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Sample records for reveals significant microsynteny

  1. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

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    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  2. Comparative sequence and genetic analyses of asparagus BACs reveal no microsynteny with onion or rice.

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    Jakse, Jernej; Telgmann, Alexa; Jung, Christian; Khar, Anil; Melgar, Sergio; Cheung, Foo; Town, Christopher D; Havey, Michael J

    2006-12-01

    The Poales (includes the grasses) and Asparagales [includes onion (Allium cepa L.) and asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.)] are the two most economically important monocot orders. The Poales are a member of the commelinoid monocots, a group of orders sister to the Asparagales. Comparative genomic analyses have revealed a high degree of synteny among the grasses; however, it is not known if this synteny extends to other major monocot groups such as the Asparagales. Although we previously reported no evidence for synteny at the recombinational level between onion and rice, microsynteny may exist across shorter genomic regions in the grasses and Asparagales. We sequenced nine asparagus BACs to reveal physically linked genic-like sequences and determined their most similar positions in the onion and rice genomes. Four of the asparagus BACs were selected using molecular markers tightly linked to the sex-determining M locus on chromosome 5 of asparagus. These BACs possessed only two putative coding regions and had long tracts of degenerated retroviral elements and transposons. Five asparagus BACs were selected after hybridization of three onion cDNAs that mapped to three different onion chromosomes. Genic-like sequences that were physically linked on the cDNA-selected BACs or genetically linked on the M-linked BACs showed significant similarities (e < -20) to expressed sequences on different rice chromosomes, revealing no evidence for microsynteny between asparagus and rice across these regions. Genic-like sequences that were linked in asparagus were used to identify highly similar (e < -20) expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of onion. These onion ESTs mapped to different onion chromosomes and no relationship was observed between physical or genetic linkages in asparagus and genetic linkages in onion. These results further indicate that synteny among grass genomes does not extend to a sister order in the monocots and that asparagus may not be an appropriate smaller genome

  3. Significant Microsynteny with New Evolutionary Highlights Is Detected through Comparative Genomic Sequence Analysis of Maize CCCH IX Gene Subfamily

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    Wei-Jun Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CCCH zinc finger proteins, which are characterized by the presence of three cysteine residues and one histidine residue, play important roles in RNA processing in plants. Subfamily IX CCCH proteins were recently shown to function in stress tolerances. In this study, we analyzed CCCH IX genes in Zea mays, Oryza sativa, and Sorghum bicolor. These genes, which are almost intronless, were divided into four groups based on phylogenetic analysis. Microsynteny analysis revealed microsynteny in regions of some gene pairs, indicating that segmental duplication has played an important role in the expansion of this gene family. In addition, we calculated the dates of duplication by Ks analysis, finding that all microsynteny blocks were formed after the monocot-eudicot divergence. We found that deletions, multiplications, and inversions were shown to have occurred over the course of evolution. Moreover, the Ka/Ks ratios indicated that the genes in these three grass species are under strong purifying selection. Finally, we investigated the evolutionary patterns of some gene pairs conferring tolerance to abiotic stress, laying the foundation for future functional studies of these transcription factors.

  4. Genomewide analysis of MATE-type gene family in maize reveals microsynteny and their expression patterns under aluminum treatment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HUASHENG ZHU; JIANDONG WU; YINGLI JIANG; JING JIN; WEI ZHOU; YU WANG; GUOMIN HAN; YANG ZHAO; BEIJIU CHENG

    2016-09-01

    Multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) proteins are a group of secondary active transporters, which widely exist in all living organisms and play important role in the detoxication of endogenous secondary metabolites and exogenous agents. However, to date, no systematic and comprehensive study of this family is reported in maize. Here, a total of 49 MATE genes (ZmMATE) were identified and divided into seven groups by phylogenetic analysis. Conserved intro–exon structures and motif compositions were investigated in these genes. Results by gene locations indicated that these genes were unevenly distributed among all 10 chromosomes. Tandem and segmental duplications appeared to contribute to the expansion and evolution of this gene family. The Ka / Ks ratios suggested that the ZmMATE has undergone large-scale purifying selection on the maize genome. Interspecies microsynteny analysis revealed that there were independent gene duplication events of 10 ZmMATE. In addition, most maize MATE genes exhibited different expression profiles in diverse tissues and developmental stages. Sixteen MATE genes were chosen for further quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis showed differential expression patterns in response to aluminum treatment. These results provide a useful clue for future studies on the identification of MATE genes and functional analysis of MATE proteins in maize

  5. Correlation of microsynteny conservation and disease gene distribution in mammalian genomes

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    Li Xiting

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the completion of the whole genome sequence for many organisms, investigations into genomic structure have revealed that gene distribution is variable, and that genes with similar function or expression are located within clusters. This clustering suggests that there are evolutionary constraints that determine genome architecture. However, as most of the evidence for constraints on genome evolution comes from studies on yeast, it is unclear how much of this prior work can be extrapolated to mammalian genomes. Therefore, in this work we wished to examine the constraints on regions of the mammalian genome containing conserved gene clusters. Results We first identified regions of the mouse genome with microsynteny conservation by comparing gene arrangement in the mouse genome to the human, rat, and dog genomes. We then asked if any particular gene types were found preferentially in conserved regions. We found a significant correlation between conserved microsynteny and the density of mouse orthologs of human disease genes, suggesting that disease genes are clustered in genomic regions of increased microsynteny conservation. Conclusion The correlation between microsynteny conservation and disease gene locations indicates that regions of the mouse genome with microsynteny conservation may contain undiscovered human disease genes. This study not only demonstrates that gene function constrains mammalian genome organization, but also identifies regions of the mouse genome that can be experimentally examined to produce mouse models of human disease.

  6. A Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei BAC library - contig building and microsynteny studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.; Wu, B.; Giese, H.

    2002-01-01

    A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library of Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, containing 12,000 clones with an average insert size of 41 kb, was constructed. The library represents about three genome equivalents and BAC-end sequencing showed a high content of repetitive sequences, making...... contigs, at or close to avirulence loci, were constructed. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed from BAC-end sequences to link the contigs to the genetic maps. Two other BAC contigs were used to study microsynteny between B. graminis and two other ascomycetes, Neurospora crassa...

  7. Comparative physical mapping links conservation of microsynteny to chromosome structure and recombination in grasses

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    Bowers, John E.; Arias, Miguel A.; Asher, Rochelle; Avise, Jennifer A.; Ball, Robert T.; Brewer, Gene A.; Buss, Ryan W.; Chen, Amy H.; Edwards, Thomas M.; Estill, James C.; Exum, Heather E.; Goff, Valorie H.; Herrick, Kristen L.; Steele, Cassie L. James; Karunakaran, Santhosh; Lafayette, Gmerice K.; Lemke, Cornelia; Marler, Barry S.; Masters, Shelley L.; McMillan, Joana M.; Nelson, Lisa K.; Newsome, Graham A.; Nwakanma, Chike C.; Odeh, Rosana N.; Phelps, Cynthia A.; Rarick, Elizabeth A.; Rogers, Carl J.; Ryan, Sean P.; Slaughter, Keimun A.; Soderlund, Carol A.; Tang, Haibao; Wing, Rod A.; Paterson, Andrew H.

    2005-01-01

    Nearly finished sequences for model organisms provide a foundation from which to explore genomic diversity among other taxonomic groups. We explore genome-wide microsynteny patterns between the rice sequence and two sorghum physical maps that integrate genetic markers, bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) fingerprints, and BAC hybridization data. The sorghum maps largely tile a genomic component containing 41% of BACs but 80% of single-copy genes that shows conserved microsynteny with rice and partially tile a nonsyntenic component containing 46% of BACs but only 13% of single-copy genes. The remaining BACs are centromeric (4%) or unassigned (8%). The two genomic components correspond to cytologically discernible “euchromatin” and “heterochromatin.” Gene and repetitive DNA distributions support this classification. Greater microcolinearity in recombinogenic (euchromatic) than nonrecombinogenic (heterochromatic) regions is consistent with the hypothesis that genomic rearrangements are usually deleterious, thus more likely to persist in nonrecombinogenic regions by virtue of Muller's ratchet. Interchromosomal centromeric rearrangements may have fostered diploidization of a polyploid cereal progenitor. Model plant sequences better guide studies of related genomes in recombinogenic than nonrecombinogenic regions. Bridging of 35 physical gaps in the rice sequence by sorghum BAC contigs illustrates reciprocal benefits of comparative approaches that extend at least across the cereals and perhaps beyond. PMID:16141333

  8. MicroSyn: A user friendly tool for detection of microsynteny in a gene family

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    Yang Xiaohan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The traditional phylogeny analysis within gene family is mainly based on DNA or amino acid sequence homologies. However, these phylogenetic tree analyses are not suitable for those "non-traditional" gene families like microRNA with very short sequences. For the normal protein-coding gene families, low bootstrap values are frequently encountered in some nodes, suggesting low confidence or likely inappropriateness of placement of those members in those nodes. Results We introduce MicroSyn software as a means of detecting microsynteny in adjacent genomic regions surrounding genes in gene families. MicroSyn searches for conserved, flanking colinear homologous gene pairs between two genomic fragments to determine the relationship between two members in a gene family. The colinearity of homologous pairs is controlled by a statistical distance function. As a result, gene duplication history can be inferred from the output independent of gene sequences. MicroSyn was designed for both experienced and non-expert users with a user-friendly graphical-user interface. MicroSyn is available from: http://fcsb.njau.edu.cn/microsyn/. Conclusions Case studies of the microRNA167 genes in plants and Xyloglucan ndotransglycosylase/Hydrolase family in Populus trichocarpa were presented to show the utility of the software. The easy using of MicroSyn in these examples suggests that the software is an additional valuable means to address the problem intrinsic in the computational methods and sequence qualities themselves in gene family analysis.

  9. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of "

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    Villanueva, L.; Speth, D.R.; van Alen, T.; Hoischen, A.; Jetten, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost excl

  10. Phylogeographic analysis reveals significant spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis as a product of mountain building

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    Chen Shaotian

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Incarvillea sinensis is widely distributed from Southwest China to Northeast China and in the Russian Far East. The distribution of this species was thought to be influenced by the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and Quaternary glaciation. To reveal the imprints of geological events on the spatial genetic structure of Incarvillea sinensis, we examined two cpDNA segments ( trnH- psbA and trnS- trnfM in 705 individuals from 47 localities. Results A total of 16 haplotypes was identified, and significant genetic differentiation was revealed (GST =0.843, NST = 0.975, P  Conclusions The results revealed that the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau likely resulted in the significant divergence between the lineage in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the other one outside this area. The diverse niches in the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau created a wide spectrum of habitats to accumulate and accommodate new mutations. The features of genetic diversity of populations outside the eastern Qinghai-Tibet Plateau seemed to reveal the imprints of extinction during the Glacial and the interglacial and postglacial recolonization. Our study is a typical case of the significance of the uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Quaternary Glacial in spatial genetic structure of eastern Asian plants, and sheds new light on the evolution of biodiversity in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau at the intraspecies level.

  11. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.).

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    Rao, Guodong; Sui, Jinkai; Zhang, Jianguo

    2016-01-01

    The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r(2)≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism.

  12. Metabolomics reveals significant variations in metabolites and correlations regarding the maturation of walnuts (Juglans regia L.

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    Guodong Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The content of walnut metabolites is related to its nutritive value and physiological characteristics, however, comprehensive information concerning the metabolome of walnut kernels is limited. In this study we analyzed the metabolites of walnut kernels at five developmental stages from filling to ripening using GC-MS-based untargeted metabolomics; of a total 252 peaks identified, 85 metabolites were positively identified. Further statistical analysis revealed that these 85 metabolites covered different types of metabolism pathways. PCA scores revealed that the metabolic compositions of the embryo are different at each stage, while the metabolic composition of the endotesta could not be significantly separated into distinct groups. Additionally, 7225 metabolite-metabolite correlations were detected in walnut kernel by a Pearson correlation coefficient approach; during screening of the calculated correlations, 463 and 1047 were determined to be significant with r2≥0.49 and had a false discovery rate (FDR ≤0.05 in endotesta and embryo, respectively. This work provides the first comprehensive metabolomic study of walnut kernels and reveals that most of the carbohydrate and protein-derived carbon was transferred into other compounds, such as fatty acids, during the maturation of walnuts, which may potentially provide the basis for further studies on walnut kernel metabolism.

  13. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in citrus using array-comparative genomic hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome.

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    Ríos, Gabino; Naranjo, Miguel A; Iglesias, Domingo J; Ruiz-Rivero, Omar; Geraud, Marion; Usach, Antonio; Talón, Manuel

    2008-08-09

    Many fruit-tree species, including relevant Citrus spp varieties exhibit a reproductive biology that impairs breeding and strongly constrains genetic improvements. In citrus, juvenility increases the generation time while sexual sterility, inbreeding depression and self-incompatibility prevent the production of homozygous cultivars. Genomic technology may provide citrus researchers with a new set of tools to address these various restrictions. In this work, we report a valuable genomics-based protocol for the structural analysis of deletion mutations on an heterozygous background. Two independent fast neutron mutants of self-incompatible clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. Ex Tan. cv. Clemenules) were the subject of the study. Both mutants, named 39B3 and 39E7, were expected to carry DNA deletions in hemizygous dosage. Array-based Comparative Genomic Hybridization (array-CGH) using a Citrus cDNA microarray allowed the identification of underrepresented genes in these two mutants. Subsequent comparison of citrus deleted genes with annotated plant genomes, especially poplar, made possible to predict the presence of a large deletion in 39B3 of about 700 kb and at least two deletions of approximately 100 and 500 kb in 39E7. The deletion in 39B3 was further characterized by PCR on available Citrus BACs, which helped us to build a partial physical map of the deletion. Among the deleted genes, ClpC-like gene coding for a putative subunit of a multifunctional chloroplastic protease involved in the regulation of chlorophyll b synthesis was directly related to the mutated phenotype since the mutant showed a reduced chlorophyll a/b ratio in green tissues. In this work, we report the use of array-CGH for the successful identification of genes included in a hemizygous deletion induced by fast neutron irradiation on Citrus clementina. The study of gene content and order into the 39B3 deletion also led to the unexpected conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity in

  14. Characterization of hemizygous deletions in Citrus using array-Comparative Genomic Hybridization and microsynteny comparisons with the poplar genome

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    Usach Antonio

    2008-08-01

    conclusion that microsynteny and local gene colinearity in this species were higher with Populus trichocarpa than with the phylogenetically closer Arabidopsis thaliana. This work corroborates the potential of Citrus genomic resources to assist mutagenesis-based approaches for functional genetics, structural studies and comparative genomics, and hence to facilitate citrus variety improvement.

  15. Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment.

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    Chao, Yuanqing; Ma, Liping; Yang, Ying; Ju, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Wu, Wei-Min; Zhang, Tong

    2013-12-19

    The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in 'oxidative stress' and 'detoxification' subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.

  16. Transcriptome sequencing revealed significant alteration of cortical promoter usage and splicing in schizophrenia.

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    Jing Qin Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While hybridization based analysis of the cortical transcriptome has provided important insight into the neuropathology of schizophrenia, it represents a restricted view of disease-associated gene activity based on predetermined probes. By contrast, sequencing technology can provide un-biased analysis of transcription at nucleotide resolution. Here we use this approach to investigate schizophrenia-associated cortical gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The data was generated from 76 bp reads of RNA-Seq, aligned to the reference genome and assembled into transcripts for quantification of exons, splice variants and alternative promoters in postmortem superior temporal gyrus (STG/BA22 from 9 male subjects with schizophrenia and 9 matched non-psychiatric controls. Differentially expressed genes were then subjected to further sequence and functional group analysis. The output, amounting to more than 38 Gb of sequence, revealed significant alteration of gene expression including many previously shown to be associated with schizophrenia. Gene ontology enrichment analysis followed by functional map construction identified three functional clusters highly relevant to schizophrenia including neurotransmission related functions, synaptic vesicle trafficking, and neural development. Significantly, more than 2000 genes displayed schizophrenia-associated alternative promoter usage and more than 1000 genes showed differential splicing (FDR<0.05. Both types of transcriptional isoforms were exemplified by reads aligned to the neurodevelopmentally significant doublecortin-like kinase 1 (DCLK1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: This study provided the first deep and un-biased analysis of schizophrenia-associated transcriptional diversity within the STG, and revealed variants with important implications for the complex pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  17. β-Thalassemia Patients Revealed a Significant Change of Untargeted Metabolites in Comparison to Healthy Individuals

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    Musharraf, Syed Ghulam; Iqbal, Ayesha; Ansari, Saqib Hussain; Parveen, Sadia; Khan, Ishtiaq Ahmad; Siddiqui, Amna Jabbar

    2017-01-01

    β-Thalassemia is one of the most prevalent forms of congenital blood disorders characterized by reduced hemoglobin levels with severe complications, affecting all dimensions of life. The mechanisms underlying the phenotypic heterogeneity of β-thalassemia are still poorly understood. We aimed to work over metabolite biomarkers to improve mechanistic understanding of phenotypic heterogeneity and hence better management of disorder at different levels. Untargeted serum metabolites were analyzed after protein precipitation and SPE (solid phase extraction) from 100 β-thalassemia patients and 61 healthy controls using GC-MS. 40 metabolites were identified having a significance difference between these two groups at probability of 0.05 and fold change >1.5. Out of these 40 metabolites, 17 were up-regulated while 23 were down-regulated. PCA and PLS-DA model was also created that revealed a fine separation with a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 100% on external validation of samples. Metabolic pathway analysis revealed alteration in multiple pathways including glycolysis, pyruvate, propanoate, glycerophospholipid, galactose, fatty acid, starch and sucrose metabolism along with fatty acid elongation in mitochondria, glycerolipid, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism pointing towards the shift of metabolism in β-thalassemia patients in comparison to healthy individuals. PMID:28198811

  18. Seed metabolomic study reveals significant metabolite variations and correlations among different soybean cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Lin; Jun Rao; Jianxin Shi; Chaoyang Hu; Fang Cheng; Zoe AWilson; Dabing Zhang; Sheng Quan

    2014-01-01

    Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the world’s major crops, and soybean seeds are a rich and important resource for proteins and oils. While “omics”studies, such as genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, have been widely applied in soybean molecular research, fewer metabolomic studies have been conducted for large-scale detection of low molecular weight metabolites, especial y in soybean seeds. In this study, we investigated the seed metabolomes of 29 common soybean cultivars through combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred sixty-nine named metabolites were identified and subsequently used to construct a metabolic network of mature soybean seed. Among the 169 detected metabolites, 104 were found to be significantly variable in their levels across tested cultivars. Metabolite markers that could be used to distinguish genetical y related soybean cultivars were also identified, and metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed some significant associations within the same or among different metabolite groups. Findings from this work may potentially provide the basis for further studies on both soybean seed metabolism and metabolic engineering to improve soybean seed quality and yield.

  19. Disease-aging network reveals significant roles of aging genes in connecting genetic diseases.

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    Wang, Jiguang; Zhang, Shihua; Wang, Yong; Chen, Luonan; Zhang, Xiang-Sun

    2009-09-01

    One of the challenging problems in biology and medicine is exploring the underlying mechanisms of genetic diseases. Recent studies suggest that the relationship between genetic diseases and the aging process is important in understanding the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases. Although some intricate associations have been investigated for a long time, the studies are still in their early stages. In this paper, we construct a human disease-aging network to study the relationship among aging genes and genetic disease genes. Specifically, we integrate human protein-protein interactions (PPIs), disease-gene associations, aging-gene associations, and physiological system-based genetic disease classification information in a single graph-theoretic framework and find that (1) human disease genes are much closer to aging genes than expected by chance; and (2) diseases can be categorized into two types according to their relationships with aging. Type I diseases have their genes significantly close to aging genes, while type II diseases do not. Furthermore, we examine the topological characters of the disease-aging network from a systems perspective. Theoretical results reveal that the genes of type I diseases are in a central position of a PPI network while type II are not; (3) more importantly, we define an asymmetric closeness based on the PPI network to describe relationships between diseases, and find that aging genes make a significant contribution to associations among diseases, especially among type I diseases. In conclusion, the network-based study provides not only evidence for the intricate relationship between the aging process and genetic diseases, but also biological implications for prying into the nature of human diseases.

  20. Comparative analysis of the Shadoo gene between cattle and buffalo reveals significant differences.

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    Hui Zhao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While prions play a central role in the pathogenesis of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the biology of these proteins and the pathophysiology of these diseases remain largely unknown. Since no case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE has ever been reported in buffalo despite their phylogenetic proximity to cattle, genetic differences may be driving the different susceptibilities of these two species to BSE. We thus hypothesized that differences in expression of the most recently identified member of the prion family or Shadoo (SPRN gene may relate to these species-specific differences. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first analyzed and compared the polymorphisms of the SPRN gene (~4.4 kb, including the putative promoter, coding and 3' regions, and further verified the entire ORF and putative promoter. This yielded a total of 117 fixed differences, remarkably: 1 a 12-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism in the hydrophobic domain of the cattle but not buffalo gene, introducing a four amino acid expansion/contraction in a series of 5 tandem Ala/Gly-containing repeats; 2 two fixed missense mutations (102Ser→Gly and 119Thr→Ala, and three missense mutations (92Pro>Thr/Met, 122Thr>Ile and 139Arg>Trp in the coding region presenting different (P<0.05 genotypic and allelic frequency distributions between cattle and buffalo; and, 3 functional luciferase-reporter experiments for the predicted promoter region, consistent with a significantly higher activity in buffalo than cattle. Supporting these findings, immunoblotting revealed higher relative expression levels of Sho protein in cerebrum from buffalo than from cattle. In addition, for cattle, highest Sho expression was detected in obex, as compared to cerebrum or cerebellum. SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support Sho as a non-PrP specific marker for prion infections, with obex as the best tissue source for the detection of Sho in TSE rapid tests. Moreover, these discoveries may prove

  1. Simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus to Arabidopsis plants reveals significant shifts in signaling networks.

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    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2013-08-01

    Considering global climate change, the incidence of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase in the future and will considerably influence plant-pathogen interactions. Until now, little has been known about plants exposed to simultaneously occurring abiotic and biotic stresses. To shed some light on molecular plant responses to multiple stress factors, a versatile multifactorial test system, allowing simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus stress, was developed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of single, double, and triple stress responses by transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed that gene expression under multifactorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses identified heat as the major stress factor, clearly separating heat-stressed from non-heat-stressed plants. We identified 11 genes differentially regulated in all stress combinations as well as 23 genes specifically regulated under triple stress. Furthermore, we showed that virus-treated plants displayed enhanced expression of defense genes, which was abolished in plants additionally subjected to heat and drought stress. Triple stress also reduced the expression of genes involved in the R-mediated disease response and increased the cytoplasmic protein response, which was not seen under single stress conditions. These observations suggested that abiotic stress factors significantly altered turnip mosaic virus-specific signaling networks, which led to a deactivation of defense responses and a higher susceptibility of plants. Collectively, our transcriptome and metabolome data provide a powerful resource to study plant responses during multifactorial stress and allow identifying metabolic processes and functional networks involved in tripartite interactions of plants with their environment.

  2. Next-generation sequencing reveals significant bacterial diversity of botrytized wine.

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    Nicholas A Bokulich

    Full Text Available While wine fermentation has long been known to involve complex microbial communities, the composition and role of bacteria other than a select set of lactic acid bacteria (LAB has often been assumed either negligible or detrimental. This study served as a pilot study for using barcoded amplicon next-generation sequencing to profile bacterial community structure in wines and grape musts, comparing the taxonomic depth achieved by sequencing two different domains of prokaryotic 16S rDNA (V4 and V5. This study was designed to serve two goals: 1 to empirically determine the most taxonomically informative 16S rDNA target region for barcoded amplicon sequencing of wine, comparing V4 and V5 domains of bacterial 16S rDNA to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP of LAB communities; and 2 to explore the bacterial communities of wine fermentation to better understand the biodiversity of wine at a depth previously unattainable using other techniques. Analysis of amplicons from the V4 and V5 provided similar views of the bacterial communities of botrytized wine fermentations, revealing a broad diversity of low-abundance taxa not traditionally associated with wine, as well as atypical LAB communities initially detected by TRFLP. The V4 domain was determined as the more suitable read for wine ecology studies, as it provided greater taxonomic depth for profiling LAB communities. In addition, targeted enrichment was used to isolate two species of Alphaproteobacteria from a finished fermentation. Significant differences in diversity between inoculated and uninoculated samples suggest that Saccharomyces inoculation exerts selective pressure on bacterial diversity in these fermentations, most notably suppressing abundance of acetic acid bacteria. These results determine the bacterial diversity of botrytized wines to be far higher than previously realized, providing further insight into the fermentation dynamics of these wines, and demonstrate the

  3. Membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plants reveal diverse yeast and protist communities of potential significance in biofouling.

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    Liébana, Raquel; Arregui, Lucía; Belda, Ignacio; Gamella, Luis; Santos, Antonio; Marquina, Domingo; Serrano, Susana

    2015-01-01

    The yeast community was studied in a municipal full-scale membrane bioreactor wastewater treatment plant (MBR-WWTP). The unexpectedly high diversity of yeasts indicated that the activated sludge formed a suitable environment for them to proliferate, with cellular concentrations of 2.2 ± 0.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1). Sixteen species of seven genera were present in the biological reactor, with Ascomycetes being the most prevalent group (93%). Most isolates were able to grow in a synthetic wastewater medium, adhere to polyethylene surfaces, and develop biofilms of variable complexity. The relationship between yeast populations and the protists in the MBR-WWTP was also studied, revealing that some protist species preyed on and ingested yeasts. These results suggest that yeast populations may play a role in the food web of a WWTP and, to some extent, contribute to membrane biofouling in MBR systems.

  4. Pathophysiological Significance of Dermatan Sulfate Proteoglycans Revealed by Human Genetic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuji Mizumoto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The indispensable roles of dermatan sulfate-proteoglycans (DS-PGs have been demonstrated in various biological events including construction of the extracellular matrix and cell signaling through interactions with collagen and transforming growth factor-β, respectively. Defects in the core proteins of DS-PGs such as decorin and biglycan cause congenital stromal dystrophy of the cornea, spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, and Meester-Loeys syndrome. Furthermore, mutations in human genes encoding the glycosyltransferases, epimerases, and sulfotransferases responsible for the biosynthesis of DS chains cause connective tissue disorders including Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia with joint laxity characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility, and tissue fragility, and by severe skeletal disorders such as kyphoscoliosis, short trunk, dislocation, and joint laxity. Glycobiological approaches revealed that mutations in DS-biosynthetic enzymes cause reductions in enzymatic activities and in the amount of synthesized DS and also disrupt the formation of collagen bundles. This review focused on the growing number of glycobiological studies on recently reported genetic diseases caused by defects in the biosynthesis of DS and DS-PGs.

  5. Characterization and phylogenetic analysis of -gliadin gene sequences reveals significant genomic divergence in Triticeae species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guang-Rong Li; Tao Lang; En-Nian Yang; Cheng Liu; Zu-Jun Yang

    2014-12-01

    Although the unique properties of wheat -gliadin gene family are well characterized, little is known about the evolution and genomic divergence of -gliadin gene family within the Triticeae. We isolated a total of 203 -gliadin gene sequences from 11 representative diploid and polyploid Triticeae species, and found 108 sequences putatively functional. Our results indicate that -gliadin genes may have possibly originated from wild Secale species, where the sequences contain the shortest repetitive domains and display minimum variation. A miniature inverted-repeat transposable element insertion is reported for the first time in -gliadin gene sequence of Thinopyrum intermedium in this study, indicating that the transposable element might have contributed to the diversification of -gliadin genes family among Triticeae genomes. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that the -gliadin gene sequences of Dasypyrum, Australopyrum, Lophopyrum, Eremopyrum and Pseudoroengeria species have amplified several times. A search for four typical toxic epitopes for celiac disease within the Triticeae -gliadin gene sequences showed that the -gliadins of wild Secale, Australopyrum and Agropyron genomes lack all four epitopes, while other Triticeae species have accumulated these epitopes, suggesting that the evolution of these toxic epitopes sequences occurred during the course of speciation, domestication or polyploidization of Triticeae.

  6. Instrumented Indentation of Lung Reveals Significant Short Term Alteration in Mechanical Behavior with 100% Oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricris R. Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In critical care, trauma, or other situations involving reduced lung function, oxygen is given to avoid hypoxia. It is known that under certain conditions and long time (several hours exposure, oxygen is toxic to the lungs, the possible mechanisms being direct cellular damage or surfactant dysfunction. Our key objective was to investigate possible changes in lung function when exposed to 100% oxygen in the short term (several tidal volumes. We performed mechanical tests on lobar surfaces of excised mammalian lungs inflated with air or 100% oxygen, examining (i stiffness, (ii non-linear mechanical response and (iii induced alveolar deformation. Our results showed that within five tidal volumes of breathing 100% oxygen, lung mechanics are significantly altered. In addition, after five tidal volumes of laboratory air, lung mechanical behavior begins to return to pre-oxygen levels, indicating some reversibility. These significant and short-term mechanical effects of oxygen could be linked to oxygen toxicity.

  7. Independent component analysis reveals new and biologically significant structures in micro array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veerla Srinivas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An alternative to standard approaches to uncover biologically meaningful structures in micro array data is to treat the data as a blind source separation (BSS problem. BSS attempts to separate a mixture of signals into their different sources and refers to the problem of recovering signals from several observed linear mixtures. In the context of micro array data, "sources" may correspond to specific cellular responses or to co-regulated genes. Results We applied independent component analysis (ICA to three different microarray data sets; two tumor data sets and one time series experiment. To obtain reliable components we used iterated ICA to estimate component centrotypes. We found that many of the low ranking components indeed may show a strong biological coherence and hence be of biological significance. Generally ICA achieved a higher resolution when compared with results based on correlated expression and a larger number of gene clusters with significantly enriched for gene ontology (GO categories. In addition, components characteristic for molecular subtypes and for tumors with specific chromosomal translocations were identified. ICA also identified more than one gene clusters significant for the same GO categories and hence disclosed a higher level of biological heterogeneity, even within coherent groups of genes. Conclusion Although the ICA approach primarily detects hidden variables, these surfaced as highly correlated genes in time series data and in one instance in the tumor data. This further strengthens the biological relevance of latent variables detected by ICA.

  8. Village energy survey reveals missing rural raw coal in northern China: Significance in science and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Guorui; Zhang, Yayun; Sun, Jianzhong; Cheng, Miaomiao; Dang, Hongyan; Liu, Shijie; Yang, Junchao; Zhang, Yuzhe; Xue, Zhigang; Li, Shuyuan; Meng, Fan

    2017-04-01

    Burning coal for winter heating has been considered a major contributor to northern China's winter haze, with the district heating boilers holding the balance. However a decade of intensive efforts on district heating boilers brought few improvements to northern China's winter air quality, arousing a speculation that the household heating stoves mainly in rural area rather than the district heating boilers mainly in urban area dominate coal emissions in winter. This implies an extreme underestimation of rural household coal consumption by the China Energy Statistical Yearbooks (CESYs), although direct evidence supporting this speculation is lacking. A village energy survey campaign was launched to gather the firsthand information on household coal consumption in the rural areas of two cities, Baoding (in Hebei province) and Beijing (the capital of China). The survey data show that the rural raw coal consumption in Baoding (5.04 × 10(3) kt) was approximately 6.5 times the value listed in the official CESY 2013 and exceeded the rural total of whole Hebei Province (4668 kt), revealing a huge amount of raw coal missing from the current statistical system. More importantly, rural emissions of particulate matter (PM) and SO2 from raw coal, which had never been included in widely distributing environmental statistical reports, were found higher than those from industrial and urban household sectors in the two cities in 2013, which highlights the importance of rural coal burning in creating northern China's heavy haze and helps to explain why a number of modeling predictions on ambient pollutant concentrations based on normal emission inventories were more bias-prone in winter season than in other seasons. We therefore recommend placing greater emphasis on the "missing" rural raw coal to help China in its long-term ambition to achieve clean air in the context of rapid economic development.

  9. Association Mapping in Turkish Olive Cultivars Revealed Significant Markers Related to Some Important Agronomic Traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Hilal Betul; Cetin, Oznur; Kaya, Hulya Sozer; Sahin, Mustafa; Sefer, Filiz; Tanyolac, Bahattin

    2016-08-01

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most important fruit trees especially in the Mediterranean countries due to high consumption of table olive and olive oil. In olive breeding, the phenotypic traits associated to fruit are the key factors that determine productivity. Association mapping has been used in some tree species and a lot of crop plant species, and here, we perform an initial effort to detect marker-trait associations in olive tree. In the current study, a total of 96 olive genotypes, including both oil and table olive genotypes from Turkish Olive GenBank Resources, were used to examine marker-trait associations. For olive genotyping, SNP, AFLP, and SSR marker data were selected from previously published study and association analysis was performed between these markers and 5 yield-related traits. Three different approaches were used to check for false-positive results in association tests, and association results obtained from these models were compared. Using the model utilizing both population structure and relative kinship, eleven associations were significant with FDR ≤ 0.05. The largest number of significant associations was detected for fruit weight and stone weight. Our results suggested that association mapping could be an effective approach for identifying marker-trait associations in olive genotypes, without the development of mapping populations. This study shows for the first time the use of association mapping for identifying molecular markers linked to important traits in olive tree.

  10. Combining Chromosomal Arm Status and Significantly Aberrant Genomic Locations Reveals New Cancer Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Shay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of tumors exhibit characteristic chromosomal losses or gains, as well as local amplifications and deletions. Within any given tumor type, sample specific amplifications and deletions are also observed. Typically, a region that is aberrant in more tumors, or whose copy number change is stronger, would be considered as a more promising candidate to be biologically relevant to cancer. We sought for an intuitive method to define such aberrations and prioritize them. We define V, the “volume” associated with an aberration, as the product of three factors: (a fraction of patients with the aberration, (b the aberration’s length and (c its amplitude. Our algorithm compares the values of V derived from the real data to a null distribution obtained by permutations, and yields the statistical significance (p-value of the measured value of V. We detected genetic locations that were significantly aberrant, and combine them with chromosomal arm status (gain/loss to create a succinct fingerprint of the tumor genome. This genomic fingerprint is used to visualize the tumors, highlighting events that are co-occurring or mutually exclusive. We apply the method on three different public array CGH datasets of Medulloblastoma and Neuroblastoma, and demonstrate its ability to detect chromosomal regions that were known to be altered in the tested cancer types, as well as to suggest new genomic locations to be tested. We identified a potential new subtype of Medulloblastoma, which is analogous to Neuroblastoma type 1.

  11. Seabird diving behaviour reveals the functional significance of shelf-sea fronts as foraging hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S L; Miller, P I; Embling, C B; Scales, K L; Bicknell, A W J; Hosegood, P J; Morgan, G; Ingram, S N; Votier, S C

    2016-09-01

    Oceanic fronts are key habitats for a diverse range of marine predators, yet how they influence fine-scale foraging behaviour is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dive behaviour of northern gannets Morus bassanus in relation to shelf-sea fronts. We GPS (global positioning system) tracked 53 breeding birds and examined the relationship between 1901 foraging dives (from time-depth recorders) and thermal fronts (identified via Earth Observation composite front mapping) in the Celtic Sea, Northeast Atlantic. We (i) used a habitat-use availability analysis to determine whether gannets preferentially dived at fronts, and (ii) compared dive characteristics in relation to fronts to investigate the functional significance of these oceanographic features. We found that relationships between gannet dive probabilities and fronts varied by frontal metric and sex. While both sexes were more likely to dive in the presence of seasonally persistent fronts, links to more ephemeral features were less clear. Here, males were positively correlated with distance to front and cross-front gradient strength, with the reverse for females. Both sexes performed two dive strategies: shallow V-shaped plunge dives with little or no active swim phase (92% of dives) and deeper U-shaped dives with an active pursuit phase of at least 3 s (8% of dives). When foraging around fronts, gannets were half as likely to engage in U-shaped dives compared with V-shaped dives, independent of sex. Moreover, V-shaped dive durations were significantly shortened around fronts. These behavioural responses support the assertion that fronts are important foraging habitats for marine predators, and suggest a possible mechanistic link between the two in terms of dive behaviour. This research also emphasizes the importance of cross-disciplinary research when attempting to understand marine ecosystems.

  12. Seabird diving behaviour reveals the functional significance of shelf-sea fronts as foraging hotspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, S. L.; Miller, P. I.; Embling, C. B.; Scales, K. L.; Bicknell, A. W. J.; Hosegood, P. J.; Morgan, G.; Ingram, S. N.; Votier, S. C.

    2016-09-01

    Oceanic fronts are key habitats for a diverse range of marine predators, yet how they influence fine-scale foraging behaviour is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the dive behaviour of northern gannets Morus bassanus in relation to shelf-sea fronts. We GPS (global positioning system) tracked 53 breeding birds and examined the relationship between 1901 foraging dives (from time-depth recorders) and thermal fronts (identified via Earth Observation composite front mapping) in the Celtic Sea, Northeast Atlantic. We (i) used a habitat-use availability analysis to determine whether gannets preferentially dived at fronts, and (ii) compared dive characteristics in relation to fronts to investigate the functional significance of these oceanographic features. We found that relationships between gannet dive probabilities and fronts varied by frontal metric and sex. While both sexes were more likely to dive in the presence of seasonally persistent fronts, links to more ephemeral features were less clear. Here, males were positively correlated with distance to front and cross-front gradient strength, with the reverse for females. Both sexes performed two dive strategies: shallow V-shaped plunge dives with little or no active swim phase (92% of dives) and deeper U-shaped dives with an active pursuit phase of at least 3 s (8% of dives). When foraging around fronts, gannets were half as likely to engage in U-shaped dives compared with V-shaped dives, independent of sex. Moreover, V-shaped dive durations were significantly shortened around fronts. These behavioural responses support the assertion that fronts are important foraging habitats for marine predators, and suggest a possible mechanistic link between the two in terms of dive behaviour. This research also emphasizes the importance of cross-disciplinary research when attempting to understand marine ecosystems.

  13. Transcriptomic and Protein Expression Analysis Reveals Clinicopathological Significance of Bloom Syndrome Helicase (BLM) in Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Arvind; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek M A; Agarwal, Devika; Doherty, Rachel; Moseley, Paul M; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Alshareeda, Alaa T; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Y T; Ellis, Ian O; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2015-04-01

    Bloom syndrome helicase (BLM) has key roles in homologous recombination repair, telomere maintenance, and DNA replication. Germ-line mutations in the BLM gene causes Bloom syndrome, a rare disorder characterized by premature aging and predisposition to multiple cancers, including breast cancer. The clinicopathologic significance of BLM in sporadic breast cancers is unknown. We investigated BLM mRNA expression in the Molecular Taxonomy of Breast Cancer International Consortium cohort (n = 1,950) and validated in an external dataset of 2,413 tumors. BLM protein level was evaluated in the Nottingham Tenovus series comprising 1,650 breast tumors. BLM mRNA overexpression was significantly associated with high histologic grade, larger tumor size, estrogen receptor-negative (ER(-)), progesterone receptor-negative (PR(-)), and triple-negative phenotypes (ps < 0.0001). BLM mRNA overexpression was also linked to aggressive molecular phenotypes, including PAM50.Her2 (P < 0.0001), PAM50.Basal (P < 0.0001), and PAM50.LumB (P < 0.0001) and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/high proliferation; P < 0.0001). PAM50.LumA tumors and Genufu subtype (ER(+)/Her2(-)/low proliferation) were more likely to express low levels of BLM mRNA (ps < 0.0001). Integrative molecular clusters (intClust) intClust.1 (P < 0.0001), intClust.5 (P < 0.0001), intClust.9 (P < 0.0001), and intClust.10 (P < 0.0001) were also more likely in tumors with high BLM mRNA expression. BLM mRNA overexpression was associated with poor breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS; ps < 0.000001). At the protein level, altered subcellular localization with high cytoplasmic BLM and low nuclear BLM was linked to aggressive phenotypes. In multivariate analysis, BLM mRNA and BLM protein levels independently influenced BCSS. This is the first and the largest study to provide evidence that BLM is a promising biomarker in breast cancer.

  14. Classification of microvascular patterns via cluster analysis reveals their prognostic significance in glioblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Lin, Zhi-Xiong; Lin, Guo-Shi; Zhou, Chang-Fu; Chen, Yu-Peng; Wang, Xing-Fu; Zheng, Zong-Qing

    2015-01-01

    There are limited researches focusing on microvascular patterns (MVPs) in human glioblastoma and their prognostic impact. We evaluated MVPs of 78 glioblastomas by CD34/periodic acid-Schiff dual staining and by cluster analysis of the percentage of microvascular area for distinct microvascular formations. The distribution of 5 types of basic microvascular formations, that is, microvascular sprouting (MS), vascular cluster (VC), vascular garland (VG), glomeruloid vascular proliferation (GVP), and vasculogenic mimicry (VM), was variable. Accordingly, cluster analysis classified MVPs into 2 types: type I MVP displayed prominent MSs and VCs, whereas type II MVP had numerous VGs, GVPs, and VMs. By analyzing the proportion of microvascular area for each type of formation, we determined that glioblastomas with few MSs and VCs had many GVPs and VMs, and vice versa. VG seemed to be a transitional type of formation. In case of type I MVP, expression of Ki-67 and p53 but not MGMT was significantly higher as compared with those of type II MVP (P analysis showed that the type of MVPs presented as an independent prognostic factor of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (both P < .001). Type II MVP had a more negative influence on PFS and OS than did type I MVP. We conclude that the heterogeneous MVPs in glioblastoma can be categorized properly by certain histopathologic and statistical analyses and may influence clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Targeted gene-silencing reveals the functional significance of myocardin signaling in the failing heart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Torrado

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardin (MYOCD, a potent transcriptional coactivator of smooth muscle (SM and cardiac genes, is upregulated in failing myocardium in animal models and human end-stage heart failure (HF. However, the molecular and functional consequences of myocd upregulation in HF are still unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The goal of the present study was to investigate if targeted inhibition of upregulated expression of myocd could influence failing heart gene expression and function. To this end, we used the doxorubicin (Dox-induced diastolic HF (DHF model in neonatal piglets, in which, as we show, not only myocd but also myocd-dependent SM-marker genes are highly activated in failing left ventricular (LV myocardium. In this model, intra-myocardial delivery of short-hairpin RNAs, designed to target myocd variants expressed in porcine heart, leads on day 2 post-delivery to: (1 a decrease in the activated expression of myocd and myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing myocardium to levels seen in healthy control animals, (2 amelioration of impaired diastolic dysfunction, and (3 higher survival rates of DHF piglets. The posterior restoration of elevated myocd expression (on day 7 post-delivery led to overexpression of myocd-dependent SM-marker genes in failing LV-myocardium that was associated with a return to altered diastolic function. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data provide the first evidence that a moderate inhibition (e.g., normalization of the activated MYOCD signaling in the diseased heart may be promising from a therapeutic point of view.

  16. Comparative proteomics reveals a significant bias toward alternative protein isoforms with conserved structure and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezkurdia, Iakes; del Pozo, Angela; Frankish, Adam; Rodriguez, Jose Manuel; Harrow, Jennifer; Ashman, Keith; Valencia, Alfonso; Tress, Michael L

    2012-09-01

    Advances in high-throughput mass spectrometry are making proteomics an increasingly important tool in genome annotation projects. Peptides detected in mass spectrometry experiments can be used to validate gene models and verify the translation of putative coding sequences (CDSs). Here, we have identified peptides that cover 35% of the genes annotated by the GENCODE consortium for the human genome as part of a comprehensive analysis of experimental spectra from two large publicly available mass spectrometry databases. We detected the translation to protein of "novel" and "putative" protein-coding transcripts as well as transcripts annotated as pseudogenes and nonsense-mediated decay targets. We provide a detailed overview of the population of alternatively spliced protein isoforms that are detectable by peptide identification methods. We found that 150 genes expressed multiple alternative protein isoforms. This constitutes the largest set of reliably confirmed alternatively spliced proteins yet discovered. Three groups of genes were highly overrepresented. We detected alternative isoforms for 10 of the 25 possible heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, proteins with a key role in the splicing process. Alternative isoforms generated from interchangeable homologous exons and from short indels were also significantly enriched, both in human experiments and in parallel analyses of mouse and Drosophila proteomics experiments. Our results show that a surprisingly high proportion (almost 25%) of the detected alternative isoforms are only subtly different from their constitutive counterparts. Many of the alternative splicing events that give rise to these alternative isoforms are conserved in mouse. It was striking that very few of these conserved splicing events broke Pfam functional domains or would damage globular protein structures. This evidence of a strong bias toward subtle differences in CDS and likely conserved cellular function and structure is remarkable and

  17. Rare human papillomavirus 16 E6 variants reveal significant oncogenic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommasino Massimo

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether low prevalence human papillomavirus (HPV 16 E6 variants differ from high prevalence types in their functional abilities. We evaluated functions relevant to carcinogenesis for the rarely-detected European variants R8Q, R10G and R48W as compared to the commonly detected L83V. Human immortalized keratinocytes (NIKS stably transduced with the E6 variants were used in most functional assays. Low and high prevalence E6 variants displayed similar abilities in abrogation of growth arrest and inhibition of p53 elevation induced by actinomycin D. Differences were detected in the abilities to dysregulate stratification and differentiation of NIKS in organotypic raft cultures, modulate detachment induced apoptosis (anoikis and hyperactivate Wnt signaling. No distinctive phenotype could be assigned to include all rare variants. Like L83V, raft cultures derived from variants R10G and R48W similarly induced hyperplasia and aberrantly expressed keratin 5 in the suprabasal compartment with significantly lower expression of keratin 10. Unlike L83V, both variants, and particularly R48W, induced increased levels of anoikis upon suspension in semisolid medium. R8Q induced a unique phenotype characterized by thin organotypic raft cultures, low expression of keratin 10, and high expression of keratins 5 and 14 throughout all raft layers. Interestingly, in a reporter based assay R8Q exhibited a higher ability to augment TCF/β-catenin transcription. The data suggests that differences in E6 variant prevalence in cervical carcinoma may not be related to the carcinogenic potential of the E6 protein.

  18. An anti-hapten camelid antibody reveals a cryptic binding site with significant energetic contributions from a nonhypervariable loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, Sean W.; Horn, James R. (NIU)

    2014-03-05

    Conventional anti-hapten antibodies typically bind low-molecular weight compounds (haptens) in the crevice between the variable heavy and light chains. Conversely, heavy chain-only camelid antibodies, which lack a light chain, must rely entirely on a single variable domain to recognize haptens. While several anti-hapten VHHs have been generated, little is known regarding the underlying structural and thermodynamic basis for hapten recognition. Here, an anti-methotrexate VHH (anti-MTX VHH) was generated using grafting methods whereby the three complementarity determining regions (CDRs) were inserted onto an existing VHH framework. Thermodynamic analysis of the anti-MTX VHH CDR1-3 Graft revealed a micromolar binding affinity, while the crystal structure of the complex revealed a somewhat surprising noncanonical binding site which involved MTX tunneling under the CDR1 loop. Due to the close proximity of MTX to CDR4, a nonhypervariable loop, the CDR4 loop sequence was subsequently introduced into the CDR1-3 graft, which resulted in a dramatic 1000-fold increase in the binding affinity. Crystal structure analysis of both the free and complex anti-MTX CDR1-4 graft revealed CDR4 plays a significant role in both intermolecular contacts and binding site conformation that appear to contribute toward high affinity binding. Additionally, the anti-MTX VHH possessed relatively high specificity for MTX over closely related compounds aminopterin and folate, demonstrating that VHH domains are capable of binding low-molecular weight ligands with high affinity and specificity, despite their reduced interface.

  19. Trophic Mode-Dependent Proteomic Analysis Reveals Functional Significance of Light-Independent Chlorophyll Synthesis in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Longfa; Ge, Haitao; Huang, Xiahe; Liu, Ye; Lu, Min; Wang, Jinlong; Chen, Weiyang; Xu, Wu; Wang, Yingchun

    2017-01-09

    The photosynthetic model organism Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 can grow in different trophic modes, depending on the availability of light and exogenous organic carbon source. However, how the protein profile changes to facilitate the cells differentially propagate in different modes has not been comprehensively investigated. Using isobaric labeling-based quantitative proteomics, we simultaneously identified and quantified 45% Synechocystis proteome across four different trophic modes, i.e., autotrophic, heterotrophic, photoheterotrophic, and mixotrophic modes. Among the 155 proteins that are differentially expressed across four trophic modes, proteins involved in nitrogen assimilation and light-independent chlorophyll synthesis are dramatically upregulated in the mixotrophic mode, concomitant with a dramatic increase of PII phosphorylation that senses carbon and nitrogen assimilation status. Moreover, functional study using a mutant defective in light-independent chlorophyll synthesis revealed that this pathway is important for chlorophyll accumulation under a cycled light/dark illumination regime, a condition mimicking day/night cycles in certain natural habitats. Collectively, these results provide the most comprehensive information on trophic mode-dependent protein expression in cyanobacterium, and reveal the functional significance of light-independent chlorophyll synthesis in trophic growth.

  20. Quantitative superresolution microscopy reveals differences in nuclear DNA organization of multiple myeloma and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathitruangsak, Chirawadee; Righolt, Christiaan H; Klewes, Ludger; Tammur, Pille; Ilus, Tiiu; Tamm, Anu; Punab, Mari; Olujohungbe, Adebayo; Mai, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control lymphocytes of the representative patients is visualized and quantified by superresolution microscopy. Three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) increases the spatial resolution beyond the limits of conventional widefield fluorescence microscopy. 3D-SIM reveals new insights into the nuclear architecture of cancer as we show for the first time that it resolves organizational differences in intranuclear DNA organization of myeloma cells in MGUS and in MM patients. In addition, we report a significant increase in nuclear submicron DNA structure and structure of the DNA-free space in myeloma nuclei compared to normal lymphocyte nuclei. Our study provides previously unknown details of the nanoscopic DNA architecture of interphase nuclei of the normal lymphocytes, MGUS and MM cells. This study opens new avenues to understanding the disease progression from MGUS to MM. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A genome scan revealed significant associations of growth traits with a major QTL and GHR2 in tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Sun, Fei; Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Jian; Fu, Gui Hong; Lin, Grace; Tu, Rong Jian; Wan, Zi Yi; Quek, Delia; Yue, Gen Hua

    2014-12-01

    Growth is an important trait in animal breeding. However, the genetic effects underpinning fish growth variability are still poorly understood. QTL mapping and analysis of candidate genes are effective methods to address this issue. We conducted a genome-wide QTL analysis for growth in tilapia. A total of 10, 7 and 8 significant QTLs were identified for body weight, total length and standard length at 140 dph, respectively. The majority of these QTLs were sex-specific. One major QTL for growth traits was identified in the sex-determining locus in LG1, explaining 71.7%, 67.2% and 64.9% of the phenotypic variation (PV) of body weight, total length and standard length, respectively. In addition, a candidate gene GHR2 in a QTL was significantly associated with body weight, explaining 13.1% of PV. Real-time qPCR revealed that different genotypes at the GHR2 locus influenced the IGF-1 expression level. The markers located in the major QTL for growth traits could be used in marker-assisted selection of tilapia. The associations between GHR2 variants and growth traits suggest that the GHR2 gene should be an important gene that explains the difference in growth among tilapia species.

  2. Color-Doppler sonographic tissue perfusion measurements reveal significantly diminished renal cortical perfusion in kidneys with vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholbach, T M; Sachse, C

    2016-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) and its sequelae may lead to reduced renal perfusion and loss of renal function. Methods to describe and monitor tissue perfusion are needed. We investigated dynamic tissue perfusion measurement (DTPM) with the PixelFlux-software to measure microvascular changes in the renal cortex in 35 children with VUR and 28 healthy children. DTPM of defined horizontal slices of the renal cortex was carried out. A kidney was assigned to the "low grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade of the voiding cystourethrogram was 1 to 3 and to the "high grade reflux"-group if the reflux grade was 4 to 5. Kidneys with VUR showed a significantly reduced cortical perfusion. Compared to healthy kidneys, this decline reached in low and high grade refluxes within the proximal 50% of the cortex: 3% and 12 %, in the distal 50% of the cortex: 21% and 44 % and in the most distal 20 % of the cortex 41% and 44%. DTPM reveals a perfusion loss in kidneys depending on the degree of VUR, which is most pronounced in the peripheral cortex. Thus, DTPM offers the tool to evaluate microvascular perfusion, to help planning treatment decisions in children with VUR.

  3. Familial longevity study reveals a significant association of mitochondrial DNA copy number between centenarians and their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong-Han; Chen, Xiao-Qiong; Yan, Dong-Jing; Xiao, Fu-Hui; Lin, Rong; Liao, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Yao-Wen; Pu, Shao-Yan; Yu, Qin; Sun, Hong-Peng; Jiang, Jian-Jun; Cai, Wang-Wei; Kong, Qing-Peng

    2016-11-01

    Reduced mitochondrial function is an important cause of aging and age-related diseases. We previously revealed a relatively higher level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in centenarians. However, it is still unknown whether such an mtDNA content pattern of centenarians could be passed on to their offspring and how it was regulated. To address these issues, we recruited 60 longevity families consisting of 206 family members (cohort 1) and explored their mtDNA copy number. The results showed that the first generation of the offspring (F1 offspring) had a higher level of mtDNA copy number than their spouses (p copy number in centenarians with that in F1 offspring (r = 0.54, p = 0.0008) but not with that in F1 spouses. These results were replicated in another independent cohort consisting of 153 subjects (cohort 2). RNA sequencing analysis suggests that the single-stranded DNA-binding protein 4 was significantly associated with mtDNA copy number and was highly expressed in centenarians as well as F1 offspring versus the F1 spouses, thus likely regulates the mtDNA copy number in the long-lived family members. In conclusion, our results suggest that the pattern of high mtDNA copy number is likely inheritable, which may act as a favorable factor to familial longevity through assuring adequate energy supply. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Simultaneous Application of Heat, Drought, and Virus to Arabidopsis Plants Reveals Significant Shifts in Signaling Networks1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasch, Christian Maximilian; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Considering global climate change, the incidence of combined drought and heat stress is likely to increase in the future and will considerably influence plant-pathogen interactions. Until now, little has been known about plants exposed to simultaneously occurring abiotic and biotic stresses. To shed some light on molecular plant responses to multiple stress factors, a versatile multifactorial test system, allowing simultaneous application of heat, drought, and virus stress, was developed in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Comparative analysis of single, double, and triple stress responses by transcriptome and metabolome analysis revealed that gene expression under multifactorial stress is not predictable from single stress treatments. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses identified heat as the major stress factor, clearly separating heat-stressed from non-heat-stressed plants. We identified 11 genes differentially regulated in all stress combinations as well as 23 genes specifically regulated under triple stress. Furthermore, we showed that virus-treated plants displayed enhanced expression of defense genes, which was abolished in plants additionally subjected to heat and drought stress. Triple stress also reduced the expression of genes involved in the R-mediated disease response and increased the cytoplasmic protein response, which was not seen under single stress conditions. These observations suggested that abiotic stress factors significantly altered turnip mosaic virus-specific signaling networks, which led to a deactivation of defense responses and a higher susceptibility of plants. Collectively, our transcriptome and metabolome data provide a powerful resource to study plant responses during multifactorial stress and allow identifying metabolic processes and functional networks involved in tripartite interactions of plants with their environment. PMID:23753177

  5. The draft genome sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529 reveals significant diversity between the primary disease-causing biovars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangal, Vartul; Tucker, Nicholas P; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A

    2012-06-01

    We report the draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529. This is the first C. diphtheriae bv. mitis strain to be sequenced and reveals significant differences from the other primary biovar, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis.

  6. The Draft Genome Sequence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529 Reveals Significant Diversity between the Primary Disease-Causing Biovars

    OpenAIRE

    Sangal, Vartul; Nicholas P Tucker; Burkovski, Andreas; Hoskisson, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    We report the draft genome of the human pathogen Corynebacterium diphtheriae bv. mitis NCTC 3529. This is the first C. diphtheriae bv. mitis strain to be sequenced and reveals significant differences from the other primary biovar, C. diphtheriae bv. gravis.

  7. Quantitative Superresolution Microscopy Reveals Differences in Nuclear DNA Organization of Multiple Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathitruangsak, C.; Righolt, C.H.; Klewes, L.; Tammur, P.; Ilus, T.; Tamm, A.; Punab, M.; Olujohungbe, A.; Mai, S.

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control

  8. "Topological significance" analysis of gene expression and proteomic profiles from prostate cancer cells reveals key mechanisms of androgen response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaikkalam Vellaichamy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The problem of prostate cancer progression to androgen independence has been extensively studied. Several studies systematically analyzed gene expression profiles in the context of biological networks and pathways, uncovering novel aspects of prostate cancer. Despite significant research efforts, the mechanisms underlying tumor progression are poorly understood. We applied a novel approach to reconstruct system-wide molecular events following stimulation of LNCaP prostate cancer cells with synthetic androgen and to identify potential mechanisms of androgen-independent progression of prostate cancer. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have performed concurrent measurements of gene expression and protein levels following the treatment using microarrays and iTRAQ proteomics. Sets of up-regulated genes and proteins were analyzed using our novel concept of "topological significance". This method combines high-throughput molecular data with the global network of protein interactions to identify nodes which occupy significant network positions with respect to differentially expressed genes or proteins. Our analysis identified the network of growth factor regulation of cell cycle as the main response module for androgen treatment in LNCap cells. We show that the majority of signaling nodes in this network occupy significant positions with respect to the observed gene expression and proteomic profiles elicited by androgen stimulus. Our results further indicate that growth factor signaling probably represents a "second phase" response, not directly dependent on the initial androgen stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that in prostate cancer cells the proliferative signals are likely to be transmitted from multiple growth factor receptors by a multitude of signaling pathways converging on several key regulators of cell proliferation such as c-Myc, Cyclin D and CREB1. Moreover, these pathways are not isolated but constitute an

  9. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

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    Natalia Ziółkowska

    Full Text Available Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG, located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented <0.1% of cells in the CGG gastric glands and 22-32% of cells in the proper gastric glands of the mucosa lining the stomach lumen. These data suggest that chief cells in the CGG develop from undifferentiated cells that migrate through the gastric gland neck rather than from mucous neck cells. Classical chief cell formation (i.e., arising from mucous neck cells occurred in the mucosa lining the stomach lumen, however. The muscularis around the CGG consisted primarily of skeletal muscle tissue. The cardiac region was rudimentary while the fundus/corpus and pyloric regions were equally developed. Another unusual feature of the beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  10. Light and electron microscopy of the European beaver (Castor fiber) stomach reveal unique morphological features with possible general biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziółkowska, Natalia; Lewczuk, Bogdan; Petryński, Wojciech; Palkowska, Katarzyna; Prusik, Magdalena; Targońska, Krystyna; Giżejewski, Zygmunt; Przybylska-Gornowicz, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical, histological, and ultrastructural studies of the European beaver stomach revealed several unique morphological features. The prominent attribute of its gross morphology was the cardiogastric gland (CGG), located near the oesophageal entrance. Light microscopy showed that the CGG was formed by invaginations of the mucosa into the submucosa, which contained densely packed proper gastric glands comprised primarily of parietal and chief cells. Mucous neck cells represented stomach lumen. These data suggest that chief cells in the CGG develop from undifferentiated cells that migrate through the gastric gland neck rather than from mucous neck cells. Classical chief cell formation (i.e., arising from mucous neck cells) occurred in the mucosa lining the stomach lumen, however. The muscularis around the CGG consisted primarily of skeletal muscle tissue. The cardiac region was rudimentary while the fundus/corpus and pyloric regions were equally developed. Another unusual feature of the beaver stomach was the presence of specific mucus with a thickness up to 950 µm (in frozen, unfixed sections) that coated the mucosa. Our observations suggest that the formation of this mucus is complex and includes the secretory granule accumulation in the cytoplasm of pit cells, the granule aggregation inside cells, and the incorporation of degenerating cells into the mucus.

  11. Differential transcriptome analysis of diabetes-resistant and -sensitive mouse islets reveals significant overlap with human diabetes susceptibility genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluth, Oliver; Matzke, Daniela; Schulze, Gunnar; Schwenk, Robert W; Joost, Hans-Georg; Schürmann, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Type 2 diabetes in humans and in obese mice is polygenic. In recent genome-wide association studies, genetic markers explaining a small portion of the genetic contribution to the disease were discovered. However, functional evidence linking these genes with the pathogenesis of diabetes is scarce. We performed RNA sequencing-based transcriptomics of islets from two obese mouse strains, a diabetes-susceptible (NZO) and a diabetes-resistant (B6-ob/ob) mouse, after a short glucose challenge and compared these results with human data. Alignment of 2,328 differentially expressed genes to 106 human diabetes candidate genes revealed an overlap of 20 genes, including TCF7L2, IGFBP2, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, GRB10, and PRC1. The data provide a functional validation of human diabetes candidate genes, including those involved in regulating islet cell recovery and proliferation, and identify additional candidates that could be involved in human β-cell failure. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  12. Quantitative Superresolution Microscopy Reveals Differences in Nuclear DNA Organization of Multiple Myeloma and Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Sathitruangsak, C.; Righolt, C.H.; Klewes, L.; Tammur, P.; Ilus, T.; Tamm, A; Punab, M.; Olujohungbe, A; Mai, S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mammalian nucleus has a distinct substructure that cannot be visualized directly by conventional microscopy. In this study, the organization of the DNA within the nucleus of multiple myeloma (MM) cells, their precursor cells (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance; MGUS) and control lymphocytes of the representative patients is visualized and quantified by superresolution microscopy. Three‐dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D‐SIM) increases the spatial r...

  13. Networks of Food Sharing Reveal the Functional Significance of Multilevel Sociality in Two Hunter-Gatherer Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Smith, Daniel; Salali, Gul Deniz; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Page, Abigail E; Vinicuis, Lucio; Mace, Ruth; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg

    2016-08-01

    Like many other mammalian and primate societies [1-4], humans are said to live in multilevel social groups, with individuals situated in a series of hierarchically structured sub-groups [5, 6]. Although this multilevel social organization has been described among contemporary hunter-gatherers [5], questions remain as to the benefits that individuals derive from living in such groups. Here, we show that food sharing among two populations of contemporary hunter-gatherers-the Palanan Agta (Philippines) and Mbendjele BaYaka (Republic of Congo)-reveals similar multilevel social structures, with individuals situated in households, within sharing clusters of 3-4 households, within the wider residential camps, which vary in size. We suggest that these groupings serve to facilitate inter-sexual provisioning, kin provisioning, and risk reduction reciprocity, three levels of cooperation argued to be fundamental in human societies [7, 8]. Humans have a suite of derived life history characteristics including a long childhood and short inter-birth intervals that make offspring energetically demanding [9] and have moved to a dietary niche that often involves the exploitation of difficult to acquire foods with highly variable return rates [10-12]. This means that human foragers face both day-to-day and more long-term energetic deficits that conspire to make humans energetically interdependent. We suggest that a multilevel social organization allows individuals access to both the food sharing partners required to buffer themselves against energetic shortfalls and the cooperative partners required for skill-based tasks such as cooperative foraging.

  14. Significant modifications of the salivary proteome potentially associated with complications of Down syndrome revealed by top-down proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-07-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10-17 yr and 18-50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome.

  15. Significant Modifications of the Salivary Proteome Potentially Associated with Complications of Down Syndrome Revealed by Top-down Proteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, Tiziana; Pisano, Elisabetta; Montaldo, Caterina; Giuca, Maria Rita; Iavarone, Federica; Zampino, Giuseppe; Castagnola, Massimo; Messana, Irene

    2013-01-01

    People with Down syndrome, a frequent genetic disorder in humans, have increased risk of health problems associated with this condition. One clinical feature of Down syndrome is the increased prevalence and severity of periodontal disease in comparison with the general population. Because saliva plays an important role in maintaining oral health, in the present study the salivary proteome of Down syndrome subjects was investigated to explore modifications with respect to healthy subjects. Whole saliva of 36 Down syndrome subjects, divided in the age groups 10–17 yr and 18–50 yr, was analyzed by a top-down proteomic approach, based on the high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization–MS analysis of the intact proteins and peptides, and the qualitative and quantitative profiles were compared with sex- and age-matched control groups. The results showed the following interesting features: 1) as opposed to controls, in Down syndrome subjects the concentration of the major salivary proteins of gland origin did not increase with age; as a consequence concentration of acidic proline rich proteins and S cystatins were found significantly reduced in older Down syndrome subjects with respect to matched controls; 2) levels of the antimicrobial α-defensins 1 and 2 and histatins 3 and 5 were significantly increased in whole saliva of older Down syndrome subjects with respect to controls; 3) S100A7, S100A8, and S100A12 levels were significantly increased in whole saliva of Down syndrome subjects in comparison with controls. The increased level of S100A7 and S100A12 may be of particular interest as a biomarker of early onset Alzheimer's disease, which is frequently associated with Down syndrome. PMID:23533003

  16. Eph/ephrin profiling in human breast cancer reveals significant associations between expression level and clinical outcome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana M Brantley-Sieders

    Full Text Available Pre-clinical studies provide compelling evidence that Eph family receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs and ligands promote cancer growth, neovascularization, invasion, and metastasis. Tumor suppressive roles have also been reported for the receptors, however, creating a potential barrier for clinical application. Determining how these observations relate to clinical outcome is a crucial step for translating the biological and mechanistic data into new molecularly targeted therapies. We investigated eph and ephrin expression in human breast cancer relative to endpoints of overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. We also investigated protein expression in commercial human breast tissue microarrays (TMA and Stage I prognostic TMAs linked to recurrence outcome data. We found significant correlations between ephA2, ephA4, ephA7, ephB4, and ephB6 and overall and/or recurrence-free survival in large microarray datasets. Protein expression in TMAs supported these trends. While observed no correlation between ephrin ligand expression and clinical outcome in microarray datasets, ephrin-A1 and EphA2 protein co-expression was significantly associated with recurrence in Stage I prognostic breast cancer TMAs. Our data suggest that several Eph family members are clinically relevant and tractable targets for intervention in human breast cancer. Moreover, profiling Eph receptor expression patterns in the context of relevant ligands and in the context of stage may be valuable in terms of diagnostics and treatment.

  17. Optical polarization tractography revealed significant fiber disarray in skeletal muscles of a mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Zhang, K; Wasala, N B; Duan, D; Yao, G

    2015-02-01

    Optical polarization tractography (OPT) was recently developed to visualize tissue fiber architecture with cellular-level resolution and accuracy. In this study, we explored the feasibility of using OPT to study muscle disease in the mdx4cv mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The freshly dissected tibialis anterior muscles of mdx4cv and normal mice were imaged. A "fiber disarray index" (FDI) was developed to quantify the myofiber disorganization. In necrotic muscle regions of the mdx4cv mice, the FDI was significantly elevated and can be used to segment the 3D necrotic regions for assessing the overall muscle damage. These results demonstrated the OPT's capability for imaging microscopic fiber alternations in muscle research.

  18. Cytogenetical and morphological features reveal significant differences among Venezuelan and Brazilian samples of Mugil curema (Teleostei: Mugilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Karyotype of M. curema from the Gulf of Mexico and Brazil have been reported as possessing chromosome complement with 2n=28 and FN=48, whereas specimens from Venezuela has been reported as possessing a diploid number 2n=24 and a conserved FN (48. Although at first sight this variation suggests the presence of a chromosomal intraspecific (interpopulational variability, the possibility that we are dealing with two different species was examined. This work revisit the karyotypes of M. curema from Venezuela and Brazil, including new data on C-banding, and NOR localization, and compares morphologic characteristics of samples from both localities. Thus, besides diploid number, the constitutive heterochromatin distribution and NORs location, mark other differences between M. curema Cytotype 1 (2n=28; FN=48 and Cytotype 2 (2n=24; NF=48. Moreover, morphologic comparison revealed differences in the scale counts and pectoral fin rays: 35 scales in the middle body line and 15 pectoral fin rays in specimens possessing the karyotype 2n=28, compared with 37-39 scales in the middle body line and 17 pectoral fin rays in specimens with the karyotype 2n=24. These differences lead us to suggest that both cytotypes are not related merely to geographic polytipic variations but could correspond to different species.Os cariótipos de M. curema do Golfo do México e do Brasil possuem 2n=28 cromossomos e NF=48. Espécimes da Venezuela, entretanto, apresentam um número diplóide de 28 cromossomos e um NF conservado (48. Apesar desta variação sugerir, a princípio, uma variabilidade intraespecífica (interpopulacional, a possibilidade de estarmos perante diferentes espécies foi investigada. O presente trabalho re-analisa os cariótipos de M. curema da Venezuela e do Brasil, incluindo novos dados sobre bandamento C e localização das NORs e compara caracteres merísticos e morfométricos de amostras de ambas as localidades. Assim, junto com o número cromossômico, a

  19. Significance of a two-domain structure in subunits of phycobiliproteins revealed by the normal mode analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, H; Wako, H; Yura, K; Go, M; Mimuro, M

    2000-09-01

    Phycobiliproteins are basic building blocks of phycobilisomes, a supra-molecular assembly for the light-capturing function of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and red algae. One functional form of phycobiliproteins is a trimeric form consisting of three identical units having C(3) symmetry, with each unit composed of two kinds of subunits, the alpha-subunit and beta-subunit. These subunits have similar chain folds and can be divided into either globin-like or X-Y helices domains. We studied the significance of this two-domain structure for their assembled structures and biological function (light-absorption) using a normal mode analysis to investigate dynamic aspects of their three-dimensional structures. We used C-phycocyanin (C-PC) as an example, and focused on the interactions between the two domains. The normal mode analysis was carried out for the following two cases: 1) the whole subunit, including the two domains; and 2) the globin-like domain alone. By comparing the dynamic properties, such as correlative movements between residues and the fluctuations of individual residues, we found that the X-Y helices domain plays an important role not only in the C(3) symmetry assemblies of the subunits in phycobiliproteins, but also in stabilizing the light absorption property by suppressing the fluctuation of the specific Asp residues near the chromophore. Interestingly, the conformation of the X-Y helices domain corresponds to that of a module in pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). The module in PPDK is involved in the interactions of two domains, just as the X-Y helices domain is involved in the interactions of two subunits. Finally, we discuss the mechanical construction of the C-PC subunits based on the normal mode analysis.

  20. Patient-specific metrics of invasiveness reveal significant prognostic benefit of resection in a predictable subset of gliomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Baldock

    Full Text Available Malignant gliomas are incurable, primary brain neoplasms noted for their potential to extensively invade brain parenchyma. Current methods of clinical imaging do not elucidate the full extent of brain invasion, making it difficult to predict which, if any, patients are likely to benefit from gross total resection. Our goal was to apply a mathematical modeling approach to estimate the overall tumor invasiveness on a patient-by-patient basis and determine whether gross total resection would improve survival in patients with relatively less invasive gliomas.In 243 patients presenting with contrast-enhancing gliomas, estimates of the relative invasiveness of each patient's tumor, in terms of the ratio of net proliferation rate of the glioma cells to their net dispersal rate, were derived by applying a patient-specific mathematical model to routine pretreatment MR imaging. The effect of varying degrees of extent of resection on overall survival was assessed for cohorts of patients grouped by tumor invasiveness.We demonstrate that patients with more diffuse tumors showed no survival benefit (P = 0.532 from gross total resection over subtotal/biopsy, while those with nodular (less diffuse tumors showed a significant benefit (P = 0.00142 with a striking median survival benefit of over eight months compared to sub-totally resected tumors in the same cohort (an 80% improvement in survival time for GTR only seen for nodular tumors.These results suggest that our patient-specific, model-based estimates of tumor invasiveness have clinical utility in surgical decision making. Quantification of relative invasiveness assessed from routinely obtained pre-operative imaging provides a practical predictor of the benefit of gross total resection.

  1. A deep sequencing reveals significant diversity among dominant variants and evolutionary dynamics of avian leukosis viruses in two infectious ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanfeng; Dong, Xuan; Hu, Tao; Chang, Shuang; Fan, Jianhua; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-12-19

    As a typical retrovirus, the evolution of Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) in different infectious ecosystems is not characterized, what we know is there are a cloud of diverse variants, namely quasispecies with considerable genetic diversity. This study is to explore the selection of infectious ecosystems on dominant variants and their evolutionary dynamics of ALV-J between DF1 cells and specific-pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. High-throughput sequencing platforms provide an approach for detecting quasispecies diversity more fully. An average of about 20,000 valid reads were obtained from two variable regions of gp85 gene and LTR-U3 region from each sample in different infectious ecosystems. The top 10 dominant variants among ALV-J from chicken plasmas, DF1 cells and liver tumor were completely different from each other. Also there was a difference of shannon entropy and global selection pressure values (ω) in different infectious ecosystems. In the plasmas of two chickens, a large portion of quasispecies contained a 3-peptides "LSD" repeat insertion that was only less than 0.01% in DF1 cell culture supernatants. In parallel studies, the LTR-U3 region of ALV-J from the chicken plasmas demonstrated more variants with mutations in their transcription regulatory elements than those from DF1 cells. Our data taken together suggest that the molecular epidemiology based on isolated ALV-J in cell culture may not represent the true evolution of virus in chicken flocks in the field. The biological significance of the "LSD" insert and mutations in LTR-U3 needs to be further studied.

  2. Gamete production patterns, ploidy, and population genetics reveal evolutionary significant units in hybrid water frogs (Pelophylax esculentus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruvost, Nicolas B M; Hoffmann, Alexandra; Reyer, Heinz-Ulrich

    2013-09-01

    . These differences are strong evidence for a polyphyletic origin of triploids. Moreover, our findings shed light on the evolutionary potential inherent to the P. esculentus complex, where rare events due to untypical gametogenetic processes can lead to the raise, the perpetuation, and the dispersion of new evolutionary significant lineages which may also deserve special conservation measures.

  3. Liquid chromatography-electrospray linear ion trap mass spectrometry analysis of targeted neuropeptides in Tac1(-/-) mouse spinal cords reveals significant lower concentration of opioid peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saidi, Mouna; Beaudry, Francis

    2015-08-01

    Tachykinin and opioid peptides play a central role in pain transmission, modulation and inhibition. The treatment of pain is very important in medicine and many studies using NK1 receptor antagonists failed to show significant analgesic effects in humans. Recent investigations suggest that both pronociceptive tachykinins and the analgesic opioid systems are important for normal pain sensation. The analysis of opioid peptides in Tac1(-/-) spinal cord tissues offers a great opportunity to verify the influence of the tachykinin system on specific opioid peptides. The objectives of this study were to develop an HPLC-MS/MRM assay to quantify targeted peptides in spinal cord tissues. Secondly, we wanted to verify if the Tac1(-/-) mouse endogenous opioid system is hampered and therefore affects significantly the pain modulatory pathways. Targeted neuropeptides were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography linear ion trap mass spectrometry. Our results reveal that EM-2, Leu-Enk and Dyn A were down-regulated in Tac1(-/-) spinal cord tissues. Interestingly, Dyn A was almost 3 fold down-regulated (p<0.0001). No significant concentration differences were observed in mouse Tac1(-/-) spinal cords for Met-Enk and CGRP. The analysis of Tac1(-/-) mouse spinal cords revealed noteworthy decreases of EM-2, Leu-Enk and Dyn A concentrations which strongly suggest a significant impact on the endogenous pain-relieving mechanisms. These observations may have insightful impact on future analgesic drug developments and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Different continuous cropping spans significantly affect microbial community membership and structure in a vanilla-grown soil as revealed by deep pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wu; Zhao, Qingyun; Zhao, Jun; Xun, Weibing; Li, Rong; Zhang, Ruifu; Wu, Huasong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, soil bacterial and fungal communities across vanilla continuous cropping time-series fields were assessed through deep pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions. The results demonstrated that the long-term monoculture of vanilla significantly altered soil microbial communities. Soil fungal diversity index increased with consecutive cropping years, whereas soil bacterial diversity was relatively stable. Bray-Curtis dissimilarity cluster and UniFrac-weighted principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) revealed that monoculture time was the major determinant for fungal community structure, but not for bacterial community structure. The relative abundances (RAs) of the Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota phyla were depleted along the years of vanilla monoculture. Pearson correlations at the phyla level demonstrated that Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, and Firmicutes had significant negative correlations with vanilla disease index (DI), while no significant correlation for fungal phyla was observed. In addition, the amount of the pathogen Fusarium oxysporum accumulated with increasing years and was significantly positively correlated with vanilla DI. By contrast, the abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Bradyrhizobium and Bacillus, significantly decreased over time. In sum, soil weakness and vanilla stem wilt disease after long-term continuous cropping can be attributed to the alteration of the soil microbial community membership and structure, i.e., the reduction of the beneficial microbes and the accumulation of the fungal pathogen.

  5. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations reveal significant differences in interaction between antimycin and conserved amino acid residues in bovine and bacterial bc1 complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Oleksandr; Shinkarev, Vladimir P

    2011-02-02

    Antimycin A is the most frequently used specific and powerful inhibitor of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. We used all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the dynamic aspects of the interaction of antimycin A with the Q(i) site of the bacterial and bovine bc(1) complexes embedded in a membrane. The MD simulations revealed considerable conformational flexibility of antimycin and significant mobility of antimycin, as a whole, inside the Q(i) pocket. We conclude that many of the differences in antimycin binding observed in high-resolution x-ray structures may have a dynamic origin and result from fluctuations of protein and antimycin between multiple conformational states of similar energy separated by low activation barriers, as well as from the mobility of antimycin within the Q(i) pocket. The MD simulations also revealed a significant difference in interaction between antimycin and conserved amino acid residues in bovine and bacterial bc(1) complexes. The strong hydrogen bond between antimycin and conserved Asp-228 (bovine numeration) was observed to be frequently broken in the bacterial bc(1) complex and only rarely in the bovine bc(1) complex. In addition, the distances between antimycin and conserved His-201 and Lys-227 were consistently larger in the bacterial bc(1) complex. The observed differences could be responsible for a weaker interaction of antimycin with the bacterial bc(1) complex.

  6. Whole blood transcriptional profiling reveals significant down-regulation of human leukocyte antigen class I and II genes in essential thrombocythemia, polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Vibe; Riley, Caroline Hasselbalch; Thomassen, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Gene expression profiling studies in the Philadelphia-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms have revealed significant deregulation of several immune and inflammation genes that might be of importance for clonal evolution due to defective tumor immune surveillance. Other mechanisms might...... be down-regulation of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I and II genes, which are used by tumor cells to escape antitumor T-cell-mediated immune responses. We have performed whole blood transcriptional profiling of genes encoding human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and II molecules, β2-microglobulin...... treatment with epigenome modulating agents (DNA-hypomethylators and DNA-hyperacetylators [histone deacetylase inhibitors]) and interferon-α2, our findings call for prospective transcriptional studies of HLA genes during treatment with these agents....

  7. Proteomic analysis reveals significant elevation of heat shock protein 70 in patients with chronic heart failure due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ying-Jie; Huang, Yin-Xia; Shen, Ya; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Zhang, Xiao-Ling; Zhang, Hao; Hu, Sheng-Shou

    2009-12-01

    As proteins are the ultimate biological determinants of phenotype of disease, we screened altered proteins associated with heart failure due to arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) to identify biomarkers potential for rapid diagnosis of heart failure. By 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we identified five commonly altered proteins with more than 1.5 fold changes in eight ARVC failing hearts using eight non-failing hearts as reference. Noticeably, one of the altered proteins, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), was increased by 1.64 fold in ARVC failing hearts compared with non-failing hearts. The increase of cardiac HSP70 was further validated by Western blot, immunochemistry, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in failing hearts due to not only ARVC, but also dilated (DCM, n = 18) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, n = 8). Serum HSP70 was also observed to be significantly increased in heart failure patients derived from the three forms of cardiomyopathies. In addition, we observed hypoxia/serum depletion stimulation induced significantly elevation of intracellular and extracellular HSP70 in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. For the first time to our knowledge, we revealed and clearly demonstrated significant up-regulation of cardiac and serum HSP70 in ARVC heart failure patients. Our results indicate that elevated HSP70 is the common feature of heart failure due to ARVC, DCM, and ICM, which suggests that HSP70 may be used as a biomarker for the presence of heart failure due to cardiomyopathies of different etiologies and may hold diagnostic/prognostic potential in clinical practice.

  8. A novel method for RNA extraction from FFPE samples reveals significant differences in biomarker expression between orthotopic and subcutaneous pancreatic cancer patient-derived xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mark; Maawy, Ali; Chang, Alexander; Lee, Jacqueline; Gharibi, Armen; Katz, Matthew H; Fleming, Jason; Hoffman, Robert M; Bouvet, Michael; Doebler, Robert; Kelber, Jonathan A

    2017-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can identify and validate new biomarkers of cancer onset, progression and therapy resistance. Substantial archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) cancer samples from patients represent a rich resource for linking molecular signatures to clinical data. However, performing NGS on FFPE samples is limited by poor RNA purification methods. To address this hurdle, we developed an improved methodology for extracting high-quality RNA from FFPE samples. By briefly integrating a newly-designed micro-homogenizing (mH) tool with commercially available FFPE RNA extraction protocols, RNA recovery is increased by approximately 3-fold while maintaining standard A260/A280 ratios and RNA quality index (RQI) values. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the mH-purified FFPE RNAs are longer and of higher integrity. Previous studies have suggested that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) gene expression signatures vary significantly under in vitro versus in vivo and in vivo subcutaneous versus orthotopic conditions. By using our improved mH-based method, we were able to preserve established expression patterns of KRas-dependency genes within these three unique microenvironments. Finally, expression analysis of novel biomarkers in KRas mutant PDAC samples revealed that PEAK1 decreases and MST1R increases by over 100-fold in orthotopic versus subcutaneous microenvironments. Interestingly, however, only PEAK1 levels remain elevated in orthotopically grown KRas wild-type PDAC cells. These results demonstrate the critical nature of the orthotopic tumor microenvironment when evaluating the clinical relevance of new biomarkers in cells or patient-derived samples. Furthermore, this new mH-based FFPE RNA extraction method has the potential to enhance and expand future FFPE-RNA-NGS cancer biomarker studies. PMID:27602776

  9. Genome Wide Expression Profiling of Cancer Cell Lines Cultured in Microgravity Reveals Significant Dysregulation of Cell Cycle and MicroRNA Gene Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanna Vidyasekar

    Full Text Available Zero gravity causes several changes in metabolic and functional aspects of the human body and experiments in space flight have demonstrated alterations in cancer growth and progression. This study reports the genome wide expression profiling of a colorectal cancer cell line-DLD-1, and a lymphoblast leukemic cell line-MOLT-4, under simulated microgravity in an effort to understand central processes and cellular functions that are dysregulated among both cell lines. Altered cell morphology, reduced cell viability and an aberrant cell cycle profile in comparison to their static controls were observed in both cell lines under microgravity. The process of cell cycle in DLD-1 cells was markedly affected with reduced viability, reduced colony forming ability, an apoptotic population and dysregulation of cell cycle genes, oncogenes, and cancer progression and prognostic markers. DNA microarray analysis revealed 1801 (upregulated and 2542 (downregulated genes (>2 fold in DLD-1 cultures under microgravity while MOLT-4 cultures differentially expressed 349 (upregulated and 444 (downregulated genes (>2 fold under microgravity. The loss in cell proliferative capacity was corroborated with the downregulation of the cell cycle process as demonstrated by functional clustering of DNA microarray data using gene ontology terms. The genome wide expression profile also showed significant dysregulation of post transcriptional gene silencing machinery and multiple microRNA host genes that are potential tumor suppressors and proto-oncogenes including MIR22HG, MIR17HG and MIR21HG. The MIR22HG, a tumor-suppressor gene was one of the highest upregulated genes in the microarray data showing a 4.4 log fold upregulation under microgravity. Real time PCR validated the dysregulation in the host gene by demonstrating a 4.18 log fold upregulation of the miR-22 microRNA. Microarray data also showed dysregulation of direct targets of miR-22, SP1, CDK6 and CCNA2.

  10. Systems analysis of MVA-C induced immune response reveals its significance as a vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS of clade C.

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    Carmen Elena Gómez

    Full Text Available Based on the partial efficacy of the HIV/AIDS Thai trial (RV144 with a canarypox vector prime and protein boost, attenuated poxvirus recombinants expressing HIV-1 antigens are increasingly sought as vaccine candidates against HIV/AIDS. Here we describe using systems analysis the biological and immunological characteristics of the attenuated vaccinia virus Ankara strain expressing the HIV-1 antigens Env/Gag-Pol-Nef of HIV-1 of clade C (referred as MVA-C. MVA-C infection of human monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs induced the expression of HIV-1 antigens at high levels from 2 to 8 hpi and triggered moDCs maturation as revealed by enhanced expression of HLA-DR, CD86, CD40, HLA-A2, and CD80 molecules. Infection ex vivo of purified mDC and pDC with MVA-C induced the expression of immunoregulatory pathways associated with antiviral responses, antigen presentation, T cell and B cell responses. Similarly, human whole blood or primary macrophages infected with MVA-C express high levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines involved with T cell activation. The vector MVA-C has the ability to cross-present antigens to HIV-specific CD8 T cells in vitro and to increase CD8 T cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The immunogenic profiling in mice after DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost combination revealed activation of HIV-1-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell memory responses that are polyfunctional and with effector memory phenotype. Env-specific IgG binding antibodies were also produced in animals receiving DNA-C prime/MVA-C boost. Our systems analysis of profiling immune response to MVA-C infection highlights the potential benefit of MVA-C as vaccine candidate against HIV/AIDS for clade C, the prevalent subtype virus in the most affected areas of the world.

  11. microTSS: accurate microRNA transcription start site identification reveals a significant number of divergent pri-miRNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakilas, Georgios; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Paraskevopoulou, Maria D; Yang, Peter; Zhang, Yuhong; Economides, Aris N; Hatzigeorgiou, Artemis G

    2014-12-10

    A large fraction of microRNAs (miRNAs) are derived from intergenic non-coding loci and the identification of their promoters remains 'elusive'. Here, we present microTSS, a machine-learning algorithm that provides highly accurate, single-nucleotide resolution predictions for intergenic miRNA transcription start sites (TSSs). MicroTSS integrates high-resolution RNA-sequencing data with active transcription marks derived from chromatin immunoprecipitation and DNase-sequencing to enable the characterization of tissue-specific promoters. MicroTSS is validated with a specifically designed Drosha-null/conditional-null mouse model, generated using the conditional by inversion (COIN) methodology. Analyses of global run-on sequencing data revealed numerous pri-miRNAs in human and mouse either originating from divergent transcription at promoters of active genes or partially overlapping with annotated long non-coding RNAs. MicroTSS is readily applicable to any cell or tissue samples and constitutes the missing part towards integrating the regulation of miRNA transcription into the modelling of tissue-specific regulatory networks.

  12. A large-scale in vivo analysis reveals that TALENs are significantly more mutagenic than ZFNs generated using context-dependent assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shijia; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Chiu, Cindy N.; Niles, Brett J.; Liu, Justin; Lee, Daniel A.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Prober, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) have been shown to induce targeted mutations, but they have not been extensively tested in any animal model. Here, we describe a large-scale comparison of ZFN and TALEN mutagenicity in zebrafish. Using deep sequencing, we found that TALENs are significantly more likely to be mutagenic and induce an average of 10-fold more mutations than ZFNs. We observed a strong correlation between somatic and germ-line mutagenicity, and identi...

  13. Genomic profiling of plasmablastic lymphoma using array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH: revealing significant overlapping genomic lesions with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

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    Lu Xin-Yan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmablastic lymphoma (PL is a subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL. Studies have suggested that tumors with PL morphology represent a group of neoplasms with clinopathologic characteristics corresponding to different entities including extramedullary plasmablastic tumors associated with plasma cell myeloma (PCM. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the genetic similarities and differences among PL, DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related and PCM using array-based comparative genomic hybridization. Results Examination of genomic data in PL revealed that the most frequent segmental gain (> 40% include: 1p36.11-1p36.33, 1p34.1-1p36.13, 1q21.1-1q23.1, 7q11.2-7q11.23, 11q12-11q13.2 and 22q12.2-22q13.3. This correlated with segmental gains occurring in high frequency in DLBCL (AIDS-related and non AIDS-related cases. There were some segmental gains and some segmental loss that occurred in PL but not in the other types of lymphoma suggesting that these foci may contain genes responsible for the differentiation of this lymphoma. Additionally, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and AIDS associated DLBCL suggesting that these foci may be associated with HIV infection. Furthermore, some segmental gains and some segmental loss occurred only in PL and PCM suggesting that these lesions may be related to plasmacytic differentiation. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, the current study represents the first genomic exploration of PL. The genomic aberration pattern of PL appears to be more similar to that of DLBCL (AIDS-related or non AIDS-related than to PCM. Our findings suggest that PL may remain best classified as a subtype of DLBCL at least at the genome level.

  14. A putative Lynch syndrome family carrying MSH2 and MSH6 variants of uncertain significance-functional analysis reveals the pathogenic one

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantelinen, Jukka; Hansen, Thomas V O; Kansikas, Minttu;

    2011-01-01

    Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative L...... identified VUS before predictive gene testing and genetic counseling are offered to a family.......Inherited pathogenic mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2 predispose to Lynch syndrome (LS). However, the finding of a variant or variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in affected family members complicates the risk assessment. Here, we describe a putative LS...... family carrying VUS in both MSH2 (c.2768T>A, p.Val923Glu) and MSH6 (c.3563G>A, p.Ser1188Asn). Two colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were studied for mutations and identified as carriers of both variants. In spite of a relatively high mean age of cancer onset (59.5 years) in the family, many CRC patients...

  15. Bovine Teat Microbiome Analysis Revealed Reduced Alpha Diversity and Significant Changes in Taxonomic Profiles in Quarters with a History of Mastitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falentin, Hélène; Rault, Lucie; Nicolas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Damien S.; Lassalas, Jacques; Lamberton, Philippe; Aubry, Jean-Marc; Marnet, Pierre-Guy; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2016-01-01

    Mastitis is a mammary gland inflammatory disease often due to bacterial infections. Like many other infections, it used to be considered as a host-pathogen interaction driven by host and bacterial determinants. Until now, the involvement of the bovine mammary gland microbiota in the host-pathogen interaction has been poorly investigated, and mainly during the infectious episode. In this study, the bovine teat microbiome was investigated in 31 quarters corresponding to 27 animals, which were all free of inflammation at sampling time but which had different histories regarding mastitis: from no episode of mastitis on all the previous lactations (Healthy quarter, Hq) to one or several clinical mastitis events (Mastitic quarter, Mq). Several quarters whose status was unclear (possible history of subclinical mastitis) were classified as NDq. Total bacterial DNA was extracted from foremilk samples and swab samples of the teat canal. Taxonomic profiles were determined by pyrosequencing on 16s amplicons of the V3-4 region. Hq quarters showed a higher diversity compared to Mq ones (Shannon index: ~8 and 6, respectively). Clustering of the quarters based on their bacterial composition made it possible to separate Mq and Hq quarters into two separate clusters (C1 and C2, respectively). Discriminant analysis of taxonomic profiles between these clusters revealed several differences and allowed the identification of taxonomic markers in relation to mastitis history. C2 quarters were associated with a higher proportion of the Clostridia class (including genera such as Ruminococcus, Oscillospira, Roseburia, Dorea, etc.), the Bacteroidetes phylum (Prevotella, Bacteroides, Paludibacter, etc.), and the Bifidobacteriales order (Bifidobacterium), whereas C1 quarters showed a higher proportion of the Bacilli class (Staphylococcus) and Chlamydiia class. These results indicate that microbiota is altered in udders which have already developed mastitis, even far from the infectious episode

  16. Polyomic profiling reveals significant hepatic metabolic alterations in glucagon-receptor (GCGR knockout mice: implications on anti-glucagon therapies for diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molloy Mark P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glucagon is an important hormone in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, particularly in the maintenance of euglycemia and prevention of hypoglycemia. In type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, glucagon levels are elevated in both the fasted and postprandial states, which contributes to inappropriate hyperglycemia through excessive hepatic glucose production. Efforts to discover and evaluate glucagon receptor antagonists for the treatment of T2DM have been ongoing for approximately two decades, with the challenge being to identify an agent with appropriate pharmaceutical properties and efficacy relative to potential side effects. We sought to determine the hepatic & systemic consequence of full glucagon receptor antagonism through the study of the glucagon receptor knock-out mouse (Gcgr-/- compared to wild-type littermates. Results Liver transcriptomics was performed using Affymetric expression array profiling, and liver proteomics was performed by iTRAQ global protein analysis. To complement the transcriptomic and proteomic analyses, we also conducted metabolite profiling (~200 analytes using mass spectrometry in plasma. Overall, there was excellent concordance (R = 0.88 for changes associated with receptor knock-out between the transcript and protein analysis. Pathway analysis tools were used to map the metabolic processes in liver altered by glucagon receptor ablation, the most notable being significant down-regulation of gluconeogenesis, amino acid catabolism, and fatty acid oxidation processes, with significant up-regulation of glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, and cholesterol biosynthetic processes. These changes at the level of the liver were manifested through an altered plasma metabolite profile in the receptor knock-out mice, e.g. decreased glucose and glucose-derived metabolites, and increased amino acids, cholesterol, and bile acid levels. Conclusions In sum, the results of this study suggest that the complete ablation

  17. PCR reveals significantly higher rates of Trypanosoma cruzi infection than microscopy in the Chagas vector, Triatoma infestans: High rates found in Chuquisaca, Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucero David E

    2007-06-01

    ' and TCZ2 (5' – CCT CCA AGC AGC GGA TAG TTC AGG – 3' primers. Amplicons were chromatographed on a 2% agarose gel with a 100 bp size standard, stained with ethidium bromide and viewed with UV fluorescence. For both the microscopy and PCR assays, we calculated sensitivity (number of positives by a method divided by the number of positives by either method and discrepancy (one method was negative and the other was positive at the locality, life stage and habitat level. The degree of agreement between PCR and microscopy was determined by calculating Kappa (k values with 95% confidence intervals. Results We observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans (81.16% by PCR and 56.52% by microscopy and discovered that PCR is significantly more sensitive than microscopic observation. The overall degree of agreement between the two methods was moderate (Kappa = 0.43 ± 0.07. The level of infection is significantly different among communities; however, prevalence was similar among habitats and life stages. Conclusion PCR was significantly more sensitive than microscopy in all habitats, developmental stages and localities in Chuquisaca, Bolivia. Overall we observed a high prevalence of T. cruzi infection in T. infestans in this area of Bolivia; however, microscopy underestimated infection at all levels examined.

  18. Quantitative proteomics reveals significant changes in cell shape and an energy shift after IPTG induction via an optimized SILAC approach for Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Lingyan; Zhang, Heng; Zhai, Linhui; Dammer, Eric B; Duong, Duc M; Li, Ning; Yan, Zili; Wu, Junzhu; Xu, Ping

    2013-12-01

    Stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) has been widely used in yeast, mammalian cells, and even some multicellular organisms. However, the lack of optimized SILAC media limits its application in Escherichia coli, the most commonly used model organism. We optimized SILACE medium (SILAC medium created in this study for E. coli) for nonauxotrophic E. coli with high growth speed and complete labeling efficiency of the whole proteome in 12 generations. We applied a swapped SILAC workflow and pure null experiment with the SILACE medium using E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells hosting a recombinant plasmid coding for glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ubiquitin binding domain before and after isopropyl thiogalactoside (IPTG) induction. Finally, we identified 1251 proteins with a significant change in abundance. Pathway analysis suggested that cell growth and fissiparism were inhibited accompanied by the down-regulation of proteins related to energy and metabolism, cell division, and the cell cycle, resulting in the size and shape change of the induced cells. Taken together, the results confirm the development of SILACE medium suitable for efficient and complete labeling of E. coli cells and a data filtering strategy for SILAC-based quantitative proteomics studies of E. coli.

  19. Genome of the Asian longhorned beetle (Anoplophora glabripennis), a globally significant invasive species, reveals key functional and evolutionary innovations at the beetle-plant interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Duane D; Scully, Erin D; Pauchet, Yannick; Hoover, Kelli; Kirsch, Roy; Geib, Scott M; Mitchell, Robert F; Waterhouse, Robert M; Ahn, Seung-Joon; Arsala, Deanna; Benoit, Joshua B; Blackmon, Heath; Bledsoe, Tiffany; Bowsher, Julia H; Busch, André; Calla, Bernarda; Chao, Hsu; Childers, Anna K; Childers, Christopher; Clarke, Dave J; Cohen, Lorna; Demuth, Jeffery P; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dolan, Amanda; Duan, Jian J; Dugan, Shannon; Friedrich, Markus; Glastad, Karl M; Goodisman, Michael A D; Haddad, Stephanie; Han, Yi; Hughes, Daniel S T; Ioannidis, Panagiotis; Johnston, J Spencer; Jones, Jeffery W; Kuhn, Leslie A; Lance, David R; Lee, Chien-Yueh; Lee, Sandra L; Lin, Han; Lynch, Jeremy A; Moczek, Armin P; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nelson, David R; Palli, Subba R; Panfilio, Kristen A; Pers, Dan; Poelchau, Monica F; Quan, Honghu; Qu, Jiaxin; Ray, Ann M; Rinehart, Joseph P; Robertson, Hugh M; Roehrdanz, Richard; Rosendale, Andrew J; Shin, Seunggwan; Silva, Christian; Torson, Alex S; Jentzsch, Iris M Vargas; Werren, John H; Worley, Kim C; Yocum, George; Zdobnov, Evgeny M; Gibbs, Richard A; Richards, Stephen

    2016-11-11

    Relatively little is known about the genomic basis and evolution of wood-feeding in beetles. We undertook genome sequencing and annotation, gene expression assays, studies of plant cell wall degrading enzymes, and other functional and comparative studies of the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, a globally significant invasive species capable of inflicting severe feeding damage on many important tree species. Complementary studies of genes encoding enzymes involved in digestion of woody plant tissues or detoxification of plant allelochemicals were undertaken with the genomes of 14 additional insects, including the newly sequenced emerald ash borer and bull-headed dung beetle. The Asian longhorned beetle genome encodes a uniquely diverse arsenal of enzymes that can degrade the main polysaccharide networks in plant cell walls, detoxify plant allelochemicals, and otherwise facilitate feeding on woody plants. It has the metabolic plasticity needed to feed on diverse plant species, contributing to its highly invasive nature. Large expansions of chemosensory genes involved in the reception of pheromones and plant kairomones are consistent with the complexity of chemical cues it uses to find host plants and mates. Amplification and functional divergence of genes associated with specialized feeding on plants, including genes originally obtained via horizontal gene transfer from fungi and bacteria, contributed to the addition, expansion, and enhancement of the metabolic repertoire of the Asian longhorned beetle, certain other phytophagous beetles, and to a lesser degree, other phytophagous insects. Our results thus begin to establish a genomic basis for the evolutionary success of beetles on plants.

  20. A large scale survey reveals that chromosomal copy-number alterations significantly affect gene modules involved in cancer initiation and progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cigudosa Juan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent observations point towards the existence of a large number of neighborhoods composed of functionally-related gene modules that lie together in the genome. This local component in the distribution of the functionality across chromosomes is probably affecting the own chromosomal architecture by limiting the possibilities in which genes can be arranged and distributed across the genome. As a direct consequence of this fact it is therefore presumable that diseases such as cancer, harboring DNA copy number alterations (CNAs, will have a symptomatology strongly dependent on modules of functionally-related genes rather than on a unique "important" gene. Methods We carried out a systematic analysis of more than 140,000 observations of CNAs in cancers and searched by enrichments in gene functional modules associated to high frequencies of loss or gains. Results The analysis of CNAs in cancers clearly demonstrates the existence of a significant pattern of loss of gene modules functionally related to cancer initiation and progression along with the amplification of modules of genes related to unspecific defense against xenobiotics (probably chemotherapeutical agents. With the extension of this analysis to an Array-CGH dataset (glioblastomas from The Cancer Genome Atlas we demonstrate the validity of this approach to investigate the functional impact of CNAs. Conclusions The presented results indicate promising clinical and therapeutic implications. Our findings also directly point out to the necessity of adopting a function-centric, rather a gene-centric, view in the understanding of phenotypes or diseases harboring CNAs.

  1. Label-free LC-MSMS analysis of vitreous from autoimmune uveitis reveals a significant decrease in secreted Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Stefanie M; Hofmaier, Florian; Dietter, Johannes; Swadzba, Margarete E; Blindert, Marcel; Amann, Barbara; Behler, Jennifer; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Ueffing, Marius; Deeg, Cornelia A

    2012-07-19

    Equine recurrent uveitis is a severe and frequent blinding disease in horses which presents with auto-reactive invading T-cells, resulting in the destruction of the inner eye. Infiltration of inflammatory cells into the retina and vitreous is driven by currently unknown guidance cues, however surgical removal of the vitreous (vitrectomy) has proven therapeutically successful. Therefore, proteomic analyses of vitrectomy samples are likely to result in detection of proteins contributing to disease pathogenesis. Vitreous from healthy and ERU diseased horses were directly compared by quantitative mass spectrometry based on label-free quantification of peak intensities across samples. We found a significant upregulation of complement and coagulation cascades and downregulation of negative paracrine regulators of canonical Wnt signalling including the Wnt signalling inhibitors DKK3 and SFRP2. Based on immunohistochemistry, both proteins are expressed in equine retina and suggest localisation to retinal Müller glial cells (RMG), which may be the source cells for these proteins. Furthermore, retinal expression levels and patterns of DKK3 change in response to ERU. Since many other regulated proteins identified here are associated with RMG cells, these cells qualify as the prime responders to autoimmune triggers.

  2. Hospital population screening reveals overrepresentation of CD5(-) monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance of IgM type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Minna; Vogler, Birthe; Trepel, Martin; Panse, Jens; Jung, Roman; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Bacher, Ulrike; Binder, Mascha

    2015-09-01

    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) result from clonal expansions of mature B or plasma cells. Here, we set out to determine the immunophenotypic/monoclonal immunoglobulin (M protein) features and co-prevalence of MBL and MGUS in a hospital-based cohort of 1909 non-hematooncological patients. Of the evaluable cases, 3.8 % showed evidence for MBL by immunophenotyping, while 9.8 % were screened positive for M protein by immunofixation. With six concomitant cases (0.4 %), MBL and MGUS were not statistically associated. At least in two of these coincident cases, MBL and MGUS were of different clonal origin since both clones had divergent light chain restriction. CD5(-) MBL (57.1 %) and IgM+ MGUS (24.7 %) were strikingly overrepresented compared to population-based screenings and did not progress to overt lymphoma or myeloma during the observation period (mean follow-up of 117 weeks or 110 weeks, respectively). Prevalence and phenotypes suggest that a substantial proportion of incidental MBL and MGUS in hospitalized patients may be attributed to transiently expanded B-cell clones in the context of disease-related immune stimulation rather than reflecting veritable precursors of clonal B-cell malignancies.

  3. Modulation of ethylene responses by OsRTH1 overexpression reveals the biological significance of ethylene in rice seedling growth and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Xin; Wen, Chi-Kuang

    2012-06-01

    Overexpression of Arabidopsis Reversion-To-ethylene Sensitivity1 (RTE1) results in whole-plant ethylene insensitivity dependent on the ethylene receptor gene Ethylene Response1 (ETR1). However, overexpression of the tomato RTE1 homologue Green Ripe (GR) delays fruit ripening but does not confer whole-plant ethylene insensitivity. It was decided to investigate whether aspects of ethylene-induced growth and development of the monocotyledonous model plant rice could be modulated by rice RTE1 homologues (OsRTH genes). Results from a cross-species complementation test in Arabidopsis showed that OsRTH1 overexpression complemented the rte1-2 loss-of-function mutation and conferred whole-plant ethylene insensitivity in an ETR1-dependent manner. In contrast, OsRTH2 and OsRTH3 overexpression did not complement rte1-2 or confer ethylene insensitivity. In rice, OsRTH1 overexpression substantially prevented ethylene-induced alterations in growth and development, including leaf senescence, seedling leaf elongation and development, coleoptile elongation or curvature, and adventitious root development. Results of subcellular localizations of OsRTHs, each fused with the green fluorescent protein, in onion epidermal cells suggested that the three OsRTHs were predominantly localized to the Golgi. OsRTH1 may be an RTE1 orthologue of rice and modulate rice ethylene responses. The possible roles of auxins and gibberellins in the ethylene-induced alterations in growth were evaluated and the biological significance of ethylene in the early stage of rice seedling growth is discussed.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of HPV16 integration in OSCC reveals no significant impact of physical status on viral oncogene and virally disrupted human gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine C Olthof

    Full Text Available Infection with high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV type 16 is an independent risk factor for the development of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC. However, it is unclear whether viral integration is an essential hallmark in the carcinogenic process of OSCC and whether HPV integration correlates with the level of viral gene transcription and influences the expression of disrupted host genes. We analyzed 75 patients with OSCC. HPV16-positivity was proven by p16(INK4A immunohistochemistry, PCR and FISH. Viral integration was examined using DIPS- as well as APOT-PCR. Viral E2, E6 and E7 gene expression levels were quantified by quantitative reverse transcriptase (RT-qPCR. Expression levels of 7 human genes disrupted by the virus were extracted from mRNA expression profiling data of 32 OSCCs. Viral copy numbers were assessed by qPCR in 73 tumors. We identified 37 HPV16-human fusion products indicating viral integration in 29 (39% OSCC. In the remaining tumors (61% only episome-derived PCR products were detected. When comparing OSCC with or without an integration-derived fusion product, we did not find significant differences in the mean RNA expression of viral genes E2, E6 and E7 or the viral copy numbers per cell, nor did the RNA expression of the HPV-disrupted genes differ from either group of OSCC. In conclusion, our data do not support the hypothesis that integration affects the levels of viral and/or HPV-disrupted human gene transcripts. Thus constitutive, rather than a high level, of expression of oncogene transcripts appears to be required in HPV-related OSCC.

  5. Shotgun metagenomic data reveals significant abundance but low diversity of “Candidatus Scalindua” marine anammox bacteria in the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Laura; Speth, Daan R.; van Alen, Theo; Hoischen, Alexander; Jetten, Mike S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are responsible for a significant portion of the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans, making them important players in the global nitrogen cycle. To date, marine anammox bacteria found in both water columns and sediments worldwide belong almost exclusively to “Candidatus Scalindua” species. Recently the genome assembly of a marine anammox enrichment culture dominated by “Candidatus Scalindua profunda” became available and can now be used as a template to study metagenome data obtained from various oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Here, we sequenced genomic DNA from suspended particulate matter recovered at the upper (170 m deep) and center (600 m) area of the OMZ in the Arabian Sea by SOLiD and Ion Torrent technology. The genome of “Candidatus Scalindua profunda” served as a template to collect reads. Based on the mapped reads marine anammox Abundance was estimated to be at least 0.4% in the upper and 1.7% in the center area. Single nucleotide variation (SNV) analysis was performed to assess diversity of the “Candidatus Scalindua” populations. Most highly covered were the two diagnostic anammox genes hydrazine synthase (scal_01318c, hzsA) and hydrazine dehydrogenase (scal_03295, hdh), while other genes involved in anammox metabolism (narGH, nirS, amtB, focA, and ACS) had a lower coverage but could still be assembled and analyzed. The results show that “Candidatus Scalindua” is abundantly present in the Arabian Sea OMZ, but that the diversity within the ecosystem is relatively low. PMID:24550902

  6. Metabolomics using GC-TOF-MS followed by subsequent GC-FID and HILIC-MS/MS analysis revealed significantly altered fatty acid and phospholipid species profiles in plasma of smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel C; Degen, Christian; Scherer, Gerhard; Jahreis, Gerhard; Niessner, Reinhard; Scherer, Max

    2014-09-01

    Mass spectrometry is an ideal tool for investigations of the metabolome in human plasma. To investigate the impact of smoking on the human metabolome, we performed an untargeted metabolic fingerprinting using GC-TOF-MS with EDTA-plasma samples from 25 smokers and 25 non-smokers. The observed elevated levels in the monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in smokers were verified by a targeted analysis using GC-FID, which revealed also significantly alterations in saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids in smokers (p<0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). Since the main fraction of fatty acids in plasma is esterified to phospholipids, we analyzed phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) species composition in the plasma samples of the same subjects. The profiles of 39 PC and 40 PE species were analyzed with a newly developed and validated HILIC-ESI-MS/MS method. We were able to baseline separate the two lipid classes (PC from PE) by maintaining co-elution of individual lipid species of each class. The method shows a linear range from 0.5μM to 2000μM and an inter- and intraday coefficient of variation (CV)<20% across all analytes. Application of the validated method to the plasma samples of smokers and non-smokers, derived from a diet-controlled smoking study, revealed significantly elevated levels of PC and PE species containing MUFAs in smokers. In summary, we could demonstrate that there is a significantly altered total fatty acid profile, with increased MUFAs, in the plasma of smokers compared to non-smokers. Results obtained with the new HILIC-MS/MS method indicate that the altered fatty acid profile is also reflected in the PC and PE profile of smokers.

  7. Significant increase in HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in West Bengal, Eastern India 2004-2005: Exploratory screening reveals high frequency of occult HBV infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prasun Bhattacharya; Partha Kumar Chandra; Sibnarayan Datta; Arup Banerjee; Subhashish Chakraborty; Krishnan Rajendran; Subir Kumar Basu; Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya; Runu Chakravarty

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Kolkata, Eastern India for two consecutive years and to conduct a pilot study to explore the presence of HBV DNA among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative but anti-HBc positive blood donors.METHODS: Seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV was studied among 113051 and 106695 voluntary blood donors screened in 2004 and 2005,respectively. Moreover, a pilot study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors was carried out for evaluating the presence of HBV DNA by PCR on HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donors.RESJLTS: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of HBV (1448 vs 1768, P < 0.001), HIV (262vs 374, P < 0.001), HCV (314 vs 372, P = 0.003) and syphilis (772 vs 853, P = 0.001) infections was noted among blood donors of Kolkata West Bengal in 2005 as compared to 2004. Moreover, the exploratory study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors revealed that 188 (18.3%) of them were anti-HBc positive out of which 21% were positive for HBV DNA.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study underscore the significantly increasing endemicity of hepatitis viruses, syphilis and HIV among the voluntary blood donors of our community. The pilot study indicates a high rate of prevalence of HBV DNA among HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive donors and thus emphasizes the need for a more sensitive and stringent screening algorithm for blood donations.

  8. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  10. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Tim J.; Munshil, Tulika; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen

    2017-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis......Ka culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin....

  11. Improved Culture Medium (TiKa) for Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis (MAP) Matches qPCR Sensitivity and Reveals Significant Proportions of Non-viable MAP in Lymphoid Tissue of Vaccinated MAP Challenged Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Tim J; Munshi, Tulika; Mikkelsen, Heidi; Hartmann, Sofie B; Sørensen, Maria R; Garcia, Joanna S; Lopez-Perez, Paula M; Hofmann, Sven; Hilpert, Kai; Jungersen, Gregers

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative detection of viable pathogen load is an important tool in determining the degree of infection in animals and contamination of foodstuffs. Current conventional culture methods are limited in their ability to determine these levels in Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) due to slow growth, clumping and low recoverability issues. The principle goal of this study was to evaluate a novel culturing process (TiKa) with unique ability to stimulate MAP growth from low sample loads and dilutions. We demonstrate it was able to stimulate a mean 29-fold increase in recoverability and an improved sensitivity of up to three logs when compared with conventional culture. Using TiKa culture, MAP clumping was minimal and produced visible colonies in half the time required by standard culture methods. Parallel quantitative evaluation of the TiKa culture approach and qPCR on MAP loads in tissue and gut mucosal samples from a MAP vaccine-challenge study, showed good correlations between colony counts (cfu) and qPCR derived genome equivalents (Geq) over a large range of loads with a 30% greater sensitivity for TiKa culture approach at low loads (two logs). Furthermore, the relative fold changes in Geq and cfu from the TiKa culture approach suggests that non-mucosal tissue loads from MAP infected animals contained a reduced proportion of non-viable MAP (mean 19-fold) which was reduced significantly further (mean 190-fold) in vaccinated "reactor" calves. This study shows TiKa culture equates well with qPCR and provides important evidence that accuracy in estimating viable MAP load using DNA tests alone may vary significantly between samples of mucosal and lymphatic origin.

  12. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin U Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively. Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13 × 10(-14 for rs1258763; relative risk (RR: 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.32-1.61 but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94-1.27. The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1, which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47-9.61, Pdiff<0.05. While we did not find lip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014. The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions.

  13. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for Nonsyndromic Clefting of Both the Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Kerstin U.; Ahmed, Syeda Tasnim; Böhmer, Anne C.; Sangani, Nasim Bahram; Varghese, Sheryil; Klamt, Johanna; Schuenke, Hannah; Gültepe, Pinar; Hofmann, Andrea; Rubini, Michele; Aldhorae, Khalid Ahmed; Steegers-Theunissen, Regine P.; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Reiter, Rudolf; Borck, Guntram; Knapp, Michael; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Graf, Daniel; Mangold, Elisabeth; Peters, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Nonsyndromic orofacial clefts are common birth defects with multifactorial etiology. The most common type is cleft lip, which occurs with or without cleft palate (nsCLP and nsCLO, respectively). Although genetic components play an important role in nsCLP, the genetic factors that predispose to palate involvement are largely unknown. In this study, we carried out a meta-analysis on genetic and clinical data from three large cohorts and identified strong association between a region on chromosome 15q13 and nsCLP (P = 8.13×10−14 for rs1258763; relative risk (RR): 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.32–1.61)) but not nsCLO (P = 0.27; RR: 1.09 (0.94–1.27)). The 5 kb region of strongest association maps downstream of Gremlin-1 (GREM1), which encodes a secreted antagonist of the BMP4 pathway. We show during mouse embryogenesis, Grem1 is expressed in the developing lip and soft palate but not in the hard palate. This is consistent with genotype-phenotype correlations between rs1258763 and a specific nsCLP subphenotype, since a more than two-fold increase in risk was observed in patients displaying clefts of both the lip and soft palate but who had an intact hard palate (RR: 3.76, CI: 1.47–9.61, Pdiff<0.05). While we did not find lip or palate defects in Grem1-deficient mice, wild type embryonic palatal shelves developed divergent shapes when cultured in the presence of ectopic Grem1 protein (P = 0.0014). The present study identified a non-coding region at 15q13 as the second, genome-wide significant locus specific for nsCLP, after 13q31. Moreover, our data suggest that the closely located GREM1 gene contributes to a rare clinical nsCLP entity. This entity specifically involves abnormalities of the lip and soft palate, which develop at different time-points and in separate anatomical regions. PMID:26968009

  14. Revealing Significant Learning Moments with Interactive Whiteboards in Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Catherine D.; McPherson, Richard; Sabeti, Farhad Mordy; Flynn, Tara

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify when and how the interactive whiteboard (IWB) functioned as a productive tool that impacted student learning in mathematics. Using video data, field notes, and interview transcripts from 1 school year in two optimal case study classrooms, we were able to examine the unique opportunities afforded by the size of…

  15. Revealing the mechanisms and significance of frozen soil infiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stähli, Manfred; Hayashi, Masaki

    2015-04-01

    Frozen soil is one of the most characteristic features of Nordic hydrology. Depending on climate, snow cover and soil properties it can slow down or even inhibit the water's journey from the soil surface to the stream, or it can speed up the journey by generating overland flow. When Harald Grip's and Allan Rhode's book came out in the mid-eighties, state-of-the-art knowledge on frozen soil hydrology was based on numerous cold-chamber experiments and only few field measurements, especially from Alaska. It was already then recognized that frozen soil is not impermeable per se, but its permeability depends on the amount and connectivity of air-filled pores, which in turn depends on ice content. How has our understanding of frozen soil hydrology further developed since then? One important innovation was the application of dye tracers to frozen field plots and soil columns uncovering the flow paths of infiltrating water. A second crucial advance was the development of numerical models to calculate water transfer from the snow cover into soil profiles. These models made researchers aware of the high sensitivity of frozen soil infiltration to boundary conditions (e.g. depth to groundwater) and winter history (e.g. evolution of snow cover, number of mid-winter melt events). A further important insight was that local effects of frozen ground on water flow may vanish at the scale of catchments due to the highly variable topography, vegetation and soil of a landscape. Nevertheless, studies showing the impact of frozen soil on large scale ground-water recharge or stream runoff are still scarce. A recent analysis of long-term runoff data from Switzerland sheds new light on the response of small catchments to frozen ground. Finally, it can be concluded that the Nordic lessons on frozen soil hydrology have been noted by the worldwide research community and are receiving increased attention in the context of climate change and its impacts on seasonally and permanently frozen soil.

  16. Ambiguity Revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Subir Bose; Matthew Polisson; Ludovic Renou

    2012-01-01

    We derive necessary and suffcient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under ambiguity: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for the maxmin expected utility and subjective expected utility models are characterized as special cases.

  17. Ambiguity revealed

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Ralph-C; Bose, Subir; Polisson, Matthew; Renou, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    We derive necessary and sufficient conditions for data sets composed of state-contingent prices and consumption to be consistent with two prominent models of decision making under uncertainty: variational preferences and smooth ambiguity. The revealed preference conditions for subjective expected utility, maxmin expected utility, and multiplier preferences are characterised as special cases. We implement our tests on data from a portfolio choice experiment.

  18. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  19. REVEALED ALTRUISM

    OpenAIRE

    Cox, James C; Friedman, Daniel; Sadiraj, Vjollca

    2009-01-01

    This pap er develops a theory of revealed preferences over oneís own and othersímonetary payo§s. We intro duce ìmore altruistic thanî(MAT), a partial ordering over preferences, and interpret it with known parametric mo dels. We also intro duce and illustrate ìmore generous thanî (MGT), a partial ordering over opp ortunity sets. Several recent discussions of altruism fo cus on two player extensive form games of complete information in which the Örst mover (FM) cho oses a more or less gen...

  20. Aspirin revealed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, D.; Hu, X. K.; Loboda, A. V.; Mosey, N. J.; Lipson, R. H.

    2007-03-01

    Experiments are described where the experimental conditions have been optimized to detect aspirin by MALDI mass spectrometry. Although protonated aspirin was not observed by MALDI, sodium and potassium aspirin adducts could be found. Significantly better signals could be obtained by using Rb and Cs salts as cationization sources. Quantum calculations were carried out to determine the structure and energetics of the Li, K, Rb, and Cs alkali--aspirin adducts.

  1. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  2. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P

    2013-01-01

    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  3. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  4. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spady, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  5. Significance Testing Without Truth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-27

    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  6. 论从价值观角度对海南黎族寓言化民间故事和希腊伊索寓言比较研究的意义%On the Significance of Comparative Study on Values Revealed from Allegorized Traditional Folk Tales of Li in Hainan and Aesop Fables in Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈玮

    2015-01-01

    海南黎族民间故事是海南宝贵的非物质文化遗产,它蕴含着黎族人民思想道德与价值观精髓.许多具有寓言化的特性的黎族民间故事与希腊的伊索寓言一样,在价值观上都包含有哲理的启示性.通过对两者的比较研究,在价值观上去粗取精、去伪存真、古为今用,一方面,对于传承与弘扬本土文化价值,增强海南的文化自信与价值观的自信,以及帮助构建文化和谐与社会和谐的海南国际旅游岛具有重要及深远的意义;另一方面,充分合理利用先人传承下来的传统美德与价值观精华,推陈出新,用精神财富以文化人,以文育人,对于培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,激发社会正能量,为实现中华民族伟大复兴的"中国梦"能提供强大的精神文化支撑,具有极大的学术与应用的价值和意义.%As an intangible cultural heritage, traditional folk tales of Li in Hainan reveal the essence of ethics and values of Li. A lot of these folk tales are allegorized and resemble Aesop fables which are very enlightening and philosophical. The great signifi-cance of comparative study on values revealed from these two kinds of literature works consists in mainly two points. The study can help promote traditional local cultures and values of Li as well as the construction of harmonious culture and society of Internation-al Tourism Island of Hainan. Besides, combining western and local traditional values with socialist core values, this kind of study can enhance the social construction of ideological infrastructure and help realize the Chinese dream of the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation.

  7. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  8. Significant Tsunami Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/

  9. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  10. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen

    2005-07-01

    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  11. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Local coexpression domains in the genome of rice show no microsynteny with Arabidopsis domains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.Y.; Stiekema, W.J.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomal coexpression domains are found in a number of different genomes under various developmental conditions. The size of these domains and the number of genes they contain vary. Here, we define local coexpression domains as adjacent genes where all possible pair-wise correlations of

  14. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  15. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S

    2006-01-01

    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  16. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  17. Heat reveals faults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinreich, Bernhard [Solarschmiede GmbH, Muenchen (Germany). Engineering Dept.

    2010-07-01

    Gremlins cannot hide from the all-revealing view of a thermographic camera, whereby it makes no difference whether it is a roof-mounted system or a megawatt-sized farm. Just as diverse are the range of faults that, with the growing level of expertise, can now be detected and differentiated with even greater detail. (orig.)

  18. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    CERN Document Server

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S

    2007-01-01

    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  19. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y.; Goldman, Kenneth J.; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Chapman, Demian D.; Papastamatiou, Yannis P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2–3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources. PMID:25902489

  20. The Hall current system revealed as a statistical significant pattern during fast flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Snekvik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the dawn-dusk component of the magnetic field, BY, in the night side current sheet during fast flows in the neutral sheet. 237 h of Cluster data from the plasma sheet between 2 August 2002 and 2 October 2002 have been analysed. The spatial pattern of BY as a function of the distance from the centre of the current sheet has been estimated by using a Harris current sheet model. We have used the average slopes of these patterns to estimate earthward and tailward currents. For earthward fast flows there is a tailward current in the inner central plasma sheet and an earthward current in the outer central plasma sheet on average. For tailward fast flows the currents are oppositely directed. These observations are interpreted as signatures of Hall currents in the reconnection region or as field aligned currents which are connected with these currents. Although fast flows often are associated with a dawn-dusk current wedge, we believe that we have managed to filter out such currents from our statistical patterns.

  1. Assessment of capability index of processes revealing significant asymmetry with respect to tolerance limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bukowski

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of basic capability indices for production processes, Cp and Cpk, as well as the Cpm index for processes asymmetric with respect to tolerance limits. A method is presented for the estimation of process admissible asymmetry, when anappropriate PPM level of defective products is to be maintained. It is proved that an unbiased capability assessment for asymmetricprocesses is only feasible if the pair of indices Cp and Cpk is included in the assessment. An example is given of an analysis of data on the production of automotive bearings. The computations were performed with use of the KWSPP program.

  2. Revealing Significant Relations between Chemical/Biological Features and Activity: Associative Classification Mining for Drug Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pulan

    2012-01-01

    Classification, clustering and association mining are major tasks of data mining and have been widely used for knowledge discovery. Associative classification mining, the combination of both association rule mining and classification, has emerged as an indispensable way to support decision making and scientific research. In particular, it offers a…

  3. Significance of satellite DNA revealed by conservation of a widespread repeat DNA sequence among angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrotra, Shweta; Goel, Shailendra; Raina, Soom Nath; Rajpal, Vijay Rani

    2014-08-01

    The analysis of plant genome structure and evolution requires comprehensive characterization of repetitive sequences that make up the majority of plant nuclear DNA. In the present study, we analyzed the nature of pCtKpnI-I and pCtKpnI-II tandem repeated sequences, reported earlier in Carthamus tinctorius. Interestingly, homolog of pCtKpnI-I repeat sequence was also found to be present in widely divergent families of angiosperms. pCtKpnI-I showed high sequence similarity but low copy number among various taxa of different families of angiosperms analyzed. In comparison, pCtKpnI-II was specific to the genus Carthamus and was not present in any other taxa analyzed. The molecular structure of pCtKpnI-I was analyzed in various unrelated taxa of angiosperms to decipher the evolutionary conserved nature of the sequence and its possible functional role.

  4. High-precision quadrupole moment reveals significant intruder component in 20 13 33Al ground state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heylen, H.; De Rydt, M.; Neyens, G.; Bissell, M. L.; Caceres, L.; Chevrier, R.; Daugas, J. M.; Ichikawa, Y.; Ishibashi, Y.; Kamalou, O.; Mertzimekis, T. J.; Morel, P.; Papuga, J.; Poves, A.; Rajabali, M. M.; Stödel, C.; Thomas, J. C.; Ueno, H.; Utsuno, Y.; Yoshida, N.; Yoshimi, A.

    2016-09-01

    The electric quadrupole moment of the 20 13 33Al ground state, located at the border of the island of inversion, was obtained using continuous-beam β -detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (β -NQR). From the measured quadrupole coupling constant νQ=2.31 (4 ) MHz in an α -Al2O3 crystal, a precise value for the electric quadrupole moment is extracted: 33Al>Qs 141 (3 ) mb. A comparison with large-scale shell model calculations shows that 33Al has at least 50% intruder configurations in the ground state wave function, favoring the excitation of two neutrons across the N =20 shell gap. 33Al therefore clearly marks the gradual transition north of the deformed Na and Mg nuclei towards the normal Z ≥14 isotopes.

  5. Urban eddy covariance measurements reveal significant missing NOx emissions in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, T; Graus, M; Striednig, M; Lamprecht, C; Hammerle, A; Wohlfahrt, G; Held, A; von der Heyden, L; Deventer, M J; Krismer, A; Haun, C; Feichter, R; Lee, J

    2017-05-30

    Nitrogen oxide (NOx) pollution is emerging as a primary environmental concern across Europe. While some large European metropolitan areas are already in breach of EU safety limits for NO2, this phenomenon does not seem to be only restricted to large industrialized areas anymore. Many smaller scale populated agglomerations including their surrounding rural areas are seeing frequent NO2 concentration violations. The question of a quantitative understanding of different NOx emission sources is therefore of immanent relevance for climate and air chemistry models as well as air pollution management and health. Here we report simultaneous eddy covariance flux measurements of NOx, CO2, CO and non methane volatile organic compound tracers in a city that might be considered representative for Central Europe and the greater Alpine region. Our data show that NOx fluxes are largely at variance with modelled emission projections, suggesting an appreciable underestimation of the traffic related atmospheric NOx input in Europe, comparable to the weekend-weekday effect, which locally changes ozone production rates by 40%.

  6. A systematic screen reveals MicroRNA clusters that significantly regulate four major signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey E Becker

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are encoded in the genome as individual miRNA genes or as gene clusters transcribed as polycistronic units. About 50% of all miRNAs are estimated to be co-expressed with neighboring miRNAs. Recent studies have begun to illuminate the importance of the clustering of miRNAs from an evolutionary, as well as a functional standpoint. Many miRNA clusters coordinately regulate multiple members of cellular signaling pathways or protein interaction networks. This cooperative method of targeting could produce effects on an overall process that are much more dramatic than the smaller effects often associated with regulation by an individual miRNA. In this study, we screened 366 human miRNA minigenes to determine their effects on the major signaling pathways culminating in AP-1, NF-κB, c-Myc, or p53 transcriptional activity. By stratifying these data into miRNA clusters, this systematic screen provides experimental evidence for the combined effects of clustered miRNAs on these signaling pathways. We also verify p53 as a direct target of miR-200a. This study is the first to provide a panoramic view of miRNA clusters' effects on cellular pathways.

  7. Comparative analyses of animal-tracking data reveal ecological significance of endothermy in fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Goldman, Kenneth J; Caselle, Jennifer E; Chapman, Demian D; Papastamatiou, Yannis P

    2015-05-12

    Despite long evolutionary separations, several sharks and tunas share the ability to maintain slow-twitch, aerobic red muscle (RM) warmer than ambient water. Proximate causes of RM endothermy are well understood, but ultimate causes are unclear. Two advantages often proposed are thermal niche expansion and elevated cruising speeds. The thermal niche hypothesis is generally supported, because fishes with RM endothermy often exhibit greater tolerance to broad temperature ranges. In contrast, whether fishes with RM endothermy cruise faster, and achieve any ecological benefits from doing so, remains unclear. Here, we compiled data recorded by modern animal-tracking tools for a variety of free-swimming marine vertebrates. Using phylogenetically informed allometry, we show that both cruising speeds and maximum annual migration ranges of fishes with RM endothermy are 2-3 times greater than fishes without it, and comparable to nonfish endotherms (i.e., penguins and marine mammals). The estimated cost of transport of fishes with RM endothermy is twice that of fishes without it. We suggest that the high energetic cost of RM endothermy in fishes is offset by the benefit of elevated cruising speeds, which not only increase prey encounter rates, but also enable larger-scale annual migrations and potentially greater access to seasonally available resources.

  8. High-precision quadrupole moment reveals significant intruder component in 33Al20 ground state

    CERN Document Server

    Heylen, H; Neyens, G; Bissell, M L; Caceres, L; Chevrier, R; Daugas, J M; Ichikawa, Y; Ishibashi, Y; Kamalou, O; Mertzimekis, T J; Morel, P; Papuga, J; Poves, A; Rajabali, M M; Stodel, C; Thomas, J C; Ueno, H; Utsuno, Y; Yoshida, N; Yoshimi, A

    2016-01-01

    The electric quadrupole moment of the 33Al20 ground state, located at the border of the island of inversion, was obtained using continuous-beam beta-detected nuclear quadrupole resonance (beta-NQR). From the measured quadrupole coupling constant Q = 2.31(4) MHz in an alpha-Al2O3 crystal, a precise value for the electric quadrupole moment is extracted: Qs= 141(3) mb. A comparison with large-scale shell model calculations shows that 33Al has at least 50% intruder configurations in the ground state wave function, favoring the excitation of two neutrons across the N = 20 shell gap. 33Al therefore clearly marks the gradual transition north of the deformed Na and Mg nuclei towards the normal Z>14 isotopes.

  9. Sphagnum Moss in the Athabasca Bituminous Sands Region Reveals No Significant Atmospheric Contamination by "Heavy Metals"

    OpenAIRE

    SHOTYK W.; BELLAND Rene; DUKE John; KEMPTER Heike; KRACHLER MICHAEL; NOERNBERG Tommy; VILE Melanie; WIEDER Kelman; Zaccone, Claudio; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2014-01-01

    Sphagnum moss were collected from three sites at each of twenty-one ombrotrophic (rain-fed) peat bogs in the vicinity of and surrounding open pit mines and upgrading facilities of Athabasca Bituminous Sands in Alberta. Compared with contemporary Sphagnum moss from multiple sites at each of four bogs in rural locations of southern Germany, the AB mosses yielded lower concentrations of Ag, Cd, Ni, Pb, Sb and Tl, similar concentrations of Mo, but greater concentrations of Ba, Th and V. ...

  10. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  11. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  12. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  13. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  14. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because the textb......One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...... process for which process recordings are a valuable communication media in order to enhance the learning process. Student feedback indicates both high learning outcome and superior learning potential compared to traditional classroom teaching....

  15. Professor reveals darter reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Newspaper article on on reserve population of watercress darter in Pinson, AL to help save the population in Roebuck Spring after a significant fish kill in 2008.

  16. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  17. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...

  18. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  19. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    2017-01-01

    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  20. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  1. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  2. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  3. The significance of constitutional values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HN Nisihara

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  4. The significance of small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2017-09-01

    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  5. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Tsutomu

    2013-09-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  6. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  7. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  8. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  10. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat

    2006-04-01

    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  11. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  12. Revealing the Beast Within

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-07-01

    Deeply Embedded Massive Stellar Clusters Discovered in Milky Way Powerhouse Summary Peering into a giant molecular cloud in the Milky Way galaxy - known as W49 - astronomers from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a whole new population of very massive newborn stars . This research is being presented today at the International Astronomical Union's 25th General Assembly held in Sydney, Australia, by ESO-scientist João Alves. With the help of infrared images obtained during a period of excellent observing conditions with the ESO 3.5-m New Technology Telescope (NTT) at the La Silla Observatory (Chile), the astronomers looked deep into this molecular cloud and discovered four massive stellar clusters, with hot and energetic stars as massive as 120 solar masses. The exceedingly strong radiation from the stars in the largest of these clusters is "powering" a 20 light-year diameter region of mostly ionized hydrogen gas (a "giant HII region"). W49 is one of the most energetic regions of star formation in the Milky Way. With the present discovery, the true sources of the enormous energy have now been revealed for the first time, finally bringing to an end some decades of astronomical speculations and hypotheses. PR Photo 21a/03 : Colour Composite of W49A (NTT+SOFI). PR Photo 21b/03 : Radio and Near-Infrared Composite of W49A Giant molecular clouds Stars form predominantly inside Giant Molecular Clouds which populate our Galaxy, the Milky Way. One of the most prominent of these is W49 , which has a mass of a million solar masses. It is located some 37,000 light-years away and is the most luminous star-forming region known in our home galaxy: its luminosity is several million times the luminosity of our Sun. A smaller region within this cloud is denoted W49A - this is one of the strongest radio-emitting areas known in the Galaxy . Massive stars are excessive in all ways. Compared to their smaller and ligther brethren, they form at an Olympic speed and

  13. Significant new quantitative EGG patterns in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Navarro López

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We analyzed the EEG recordings of a sample of fibromyalgia patients, with the goal of looking for new, more objective indicators on the diagnosis and severity assessment of this pathology, and looking also to establish the relationship of these new indicators with different psychological and neuropsychiatric tests. Methods: We compared the EEG recordings of a group of 13 fibromyalgia patients with a normalized database built into the software of the equipment used (Neuronic, and also with a control group of 13 individuals; both groups were selected under the same criteria of inclusion-exclusion. Patients and controls underwent quantitative EEG (eyes closed, according to international 10-20 EEG system and were specifically evaluated throughout various neuropsychiatric and psychological questionnaires. Results: We obtained the absolute powers of QEEG (quantitative for the different electrode sites and frequency bands, we determined the corresponding values of the deviation from normal (Z-scores, and estimated various indicators and ratios, as well as correlations with the results of psychological tests. Interestingly, the ratios of theta and beta frequencies in relation with alpha appear as one of the most relevant indicators of the severity of the pathology; significant differences were also found in the peak frequency (maximum power per Hz of the alpha band, and in the frequency peak of the total spectrum. Conclusions: The consistency of the abnormal EEG patterns of fibromyalgia patients revealed the presence of systemic dysfunction at the central nervous system level, beyond possible peripheral anomalies and specific tissue pathologies. Among the indicators and benchmarks achieved, the most important changes concern the frequencies theta, alpha and beta, and still more significant were the values of their ratios in the comparison between patients and controls. The relative values of peak frequencies are also of

  14. Vitronectin significantly influences prognosis in osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Kai; Lan, Rui-Long; Tao, Xuan; Wu, Chao-Yang; Hong, Hai-Feng; Lin, Jian-Hua

    2015-01-01

    Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional adhesive protein, is found in association with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in a variety of (human) tumors. But no studies concerning its correlation to osteosarcoma prognosis were found. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Vitronectin (Vn) in osteosarcoma. Here, we studied the expression of VN in the tumor tissues from 67 patients with osteosarcoma and 20 patients with osteochondroma using immunohistochemistry and estimated the effects of VN expression in osteosarcoma on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier curve and COX proportional hazards regression model. Increased expression of VN in osteosarcoma tissue compared to no VN expression in osteochondroma tissue was shown in immunohistochemical assay. No associations were observed between VN expression and osteosarcoma patients' gender (P = 0.675), age (P = 0.813), tumor size (P = 0.436), histologic subtype (P = 0.0.543) or tumor location (P = 0.456). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated significant correlations of high VN expression with shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001); multivariate survival analysis revealed high VN expression as a significant independent prognostic indicator for shorter PFS (HR 2.788, P = 0.003) and OS (HR2.817, P = 0.003). In conclusion, the high expression of VN in tumor cells independently indicated poor clinical prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, other than large tumor size and non-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that VN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

  15. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Kresno

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  16. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2014-05-07

    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  17. 78 FR 17744 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Maya: Hidden Worlds...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Maya: Hidden Worlds Revealed,'' imported...

  18. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  19. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  20. Anthropological significance of dermatoglyphic trait variation: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The intra-Tunisian population analysis shows that Tunisians living in the North and the .... The different pattern types are broadly classified into three principal patterns ... for 15 quantitative digito-palmar dermatoglyhic traits revealed that out of five canonical ... coordinates of group centroïds in discriminant space.

  1. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  2. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  3. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    CERN Document Server

    Krasnikov, N V

    2010-01-01

    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  4. Analyses between Reproductive Behaviour, Genetic Diversity and Pythium Responsiveness in Zingiber spp. reveal an adaptive significance for hemiclonality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geethu Elizabath Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMode of reproduction is generally considered to have long-range evolutionary implications on population survival. Because sexual reproduction produces genetically diverse genotypes, this mode of reproduction is predicted to positively influence the success potential of offspring in evolutionary arms race with parasites (Red queen whereas, without segregation and recombination, the obligate asexual multiplication may push a species into extinction due to the steady accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller’s ratchet. However, the extent of linearity between reproductive strategies, genetic diversity and population fitness, and the contributions of different breeding strategies to population fitness are yet to be understood clearly. Genus Zingiber belonging to the pan-tropic family Zingiberaceae represents a good system to study contributions of different breeding behaviour on genetic diversity and population fitness, as this genus comprises species with contrasting breeding systems. In this study, we analyzed breeding behaviour, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP diversity and response to the soft-rot pathogen Pythium aphanidermatum in 18 natural populations of three wild Zingiber spp.: Z. neesanum, Z. nimmonii and Z. zerumbet, together with the obligately asexual cultivated congener, ginger (Z. officinale. Ginger showed an exceptionally narrow genetic base, and adding to this, all the tested cultivars were uniformly susceptible to soft-rot. Concordant with the postulates of Muller’s ratchet, the background selection may be continuously pushing ginger into the ancestral state, rendering it inefficient in host-pathogen coevolution. Z. neesanum and Z. nimmonii populations were sexual and genetically diverse; however, contrary to Red Queen expectations, the populations were highly susceptible to soft-rot. Z. zerumbet showed a hemiclonal breeding behaviour. The populations inhabiting forest understory were large and continuous, sexual and genetically diverse, but were susceptible, whereas populations inhabiting the revenue land were fragmented and monoclonal, but were resistant. It may be possible that, when genetic recombination becomes at a premium due to the genetic constraints imparted by habitat fragmentation or pathogen pressure, Z. zerumbet trigger asexual methods in order to preserve genotypes with adaptive fitness. A co-evolutionary feedback seems to occur between defense and reproduction in Z. zerumbet. Presumably, species with hemiclonal potential may have a fair chance to survive ecological undulations.

  5. Phylogenetic and experimental characterization of an acyl-ACP thioesterase family reveals significant diversity in enzymatic specificity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yandeau-Nelson Marna D

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids. Results To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acyl-ACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1 24 TEs were selected from public databases on the basis of phylogenetic analysis and fatty acid profile knowledge of their source organisms; and 2 seven TEs were molecularly cloned from oil palm (Elaeis guineensis, coconut (Cocos nucifera and Cuphea viscosissima, organisms that produce medium-chain and short-chain fatty acids in their seeds. The in vivo substrate specificities of the acyl-ACP TEs were determined in E. coli. Based on their specificities, these enzymes were clustered into three classes: 1 Class I acyl-ACP TEs act primarily on 14- and 16-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; 2 Class II acyl-ACP TEs have broad substrate specificities, with major activities toward 8- and 14-carbon acyl-ACP substrates; and 3 Class III acyl-ACP TEs act predominantly on 8-carbon acyl-ACPs. Several novel acyl-ACP TEs act on short-chain and unsaturated acyl-ACP or 3-ketoacyl-ACP substrates, indicating the diversity of enzymatic specificity in this enzyme family. Conclusion These acyl-ACP TEs can potentially be used to diversify the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway to produce novel fatty acids.

  6. Histological and Ultrastructural Observation Reveals Significant Cellular Differences between Agrobacterium Transformed Embryogenic and Non-embryogenic Calli of Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Hong Shang; Chuan-Liang Liu; Chao-Jun Zhang; Feng-Lian Li; Wei-Dong Hong; Fu-Guang Li

    2009-01-01

    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a flbrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains, in contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  7. Histological and ultrastructural observation reveals significant cellular differences between Agrobacterium transformed embryogenic and non-embryogenic calli of cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hai-Hong; Liu, Chuan-Liang; Zhang, Chao-Jun; Li, Feng-Lian; Hong, Wei-Dong; Li, Fu-Guang

    2009-05-01

    Over the past few decades genetic engineering has been applied to improve cotton breeding. Agrobacterium medicated transformation is nowadays widely used as an efficient approach to introduce exogenous genes into cotton for genetically modified organisms. However, it still needs to be improved for better transformation efficiency and higher embryogenic callus induction ratios. To research further the difference of mechanisms for morphogenesis between embryogenic callus and non-embryogenic callus, we carried out a systematical study on the histological and cellular ultrastructure of Agrobacterium transformed calli. Results showed that the embryogenic callus developed nodule-like structures, which were formed by small, tightly packed, hemispherical cells. The surface of some embryogenic callus was covered with a fibrilar-like structure named extracellular matrix. The cells of embryogenic calli had similar morphological characteristics. Organelles of embryogenic callus cells were located near the nucleus, and chloroplasts degraded to proplastid-like structures with some starch grains. In contrast, the non-embryogenic calli were covered by oval or sphere cells or small clusters of cells. It was observed that cells had vacuolation of cytoplasm and plastids with a well organized endomembrane system. This study aims to understand the mechanisms of embryogenic callus morphogenesis and to improve the efficiency of cotton transformation in future.

  8. Nucleotide sequence of XhoI O fragment of ectromelia virus DNA reveals significant differences from vaccinia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senkevich, T G; Muravnik, G L; Pozdnyakov, S G; Chizhikov, V E; Ryazankina, O I; Shchelkunov, S N; Koonin, E V; Chernos, V I

    1993-10-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the 3913 base pair XhoI O fragment located in an evolutionary variable region adjacent to the right end of the genome of ectromelia virus (EMV) was determined. The sequence contains two long open reading frames coding for putative proteins of 559 amino acid residues (p65) and 344 amino acid residues (p39). Amino acid database searches showed that p39 is closely related to vaccinia virus (VV), strain WR, B22R gene product (C12L gene product of strain Copenhagen), which belongs to the family of serine protease inhibitors (serpins). Despite the overall high conservation, differences were observed in the sequences of p39, B22R, and C12L in the site known to interact with proteases in other serpins, suggesting that the serpins of EMV and two strains of VV may all inhibit proteases with different specificities. The gene coding for the ortholog of p65 is lacking in the Copenhagen strain of vaccinia virus; the WR strain contains a truncated variant of this gene (B21R) potentially coding for a small protein (p16) corresponding to the C-terminal region of p65. p65 is a new member of the family of poxvirus proteins including vaccinia virus proteins A55R, C2L and F3L, and a group of related proteins of leporipoxviruses, Shope fibroma and myxoma viruses (T6, T8, T9, M9). These proteins are homologous to the Drosophila protein Kelch involved in egg development. Both Kelch protein and the related poxvirus proteins contain two distinct domains. The N-terminal domain is related to the similarly located domains of transcription factors Ttk, Br-C (Drosophila), and KUP (human), and GCL protein involved in early development in Drosophila. The C-terminal domain consists of an array of four to five imperfect repeats and is related to human placental protein MIPP. Phylogenetic analysis of the family of poxvirus proteins showed that their genes have undergone a complex succession of duplications, and complete or partial deletions.

  9. [Endobronchial hamartoma revealed by hemoptysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smati, Belhassen; Boudaya, Mohamed Sadok; Mestiri, Taher; Djilani, Habiba; Mezni, Faouzi; Kilani, Tarek

    2005-05-01

    Hamartoma is the most frequent benign tumor of the lung. Its endo bronchial location is rare. We report two cases of endo bronchial hamartoma occurring in 2 men aged 68 and 60 years respectively. The two cases were revealed by hemoptysis. Bronchial fibroscopy showed a bud respectively in the left stump and in the lower left bronchus. Treatment consisted in a pneumonectomy and a lower lobectomy. A histological examination confirmed the diagnosis of endo bronchial hamartoma. Diagnosis of endobronchial hamartoma before surgery is difficult. Pulmonary resections are often necessary because of parenchyma lelions caused bronchial obstruction.

  10. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  11. Revealed comparative advantage of Russian agricultural exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Ishchukova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the issue of revealed comparative advantage in the case of the Russian foreign trade in agricultural products and foodstuffs. The objective of this study is to analyze specialization and the competitive performance of the Russian agricultural sector and to determine whether or not patterns of comparative advantage for Russia have undergone significant changes over the period 1998–2010.The analysis is performed using several measures of revealed comparative advantage: classical Balassa’s index, Vollrath’s index and Lafay index. Balassa’s index identified a group of products, which has relatively stable comparative advantage during the whole period. Among those products we can count cereals (wheat, barley, etc., their by-products (for example bran of wheat and products of their processing (cereals preparations, etc., as well as oilseeds, vegetable oils and chocolate.Vollrath’s index showed that the number of products that have revealed competitive advantage was steadily growing during the period. Lafay index, used in the analysis by regions, showed that Russia has comparative advantages in relation to CIS countries and Asian countries due to its geographical location and good trade relations.Primary products have the comparative advantage in relation to EU and Asian countries. In relation to the Commonwealth of Independent States and Americas on the contrary the processed products have comparative advantages, while the most of primary products have comparative disadvantage.In relation to the whole world, analysis has also revealed a shift of comparative advantage from by-products (e.g. bran of wheat, sunflower cake etc. in 1998–2001 to primary products in 2002–2010 (wheat, barley, whole cow milk, sunflower seed etc..

  12. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  13. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  14. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  15. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  16. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Juan A.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  17. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  18. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per

    2014-01-01

    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...

  19. Revealing ontological commitments by magic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L

    2015-03-01

    Considering the appeal of different magical transformations exposes some systematic asymmetries. For example, it is more interesting to transform a vase into a rose than a rose into a vase. An experiment in which people judged how interesting they found different magic tricks showed that these asymmetries reflect the direction a transformation moves in an ontological hierarchy: transformations in the direction of animacy and intelligence are favored over the opposite. A second and third experiment demonstrated that judgments of the plausibility of machines that perform the same transformations do not show the same asymmetries, but judgments of the interestingness of such machines do. A formal argument relates this sense of interestingness to evidence for an alternative to our current physical theory, with magic tricks being a particularly pure source of such evidence. These results suggest that people's intuitions about magic tricks can reveal the ontological commitments that underlie human cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  1. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  2. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  3. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  4. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  5. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  6. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙越

    2015-01-01

    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  8. Revealing Greenwashing: A Consumers' Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouwer, Anne

    2016-01-01

    A significant problem arising in discursive green marketing practices is the growth of greenwashing; companies providing irrelevant, exaggerated or false information regarding a product's sustainable qualities. This has given rise to a number of issues yet has so far fallen short of being rigorously investigated. In this study, focus group…

  9. The hydrological significance of mountains: from regional to global scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Viviroli

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Mountain regions supply a large share of the world’s population with fresh water. Quantification of the hydrological significance of mountains, however, is subject to great uncertainty. Instead of focusing on global averages in advance, the present analysis follows a catchment-based approach using discharge data provided by the Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC. The River Rhine originating in the European Alps is chosen as a first study area, revealing the hydrological relationship between mountainous and lowland regions in a well-documented area. Following the findings from this analysis, different aspects of runoff characteristics for a total of 22 case-study river basins world-wide have been investigated and compared, for a global view. The view has been extended through aspects of climate and human use of mountain runoff. The particular hydrological characteristics of mountain areas are characterised by disproportionately large discharges. In humid areas, mountains supply up to 20–50% of total discharge while in arid areas, mountains contribute from 50–90% of total discharge, with extremes of over 95%. The overall assessment of the hydrological significance of mountain areas reveals that the world’s major 'water towers' are found in arid or semi-arid zones where they provide essential fresh water for a significant proportion of a quickly growing global population. Keywords: mountain hydrology, global comparative assessment, runoff, water resources, sustainability, Rhine River, European Alps

  10. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şen, Zekai

    2017-02-01

    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  11. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, Rachel

    2013-08-01

    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  12. Social Significance as Reflected in the Great Gatsby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Yan

    2015-01-01

    Francis Scott Key Fitzgerald, short story and long story writer of American culture history in twentieth century. His representatives"The Great Gatsby,"is set in the context of the twenties of the twentieth century in New York City, tells the sto⁃ry:a young and mysterious millionaire Gatsby has been courting Daisy. Under such a story, reveals the fact:American society was reflected in emptiness, pleasure, contradictory spiritual ideas, praise people who fought for the ideals and spirit of dedication. These articles start from the Social Significance as Reflected in The Great Gatsby.

  13. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Andrew D

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  14. Significance of oxygen transport through aquaporins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwiazek, Janusz J.; Xu, Hao; Tan, Xiangfeng; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Morte, Asunción

    2017-01-01

    Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast. Two of the most promising O2-transporters (Homo sapiens AQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum PIP1;3) were confirmed to facilitate O2 transport in the spectrophotometric assay using yeast protoplasts. The over-expression of NtPIP1;3 in yeasts significantly increased their O2 uptake rates in suspension culture. In N. tabacum roots subjected to hypoxic hydroponic conditions, the transcript levels of the O2-transporting aquaporin NtPIP1;3 significantly increased after the seven-day hypoxia treatment, which was accompanied by the increase of ATP levels in the apical root segments. Our results suggest that the functional significance of aquaporin-mediated O2 transport and the possibility of controlling the rate of transmembrane O2 transport should be further explored. PMID:28079178

  15. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  16. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  17. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Wolfram

    2012-01-01

    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  18. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  19. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohut, Ann Marie

    2010-01-01

    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  20. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  1. Can Educationally Significant Learning Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Steven A.

    2017-01-01

    This article argues that assessment is a central feature of teaching, particularly as a means to determine whether what has been taught has been learnt. However, I take issue with the current trend in education which places a significant amount of emphasis upon large-scale public testing, which in turn has exacerbated the…

  2. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  3. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  4. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  5. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  6. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...

  7. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  8. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his...

  9. Monkeypox virus: ecology and public health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakevich, L; Jezek, Z; Messinger, D

    1988-01-01

    Recent investigations have revealed that monkeypox virus infections occur with a high prevalence in several species of squirrels belonging to the genus Funisciurus, less frequently in squirrels of the genus Heliosciurus, and rarely in forest-dwelling primates. These squirrels commonly inhabit the secondary forests around human settlements in the rural areas of Zaire, especially where oil palms are grown, and are rare in the primary rain forest.Human infection with monkeypox virus occurs most frequently in the 5-9-year-old age group, particularly in small villages where the children hunt and eat squirrels and other small mammals. As the populations are now increasing in number and can no longer feed on wild life alone for their animal protein requirements, the development of animal husbandry as a source of meat will certainly decrease the risk and the incidence of human monkeypox, even in areas where monkeypox virus is present in the local population of squirrels.Although population growth and economic development in western and central Africa will probably reduce the risk of human infection with monkeypox virus, visitors to these areas who are likely to come into contact with wild animals should be offered smallpox vaccination as a protection.

  10. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  11. Finding Significant Correlates of Conscious Activity in Rhythmic EEG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr J. Durka

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available One of the important issues in designing an EEG-based brain-computer interface is an exact delineation of the rhythms, related to the intended or performed action. Traditionally, related bands were found by trial and error procedures seeking maximum reactivity. Even then, large values of ERD/ERS did not imply the statistical significance of the results. This paper presents complete methodology, allowing for a high-resolution presentation of the whole time-frequency picture of event-related changes in the energy density of signals, revealing the microstructure of rhythms, and determination of the time-frequency regions of energy changes, which are related to the intentions in a statistically significant way.

  12. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    CERN Document Server

    Petrov, L

    2016-01-01

    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.

  13. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  14. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hui-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  15. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  16. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Maraun

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  17. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  18. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-01-01

    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  19. Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westover Kenneth D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Truth claims in the medical literature rely heavily on statistical significance testing. Unfortunately, most physicians misunderstand the underlying probabilistic logic of significance tests and consequently often misinterpret their results. This near-universal misunderstanding is highlighted by means of a simple quiz which we administered to 246 physicians at two major academic hospitals, on which the proportion of incorrect responses exceeded 90%. A solid understanding of the fundamental concepts of probability theory is becoming essential to the rational interpretation of medical information. This essay provides a technically sound review of these concepts that is accessible to a medical audience. We also briefly review the debate in the cognitive sciences regarding physicians' aptitude for probabilistic inference.

  20. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    OpenAIRE

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  1. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataramana Venkataramana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  2. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  3. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  4. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong

    2016-11-01

    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  5. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Arima

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19 which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  6. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Disguised as Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Hartley-Brown

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old woman with a medical history of diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension who was otherwise asymptomatic but continued showing elevated neutrophil levels sought a second opinion at our facility. Serum protein immunoelectrophoresis with immunofixation revealed an immunoglobulin A (IgA-κ monoclonal gammopathy concentration of 1305 mg/dL (normal 80-350 mg/dL but relatively normal concentrations of IgG of 840 mg/dL (620-1400 mg/dL and IgM of 36 mg/dL (45-250 mg/dL. Clonal analysis revealed a polyclonal expression pattern in all cell types analyzed. We concluded that our patient’s neutrophilia may have been due to the underlying monoclonal gammopathy. This is the first case in the literature of a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance presenting with neutrophilia, suggestive of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL.  Patients with CNL have a poor prognosis; therefore, it is important to distinguish diagnostically between CNL and the less severe prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

  7. Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance Disguised as Chronic Neutrophilic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique A Hartley-Brown

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A 60-year-old woman with a medical history of diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, peripheral vascular disease, and hypertension who was otherwise asymptomatic but continued showing elevated neutrophil levels sought a second opinion at our facility. Serum protein immunoelectrophoresis with immunofixation revealed an immunoglobulin A (IgA-κ monoclonal gammopathy concentration of 1305 mg/dL (normal 80-350 mg/dL but relatively normal concentrations of IgG of 840 mg/dL (620-1400 mg/dL and IgM of 36 mg/dL (45-250 mg/dL. Clonal analysis revealed a polyclonal expression pattern in all cell types analyzed. We concluded that our patient’s neutrophilia may have been due to the underlying monoclonal gammopathy. This is the first case in the literature of a patient with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance presenting with neutrophilia, suggestive of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL.  Patients with CNL have a poor prognosis; therefore, it is important to distinguish diagnostically between CNL and the less severe prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance.

  8. Clinical Significance of CK19 Negative Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisue, Mamiko, E-mail: nishimura.reiki@cityhosp-kumamoto.jp; Nishimura, Reiki; Okumura, Yasuhiro [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Tashima, Rumiko [Department of Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Nishiyama, Yasuyuki; Osako, Tomofumi [Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan); Toyozumi, Yasuo; Arima, Nobuyuki [Department of Pathology, Kumamoto City Hospital, 1-1-60 Kotoh, Kumamoto City, Kumamoto 862-8505 (Japan)

    2012-12-21

    Analysis of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of One-Step Nucleic Acid Amplification (OSNA) is gaining widespread use as a quick and accurate method. This assay detects the expression level of cytokeratin 19 (CK19) which is present in some but not all breast tumors. In this study, the clinical significance of negative CK19 was investigated in 219 cases of primary breast cancer. In 179 patients with clinically negative nodes, OSNA and imprint smear cytology of SLN were performed simultaneously. The OSNA revealed a node-positive rate of 24.6%. Negative CK19 correlated significantly with negative ER/PgR and higher Ki-67 values, and marginally with higher nuclear grade and p53 overexpression. The triple negative subtype showed lower CK19 expression. OSNA revealed that one of the negative CK19 cases was actually a false negative but this was corrected with the use of the imprint smear cytology. In conclusion, CK19 negativity reflected the aggressiveness of primary breast cancer. OSNA assay used to analyze SLN was useful, but there is a possibility that it will mistakenly detect false negatives in CK19 negative tumors. Therefore, in tumors with negative CK19, the imprint smear cytology may be more useful in cases with macrometastasis.

  9. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peek Andrew S

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  10. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  11. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  12. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  13. Significance of Jane Eyre' s Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文涛

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre, by far the best known of Charlotte Bronte' s literary production, published 1847. Jane, the heroine, a governess's rebelliousness, her hate ot servility, her insistence on equality with her master, and her declaration that she has a right to feelings and passions that impresses me most. This paper, from what Jane Eyre experiences and what she thinks about the happenings, analyses Jane Eyreg independent characters and spirits in five segments each with its own setting: Gateshead, Lowood, Thnmfield, Moor House, Femdean, points out the significance of Jane Eyre's independence in her ages.

  14. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  15. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯建华; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  16. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  17. Which biomarkers reveal neonatal sepsis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    Full Text Available We address the identification of optimal biomarkers for the rapid diagnosis of neonatal sepsis. We employ both canonical correlation analysis (CCA and sparse support vector machine (SSVM classifiers to select the best subset of biomarkers from a large hematological data set collected from infants with suspected sepsis from Yale-New Haven Hospital's Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU. CCA is used to select sets of biomarkers of increasing size that are most highly correlated with infection. The effectiveness of these biomarkers is then validated by constructing a sparse support vector machine diagnostic classifier. We find that the following set of five biomarkers capture the essential diagnostic information (in order of importance: Bands, Platelets, neutrophil CD64, White Blood Cells, and Segs. Further, the diagnostic performance of the optimal set of biomarkers is significantly higher than that of isolated individual biomarkers. These results suggest an enhanced sepsis scoring system for neonatal sepsis that includes these five biomarkers. We demonstrate the robustness of our analysis by comparing CCA with the Forward Selection method and SSVM with LASSO Logistic Regression.

  18. STUDY OF SIGNIFICANCE OF PLATELET COUNT IN FEVER CASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasavilatha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the significance of platelet count in various fevers and also identify the common causes of fever with thrombocytopenia . MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 patients who were admitted with fever over 2 months of period from 15th October to15th December 2014 in King George Hospital AMC Visakhapatnam studied retrospectively. RESULTS: INCIDENCE: More than half of the cases (52.2% admitted with fever have thrombocytopenia. SEX: The study reveals that irrespective of sex and size of the sample the presentation of fever with/ without thromb ocytopenia could not found any significant difference . Degree of thrombocytopenia in various etiologies: in the present study it is found that out of 15 cases of falciparum malaria 10 cases had thrombocytopenia. Out of 12 undiagnosed cases 8 cases had thro mbocytopenia. Out of 4 cases of gastro intestinal system 3 cases had thrombocytopenia. In the present study it is significantly found that the highest difference is noticed in the presentation of dengue cases. Out of total sample (69 cases it is found tha t 5cases (7.2% of thrombocytopenia with dengue fever were found against 1case (1.4% of dengue fever with normal plate let count. The present study reveals that there is significant difference among various diseases such as malaria 14 (16.6%, dengue feve r 5 (13.9%, Urinary tract infection 2 (5.6%, undiagnosed cases 8 (22.2%. However severe thrombocytopenia (platelets less than 50,000 is seen in14 cases (38.8%out of 36 cases of fever with thrombocytopenia. Further this study reveals that in the cases of malaria 50% of cases reported as severe thrombocytopenia 7cases (19.4% followed by dengue fever3 cases (8.3%. CONCLUSION: Not only malaria, dengue fever and urinary tract infection can also cause severe thrombocytopenia. Fever cases especially with th rombocytopenia show seasonal variations, they are seen commonly in early winter. Febrile thrombocytopenia still presents as atypical and occult forms making

  19. Significance and popularity in music production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  20. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio

    2017-07-01

    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  1. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.; Schaap, H.; Bruijn, E. de

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  2. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.M.; Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual underst

  3. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  4. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashley, S.M.; Schaap, H.; de Bruijn, E.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  5. Prognostic significance of selected lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakai, K; Ohno, Y; Obata, K; Aoki, K

    1993-12-01

    To examine the prognostic significance of lifestyle factors in urinary bladder cancer, we conducted a follow-up study of 258 incident bladder cancer patients, who were originally recruited in a case-control study in metropolitan Nagoya. Information on individual survivals was obtained from the computer data-file of the tumor registry of the Nagoya Bladder Cancer Research Group. Univariate analyses revealed significant associations of 5-year survivorship with educational attainment, marital status, drinking habits and consumption of green tea in males, and age at first consultation, histological type and grade of tumor, stage and distant metastasis in both sexes. After adjustment for age, stage, histology (histological type and grade) and distant metastasis by means of a proportional hazards model, drinking of alcoholic beverages was significantly associated with the prognosis of bladder cancer in males. Its adjusted hazard ratio was 0.46 (95% confidence interval: 0.26-0.79), favoring patients who had taken alcoholic beverages. In detailed analysis, ex-drinkers and all levels of current drinkers demonstrated hazard ratios smaller than unity, although no clear dose-response relationship was detected. No prognostic significance was found for such lifestyle factors as smoking habit, uses of artificial sweeteners and hairdye, and consumption of coffee, black tea, matcha (powdered green tea) and cola.

  6. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  7. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  8. The origins and significance of contemporary terrorism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Terrorism has been the subject of many presidential and prime ministerial statements over the years. Sixteen weeks before the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the American Secretary of State, referred to a report that indicated an 8 per cent increase in international terrorist attacks during year 2000 and stated that terrorism shows the dark side of globalization. Of the 423 recorded attacks, 200 were directed against the United States. This paper emphasizes three points to understand the significance of terrorism. First, it is necessary to understand the context within which terrorist acts are carried out, namely the modern world in its spiritual and its material dimensions. It is also necessary to understand the direction and trajectory of recent trends in terrorism and what can be done to stop it. 97 refs.

  9. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, W.W.

    1994-12-31

    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.

  10. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing

    2015-11-01

    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CNOOC Sales Revenues Rise Significantly in 2008

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC),the country's third largest oil and gas producer,saw its full year sales revenues of 2008 rose 22.4 percent from a year ago to 98.3 billion yuan (US$14.37 billion).By the end of 2008,the total assets of the company were 428.5 billion yuan,up 267 percent from five years earlier.The company's listed ann CNOOC Ltd.said in mid-January it planed to lift its 2009 crude and gas production by 16 percent to 18 percent,as some significant projects are expected to come online this year.Total production will be 225 million to 231 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE),compared with the estimated production of 194 million to 196 million BOE for 2008.

  12. On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Frauley

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy.

  13. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeman, M; Zák, A

    2004-01-01

    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  14. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  15. Biotechnological significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, F Garcia; Rodríguez, J Gallardo; Mirón, A Sánchez; García, M C Cerón; Belarbi, E H; Chisti, Y; Grima, E Molina

    2007-01-01

    Dinoflagellates are microalgae that are associated with the production of many marine toxins. These toxins poison fish, other wildlife and humans. Dinoflagellate-associated human poisonings include paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and ciguatera fish poisoning. Dinoflagellate toxins and bioactives are of increasing interest because of their commercial impact, influence on safety of seafood, and potential medical and other applications. This review discusses biotechnological methods of identifying toxic dinoflagellates and detecting their toxins. Potential applications of the toxins are discussed. A lack of sufficient quantities of toxins for investigational purposes remains a significant limitation. Producing quantities of dinoflagellate bioactives requires an ability to mass culture them. Considerations relating to bioreactor culture of generally fragile and slow-growing dinoflagellates are discussed. Production and processing of dinoflagellates to extract bioactives, require attention to biosafety considerations as outlined in this review.

  16. Significant pathological findings in routine urethrocystoscopy before open prostatectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehraban D

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the years, Trans Urethral Resection of Prostate (TURP, as a treatment modality for obstructing benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH, gained popularity throughout the world. It is considered the gold standard for the surgical management of BPH. However, there is not the same pattern in our country and open prostatectomy is more common. Specific evaluation should be done preoperatively. Cystoscopy is one of them that have special limited indications. The aim of this study was to define the rate of pathological findings in routine urethrocystoscopy before open prostatectomy.Methods: In a prospective study from 2003 to 2005 in Dr Shariati hospital 120 patients prepared for open prostatectomy underwent routine cystoscopy, without absolute indications for cystoscopy.Results: There was no special pathology observed in routine cystoscopy. The results of this study revealed that the mean of age in patients with meatal stricture was significantly lower than those without stricture (59.5±0.7 vs. 49.9±5.5 years, p=0.008. Also, the results of present study showed that in patients with meatal stricture serum creatinine level was significantly higher (2.2±1.34 vs. 1.2±0.42 mgr/dL, p=0.003. Furthermore, it was revealed that the mean of age in patients with bladder diverticulum was significantly higher compared with those without bladder diverticulum (76.3±3.1 vs. 68.4±4.9 years, p=0.001.Conclusion: Routine cystoscopy is not necessary before open prostatectomy

  17. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D

    1987-11-01

    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  19. Natural history of chronic hepatitis B: what exactly has REVEAL revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iloeje, Uchenna H; Yang, Hwai-I; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2012-10-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem because of its worldwide prevalence and potential to cause adverse consequences. The Risk Evaluation of Viral Load Elevation and Associated Liver Disease/Cancer-Hepatitis B Virus (REVEAL-HBV) study carried out in Taiwan was used to investigate the natural history of chronic hepatitis B. The REVEAL-HBV study has established an HBV viral load paradigm in the natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Serum HBV DNA level has been shown to be significantly and independently associated with incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and cirrhosis and liver-related mortality across a biological gradient. It is also a major predictor of HBsAg seroclearance. Genetic features including HBV genotype and basal core promoter A1762T/G1764A mutant, and precore G1896A mutant were documented as predictors of HCC risk. Inactive HBV carriers still had an increased risk on HCC development and liver-related mortality compared with HBsAg -seronegatives. Nomograms focusing on facilitating risk communication between patients and clinicians were developed incorporating non-invasive clinical parameters to predict long-term HCC risk. These will hopefully contribute to evidence-based decisions in the clinical management of CHB patients. A somewhat provocative and novel finding from the REVEAL-HBV study is the association of chronic HBV infection in active replication with an increased pancreatic cancer risk especially in women less than 50 years old. This finding will hopefully spur further research in this area seeking confirmatory evidence. Finally, we hope that the REVEAL-HBV study will continue to be a source of data to answer other important questions in chronic hepatitis B research going forward. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Adam M

    2008-01-01

    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance.

  1. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindelevitch Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  2. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  3. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  4. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE AND PROGNOSIS OF FETAL ARRHYTHMIAS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing

    2004-01-01

    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  5. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallweit, E

    1994-07-01

    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  6. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  7. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  8. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  9. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS HORMONES IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Z Zangeneh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  10. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  11. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex

    2014-02-01

    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  13. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti

    2016-06-01

    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  14. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Bernadette; Cooper, David S

    2008-02-01

    Subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) is defined as serum free T(4) and free T(3) levels within their respective reference ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels. SCTD is being diagnosed more frequently in clinical practice in young and middle-aged people as well as in the elderly. However, the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is much debated. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism can have repercussions on the cardiovascular system and bone, as well as on other organs and systems. However, the treatment and management of SCTD and population screening are controversial despite the potential risk of progression to overt disease, and there is no consensus on the thyroid hormone and thyrotropin cutoff values at which treatment should be contemplated. Opinions differ regarding tissue effects, symptoms, signs, and cardiovascular risk. Here, we critically review the data on the prevalence and progression of SCTD, its tissue effects, and its prognostic implications. We also examine the mechanisms underlying tissue alterations in SCTD and the effects of replacement therapy on progression and tissue parameters. Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age.

  15. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ballengee

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  16. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L

    2015-11-01

    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  18. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmena, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  19. Augustine, his sermons, and their significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Oort

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine’s sermons provide a unique source in explaining his influence from the 5th century onwards as a theologian and pastor, a minister of the Word preached and celebrated in the sacrament. Of particular value in this regard are his sermons on the Psalms. Issues of authenticity are also considered in this article. The influence of Augustine’s sermons was widespread through their tradition and adaptation by others. A substantial and reliable corpus of his sermons is available today. As a pastor, Augustine was anxious to challenge heresy in his preaching, especially to confront the Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians. His preaching is considered in the wider context of congregational worship with its origins in the synagogue. Of special importance are his preaching techniques, while his doctrine of ‘the inner teacher’ (magister interior is equally significant. Essential elements of Augustine’s theory and practice became influential in the early days of the Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin and others. The author briefly touches on the question of their relevance for today’s congregational worship.

  20. Significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaur Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales smaller than 1 µm, normally 1-100 nm, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. In addition, as the need for the development of new medicines is pressing, and given the inherent nanoscale functions of the biological components of living cells, nanotechnology has been applied to diverse medical fields such as oncology, cardiovascular medicine, and in treatment of other chronic diseases. Indeed, nanotechnology is being used to refine discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery and drug delivery, which could be applicable to management of these patients. In this review, we will focus upon significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences, as well as the plausible side effects related to their use.

  1. Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M

    2012-04-01

    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity.

  2. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A

    2011-01-01

    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  3. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev

    2011-01-01

    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  4. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts

    1995-03-01

    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  5. Practical significance of weld strength matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloterdijk, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Schipaanboord, W.N. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)

    1996-10-01

    Defect tolerance in welds in pipelines constructed in modern high strength material depends on the balance in strength between weld material and pipe material. The Guidelines on the assessment of girth weld defects published by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) define in Tier 2 defect limits assuming that the (actual) weld metal yield strength is equal or greater than the yield strength of the parent material. The defect limits according to Tier 2 exceed the defect limits in `workmanship standards` (l>25 mm). Nevertheless, the draft European welding standard EN 288 does not yet require a test to measure and verify the weld metal yield strength. Gasunie has performed a test program with the aim to look at the practical significance of weld strength matching in a strain controlled situation and to verify the relevance of limits given in the European welding and line pipe codes, in combination with the EPRG Guidelines. It is concluded that the results of the tests confirm the defect acceptance limits according to Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Zulaessigkeit von Fehlern in Rundschweissnaehten in Rohrleitungen aus modernen hochfesten Baustaehlen haengt von dem Verhaeltnis der Werkstofffestigkeit des Schweissgutes zu der des Grundwerkstoffs ab. Die von der European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) veroeffentlichte Richtlinie zur Bewertung von Schweissnahtfehlern gibt in der zweiten Bewertungsstufe (Tier 2) Werte fuer zulaessige Schweissnahtfehlergroessen unter der Bedingung an, dass die Dehngrenze des Schweissgutes groesser oder gleich der Dehngrenze des Grundwerkstoffs ist. Die nach Tier 2 zulaessigen Fehler sind groesser als die in `Good-workmanship`-Regelwerken angegebenen Fehlerlaenge (l>25 mm). Demgegenueber fehlt im Entwurf der europaeischen Schweissnorm EN 288 bislang ein solcher Dehngrenzennachweis. Gasunie hat ein Versuchsprogramm durchgefuehrt, um die Bedeutung der Schweissgutfestigkeit bei dehnungskontrollierter Belastung sowie

  6. Parameter and Process Significance in Mechanistic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, B.; Barry, A.; Gerhard, J.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2005-12-01

    The rate of cellulose hydrolysis, and of associated microbial processes, is important in determining the stability of landfills and their potential impact on the environment, as well as associated time scales. To permit further exploration in this field, a process-based model of cellulose hydrolysis was developed. The model, which is relevant to both landfill and anaerobic digesters, includes a novel approach to biomass transfer between a cellulose-bound biofilm and biomass in the surrounding liquid. Model results highlight the significance of the bacterial colonization of cellulose particles by attachment through contact in solution. Simulations revealed that enhanced colonization, and therefore cellulose degradation, was associated with reduced cellulose particle size, higher biomass populations in solution, and increased cellulose-binding ability of the biomass. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters revealed different sensitivities to model parameters for a typical landfill scenario versus that for an anaerobic digester. The results indicate that relative surface area of cellulose and proximity of hydrolyzing bacteria are key factors determining the cellulose degradation rate.

  7. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...... in the pathogenesis of psoriasis, we analyzed the effect of S100A4 blocking antibodies in a human psoriasis xenograft SCID mouse model and observed a significant reduction of the epidermal thickness and impairment in cell proliferation and dermal vascularization. In conclusion, we showed strong upregulation...

  8. Coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2014-06-01

    Activated coagulation and fibrinolytic system in cancer patients is associated with tumor stroma formation and metastasis in different cancer types. The aim of this study is to explore the correlation of blood coagulation assays for various clinicopathologic factors in breast cancer patients. A total of 123 female breast cancer patients were enrolled into the study. All the patients were treatment naïve. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, APTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels, and platelet counts were evaluated. Median age of diagnosis was 51 years old (range 26-82). Twenty-two percent of the group consisted of metastatic breast cancer patients. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group except for PT (p50 years) was associated with higher D-dimer levels (p=0.003). Metastatic patients exhibited significantly higher D-dimer values when compared with early breast cancer patients (p=0.049). Advanced tumor stage (T3 and T4) was associated with higher INR (p=0.05) and lower PTA (p=0.025). In conclusion, coagulation tests show significant differences in patients with breast cancer.

  9. PA positioning significantly reduces testicular dose during sacroiliac joint radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekis, Nejc [Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mc Entee, Mark F., E-mail: mark.mcentee@ucd.i [School of Medicine and Medical Science, University College Dublin 4 (Ireland); Stegnar, Peter [Jozef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-11-15

    Radiation dose to the testes in the antero-posterior (AP) and postero-anterior (PA) projection of the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) was measured with and without a scrotal shield. Entrance surface dose, the dose received by the testicles and the dose area product (DAP) was used. DAP measurements revealed the dose received by the phantom in the PA position is 12.6% lower than the AP (p {<=} 0.009) with no statistically significant reduction in image quality (p {<=} 0.483). The dose received by the testes in the PA projection in SIJ imaging is 93.1% lower than the AP projection when not using protection (p {<=} 0.020) and 94.9% lower with protection (p {<=} 0.019). The dose received by the testicles was not changed by the use of a scrotal shield in the AP position (p {<=} 0.559); but was lowered by its use in the PA (p {<=} 0.058). Use of the PA projection in SIJ imaging significantly lowers, the dose received by the testes compared to the AP projection without significant loss of image quality.

  10. Optimizing significance testing of astronomical forcing in cyclostratigraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David B.

    2016-12-01

    The recognition of astronomically forced (Milankovitch) climate cycles in geological archives marked a major advance in Earth science, revealing a heartbeat within the climate system of general importance and key utility. Power spectral analysis is the primary tool used to facilitate identification of astronomical cycles in stratigraphic data, but commonly employed methods for testing the statistical significance of relatively high narrow-band variance of potential astronomical origin in spectra have been criticized for inadequately balancing the respective probabilities of type I (false positive) and type II (false negative) errors. This has led to suggestions that the importance of astronomical forcing in Earth history is overstated. It can be readily demonstrated, however, that the imperfect nature of the stratigraphic record and the quasiperiodicity of astronomical cycles sets an upper limit on the attainable significance of astronomical signals. Optimized significance testing is that which minimizes the combined probability of type I and type II errors. Numerical simulations of stratigraphically preserved astronomical signals suggest that optimum significance levels at which to reject a null hypothesis of no astronomical forcing are between 0.01 and 0.001 (i.e., 99-99.9% confidence level). This is lower than commonly employed in the literature (90-99% confidence levels). Nevertheless, in consonance with the emergent view from other scientific disciplines, fixed-value null hypothesis significance testing of power spectra is implicitly ill suited to demonstrating astronomical forcing, and the use of spectral analysis remains a difficult and subjective endeavor in the absence of additional supporting evidence.

  11. Mitochondrial specialization revealed by single muscle fiber proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiaffino, S; Reggiani, C; Kostrominova, T Y

    2015-01-01

    We have developed a highly sensitive mass spectrometry-based proteomic workflow to examine the proteome of single muscle fibers. This study revealed significant differences in the mitochondrial proteome of the four major fiber types present in mouse skeletal muscle. Here, we focus on Krebs cycle ...... scavenging capacity to cope with the higher levels of reactive oxygen species production....

  12. Symbolic Significance of Colors in the Novel The Color Purple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王卓珏

    2007-01-01

    This paper mainly explains the symbolic significance of colors in the novel The Color Purple by using theory of Alice Walker's Womaism. Black,in The Color Purple stands for humbleness,blue for a life of impulse,red for liberty and hope ,purple for women's consummate happiness. And the choice of "purple" as its title ,conceives a purple centered symbolic color system,which reveals the black women's expectation for living an ideal happy life. Walker gives an expression of black women's political condition ,state of life under the racial and sexual oppression. Her intentions are to arouse women's consciousness of self and to call on them to be self-respected ,self-supported and eventually be self-liberated.

  13. Practical Significance of Basin Water Market Construction on Agricultural Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the concept of water market and the water market research in cluding both domestic market and foreign market,the system design features of water market are analyzed.The features include the prior distribution of agricultural water right,the close construction of market structure,reasonable price of water obtaining right and water pollution-discharge right and scientific stipulation of total volume of water use and total volume of pollution drainage.The practical significances of basin water market construction on Chinese agricultural production are revealed,which clover safeguarding the safety of agricultural water;effectively alleviating agricultural drought;saving the agricultural production water and improving the quality of agricultural products.

  14. Clinical and prognostic significance of coagulation assays in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Kilic, Leyla; Serilmez, Murat; Keskin, Serkan; Sen, Fatma; Duranyildiz, Derya

    2013-03-01

    Activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis is frequently encountered among cancer patients. Such tumors are supposed to be associated with higher risk of invasion, metastases and eventually worse outcome. The aim of this study is to explore the prognostic value of blood coagulation tests for lung cancer patients. The study comprised 110 lung cancer patients. Pretreatment blood coagulation tests including PT, aPTT, PTA, INR, D-dimer, fibrinogen levels and platelet counts were evaluated. The plasma level of all coagulation tests revealed statistically significant difference between patient and control group (p coagulation parameters (p = 0.05). In conclusion, elevation of PT and INR are associated with decreased survival in lung cancer patients.

  15. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  16. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, Thilo; Zschäbitz, Stefanie; Becker, Verena; Giese, Thomas; Bergmann, Frank; Hinz, Ulf; Keleg, Shereen; Heller, Anette; Sipos, Bence; Klingmüller, Ursula; Büchler, Markus W; Werner, Jens; Giese, Nathalia A

    2011-01-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150), serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87) and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104) was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05) and PDAC (p<0.001), reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46), 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99) but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85). Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01)--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml) were not significantly different in M0 (20%) and M1 (30%) groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05). The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold ≥16 mU/ml by endogenous or exogenous means may predispose to or

  17. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudas Khilnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  18. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas that consists of several species (electrons, ions, reactive species, and UV light and classified into localized thermal equilibrium (LTE plasmas and non-localized thermal equilibrium (n-LTE plasmas. In LTE plasmas, the electron temperature exists in equilibrium with the gas temperature. In contrast, the electron temperature in (n- LTE plasmas can reach temperatures of 1-10 (eV while the gas temperature is kept as low as room temperature, which makes it useful for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. ozone generation, surface treatment, .., etc. In the past decade, non thermal (cold atmospheric pressure plasmas were developed and emerged as a promising new tool for medical applications as it’s proved to be more selective in its application (e.g. selective killing of microbes. Accordingly, developments of cold atmospheric plasma devices led to the possibility to apply plasma species to heat-sensitive surfaces (e.g. human skin with precise tuning, controllability and without damage of surrounding tissue. On this basis, medical plasma proved effective for skin sterilization, wound healing and tissue regeneration, cancer treatment, malignant cell apoptosis and blood coagulation. Moreover, cold plasma is known to inactivate a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and biofilms. Therefore it has been considered a very efficient alternative to superficially applied antibiotics or disinfectants. It’s worth noting that histological evaluation for the skin treated with atmospheric cold plasma showed that no morphological changes and no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis were detectable after plasma treatment. Other studies denoted that a limited increase in the number of DNA double-strand breaks was observed in plasma-treated excised human skin. However, varieties of a new generation handheld and battery-operated devices makes it difficult to interpret the

  19. BLZF1 expression is of prognostic significance in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Run-Yue, E-mail: ry_huang@hotmail.com [Department of Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Su, Shu-Guang [Department of Pathology, The Affiliated Hexian Memorial Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Dan-Chun [Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Fu, Jia [Department of Pathology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou 510060 (China); Zeng, Xing, E-mail: zengxing-china@163.com [Department of Rheumatology, The Second Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine (Guangdong Provincial Hospital of Chinese Medicine), Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-11-20

    BLZF1, a member of b-ZIP family, has been implicated in epigenetic regulation and Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Its expression and clinical significance in human cancers remain largely unknown. In this study, we showed that BLZF1 expression was reduced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, compared to the paracarcinoma tissues, at both mRNA and protein levels. Results of immunohistochemistry revealed that BLZF1 was presented in both nuclear and cytoplasm. Decreased expression of nuclear and cytosolic BLZF1 in HCC was depicted in 68.2% and 79.2% of the 634 cases. Nuclear BLZF1 expression was significantly associated with tumor multiplicity (P = 0.048) and tumor capsule (P = 0.028), while cytosolic BLZF1 expression was correlated with serum AFP level (P = 0.017), tumor differentiation (P = 0.001) and tumor capsule (P = 0.003). Kaplan–Meier analysis indicated both nuclear and cytosolic BLZF1 expression was associated with poor overall survival. Low nuclear BLZF1 also indicated unfavorable disease-free survival and high tendency of tumor recurrence. Furthermore, multiple Cox regression analysis revealed nuclear BLZF1 as an independent factor for overall survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 0.827, 95% confident interval (95%CI): 0.697–0.980, P = 0.029). The prognostic value of BLZF1 was further confirmed by stratified analyses. Collectively, our data suggest BLZF1 is a novel unfavorable biomarker for prognosis of patients with HCC. - Highlights: • BLZF1 expression was much lower in HCC tissues. • Low BLZF1 expression was associated with poor outcomes in a cohort of 634 HCC patients. • Multiple Cox regression analysis indicated nuclear BLZF1 as an independent predictor for overall survival.

  20. The Significance of Adolescents' Relationships with Significant Others and School Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagala-Zysk, Ewa

    2006-01-01

    This article demonstrates the importance of social support from students' significant others (parents, peers and teachers) in the process of doing well at school. The main focus of the research project was to find correlations between the quality of adolescents' relationships with significant others and their school success or school failure, as…

  1. Myasthenia Revealed Following Laparotomy - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelilah GHANNAM

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Myasthenia (muscle weakness is a rare neuromuscular disease of which respiratory failure is the main complication. The accidental discovery of such disease in the perioperative period is rare and potentially serious.We report a case of a woman who underwent emergency operation for appendiceal peritonitis, and failed repeatedly at weaning from postoperative mechanical ventilation. The usual etiologies such as postoperative respiratory complications, ventilator-associated pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating the septic shock or having no impact on it, and neuromyopathy’s resuscitation were considered, researched, examined or eliminated.Faced with the diagnostic impasse and the obvious weaning failure, another interview revealed signs of muscle fatigue which led to the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis decompensated perioperatively. Once the diagnosis was confirmed by means of a neostigmine test, the specific treatment began, particularly through plasma exchange sessions, and the process of weaning resumed. The result was complete weaning. A three-month follow-up showed a stable patient with no significant muscular disability.

  2. Exoplanets, Exo-Solar Life, and Human Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiseman, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    With the recent detection of over 500 extrasolar planets, the existence of "other worlds", perhaps even other Earths, is no longer in the realm of science fiction. The study of exoplanets rapidly moved from an activity on the fringe of astronomy to one of the highest priorities of the world's astronomical programs. Actual images of extrasolar planets were revealed over the past two years for the first time. NASA's Hubble Space Telescope is already characterizing the atmospheres of Jupiter-like planets, in other systems. And the recent launch of the NASA Kepler space telescope is enabling the first statistical assessment of how common solar systems like our own really are. As we begin to characterize these "other worlds" and assess their habitability, the question of the significance and uniqueness of life on Earth will impact our society as never before. I will provide a comprehensive overview of the techniques and status of exoplanet detection, followed by reflections as to the societal impact of finding out that Earths are common, or rare. Will finding other potentially habitable planets create another "Copernican Revolution"? Will perceptions of the significance of life on Earth change when we find other Earth-like planets? I will discuss the plans of the scientific community for future telescopes that will be abe to survey our solar neighborhood for Earth-like planets, study their atmospheres, and search for biological signs of life.

  3. Significance of DNMT3b in oral cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cheng Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore specific molecular markers that could lead to new insights into the identification of innovative treatments. The role of DNMT3b and its predictive power in the prognosis of oral cancer were identified. Human oral cancer cell lines including SCC4 and SCC25 were selected for cellular experiments. Changes in tumor growth, aggressiveness and the responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, 125 oral cancer tissue specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray slides, and correlations calculated between the level of DNMT3b and the clinical outcome of patients. Our data revealed that inhibition of DNMT3b resulted in slower tumor growth, attenuated tumor invasion ability and epithelial mesenchymal transition, as determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Activated IL-6 signaling might be responsible to the induction of DNMT3b overexpression on oral cancer. Regarding clinical data, the incidence of DNMT3b immunoreactivity in oral cancer specimens was significantly higher than in non-malignant epithelium, and positively linked to expression of IL-6. Furthermore, expression of DNMT3b was significantly linked with the risk of lymph node involvement, disease recurrence and shorter survival in patients with pathological stage III-IV oral cancer. In conclusion, IL-6 -DNMT3b axis could be used to predict the prognosis of oral cancer in clinics, and targeting DNMT3b could represent a promising treatment strategy.

  4. Significance of DNMT3b in oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Cheng; Chen, Miao-Fen; Lin, Paul-Yang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore specific molecular markers that could lead to new insights into the identification of innovative treatments. The role of DNMT3b and its predictive power in the prognosis of oral cancer were identified. Human oral cancer cell lines including SCC4 and SCC25 were selected for cellular experiments. Changes in tumor growth, aggressiveness and the responsible signaling pathway were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, 125 oral cancer tissue specimens were analyzed using immunohistochemical staining on tissue microarray slides, and correlations calculated between the level of DNMT3b and the clinical outcome of patients. Our data revealed that inhibition of DNMT3b resulted in slower tumor growth, attenuated tumor invasion ability and epithelial mesenchymal transition, as determined by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Activated IL-6 signaling might be responsible to the induction of DNMT3b overexpression on oral cancer. Regarding clinical data, the incidence of DNMT3b immunoreactivity in oral cancer specimens was significantly higher than in non-malignant epithelium, and positively linked to expression of IL-6. Furthermore, expression of DNMT3b was significantly linked with the risk of lymph node involvement, disease recurrence and shorter survival in patients with pathological stage III-IV oral cancer. In conclusion, IL-6 -DNMT3b axis could be used to predict the prognosis of oral cancer in clinics, and targeting DNMT3b could represent a promising treatment strategy.

  5. Significance of the S100A4 protein in psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibert, John R; Skov, Lone; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2010-01-01

    The S100A4 protein is reported as a pivotal player in the tumor microenvironment with a metastasis-promoting function. Moreover, the upregulation of S100A4 is found in other non-malignant human disorders as cardiac and pulmonary systems and rheumatoid arthritis. In this study, we investigated...... the expression and significance of S100A4 in psoriasis. We found significant upregulation of S100A4 in the dermis of psoriatic skin compared with normal skin. This pattern of S100A4 expression differs considerably from that of other S100 proteins, S100A7 and S100A8/9, with predominant expression in the epidermis...... of psoriasis. Furthermore, we revealed a massive release of the biologically active forms of S100A4 from psoriatic skin. Interestingly, we found stabilization (increase) of p53 in the basal layer of epidermis in close proximity to cells expressing S100A4. To examine the possible implication of S100A4...

  6. Significance testing of orbital forcing in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, David

    2016-04-01

    The recognition of orbitally forced (Milankovitch) climate cycles in geological archives marked a paradigm shift in Earth science, revealing a heartbeat within the climate system of general importance and key utility. Resolving orbital cycles in stratigraphic data is, however, problematic owing to the imperfect stratigraphic preservation of climate signals, the masking effects of non-periodic variance, and uncertainties in the expected responses of proxy records to climate change. Power spectral analysis is the primary tool used to facilitate identification of orbital cycles in stratigraphic data, but commonly employed methods for testing the significance of relatively high narrow-band variance of potential orbital origin in spectra have been criticised for inadequately balancing the respective probabilities of type I (false positive) and type II (false negative) errors. This has led to suggestions that the importance of orbital forcing in deep time is overstated [1]. It can be readily demonstrated, however, that the imperfect nature of the stratigraphic record sets an upper limit on the attainable significance of orbital signals. Optimised significance testing is that which minimises the sum of type I and type II errors [2]. Numerical simulations of stratigraphically preserved orbital signals suggest that optimum significance levels at which to reject a null hypothesis of no orbital forcing cluster between 99% and 99.9%. This is lower than recently advocated [1], but higher than the 90-99% levels most commonly employed in the literature. Nevertheless, in consonance with the emergent view from other scientific disciplines, fixed-value null hypothesis significance testing of power spectra is likely ill suited to verifying orbital forcing. In part, this is because the experiments also indicate that the combined probability of making an error in the acceptance or rejection of an orbital hypothesis may be rather high for typical stratigraphic data, and hence the use of

  7. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  8. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YS

    2014-01-01

    concentration (median, 19 months versus 35 months; P <0.001. In addition, a similar result was observed in 194 early stage NSCLC (stage I -IIIA (P <0.001. Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that higher levels of fibrinogen (FIB≥4.20 g/L, age, distant metastases and pathological types were positively associated with shorter overall survival (OS. 3 In addition, there was a significant link between the elevation by more than 15% in the plasma fibrinogen level after receiving short-term chemotherapy and shorter overall survival (OS. Conclusion: 1 This study shows high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with lymph nodes or distant organ metastases in lung cancer. 2 Furthermore, our results indicate a significant relevance between high pre-treatment plasma fibrinogen concentration and poor prognosis in patients with lung cancer. 3 In addition, we find that the patients with a low plasma fibrinogen level will have a shorter OS if the plasma fibrinogen level increases significantly after receiving short-term chemotherapy. Interestingly, we also find that the patients with a high plasma fibrinogen level will have a longer OS if the plasma fibrinogen level decreases significantly after receiving short-term chemotherapy, which indicate the change of the plasma fibrinogen level after receiving short-term chemotherapy may be used as an independent prognostic factor.

  9. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma.

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    Madhuri Bhandaru

    Full Text Available UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival.

  10. Genome-wide significant loci for addiction and anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, K.; Almasy, L.; Knowles, E.E.M.; Kent, J.W.; Curran, J.E.; Dyer, T.D.; Göring, H.H.H.; Olvera, R.L.; Fox, P.T.; Pearlson, G.D.; Krystal, J.H.; Duggirala, R.; Blangero, J.; Glahn, D.C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatric comorbidity is common among individuals with addictive disorders, with patients frequently suffering from anxiety disorders. While the genetic architecture of comorbid addictive and anxiety disorders remains unclear, elucidating the genes involved could provide important insights into the underlying etiology. Methods Here we examine a sample of 1284 Mexican-Americans from randomly selected extended pedigrees. Variance decomposition methods were used to examine the role of genetics in addiction phenotypes (lifetime history of alcohol dependence, drug dependence or chronic smoking) and various forms of clinically relevant anxiety. Genome-wide univariate and bivariate linkage scans were conducted to localize the chromosomal regions influencing these traits. Results Addiction phenotypes and anxiety were shown to be heritable and univariate genome-wide linkage scans revealed significant quantitative trait loci for drug dependence (14q13.2–q21.2, LOD = 3.322) and a broad anxiety phenotype (12q24.32–q24.33, LOD = 2.918). Significant positive genetic correlations were observed between anxiety and each of the addiction subtypes (ρg = 0.550–0.655) and further investigation with bivariate linkage analyses identified significant pleiotropic signals for alcohol dependence-anxiety (9q33.1–q33.2, LOD = 3.054) and drug dependence-anxiety (18p11.23–p11.22, LOD = 3.425). Conclusions This study confirms the shared genetic underpinnings of addiction and anxiety and identifies genomic loci involved in the etiology of these comorbid disorders. The linkage signal for anxiety on 12q24 spans the location of TMEM132D, an emerging gene of interest from previous GWAS of anxiety traits, whilst the bivariate linkage signal identified for anxiety-alcohol on 9q33 peak coincides with a region where rare CNVs have been associated with psychiatric disorders. Other signals identified implicate novel regions of the genome in addiction genetics. PMID:27318301

  11. Prognostic Significance of Nuclear Phospho-ATM Expression in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandaru, Madhuri; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin J; Rotte, Anand

    2015-01-01

    UV radiation induced genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. Phosphorylation of Ataxia Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) is one of the initial events that follow DNA damage. Phospho-ATM (p-ATM) plays a key role in the activation of DNA repair and several oncogenic pathways as well as in the maintenance of genomic integrity. The present study was therefore performed to understand the significance of p-ATM in melanoma progression and to correlate it with patient prognosis. Tissue microarray and immunohistochemical analysis were employed to study the expression of p-ATM in melanoma patients. A total of 366 melanoma patients (230 primary melanoma and 136 metastatic melanoma) were used for the study. Chi-square test, Kaplan-Meier, univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to elucidate the prognostic significance of p-ATM expression. Results revealed that both loss of, and gain in, p-ATM expression were associated with progression of melanoma from normal nevi to metastatic melanoma. Patients whose samples showed negative or strong p-ATM staining had significantly worse 5-year survival compared to patients who had weak to moderate expression. Loss of p-ATM expression was associated with relatively better 5-year survival, but the corresponding 10-year survival curve almost overlapped with that of strong p-ATM expression. p-ATM expression was found to be an independent prognostic factor for 5-year but not for 10-year patient survival. In conclusion our findings show that loss of p-ATM expression and gain-in p-ATM expression are indicators of worse melanoma patient survival.

  12. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  13. ON THE AXIOMS OF REVEALED PREFERENCE IN FUZZY CONSUMER THEORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Irina GEORGESCU

    2004-01-01

    The revealed preference is a central subject in classical consumer theory. Authors like Samuelson, Arrow, Richter, Sen, Uzawa and others have proposed an axiomatic setting of revealed preference theory. Consequently revealed preference axioms WARP and SARP and congruence axioms WCA and SCA have been considered. An important theorem of Sen establishes the equivalence between these axioms provided thefamily of budgets includes all non-empty finite sets of bundles. Fuzzy consumer theory (=fuzzy choice functions) is a topic that appears in a lot of papers.Particularly, Banerjee studies in fuzzy context axioms of revealed preference and congruence extending some results of Arrow and Sen. In this paper we modify the Banerjee definition of a fuzzy choice function (=fuzzy consumer)and we study some fuzzy versions of the axioms of revealed preference and congruence. Banerjee fuzzifies only the range of a consumer; we use a fuzzification of both the domain and the range of a consumer. The axioms WAFRP, SAFRP, WFCA, SFCA generalize to fuzzy consumer theory the well-known axioms WARP, SARP, WCA, SCA. Our main result establishes some connections between WAFRP, SAFRP, WFCA, SFCA extending a significant part of Sen theorem. Generally, we work in a fuzzy set theory based on a continuous t-norm, but some results are obtained for Godel t-norm and others are obtained for Lukasiewicz t-norm.

  14. Estimation of plasma lipids and its significance on histopathological grades in oral cancer: Prognostic significance an original research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia J Sherubin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Objectives: Alterations in the lipid profile have long been associated with various cancers because lipids play a key role in maintenance of cell integrity. This study was to estimate the plasma lipid levels in patients with oral cancer and to correlate the values with the histopathological grades. Materials and Methods: The study group included 50 patients with oral cancer aged between 20 and 60 years who had visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology during the period of September 2005 to July 2007. After the histotopathological confirmation, their plasma lipid levels were estimated using auto analyzer and the data was statistically analyzed. Results: The study revealed a significant decrease in the total plasma lipid levels in patients with oral cancer in comparison with the standard values. Comparing the plasma lipid levels with the histopathological grades, we observed a significant variation in the levels of total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, high-density lipoprotein and triglycerides Conclusion: The variation in the levels of plasma cholesterol and other lipid constituents in patients with cancer might be due to their increased utilization by neoplastic cells for new membrane biosynthesis. This study was an attempt to estimate the plasma lipids in oral cancer patients and its significance on histopathological grades. We observed a relationship between lower plasma lipids and oral cancer. The result of our study strongly warrants an in-depth research with larger samples and a longer follow-up to consider the low plasma lipid status in oral cancer patients as a useful indicator to assess the course and prognosis of the disease.

  15. Saturn's Rings Reveal Unexpected Phenomena

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2004-01-01

    Safely in orbit around Saturn, NASA's Cassini spacecraft sent back its first close-up images of the massive planet's rings on July 1, revealing an unexpectedly varied terrain featuring surprisingly sharp edges, braids and delicate ridges.

  16. Prognostic significance of miR-205 in endometrial cancer.

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    Mihriban Karaayvaz

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: microRNAs have emerged as key regulators of gene expression, and their altered expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Thus, microRNAs have potential as both cancer biomarkers and/or potential novel therapeutic targets. Although accumulating evidence suggests the role of aberrant microRNA expression in endometrial carcinogenesis, there are still limited data available about the prognostic significance of microRNAs in endometrial cancer. The goal of this study is to investigate the prognostic value of selected key microRNAs in endometrial cancer by the analysis of archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Total RNAs were extracted from 48 paired normal and endometrial tumor specimens using Trizol based approach. The expression of miR-26a, let-7g, miR-21, miR-181b, miR-200c, miR-192, miR-215, miR-200c, and miR-205 were quantified by real time qRT-PCR expression analysis. Targets of the differentially expressed miRNAs were quantified using immunohistochemistry. Statistical analysis was performed by GraphPad Prism 5.0. RESULTS: The expression levels of miR-200c (P<0.0001 and miR-205 (P<0.0001 were significantly increased in endometrial tumors compared to normal tissues. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that high levels of miR-205 expression were associated with poor patient overall survival (hazard ratio, 0.377; Logrank test, P = 0.028. Furthermore, decreased expression of a miR-205 target PTEN was detected in endometrial cancer tissues compared to normal tissues. CONCLUSION: miR-205 holds a unique potential as a prognostic biomarker in endometrial cancer.

  17. Prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen in patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Qiang; Han, Xiao-Na; Wang, Hai-Jiang; Tang, Yong; Zhao, Ze-Liang; Qu, Yan-Li; Xu, Rui-Wei; Liu, Yan-Yan; Yu, Xian-Bo

    2014-07-14

    To investigate the prognostic significance of preoperative fibrinogen levels in colon cancer patients. A total of 255 colon cancer patients treated at the Affiliated Tumor Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University from June 1(st) 2005 to June 1(st) 2008 were enrolled in the study. All patients received radical surgery as their primary treatment method. Preoperative fibrinogen was detected by the Clauss method, and all patients were followed up after surgery. Preoperative fibrinogen measurements were correlated with a number of clinicopathological parameters using the Student t test and analysis of variance. Survival analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox regression modeling to measure 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The mean preoperative fibrinogen concentration of all colon cancer patients was 3.17 ± 0.88 g/L. Statistically significant differences were found between preoperative fibrinogen levels and the clinicopathological parameters of age, smoking status, tumor size, tumor location, tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, modified Glasgow prognostic scores (mGPS), white blood cell (WBC) count, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. Univariate survival analysis showed that TNM stage, tumor cell differentiation grade, vascular invasion, mGPS score, preoperative fibrinogen, WBC, NLR, PLR and CEA all correlated with both OS and DFS. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and body mass index correlated only with OS. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that both OS and DFS of the total cohort, as well as of the stage II and III patients, were higher in the hypofibrinogen group compared to the hyperfibrinogen group (all P TNM stage, mGPS score, CEA, and AFP levels correlated with both OS and DFS. Preoperative fibrinogen levels can serve as an independent prognostic marker to evaluate patient response to colon cancer treatment.

  18. Religiosity, health and happiness: significant relations in adolescents from Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Khalek, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    Several studies have revealed positive associations between religiosity, health and happiness. However, the vast majority of these studies were carried out on native English-speaking participants. The objective of this study was to estimate the relations between religiosity, health and happiness among a sample (N = 372) of Qatari adolescents (M age = 15.2). The students responded to five self-rating scales to assess religiosity, mental health, physical health, happiness and satisfaction with life. Boys obtained a higher mean score on mental health than did their female counterparts. All the correlations between the rating scales were significant and positive. Principal component analysis disclosed one component and labelled 'Religiosity, health and happiness' in both sexes. The multiple stepwise regression indicated that the predictors of religiosity were the self-ratings of satisfaction with life and happiness in boys, whereas the predictors among girls were satisfaction with life and physical health. On the basis of the responses of the present sample, it was concluded that those who consider themselves as religious were more happy, satisfied with their life and healthy. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Slow and fast development in ladybirds: occurrence, effects and significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mishra

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Developmental and growth rates are known to vary in response to genetic, developmental, physiological and environmental factors. However, developmental variations that exist within a cohort under any constant rearing condition are not so well investigated. A few such prominent polymorphisms have been studied, but not the subtle ones. The current study investigates the presence of such varying rates of development, slow and fast, in a cohort reared under constant conditions in two ladybirds, Cheilomenes sexmaculata and Propylea dissecta. Our results reveal slow and fast developers in the cohorts of each species and the ratio of slow and fast developers was similar. Slow developers showed a female biased sex ratio. The two developmental variants differed significantly in juvenile duration only in the first instar and the pupal stage, though variations in developmental time were observed in all stages. Fecundity was higher in slow developers, but developmental rates did not affect egg viability. The similar ratio in both ladybirds indicates it to be a result of either presence of a constant ratio across species or an effect of the similar rearing environment.

  20. On the adaptive significance of circadian clocks for their owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaze, Koustubh M; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Circadian rhythms are believed to be an evolutionary adaptation to daily environmental cycles resulting from Earth's rotation about its axis. A trait evolved through a process of natural selection is considered as adaptation; therefore, rigorous demonstration of adaptation requires evidence suggesting evolution of a trait by natural selection. Like any other adaptive trait, circadian rhythms are believed to be advantageous to living beings through some perceived function. Circadian rhythms are thought to confer advantage to their owners through scheduling of biological functions at appropriate time of daily environmental cycle (extrinsic advantage), coordination of internal physiology (intrinsic advantage), and through their role in responses to seasonal changes. So far, the adaptive value of circadian rhythms has been tested in several studies and evidence indeed suggests that they confer advantage to their owners. In this review, we have discussed the background for development of the framework currently used to test the hypothesis of adaptive significance of circadian rhythms. Critical examination of evidence reveals that there are several lacunae in our understanding of circadian rhythms as adaptation. Although it is well known that demonstrating a given trait as adaptation (or setting the necessary criteria) is not a trivial task, here we recommend some of the basic criteria and suggest the nature of evidence required to comprehensively understand circadian rhythms as adaptation. Thus, we hope to create some awareness that may benefit future studies in this direction.

  1. Tadalafil significantly reduces ischemia reperfusion injury in skin island flaps

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    Oguz Kayiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Numerous pharmacological agents have been used to enhance the viability of flaps. Ischemia reperfusion (I/R injury is an unwanted, sometimes devastating complication in reconstructive microsurgery. Tadalafil, a specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase type 5 is mainly used for erectile dysfunction, and acts on vascular smooth muscles, platelets and leukocytes. Herein, the protective and therapeutical effect of tadalafil in I/R injury in rat skin flap model is evaluated. Materials and Methods: Sixty epigastric island flaps were used to create I/R model in 60 Wistar rats (non-ischemic group, ischemic group, medication group. Biochemical markers including total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA and myeloperoxidase (MPO were analysed. Necrosis rates were calculated and histopathologic evaluation was carried out. Results: MDA, MPO and total nitrite values were found elevated in the ischemic group, however there was an evident drop in the medication group. Histological results revealed that early inflammatory findings (oedema, neutrophil infiltration, necrosis rate were observed lower with tadalafil administration. Moreover, statistical significance (P < 0.05 was recorded. Conclusions: We conclude that tadalafil has beneficial effects on epigastric island flaps against I/R injury.

  2. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  3. Determining the clinical significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance: a SEER-Medicare population analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ronald S; Gundrum, Jacob D; Neuner, Joan M

    2015-03-01

    Clinical guidelines have recommended annual follow-up examinations of most patients with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS); however, evidence supporting this practice is lacking. We performed a population-based study to examine the patterns of disease presentation and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma, Waldenström macroglobulinemia, and lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancies) comparing those with or without a previous MGUS follow-up examination. Patients with monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy from 1994 through 2007 were identified using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database and divided into 2 cohorts: those with follow-up (MGUS follow-up examination preceding the diagnosis) and those with no follow-up (no such follow-up examination). We compared the outcomes, including the rates of major complications at cancer diagnosis (acute kidney injury, cord compression, dialysis use, fracture, and hypercalcemia) and survival using propensity score adjustment and Cox proportional hazard models. All statistical tests were 2-sided. Of the 17,457 study patients, 6% had undergone MGUS follow-up. After multivariable modeling, the follow-up group had significantly fewer major complications at diagnosis (odds ratio 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.80) and better disease-specific (median, 38 vs. 29 months, P < .001; hazard ratio [HR] 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and overall (median, 23 vs. 19 months, P < .001; HR 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95) survival. Patients with MGUS follow-up preceding the diagnosis of a monoclonal gammopathy-associated malignancy can experience fewer major complications and have longer survival than those without such follow-up examinations. Future studies replicating our findings in the non-Medicare population and determining the optimal schedule and cost-effectiveness of MGUS follow-up are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. PADI2 is significantly associated with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotian Chang

    Full Text Available Citrullination, a posttranslational modification of peptidyl arginine to citrulline, plays an essential role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA. Citrullination is catalyzed by a group of peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs including PADI 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6. Many studies have indicated that the gene encoding PADI4 is a factor in susceptibility to RA. Some studies have detected PADI2 expression in RA synovial tissues, suggesting that PADI2 also plays an important role in the disease. This study evaluated the possible association between the PADI2-encoding gene and RA. Seventeen tag SNPs across the PAD locus were genotyped using a custom-designed Illumina 96-SNP VeraCode microarray. Peripheral blood samples were collected from patients with RA (n = 267, ankylosing spondylitis (AS, n = 51 and healthy controls (n = 160. The results of genotyping were verified using Sequenom MassARRAY in an independent cohort of 307 patients with RA, 324 patients with AS and 509 healthy controls. A western blot analysis was performed using synovial tissue from patients with RA (n = 7, osteoarthritis (OA, n = 7 and AS (n = 5 to determine the levels of expression of PADI2. A microarray analysis revealed a significant association between three selected PADI2 SNPs (rs2235926, rs2057094, rs2076616 and the presence of RA. The increased susceptibility to RA associated with rs2235926 (OR = 1.706733, 95% CI = [1.576366-1.866587], p = 0.000839 and rs2057094 (OR = 1.360432, 95% CI = [1.065483-1.869482], p = 0.003291 was further confirmed by the Sequenom MassARRAY. No tag SNPs in the PADI2 locus showed a significant association with AS. Increased expression of PADI2 was detected in RA synovial tissues compared with samples from patients with OA and AS. PADI2 is significantly associated with RA and may be involved in the pathogenesis of the disease.

  5. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  6. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  7. Observing seasonal variations of sea surface wind speed and significant wave height using TOPEX altimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    One year of ocean topography experiment (TOPEX) altimeter data are used to study the seasonal variations of global sea surface wind speed and significant wave height. The major wind and wave zones of the world oceans are precisely identified, their seasonal variability and characteristics are quantitatively analyzed, and the diversity of global wind speed seasonality and the variability of significant wave height in response to sea surface wind speed are also revealed.

  8. Attaching and effacing Escherichia coli isolates from Danish children: clinical significance and microbiological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, C; Ethelberg, S; Olesen, B;

    2007-01-01

    encoding the bundle-forming pilus (bfpA) and enteroaggregative heat-stable enterotoxin (astA) were rare among all isolates, and seemed to be of limited pathogenic importance in this population. Virulence characterisation of A/EEC isolates did not reveal any significant differences between cases...

  9. Garnet polycrystals and the significance of clustered crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Donna L.; Seaton, Nicholas C. A.

    2010-10-01

    Polycrystalline garnets are common in metamorphic rocks and may form as a result of close spacing of nuclei (if clustering is early) or impingement of larger grains (if clustering occurs later in the growth history). The timing of clustering relative to garnet growth is relevant to understanding the formation and evolution of porphyroblasts and evaluating the significance (if any) of clustering. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analysis of garnet-bearing metamorphic rocks reveals the presence of polycrystalline garnet in nine localities examined in this study: the northern Appalachians (Vermont, Maine, New York, USA); North American Cordillera (North Cascades Range, Washington; Snake Range, Nevada, USA); western Rocky Mountains (British Columbia, Canada); southern Menderes Massif (Turkey); Santander Massif (Colombia); and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (Hamadan, Iran). In some samples, polycrystals comprise ~20-30% of garnets analyzed, and chemical and textural evidence suggests that early coalescence of garnet polycrystals is common. Some early-coalescing polycrystals exhibit growth zoning that is concentric about the geometric center of the polycrystal. In thin section, these garnets may be undetectable as polycrystals based on morphology or zoning. In some polycrystals, zoning is unrelated to the location of internal grain boundaries; in others, Fe-Mn-Mg zoning has a different pattern than that of Ca; zoning patterns may vary on the scale of a single thin section. In addition, some polycrystals are characterized by high-angle misorientation boundaries that may be in special (non-random) orientations, an observation that indicates that these polycrystals are not random clusters of grains. The presence of internal grain boundaries may affect diffusion pathways and length scales, and may facilitate communication of porphyroblast interiors with matrix phases, thereby influencing reaction history of the rock and the composition/zoning of garnet.

  10. Host-Specific Functional Significance of Caenorhabditis Gut Commensals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Maureen; Zhou, Xiao Ying; Shapira, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiota is an important contributor to host health and fitness. Given its importance, microbiota composition should not be left to chance. However, what determines this composition is far from clear, with results supporting contributions of both environmental factors and host genetics. To gauge the relative contributions of host genetics and environment, specifically the microbial diversity, we characterized the gut microbiotas of Caenorhabditis species spanning 200–300 million years of evolution, and raised on different composted soil environments. Comparisons were based on 16S rDNA deep sequencing data, as well as on functional evaluation of gut isolates. Worm microbiotas were distinct from those in their respective soil environment, and included bacteria previously identified as part of the C. elegans core microbiota. Microbiotas differed between experiments initiated with different soil communities, but within each experiment, worm microbiotas clustered according to host identity, demonstrating a dominant contribution of environmental diversity, but also a significant contribution of host genetics. The dominance of environmental contributions hindered identification of host-associated microbial taxa from 16S data. Characterization of gut isolates from C. elegans and C. briggsae, focusing on the core family Enterobacteriaceae, were also unable to expose phylogenetic distinctions between microbiotas of the two species. However, functional evaluation of the isolates revealed host-specific contributions, wherein gut commensals protected their own host from infection, but not a non-host. Identification of commensal host-specificity at the functional level, otherwise overlooked in standard sequence-based analyses, suggests that the contribution of host genetics to shaping of gut microbiotas may be greater than previously realized.

  11. Ovule Morphogenesis in Ranunculaceae and its Systematic Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zi-Fen; Ren, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Ranunculaceae has a prominent phylogenetic position in Ranunculales which appears at the base of eudicots. The aims of the present paper are to reveal the features of ovule morphogenesis in different taxa and gain a better understanding of the systematics of Ranunculaceae. Methods Flowers of 17 species from three subfamilies, nine tribes and 16 genera of Ranunculaceae, at successive developmental stages, were collected in the wild and studied with a scanning electron microscope. Key Results The integuments in the unitegmic ovules in Helleborus, Ranunculus and Oxygraphis, as well as the inner integuments in the bitegmic genera, initiate annularly and eventually become cup-shaped. However, the integuments in the unitegmic ovules in Anemone and Clematis, as well as the outer integuments in the bitegmic genera, arise semi-annularly and eventually become hood-shaped. Different kinds of appendages appear on the ovules during development. In Coptis of subfamily Coptidoideae, a wrap-shaped appendage arises outside the ovule and envelopes the ovule entirely. In the genera of subfamily Thalictroideae and tribe Anemoneae of subfamily Ranunculoideae, appendages appear on the placenta, the funicle or both. In tribe Helleboreae of subfamily Ranunculoideae, an alary appendage is initiated where the integument and the funicle join and becomes hood-shaped. Conclusions Ovule morphogenesis characteristics are significant in classification at the levels of subfamilies and tribes. The initiation patterns of the integuments and the development of appendages show diversity in Ranunculaceae. The present observations suggest that the bitegmic, hood-shaped outer integument and endostomic micropyle are primitive while the unitegmic, cupular-shaped outer integument and bistomic micropyle are derivative. PMID:18065776

  12. Empirical Bayesian significance measure of neuronal spike response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oba, Shigeyuki; Nakae, Ken; Ikegaya, Yuji; Aki, Shunsuke; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ishii, Shin

    2016-05-21

    Functional connectivity analyses of multiple neurons provide a powerful bottom-up approach to reveal functions of local neuronal circuits by using simultaneous recording of neuronal activity. A statistical methodology, generalized linear modeling (GLM) of the spike response function, is one of the most promising methodologies to reduce false link discoveries arising from pseudo-correlation based on common inputs. Although recent advancement of fluorescent imaging techniques has increased the number of simultaneously recoded neurons up to the hundreds or thousands, the amount of information per pair of neurons has not correspondingly increased, partly because of the instruments' limitations, and partly because the number of neuron pairs increase in a quadratic manner. Consequently, the estimation of GLM suffers from large statistical uncertainty caused by the shortage in effective information. In this study, we propose a new combination of GLM and empirical Bayesian testing for the estimation of spike response functions that enables both conservative false discovery control and powerful functional connectivity detection. We compared our proposed method's performance with those of sparse estimation of GLM and classical Granger causality testing. Our method achieved high detection performance of functional connectivity with conservative estimation of false discovery rate and q values in case of information shortage due to short observation time. We also showed that empirical Bayesian testing on arbitrary statistics in place of likelihood-ratio statistics reduce the computational cost without decreasing the detection performance. When our proposed method was applied to a functional multi-neuron calcium imaging dataset from the rat hippocampal region, we found significant functional connections that are possibly mediated by AMPA and NMDA receptors. The proposed empirical Bayesian testing framework with GLM is promising especially when the amount of information per a

  13. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sgr. The radio observations revealed the presence of a jet escaping from the system at mind-boggling speeds. Only three other galactic X-ray stellar systems have been found to eject material at such speeds. They have been dubbed "microquasars" because, on a smaller scale, they resemble quasars, which lie at the hearts of distant galaxies and also spew out high-velocity jets of particles. In galaxy-core quasars, the black holes are millions of times more massive than the Sun; in the more nearby microquasars the black holes are roughly three to twenty times more massive than the Sun. The extremely high velocity of the jets suggests that their origin lies close to the event horizon of a black hole. Microquasar activity is thought to arise when the black hole in the binary system draws material away from its companion star. The material surrounding the black hole forms a rapidly spinning disk called an accretion disk. This disk is heated by friction to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-rays. As spiralling gas moves into the gravity well of the black hole, it moves faster and faster. Magnetic fields in the disk are believed to expel the charged subatomic particles at speeds close to that of light. As the charged particles interact with the magnetic fields, they emit radio waves. If some of the material escapes by being magnetically expelled into space, the matter may continue moving at the tremendous speed it had attained near the black hole. After their ejection, the jets of particles expand and cool, fading from astronomers' view. V4641 Sgr excites astronomers because it is close and because it acted so differently from other microquasars. In other microquasars, outbursts have dimmed more slowly over weeks or months rather than hours. "There's something fundamentally different about this one; it's more extreme than any other example," Hjellming said. "And because this system happens to be so close to us, `it is very likely that there are more objects like V4641

  15. Systematic toxicological analysis revealing a rare case of captan ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottzein, Anne K; Musshoff, Frank; Madea, Burkhard

    2013-07-01

    This article presents a case of suicide by intoxication with various pharmaceuticals, particularly anticonvulsants, combined with the fungicide captan. A cause of death could not be ascertained at autopsy. However, systematic toxicological analysis (STA) including a screening via solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for (semi) volatile organic compounds revealed results suggesting a possible cause of death. The effects of captan on the human organism, its metabolism, and distribution will be discussed. Macroscopically, the cause of death was unascertained. STA revealed clonazepam, citalopram, and its metabolites, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, lacosamide, clonazepam, captan, and its metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide (THPI). For the first time, it was detected in human viscera. A quantification of THPI was performed to obtain distribution in the organs. The significance of a complete STA must be emphasized. The presence of THPI would have been missed without previous detection of captan. Consequently, this fatality would not have been investigated satisfactorily.

  16. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: Clinical versus statistical significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In clinical research, study results, which are statistically significant are often interpreted as being clinically important. While statistical significance indicates the reliability of the study results, clinical significance reflects its impact on clinical practice. The third article in this series exploring pitfalls in statistical analysis clarifies the importance of differentiating between statistical significance and clinical significance. PMID:26229754

  17. Revealing the Anatomy of Vote Trading

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Omar A

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation in the form of vote trading, also known as logrolling, is central for law-making processes, shaping the development of democratic societies. Empirical evidence of logrolling is scarce and limited to highly specific situations because existing methods are not easily applicable to broader contexts. We have developed a general and scalable methodology for revealing a network of vote traders, allowing us to measure logrolling on a large scale. Analysis on more than 9 million votes spanning 40 years in the U.S. Congress reveals a higher logrolling prevalence in the Senate and an overall decreasing trend over recent congresses, coincidental with high levels of political polarization. Our method is applicable in multiple contexts, shedding light on many aspects of logrolling and opening new doors in the study of hidden cooperation.

  18. Revealing interference by continuous variable discordant states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meda, A; Olivares, S; Degiovanni, I P; Brida, G; Genovese, M; Paris, M G A

    2013-08-15

    In general, a pair of uncorrelated Gaussian states mixed in a beam splitter (BS) produces a correlated state at the output. However, when the inputs are identical Gaussian states the output state is equal to the input, and no correlations appear, as the interference had not taken place. On the other hand, since physical phenomena do have observable effects, and the BS is there, a question arises on how to reveal the interference between the two beams. We prove theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that this is possible if at least one of the two beams is prepared in a discordant, i.e., Gaussian correlated, state with a third beam. We also apply the same technique to reveal the erasure of polarization information. Our experiment involves thermal states and the results show that Gaussian discordant states, even when they show a positive Glauber P-function, may be useful to achieve specific tasks.

  19. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2013-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  20. Thyroid Eye Disease With Significant Levator Involvement and Ptosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scruggs, Ryan T; Black, Evan H

    2015-01-01

    A case of an 87-year-old woman with a history of Graves disease presenting with a 5-year history of severe ptosis and very poor levator function of the left side is presented. MRI revealed marked enlargement of all extraocular muscles and significant enlargement of the left levator muscle. Given the patient's age and atypical presentation of thyroid eye disease (TED), she was taken to the operating room for biopsy and ptosis repair with frontalis suspension. Histopathological analysis revealed chronic inflammation and fibrosis consistent with Graves disease.

  1. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  2. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality. ...

  3. Reveal Listeria 2.0 test for detection of Listeria spp. in foods and environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alles, Susan; Curry, Stephanie; Almy, David; Jagadeesan, Balamurugan; Rice, Jennifer; Mozola, Mark

    2012-01-01

    A Performance Tested Method validation study was conducted for a new lateral flow immunoassay (Reveal Listeria 2.0) for detection of Listeria spp. in foods and environmental samples. Results of inclusivity testing showed that the test detects all species of Listeria, with the exception of L. grayi. In exclusivity testing conducted under nonselective growth conditions, all non-listeriae tested produced negative Reveal assay results, except for three strains of Lactobacillus spp. However, these lactobacilli are inhibited by the selective Listeria Enrichment Single Step broth enrichment medium used with the Reveal method. Six foods were tested in parallel by the Reveal method and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration/Bacteriological Analytical Manual (FDA/BAM) reference culture procedure. Considering data from both internal and independent laboratory trials, overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to that of the FDA/BAM procedure was 101%. Four foods were tested in parallel by the Reveal method and the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Food Safety and Inspection Service (USDA-FSIS) reference culture procedure. Overall sensitivity of the Reveal method relative to that of the USDA-FSIS procedure was 98.2%. There were no statistically significant differences in the number of positives obtained by the Reveal and reference culture procedures in any food trials. In testing of swab or sponge samples from four types of environmental surfaces, sensitivity of Reveal relative to that of the USDA-FSIS reference culture procedure was 127%. For two surface types, differences in the number of positives obtained by the Reveal and reference methods were statistically significant, with more positives by the Reveal method in both cases. Specificity of the Reveal assay was 100%, as there were no unconfirmed positive results obtained in any phase of the testing. Results of ruggedness experiments showed that the Reveal assay is tolerant of modest deviations in test sample volume and

  4. Interview of patients by pharmacists contributes significantly to the identification of drug-related problems (DRPs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktil, Kirsten K; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Moger, Tron A; Reikvam, Aasmund

    2006-09-01

    To investigate whether pharmacist interviews of hospitalised patients about their medication would result in identification of more drug-related problems (DRPs) than those found by usual care procedures and further to characterise the DRPs revealed at the interviews. Patients from five internal medicine and two rheumatology departments in four hospitals in Norway were prospectively included in the study. Clinical pharmacists assessed DRPs by reviewing medical records and by participating in multidisciplinary team discussions. Drugs used, medical history, laboratory data and clinical/pharmacological risk factors were recorded (usual care procedure). A proportion of patients were randomly selected for interview with pharmacists. A quality team assessed the clinical significance of the DRPs. Seven hundred and twenty seven patients were included. Significantly more DRPs were found in the interview group (96 patients), an average of 4.4 DRPs per patient as compared to 2.4 DRPs in the non-interview group (631 patients) (p medical chart error', 'patient adherence' and 'need for patient education' were significantly more often recorded in this group. The quality team assessed 63% of the DRPs revealed in the interviews to be of major clinical significance. Significantly more DRPs were identified among the patients who were interviewed compared to those patients having only usual care examination. A high proportion of the DRPs identified in the interviews were of major clinical significance. The clinical pharmacists, with their way of interviewing, seem to fill a gap, ensuring that significant DRPs do not escape detection.

  5. Significant Learning, Significant Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The acknowledgment that advisees are learners and advisors are teachers may be the most powerful philosophical change in advising in 30 years. This article builds generally on the growing momentum to view academic advising as an extension of student learning, and specifically as an expansion of "Advising as Learning" in which Hemwall and Trachte…

  6. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  7. Revealing digital documents. Concealed structures in data

    CERN Document Server

    Voß, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    This short paper gives an introduction to a research project to analyze how digital documents are structured and described. Using a phenomenological approach, this research will reveal common patterns that are used in data, independent from the particular technology in which the data is available. The ability to identify these patterns, on different levels of description, is important for several applications in digital libraries. A better understanding of data structuring will not only help to better capture singular characteristics of data by metadata, but will also recover intended structures of digital objects, beyond long term preservation.

  8. Revealing Cosmic Magnetism with Radio Polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan M

    2007-01-01

    While gravitation sustains the on-going evolution of the cosmos, it is magnetism that breaks gravity's symmetry and that provides the pathway to the non-thermal Universe. By enabling processes such as anisotropic pressure support, particle acceleration, and jet collimation, magnetism has for billions of years regulated the feedback vital for returning matter to the interstellar and intergalactic medium. After reviewing recent results that demonstrate the unique view of magnetic fields provided by radio astronomy, I explain how the Square Kilometre Array will provide data that will reveal what cosmic magnets look like, how they formed, and what role they have played in the evolving Universe.

  9. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audemard-Verger, A.; Descloux, E.; Ponard, D.; Deroux, A.; Fantin, B.; Fieschi, C.; John, M.; Bouldouyre, A.; Karkowsi, L.; Moulis, G.; Auvinet, H.; Valla, F.; Lechiche, C.; Davido, B.; Martinot, M.; Biron, C.; Lucht, F.; Asseray, N.; Froissart, A.; Buzelé, R.; Perlat, A.; Boutboul, D.; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V.; Isnard, S.; Bienvenu, B.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies. A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis. Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15–67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1–10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35

  10. Superstitious perceptions reveal properties of internal representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Frédéric; Schyns, Philippe G

    2003-09-01

    Everyone has seen a human face in a cloud, a pebble, or blots on a wall. Evidence of superstitious perceptions has been documented since classical antiquity, but has received little scientific attention. In the study reported here, we used superstitious perceptions in a new principled method to reveal the properties of unobservable object representations in memory. We stimulated the visual system with unstructured white noise. Observers firmly believed that they perceived the letter S in Experiment 1 and a smile on a face in Experiment 2. Using reverse correlation and computational analyses, we rendered the memory representations underlying these superstitious perceptions.

  11. Apocalypto: revealing lost text with XMT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, David; Davis, Graham R.; Lai, Yu-kun; Rosin, Paul

    2014-09-01

    "Can brute-force high-contrast tomography techniques and image processing techniques retrieve textual content from damaged heritage materials?" The Dental Institute at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) is the leading centre for very high contrast X-Ray Microtomography imaging. The Apocalypto Project is our collaboration with the heritage community and experts in Computer Vision systems in the Computer Science Department at Cardiff University. This collaboration has developed techniques and a workflow that allows us to reveal textual content from moisture-damaged parchment rolls. This article will also present some initial results from burned and heat shrunken parchment rolls, an insect damaged Mamluk cap and a birch bark roll.

  12. Significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field and its rationality for characterizing the monsoon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建平; 曾庆存

    2000-01-01

    The significance of the normalized seasonality of wind field is theoretically studied and the intrinsic relationship between its critical value and the definition of the monsoon region is revealed. As a result, the rationality which the monsoon region is characterized by the significant normalized seasonality is proved. Based on this, by use of the NECP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1958-1997, the spatial structure of the significant normalized seasonality of wind field is investigated, and the significant baroclinity of the seasonal variation of the atmospheric general circulation in the vertical direction is verified. Moreover, in the tropics there exists an anti-symmetric distribution between the significant seasonality in the eastern hemisphere and that in the western hemisphere, and the monsoon is linked closely to some important systems such as the subtropical highs, the night jet and the west wind channels.

  13. Revealing Event Saliency in Unconstrained Video Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dingwen; Han, Junwei; Jiang, Lu; Ye, Senmao; Chang, Xiaojun

    2017-04-01

    Recent progresses in multimedia event detection have enabled us to find videos about a predefined event from a large-scale video collection. Research towards more intrinsic unsupervised video understanding is an interesting but understudied field. Specifically, given a collection of videos sharing a common event of interest, the goal is to discover the salient fragments, i.e., the curt video fragments that can concisely portray the underlying event of interest, from each video. To explore this novel direction, this paper proposes an unsupervised event saliency revealing framework. It first extracts features from multiple modalities to represent each shot in the given video collection. Then, these shots are clustered to build the cluster-level event saliency revealing framework, which explores useful information cues (i.e., the intra-cluster prior, inter-cluster discriminability, and inter-cluster smoothness) by a concise optimization model. Compared with the existing methods, our approach could highlight the intrinsic stimulus of the unseen event within a video in an unsupervised fashion. Thus, it could potentially benefit to a wide range of multimedia tasks like video browsing, understanding, and search. To quantitatively verify the proposed method, we systematically compare the method to a number of baseline methods on the TRECVID benchmarks. Experimental results have demonstrated its effectiveness and efficiency.

  14. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  15. Symptomatic hypopituitarism revealing primary suprasellar lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M'rabti Hind

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most common cause of hypopituitarism is pituitary adenoma. However, in the case of suprasellar masses different etiologies are possible. We report an unusual case of primary suprasellar lymphoma presented with hypopituitarism. Case presentation A 26 year old woman presented with amenorrhea, galactorrhea and neurological disorders. Also, the laboratory work-up revealed partial hypopituitarism. The magnetic resonance imaging of the head showed a suprasellar mass. A presumptive diagnosis of granulomatous processes was made and the patient was given steroid therapy. Repeated brain MRI detected new lesions in the brain with regression of the suprasellar mass. Stereotactic biopsy of the paraventricular lesion revealed the diagnosis of B-cell lymphoma. Conclusion This case presentation reports a rare cause of hypopituitarism. Primary suprasellar lymphoma is extremely rare and represented a real diagnostic challenge. Besides, suprasellar masses are varied in aetiology and can present diagnostic problems for a radiologist. Also, because of the increased incidence of PCNSL, lymphoma must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lesions in the suprasellar region.

  16. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  17. Gene Expression and Activity Profiling Reveal a Significant Contribution of Exo-Phosphotransferases to the Extracellular Nucleotides Metabolism in HUVEC Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wujak, Magdalena; Hetmann, Anna; Porowińska, Dorota; Roszek, Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Purinergic signaling maintains local tissue homeostasis in blood vessels via the regulation of vascular tone, blood platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses. Extracellular purines are important signaling molecules in the vasculature, and both purine-hydrolysing as well as -phosphorylating enzymes are considered to selectively govern extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside metabolism. Recent studies have provided some evidence for the existence of these enzymes in a soluble form in human blood and their secretion into the extracellular space under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the comprehensive analysis of endothelium-derived enzymes involved in purine metabolic pathways has received no attention so far. In the presented study, in vitro cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are shown to be an abundant source of exo-nucleotidases comprising 5'-nucleotidase (exo-5'-NT), and nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (exo-NTPDase) as well as phosphotransferases, represented by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (exo-NDPK) and adenylate kinase (exo-AK). An attempt is also made to demonstrate that, in contrast to the metabolic pattern determined on the endothelial cell surface, exo-phosphorylating activities markedly predominate over exo-hydrolytic ones. We present for the first time the expression profiles of genes encoding isoenzymes belonging to distinct nucleotide kinase and nucleotidase families. The genes encoding NDPK1, NDPK2, AK1, and AK2 phosphotransferases have been shown to be expressed at the highest level in HUVEC cells. The data indicate the coexistence of secreted and cell-associated factors of endothelial origin mediating ATP-consuming and ATP-generating pathways with the predominance of exo-phosphotransferases activity. The described enzymes contribute to the regulation of purinergic signal duration and extent in the venous vasculature. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 1341-1348, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R Hunt

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies. Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs. Six E2 epitopes (E2(c,d,e,f,g,h bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody and mapped to amino acids (aa 182-207. Nothing is known about the human antibody repertoire to VEEV or epitopes that engage human virus-neutralizing antibodies. There is no specific treatment for VEE; however virus-neutralizing mMAbs are potent protective and therapeutic agents for mice challenged with VEEV by either peripheral or aerosol routes. Therefore, fully human MAbs (hMAbs with virus-neutralizing activity should be useful for prevention or clinical treatment of human VEE.We used phage-display to isolate VEEV-specific hFabs from human bone marrow donors. These hFabs were characterized by sequencing, specificity testing, VEEV subtype cross-reactivity using indirect ELISA, and in vitro virus neutralization capacity. One E2-specific neutralizing hFAb, F5n, was converted into IgG, and its binding site was identified using competitive ELISA with mMAbs and by preparing and sequencing antibody neutralization-escape variants.Using 11 VEEV-reactive hFabs we constructed the first human epitope map for the alphaviral surface proteins E1 and E2. We identified an important neutralization-associated epitope unique to the human immune response, E2 aa115-119. Using a 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of the Sindbis virus E2 protein, we showed the probable surface location of this human VEEV epitope.The VEEV-neutralizing capacity of the hMAb F5 nIgG is similar to that exhibited by the humanized mMAb Hy4 IgG. The Hy4 IgG has been shown to limit VEEV infection in mice both prophylactically and therapeutically. Administration of a cocktail of F5n and Hy4 IgGs, which bind to different E2 epitopes, could provide enhanced prophylaxis or immunotherapy for VEEV, while reducing the possibility of generating possibly harmful virus neutralization-escape variants in vivo.

  19. Y-chromosome and mtDNA genetics reveal significant contrasts in affinities of modern Middle Eastern populations with European and African populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle A Badro

    Full Text Available The Middle East was a funnel of human expansion out of Africa, a staging area for the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, and the home to some of the earliest world empires. Post LGM expansions into the region and subsequent population movements created a striking genetic mosaic with distinct sex-based genetic differentiation. While prior studies have examined the mtDNA and Y-chromosome contrast in focal populations in the Middle East, none have undertaken a broad-spectrum survey including North and sub-Saharan Africa, Europe, and Middle Eastern populations. In this study 5,174 mtDNA and 4,658 Y-chromosome samples were investigated using PCA, MDS, mean-linkage clustering, AMOVA, and Fisher exact tests of F(ST's, R(ST's, and haplogroup frequencies. Geographic differentiation in affinities of Middle Eastern populations with Africa and Europe showed distinct contrasts between mtDNA and Y-chromosome data. Specifically, Lebanon's mtDNA shows a very strong association to Europe, while Yemen shows very strong affinity with Egypt and North and East Africa. Previous Y-chromosome results showed a Levantine coastal-inland contrast marked by J1 and J2, and a very strong North African component was evident throughout the Middle East. Neither of these patterns were observed in the mtDNA. While J2 has penetrated into Europe, the pattern of Y-chromosome diversity in Lebanon does not show the widespread affinities with Europe indicated by the mtDNA data. Lastly, while each population shows evidence of connections with expansions that now define the Middle East, Africa, and Europe, many of the populations in the Middle East show distinctive mtDNA and Y-haplogroup characteristics that indicate long standing settlement with relatively little impact from and movement into other populations.

  20. Determination of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genome sequences reveals that the largest reported mitochondrial genome in plants contains a significant amount of DNA having a nuclear origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The melon belongs to the Cucurbitaceae family, whose economic importance among vegetable crops is second only to Solanaceae. The melon has a small genome size (454 Mb), which makes it suitable for molecular and genetic studies. Despite similar nuclear and chloroplast genome sizes, cucurbits show great variation when their mitochondrial genomes are compared. The melon possesses the largest plant mitochondrial genome, as much as eight times larger than that of other cucurbits. Results The nucleotide sequences of the melon chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes were determined. The chloroplast genome (156,017 bp) included 132 genes, with 98 single-copy genes dispersed between the small (SSC) and large (LSC) single-copy regions and 17 duplicated genes in the inverted repeat regions (IRa and IRb). A comparison of the cucumber and melon chloroplast genomes showed differences in only approximately 5% of nucleotides, mainly due to short indels and SNPs. Additionally, 2.74 Mb of mitochondrial sequence, accounting for 95% of the estimated mitochondrial genome size, were assembled into five scaffolds and four additional unscaffolded contigs. An 84% of the mitochondrial genome is contained in a single scaffold. The gene-coding region accounted for 1.7% (45,926 bp) of the total sequence, including 51 protein-coding genes, 4 conserved ORFs, 3 rRNA genes and 24 tRNA genes. Despite the differences observed in the mitochondrial genome sizes of cucurbit species, Citrullus lanatus (379 kb), Cucurbita pepo (983 kb) and Cucumis melo (2,740 kb) share 120 kb of sequence, including the predicted protein-coding regions. Nevertheless, melon contained a high number of repetitive sequences and a high content of DNA of nuclear origin, which represented 42% and 47% of the total sequence, respectively. Conclusions Whereas the size and gene organisation of chloroplast genomes are similar among the cucurbit species, mitochondrial genomes show a wide variety of sizes, with a non-conserved structure both in gene number and organisation, as well as in the features of the noncoding DNA. The transfer of nuclear DNA to the melon mitochondrial genome and the high proportion of repetitive DNA appear to explain the size of the largest mitochondrial genome reported so far. PMID:21854637

  1. Trends in surface wind speed and significant wave height as revealed by ERA-Interim wind wave hindcast in the Central Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.

    The Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal (BoB) regions are special interested sea areas in the Northern Hemisphere with large seasonal variability. This study focused on the long-term wind and wave in the central BoB from 1979 to 2012 based on the ECMWF...

  2. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells...... also been found in several tissues from normal individuals, but it is not clear if low levels of progerin contribute to the aging of the brain. In an attempt to clarify the origin of this phenomenon, we have developed an inducible transgenic mouse model with expression of the most common HGPS mutation......, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have...

  3. Pilot Sequencing of Onion Genomic DNA Reveals Fragments of Transposable Elements, Low Gene Densities, and Significant Gene Enrichment After Methyl Filtration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onion (Allium cepa) is a diploid (2n=2x=16) monocot with one of the largest nuclear genomes among cultivated plants, over 6 and 16 times that of maize and rice, respectively. In this study, we sequenced onion BACs to estimate gene densities and investigate the nature and distribution of repetitive ...

  4. Genome-wide identification of NBS genes in japonica rice reveals significant expansion of divergent non-TIR NBS-LRR genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, T; Wang, Y; Chen, J-Q; Araki, H; Jing, Z; Jiang, K; Shen, J; Tian, D

    2004-05-01

    A complete set of candidate disease resistance ( R) genes encoding nucleotide-binding sites (NBSs) was identified in the genome sequence of japonica rice ( Oryza sativaL. var. Nipponbare). These putative R genes were characterized with respect to structural diversity, phylogenetic relationships and chromosomal distribution, and compared with those in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found 535 NBS-coding sequences, including 480 non-TIR (Toll/IL-1 receptor) NBS-LRR (Leucine Rich Repeat) genes. TIR NBS-LRR genes, which are common in A. thaliana, have not been identified in the rice genome. The number of non-TIR NBS-LRR genes in rice is 8.7 times higher than that in A. thaliana, and they account for about 1% of all of predicted ORFs in the rice genome. Some 76% of the NBS genes were located in 44 gene clusters or in 57 tandem arrays, and 16 apparent gene duplications were detected in these regions. Phylogenetic analyses based both NBS and N-terminal regions classified the genes into about 200 groups, but no deep clades were detected, in contrast to the two distinct clusters found in A. thaliana. The structural and genetic diversity that exists among NBS-LRR proteins in rice is remarkable, and suggests that diversifying selection has played an important role in the evolution of R genes in this agronomically important species. (Supplemental material is available online at http://gattaca.nju.edu.cn.)

  5. Structural and functional analysis of aa3-type and cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidases of Paracoccus denitrificans reveals significant differences in proton-pump design

    OpenAIRE

    de Gier, Jan-Willem L.; Schepper, Mike; Reijnders, Willem N.M.; Dyck, Stef J. van; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Warne, Antony; Saraste, Matti; Krab, Klaas; Finel, Moshe; Stouthamer, Adriaan H.; Van Spanning, Rob J. M.; van der Oost, John

    1996-01-01

    In Paracoccus denitrificans the aa3-type cytochrome c oxidase and the bb3-type quinol oxidase have previously been characterized in detail, both biochemically and genetically. Here we report on the isolation of a genomic locus that harbours the gene cluster ccoNOQP, and demonstrate that it encodes an alternative cbb3-type cytochrome c oxidase. This oxidase has previously been shown to be specifically induced at low oxygen tensions, suggesting that its expression is controlled by an oxygen-sen...

  6. Most significant genome regions involved in the control of earliness traits in bread wheat, as revealed by QTL meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanocq, E; Laperche, A; Jaminon, O; Lainé, A-L; Le Gouis, J

    2007-02-01

    Earliness is one of the most important adaptation traits in plant breeding. Our purpose was to identify the genome regions of bread wheat involved in the control of earliness and its three components: photoperiod sensitivity (PS), vernalization requirement (VR) and intrinsic earliness (IE). A QTL meta-analysis was carried out to examine the replicability of QTL across 13 independent studies and to propose meta-QTL (MQTL). Initial QTL were projected on a recent consensus map (2004). Quality criteria were proposed to assess the reliability of this projection. These criteria were based on the distances between markers in the QTL regions. Chromosomes of groups 2 and 5 had a greater incidence on earliness control as they carry the known, major genes Ppd and Vrn. Other chromosome regions played an intermediate role in earliness control: 4A [heading date (HD) Meta-QTL], 4B (HD MQTL), 2B (VR MQTL) and 5B (IE MQTL). Markers at this four MQTL should prove helpful in marker-assisted selection, to better control earliness.

  7. Multilocus sequence typing of Cronobacter sakazakii and Cronobacter malonaticus reveals stable clonal structures with clinical significance which do not correlate with biotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manning Georgina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Cronobacter genus (Enterobacter sakazakii has come to prominence due to its association with infant infections, and the ingestion of contaminated reconstituted infant formula. C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus are closely related, and are defined according their biotype. Due to the ubiquitous nature of the organism, and the high severity of infection for the immunocompromised, a multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme has been developed for the fast and reliable identification and discrimination of C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus strains. It was applied to 60 strains of C. sakazakii and 16 strains of C. malonaticus, including the index strains used to define the biotypes. The strains were from clinical and non-clinical sources between 1951 and 2008 in USA, Canada, Europe, New Zealand and the Far East. Results This scheme uses 7 loci; atpD, fusA, glnS, gltB, gyrB, infB, and pps. There were 12 sequence types (ST identified in C. sakazakii, and 3 in C. malonaticus. A third (22/60 of C. sakazakii strains were in ST4, which had almost equal numbers of clinical and infant formula isolates from 1951 to 2008. ST8 may represent a particularly virulent grouping of C. sakazakii as 7/8 strains were clinical in origin which had been isolated between 1977 - 2006, from four countries. C. malonaticus divided into three STs. The previous Cronobacter biotyping scheme did not clearly correspond with STs nor with species. Conclusion In conclusion, MLST is a more robust means of identifying and discriminating between C. sakazakii and C. malonaticus than biotyping. The MLST database for these organisms is available online at http://pubmlst.org/cronobacter/.

  8. Ovine luteinizing hormone. V. Significance of flow-through peaks observed during chromatofocusing as revealed by various methods of sample preparation and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotjan, H E; Schanbacher, B D; Keel, B A

    1991-07-19

    In a previous study [Keel et al., Biol, Reprod., 36 (1987) 1102] the ovine luteinizing hormone (oLH) in pituitary extracts was chromatofocused on pH 10.5-7 gradients after equilibration in 25 mM triethylamine-HCl, pH 11.0, by gel permeation. Under these conditions, some immunoreactive oLH flowed through the columns unrestricted and this was interpreted to represent extremely basic isoforms. However, when selected flow-through peaks were re-chromatofocused, each was contaminated with other isoforms of oLH. In order to clarify this dilemma, various methods of sample preparation and application were systematically compared. Consistent with previous observations, variable amounts of the immunoreactive oLH in pituitary extracts equilibrated in triethylamine by gel permeation, dialysis, flow dialysis or ion-retardation chromatography eluted as flow-through peaks when chromatofocused. In contrast, when the ionic components in the pituitary homogenization buffer were removed by these methods as well as ultrafiltration and the proteins were applied to the resin in the elution buffer (1:45 Pharmalyte 8-10.5-HCl, pH 7.0), none of the immunoreactive oLH in pituitary extracts eluted as a flow-through peak. Thus, it appears that oLH eluting as a flow-through peak results from incomplete binding of the hormone to the chromatofocusing resin when applied in triethylamine.

  9. Expression of progerin in aging mouse brains reveals structural nuclear abnormalities without detectible significant alterations in gene expression, hippocampal stem cells or behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baek, Jean-Ha; Schmidt, Eva; Viceconte, Nikenza;

    2015-01-01

    Hutchinson–Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a segmental progeroid syndrome with multiple features suggestive of premature accelerated aging. Accumulation of progerin is thought to underlie the pathophysiology of HGPS. However, despite ubiquitous expression of lamin A in all differentiated cells......, the HGPS mutation results in organ-specific defects. For example, bone and skin are strongly affected by HGPS, while the brain appears to be unaffected. There are no definite explanations as to the variable sensitivity to progeria disease among different organs. In addition, low levels of progerin have...

  10. The first human epitope map of the alphaviral E1 and E2 proteins reveals a new E2 epitope with significant virus neutralizing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann R Hunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV is responsible for VEE epidemics that occur in South and Central America and the U.S. The VEEV envelope contains two glycoproteins E1 (mediates cell membrane fusion and E2 (binds receptor and elicits virus neutralizing antibodies. Previously we constructed E1 and E2 epitope maps using murine monoclonal antibodies (mMAbs. Six E2 epitopes (E2(c,d,e,f,g,h bound VEEV-neutralizing antibody and mapped to amino acids (aa 182-207. Nothing is known about the human antibody repertoire to VEEV or epitopes that engage human virus-neutralizing antibodies. There is no specific treatment for VEE; however virus-neutralizing mMAbs are potent protective and therapeutic agents for mice challenged with VEEV by either peripheral or aerosol routes. Therefore, fully human MAbs (hMAbs with virus-neutralizing activity should be useful for prevention or clinical treatment of human VEE. METHODS: We used phage-display to isolate VEEV-specific hFabs from human bone marrow donors. These hFabs were characterized by sequencing, specificity testing, VEEV subtype cross-reactivity using indirect ELISA, and in vitro virus neutralization capacity. One E2-specific neutralizing hFAb, F5n, was converted into IgG, and its binding site was identified using competitive ELISA with mMAbs and by preparing and sequencing antibody neutralization-escape variants. FINDINGS: Using 11 VEEV-reactive hFabs we constructed the first human epitope map for the alphaviral surface proteins E1 and E2. We identified an important neutralization-associated epitope unique to the human immune response, E2 aa115-119. Using a 9 A resolution cryo-electron microscopy map of the Sindbis virus E2 protein, we showed the probable surface location of this human VEEV epitope. CONCLUSIONS: The VEEV-neutralizing capacity of the hMAb F5 nIgG is similar to that exhibited by the humanized mMAb Hy4 IgG. The Hy4 IgG has been shown to limit VEEV infection in mice both prophylactically and therapeutically. Administration of a cocktail of F5n and Hy4 IgGs, which bind to different E2 epitopes, could provide enhanced prophylaxis or immunotherapy for VEEV, while reducing the possibility of generating possibly harmful virus neutralization-escape variants in vivo.

  11. Quantitative Metaproteomics and Activity-Based Probe Enrichment Reveals Significant Alterations in Protein Expression from a Mouse Model of Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayers, Michael D; Moon, Clara; Stupp, Gregory S; Su, Andrew I; Wolan, Dennis W

    2017-02-03

    Tandem mass spectrometry based shotgun proteomics of distal gut microbiomes is exceedingly difficult due to the inherent complexity and taxonomic diversity of the samples. We introduce two new methodologies to improve metaproteomic studies of microbiome samples. These methods include the stable isotope labeling in mammals to permit protein quantitation across two mouse cohorts as well as the application of activity-based probes to enrich and analyze both host and microbial proteins with specific functionalities. We used these technologies to study the microbiota from the adoptive T cell transfer mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and compare these samples to an isogenic control, thereby limiting genetic and environmental variables that influence microbiome composition. The data generated highlight quantitative alterations in both host and microbial proteins due to intestinal inflammation and corroborates the observed phylogenetic changes in bacteria that accompany IBD in humans and mouse models. The combination of isotope labeling with shotgun proteomics resulted in the total identification of 4434 protein clusters expressed in the microbial proteomic environment, 276 of which demonstrated differential abundance between control and IBD mice. Notably, application of a novel cysteine-reactive probe uncovered several microbial proteases and hydrolases overrepresented in the IBD mice. Implementation of these methods demonstrated that substantial insights into the identity and dysregulation of host and microbial proteins altered in IBD can be accomplished and can be used in the interrogation of other microbiome-related diseases.

  12. Polar Lipids Analysis of Cultured Phytoplankton Reveals Significant Inter-taxa Changes, Low Influence of Growth Stage, and Usefulness in Chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañavate, José Pedro; Armada, Isabel; Hachero-Cruzado, Ismael

    2017-05-01

    The high lipid diversity of microalgae has been used to taxonomically differentiate phytoplankton taxa at the class level. However, important lipids such as phospholipids (PL) and betaine lipids (BL) with potential chemotaxonomy application in phytoplankton ecology have been scarcely studied. The chemotaxonomy value of PL and BL depends on their intraspecific extent of variation as microalgae respond to external changing factors. To determine such effects, lipid class changes occurring at different growth stages in 15 microalgae from ten different classes were analyzed. BL occurred in 14 species and were the less affected lipids by growth stage with diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-b-alanine (DGTA) showing the highest stability. PL were more influenced by growth stage with phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and phosphatidyletanolamine (PE) declining towards older culture stages in some species. Glycolipids were the more common lipids, and no evident age-related variability pattern could be associated to taxonomic diversity. Selecting BL and PL as descriptor variables optimally distinguished microalgae taxonomic variability at all growth stages. Principal coordinate analysis arranged species through a main tendency from diacylglyceryl-hydroxymethyl-N,N,N-trimethyl-b-alanine (DGCC) containing species (mainly dinoflagellates and haptophytes) to DGTA or PC containing species (mainly cryptophytes). Two diatom classes with similar fatty acid profiles could be distinguished from their respective content in DGTA (Bacillariophyceae) or DGCC (Mediophyceae). In green lineage classes (Trebouxiophyceae, Porphyridophyceae, and Chlorodendrophyceae), PC was a better descriptor than BL. BL and PL explained a higher proportion of microalgae taxonomic variation than did fatty acids and played a complementary role as lipid markers.

  13. A new optical method improves fluorescence guided diagnosis of bladder tumor in the outpatient department and reveals significant photo bleaching problems in established inpatients PDD techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvold, Lars René; Hermann, Gregers G.

    2013-01-01

    observations of urine and the photoactive dye Protoporphyrin IX used in PDD a novel optical system for use with the cystoscope has been devised that solves the problem of green fluorescence from urine. This and the knowledge of photo-bleaching pitfalls in established systems make it possible to perform PDD...

  14. Bow-tie topological features of metabolic networks and the functional significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing; TAO Lin; YU Hong; LUO JianHua; GAO ZhiWei; LI YiXue

    2007-01-01

    Exploring the structural topology of genome-based large-scale metabolic network is essential for in vestigating possible relations between structure and functionality. Visualization would be helpful for obtaining immediate information about structural organization. In this work, metabolic networks of 75 organisms were investigated from a topological point of view. A spread bow-tie model was proposed to give a clear visualization of the bow-tie structure for metabolic networks. The revealed topological pattern helps to design more efficient algorithm specifically for metabolic networks. This coarsegrained graph also visualizes the vulnerable connections in the network, and thus could have important implication for disease studies and drug target identifications. In addition, analysis on the reciprocal links and main cores in the GSC part of bow-tie also reveals that the bow-tie structure of metabolic networks has its own intrinsic and significant features which are significantly different from those of random networks.

  15. Genome analysis and comparative genomics of a Giardia intestinalis assemblage E isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Jan O

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Giardia intestinalis is a protozoan parasite that causes diarrhea in a wide range of mammalian species. To further understand the genetic diversity between the Giardia intestinalis species, we have performed genome sequencing and analysis of a wild-type Giardia intestinalis sample from the assemblage E group, isolated from a pig. Results We identified 5012 protein coding genes, the majority of which are conserved compared to the previously sequenced genomes of the WB and GS strains in terms of microsynteny and sequence identity. Despite this, there is an unexpectedly large number of chromosomal rearrangements and several smaller structural changes that are present in all chromosomes. Novel members of the VSP, NEK Kinase and HCMP gene families were identified, which may reveal possible mechanisms for host specificity and new avenues for antigenic variation. We used comparative genomics of the three diverse Giardia intestinalis isolates P15, GS and WB to define a core proteome for this species complex and to identify lineage-specific genes. Extensive analyses of polymorphisms in the core proteome of Giardia revealed differential rates of divergence among cellular processes. Conclusions Our results indicate that despite a well conserved core of genes there is significant genome variation between Giardia isolates, both in terms of gene content, gene polymorphisms, structural chromosomal variations and surface molecule repertoires. This study improves the annotation of the Giardia genomes and enables the identification of functionally important variation.

  16. Adolescent Attractiveness Standards for Self and Significant Other.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papini, Dennis R.

    Previous research investigating the relationship between body build and personality stereotypes found that the mesomorphic build was attributed positive qualities while the endomorph and ectomorph were assigned negative qualities by both males and females. More recent research has revealed a potential shift in body build preferences as standards…

  17. [Diagnostic significance of pathologic synkinesis for detection of pyramidal pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baliasnyĭ, M M

    1991-01-01

    Five types of pathological synkinesis (++blepharo-ocular, ++blepharo-facial, ++bucco-manual, ++digito-digital on the hands, ++pedo-digital) are described. They are of definite importance for revealing pyramidal pathology including its early stages as well as for objective evaluation and observation of the time-course of changes in the illness.

  18. Biogeochemical significance of transport exopolymer particles in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DileepKumar, M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Ramaiah, N.; Gauns, M.; DeSousa, S.N.

    sub-oxic layers in the Arabian Sea. Results support the mineral ballast theory in the Bay of Bengal and also reveal the hitherto not noticed organic matter reservoir, which seems to be in surplus, to meet the higher carbon demand by bacteria...

  19. The significance of folic acid for epilepsy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, James Layne

    2005-09-01

    The following is a comprehensive review of the current understanding of the many important roles of folic acid in the health of patients with epilepsy. A review of past and current literature reveals that folic acid plays important roles in the areas of hematology, neurology, development, and reproduction. Also highlighted are new areas for exploration.

  20. The Role of Significant Others During the Student Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmos, Ann H.; Jacko, Carol M.

    1977-01-01

    This research into the affective and academic needs of student teachers, which concentrated on identifying influential persons in their lives and the nature of the influences, revealed a primary need for empathy and release from the anxieties of the beginning teacher phase. (MJB)

  1. A systems biology approach reveals common metastatic pathways in osteosarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flores Ricardo J

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteosarcoma (OS is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The survival rate of patients with metastatic disease remains very dismal. Nevertheless, metastasis is a complex process and a single-level analysis is not likely to identify its key biological determinants. In this study, we used a systems biology approach to identify common metastatic pathways that are jointly supported by both mRNA and protein expression data in two distinct human metastatic OS models. Results mRNA expression microarray and N-linked glycoproteomic analyses were performed on two commonly used isogenic pairs of human metastatic OS cell lines, namely HOS/143B and SaOS-2/LM7. Pathway analysis of the differentially regulated genes and glycoproteins separately revealed pathways associated to metastasis including cell cycle regulation, immune response, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition. However, no common significant pathway was found at both genomic and proteomic levels between the two metastatic models, suggesting a very different biological nature of the cell lines. To address this issue, we used a topological significance analysis based on a “shortest-path” algorithm to identify topological nodes, which uncovered additional biological information with respect to the genomic and glycoproteomic profiles but remained hidden from the direct analyses. Pathway analysis of the significant topological nodes revealed a striking concordance between the models and identified significant common pathways, including “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT”, “Cytoskeleton remodeling/Cytoskeleton remodeling”, and “Cell adhesion/Chemokines and adhesion”. Of these, the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” was the top ranked common pathway from the topological analysis of the genomic and proteomic profiles in the two metastatic models. The up-regulation of proteins in the “Cytoskeleton remodeling/TGF/WNT” pathway in the Sa

  2. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  3. American Samoa ESI: CASSPT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for "Coral Areas of Special Significance" in American Samoa. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  4. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  5. MICROENTERPRISES AND SIGNIFICANT RISK FACTORS IN LOAN PROCESS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaroslav Belás; Sergej Vojtovic; Aleksandr Kljucnikov

    2016-01-01

    .... The aim of this paper was to define and quantify significant risk factors of microenterprises' credit financing in the current dynamic economic environment and to compare the significant position...

  6. Revealed Quantum Information in Weak Interaction Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Hiesmayr, B C

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the achievable limits of the quantum information processing of the weak interaction revealed by hyperons with spin. We find that the weak decay process corresponds to an interferometric device with a fixed visibility and fixed phase difference for each hyperon. Nature chooses rather low visibilities expressing a preference to parity conserving or violating processes (except for the decay $\\Sigma^+\\longrightarrow p \\pi^0$). The decay process can be considered as an open quantum channel that carries the information of the hyperon spin to the angular distribution of the momentum of the daughter particles. We find a simple geometrical information theoretic interpretation of this process: two quantization axes are chosen spontaneously with probabilities $\\frac{1\\pm\\alpha}{2}$ where $\\alpha$ is proportional to the visibility times the real part of the phase shift. Differently stated the weak interaction process corresponds to spin measurements with an imperfect Stern-Gerlach apparatus. Equipped with this...

  7. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  8. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    CERN Document Server

    Gallos, Lazaros K

    2014-01-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the $n$-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a phylogenetic tree across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study a multitude of additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  9. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  10. [Pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Shizuka; Katori, Kiyoshi; Fujimoto, Minoru; Nitahara, Keiichi; Higa, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    We report a case of pneumothorax revealed by postoperative computed tomography. A 39-year-old obese woman (height 153 cm, weight 70 kg) with fractures of the radius, ulna, clavicle, and femur in a traffic accident, was scheduled for osteosynthesis. Anesthesia was induced with thiopental and maintained with 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen and sevoflurane. The Spo2 decreased from 99% to 94% during the surgery. Bilateral chest sounds were symmetrical. The Spo2 increased to 100% after discontinuation of nitrous oxide. Pneumothorax was not evident on a postoperative chest X-ray, but computed tomography of the chest demonstrated right-sided pneumothorax. An ECG electrode had overlapped the fractured rib on the preoperative chest X-ray.

  11. Can Clustering in Genotype Space Reveal "Niches"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Andrea, Rafael; Ostling, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Community ecology lacks the success enjoyed by population genetics to quantify the relative roles played by deterministic and stochastic processes. It has been proposed that clustered patterns of abundance in genotype space provide evidence of selection in microbial communities, since no such clustering would arise in the absence of selection. We critique this test for its unrealistic null hypothesis. We show mathematically and with simulations that point mutations alone lead to clustering in genotype space by causing correlations between abundances of similar genotypes. We also show potential deviations from the mutation-only pattern caused by immigration from a source pool. Clustered patterns in genotype space may still be revealing of selection if analyzed quantitatively but only if neutral and selective regimes can be distinguished once mutation and immigration are included in the null model.

  12. Reward reveals dissociable aspects of sustained attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterman, Michael; Reagan, Andrew; Liu, Guanyu; Turner, Caroline; DeGutis, Joseph

    2014-12-01

    Although reward is known to have a powerful influence on performance, its effects on the ability to continuously sustain performance over time are poorly understood. The current study examines multiple measures of sustained attention (accuracy and variability) and their decrements over time, while introducing reward in the form of a monetary incentive or the promise of early completion. Compared with unrewarded participants, rewarded participants demonstrated greater overall accuracy and lower reaction time variability. However, rewarded and unrewarded participants displayed nearly identical decrements in performance over time, suggesting that these aspects of sustained attention are far less malleable by enhanced effort. This study helps to resolve conflicting models of sustained attention as it reveals that some aspects of performance are due to motivational lapses whereas others are due to the depletion of cognitive resources that cannot be easily overcome.

  13. Double peaks reveal rare diplomonad sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jan O

    2012-02-01

    Diplomonads, single-celled eukaryotes, are unusual in having two nuclei. Each nucleus contains two copies of the genome and is transcriptionally active. It has long been assumed that diplomonads in general and Giardia intestinalis in particular are asexual. Genomic and population genetic data now challenge that assumption and extensive allelic sequence heterogeneity has been reported in some but not all examined diplomonad lineages. Here it is argued, in contrast to common assumptions, that allelic differences indicate recent sexual events, and isolates that have divided asexually for many generations have lost their allelic variation owing to within-cell recombination. Consequently, directed studies of the allelic sequence heterogeneity in diverse diplomonad lineages are likely to reveal details about the enigmatic diplomonad sexual life cycle.

  14. Chemotaxis: new role for Ras revealed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianshe Yan; Dale Hereld; Tian Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ A recent study of chemotaxis revealed a new role for the proto-oncogene Ras in the social ameba Dictyostelium discoideum.Chemotaxis,the directional movement of cells toward chemokines and other chemoattractants,plays critical roles in diverse physiological processes,such as mobilization of immune cells to fight invading microorganisms,targeting of metastatic cancer cells to specific tissues,and guidance of sperm cells to ova during fertilization.This work,published in the July 26 issue of The Journal of Cell Biology,was conducted in Dr.Devreotes' lab at John Hopkins University and Dr.Parent's lab at National Cancer Institute.This research team demonstrated that RasC functions as an upstream regulator of TORC2 and thereby governs the effects of TORC2-PKB signaling on the cytoskeleton and cell migration.

  15. Licking microstructure reveals rapid attenuation of neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Kevin J; Rubin, Benjamin D; Keene, Jennifer C; Katz, Donald B

    2014-03-01

    Many animals hesitate when initially consuming a novel food and increase their consumption of that food between the first and second sessions of access-a process termed attenuation of neophobia (AN). AN has received attention as a model of learning and memory; it has been suggested that plasticity resulting from an association of the novel tastant with "safe outcome" results in a change in the neural response to the tastant during the second session, such that consumption increases. Most studies have reported that AN emerges only an hour or more after the end of the first exposure to the tastant, consistent with what is known of learning-related plasticity. But these studies have typically measured consumption, rather than real-time behavior, and thus the possibility exists that a more rapidly developing AN remains to be discovered. Here, we tested this possibility, examining both consumption and individual lick times in a novel variant of a brief-access task (BAT). When quantified in terms of consumption, data from the BAT accorded well with the results of a classic one-bottle task-both revealed neophobia/AN specific to higher concentrations (for instance, 28mM) of saccharin. An analysis of licking microstructure, however, additionally revealed a real-time correlate of neophobia-an explicit tendency, similarly specific for 28-mM saccharin, to cut short the initial bout of licks in a single trial (compared with water). This relative hesitancy (i.e., the shortness of the first lick bout to 28-mM saccharin compared with water) that constitutes neophobia not only disappeared between sessions but also gradually declined in magnitude across session 1. These data demonstrate that the BAT accurately measures AN, and that aspects of AN-and the processes underlying familiarization-begin within minutes of the very first taste.

  16. Stochastic homothetically revealed preference for tight stochastic demand functions

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Heufer

    2009-01-01

    This paper strengthens the framework of stochastic revealed preferences introduced by Bandyopadhyay et al. (1999, 2004) for stochastic homothetically revealed preferences for tight stochastic demand functions.

  17. Clinical significance in nursing research: A discussion and descriptive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polit, Denise F

    2017-05-10

    It is widely understood that statistical significance should not be equated with clinical significance, but the topic of clinical significance has not received much attention in the nursing literature. By contrast, interest in conceptualizing and operationalizing clinical significance has been a "hot topic" in other health care fields for several decades. The major purpose of this paper is to briefly describe recent advances in defining and quantifying clinical significance. The overview covers both group-level indicators of clinical significance (e.g., effect size indexes), and individual-level benchmarks (e.g., the minimal important change index). A secondary purpose is to describe the extent to which developments in clinical significance have penetrated the nursing literature. A descriptive analysis of a sample of primary research articles published in three high-impact nursing research journals in 2016 was undertaken. A total of 362 articles were electronically searched for terms relating to statistical and clinical significance. Of the 362 articles, 261 were reports of quantitative studies, the vast majority of which (93%) included a formal evaluation of the statistical significance of the results. By contrast, the term "clinical significance" or related surrogate terms were found in only 33 papers, and most often the term was used informally, without explicit definition or assessment. Raising consciousness about clinical significance should be an important priority among nurse researchers. Several recommendations are offered to improve the visibility and salience of clinical significance in nursing science. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Maryland (United States)

    2010-10-15

    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  19. Revealing Relationships: First Graders Share Personal Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Literature holds the potential to significantly influence the lives of readers, but what is the nature of this influence for very young readers? This study investigated the question: What are the relationships between beginning readers and their personal literature? A first grade class of 18 students individually assembled a collection of personal…

  20. Speeding Clouds May Reveal Invisible Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Several small, speeding clouds have been discovered at the center of our galaxy. A new study suggests that these unusual objects may reveal the lurking presence of inactive black holes.Peculiar Cloudsa) Velocity-integrated intensity map showing the location of the two high-velocity compact clouds, HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, in the context of larger molecular clouds. b) and c) Latitude-velocity and longitude-velocity maps for HCN0.0090.044 and HCN0.0850.094, respectively. d) and e) spectra for the two compacts clouds, respectively. Click for a closer look. [Takekawa et al. 2017]Sgr A*, the supermassive black hole marking the center of our galaxy, is surrounded by a region roughly 650 light-years across known as the Central Molecular Zone. This area at the heart of our galaxy is filled with large amounts of warm, dense molecular gas that has a complex distribution and turbulent kinematics.Several peculiar gas clouds have been discovered within the Central Molecular Zone within the past two decades. These clouds, dubbed high-velocity compact clouds, are characterized by their compact sizes and extremely broad velocity widths.What created this mysterious population of energetic clouds? The recent discovery of two new high-velocity compact clouds, reported on in a paper led by Shunya Takekawa (Keio University, Japan), may help us to answer this question.Two More to the CountUsing the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii, Takekawa and collaborators detected the small clouds near the circumnuclear disk at the centermost part of our galaxy. These two clouds have velocity spreads of -80 to -20 km/s and -80 to 0 km/s and compact sizes of just over 1 light-year. The clouds similar appearances and physical properties suggest that they may both have been formed by the same process.Takekawa and collaborators explore and discard several possible origins for these clouds, such as outflows from massive protostars (no massive, luminous stars have been detected affiliated

  1. Thyroid cytology-nuclear versus architectural atypia within the "Atypia of undetermined significance/follicular lesion of undetermined significance" Bethesda category have significantly different rates of malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Tiffany Rui Xuan; Nga, Min En; Lum, Jeffrey Huey Yew; Wong, Wendy Meihua; Tan, Wee Boon; Parameswaran, Rajeev; Ngiam, Kee Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology is the most widely used classification system for the reporting of thyroid fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimens. However, the "atypical" category ("atypia of undetermined significance" [AUS] or "follicular lesion of undetermined significance" [FLUS]) continues to cause diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas. The objectives of this study were to describe the differential malignancy rates of FNACs diagnosed as AUS/FLUS based on nuclear or architectural atypia and to assess the significance of demographic and ultrasonographic features in predicting malignancy in this category. A retrospective review was performed of all thyroid FNACs between 2008 and 2014 that were diagnosed as AUS/FLUS at a tertiary referral center in Singapore. Patient demographics, preoperative ultrasonographic features, and follow-up data were collected and correlated with the final histopathologic diagnosis in resected cases. In total, 309 thyroid nodules were diagnosed as AUS/FLUS, and 137 (44%) were surgically excised. Final histology yielded 37 (27%) malignancies. The malignancy rate for nodules that featured nuclear atypia was significantly higher at 36.8% than the rate for nodules that had only architectural atypia at 14.7% (P < .01). After up to 3 repeat FNACs, 67.1% of cases had a more definitive diagnosis. The only predictive sonographic finding for malignancy was irregular margins (P < .01). The disparity between malignancy risks within the Bethesda "atypical" category suggests that cytologic (nuclear) atypia is significantly more predictive of malignancy than architectural atypia. This supports the substratification of patients according to risk and a corresponding management approach within this category. A sonographic finding of irregular margins is also predictive for malignancy. Cancer Cytopathol 2017;125:245-256. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  2. Assessment and significance of Arthur Conan Doyle's medical writings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodin, A E; Key, J D

    1982-11-01

    Doyle's medical writings represent a valuable contribution to both the scientific and nonscientific aspects of medicine of the late 19th Century. Up to the present, accounts of these writings have been few, and none of them have been evaluative of their scientific merit. Analysis of Doyle's writings on infectious diseases in particular reveals a remarkable insight, for the 1880s, into the bacterial causation of disease and prevention through immunization.

  3. Significance of magnetic resonance imaging for early rheumatoid arthritis activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Y Pogozeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess possibility of magnetic resonance image (MRI application for rheu- matoid arthritis (RA activity and severity assessment.Material and methods. 100 pts with RA who fulfilled the 1987 ACR criteria with disease duration less than 12 months were included. Standard clinical examination with evaluation of tender and swollen joint counts, acute phase markers, hand and foot X-ray and hand MRI with 0,2 T Artoscan apparatus (ESAOTE Biomedica, Italy were performed.Results. MRI showed hand joint synovitis in 94,5%, erosions – in 67,3% of cases. X-ray examination revealed erosions in only 20,8% of pts. Localization of erosions revealed by X-ray and MRI coincided in 36,4% of cases and in 61,8% of pts erosions were detected only by MRI. MRI confirmed clinical conclusion about presence or absence of metacarpophalangeal and wrist joint synovitis in 64,5% and 74,5% of cases respectively. In8,2% and 21,8% MRI revealed signs of synovitis in clinically intact joints. MRI synovitis score correlated with clinical and laboratory measures of disease activity – DAS 28 (r=0,37, p=0,001, CRP(r=0,30, p=0,001, ESR (r=0,42, p=0,001, HAQ (r=0,24, p=0,001. Weak correlation was revealed between ESR and presence of erosions (r=0,29, CRP, ESR and MRI signs of bone marrow edema (r=0,27, p=0,005 and r=0,29, p=0,002 respectively. Relationship between laboratory and clinical features was weaker and referred only to CRP level and swollen joint count (p=0,05.Conclusion. MRI signs may be used as additional and independent measures of inflammatory activity (particularly synovitis score and severity of RA

  4. The statistical significance of hippotherapy for children with psychomotor disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Nicoleta BNLBA

    2015-01-01

    Topic The recovery and social integration of children with psychomotility disabilities is an important goal for the integration of Romania into the European Union. Studies conducted in this area reveal that people, who practice therapy using the horse due to a recommendation by professionals, benefit from a much faster recovery and at a much higher level. Purpose of study Identification of results for adaptive areas due to participation in a therapy program with the help of the horse for chil...

  5. Significance of silent ischemia in dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy. Evaluation in patients with angina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kitaoka, Hiroaki; Takata, Jun; Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Seo, Hiromi; Doi, Yoshinori [Kochi Medical School, Nankoku (Japan)

    1995-07-01

    The significance of silent myocardial ischemia detected by dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy was evaluated in 80 patients with stable angina and reversible defects (RD) but no infarction. The patients consisted of 26 patients with silent RD and 54 patients with painful RD. There was no significant difference in the incidence of coronary risk factors between the two groups, except for hyperlipidemia which was less frequently observed in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (8% vs 41%), Coronary angiography revealed a higher prevalence of insignificant lesions or single vessel disease in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (73% vs 39%). Dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy revealed a lower degree of RD in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (4.4{+-}3.3 vs 9.0{+-}4.1 segments), though there was no significant difference in the localization of RD between these two groups. Treadmill stress testing revealed a lower incidence of chest pain in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (26% vs 65%), despite the mean exercise-duration being significantly longer in the former than in the latter (5.5{+-}1.7 vs 3.9{+-}11.7 min). Although initial percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) and/or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) were less frequently performed in patients with silent RD than in those with painful RD (12% vs 31%), there was no significant difference in the cardiac event rate during the mean follow-up period of 24{+-}14 months between the two groups. Patients with stable angina and silent RD on dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy may have less extensive coronary lesions and smaller amounts of ischemic myocardium than patients with painful RD. Dipyridamole perfusion scintigraphy is useful for detecting and evaluating silent myocardial ischemia, even in those patients who cannot exercise adequately. (J.P.N.).

  6. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  7. Balance Trees Reveal Microbial Niche Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James T; Sanders, Jon; Quinn, Robert A; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Navas-Molina, Jose A; Song, Se Jin; Metcalf, Jessica L; Hyde, Embriette R; Lladser, Manuel; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Knight, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled novel insights into microbial niche differentiation, from analyzing environmental samples to understanding human diseases and informing dietary studies. However, identifying the microbial taxa that differentiate these samples can be challenging. These issues stem from the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data (or, more generally, taxon or functional gene data); the changes in the relative abundance of one taxon influence the apparent abundances of the others. Here we acknowledge that inferring properties of individual bacteria is a difficult problem and instead introduce the concept of balances to infer meaningful properties of subcommunities, rather than properties of individual species. We show that balances can yield insights about niche differentiation across multiple microbial environments, including soil environments and lung sputum. These techniques have the potential to reshape how we carry out future ecological analyses aimed at revealing differences in relative taxonomic abundances across different samples. IMPORTANCE By explicitly accounting for the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data through the concept of balances, balance trees yield novel biological insights into niche differentiation. The software to perform this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/biocore/gneiss. Author Video: An author video summary of this article is available.

  8. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  9. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers.

  10. Balance Trees Reveal Microbial Niche Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James T.; Sanders, Jon; Quinn, Robert A.; McDonald, Daniel; Gonzalez, Antonio; Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Navas-Molina, Jose A.; Metcalf, Jessica L.; Hyde, Embriette R.; Lladser, Manuel; Dorrestein, Pieter C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled novel insights into microbial niche differentiation, from analyzing environmental samples to understanding human diseases and informing dietary studies. However, identifying the microbial taxa that differentiate these samples can be challenging. These issues stem from the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data (or, more generally, taxon or functional gene data); the changes in the relative abundance of one taxon influence the apparent abundances of the others. Here we acknowledge that inferring properties of individual bacteria is a difficult problem and instead introduce the concept of balances to infer meaningful properties of subcommunities, rather than properties of individual species. We show that balances can yield insights about niche differentiation across multiple microbial environments, including soil environments and lung sputum. These techniques have the potential to reshape how we carry out future ecological analyses aimed at revealing differences in relative taxonomic abundances across different samples. IMPORTANCE By explicitly accounting for the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene data through the concept of balances, balance trees yield novel biological insights into niche differentiation. The software to perform this analysis is available under an open-source license and can be obtained at https://github.com/biocore/gneiss. Author Video: An author video summary of this article is available. PMID:28144630

  11. Genes but not genomes reveal bacterial domestication of Lactococcus lactis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Passerini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The population structure and diversity of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, a major industrial bacterium involved in milk fermentation, was determined at both gene and genome level. Seventy-six lactococcal isolates of various origins were studied by different genotyping methods and thirty-six strains displaying unique macrorestriction fingerprints were analyzed by a new multilocus sequence typing (MLST scheme. This gene-based analysis was compared to genomic characteristics determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The MLST analysis revealed that L. lactis subsp. lactis is essentially clonal with infrequent intra- and intergenic recombination; also, despite its taxonomical classification as a subspecies, it displays a genetic diversity as substantial as that within several other bacterial species. Genome-based analysis revealed a genome size variability of 20%, a value typical of bacteria inhabiting different ecological niches, and that suggests a large pan-genome for this subspecies. However, the genomic characteristics (macrorestriction pattern, genome or chromosome size, plasmid content did not correlate to the MLST-based phylogeny, with strains from the same sequence type (ST differing by up to 230 kb in genome size. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The gene-based phylogeny was not fully consistent with the traditional classification into dairy and non-dairy strains but supported a new classification based on ecological separation between "environmental" strains, the main contributors to the genetic diversity within the subspecies, and "domesticated" strains, subject to recent genetic bottlenecks. Comparison between gene- and genome-based analyses revealed little relationship between core and dispensable genome phylogenies, indicating that clonal diversification and phenotypic variability of the "domesticated" strains essentially arose through substantial genomic flux within the dispensable

  12. How to Measure Significance of Community Structure in Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Yanqing; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2010-01-01

    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for complex networks, which can simplify their functional analysis considerably. Recently, many approaches were proposed to community structure detection, but few works were focused on the significance of community structure. Since real networks obtained from complex systems always contain error links, and most of the community detection algorithms have random factors, evaluate the significance of community structure is important and urgent. In this paper, we use the eigenvectors' stability to characterize the significance of community structures. By employing the eigenvalues of Laplacian matrix of a given network, we can evaluate the significance of its community structure and obtain the optimal number of communities, which are always hard for community detection algorithms. We apply our method to many real networks. We find that significant community structures exist in many social networks and C.elegans neural network, and that less significant community stru...

  13. Algorithm for Detecting Significant Locations from Raw GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Nobuharu; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Baba, Teruyuki; Yoshikawa, Takashi

    We present a fast algorithm for probabilistically extracting significant locations from raw GPS data based on data point density. Extracting significant locations from raw GPS data is the first essential step of algorithms designed for location-aware applications. Assuming that a location is significant if users spend a certain time around that area, most current algorithms compare spatial/temporal variables, such as stay duration and a roaming diameter, with given fixed thresholds to extract significant locations. However, the appropriate threshold values are not clearly known in priori and algorithms with fixed thresholds are inherently error-prone, especially under high noise levels. Moreover, for N data points, they are generally O(N 2) algorithms since distance computation is required. We developed a fast algorithm for selective data point sampling around significant locations based on density information by constructing random histograms using locality sensitive hashing. Evaluations show competitive performance in detecting significant locations even under high noise levels.

  14. Is Romanian Rural Tourism Sustainable? Revealing Particularities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ruxandra Andrei

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on sustainable tourism involves developing an appropriate framework to highlight the interdependences of economic, social and environmental systems. The interdependence is based on the entropy of the system while respecting the principle of holism and diversity of rural tourism sustainability. In this context, sustainability in general and rural tourism in particular can be considered a complex system of development, which in some ways can be studied by statistical and econometric methods that allow the analysis of the interdependences between the variables of rural tourism at county level and at the level of rural communities. Conducting such studies involves identifying the rural communities where rural tourism has reached significant levels. Based on this consideration, this paper aims to identify the development regions and counties of Romania where the trends of development of rural tourism are significantly above the average recorded at country level, as a first step towards particular studies of sustainability in rural communities.

  15. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators. Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with s...

  16. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Highway Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  17. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Aviation Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  18. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Transit Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  19. Significant Guidance Issued by the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — A list of Significant Guidance documents, which include guidance document disseminated to regulated entities or the general public that may reasonably be anticipated...

  20. Diffusion tensor imaging reveals evolution of primate brain architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Degang; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Li, Kaiming; Li, Longchuan; Chen, Hanbo; Zhao, Qun; Hu, Xiaoping; Liu, Tianming

    2013-11-01

    Evolution of the brain has been an inherently interesting problem for centuries. Recent studies have indicated that neuroimaging is a powerful technique for studying brain evolution. In particular, a variety of reports have demonstrated that consistent white matter fiber connection patterns derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography reveal common brain architecture and are predictive of brain functions. In this paper, based on our recently discovered 358 dense individualized and common connectivity-based cortical landmarks (DICCCOL) defined by consistent fiber connection patterns in DTI datasets of human brains, we derived 65 DICCCOLs that are common in macaque monkey, chimpanzee and human brains and 175 DICCCOLs that exhibit significant discrepancies amongst these three primate species. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations not only demonstrated the consistencies of anatomical locations and structural fiber connection patterns of these 65 common DICCCOLs across three primates, suggesting an evolutionarily preserved common brain architecture but also revealed regional patterns of evolutionarily induced complexity and variability of those 175 discrepant DICCCOLs across the three species.

  1. Membrane Protein Properties Revealed through Data-Rich Electrostatics Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcoline, Frank V; Bethel, Neville; Guerriero, Christopher J; Brodsky, Jeffrey L; Grabe, Michael

    2015-08-04

    The electrostatic properties of membrane proteins often reveal many of their key biophysical characteristics, such as ion channel selectivity and the stability of charged membrane-spanning segments. The Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is the gold standard for calculating protein electrostatics, and the software APBSmem enables the solution of the PB equation in the presence of a membrane. Here, we describe significant advances to APBSmem, including full automation of system setup, per-residue energy decomposition, incorporation of PDB2PQR, calculation of membrane-induced pKa shifts, calculation of non-polar energies, and command-line scripting for large-scale calculations. We highlight these new features with calculations carried out on a number of membrane proteins, including the recently solved structure of the ion channel TRPV1 and a large survey of 1,614 membrane proteins of known structure. This survey provides a comprehensive list of residues with large electrostatic penalties for being embedded in the membrane, potentially revealing interesting functional information.

  2. Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumble, Stephen J; Robinson, Eleanor M; Berman-Kowalewski, Michelle; Potter, Charles W; Usenko, Sascha

    2013-10-15

    Lifetime contaminant and hormonal profiles have been reconstructed for an individual male blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus, Linnaeus 1758) using the earplug as a natural aging matrix that is also capable of archiving and preserving lipophilic compounds. These unprecedented lifetime profiles (i.e., birth to death) were reconstructed with a 6-mo resolution for a wide range of analytes including cortisol (stress hormone), testosterone (developmental hormone), organic contaminants (e.g., pesticides and flame retardants), and mercury. Cortisol lifetime profiles revealed a doubling of cortisol levels over baseline. Testosterone profiles suggest this male blue whale reached sexual maturity at approximately 10 y of age, which corresponds well with and improves on previous estimates. Early periods of the reconstructed contaminant profiles for pesticides (such as dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes and chlordanes), polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers demonstrate significant maternal transfer occurred at 0-12 mo. The total lifetime organic contaminant burden measured between the earplug (sum of contaminants in laminae layers) and blubber samples from the same organism were similar. Total mercury profiles revealed reduced maternal transfer and two distinct pulse events compared with organic contaminants. The use of a whale earplug to reconstruct lifetime chemical profiles will allow for a more comprehensive examination of stress, development, and contaminant exposure, as well as improve the assessment of contaminant use/emission, environmental noise, ship traffic, and climate change on these important marine sentinels.

  3. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing...... those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing...... phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used...

  4. Demand Model Combining Stated And Revealed Preference Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Londero Brandli

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The revealed and stated preference methods have been contributing a lot for the development of the econometric literature in the attempt of determining the variables that influence the individual decision in a choice process. This article combines preference data, with the objective of obtaining the advantages of the complementarity of the forces and frankness of both types of data. The approach involves the estimate of a model only with RP data, only with SP data and combining RP and SP data. The application is in the housing market, where it is observed, through the literature, that most of the papers of the consumer's choice has restricted the only one approaches. The utility functions obtained show the relative importance of the attributes, the tendency of behavior through the signs and its significance statistical. The results analysis of the models indicates differences and similarities about the attribute’s behavior.

  5. Revealing atropisomer axial chirality in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPlante, Steven R; Edwards, Paul J; Fader, Lee D; Jakalian, Araz; Hucke, Oliver

    2011-03-07

    An often overlooked source of chirality is atropisomerism, which results from slow rotation along a bond axis due to steric hindrance and/or electronic factors. If undetected or not managed properly, this time-dependent chirality has the potential to lead to serious consequences, because atropisomers can be present as distinct enantiomers or diastereoisomers with their attendant different properties. Herein we introduce a strategy to reveal and classify compounds that have atropisomeric chirality. Energy barriers to axial rotation were calculated using quantum mechanics, from which predicted high barriers could be experimentally validated. A calculated rotational energy barrier of 20 kcal mol(-1) was established as a suitable threshold to distinguish between atropisomers and non-atropisomers with a prediction accuracy of 86%. This methodology was applied to subsets of drug databases in the course of which atropisomeric drugs were identified. In addition, some drugs were exposed that were not yet known to have this chiral attribute. The most valuable utility of this tool will be to predict atropisomerism along the drug discovery pathway. When used in concert with our compound classification scheme, decisions can be made during early discovery stages such as "hit-to-lead" and "lead optimization," to foresee and validate the presence of atropisomers and to exercise options of removing, further stabilizing, or rendering the chiral axis of interest more freely rotatable via SAR design, thereby decreasing this potential liability within a compound series. The strategy can also improve drug development plans, such as determining whether a drug or series should be developed as a racemic mixture or as an isolated single compound. Moreover, the work described herein can be extended to other chemical fields that require the assessment of potential chiral axes.

  6. Quantitative proteomics reveals cellular targets of celastrol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Hansen

    Full Text Available Celastrol, a natural substance isolated from plant extracts used in traditional Chinese medicine, has been extensively investigated as a possible drug for treatment of cancer, autoimmune diseases, and protein misfolding disorders. Although studies focusing on celastrol's effects in specific cellular pathways have revealed a considerable number of targets in a diverse array of in vitro models there is an essential need for investigations that can provide a global view of its effects. To assess cellular effects of celastrol and to identify target proteins as biomarkers for monitoring treatment regimes, we performed large-scale quantitative proteomics in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells, a cell type that can be readily prepared from human blood samples. Celastrol substantially modified the proteome composition and 158 of the close to 1800 proteins with robust quantitation showed at least a 1.5 fold change in protein levels. Up-regulated proteins play key roles in cytoprotection with a prominent group involved in quality control and processing of proteins traversing the endoplasmic reticulum. Increased levels of proteins essential for the cellular protection against oxidative stress including heme oxygenase 1, several peroxiredoxins and thioredoxins as well as proteins involved in the control of iron homeostasis were also observed. Specific analysis of the mitochondrial proteome strongly indicated that the mitochondrial association of certain antioxidant defense and apoptosis-regulating proteins increased in cells exposed to celastrol. Analysis of selected mRNA transcripts showed that celastrol activated several different stress response pathways and dose response studies furthermore showed that continuous exposure to sub-micromolar concentrations of celastrol is associated with reduced cellular viability and proliferation. The extensive catalog of regulated proteins presented here identifies numerous cellular effects of celastrol and constitutes

  7. Quadrupole transitions revealed by Borrmann spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettifer, Robert F; Collins, Stephen P; Laundy, David

    2008-07-10

    The Borrmann effect-a dramatic increase in transparency to X-ray beams-is observed when X-rays satisfying Bragg's law diffract through a perfect crystal. The minimization of absorption seen in the Borrmann effect has been explained by noting that the electric field of the X-ray beam approaches zero amplitude at the crystal planes, thus avoiding the atoms. Here we show experimentally that under conditions of absorption suppression, the weaker electric quadrupole absorption transitions are effectively enhanced to such a degree that they can dominate the absorption spectrum. This effect can be exploited as an atomic spectroscopy technique; we show that quadrupole transitions give rise to additional structure at the L(1), L(2) and L(3) absorption edges of gadolinium in gadolinium gallium garnet, which mark the onset of excitations from 2s, 2p(1/2) and 2p(3/2) atomic core levels, respectively. Although the Borrmann effect served to underpin the development of the theory of X-ray diffraction, this is potentially the most important experimental application of the phenomenon since its first observation seven decades ago. Identifying quadrupole features in X-ray absorption spectroscopy is central to the interpretation of 'pre-edge' spectra, which are often taken to be indicators of local symmetry, valence and atomic environment. Quadrupolar absorption isolates states of different symmetries to that of the dominant dipole spectrum, and typically reveals orbitals that dominate the electronic ground-state properties of lanthanides and 3d transition metals, including magnetism. Results from our Borrmann spectroscopy technique feed into contemporary discussions regarding resonant X-ray diffraction and the nature of pre-edge lines identified by inelastic X-ray scattering. Furthermore, because the Borrmann effect has been observed in photonic materials, it seems likely that the quadrupole enhancement reported here will play an important role in modern optics.

  8. 49 CFR 1580.105 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Hazardous Materials Receivers, and Private Cars § 1580.105 Reporting significant security concerns. (a... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.105... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  9. 49 CFR 1580.203 - Reporting significant security concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Scenic, Historic and Excursion Operators, and Private Cars § 1580.203 Reporting significant security... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting significant security concerns. 1580.203... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME AND LAND TRANSPORTATION SECURITY...

  10. 40 CFR 52.1180 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1180 Section 52.1180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2676 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2676 Section 52.2676 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.2451 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2451 Section 52.2451 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1987 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1987 Section 52.1987 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality rules for the prevention of significant deterioration of air quality (provisions of OAR chapter 340, Divisions 200, 202...

  14. 40 CFR 52.2178 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2178 Section 52.2178 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The South Dakota plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... on Indian reservations; (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2083 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2083 Section 52.2083 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Rhode Island plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the...

  16. 40 CFR 52.2528 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2528 Section 52.2528 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of Sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... Quality Deterioration. (b) Regulations for Preventing Significant Deterioration of Air Quality, the...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2346 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2346 Section 52.2346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The Utah plan, as submitted, is approved as meeting the... construct on Indian Reservations. (b) Regulation for prevention of significant deterioration of air quality...

  18. 40 CFR 52.1603 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1603 Section 52.1603 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. 40 CFR 52.2380 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2380 Section 52.2380 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review the construction and operation of new and...

  20. 40 CFR 52.499 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.499 Section 52.499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  1. 40 CFR 52.1884 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1884 Section 52.1884 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  2. 40 CFR 52.2581 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2581 Section 52.2581 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(c) (d) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the... of Wisconsin. (e) Regulations for the prevention of the significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  3. 40 CFR 52.2131 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.2131 Section 52.2131 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)-(b) (c) All applications and other information required pursuant...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1029 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1029 Section 52.1029 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The program to review operation and construction of new and modified...

  5. 40 CFR 52.530 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.530 Section 52.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... deterioration of air quality. (a) EPA approves the Florida Prevention of Significant Deterioration program, as...

  6. 40 CFR 52.1485 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1485 Section 52.1485 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... include approvable procedures for preventing the significant deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation...

  7. 40 CFR 52.2827 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2827 Section 52.2827 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  8. 40 CFR 52.1280 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1280 Section 52.1280 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) All applications and other information required pursuant to § 52...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1436 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1436 Section 52.1436 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air Act...

  10. 40 CFR 52.2303 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2303 Section 52.2303 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The plan submitted by Texas is approved as meeting the requirements of part C, Clean Air Act for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The plan...

  11. 40 CFR 52.2497 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2497 Section 52.2497 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  12. 40 CFR 52.1529 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Significant deterioration of air quality. 52.1529 Section 52.1529 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. New Hampshire's Part Env-A 623, “Requirements for Prevention of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.1689 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1689 Section 52.1689 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  14. 40 CFR 52.1165 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1165 Section 52.1165 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  15. 40 CFR 52.2729 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2729 Section 52.2729 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  16. 40 CFR 52.1234 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1234 Section 52.1234 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  17. 40 CFR 52.2233 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2233 Section 52.2233 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a)(1) Paragraph 1200-3-9-.01(4)-(0)-2. of Tennessee's regulations... requesting innovative technology waivers which would significantly impact air quality in adjacent states. (2...

  18. 40 CFR 52.2779 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.2779 Section 52.2779 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) The requirements of sections 160 through 165 of the Clean Air... deterioration of air quality. (b) Regulations for preventing significant deterioration of air quality. The...

  19. Socio-economic significance of mangroves in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Wafar, S.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Proc_Symp_Significance_Mangroves_1991_4.pdf.txt stream_source_info Proc_Symp_Significance_Mangroves_1991_4.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text...

  20. Microeconomics, Private Security, and the Significance to Operational Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    MICROECONOMICS , PRIVATE SECURITY, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO OPERATIONAL PLANNING A Monograph by MAJ Kevin S. Clarke United... MICROECONOMICS , PRIVATE SECURITY, AND THE SIGNIFICANCE TO OPERATIONAL PLANNING 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...of microeconomic principles of supply-demand theory by looking at specific conceptual variables to determine the relationship and influence on the

  1. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent anal

  2. Finding significantly connected voxels based on histograms of connection strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasenburg, Niklas; Pedersen, Morten Vester; Darkner, Sune

    2016-01-01

    -distribution and significance is determined using the false discovery rate (FDR). Segmentations are based on significantly connected voxels and their FDR. In this work we focus on the thalamus and the target regions were chosen by dividing the cortex into a prefrontal/temporal zone, motor zone, somatosensory zone and a parieto...

  3. SIGNIFICANCE OF SERUM COPPER AND ZINC LEVEL IN GASTROINTESTINAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathibha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The roles of trace elements especially copper and zinc in carcinogenesis in relation to disease activity have shown useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumor in the digestive organ. Keeping this in consideration, the study was conducted on 140 subjects either sex out of which 35 normal adults and 105 gastrointestinal (GI cancer patients. The follow up study was further undertaken and values of serum Cu and Zn of the same patients before and after surgery were recorded. The study showed that there was significant elevation (p<0.01 of serum copper levels before surgery and serum copper levels were deceased significantly (p<0.05 after surgery. Serum Zn level was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in GI cancer patients while the Zn level was increased significantly (p<0.01 after surgery. There was significant increase (p<0.01 in Cu/ Zn ratio of GI cancer patients before surgery in contrast to the control. The serum copper level in patients of GI cancer decreased significantly after surgery resulting normalization of metabolic process. A significant increase in serum Zn levels have been observed after treatment of the patients. The Cu/ Zn ratio decreased significantly after the surgery. These observations clearly indicate that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/ Zn ratio are useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumors in digestive organs

  4. Clinical significance of Bacillus species isolated from blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A

    1989-06-01

    To determine the clinical significance of blood isolates of Bacillus, we reviewed all blood cultures obtained at North Carolina Memorial Hospital between 1981 and 1985. Over the five-year study period the number of patients (incidence per 10,000 hospital admissions) from whom Bacillus was isolated increased from 4.97 in 1981 to 12.5 in 1985. The incidence per 1,000 blood cultures also increased from 1.12 in 1981 to 2.33 in 1985. Review of the medical records of 78 of the 95 patients (82%) with positive cultures allowed retrospective classification of five isolates (6.4%) as clinically significant, 33 isolates (42.3%) as possibly significant, and 40 isolates (51.3%) as nonsignificant. Underlying diseases in patients with clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia included burn trauma in two, leukemia in one, carcinoma in one, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in one. All isolates judged to be clinically significant and the majority of possibly significant isolates were B cereus. We conclude that the isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures is clinically significant in 5% to 10% of cases, that the incidence of Bacillus bacteremia is increasing, and that burn trauma should be added to the list of conditions known to predispose to clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia.

  5. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent

  6. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Jesper W

    2011-01-01

    This paper raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators. Statistical significance tests are highly controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice of such tests, their dichotomous application in decision making, the difference between statistical and substantive significance, the implausibility of most null hypotheses, the crucial assumption of randomness, as well as the utility of standard errors and confidence intervals for inferential purposes. We argue that applying statistical significance tests and mechanically adhering to their results is highly problematic and detrimental to critical thinki...

  7. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seile Yohannes

    Full Text Available The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01, the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144, and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66 are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub

  8. Ethiopian population dermatoglyphic study reveals linguistic stratification of diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohannes, Seile; Bekele, Endashaw

    2015-01-01

    The manifestation of ethnic, blood type, & gender-wise population variations regarding Dermatoglyphic manifestations are of interest to assess intra-group diversity and differentiation. The present study reports on the analysis of qualitaive and quantitative finger Dermatoglyphic traits of 382 individuals cross-sectionally sampled from an administrative region of Ethiopia, consisting of five ethnic cohorts from the Afro-Asiatic & Nilo-Saharan affiliations. These Dermatoglyphic parameters were then applied in the assessment of diversity & differentiation, including Heterozygosity, Fixation, Panmixia, Wahlund's variance, Nei's measure of genetic diversity, and thumb & finger pattern genotypes, which were inturn used in homology inferences as summarized by a Neighbour-Joining tree constructed from Nei's standard genetic distance. Results revealed significant correlation between Dermatoglyphics & population parameters that were further found to be in concordance with the historical accounts of the ethnic groups. Such inductions as the ancient north-eastern presence and subsequent admixure events of the Oromos (PII= 15.01), the high diversity of the Amharas (H= 0.1978, F= 0.6453, and P= 0.4144), and the Nilo-Saharan origin of the Berta group (PII= 10.66) are evidences to this. The study has further tested the possibility of applying Dermatoglyphics in population genetic & anthropologic research, highlighting on the prospect of developing a method to trace back population origins & ancient movement patterns. Additionally, linguistic clustering was deemed significant for the Ethiopian population, coinciding with recent genome wide studies that have ascertained that linguistic clustering as to being more crucial than the geographical patterning in the Ethiopian context. Finally, Dermatoglyphic markers have been proven to be endowed with a strong potential as non-invasive preliminary tools applicable prior to genetic studies to analyze ethnically sub-divided populations and

  9. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore

    2009-11-01

    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  10. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines - significance of measuring fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Anne; Ojanperä, Helena; Puhto, Teija; Järvinen, Raija; Kejonen, Pirjo; Holopainen, Arja

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to evaluate the usability of fidelity measures in compliance evaluation of hand hygiene. Adherence to hand hygiene guidelines is important in terms of patient safety. Compliance measures seldom describe how exactly the guidelines are followed. A cross-sectional observation study in a university hospital setting was conducted. Direct observation by trained staff was performed using a standardised observation form supplemented by fidelity criteria. A total of 830 occasions were observed in 13 units. Descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, percentages and range) were used as well as compliance rate by using a standard web-based tool. In addition, the binomial standard normal deviate test was conducted for comparing different methods used in evaluation of hand hygiene and in comparison between professional groups. Measuring fidelity to guidelines was revealed to be useful in uncovering gaps in hand hygiene practices. The main gap related to too short duration of hand rubbing. Thus, although compliance with hand hygiene guidelines measured using a standard web-based tool was satisfactory, the degree of how exactly the guidelines were followed seemed to be critical. Combining the measurement of fidelity to guidelines with the compliance rate is beneficial in revealing inconsistency between optimal and actual hand hygiene behaviour. Evaluating fidelity measures is useful in terms of revealing the gaps between optimal and actual performance in hand hygiene. Fidelity measures are suitable in different healthcare contexts and easy to measure according to the relevant indicators of fidelity, such as the length of hand rubbing. Knowing the gap facilitates improvements in clinical practice. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Significant enhancement of formic acid oxidation using rhodium nanostructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Beena K; Sathe, Bhaskar R

    2012-12-01

    The electrocatalytic activity of as-synthesized shape selective Rh nanostructures has been demonstrated using cyclic voltammetry, revealing unique shape-dependant performance towards HCOOH oxidation. Interestingly, the enhancement factor (R) for different shapes of Rh with respect to that of commercial Rh towards formic acid oxidation ranges up to 20,000% for cubes as compared to 17,500% for pyramids and 11,000% for hexagons respectively. Mechanistic pathway for comparatively better sensitivity of cubes as compared to other shapes has been correlated with the results of X-ray diffraction.

  12. Atypia of undetermined significance and follicular lesions of undetermined significance: sonographic assessment for prediction of the final diagnosis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kamaya, Aya; Lewis, Gloria Huang; Liu, Yi; Akatsu, Haruko; Kong, Christina; Desser, Terry S

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether radiologic assessment of thyroid nodules can potentially help guide clinical management after a cytologic diagnosis of atypia of undetermined significance or a follicular lesion...

  13. A Survey of Electronic Serials Managers Reveals Diversity in Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Costello

    2014-09-01

    In surveying academic librarians engaged in serials management, the author sought to identify trends and standards in the field, but instead found significant variation in serials budgets and processes amongst the responding libraries. While it is clear that electronic subscriptions are a significant development and now a permanent feature of serials management, decisions to move from print to digital are complex and definitive conclusions about best practices for serials transitions could not be drawn from this study. The survey revealed that institutions have invested in staff and tools for the management of electronic serials, but staffing configurations and tool combinations are also extremely diverse. The author concluded that the lack of standardization in these areas and the disconnect between institution and serials budget size indicated a serials landscape that was highly individualized and customized to each institution’s unique needs.

  14. Significant adverse events and outcomes after medical abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Kelly; Creinin, Mitchell D; Nucatola, Deborah; Nshom, Montsine; Trussell, James

    2013-01-01

    To analyze rates of significant adverse events and outcomes in women having a medical abortion at Planned Parenthood health centers in 2009 and 2010 and to identify changes in the rates of adverse events and outcomes between the 2 years. In this database review we analyzed data from Planned Parenthood affiliates that provided medical abortion in 2009 and 2010 almost exclusively using an evidence-based buccal misoprostol regimen. We evaluated the incidence of six clinically significant adverse events (hospital admission, blood transfusion, emergency department treatment, intravenous antibiotics administration, infection, and death) and two significant outcomes (ongoing pregnancy and ectopic pregnancy diagnosed after medical abortion treatment was initiated). We calculated an overall rate as well as rates for each event and identified changes between the 2 years. Among 233,805 medical abortions provided in 2009 and 2010, significant adverse events or outcomes were reported in 1,530 cases (0.65%). There was no statistically significant difference in overall rates between years. The most common significant outcome was ongoing intrauterine pregnancy (0.50%); significant adverse events occurred in 0.16% of cases. One patient death occurred as a result of an undiagnosed ectopic pregnancy. Only rates for emergency department treatment and blood transfusion differed by year and were slightly higher in 2010. Review of this large data set reinforces the safety of the evidence-based medical abortion regimen. III.

  15. Frantic activity revealed in dusty stellar factories

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Thanks to the Very Large Telescope's acute and powerful near-infrared eye, astronomers have uncovered a host of new young, massive and dusty stellar nurseries in nearby galaxy NGC 253. The centre of this galaxy appears to harbour a twin of our own Milky Way's supermassive black hole. ESO PR Photo 02a/09 The Spiral Galaxy NGC 253 Astronomers from the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Spain) used NACO, a sharp-eyed adaptive optics instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT), to study the fine detail in NGC 253, one of the brightest and dustiest spiral galaxies in the sky. Adaptive Optics (AO) corrects for the blurring effect introduced by the Earth's atmosphere. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets, but frustrates astronomers, since it smears out the images. With AO in action the telescope can produce images that are as sharp as is theoretically possible, as if the telescope were in space. NACO revealed features in the galaxy that were only 11 light-years across. "Our observations provide us with so much spatially resolved detail that we can, for the first time, compare them with the finest radio maps for this galaxy -- maps that have existed for more than a decade," says Juan Antonio Fernández-Ontiveros, the lead author of the paper reporting the results [1]. Astronomers identified 37 distinct bright regions, a threefold increase on previous results, packed into a tiny region at the core of the galaxy, comprising just one percent of the galaxy's total size. The astronomers combined their NACO images with data from another VLT instrument, VISIR, as well as with images from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and radio observations made by the Very Large Array and the Very Large Baseline Interferometer. Combining these observations, taken in different wavelength regimes, provided a clue to the nature of these regions. "We now think that these are probably very active nurseries that contain many stars bursting from their

  16. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  17. The Significant Contribution of Indonesian Human Capital to the Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruth Elisabeth Tobing

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the contribution of human capital to Indonesia’s productivity. The result of this study reveals a significant contribution of human capital as shown in the model which is using highest weighted of primary and secondary level of education. The most significant result found in the model using secondary level as the highest weighted of human capital. In contrast, there is no significant contribution of human capital using proportional weighted between education levels. This suggests that improvement in knowledge, adoption of technology and skill in the primary and secondary education meet the demand of industries in Indonesia. This study uses a time series regression to analyze data 1985-2010.

  18. BIOFILM DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF STAPHYLOCOCCUS EPIDERMIDIS ISOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudha Rani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . AIMS : To detect biofilm among clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis . MATERIAL AND METHODS : 50 Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates were collected from clinical samples like blood, IV catheter tips, catheterized urine, wound swabs and exudates received from various clinical departments. Biofilm formation was studied in these isolates. The study was carried out over a period o f one year i. e from March 2011 - February 2012. The specimens received were processed by conventional methods. Tissue Culture plate method was used for detection of biofilm. RESULTS: IV catheter tip samples revealed 25%, implant device associated infection s revealed 20%, the Catheterized urine samples showed 16%, blood culture 8%, ventilator associated infections 10%, post - operative wound infections 11% & exudates 5% of Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates. Isolates with O. D. values more than 0. 2 were consi dered as high biofilm producers. 40% of S. epidermidis isolates were weak biofilm producers, 24% were moderate biofilm producers and 36% were high biofilm producers. Isolates from IV catheter tips showed high biofilm formation. CONCLUSIONS: In the modern h ealth care set up, various devices such as IV catheters, urine catheters, shunts, implanted prosthetic devices etc are being increasingly used thereby causing the device associated infections particularly of Staphylococcus epidermidis. Device associated in fections caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis are mainly due to biofilm formation which ultimately makes the treatment difficult.

  19. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value.

  20. [Novel function of astrocytes revealed by optogenetics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beppu, Kaoru; Matsui, Ko

    2014-12-01

    Astrocytes respond to neuronal activity. However, whether astrocytic activity has any significance in brain function is unknown. Signaling pathway leading from astrocytes to neurons would be required for astrocytes to participate in neuronal functions and, here, we investigated the presence of such pathway. Optogenetics was used to manipulate astrocytic activity. A light-sensitive protein, channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2), was selectively expressed in astrocytes. Photostimulation of these astrocytes induced glutamate release which modulated neuronal activity and animal behavior. Such glutamate release was triggered by intracellular acidification produced by ChR2 photoactivation. Astrocytic acidification occurs upon brain ischemia, and we found that another optogenetic tool, archaerhodopsin (ArchT), could counter the acidification and suppress astrocytic glutamate release. Controlling of astrocytic pH may become a therapeutic strategy upon ischemia.

  1. 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes Poster

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 2005 Significant U.S. Hurricane Strikes poster is one of two special edition posters for the Atlantic Hurricanes. This beautiful poster contains two sets of...

  2. Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significance of social networks in sustainable land management in central Ethiopia and eastern Uganda. ... Abstract. Social networks (SNs) are social frameworks that form good entry points for business and socio-economic ... Article Metrics.

  3. Multiresolution wavelet-ANN model for significant wave height forecasting.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Deka, P.C.; Mandal, S.; Prahlada, R.

    Hybrid wavelet artificial neural network (WLNN) has been applied in the present study to forecast significant wave heights (Hs). Here Discrete Wavelet Transformation is used to preprocess the time series data (Hs) prior to Artificial Neural Network...

  4. Significant United States Earthquakes, 1568-2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains the locations and attributes of significant, historic earthquakes that caused deaths, property damage, and geological effects, or were...

  5. Nannostructure and significance of fish coprolites in phosphorites

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Lamboy, M.; Rao, V.P.; Ahmed, E.; Azzouzi, N.

    process controlled by the microenvironment. The nannostructures observed in the coprolites investigated here differ significantly from the nannostructures of other studied phosphatic grains (pellets and coated grains) in the same samples which are mostly...

  6. Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in human lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green tea polyphenol induces significant cell death in ... The dose-dependent effects of EGCG on H1155 xenograft tumor growth, as well as ..... of mitochondrial ROS and changes in .... ATM phosphorylates histone H2AX in response to DNA.

  7. A Novel Least Significant Bit First Processing Parallel CRC Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiujie Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In HDLC serial communication protocol, CRC calculation can first process the most or least significant bit of data. Nowadays most CRC calculation is based on the most significant bit (MSB first processing. An algorithm of the least significant bit (LSB first processing parallel CRC is proposed in this paper. Based on the general expression of the least significant bit first processing serial CRC, using state equation method of linear system, we derive a recursive formula by the mathematical deduction. The recursive formula is applicable to any number of bits processed in parallel and any series of generator polynomial. According to the formula, we present the parallel circuit of CRC calculation and implement it with VHDL on FPGA. The results verify the accuracy and effectiveness of this method.

  8. Ancient DNA investigations: A review on their significance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ancient DNA investigations: A review on their significance in different ... useful tool in archeaozoology to elucidate the biology and the evolution of extinct species. ... information to trace geographic distribution of human genetic variation and to ...

  9. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice...... of such tests, their dichotomous application in decision making, the difference between statistical and substantive significance, the implausibility of most null hypotheses, the crucial assumption of randomness, as well as the utility of standard errors and confidence intervals for inferential purposes. We...

  10. Statistical significance test for transition matrices of atmospheric Markov chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vautard, Robert; Mo, Kingtse C.; Ghil, Michael

    1990-01-01

    Low-frequency variability of large-scale atmospheric dynamics can be represented schematically by a Markov chain of multiple flow regimes. This Markov chain contains useful information for the long-range forecaster, provided that the statistical significance of the associated transition matrix can be reliably tested. Monte Carlo simulation yields a very reliable significance test for the elements of this matrix. The results of this test agree with previously used empirical formulae when each cluster of maps identified as a distinct flow regime is sufficiently large and when they all contain a comparable number of maps. Monte Carlo simulation provides a more reliable way to test the statistical significance of transitions to and from small clusters. It can determine the most likely transitions, as well as the most unlikely ones, with a prescribed level of statistical significance.

  11. Identification of clinically significant drug-drug interactions in cardiac ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify clinically significant potential drug-drug interactions in cardiac intensive care units of two tertiary care ... Keywords: Pharmacy service, Drug interactions, Critical/intensive care, Adverse outcomes. Tropical .... Standard error.

  12. Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological, ecological and agronomic significance of plant phenolic compounds in rhizosphere of the symbiotic legumes. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... compounds in the rhizosphere of a few studied symbiotic legumes and other plants.

  13. Caveats for using statistical significance tests in research assessments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Jesper Wiborg

    2013-01-01

    This article raises concerns about the advantages of using statistical significance tests in research assessments as has recently been suggested in the debate about proper normalization procedures for citation indicators by Opthof and Leydesdorff (2010). Statistical significance tests are highly...... controversial and numerous criticisms have been leveled against their use. Based on examples from articles by proponents of the use statistical significance tests in research assessments, we address some of the numerous problems with such tests. The issues specifically discussed are the ritual practice...... are important or not. On the contrary their use may be harmful. Like many other critics, we generally believe that statistical significance tests are over- and misused in the empirical sciences including scientometrics and we encourage a reform on these matters....

  14. Augustine’s baptism: Its significance once and today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes van Oort

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes in broad outline Augustine’s baptism in Milan (386 and stresses its significance for Augustine’s transition from Manichaean Christianity to Nicene Catholic Christianity.

  15. Do the Uncertainty Relations Really have Crucial Significances for Physics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru S.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is proved the falsity of idea that the Uncertainty Relations (UR have crucial significances for physics. Additionally one argues for the necesity of an UR-disconnected quantum philosophy.

  16. Ullage Compatible Optical Sensor for Monitoring Safety Significant Malfunctions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Significant emphasis has been placed on aircraft fuel tank safety following the TWA Flight 800 accident in July 1996. Upon investigation, the National Transportation...

  17. The Lay Public's Misinterpretation of the Meaning of 'Significant': A Call for Simple yet Significant Changes in Scientific Reporting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Tromovitch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A large national sample of U.S. adults (n > 1,000 was queried regarding their interpretation of the term significant when used in regard to scientific findings. The vast majority provided incorrect interpretations of the meaning with only 5.8% providing a reasonably correct interpretation. Most respondents who reported they hold doctoral degrees provided incorrect interpretations. Given the widespread misinterpretation of this term, scientific journals should require—not merely recommend—that all usages of the term significant be prefaced with an adjective (e.g., statistically, practically, clinically and that the meaning of statistical significance be reviewed prior to its first usage. Additionally, all claims regarding the size of a finding should be required to be supported with appropriate effect size statistics to ensure that statistical significance is not misrepresented as indicating practical significance.

  18. EXPRESSION AND SIGNIFICANCE OF PTEN IN ENDOMETRIAL CARCINOMA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Xiu-jun; LIU Zhi-hui; LI Ying-yong; Gao Rui-ping

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of PTEN in endometrial carcinoma and its clinical significance. Methods: Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western-blot methods were used to detect PTEN expression in 28 cases of endometrial carcinoma. Results: mRNA and protein expression levels of PTEN in endometrial carcinomas were significantly lower than those in normal endometrium (P<0.01). Conclusion: PTEN may play an important role in the tumorigenesis of endometrial carcinoma.

  19. Clinical and prognostic significance of plasma fibrinogen in lung cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Chen YS; Zeng DH; Li HR; Wu YL; Lin X.; Xu NL; Lin M

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Hyperfibrinogenemia is a common problem associated with various carcinomas. The recent studies have shown that high plasma fibrinogen concentration is associated with invasion, growth and metastases of cancer. Furthermore, the recent studies focus on the prognostic significance of fibrinogen in the patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB -IV). However, the prognostic significance of the plasma fibrinogen levels in early stage NSCLC patients (stage I -IIIA) still remains unclear. ...

  20. Significant Figures in Measurements with Uncertainty: A Working Criterion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilchis, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    Generally speaking, students have difficulty reporting out measurements and estimates of quantities used in the laboratory, and with handling the significant figures associated with them. When required to make calculation involving quantities with different numbers of significant figures, they have difficulty in assigning the corresponding digits to the final result. When in addition, the quantities have uncertainty, the operations entailed pose an even greater challenge. The article advocates for some working rules for students (and teachers) in an effort to combat this problem.