith M; Caws, Clare; Fraser, Orlaith N; Ziltener, Angela; van Schaik, Carel P

    2012-01-01

    Because conflicts among social group members are inevitable, their management is crucial for group stability. The rarest and most interesting form of conflict management is policing, i.e., impartial interventions by bystanders, which is of considerable interest due to its potentially moral nature. Here, we provide descriptive and quantitative data on policing in captive chimpanzees. First, we report on a high rate of policing in one captive group characterized by recently introduced females and a rank reversal between two males. We explored the influence of various factors on the occurrence of policing. The results show that only the alpha and beta males acted as arbitrators using manifold tactics to control conflicts, and that their interventions strongly depended on conflict complexity. Secondly, we compared the policing patterns in three other captive chimpanzee groups. We found that although rare, policing was more prevalent at times of increased social instability, both high-ranking males and females performed policing, and conflicts of all sex-dyad combinations were policed. These results suggest that the primary function of policing is to increase group stability. It may thus reflect prosocial behaviour based upon "community concern." However, policing remains a rare behaviour and more data are needed to test the generality of this hypothesis.

  13. Food sharing is linked to urinary oxytocin levels and bonding in related and unrelated wild chimpanzees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittig, Roman M.; Crockford, Catherine; Deschner, Tobias; Langergraber, Kevin E.; Ziegler, Toni E.; Zuberbühler, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Humans excel in cooperative exchanges between unrelated individuals. Although this trait is fundamental to the success of our species, its evolution and mechanisms are poorly understood. Other social mammals also build long-term cooperative relationships between non-kin, and recent evidence shows that oxytocin, a hormone involved in parent–offspring bonding, is likely to facilitate non-kin as well as kin bonds. In a population of wild chimpanzees, we measured urinary oxytocin levels following a rare cooperative event—food sharing. Subjects showed higher urinary oxytocin levels after single food-sharing events compared with other types of social feeding, irrespective of previous social bond levels. Also, urinary oxytocin levels following food sharing were higher than following grooming, another cooperative behaviour. Therefore, food sharing in chimpanzees may play a key role in social bonding under the influence of oxytocin. We propose that food-sharing events co-opt neurobiological mechanisms evolved to support mother–infant bonding during lactation bouts, and may act as facilitators of bonding and cooperation between unrelated individuals via the oxytocinergic system across social mammals. PMID:24430853

  14. Social and nonsocial category discriminations in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and American black bears (Ursus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Jennifer; Johnson-Ulrich, Zoe

    2014-09-01

    One captive adult chimpanzee and 3 adult American black bears were presented with a series of natural category discrimination tasks on a touch-screen computer. This is the first explicit comparison of bear and primate abilities using identical tasks, and the first test of a social concept in a carnivore. The discriminations involved a social relationship category (mother/offspring) and a nonsocial category involving food items. The social category discrimination could be made using knowledge of the overarching mother/offspring concept, whereas the nonsocial category discriminations could be made only by using perceptual rules, such as "choose images that show larger and smaller items of the same type." The bears failed to show above-chance transfer on either the social or nonsocial discriminations, indicating that they did not use either the perceptual rule or knowledge of the overarching concept of mother/offspring to guide their choices in these tasks. However, at least 1 bear remembered previously reinforced stimuli when these stimuli were recombined, later. The chimpanzee showed transfer on a control task and did not consistently apply a perceptual rule to solve the nonsocial task, so it is possible that he eventually acquired the social concept. Further comparisons between species on identical tasks assessing social knowledge will help illuminate the selective pressures responsible for a range of social cognitive skills.

  15. Genomic rearrangements by LINE-1 insertion-mediated deletion in the human and chimpanzee lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyudong; Sen, Shurjo K; Wang, Jianxin; Callinan, Pauline A; Lee, Jungnam; Cordaux, Richard; Liang, Ping; Batzer, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    Long INterspersed Elements (LINE-1s or L1s) are abundant non-LTR retrotransposons in mammalian genomes that are capable of insertional mutagenesis. They have been associated with target site deletions upon insertion in cell culture studies of retrotransposition. Here, we report 50 deletion events in the human and chimpanzee genomes directly linked to the insertion of L1 elements, resulting in the loss of approximately 18 kb of sequence from the human genome and approximately 15 kb from the chimpanzee genome. Our data suggest that during the primate radiation, L1 insertions may have deleted up to 7.5 Mb of target genomic sequences. While the results of our in vivo analysis differ from those of previous cell culture assays of L1 insertion-mediated deletions in terms of the size and rate of sequence deletion, evolutionary factors can reconcile the differences. We report a pattern of genomic deletion sizes similar to those created during the retrotransposition of Alu elements. Our study provides support for the existence of different mechanisms for small and large L1-mediated deletions, and we present a model for the correlation of L1 element size and the corresponding deletion size. In addition, we show that internal rearrangements can modify L1 structure during retrotransposition events associated with large deletions.

  16. Subtle behavioral variation in wild chimpanzees, with special reference to Imanishi's concept of kaluchua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Michio; Nishida, Toshisada

    2006-01-01

    Here we consider the concept of kaluchua (a word adopted from the English "culture") in group-living animals developed by Imanishi in the 1950s. He distinguished it from bunka (the Japanese equivalent to the English "culture") because he thought that bunka had strong connotations of noble and intellectual human-like activities. Although he did not rigidly define kaluchua, his original concept of kaluchua was much broader than bunka and represented non-hereditary, acquired behavior that was acknowledged socially. However, instead of social life, complex feeding skills have often formed the central topic in the current studies of animal culture. In order to provide evidence that more subtle behavioral variations exist among wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) populations, we directly compared the behaviors of two well-habituated chimpanzee groups, at Bossou and Mahale. During a 2-month stay at Bossou, M.N. (the first author) saw several behavioral patterns that were absent or rare at Mahale. Two of them, "mutual genital touch" and "heel tap" were probably customary for mature females and for mature males, respectively. "Index to palm" and "sputter" are still open to question. These subtle patterns occurred more often than tool use during the study period, suggesting that rarity is not the main reason for their being ignored. Unlike tool use, some cultural behavioral patterns do not seem to require complex skills or intellectual processes, and sometimes it is hard to explain the existence of such behaviors only in terms of function.

  17. The Conditions Favoring Between-Community Raiding in Chimpanzees, Bonobos, and Human Foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Sagar A; Pradhan, Gauri R; Balashov, Hennadii; Van Schaik, Carel P

    2016-06-01

    Chimpanzees, bonobos, and human foragers share a fission-fusion social system and a mating system of joint male resource defense polygyny. Within-community skew in male strength varies among and within species. In this study, we extend a mathematical model of within-group male coalition formation among primates to derive the conditions for between-community conflicts in the form of raids. We show that the main factor affecting the presence of successful raiding is the likelihood of major discrepancies in party strength, which are set by party size distributions (and thus community size) and the skew in strength. This study confirms the functional similarities between the raiding of chimpanzees and human foragers, and it supports the "imbalance of power" hypothesis for raiding. However, it also proposes two amendments to this model. First, the absence of raiding in bonobos may be attributable more to potential female involvement in defense against raids, which increases the size of defensive coalitions. Second, the model attributes some of the raiding in humans to major contrasts in instantaneous fighting ability created by surprise raids on unarmed victims; it also draws attention to the distinction between minor raids and major raids that involve multiple bands of the same community.

  18. Bystanders intervene to impede grooming in Western chimpanzees and sooty mangabeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuni, Liran; Preis, Anna; Wittig, Roman M.

    2017-01-01

    Grooming interactions benefit groomers, but may have negative consequences for bystanders. Grooming limits bystanders' grooming access and ensuing alliances could threaten the bystander's hierarchy rank or their previous investment in the groomers. To gain a competitive advantage, bystanders could intervene into a grooming bout to increase their own grooming access or to prevent the negative impact of others' grooming. We tested the impact of dominance rank and social relationships on grooming intervention likelihood and outcome in two sympatric primate species, Western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) and sooty mangabeys (Cercocebus atys atys). In both species, rather than increasing their own access to preferred partners, bystanders intervened mainly when an alliance between groomers could have a negative impact on them: when the lower-ranking groomer was close to the bystander in rank, when either groomer was an affiliation partner whose services they could lose, or the groomers were not yet strongly affiliated with each other. Thus, bystanders in both species appear to monitor grooming interactions and intervene based on their own dominance rank and social relationships, as well as triadic awareness of the relationship between groomers. While the motivation to intervene did not differ between species, mangabeys appeared to be more constrained by dominance rank than chimpanzees. PMID:29291114

  19. Grooming network cohesion and the role of individuals in a captive chimpanzee group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanngiesser, Patricia; Sueur, Cédric; Riedl, Katrin; Grossmann, Johannes; Call, Josep

    2011-08-01

    Social network analysis offers new tools to study the social structure of primate groups. We used social network analysis to investigate the cohesiveness of a grooming network in a captive chimpanzee group (N = 17) and the role that individuals may play in it. Using data from a year-long observation, we constructed an unweighted social network of preferred grooming interactions by retaining only those dyads that groomed above the group mean. This choice of criterion was validated by the finding that the properties of the unweighted network correlated with the properties of a weighted network (i.e. a network representing the frequency of grooming interactions) constructed from the same data. To investigate group cohesion, we tested the resilience of the unweighted grooming network to the removal of central individuals (i.e. individuals with high betweenness centrality). The network fragmented more after the removal of individuals with high betweenness centrality than after the removal of random individuals. Central individuals played a pivotal role in maintaining the network's cohesiveness, and we suggest that this may be a typical property of affiliative networks like grooming networks. We found that the grooming network correlated with kinship and age, and that individuals with higher social status occupied more central positions in the network. Overall, the grooming network showed a heterogeneous structure, yet did not exhibit scale-free properties similar to many other primate networks. We discuss our results in light of recent findings on animal social networks and chimpanzee grooming. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Diversity of two widespread Indo-Pacific demosponge species revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Erpenbeck, D.; Aryasari, R.; Benning, S.; Debitus, Cécile; Kaltenbacher, E.; Al-Aidaroos, A. M.; Schupp, P.; Hall, K.; Hooper, J. N. A.; Voigt, O.; de Voogd, N. J.; Worheide, G.

    2017-01-01

    The Indo-Pacific is the world's largest marine biogeographic region, covering the tropical and subtropical waters from the Red Sea in the Western Indian Ocean to the Easter Islands in the Pacific. It is characterized by a vast degree of biogeographic connectivity in particular in its marine realm. So far, usage of molecular tools rejected the presence of cosmopolitan or very widespread sponge species in several cases, supporting hypotheses on a higher level of endemism among marine invertebra...

  1. Widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijks, JM; Kik, ML; Slaterus, R; Foppen, RPB; Stroo, A; IJzer, J; Stahl, J; Gröne, A; Koopmans, MGP; van der Jeugd, HP; Reusken, CBEM

    2016-01-01

    We report a widespread Usutu virus outbreak in birds in the Netherlands. Viral presence had been detected through targeted surveillance as early as April 2016 and increased mortality in common blackbirds and captive great grey owls was noticed from August 2016 onwards. Usutu virus infection was confirmed by post-mortem examination and RT-PCR. Extensive Usutu virus activity in the Netherlands in 2016 underlines the need to monitor mosquito activity and mosquito-borne infections in 2017 and beyond. PMID:27918257

  2. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain hypersensitivity as sign of central sensitization in patients with cluster headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Cuadrado, María L; López-de-Silanes, Carlos; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-03-01

    To investigate bilateral widespread pressure pain hyperalgesia in deep tissues over symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with cluster headache (CH). Central sensitization is claimed to play a relevant role in CH. No study has previously searched for widespread pressure hyperalgesia in deep tissues over both symptomatic (trigemino-cervical) and nonsymptomatic (distant pain-free) regions in patients with CH. Sixteen men (mean age: 43 ± 11 years) with CH in a remission phase and 16 matched controls were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were bilaterally measured over the supra-orbital (V1), infra-orbital (V2), mental (V3), median (C5), radial (C6), and ulnar (C7) nerves, C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, mastoid process, and tibialis anterior muscle by an assessor blinded to the subjects' condition. The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally in patients with CH as compared with healthy controls (all sites, P < .001). A greater degree of sensitization over the mastoid process (P < .001) and a lower degree of sensitization over the tibialis anterior muscle (P < .01) was found. Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure pain hypersensitivity in patients with CH confirming the presence of central sensitization mechanisms in this headache condition. © 2010 American Headache Society.

  3. Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: evidence of central processing in unilateral neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; de la Llave-Rincón, Ana Isabel; Fernández-Carnero, Josué; Cuadrado, María Luz; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Pareja, Juan A

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity exists in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. A total of 20 females with carpal tunnel syndrome (aged 22-60 years), and 20 healthy matched females (aged 21-60 years old) were recruited. Pressure pain thresholds were assessed bilaterally over median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, the carpal tunnel and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. The results showed that pressure pain threshold levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the median, ulnar, and radial nerve trunks, the carpal tunnel, the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, and the tibialis anterior muscle in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome as compared to healthy controls (all, P < 0.001). Pressure pain threshold was negatively correlated to both hand pain intensity and duration of symptoms (all, P < 0.001). Our findings revealed bilateral widespread pressure hypersensitivity in subjects with carpal tunnel syndrome, which suggest that widespread central sensitization is involved in patients with unilateral carpal tunnel syndrome. The generalized decrease in pressure pain thresholds associated with pain intensity and duration of symptoms supports a role of the peripheral drive to initiate and maintain central sensitization. Nevertheless, both central and peripheral sensitization mechanisms are probably involved at the same time in carpal tunnel syndrome.

  4. Characteristics of primary infection of a European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 clade B isolate in chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogers, W. M.; Koornstra, W. H.; Dubbes, R. H.; ten Haaft, P. J.; Verstrepen, B. E.; Jhagjhoorsingh, S. S.; Haaksma, A. G.; Niphuis, H.; Laman, J. D.; Norley, S.; Schuitemaker, H.; Goudsmit, J.; Hunsmann, G.; Heeney, J. L.; Wigzell, H.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to select, from a panel of candidate European human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) clade B primary virus isolates, one isolate based on replication properties in chimpanzee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Secondly, to evaluate the in vivo kinetics of

  5. New type of Sendai virus vector provides transgene-free iPS cells derived from chimpanzee blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumitsu Fujie

    Full Text Available Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs are potentially valuable cell sources for disease models and future therapeutic applications; however, inefficient generation and the presence of integrated transgenes remain as problems limiting their current use. Here, we developed a new Sendai virus vector, TS12KOS, which has improved efficiency, does not integrate into the cellular DNA, and can be easily eliminated. TS12KOS carries KLF4, OCT3/4, and SOX2 in a single vector and can easily generate iPSCs from human blood cells. Using TS12KOS, we established iPSC lines from chimpanzee blood, and used DNA array analysis to show that the global gene-expression pattern of chimpanzee iPSCs is similar to those of human embryonic stem cell and iPSC lines. These results demonstrated that our new vector is useful for generating iPSCs from the blood cells of both human and chimpanzee. In addition, the chimpanzee iPSCs are expected to facilitate unique studies into human physiology and disease.

  6. Problem Solving in the Presence of Others: How Rank and Relationship Quality Impact Resource Acquisition in Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Katherine A.; Pieper, Bridget A.; van Leeuwen, Edwin J. C.; Mundry, Roger; Haun, Daniel B. M.

    2014-01-01

    In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive) sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors. PMID:24695486

  7. Evaluating the relationship between spermatogenic silencing of the X chromosome and evolution of the Y chromosome in chimpanzee and human

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Mulugeta (Eskeatnaf); W.M. Baarends (Willy); J.H. Gribnau (Joost); J.A. Grootegoed (Anton)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChimpanzees and humans are genetically very similar, with the striking exception of their Y chromosomes, which have diverged tremendously. The male-specific region (MSY), representing the greater part of the Y chromosome, is inherited from father to son in a clonal fashion, with natural

  8. Unidirectional adaptation in tempo in pairs of chimpanzees during simultaneous tapping movement: an examination under face-to-face setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lira; Tomonaga, Masaki

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have reported a spontaneous nature to synchronized movement in humans and in non-human primates. However, it is not yet clear whether individuals mutually adapt their movement to each other or whether one individual significantly changes to synchronize with the other. In the current study, we examined a directionality of the tempo adaptation to understand an introductive process of interactional synchrony in pairs of chimpanzees. Four pairs, consisting of five female chimpanzees, produced a finger-tapping movement under a face-to-face experimental setup where both auditory and visual cues of the partner's movement were available. Two test conditions were prepared: alone and paired. An analysis of the tapping tempo depending on condition showed that only one chimpanzee in each pair significantly changed their tapping tempo in the direction of the partner's tapping tempo in the paired condition compared with the alone condition. The current study demonstrated that unidirectional adaptation in tempo occurs in pairs of chimpanzees when they simultaneously produce the tapping movement under auditory and visual interaction.

  9. Temporal development of cross-neutralization between HTLV-III B and HTLV-III RF in experimentally infected chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudsmit, J.; Thiriart, C.; Smit, L.; Bruck, C.; Gibbs, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Sera from chimpanzees inoculated respectively with HTLV-III B, LAV, HTLV-III RF and brain tissue from an AIDS patient were analysed for neutralizing activity by two methods: a cell fusion inhibition test (CFI) using HTLV-III B infected cells as inoculum and CD4+ cells as target and a replication

  10. Can Chimpanzee Infants ("Pan Troglodytes") Form Categorical Representations in the Same Manner as Human Infants ("Homo Sapiens")?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Chizuko; Kosugi, Daisuke; Tomonaga, Masaki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro; Itakura, Shoji

    2005-01-01

    We directly compared chimpanzee infants and human infants for categorical representations of three global-like categories (mammals, furniture and vehicles), using the familiarization-novelty preference technique. Neither species received any training during the experiments. We used the time that participants spent looking at the stimulus object…

  11. Effects of two types and two genre of music on social behavior in captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videan, Elaine N; Fritz, Jo; Howell, Sue; Murphy, James

    2007-01-01

    Is music just noise, and thus potentially harmful to laboratory animals, or can it have a beneficial effect? Research addressing this question has generated mixed results, perhaps because of the different types and styles of music used across various studies. The purpose of this study was to test the effects of 2 different types (vocal versus instrumental) and 2 genres (classical vocal versus 'easy-listening' vocal) of music on social behavior in 31 female and 26 male chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Results indicated that instrumental music was more effective at increasing affiliative behavior in both male and female chimpanzees, whereas vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior. A comparison of 2 genre of vocal music indicated that easy-listening (slower tempo) vocal music was more effective at decreasing agonistic behavior in male chimpanzees than classical (faster tempo) vocal music. Agonistic behavior in females remained low (music. These results indicate that, like humans, captive chimpanzees react differently to various types and genres of music. The reactions varied depending on both the sex of the subject and the type of social behavior examined. Management programs should consider both type and genre when implementing a musical enrichment program for nonhuman primates.

  12. Foundations of cumulative culture in apes: improved foraging efficiency through relinquishing and combining witnessed behaviours in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sarah J; Vale, Gillian L; Schapiro, Steven J; Lambeth, Susan P; Whiten, Andrew

    2016-10-24

    A vital prerequisite for cumulative culture, a phenomenon often asserted to be unique to humans, is the ability to modify behaviour and flexibly switch to more productive or efficient alternatives. Here, we first established an inefficient solution to a foraging task in five captive chimpanzee groups (N = 19). Three groups subsequently witnessed a conspecific using an alternative, more efficient, solution. When participants could successfully forage with their established behaviours, most individuals did not switch to this more efficient technique; however, when their foraging method became substantially less efficient, nine chimpanzees with socially-acquired information (four of whom witnessed additional human demonstrations) relinquished their old behaviour in favour of the more efficient one. Only a single chimpanzee in control groups, who had not witnessed a knowledgeable model, discovered this. Individuals who switched were later able to combine components of their two learned techniques to produce a more efficient solution than their extensively used, original foraging method. These results suggest that, although chimpanzees show a considerable degree of conservatism, they also have an ability to combine independent behaviours to produce efficient compound action sequences; one of the foundational abilities (or candidate mechanisms) for human cumulative culture.

  13. No impact of strongylid infections on the detection of Plasmodium spp. in faeces of western lowland gorillas and eastern chimpanzees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mapua, M. I.; Pafčo, B.; Burgunder, J.; Profousová-Pšenková, I.; Todd, A.; Hashimoto, C.; Qablan, M. A.; Modrý, David; Petrželková, Klára Judita

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 16, APR 26 (2017), č. článku 175. ISSN 1475-2875 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : co-infection * faeces * Strongylid * Necator spp. * Plasmodium spp. * malaria * Western lowland gorilla * Eastern chimpanzee Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine OBOR OECD: Veterinary science Impact factor: 2.715, year: 2016

  14. Validation of Flotac for the detection and quantification of Troglodytella abrassarti and Neobalantidium coli in chimpanzees and pigs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžicová, M.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Kalousová, B.; Modrý, D.; Pomajbíková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 100, č. 5 (2014), s. 662-670 ISSN 0022-3395 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/09/0927 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ciliates * chimpanzees * pigs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.227, year: 2014

  15. Problem solving in the presence of others: how rank and relationship quality impact resource acquisition in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A Cronin

    Full Text Available In the wild, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes are often faced with clumped food resources that they may know how to access but abstain from doing so due to social pressures. To better understand how social settings influence resource acquisition, we tested fifteen semi-wild chimpanzees from two social groups alone and in the presence of others. We investigated how resource acquisition was affected by relative social dominance, whether collaborative problem solving or (active or passive sharing occurred amongst any of the dyads, and whether these outcomes were related to relationship quality as determined from six months of observational data. Results indicated that chimpanzees obtained fewer rewards when tested in the presence of others compared to when they were tested alone, and this loss tended to be greater when paired with a higher ranked individual. Individuals demonstrated behavioral inhibition; chimpanzees who showed proficient skill when alone often abstained from solving the task when in the presence of others. Finally, individuals with close social relationships spent more time together in the problem solving space, but collaboration and sharing were infrequent and sessions in which collaboration or sharing did occur contained more instances of aggression. Group living provides benefits and imposes costs, and these findings highlight that one cost of group living may be diminishing productive individual behaviors.

  16. 78 FR 39741 - Announcement of Agency Decision: Recommendations on the Use of Chimpanzees in NIH-Supported Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ..., chimpanzees have served an important role in advancing human health. However, new methods and technologies... behaviorists or veterinarians familiar with the animals. These commenters agreed on the importance of achieving... compliance-monitoring methods. We discuss the NIH's role in enforcing the accepted recommendations in the...

  17. Novel Single-Stranded DNA Virus Genomes Recovered from Chimpanzee Feces Sampled from the Mambilla Plateau in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Matthew; Bawuro, Musa; Christopher, Alfred; Knight, Alexander; Kraberger, Simona; Stainton, Daisy; Chapman, Hazel

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Metagenomic approaches are rapidly expanding our knowledge of the diversity of viruses. In the fecal matter of Nigerian chimpanzees we recovered three gokushovirus genomes, one circular replication-associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA virus (CRESS), and a CRESS DNA molecule. PMID:28254982

  18. Testing the social dog hypothesis: are dogs also more skilled than chimpanzees in non-communicative social tasks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wobber, Victoria; Hare, Brian

    2009-07-01

    Relative to non-human primates, domestic dogs possess a number of social skills that seem exceptional-particularly in solving problems involving cooperation and communication with humans. However, the degree to which dogs' unusual skills are contextually specialized is still unclear. Here, we presented dogs with a social problem that did not require them to use cooperative-communicative cues and compared their performance to that of chimpanzees to assess the extent of dogs' capabilities relative to those of non-human primates. We tested the abilities of dogs and chimpanzees to inhibit previously learned responses by using a social and a non-social version of a reversal learning task. In contrast to previous findings in cooperative-communicative social tasks, dogs were not more skilled on the social task than the non-social task, while chimpanzees were significantly better in the social paradigm. Chimpanzees were able to inhibit their prior learning better and more quickly in the social paradigm than they were in the non-social paradigm, while dogs took more time to inhibit what they had learned in both versions of the task. These results suggest that the dogs' sophisticated social skills in using human social cues may be relatively specialized as a result of domestication.

  19. Tradition over trend: Neighboring chimpanzee communities maintain differences in cultural behavior despite frequent immigration of adult females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luncz, Lydia V; Boesch, Christophe

    2014-07-01

    The notion of animal culture has been well established mainly through research aiming at uncovering differences between populations. In chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus), cultural diversity has even been found in neighboring communities, where differences were observed despite frequent immigration of individuals. Female chimpanzees transfer at the onset of sexual maturity at an age, when the behavioral repertoire is fully formed. With immigrating females, behavioral variety enters the group. Little is known about the diversity and the longevity of cultural traits within a community. This study is building on previous fin