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  1. Antiviral activity of Small interfering RNAs: Specificity testing using heterologous virus reveals interferon-related effects overlooked by conventional mismatch controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels; Pedersen, Finn Skou

    2006-01-01

    to the viral glycoprotein gene of the target-virus efficiently inhibited viral multiplication in infected cell cultures, while two of three corresponding mismatched siRNAs did not have this effect. This suggested specific interference, but similar results were obtained when the same siRNAs were tested against...... a heterologous virus. Further analyses revealed that the siRNAs induced a non-target-specific anti-viral effect correlating with upregulation of the interferon induced Mx gene....

  2. Revealing effective classifiers through network comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallos, Lazaros K.; Fefferman, Nina H.

    2014-11-01

    The ability to compare complex systems can provide new insight into the fundamental nature of the processes captured, in ways that are otherwise inaccessible to observation. Here, we introduce the n-tangle method to directly compare two networks for structural similarity, based on the distribution of edge density in network subgraphs. We demonstrate that this method can efficiently introduce comparative analysis into network science and opens the road for many new applications. For example, we show how the construction of a “phylogenetic tree” across animal taxa according to their social structure can reveal commonalities in the behavioral ecology of the populations, or how students create similar networks according to the University size. Our method can be expanded to study many additional properties, such as network classification, changes during time evolution, convergence of growth models, and detection of structural changes during damage.

  3. Do framing effects reveal irrational choice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, David R

    2014-06-01

    Framing effects have long been viewed as compelling evidence of irrationality in human decision making, yet that view rests on the questionable assumption that numeric quantifiers used to convey the expected values of choice options are uniformly interpreted as exact values. Two experiments show that when the exactness of such quantifiers is made explicit by the experimenter, framing effects vanish. However, when the same quantifiers are given a lower bound (at least) meaning, the typical framing effect is found. A 3rd experiment confirmed that most people spontaneously interpret the quantifiers in standard framing tests as lower bounded and that their interpretations strongly moderate the framing effect. Notably, in each experiment, a significant majority of participants made rational choices, either choosing the option that maximized expected value (i.e., lives saved) or choosing consistently across frames when the options were of equal expected value. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  5. Spatial Congruity Effects Reveal Metaphorical Thinking, not Polarity Correspondence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolscheid, Sarah; Casasanto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness) has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as "high" and "low," or as "front" and "back," to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small), but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short), even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  6. Spatial congruity effects reveal metaphorical thinking, not polarity correspondence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah eDolscheid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Spatial congruity effects have often been interpreted as evidence for metaphorical thinking, but an alternative account based on polarity correspondence (a.k.a. markedness has challenged this view. Here we compared metaphor- and polarity-correspondence-based explanations for spatial congruity effects, using musical pitch as a testbed. In one experiment, English speakers classified high- and low-frequency pitches as high and low, or as front and back, to determine whether space-pitch congruity effects could be elicited by any marked spatial continuum. Although both pairs of terms describe bipolar spatial continuums, we found congruity effects only for high/low judgments, indicating that markedness is not sufficient to produce space-pitch congruity effects. A second experiment confirmed that there were no space-pitch congruity effects for another pair of terms that have clear markedness (big/small, but which do not denote spatial height. By contrast, this experiment showed congruity effects for words that cued an appropriate vertical spatial schema (tall/short, even though these words are not used conventionally in English to describe pitches, ruling out explanations for the observed pattern of results based on verbal polysemy. Together, results suggest that space-pitch congruity effects reveal metaphorical uses of spatial schemas, not polarity correspondence effects.

  7. Assessment of interferon-related biomarkers in Aicardi-Goutières syndrome associated with mutations in TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Gillian I; Forte, Gabriella M A; Szynkiewicz, Marcin; Chase, Diana S; Aeby, Alec; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Ackroyd, Sam; Allcock, Rebecca; Bailey, Kathryn M; Balottin, Umberto; Barnerias, Christine; Bernard, Genevieve; Bodemer, Christine; Botella, Maria P; Cereda, Cristina; Chandler, Kate E; Dabydeen, Lyvia; Dale, Russell C; De Laet, Corinne; De Goede, Christian G E L; Del Toro, Mireia; Effat, Laila; Enamorado, Noemi Nunez; Fazzi, Elisa; Gener, Blanca; Haldre, Madli; Lin, Jean-Pierre S-M; Livingston, John H; Lourenco, Charles Marques; Marques, Wilson; Oades, Patrick; Peterson, Pärt; Rasmussen, Magnhild; Roubertie, Agathe; Schmidt, Johanna Loewenstein; Shalev, Stavit A; Simon, Rogelio; Spiegel, Ronen; Swoboda, Kathryn J; Temtamy, Samia A; Vassallo, Grace; Vilain, Catheline N; Vogt, Julie; Wermenbol, Vanessa; Whitehouse, William P; Soler, Doriette; Olivieri, Ivana; Orcesi, Simona; Aglan, Mona S; Zaki, Maha S; Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Vanderver, Adeline; Kisand, Kai; Rozenberg, Flore; Lebon, Pierre; Crow, Yanick J

    2013-12-01

    Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is an inflammatory disorder caused by mutations in any of six genes (TREX1, RNASEH2A, RNASEH2B, RNASEH2C, SAMHD1, and ADAR). The disease is severe and effective treatments are urgently needed. We investigated the status of interferon-related biomarkers in patients with AGS with a view to future use in diagnosis and clinical trials. In this case-control study, samples were collected prospectively from patients with mutation-proven AGS. The expression of six interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) was measured by quantitative PCR, and the median fold change, when compared with the median of healthy controls, was used to create an interferon score for each patient. Scores higher than the mean of controls plus two SD (>2·466) were designated as positive. Additionally, we collated historical data for interferon activity, measured with a viral cytopathic assay, in CSF and serum from mutation-positive patients with AGS. We also undertook neutralisation assays of interferon activity in serum, and looked for the presence of autoantibodies against a panel of interferon proteins. 74 (90%) of 82 patients had a positive interferon score (median 12·90, IQR 6·14-20·41) compared with two (7%) of 29 controls (median 0·93, IQR 0·57-1·30). Of the eight patients with a negative interferon score, seven had mutations in RNASEH2B (seven [27%] of all 26 patients with mutations in this gene). Repeat sampling in 16 patients was consistent for the presence or absence of an interferon signature on 39 of 41 occasions. Interferon activity (tested in 147 patients) was negatively correlated with age (CSF, r=-0·604; serum, r=-0·289), and was higher in CSF than in serum in 104 of 136 paired samples. Neutralisation assays suggested that measurable antiviral activity was related to interferon α production. We did not record significantly increased concentrations of autoantibodies to interferon subtypes in patients with AGS, or an association between the presence

  8. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Matthew H; Rosenheim, Jay A

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  9. Ecoinformatics reveals effects of crop rotational histories on cotton yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew H Meisner

    Full Text Available Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity.

  10. Effective connectivity reveals strategy differences in an expert calculator.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Minati

    Full Text Available Mathematical reasoning is a core component of cognition and the study of experts defines the upper limits of human cognitive abilities, which is why we are fascinated by peak performers, such as chess masters and mental calculators. Here, we investigated the neural bases of calendrical skills, i.e. the ability to rapidly identify the weekday of a particular date, in a gifted mental calculator who does not fall in the autistic spectrum, using functional MRI. Graph-based mapping of effective connectivity, but not univariate analysis, revealed distinct anatomical location of "cortical hubs" supporting the processing of well-practiced close dates and less-practiced remote dates: the former engaged predominantly occipital and medial temporal areas, whereas the latter were associated mainly with prefrontal, orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate connectivity. These results point to the effect of extensive practice on the development of expertise and long term working memory, and demonstrate the role of frontal networks in supporting performance on less practiced calculations, which incur additional processing demands. Through the example of calendrical skills, our results demonstrate that the ability to perform complex calculations is initially supported by extensive attentional and strategic resources, which, as expertise develops, are gradually replaced by access to long term working memory for familiar material.

  11. Emotional effects of sertraline: novel findings revealed by meditation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Roger; Victor, Bruce; Bitner, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors continues to increase, as does concern about previously unrecognized, subtle side effects and questions about whether these drugs produce effects on healthy subjects. The authors report novel emotional effects identified by an experienced, psychologically healthy meditator who is a psychiatrist and researcher. On a meditation retreat, the subject identified a specific profile of emotional changes related to sertraline use. In particular, cognitive abilities and the emotions of fear and anger seemed unaffected. However, the emotions of sadness, happiness, rapture, and love were dramatically reduced in intensity and duration. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Genetic dissection reveals effects of interaction between high ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-04-15

    Apr 15, 2013 ... Wheat quality is mainly influenced by protein and starch, which are responsible for ... Starch contains two components: amylose and amy- lopectin. .... (Voorrips 2002). The QTL analysis was performed and the main effect QTL.

  13. Competing sound sources reveal spatial effects in cortical processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross K Maddox

    Full Text Available Why is spatial tuning in auditory cortex weak, even though location is important to object recognition in natural settings? This question continues to vex neuroscientists focused on linking physiological results to auditory perception. Here we show that the spatial locations of simultaneous, competing sound sources dramatically influence how well neural spike trains recorded from the zebra finch field L (an analog of mammalian primary auditory cortex encode source identity. We find that the location of a birdsong played in quiet has little effect on the fidelity of the neural encoding of the song. However, when the song is presented along with a masker, spatial effects are pronounced. For each spatial configuration, a subset of neurons encodes song identity more robustly than others. As a result, competing sources from different locations dominate responses of different neural subpopulations, helping to separate neural responses into independent representations. These results help elucidate how cortical processing exploits spatial information to provide a substrate for selective spatial auditory attention.

  14. Russian blues reveal effects of language on color discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winawer, Jonathan; Witthoft, Nathan; Frank, Michael C; Wu, Lisa; Wade, Alex R; Boroditsky, Lera

    2007-05-08

    English and Russian color terms divide the color spectrum differently. Unlike English, Russian makes an obligatory distinction between lighter blues ("goluboy") and darker blues ("siniy"). We investigated whether this linguistic difference leads to differences in color discrimination. We tested English and Russian speakers in a speeded color discrimination task using blue stimuli that spanned the siniy/goluboy border. We found that Russian speakers were faster to discriminate two colors when they fell into different linguistic categories in Russian (one siniy and the other goluboy) than when they were from the same linguistic category (both siniy or both goluboy). Moreover, this category advantage was eliminated by a verbal, but not a spatial, dual task. These effects were stronger for difficult discriminations (i.e., when the colors were perceptually close) than for easy discriminations (i.e., when the colors were further apart). English speakers tested on the identical stimuli did not show a category advantage in any of the conditions. These results demonstrate that (i) categories in language affect performance on simple perceptual color tasks and (ii) the effect of language is online (and can be disrupted by verbal interference).

  15. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...

  16. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Stott, Iain; Davies, Zoe G

    2016-01-01

    months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees...... in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce...

  17. The extent of the glass transition from molecular simulation revealing an overcrank effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godey, François; Fleury, Alexandre; Ghoufi, Aziz; Soldera, Armand

    2018-02-15

    A deep understanding of the transition between rubber and amorphous state characterized by a glass transition temperature, T g , is still a source of discussions. In this work, we highlight the role of molecular simulation in revealing explicitly this temperature dependent behavior. By reporting the specific volume, the thermal expansion coefficient and the heat capacity versus the temperature, we actually show that the glass transition domain extends to a greater range of temperature, compared with experiments. This significant enlargement width is due to the fast cooling rate, and actually explains the difficulty to locate T g . This result is the manifestation of an overcranking effect used by high-speed cameras to reveal slow-motion. Accordingly, atomistic simulation offers the significant opportunity to show that the transition from the rubber state to the glass phase should be detailed in terms of the degrees of freedom freeze. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Effects of prefrontal tDCS on executive function: Methodological considerations revealed by meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imburgio, Michael J; Orr, Joseph M

    2018-05-01

    A meta-analysis of studies using single-session transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to target the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) was undertaken to examine the effect of stimulation on executive function (EF) in healthy samples. 27 studies were included in analyses, yielding 71 effect sizes. The most relevant measure for each task was determined a priori and used to calculate Hedge's g. Methodological characteristics of each study were examined individually as potential moderators of effect size. Stimulation effects on three domains of EF (inhibition of prepotent responses, mental set shifting, and information updating and monitoring) were analyzed separately. In line with previous work, the current study found no significant effect of anodal unilateral tDCS, cathodal unilateral tDCS, or bilateral tDCS on EF. Further moderator and subgroup analyses were only carried out for anodal unilateral montages due to the small number of studies using other montages. Subgroup analyses revealed a significant effect of anodal unilateral tDCS on updating tasks, but not on inhibition or set-shifting tasks. Cathode location significantly moderated the effect of anodal unilateral tDCS. Extracranial cathodes yielded a significant effect on EF while cranial cathodes yielded no effect. Anode size also significantly moderated effect of anodal unilateral tDCS, with smaller anodes being more effective than larger anodes. In summary, anodal DLPFC stimulation is more effective at improving updating ability than inhibition and set-shifting ability, but anodal stimulation can significantly improve general executive function when extracranial cathodes or small anodes are used. Future meta-analyses may examine how stimulation's effects on specific behavioral tasks, rather than broader domains, might be affected by methodological moderators. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Weak antilocalization effect in exfoliated black phosphorus revealed by temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng

    2018-01-10

    Recently, there have been increasingly debates on whether there exists a surface resonance state (SRS) in black phosphorus (BP), as suggested by recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. To resolve this issue, we have performed temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity measurements on exfoliated, high-quality BP single crystals. A pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect was observed within a narrow temperature range of 8 - 16 K, with the electrical current flowing parallel to the cleaved ac-plane (along the a- or c-axis) and the magnetic field along the b-axis. The angle-dependent magnetoconductivity and the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) model-fitted results have revealed that the observed WAL effect shows surface-bulk coherent features, which supports the existence of SRS in black phosphorus.

  20. Weak antilocalization effect in exfoliated black phosphorus revealed by temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Zhipeng; Gong, Chen; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Qiang; Yang, Bingchao; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Enke; Liu, Zhongyuan; Zeng, Zhongming; Wu, Guangheng; Wang, Wenhong; Zhang, Xixiang

    2018-01-01

    Recently, there have been increasingly debates on whether there exists a surface resonance state (SRS) in black phosphorus (BP), as suggested by recent angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results. To resolve this issue, we have performed temperature- and angle-dependent magnetoconductivity measurements on exfoliated, high-quality BP single crystals. A pronounced weak-antilocalization (WAL) effect was observed within a narrow temperature range of 8 - 16 K, with the electrical current flowing parallel to the cleaved ac-plane (along the a- or c-axis) and the magnetic field along the b-axis. The angle-dependent magnetoconductivity and the Hikami-Larkin-Nagaoka (HLN) model-fitted results have revealed that the observed WAL effect shows surface-bulk coherent features, which supports the existence of SRS in black phosphorus.

  1. Different antipsychotics elicit different effects on magnocellular oxytocinergic and vasopressinergic neurons as revealed by Fos immunohistochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiss, A; Bundzikova, J; Pirnik, Z

    2010-01-01

    rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol (1 mg/kg), clozapine (30 mg/kg), olanzapine (30 mg/kg), risperidone (2mg/kg), and vehicle (5% chremophor) and were sacrificed 60 min later by a fixative. Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP labelings were visualized by immunohistochemistry in the SON, 5...... accessory (ACS) cell groups, and 4 distinct PVN subdivisions using a computerized light microscope. Most apparent activation of single Fos, Fos/OXY, and Fos/AVP cells was induced by clozapine and olanzapine; effects of risperidone and haloperidol were substantially lower; no colocalizations were revealed...... of risperidone and haloperidol. Variabilities in Fos distribution in the PVN, SON, and ACS induced by antipsychotics may be helpful to understand more precisely the extent of their extra-forebrain actions with possible presumption of their functional impact and side effect consequences....

  2. Revealing time bunching effect in single-molecule enzyme conformational dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, H Peter

    2011-04-21

    In this perspective, we focus our discussion on how the single-molecule spectroscopy and statistical analysis are able to reveal enzyme hidden properties, taking the study of T4 lysozyme as an example. Protein conformational fluctuations and dynamics play a crucial role in biomolecular functions, such as in enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule spectroscopy is a powerful approach to analyze protein conformational dynamics under physiological conditions, providing dynamic perspectives on a molecular-level understanding of protein structure-function mechanisms. Using single-molecule fluorescence spectroscopy, we have probed T4 lysozyme conformational motions under the hydrolysis reaction of a polysaccharide of E. coli B cell walls by monitoring the fluorescence resonant energy transfer (FRET) between a donor-acceptor probe pair tethered to T4 lysozyme domains involving open-close hinge-bending motions. Based on the single-molecule spectroscopic results, molecular dynamics simulation, a random walk model analysis, and a novel 2D statistical correlation analysis, we have revealed a time bunching effect in protein conformational motion dynamics that is critical to enzymatic functions. Bunching effect implies that conformational motion times tend to bunch in a finite and narrow time window. We show that convoluted multiple Poisson rate processes give rise to the bunching effect in the enzymatic reaction dynamics. Evidently, the bunching effect is likely common in protein conformational dynamics involving in conformation-gated protein functions. In this perspective, we will also discuss a new approach of 2D regional correlation analysis capable of analyzing fluctuation dynamics of complex multiple correlated and anti-correlated fluctuations under a non-correlated noise background. Using this new method, we are able to map out any defined segments along the fluctuation trajectories and determine whether they are correlated, anti-correlated, or non-correlated; after which, a

  3. Soil surface temperatures reveal moderation of the urban heat island effect by trees and shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, J L; Stott, I; Davies, Z G; Gaston, K J; Leake, J R

    2016-09-19

    Urban areas are major contributors to air pollution and climate change, causing impacts on human health that are amplified by the microclimatological effects of buildings and grey infrastructure through the urban heat island (UHI) effect. Urban greenspaces may be important in reducing surface temperature extremes, but their effects have not been investigated at a city-wide scale. Across a mid-sized UK city we buried temperature loggers at the surface of greenspace soils at 100 sites, stratified by proximity to city centre, vegetation cover and land-use. Mean daily soil surface temperature over 11 months increased by 0.6 °C over the 5 km from the city outskirts to the centre. Trees and shrubs in non-domestic greenspace reduced mean maximum daily soil surface temperatures in the summer by 5.7 °C compared to herbaceous vegetation, but tended to maintain slightly higher temperatures in winter. Trees in domestic gardens, which tend to be smaller, were less effective at reducing summer soil surface temperatures. Our findings reveal that the UHI effects soil temperatures at a city-wide scale, and that in their moderating urban soil surface temperature extremes, trees and shrubs may help to reduce the adverse impacts of urbanization on microclimate, soil processes and human health.

  4. Hand posture effects on handedness recognition as revealed by the Simon effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan P Lameira

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the influence of hand posture in handedness recognition, while varying the spatial correspondence between stimulus and response in a modified Simon task. Drawings of the left and right hands were displayed either in a back or palm view while participants discriminated stimulus handedness by pressing left/right keys with their hands resting either in a prone or supine posture. As a control, subjects performed a regular Simon task using simple geometric shapes as stimuli. Results showed that when hands were in a prone posture, the spatially corresponding trials (i.e., stimulus and response located on the same side were faster than the non-corresponding trials (i.e., stimulus and response on opposite sides. In contrast, for the supine posture, there was no difference between corresponding and non-corresponding trials. The control experiment with the regular Simon task showed that the posture of the responding hand had no influence on performance. When the stimulus is the drawing of a hand, however, the posture of the responding hand affects the spatial correspondence effect because response location is coded based on multiple reference points, including the body of the hand.

  5. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Workman Chris

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer's yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition.

  6. Comparative Circadian Metabolomics Reveal Differential Effects of Nutritional Challenge in the Serum and Liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbondante, Serena; Eckel-Mahan, Kristin L; Ceglia, Nicholas J; Baldi, Pierre; Sassone-Corsi, Paolo

    2016-02-05

    Diagnosis and therapeutic interventions in pathological conditions rely upon clinical monitoring of key metabolites in the serum. Recent studies show that a wide range of metabolic pathways are controlled by circadian rhythms whose oscillation is affected by nutritional challenges, underscoring the importance of assessing a temporal window for clinical testing and thereby questioning the accuracy of the reading of critical pathological markers in circulation. We have been interested in studying the communication between peripheral tissues under metabolic homeostasis perturbation. Here we present a comparative circadian metabolomic analysis on serum and liver in mice under high fat diet. Our data reveal that the nutritional challenge induces a loss of serum metabolite rhythmicity compared with liver, indicating a circadian misalignment between the tissues analyzed. Importantly, our results show that the levels of serum metabolites do not reflect the circadian liver metabolic signature or the effect of nutritional challenge. This notion reveals the possibility that misleading reads of metabolites in circulation may result in misdiagnosis and improper treatments. Our findings also demonstrate a tissue-specific and time-dependent disruption of metabolic homeostasis in response to altered nutrition. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen eLuders

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators’ brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM. To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls, where meditators have been practicing close to twenty years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentate, entorhinal cortex, subiculum as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri- hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators – perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity.

  8. Meditation effects within the hippocampal complex revealed by voxel-based morphometry and cytoarchitectonic probabilistic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Kurth, Florian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Gaser, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Scientific studies addressing anatomical variations in meditators' brains have emerged rapidly over the last few years, where significant links are most frequently reported with respect to gray matter (GM). To advance prior work, this study examined GM characteristics in a large sample of 100 subjects (50 meditators, 50 controls), where meditators have been practicing close to 20 years, on average. A standard, whole-brain voxel-based morphometry approach was applied and revealed significant meditation effects in the vicinity of the hippocampus, showing more GM in meditators than in controls as well as positive correlations with the number of years practiced. However, the hippocampal complex is regionally segregated by architecture, connectivity, and functional relevance. Thus, to establish differential effects within the hippocampal formation (cornu ammonis, fascia dentata, entorhinal cortex, subiculum) as well as the hippocampal-amygdaloid transition area, we utilized refined cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of (peri-) hippocampal subsections. Significant meditation effects were observed within the subiculum specifically. Since the subiculum is known to play a key role in stress regulation and meditation is an established form of stress reduction, these GM findings may reflect neuronal preservation in long-term meditators—perhaps due to an attenuated release of stress hormones and decreased neurotoxicity. PMID:23847572

  9. Landscape effects on demersal fish revealed by field observations and predictive seabed modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Sophie A M; Sabatino, Alessandro D; Heath, Michael R; Turrell, William R; Bailey, David M

    2017-01-01

    Nature conservation and fisheries management often focus on particular seabed features that are considered vulnerable or important to commercial species. As a result, individual seabed types are protected in isolation, without any understanding of what effect the mixture of seabed types within the landscape has on ecosystem functions. Here we undertook predictive seabed modelling within a coastal marine protected area using observations from underwater stereo-video camera deployments and environmental information (depth, wave fetch, maximum tidal speeds, distance from coast and underlying geology). The effect of the predicted substratum type, extent and heterogeneity or the diversity of substrata, within a radius of 1500 m around each camera deployment of juvenile gadoid relative abundance was analysed. The predicted substratum model performed well with wave fetch and depth being the most influential predictor variables. Gadus morhua (Atlantic cod) were associated with relatively more rugose substrata (Algal-gravel-pebble and seagrass) and heterogeneous landscapes, than Melanogrammus aeglefinus (haddock) or Merlangius merlangus (whiting) (sand and mud). An increase in M. merlangus relative abundance was observed with increasing substratum extent. These results reveal that landscape effects should be considered when protecting the seabed for fish and not just individual seabed types. The landscape approach used in this study therefore has important implications for marine protected area, fisheries management and monitoring advice concerning demersal fish populations.

  10. Live-cell microscopy reveals small molecule inhibitor effects on MAPK pathway dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Anderson

    Full Text Available Oncogenic mutations in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway are prevalent in human tumors, making this pathway a target of drug development efforts. Recently, ATP-competitive Raf inhibitors were shown to cause MAPK pathway activation via Raf kinase priming in wild-type BRaf cells and tumors, highlighting the need for a thorough understanding of signaling in the context of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Here, we present critical improvements in cell-line engineering and image analysis coupled with automated image acquisition that allow for the simultaneous identification of cellular localization of multiple MAPK pathway components (KRas, CRaf, Mek1 and Erk2. We use these assays in a systematic study of the effect of small molecule inhibitors across the MAPK cascade either as single agents or in combination. Both Raf inhibitor priming as well as the release from negative feedback induced by Mek and Erk inhibitors cause translocation of CRaf to the plasma membrane via mechanisms that are additive in pathway activation. Analysis of Erk activation and sub-cellular localization upon inhibitor treatments reveals differential inhibition and activation with the Raf inhibitors AZD628 and GDC0879 respectively. Since both single agent and combination studies of Raf and Mek inhibitors are currently in the clinic, our assays provide valuable insight into their effects on MAPK signaling in live cells.

  11. Genome scan for nonadditive heterotic trait loci reveals mainly underdominant effects in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiba, Efrat; Glikaite, Ilana; Levy, Yael; Pasternak, Zohar; Fridman, Eyal

    2016-04-01

    The overdominant model of heterosis explains the superior phenotype of hybrids by synergistic allelic interaction within heterozygous loci. To map such genetic variation in yeast, we used a population doubling time dataset of Saccharomyces cerevisiae 16 × 16 diallel and searched for major contributing heterotic trait loci (HTL). Heterosis was observed for the majority of hybrids, as they surpassed their best parent growth rate. However, most of the local heterozygous loci identified by genome scan were surprisingly underdominant, i.e., reduced growth. We speculated that in these loci adverse effects on growth resulted from incompatible allelic interactions. To test this assumption, we eliminated these allelic interactions by creating hybrids with local hemizygosity for the underdominant HTLs, as well as for control random loci. Growth of hybrids was indeed elevated for most hemizygous to HTL genes but not for control genes, hence validating the results of our genome scan. Assessing the consequences of local heterozygosity by reciprocal hemizygosity and allele replacement assays revealed the influence of genetic background on the underdominant effects of HTLs. Overall, this genome-wide study on a multi-parental hybrid population provides a strong argument against single gene overdominance as a major contributor to heterosis, and favors the dominance complementation model.

  12. X-ray CT Scanning Reveals Long-Term Copper Pollution Effects on Functional Soil Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Møldrup, Per; Homstrup, Martin

    Soil structure plays the main role in the ability of the soil to fulfill essential soil functions such as the root growth, rate of water infiltration and retention, transport of gaseous and chemicals/pollutants through the soil. Soil structure is a dynamic soil property and affected by various...... factors such as soil type, land use, and soil contamination. In this study, we quantified the soil structure using X-ray CT scanning and revealed the effect of a long history of Copper (Cu) pollution on it. A fallow field at Hygum Denmark provides this opportunity as it had a long history of Copper...... sulphate contamination in a gradient with Cu content varies from 21 mg kg-1 to 3837 mg kg-1. Total 20 intact soil columns (diameter of 10 cm and height of 8 cm) were sampled at five locations along the Cu-gradient from a depth of 5 to 15 cm below surface level. The soil columns were scanned at a voxel...

  13. Metabolic connectivity mapping reveals effective connectivity in the resting human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Valentin; Utz, Lukas; Castrillón, Gabriel; Grimmer, Timo; Rauschecker, Josef P; Ploner, Markus; Friston, Karl J; Drzezga, Alexander; Sorg, Christian

    2016-01-12

    Directionality of signaling among brain regions provides essential information about human cognition and disease states. Assessing such effective connectivity (EC) across brain states using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) alone has proven difficult, however. We propose a novel measure of EC, termed metabolic connectivity mapping (MCM), that integrates undirected functional connectivity (FC) with local energy metabolism from fMRI and positron emission tomography (PET) data acquired simultaneously. This method is based on the concept that most energy required for neuronal communication is consumed postsynaptically, i.e., at the target neurons. We investigated MCM and possible changes in EC within the physiological range using "eyes open" versus "eyes closed" conditions in healthy subjects. Independent of condition, MCM reliably detected stable and bidirectional communication between early and higher visual regions. Moreover, we found stable top-down signaling from a frontoparietal network including frontal eye fields. In contrast, we found additional top-down signaling from all major clusters of the salience network to early visual cortex only in the eyes open condition. MCM revealed consistent bidirectional and unidirectional signaling across the entire cortex, along with prominent changes in network interactions across two simple brain states. We propose MCM as a novel approach for inferring EC from neuronal energy metabolism that is ideally suited to study signaling hierarchies in the brain and their defects in brain disorders.

  14. Human subcortical brain asymmetries in 15,847 people worldwide reveal effects of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadalupe, Tulio; Mathias, Samuel R; vanErp, Theo G M; Whelan, Christopher D; Zwiers, Marcel P; Abe, Yoshinari; Abramovic, Lucija; Agartz, Ingrid; Andreassen, Ole A; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Aribisala, Benjamin S; Armstrong, Nicola J; Arolt, Volker; Artiges, Eric; Ayesa-Arriola, Rosa; Baboyan, Vatche G; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth; Bastin, Mark E; Baune, Bernhard T; Blangero, John; Bokde, Arun L W; Boedhoe, Premika S W; Bose, Anushree; Brem, Silvia; Brodaty, Henry; Bromberg, Uli; Brooks, Samantha; Büchel, Christian; Buitelaar, Jan; Calhoun, Vince D; Cannon, Dara M; Cattrell, Anna; Cheng, Yuqi; Conrod, Patricia J; Conzelmann, Annette; Corvin, Aiden; Crespo-Facorro, Benedicto; Crivello, Fabrice; Dannlowski, Udo; de Zubicaray, Greig I; de Zwarte, Sonja M C; Deary, Ian J; Desrivières, Sylvane; Doan, Nhat Trung; Donohoe, Gary; Dørum, Erlend S; Ehrlich, Stefan; Espeseth, Thomas; Fernández, Guillén; Flor, Herta; Fouche, Jean-Paul; Frouin, Vincent; Fukunaga, Masaki; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gill, Michael; Suarez, Andrea Gonzalez; Gowland, Penny; Grabe, Hans J; Grotegerd, Dominik; Gruber, Oliver; Hagenaars, Saskia; Hashimoto, Ryota; Hauser, Tobias U; Heinz, Andreas; Hibar, Derrek P; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Hoogman, Martine; Howells, Fleur M; Hu, Hao; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Huyser, Chaim; Ittermann, Bernd; Jahanshad, Neda; Jönsson, Erik G; Jurk, Sarah; Kahn, Rene S; Kelly, Sinead; Kraemer, Bernd; Kugel, Harald; Kwon, Jun Soo; Lemaitre, Herve; Lesch, Klaus-Peter; Lochner, Christine; Luciano, Michelle; Marquand, Andre F; Martin, Nicholas G; Martínez-Zalacaín, Ignacio; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Mataix-Cols, David; Mather, Karen; McDonald, Colm; McMahon, Katie L; Medland, Sarah E; Menchón, José M; Morris, Derek W; Mothersill, Omar; Maniega, Susana Munoz; Mwangi, Benson; Nakamae, Takashi; Nakao, Tomohiro; Narayanaswaamy, Janardhanan C; Nees, Frauke; Nordvik, Jan E; Onnink, A Marten H; Opel, Nils; Ophoff, Roel; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Papadopoulos Orfanos, Dimitri; Pauli, Paul; Paus, Tomáš; Poustka, Luise; Reddy, Janardhan Yc; Renteria, Miguel E; Roiz-Santiáñez, Roberto; Roos, Annerine; Royle, Natalie A; Sachdev, Perminder; Sánchez-Juan, Pascual; Schmaal, Lianne; Schumann, Gunter; Shumskaya, Elena; Smolka, Michael N; Soares, Jair C; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Stein, Dan J; Strike, Lachlan T; Toro, Roberto; Turner, Jessica A; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Uhlmann, Anne; Hernández, Maria Valdés; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van der Meer, Dennis; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Veltman, Dick J; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Vetter, Nora C; Vuletic, Daniella; Walitza, Susanne; Walter, Henrik; Walton, Esther; Wang, Zhen; Wardlaw, Joanna; Wen, Wei; Westlye, Lars T; Whelan, Robert; Wittfeld, Katharina; Wolfers, Thomas; Wright, Margaret J; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiufeng; Yun, Je-Yeon; Zhao, JingJing; Franke, Barbara; Thompson, Paul M; Glahn, David C; Mazoyer, Bernard; Fisher, Simon E; Francks, Clyde

    2017-10-01

    The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen. Heritability estimates, derived from 1170 subjects belonging to 71 extended pedigrees, revealed that additive genetic factors influenced the asymmetry of these two structures and that of the hippocampus and thalamus. Handedness had no detectable effect on subcortical asymmetries, even in this unprecedented sample size, but the asymmetry of the putamen varied with age. Genetic drivers of asymmetry in the hippocampus, thalamus and basal ganglia may affect variability in human cognition, including susceptibility to psychiatric disorders.

  15. Distinct Feedforward and Feedback Effects of Microstimulation in Visual Cortex Reveal Neural Mechanisms of Texture Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klink, P Christiaan; Dagnino, Bruno; Gariel-Mathis, Marie-Alice; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2017-07-05

    The visual cortex is hierarchically organized, with low-level areas coding for simple features and higher areas for complex ones. Feedforward and feedback connections propagate information between areas in opposite directions, but their functional roles are only partially understood. We used electrical microstimulation to perturb the propagation of neuronal activity between areas V1 and V4 in monkeys performing a texture-segregation task. In both areas, microstimulation locally caused a brief phase of excitation, followed by inhibition. Both these effects propagated faithfully in the feedforward direction from V1 to V4. Stimulation of V4, however, caused little V1 excitation, but it did yield a delayed suppression during the late phase of visually driven activity. This suppression was pronounced for the V1 figure representation and weaker for background representations. Our results reveal functional differences between feedforward and feedback processing in texture segregation and suggest a specific modulating role for feedback connections in perceptual organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Revealing the large extra dimension effective interaction at an e+e- collider with polarized beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pankov, A. A.; Tsytrinov, A. V.; Paver, N.

    2007-01-01

    Several types of new physics scenarios are represented by contactlike effective interactions. An example is the exchange of nonstandard quanta of very large mass scales, beyond the kinematical limit for direct production set by the available collider energy. This kind of interactions can be revealed only through deviations of observables from the standard model predictions. If such deviations were observed, the relevant source should be identified among the possible models that could explain them. Here, we assess the expected 'identification reach' on the ADD model of gravity in large compactified extra dimensions, against the compositeness-inspired four-fermion contact interaction. As basic observables we take the differential cross sections for fermion-pair production at a 0.5-1 TeV electron-positron linear collider with both beams longitudinally polarized. For the four-fermion contact interaction, we assume a general linear combination of the individual models with definite chiralities, with arbitrary coupling constants. In this sense, the estimated identification reach on the ADD model can be considered as 'model independent'. In the analysis, we give estimates also for the expected ''discovery reaches'' on the various scenarios. We emphasize the substantial role of beams polarization in enhancing the sensitivity to the contactlike interactions under consideration

  17. Mechanistic Insights into Dye-Decolorizing Peroxidase Revealed by Solvent Isotope and Viscosity Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrestha, Ruben [Department; Huang, Gaochao [Department; Meekins, David A. [Department; Geisbrecht, Brian V. [Department; Li, Ping [Department

    2017-08-18

    Dye-decolorizing peroxidases (DyPs) are a family of H2O2-dependent heme peroxidases that have shown potential applications in lignin degradation and valorization. However, the DyP kinetic mechanism remains underexplored. Using structural biology and solvent isotope (sKIE) and viscosity effects, many mechanistic characteristics have been determined for the B-class ElDyP from Enterobacter lignolyticus. Its structure revealed that a water molecule acts as the sixth axial ligand and two channels at diameters of ~3.0 and 8.0 Å lead to the heme center. A conformational change of ERS* to ERS, which have identical spectral characteristics, was proposed as the final step in DyPs’ bisubstrate Ping-Pong mechanism. This step is also the rate-determining step in ABTS oxidation. The normal KIE of wild-type ElDyP with D2O2 at pD 3.5 suggested that compound 0 deprotonation by the distal aspartate is rate-limiting in the formation of compound I, which is more reactive under acidic pH than under neutral or alkaline pH. The viscosity effects and other biochemical methods implied that the reducing substrate binds with compound I instead of the free enzyme. The significant inverse sKIEs of kcat/KM and kERS* suggested that the aquo release in ElDyP is mechanistically important and may explain the enzyme’s adoption of two-electron reduction for compound I. The distal aspartate is catalytically more important than the distal arginine and plays key roles in determining ElDyP’s optimum acidic pH. The kinetic mechanism of D143H-ElDyP was also briefly studied. The results obtained will pave the way for future protein engineering to improve DyPs’ lignolytic activity.

  18. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Toxicogenomic analysis reveals profibrogenic effects of trichloroethylene in autoimmune-mediated cholangitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopec, Anna K; Sullivan, Bradley P; Kassel, Karen M; Joshi, Nikita; Luyendyk, James P

    2014-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to environmental chemicals increases the risk of developing autoimmune liver disease. However, the identity of specific chemical perpetrators and the mechanisms whereby environmental chemicals modify liver disease is unclear. Previous studies link exposure to trichloroethylene (TCE) with the development of autoimmune liver disease and exacerbation of autoimmunity in lupus-prone MRL mice. In this study, we utilized NOD.c3c4 mice, which spontaneously develop autoimmune cholangitis bearing resemblance to some features of primary biliary cirrhosis. Nine-week-old female NOD.c3c4 mice were given TCE (0.5 mg/ml) or its vehicle (1% Cremophor-EL) in drinking water for 4 weeks. TCE had little effect on clinical chemistry, biliary cyst formation, or hepatic CD3+ T-cell accumulation. Hepatic microarray profiling revealed a dramatic suppression of early growth response 1 (EGR1) mRNA in livers of TCE-treated mice, which was verified by qPCR and immunohistochemical staining. Consistent with a reported link between reduced EGR1 expression and liver fibrosis, TCE increased hepatic type I collagen (COL1A1) mRNA and protein levels in livers of NOD.c3c4 mice. In contrast, TCE did not increase COL1A1 expression in NOD.ShiLtJ mice, which do not develop autoimmune cholangitis. These results suggest that in the context of concurrent autoimmune liver disease with a genetic basis, modification of hepatic gene expression by TCE may increase profibrogenic signaling in the liver. Moreover, these studies suggest that NOD.c3c4 mice may be a novel model to study gene-environment interactions critical for the development of autoimmune liver disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Predator-prey interaction reveals local effects of high-altitude insect migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    High-altitude nocturnal insect migrations represent significant pulses of resources, yet are difficult to study and poorly understood. Predator-prey interactions, specifically migratory moth consumption by high-flying bats, potentially reveal flows of migratory insects across a landscape. In North...

  1. Revealing Buried Interfaces to Understand the Origins of Threshold Voltage Shifts in Organic Field-Effect Transistors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, Simon G. J.; Spijkman, Mark-Jan; Andringa, Anne-Marije; van Hal, Paul A.; McCulloch, Iain; Kemerink, Martijn; Janssen, Rene A. J.; de Leeuw, Dago M.

    2010-01-01

    The semiconductor of an organic field-effect transistor is stripped with adhesive tape, yielding an exposed gate dielectric, accessible for various characterization techniques. By using scanning Kelvin probe microscopy we reveal that trapped charges after gate bias stress are located at the gate

  2. The implicit effect of texturizing field on the elastic properties of magnetic elastomers revealed by SANS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasoiu, M., E-mail: balas@jinr.ru [Joint Institute of Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Horia Hulubei National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Lebedev, V.T. [St.Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute NRC KI, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Raikher, Yu.L. [Institute of Continuous Media Mechanics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ural Branch, Perm (Russian Federation); Bica, I.; Bunoiu, M. [West University of Timisoara, Department of Physics (Romania)

    2017-06-01

    Small angle neutron scattering method (SANS) is used to characterize the structure properties of the polymer matrix of magnetic elastomers (MEs) of the same material content but with different magnetic textures. For that, series of silicone-rubber elastomers mixed with a ferrofluid and polymerized with/without external magnetic field were studied. In the species of pure rubber and the ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of large polymer coils (blobs) which are vertically prolate. The case of MEs polymerized under the magnetic field that is also vertically directed, is different. SANS data indicates that there the blobs are preferably elongated in the direction normal to the field. - Highlights: • SANS method is used to determine the structure of SR elastomers polymerized with ferrofluid in/no external magnetic field. • In the rubber and ME samples synthesized without field, SANS reveals a substantial number of vertically prolate blobs. • For MEs polymerized in vertical magnetic field, results that the blobs are elongated in the direction normal to the field. • Isotropic and texturized MEs differ by the filler structure and by intrinsic elastic properties of the matrix as well.

  3. Allosteric effects in bacteriophage HK97 procapsids revealed directly from covariance analysis of cryo EM data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Nan; Veesler, David; Doerschuk, Peter C; Johnson, John E

    2018-05-01

    The information content of cryo EM data sets exceeds that of the electron scattering potential (cryo EM) density initially derived for structure determination. Previously we demonstrated the power of data variance analysis for characterizing regions of cryo EM density that displayed functionally important variance anomalies associated with maturation cleavage events in Nudaurelia Omega Capensis Virus and the presence or absence of a maturation protease in bacteriophage HK97 procapsids. Here we extend the analysis in two ways. First, instead of imposing icosahedral symmetry on every particle in the data set during the variance analysis, we only assume that the data set as a whole has icosahedral symmetry. This change removes artifacts of high variance along icosahedral symmetry axes, but retains all of the features previously reported in the HK97 data set. Second we present a covariance analysis that reveals correlations in structural dynamics (variance) between the interior of the HK97 procapsid with the protease and regions of the exterior (not seen in the absence of the protease). The latter analysis corresponds well with hydrogen deuterium exchange studies previously published that reveal the same correlation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Integration of community structure data reveals observable effects below sediment guideline thresholds in a large estuary

    KAUST Repository

    Tremblay, Louis A.

    2017-04-07

    The sustainable management of estuarine and coastal ecosystems requires robust frameworks due to the presence of multiple physical and chemical stressors. In this study, we assessed whether ecological health decline, based on community structure composition changes along a pollution gradient, occurred at levels below guideline threshold values for copper, zinc and lead. Canonical analysis of principal coordinates (CAP) was used to characterise benthic communities along a metal contamination gradient. The analysis revealed changes in benthic community distribution at levels below the individual guideline values for the three metals. These results suggest that field-based measures of ecological health analysed with multivariate tools can provide additional information to single metal guideline threshold values to monitor large systems exposed to multiple stressors.

  5. Myc inhibition is effective against glioma and reveals a role for Myc in proficient mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibali, Daniela; Whitfield, Jonathan R; Favuzzi, Emilia; Jauset, Toni; Serrano, Erika; Cuartas, Isabel; Redondo-Campos, Sara; Folch, Gerard; Gonzàlez-Juncà, Alba; Sodir, Nicole M; Massó-Vallés, Daniel; Beaulieu, Marie-Eve; Swigart, Lamorna B; Mc Gee, Margaret M; Somma, Maria Patrizia; Nasi, Sergio; Seoane, Joan; Evan, Gerard I; Soucek, Laura

    2014-08-18

    Gliomas are the most common primary tumours affecting the adult central nervous system and respond poorly to standard therapy. Myc is causally implicated in most human tumours and the majority of glioblastomas have elevated Myc levels. Using the Myc dominant negative Omomyc, we previously showed that Myc inhibition is a promising strategy for cancer therapy. Here, we preclinically validate Myc inhibition as a therapeutic strategy in mouse and human glioma, using a mouse model of spontaneous multifocal invasive astrocytoma and its derived neuroprogenitors, human glioblastoma cell lines, and patient-derived tumours both in vitro and in orthotopic xenografts. Across all these experimental models we find that Myc inhibition reduces proliferation, increases apoptosis and remarkably, elicits the formation of multinucleated cells that then arrest or die by mitotic catastrophe, revealing a new role for Myc in the proficient division of glioma cells.

  6. Effect of tidal triggering on seismicity in Taiwan revealed by the empirical mode decomposition method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-J. Chen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of tidal triggering on earthquake occurrence has been controversial for many years. This study considered earthquakes that occurred near Taiwan between 1973 and 2008. Because earthquake data are nonlinear and non-stationary, we applied the empirical mode decomposition (EMD method to analyze the temporal variations in the number of daily earthquakes to investigate the effect of tidal triggering. We compared the results obtained from the non-declustered catalog with those from two kinds of declustered catalogs and discuss the aftershock effect on the EMD-based analysis. We also investigated stacking the data based on in-phase phenomena of theoretical Earth tides with statistical significance tests. Our results show that the effects of tidal triggering, particularly the lunar tidal effect, can be extracted from the raw seismicity data using the approach proposed here. Our results suggest that the lunar tidal force is likely a factor in the triggering of earthquakes.

  7. The moving platform after-effect reveals dissociation between what we know and how we walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, R; Bronstein, A

    2007-01-01

    Gait adaptation is crucial for coping with varying terrain and biological needs. It is also important that any acquired adaptation is expressed only in the appropriate context. Here we review a recent series of experiments which demonstrate inappropriate expression of gait adaptation. We showed that a brief period of walking onto a platform previously experienced as moving results in a large forward sway despite full awareness of the changing context. The adaptation mechanisms involved in this paradigm are extremely fast, just 1-2 discrete exposures to the moving platform results in a motor after-effect. This after-effect still occurs even if subjects deliberately attempt to suppress it. However it disappears when the location or method of gait is altered, indicating that after-effect expression is context dependent. Conversely, making gait self-initiated increased sway during the after-effect. This after-effect demonstrates a profound dissociation between knowledge and action. The absence of generalisation suggests a simple form of motor learning. However, persistent expression of gait after-effects may be dependent on an intact cerebral cortex. The fact that the after-effect is greater during self-initiated gait, and is context dependent, would be consistent with the involvement of supraspinal areas.

  8. Ants can be used as bio-indicators to reveal biological effects of electromagnetic waves from some wireless apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cammaerts, Marie-Claire; Johansson, Olle

    2014-12-01

    Society is confronted with an increasing number of applications making use of wireless communication. We also notice an increasing awareness about potentially harmful effects of the related electromagnetic fields on living organisms. At present, it is not realistic to expect that wireless communication will decrease or disappear within the near future. That is why we currently are investigating the mechanisms behind these effects and the effectiveness of possible solutions. In order to be efficient and effective, we designed and validated a fast and easy test on ants - these insects being used as a biological model - for revealing the effect of wireless equipments like mobile phones, smartphones, digital enhanced cordless telephone (DECT) phones, WiFi routers and so on. This test includes quantification of ants' locomotion under natural conditions, then in the vicinity of such wireless equipments. Observations, numerical results and statistical results allow detecting any effect of a radiating source on these living organisms.

  9. Revealing life-history traits by contrasting genetic estimations with predictions of effective population size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Gili; Renan, Sharon; Templeton, Alan R; Bouskila, Amos; Saltz, David; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bar-David, Shirli

    2017-12-22

    Effective population size, a central concept in conservation biology, is now routinely estimated from genetic surveys and can also be theoretically predicted from demographic, life-history, and mating-system data. By evaluating the consistency of theoretical predictions with empirically estimated effective size, insights can be gained regarding life-history characteristics and the relative impact of different life-history traits on genetic drift. These insights can be used to design and inform management strategies aimed at increasing effective population size. We demonstrated this approach by addressing the conservation of a reintroduced population of Asiatic wild ass (Equus hemionus). We estimated the variance effective size (N ev ) from genetic data (N ev =24.3) and formulated predictions for the impacts on N ev of demography, polygyny, female variance in lifetime reproductive success (RS), and heritability of female RS. By contrasting the genetic estimation with theoretical predictions, we found that polygyny was the strongest factor affecting genetic drift because only when accounting for polygyny were predictions consistent with the genetically measured N ev . The comparison of effective-size estimation and predictions indicated that 10.6% of the males mated per generation when heritability of female RS was unaccounted for (polygyny responsible for 81% decrease in N ev ) and 19.5% mated when female RS was accounted for (polygyny responsible for 67% decrease in N ev ). Heritability of female RS also affected N ev ; hf2=0.91 (heritability responsible for 41% decrease in N ev ). The low effective size is of concern, and we suggest that management actions focus on factors identified as strongly affecting Nev, namely, increasing the availability of artificial water sources to increase number of dominant males contributing to the gene pool. This approach, evaluating life-history hypotheses in light of their impact on effective population size, and contrasting

  10. Preferential binding effects on protein structure and dynamics revealed by coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, R. B.; Jacobs, D. J.; Farmer, B. L.

    2017-05-01

    The effect of preferential binding of solute molecules within an aqueous solution on the structure and dynamics of the histone H3.1 protein is examined by a coarse-grained Monte Carlo simulation. The knowledge-based residue-residue and hydropathy-index-based residue-solvent interactions are used as input to analyze a number of local and global physical quantities as a function of the residue-solvent interaction strength (f). Results from simulations that treat the aqueous solution as a homogeneous effective solvent medium are compared to when positional fluctuations of the solute molecules are explicitly considered. While the radius of gyration (Rg) of the protein exhibits a non-monotonic dependence on solvent interaction over a wide range of f within an effective medium, an abrupt collapse in Rg occurs in a narrow range of f when solute molecules rapidly bind to a preferential set of sites on the protein. The structure factor S(q) of the protein with wave vector (q) becomes oscillatory in the collapsed state, which reflects segmental correlations caused by spatial fluctuations in solute-protein binding. Spatial fluctuations in solute binding also modify the effective dimension (D) of the protein in fibrous (D ˜ 1.3), random-coil (D ˜ 1.75), and globular (D ˜ 3) conformational ensembles as the interaction strength increases, which differ from an effective medium with respect to the magnitude of D and the length scale.

  11. Graded effects of regularity in language revealed by N400 indices of morphological priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kielar, Aneta; Joanisse, Marc F

    2010-07-01

    Differential electrophysiological effects for regular and irregular linguistic forms have been used to support the theory that grammatical rules are encoded using a dedicated cognitive mechanism. The alternative hypothesis is that language systematicities are encoded probabilistically in a way that does not categorically distinguish rule-like and irregular forms. In the present study, this matter was investigated more closely by focusing specifically on whether the regular-irregular distinction in English past tenses is categorical or graded. We compared the ERP priming effects of regulars (baked-bake), vowel-change irregulars (sang-sing), and "suffixed" irregulars that display a partial regularity (suffixed irregular verbs, e.g., slept-sleep), as well as forms that are related strictly along formal or semantic dimensions. Participants performed a visual lexical decision task with either visual (Experiment 1) or auditory prime (Experiment 2). Stronger N400 priming effects were observed for regular than vowel-change irregular verbs, whereas suffixed irregulars tended to group with regular verbs. Subsequent analyses decomposed early versus late-going N400 priming, and suggested that differences among forms can be attributed to the orthographic similarity of prime and target. Effects of morphological relatedness were observed in the later-going time period, however, we failed to observe true regular-irregular dissociations in either experiment. The results indicate that morphological effects emerge from the interaction of orthographic, phonological, and semantic overlap between words.

  12. Off-target effects of psychoactive drugs revealed by genome-wide assays in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Ericson

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To better understand off-target effects of widely prescribed psychoactive drugs, we performed a comprehensive series of chemogenomic screens using the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model system. Because the known human targets of these drugs do not exist in yeast, we could employ the yeast gene deletion collections and parallel fitness profiling to explore potential off-target effects in a genome-wide manner. Among 214 tested, documented psychoactive drugs, we identified 81 compounds that inhibited wild-type yeast growth and were thus selected for genome-wide fitness profiling. Many of these drugs had a propensity to affect multiple cellular functions. The sensitivity profiles of half of the analyzed drugs were enriched for core cellular processes such as secretion, protein folding, RNA processing, and chromatin structure. Interestingly, fluoxetine (Prozac interfered with establishment of cell polarity, cyproheptadine (Periactin targeted essential genes with chromatin-remodeling roles, while paroxetine (Paxil interfered with essential RNA metabolism genes, suggesting potential secondary drug targets. We also found that the more recently developed atypical antipsychotic clozapine (Clozaril had no fewer off-target effects in yeast than the typical antipsychotics haloperidol (Haldol and pimozide (Orap. Our results suggest that model organism pharmacogenetic studies provide a rational foundation for understanding the off-target effects of clinically important psychoactive agents and suggest a rational means both for devising compound derivatives with fewer side effects and for tailoring drug treatment to individual patient genotypes.

  13. Neural evidence reveals the rapid effects of reward history on selective attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Mary H; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2015-05-05

    Selective attention is often framed as being primarily driven by two factors: task-relevance and physical salience. However, factors like selection and reward history, which are neither currently task-relevant nor physically salient, can reliably and persistently influence visual selective attention. The current study investigated the nature of the persistent effects of irrelevant, physically non-salient, reward-associated features. These features affected one of the earliest reliable neural indicators of visual selective attention in humans, the P1 event-related potential, measured one week after the reward associations were learned. However, the effects of reward history were moderated by current task demands. The modulation of visually evoked activity supports the hypothesis that reward history influences the innate salience of reward associated features, such that even when no longer relevant, nor physically salient, these features have a rapid, persistent, and robust effect on early visual selective attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of correlation effects in hcp iron revealed by a pressure-induced electronic topological transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazyrin, K; Pourovskii, L V; Dubrovinsky, L; Narygina, O; McCammon, C; Hewener, B; Schünemann, V; Wolny, J; Muffler, K; Chumakov, A I; Crichton, W; Hanfland, M; Prakapenka, V B; Tasnádi, F; Ekholm, M; Aichhorn, M; Vildosola, V; Ruban, A V; Katsnelson, M I; Abrikosov, I A

    2013-03-15

    We discover that hcp phases of Fe and Fe(0.9)Ni(0.1) undergo an electronic topological transition at pressures of about 40 GPa. This topological change of the Fermi surface manifests itself through anomalous behavior of the Debye sound velocity, c/a lattice parameter ratio, and Mössbauer center shift observed in our experiments. First-principles simulations within the dynamic mean field approach demonstrate that the transition is induced by many-electron effects. It is absent in one-electron calculations and represents a clear signature of correlation effects in hcp Fe.

  15. Type 1 diabetes mellitus effects on dental enamel formation revealed by microscopy and microanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Bruna Larissa Lago; Medeiros, Danila Lima; Soares, Ana Prates; Line, Sérgio Roberto Peres; Pinto, Maria das Graças Farias; Soares, Telma de Jesus; do Espírito Santo, Alexandre Ribeiro

    2018-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) largely affects children, occurring therefore at the same period of deciduous and permanent teeth development. The aim of this work was to investigate birefringence and morphology of the secretory stage enamel organic extracellular matrix (EOECM), and structural and mechanical features of mature enamel from T1DM rats. Adult Wistar rats were maintained alive for a period of 56 days after the induction of experimental T1DM with a single dose of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg). After proper euthanasia of the animals, fixed upper incisors were accurately processed, and secretory stage EOECM and mature enamel were analyzed by transmitted polarizing and bright field light microscopies (TPLM and BFLM), energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and microhardness testing. Bright field light microscopies and transmitted polarizing light microscopies showed slight morphological changes in the secretory stage EOECM from diabetic rats, which also did not exhibit statistically significant alterations in birefringence brightness when compared to control animals (P > .05). EDX analysis showed that T1DM induced statistically significant little increases in the amount of calcium and phosphorus in outer mature enamel (P  .05). T1DM also caused important ultrastructural alterations in mature enamel as revealed by SEM and induced a statistically significant reduction of about 13.67% in its microhardness at 80 μm from dentin-enamel junction (P enamel development, leading to alterations in mature enamel ultrastructure and in its mechanical features. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...

  17. Curvature effects on lipid packing and dynamics in liposomes revealed by coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Risselada, H. Jelger; Marrink, Siewert J.

    2009-01-01

    The molecular packing details of lipids in planar bilayers are well characterized. For curved bilayers, however, little data is available. In this paper we study the effect of temperature and membrane composition on the structural and dynamical properties of a liposomal membrane in the limit of high

  18. Vocal responses to noise reveal the presence of the Lombard effect in a frog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halfwerk, W.H.; Lea, A.M.; Guerra, M.A.; Page, R.A.; Ryan, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Many animal communication systems have evolved signal flexibility depending on environmental conditions. A common strategy of vocal communication is to increase amplitude in response to increasing noise levels. This phenomenon, known as the Lombard effect, is a widespread trait among mammals and

  19. Metabolomic assessment reveals a stimulatory effect of calcium treatment on glucosinolates contents in broccoli microgreen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest calcium application has been shown to increase broccoli microgreen yield and extend shelf life. Here we investigated the effect of calcium application on its metabolome using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem with mass spectrometry (HRMS). The data collected were...

  20. Mapping resistance to powdery mildew in barley reveals a large-effect nonhost resistance QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Cynara C T; Vermeulen, Jasper P; Vels, Anton; Himmelbach, Axel; Mascher, Martin; Niks, Rients E

    2018-05-01

    Resistance factors against non-adapted powdery mildews were mapped in barley. Some QTLs seem effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others also play a role in defense against the adapted form. The durability and effectiveness of nonhost resistance suggests promising practical applications for crop breeding, relying upon elucidation of key aspects of this type of resistance. We investigated which genetic factors determine the nonhost status of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to powdery mildews (Blumeria graminis). We set out to verify whether genes involved in nonhost resistance have a wide effectiveness spectrum, and whether nonhost resistance genes confer resistance to the barley adapted powdery mildew. Two barley lines, SusBgt SC and SusBgt DC , with some susceptibility to the wheat powdery mildew B. graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt) were crossed with cv Vada to generate two mapping populations. Each population was assessed for level of infection against four B. graminis ff.spp, and QTL mapping analyses were performed. Our results demonstrate polygenic inheritance for nonhost resistance, with some QTLs effective only to non-adapted mildews, while others play a role against adapted and non-adapted forms. Histology analyses of nonhost interaction show that most penetration attempts are stopped in association with papillae, and also suggest independent layers of defence at haustorium establishment and conidiophore formation. Nonhost resistance of barley to powdery mildew relies mostly on non-hypersensitive mechanisms. A large-effect nonhost resistance QTL mapped to a 1.4 cM interval is suitable for map-based cloning.

  1. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Fungal Metabolites in Mouse Intestine as Revealed by In vitro Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schreiber

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders that can affect the whole gastrointestinal tract or the colonic mucosal layer. Current therapies aiming to suppress the exaggerated immune response in IBD largely rely on compounds with non-satisfying effects or side-effects. Therefore, new therapeutical options are needed. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin in both an in vitro intestinal inflammation model, as well as in isolated myenteric plexus and enterocyte cells. Administration of a pro-inflammatory cytokine mix through the mesenteric artery of intestinal segments caused an up-regulation of inflammatory marker genes. Treatment of the murine intestinal segments with galiellalactone or dehydrocurvularin by application through the mesenteric artery significantly prevented the expression of pro-inflammatory marker genes on the mRNA and the protein level. Comparable to the results in the perfused intestine model, treatment of primary enteric nervous system (ENS cells from the murine intestine with the fungal compounds reduced expression of cytokines such as IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β, and inflammatory enzymes such as COX-2 and iNOS on mRNA and protein levels. Similar anti-inflammatory effects of the fungal metabolites were observed in the human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell line DLD-1 after stimulation with IFN-γ (10 ng/ml, TNF-α (10 ng/ml, and IL-1β (5 ng/ml. Our results show that the mesenterially perfused intestine model provides a reliable tool for the screening of new therapeutics with limited amounts of test compounds. Furthermore, we could characterize the anti-inflammatory effects of two novel active compounds, galiellalactone, and dehydrocurvularin which are interesting candidates for studies with chronic animal models of IBD.

  2. Quantitative Proteomics Reveals Ecophysiological Effects of Light and Silver Stress on the Mixotrophic Protist Poterioochromonas malhamensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Beisser

    Full Text Available Aquatic environments are heavily impacted by human activities including climate warming and the introduction of xenobiotics. Due to the application of silver nanoparticles as bactericidal agent the introduction of silver into the environment strongly has increased during the past years. Silver ions affect the primary metabolism of algae, in particular photosynthesis. Mixotrophic algae are an interesting test case as they do not exclusively rely on photosynthesis which may attenuate the harmful effect of silver. In order to study the effect of silver ions on mixotrophs, cultures of the chrysophyte Poterioochromonas malhamensis were treated in a replicate design in light and darkness with silver nitrate at a sub-lethal concentration. At five time points samples were taken for the identification and quantitation of proteins by mass spectrometry. In our analysis, relative quantitative protein mass spectrometry has shown to be a useful tool for functional analyses in conjunction with transcriptome reference sequences. A total of 3,952 proteins in 63 samples were identified and quantified, mapping to 4,829 transcripts of the sequenced and assembled transcriptome. Among them, 720 and 104 proteins performing various cellular functions were differentially expressed after eight days in light versus darkness and after three days of silver treatment, respectively. Specifically pathways of the energy and primary carbon metabolism were differentially affected by light and the utilization of expensive reactions hints to an energy surplus of P. malhamensis under light conditions. The excess energy is not invested in growth, but in the synthesis of storage metabolites. The effects of silver were less explicit, observable especially in the dark treatments where the light effect could not mask coinciding but weaker effects of silver. Photosynthesis, particularly the light harvesting complexes, and several sulphur containing enzymes were affected presumably due to

  3. Revealing the beneficial effect of protease supplementation to high gravity beer fermentations using "-omics" techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa

    2011-01-01

    to elucidate the effect on the addition of the multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme and its influence on the metabolism of the brewer's yeast strain Weihenstephan 34/70. The study underlines the importance of sufficient nitrogen availability during the course of beer fermentation. The applied metabolome......Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer......'s yeast fermentation performance during high gravity fermentations as it increases the initial FAN value and results in higher FAN uptake, higher specific growth rate, higher ethanol yield and improved flavour profile. Results: In the present study, transcriptome and metabolome analysis were used...

  4. Intensive foreign language learning reveals effects on categorical perception of sibilant voicing after only 3 weeks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Højlund; Horn, Nynne Thorup; Derdau Sørensen, Stine

    2015-01-01

    Models of speech learning suggest that adaptations to foreign language sound categories take place within 6-12 months of exposure to a foreign language. Results from laboratory language training show effects of very targeted training on non-native speech contrasts within only one to three weeks...... of training. Results from immersion studies are inconclusive, but some suggest continued effects on non-native speech perception after 6-8 years of experience. We investigated this apparent discrepancy in the timing of adaptation to foreign speech sounds in a longitudinal study of foreign language learning....... We examined two groups of Danish language officer cadets learning either Arabic (MSA and Egyptian Arabic) or Dari (Afghan Farsi) through intensive multi-faceted language training. We conducted two experiments (identification and discrimination) with the cadets who were tested four times: at the start...

  5. Metabolomics reveals biotic and abiotic elicitor effects on the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi terpenoid content

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Mohamed A.; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A.; Meyer, Achim; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of six biotic and abiotic elicitors, i.e. MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), ZnCl2, glutathione and ?-glucan BG (fungal elicitor), and wounding, on the secondary metabolite accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi were assessed. Upon elicitation, metabolites were extracted and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Except for MeJA, no differences in photosynthetic efficiency were observed after treatments, suggestin...

  6. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  7. Revealing the Effect of Irradiation on Cement Hydrates: Evidence of a Topological Self-Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, N M Anoop; Wang, Bu; Sant, Gaurav; Phillips, James C; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2017-09-20

    Despite the crucial role of concrete in the construction of nuclear power plants, the effects of radiation exposure (i.e., in the form of neutrons) on the calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H, i.e., the glue of concrete) remain largely unknown. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we systematically investigate the effects of irradiation on the structure of C-S-H across a range of compositions. Expectedly, although C-S-H is more resistant to irradiation than typical crystalline silicates, such as quartz, we observe that radiation exposure affects C-S-H's structural order, silicate mean chain length, and the amount of molecular water that is present in the atomic network. By topological analysis, we show that these "structural effects" arise from a self-organization of the atomic network of C-S-H upon irradiation. This topological self-organization is driven by the (initial) presence of atomic eigenstress in the C-S-H network and is facilitated by the presence of water in the network. Overall, we show that C-S-H exhibits an optimal resistance to radiation damage when its atomic network is isostatic (at Ca/Si = 1.5). Such an improved understanding of the response of C-S-H to irradiation can pave the way to the design of durable concrete for radiation applications.

  8. Conceptual processing in music as revealed by N400 effects on words and musical targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daltrozzo, Jérôme; Schön, Daniele

    2009-10-01

    The cognitive processing of concepts, that is, abstract general ideas, has been mostly studied with language. However, other domains, such as music, can also convey concepts. Koelsch et al. [Koelsch, S., Kasper, E., Sammler, D., Schulze, K., Gunter, T., & Friederici, A. D. Music, language and meaning: Brain signatures of semantic processing. Nature Neuroscience, 7, 302-307, 2004] showed that 10 sec of music can influence the semantic processing of words. However, the length of the musical excerpts did not allow the authors to study the effect of words on musical targets. In this study, we decided to replicate Koelsch et al. findings using 1-sec musical excerpts (Experiment 1). This allowed us to study the reverse influence, namely, of a linguistic context on conceptual processing of musical excerpts (Experiment 2). In both experiments, we recorded behavioral and electrophysiological responses while participants were presented 50 related and 50 unrelated pairs (context/target). Experiments 1 and 2 showed a larger N400 component of the event-related brain potentials to targets following a conceptually unrelated compared to a related context. The presence of an N400 effect with musical targets suggests that music may convey concepts. The relevance of these results for the comprehension of music as a structured set of conceptual units and for the domain specificity of the mechanisms underlying N400 effects are discussed.

  9. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciobanu, Luisa; Reynaud, Olivier; Le Bihan, Denis; Uhrig, Lynn; Jarraya, Bechir

    2012-01-01

    During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T2'*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7 T and 17.2 T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine). We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T2'*- weighted images at 17.2 T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7 T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation. (authors)

  10. The Penefit of Salience: Salient Accented, but Not Unaccented Words Reveal Accent Adaptation Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohe, Ann-Kathrin; Weber, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In two eye-tracking experiments, the effects of salience in accent training and speech accentedness on spoken-word recognition were investigated. Salience was expected to increase a stimulus' prominence and therefore promote learning. A training-test paradigm was used on native German participants utilizing an artificial German accent. Salience was elicited by two different criteria: production and listening training as a subjective criterion and accented (Experiment 1) and canonical test words (Experiment 2) as an objective criterion. During training in Experiment 1, participants either read single German words out loud and deliberately devoiced initial voiced stop consonants (e.g., Balken-"beam" pronounced as (*) Palken), or they listened to pre-recorded words with the same accent. In a subsequent eye-tracking experiment, looks to auditorily presented target words with the accent were analyzed. Participants from both training conditions fixated accented target words more often than a control group without training. Training was identical in Experiment 2, but during test, canonical German words that overlapped in onset with the accented words from training were presented as target words (e.g., Palme-"palm tree" overlapped in onset with the training word (*) Palken) rather than accented words. This time, no training effect was observed; recognition of canonical word forms was not affected by having learned the accent. Therefore, accent learning was only visible when the accented test tokens in Experiment 1, which were not included in the test of Experiment 2, possessed sufficient salience based on the objective criterion "accent." These effects were not modified by the subjective criterion of salience from the training modality.

  11. A new therapeutic effect of simvastatin revealed by functional improvement in muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Nicholas P; Kim, Min Jeong; Bible, Kenneth L; Adams, Marvin E; Froehner, Stanley C

    2015-10-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a lethal, degenerative muscle disease with no effective treatment. DMD muscle pathogenesis is characterized by chronic inflammation, oxidative stress, and fibrosis. Statins, cholesterol-lowering drugs, inhibit these deleterious processes in ischemic diseases affecting skeletal muscle, and therefore have potential to improve DMD. However, statins have not been considered for DMD, or other muscular dystrophies, principally because skeletal-muscle-related symptoms are rare, but widely publicized, side effects of these drugs. Here we show positive effects of statins in dystrophic skeletal muscle. Simvastatin dramatically reduced damage and enhanced muscle function in dystrophic (mdx) mice. Long-term simvastatin treatment vastly improved overall muscle health in mdx mice, reducing plasma creatine kinase activity, an established measure of muscle damage, to near-normal levels. This reduction was accompanied by reduced inflammation, more oxidative muscle fibers, and improved strength of the weak diaphragm muscle. Shorter-term treatment protected against muscle fatigue and increased mdx hindlimb muscle force by 40%, a value comparable to current dystrophin gene-based therapies. Increased force correlated with reduced NADPH Oxidase 2 protein expression, the major source of oxidative stress in dystrophic muscle. Finally, in old mdx mice with severe muscle degeneration, simvastatin enhanced diaphragm force and halved fibrosis, a major cause of functional decline in DMD. These improvements were accompanied by autophagy activation, a recent therapeutic target for DMD, and less oxidative stress. Together, our findings highlight that simvastatin substantially improves the overall health and function of dystrophic skeletal muscles and may provide an unexpected, novel therapy for DMD and related neuromuscular diseases.

  12. Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barham, Barbara J.; Barham, Peter J.; Campbell, Kate J.; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Grigg, Jennifer; Horswill, Cat; Morris, Taryn L.; Pichegru, Lorien; Steinfurth, Antje; Weller, Florian; Winker, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Global forage-fish landings are increasing, with potentially grave consequences for marine ecosystems. Predators of forage fish may be influenced by this harvest, but the nature of these effects is contentious. Experimental fishery manipulations offer the best solution to quantify population-level impacts, but are rare. We used Bayesian inference to examine changes in chick survival, body condition and population growth rate of endangered African penguins Spheniscus demersus in response to 8 years of alternating time–area closures around two pairs of colonies. Our results demonstrate that fishing closures improved chick survival and condition, after controlling for changing prey availability. However, this effect was inconsistent across sites and years, highlighting the difficultly of assessing management interventions in marine ecosystems. Nevertheless, modelled increases in population growth rates exceeded 1% at one colony; i.e. the threshold considered biologically meaningful by fisheries management in South Africa. Fishing closures evidently can improve the population trend of a forage-fish-dependent predator—we therefore recommend they continue in South Africa and support their application elsewhere. However, detecting demographic gains for mobile marine predators from small no-take zones requires experimental time frames and scales that will often exceed those desired by decision makers. PMID:29343602

  13. Metabolomics reveals biotic and abiotic elicitor effects on the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi terpenoid content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Mohamed A; Al-Mahdy, Dalia A; Meyer, Achim; Westphal, Hildegard; Wessjohann, Ludger A

    2017-04-05

    The effects of six biotic and abiotic elicitors, i.e. MeJA (methyl jasmonate), SA (salicylic acid), ZnCl 2 , glutathione and β-glucan BG (fungal elicitor), and wounding, on the secondary metabolite accumulation in the soft coral Sarcophyton ehrenbergi were assessed. Upon elicitation, metabolites were extracted and analysed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS). Except for MeJA, no differences in photosynthetic efficiency were observed after treatments, suggesting the absence of a remarkable stress on primary production. Chemometric analyses of UPLC-MS data showed clear segregation of SA and ZnCl 2 elicited samples at 24 and 48 h post elicitation. Levels of acetylated diterpene and sterol viz., sarcophytonolide I and cholesteryl acetate, was increased in ZnCl 2 and SA groups, respectively, suggesting an activation of specific acetyl transferases. Post elicitation, sarcophytonolide I level increased 132 and 17-folds at 48 h in 0.1 mM SA and 1 mM ZnCl 2 groups, respectively. Interestingly, decrease in sarcophine, a major diterpene was observed only in response to ZnCl 2 , whereas no change was observed in sesquiterpene content following treatments. To the best of our knowledge, this study provides the first documentation for elicitation effects on a soft corals secondary metabolome and suggests that SA could be applied to increase diterpenoid levels in corals.

  14. Indentation size effects in single crystal copper as revealed by synchrotron x-ray microdiffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2008-08-01

    For a Cu single crystal, we find that indentation hardness increases with decreasing indentation depth, a phenomenon widely observed before and called the indentation size effect (ISE). To understand the underlying mechanism, we measure the lattice rotations in indentations of different sizes using white beam x-ray microdiffraction (μXRD); the indentation-induced lattice rotations are directly measured by the streaking of x-ray Laue spots associated with the indentations. The magnitude of the lattice rotations is found to be independent of indentation size, which is consistent with the basic tenets of the ISE model. Using the μXRD data together with an ISE model, we can estimate the effective radius of the indentation plastic zone, and the estimate is consistent with the value predicted by a finite element analysis. Using these results, an estimate of the average dislocation densities within the plastic zones has been made; the findings are consistent with the ISE arising from a dependence of the dislocation density on the depth of indentation.

  15. Potential genotoxic effects of melted snow from an urban area revealed by the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blagojević, Jelena; Stamenković, Gorana; Vujosević, Mladen

    2009-09-01

    The presence of well-known atmospheric pollutants is regularly screened for in large towns but knowledge about the effects of mixtures of different pollutants and especially their genotoxic potential is largely missing. Since falling snow collects pollutants from the air, melted snow samples could be suitable for evaluating potential genotoxicity. For this purpose the Allium cepa anaphase-telophase test was used to analyse melted snow samples from Belgrade, the capital city of Serbia. Samples of snow were taken at two sites, characterized by differences in pollution intensity, in three successive years. At the more polluted site the analyses showed a very high degree of both toxicity and genotoxicity in the first year of the study corresponding to the effects of the known mutagen used as the positive control. At the other site the situation was much better but not without warning signals. The results showed that standard analyses for the presence of certain contaminants in the air do not give an accurate picture of the possible consequences of urban air pollution because the genotoxic potential remains hidden. The A. cepa test has been demonstrated to be very convenient for evaluation of air pollution through analyses of melted snow samples.

  16. Effective scheme of photolysis of GFP in live cell as revealed with confocal fluorescence microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazachev, Yu I.; Orlova, D. Y.; Řezníčková, P.; Bártová, E.

    2018-05-01

    We proposed an effective kinetics scheme of photolysis of green fluorescent protein (GFP) observed in live cells with a commercial confocal fluorescence microscope. We investigated the photolysis of GFP-tagged heterochromatin protein, HP1β-GFP, in live nucleus with the pulse position modulation approach, which has several advantages over the classical pump-and-probe method. At the basis of the proposed scheme lies a process of photoswitching from the native fluorescence state to the intermediate fluorescence state, which has a lower fluorescence yield and recovers back to native state in the dark. This kinetics scheme includes four effective parameters (photoswitching, reverse switching, photodegradation rate constants, and relative brightness of the intermediate state) and covers the time scale from dozens of milliseconds to minutes of the experimental fluorescence kinetics. Additionally, the applicability of the scheme was demonstrated in the cases of continuous irradiation and the classical pump-and-probe approach using numerical calculations and analytical solutions. An interesting finding of experimental data analysis was that the overall photodegradation of GFP proceeds dominantly from the intermediate state, and demonstrated approximately the second-order reaction versus irradiation power. As a practical example, the proposed scheme elucidates the artifacts of fluorescence recovery after the photobleaching method, and allows us to propose some suggestions on how to diminish them.

  17. The Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio Reveals the Prooxidant Effect of Green Tea Extract

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    Ilaria Peluso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tea increased plasma nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity, the European Food Safety Administration (EFSA denied claims related to tea and its protection from oxidative damage. Furthermore, the Supplement Information Expert Committee (DSI EC expressed some doubts on the safety of green tea extract (GTE. We performed a pilot study in order to evaluate the effect of a single dose of two capsules of a GTE supplement (200 mg × 2 on the peroxidation of leukocytes index ratio (PLIR in relation to uric acid (UA and ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP, as well as the sample size to reach statistical significance. GTE induced a prooxidant effect on leukocytes, whereas FRAP did not change, in agreement with the EFSA and the DSI EC conclusions. Besides, our results confirm the primary role of UA in the antioxidant defences. The ratio based calculation of the PLIR reduced the sample size to reach statistical significance, compared to the resistance to an exogenous oxidative stress and to the functional capacity of oxidative burst. Therefore, PLIR could be a sensitive marker of redox status.

  18. Nutrigenomic and Nutritional Analyses Reveal the Effects of Pelleted Feeds on Asian Seabass (Lates calcarifer.

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    Si Yan Ngoh

    Full Text Available As nutrition-related expenses constitute the majority of the costs for aquaculture farms, it is essential for them to use feeds that provide an ideal combination of nutrients for the species of choice. In this study, the relative effect of consuming three different pelleted feeds (B, C and D in comparison to frozen baitfish (A; control were compared on juvenile Asian seabass (77.3 ± 22.4g that were selected for increased growth rate over two generations. Our objectives were: 1 to evaluate the effects of different pelleted feeds based on overall physiological changes and nutritional quality of fillets; 2 improve our understanding of the underlying mechanisms with transcriptomic analysis; 3 if possible, identify the feed type that supports the growth of these fishes without substantially reducing the nutritional quality of fillet. The growth performance, fatty acid composition of fillet, hepatic histology and transcriptome of the fishes (Groups A-D were analyzed. The majority of fatty acids of the fillets, except γ-linolenic acid (GLA, C18:3n6, correlated significantly with the respective diets. Asian seabass fed Feed C showed highest specific growth rate (SGR and feed conversion efficiency (FCE with closest histology and transcriptomic profile to control, but their fillet contained the highest n6/n3 ratio. When the liver-based transcriptomes were analyzed, a complex set of differentially expressed genes were detected between groups fed pelleted feeds and controls as well as among the pellet-fed groups themselves. Significant enrichment of genes with growth-related function tallied with the morphological data measured. When compared with control (Group A, 'Biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids' and 'Steroid biosynthesis' pathways were significantly enriched in pellet-fed groups. Reduced goblet cell numbers were observed in the gut of pellet-fed fish compared to controls and fads6 was found to be a suitable candidate gene to separate wild

  19. Effects of Trehalose on Thermodynamic Properties of Alpha-synuclein Revealed through Synchrotron Radiation Circular Dichroism

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    Paolo Ruzza

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Many neurodegenerative diseases, including Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, are characterized by protein misfolding and aggregation. The capability of trehalose to interfere with protein misfolding and aggregation has been recently evaluated by several research groups. In the present work, we studied, by means of synchrotron radiation circular dichroism (SRCD spectroscopy, the dose-effect of trehalose on α-synuclein conformation and/or stability to probe the capability of this osmolyte to interfere with α-synuclein’s aggregation. Our study indicated that a low trehalose concentration stabilized α-synuclein folding much better than at high concentration by blocking in vitro α-synuclein’s polymerisation. These results suggested that trehalose could be associated with other drugs leading to a new approach for treating Parkinson’s and other brain-related diseases.

  20. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  1. Water's Interfacial Hydrogen Bonding Structure Reveals the Effective Strength of Surface-Water Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sucheol; Willard, Adam P

    2018-06-05

    We combine all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with a mean field model of interfacial hydrogen bonding to analyze the effect of surface-water interactions on the structural and energetic properties of the liquid water interface. We show that the molecular structure of water at a weakly interacting ( i.e., hydrophobic) surface is resistant to change unless the strength of surface-water interactions are above a certain threshold. We find that below this threshold water's interfacial structure is homogeneous and insensitive to the details of the disordered surface, however, above this threshold water's interfacial structure is heterogeneous. Despite this heterogeneity, we demonstrate that the equilibrium distribution of molecular orientations can be used to quantify the energetic component of the surface-water interactions that contribute specifically to modifying the interfacial hydrogen bonding network. We identify this specific energetic component as a new measure of hydrophilicity, which we refer to as the intrinsic hydropathy.

  2. High Resolution Monitoring of River Bluff Erosion Reveals Failure Mechanisms and Geomorphically Effective Flows

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    Sara Ann Kelly

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a combination of Structure from Motion and time lapse photogrammetry, we document rapid river bluff erosion occurring in the Greater Blue Earth River (GBER basin, a muddy tributary to the sediment-impaired Minnesota River in south central Minnesota. Our datasets elucidated dominant bluff failure mechanisms and rates of bluff retreat in a transient system responding to ongoing streamflow increases and glacial legacy impacts. Specifically, we document the importance of fluvial scour, freeze–thaw, as well as other drivers of bluff erosion. We find that even small flows, a mere 30% of the two-year recurrence interval flow, are capable of causing bluff erosion. During our study period (2014–2017, the most erosion was associated with two large flood events with 13- and 25-year return periods. However, based on the frequency of floods and magnitude of bluff face erosion associated with floods over the last 78 years, the 1.2-year return interval flood has likely accomplished the most cumulative erosion, and is thus more geomorphically effective than larger magnitude floods. Flows in the GBER basin are nonstationary, increasing across the full range of return intervals. We find that management implications differ considerably depending on whether the bluff erosion-runoff power law exponent, γ, is greater than, equal to, or less than 1. Previous research has recommended installation of water retention sites in tributaries to the Minnesota River in order to reduce flows and sediment loading from river bluffs. Our findings support the notion that water retention would be an effective practice to reduce sediment loading and highlight the importance of managing for both runoff frequency and magnitude.

  3. Audiovisual functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation reveals multisensory integration effects in object-related sensory cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doehrmann, Oliver; Weigelt, Sarah; Altmann, Christian F; Kaiser, Jochen; Naumer, Marcus J

    2010-03-03

    Information integration across different sensory modalities contributes to object recognition, the generation of associations and long-term memory representations. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging adaptation to investigate the presence of sensory integrative effects at cortical levels as early as nonprimary auditory and extrastriate visual cortices, which are implicated in intermediate stages of object processing. Stimulation consisted of an adapting audiovisual stimulus S(1) and a subsequent stimulus S(2) from the same basic-level category (e.g., cat). The stimuli were carefully balanced with respect to stimulus complexity and semantic congruency and presented in four experimental conditions: (1) the same image and vocalization for S(1) and S(2), (2) the same image and a different vocalization, (3) different images and the same vocalization, or (4) different images and vocalizations. This two-by-two factorial design allowed us to assess the contributions of auditory and visual stimulus repetitions and changes in a statistically orthogonal manner. Responses in visual regions of right fusiform gyrus and right lateral occipital cortex were reduced for repeated visual stimuli (repetition suppression). Surprisingly, left lateral occipital cortex showed stronger responses to repeated auditory stimuli (repetition enhancement). Similarly, auditory regions of interest of the right middle superior temporal gyrus and sulcus exhibited repetition suppression to auditory repetitions and repetition enhancement to visual repetitions. Our findings of crossmodal repetition-related effects in cortices of the respective other sensory modality add to the emerging view that in human subjects sensory integrative mechanisms operate on earlier cortical processing levels than previously assumed.

  4. Microchemical effects in irradiated Fe–Cr alloys as revealed by atomistic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malerba, L., E-mail: lmalerba@sckcen.be [Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure Unit, SMA/NMS, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d’Etudes de l’Energie Nucléaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Bonny, G.; Terentyev, D. [Structural Materials Modelling and Microstructure Unit, SMA/NMS, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie, Centre d’Etudes de l’Energie Nucléaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Zhurkin, E.E. [Experimental Nuclear Physics Department, K-89, Faculty of Physics and Mechanics, Saint-Petersburg State Polytechnical University, 29 Polytekhnicheskaya Str., 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Hou, M. [Physique des Solides Irradiés et des Nanostructures CP234, Faculté des Sciences, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Bd du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Vörtler, K.; Nordlund, K. [Association EURATOM-Tekes, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 43, FI-00014, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-11-15

    Neutron irradiation produces evolving nanostructural defects in materials, that affect their macroscopic properties. Defect production and evolution is expected to be influenced by the chemical composition of the material. In turn, the accumulation of defects in the material results in microchemical changes, which may induce further changes in macroscopic properties. In this work we review the results of recent atomic-level simulations conducted in Fe–Cr alloys, as model materials for high-Cr ferritic–martensitic steels, to address the following questions: 1. Is the primary damage produced in displacement cascades influenced by the Cr content? If so, how? 2. Does Cr change the stability of radiation-produced defects? 3. Is the diffusivity of cascade-produced defects changed by Cr content? 4. How do Cr atoms redistribute under irradiation inside the material under the action of thermodynamic driving forces and radiation-defect fluxes? It is found that the presence of Cr does not influence the type of damage created by displacement cascades, as compared to pure Fe, while cascades do contribute to redistributing Cr, in the same direction as thermodynamic driving forces. The presence of Cr does change the stability of point-defects: the effect is weak in the case of vacancies, stronger in the case of self-interstitials. In the latter case, Cr increases the stability of self-interstitial clusters, especially those so small to be invisible to the electron microscope. Cr reduces also significantly the diffusivity of self-interstitials and their clusters, in a way that depends in a non-monotonic way on Cr content, as well as on cluster size and temperature; however, the effect is negligible on the mobility of self-interstitial clusters large enough to become visible dislocation loops. Finally, Cr-rich precipitate formation is favoured in the tensile region of edge dislocations, while it appears not to be influenced by screw dislocations; prismatic dislocation loops

  5. Some components of the ``cocktail-party effect,'' as revealed when it fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divenyi, Pierre L.; Gygi, Brian

    2003-04-01

    The precise way listeners cope with cocktail-party situations, i.e., understand speech in the midst of other, simultaneously ongoing conversations, has by-and-large remained a puzzle, despite research committed to studying the problem over the past half century. In contrast, it is widely acknowledged that the cocktail-party effect (CPE) deteriorates in aging. Our investigations during the last decade have assessed the deterioration of the CPE in elderly listeners and attempted to uncover specific auditory tasks, on which the performance of the same listeners will also exhibit a deficit. Correlated performance on CPE and such auditory tasks arguably signify that the tasks in question are necessary for perceptual segregation of the target speech and the background babble. We will present results on three tasks correlated with CPE performance. All three tasks require temporal processing-based perceptual segregation of specific non-speech stimuli (amplitude- and/or frequency-modulated sinusoidal complexes): discrimination of formant transition patterns, segregation of streams with different syllabic rhythms, and selective attention to AM or FM features in the designated stream. [Work supported by a grant from the National Institute on Aging and by the V.A. Medical Research.

  6. Effective binding of perhalogenated closo-borates to serum albumins revealed by spectroscopic and ITC studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuperman, Marina V.; Losytskyy, Mykhaylo Yu.; Bykov, Alexander Yu.; Yarmoluk, Sergiy M.; Zhizhin, Konstantin Yu.; Kuznetsov, Nikolay T.; Varzatskii, Oleg A.; Gumienna-Kontecka, Elzbieta; Kovalska, Vladyslava B.

    2017-08-01

    The interactions of boron cluster compounds closo-borates with biomolecules are widely studied due to their efficiency as agents for boron neutron capture therapy of cancer. In present work the binding abilities of anionic halogen closo-borates [B10Hal10]2- (Hal = Cl, Br, I) and [B12Hal12]2- (Hal = Cl, I) towards bovine and human serum albumins were investigated by spectroscopic and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods. The protein fluorescence quenching method and ITC studies confirmed the complex formation. The degree of protein fluorescence quenching increased from chlorine to iodine boron derivatives that is attributed to external heavy atom effect. The ITC data point on the existence in the protein structure of two types of binding sites: with higher and lower affinity to closo-borates. Albumin-closo-borate complex binding ratio, n (4-5 anions per protein molecule) is higher than for the parent hydrogen closo-borates (2 anions per protein molecule). Binding constants estimated by fluorescent and ITC methods indicate higher affinity of halogen closo-borates to albumins (K in the range of 104-106 M-1) comparing to that of the hydrogen closo-borate (K about 103 M-1). Due to their high affinity and high binding ratio to albumins halogen closo-borates are proposed for further studies as agents for boron neutron capture therapy.

  7. Visual imagery of famous faces: effects of memory and attention revealed by fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishai, Alumit; Haxby, James V; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2002-12-01

    Complex pictorial information can be represented and retrieved from memory as mental visual images. Functional brain imaging studies have shown that visual perception and visual imagery share common neural substrates. The type of memory (short- or long-term) that mediates the generation of mental images, however, has not been addressed previously. The purpose of this study was to investigate the neural correlates underlying imagery generated from short- and long-term memory (STM and LTM). We used famous faces to localize the visual response during perception and to compare the responses during visual imagery generated from STM (subjects memorized specific pictures of celebrities before the imagery task) and imagery from LTM (subjects imagined famous faces without seeing specific pictures during the experimental session). We found that visual perception of famous faces activated the inferior occipital gyri, lateral fusiform gyri, the superior temporal sulcus, and the amygdala. Small subsets of these face-selective regions were activated during imagery. Additionally, visual imagery of famous faces activated a network of regions composed of bilateral calcarine, hippocampus, precuneus, intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). In all these regions, imagery generated from STM evoked more activation than imagery from LTM. Regardless of memory type, focusing attention on features of the imagined faces (e.g., eyes, lips, or nose) resulted in increased activation in the right IPS and right IFG. Our results suggest differential effects of memory and attention during the generation and maintenance of mental images of faces.

  8. Effective Connectivity Reveals Right-Hemisphere Dominance in Audiospatial Perception: Implications for Models of Spatial Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friston, Karl J.; Mattingley, Jason B.; Roepstorff, Andreas; Garrido, Marta I.

    2014-01-01

    Detecting the location of salient sounds in the environment rests on the brain's ability to use differences in sounds arriving at both ears. Functional neuroimaging studies in humans indicate that the left and right auditory hemispaces are coded asymmetrically, with a rightward attentional bias that reflects spatial attention in vision. Neuropsychological observations in patients with spatial neglect have led to the formulation of two competing models: the orientation bias and right-hemisphere dominance models. The orientation bias model posits a symmetrical mapping between one side of the sensorium and the contralateral hemisphere, with mutual inhibition of the ipsilateral hemisphere. The right-hemisphere dominance model introduces a functional asymmetry in the brain's coding of space: the left hemisphere represents the right side, whereas the right hemisphere represents both sides of the sensorium. We used Dynamic Causal Modeling of effective connectivity and Bayesian model comparison to adjudicate between these alternative network architectures, based on human electroencephalographic data acquired during an auditory location oddball paradigm. Our results support a hemispheric asymmetry in a frontoparietal network that conforms to the right-hemisphere dominance model. We show that, within this frontoparietal network, forward connectivity increases selectively in the hemisphere contralateral to the side of sensory stimulation. We interpret this finding in light of hierarchical predictive coding as a selective increase in attentional gain, which is mediated by feedforward connections that carry precision-weighted prediction errors during perceptual inference. This finding supports the disconnection hypothesis of unilateral neglect and has implications for theories of its etiology. PMID:24695717

  9. Stable isotopes reveal the effect of trawl fisheries on the diet of commercially exploited species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, Hilmar; Moranta, Joan; Balestrini, Stephen; Sciberras, Marija; Pantin, Julia R; Monnington, James; Zalewski, Alex; Kaiser, Michel J; Sköld, Mattias; Jonsson, Patrik; Bastardie, Francois; Hiddink, Jan Geert

    2017-07-24

    Bottom trawling can change food availability for benthivorous demersal species by (i) changing benthic prey composition through physical seabed impacts and (ii) by removing overall benthic consumer biomass increasing the net availability of benthic prey for remaining individuals. Thus trawling may both negatively and positively influence the quantity and quality of food available. Using δ 13 C and δ 15 N we investigated potential diet changes of three commercially exploited species across trawling gradients in the Kattegat (plaice, dab and Norway lobster (Nephrops)) and the Irish Sea (Nephrops). In the Kattegat, trawling affected primarily the biomass of benthic consumers, lowering competition. Nephrops showed significant positive relationships for δ 13 C and a domed relationship for δ 15 N with trawling. In the Irish Sea, intense trawling had a negative effect on benthic prey. δ 13 C and δ 15 N thus showed the inverse relationships to those observed in the Kattegat. Plaice from the Kattegat, showed a significant relationship with trawling intensity for δ 13 C, but not for δ 15 N. No relationship was found for dab. Changes of δ 13 C and δ 15 N correlated with changes in condition of species. The results show that the removal of demersal competitors and benthos by trawling can change the diets of commercial species, ultimately affecting their body condition.

  10. Novel effects of edaravone on human brain microvascular endothelial cells revealed by a proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onodera, Hidetaka; Arito, Mitsumi; Sato, Toshiyuki; Ito, Hidemichi; Hashimoto, Takuo; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kurokawa, Manae S; Okamoto, Kazuki; Suematsu, Naoya; Kato, Tomohiro

    2013-10-09

    Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a free radical scavenger used for acute ischemic stroke. However, it is not known whether edaravone works only as a free radical scavenger or possess other pharmacological actions. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of edaravone on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) by 2 dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found 38 protein spots the intensity of which was significantly altered 1.3 fold on average (pedaravone treatment and successfully identified 17 proteins of those. Four of those 17 proteins were cytoskeleton proteins or cytoskeleton-regulating proteins. Therefore, we subsequently investigated the change of size and shape of the cells, the actin network, and the tight junction of HBMEC by immunocytochemistry. As a result, most edaravone-treated HBMECs became larger and rounder compared with those that were not treated. Furthermore, edaravone-treated HBMECs formed gathering zona occludens (ZO)-1, a tight junction protein, along the junction of the cells. In addition, we found that edaravone suppressed interleukin (IL)-1β-induced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which was reported to increase cell permeability. We found a novel function of edaravone is the promotion of tight junction formations of vascular endothelial cells partly via the down-regulation of MCP-1 secretion. These data provide fundamental and useful information in the clinical use of edaravone in patients with cerebral vascular diseases. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Macroeconomic effects on mortality revealed by panel analysis with nonlinear trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionides, Edward L; Wang, Zhen; Tapia Granados, José A

    2013-10-03

    Many investigations have used panel methods to study the relationships between fluctuations in economic activity and mortality. A broad consensus has emerged on the overall procyclical nature of mortality: perhaps counter-intuitively, mortality typically rises above its trend during expansions. This consensus has been tarnished by inconsistent reports on the specific age groups and mortality causes involved. We show that these inconsistencies result, in part, from the trend specifications used in previous panel models. Standard econometric panel analysis involves fitting regression models using ordinary least squares, employing standard errors which are robust to temporal autocorrelation. The model specifications include a fixed effect, and possibly a linear trend, for each time series in the panel. We propose alternative methodology based on nonlinear detrending. Applying our methodology on data for the 50 US states from 1980 to 2006, we obtain more precise and consistent results than previous studies. We find procyclical mortality in all age groups. We find clear procyclical mortality due to respiratory disease and traffic injuries. Predominantly procyclical cardiovascular disease mortality and countercyclical suicide are subject to substantial state-to-state variation. Neither cancer nor homicide have significant macroeconomic association.

  12. Structural and effective connectivity reveals potential network-based influences on category-sensitive visual areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas eFurl

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Visual category perception is thought to depend on brain areas that respond specifically when certain categories are viewed. These category-sensitive areas are often assumed to be modules (with some degree of processing autonomy and to act predominantly on feedforward visual input. This modular view can be complemented by a view that treats brain areas as elements within more complex networks and as influenced by network properties. This network-oriented viewpoint is emerging from studies using either diffusion tensor imaging to map structural connections or effective connectivity analyses to measure how their functional responses influence each other. This literature motivates several hypotheses that predict category-sensitive activity based on network properties. Large, long-range fiber bundles such as inferior fronto-occipital, arcuate and inferior longitudinal fasciculi are associated with behavioural recognition and could play crucial roles in conveying backward influences on visual cortex from anterior temporal and frontal areas. Such backward influences could support top-down functions such as visual search and emotion-based visual modulation. Within visual cortex itself, areas sensitive to different categories appear well-connected (e.g., face areas connect to object- and motion sensitive areas and their responses can be predicted by backward modulation. Evidence supporting these propositions remains incomplete and underscores the need for better integration of DTI and functional imaging.

  13. The effect of metacognitive self on confirmation bias revealed in relation to community and competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brycz Hanna

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of our study was to investigate the role of insight into one’s own biases (metacognitive self in the process of hypothesis validation in accordance to the two fundamental social perception domains (community and competence on the example of confirmation bias. The study was conducted on a group of 593 participants with the use of a confirmation bias procedure, a free recall procedure and the Metacognitive Self scale. We manipulated with the domain and the value of information given to the respondents. We suspected that individuals with a high metacognitive self, in opposition to low metacognitive self ones, would not process the given information according to the two fundamental social perception domains. The results verified the existence of an interaction effect of the metacognitive self (MCS and the domain of the information given about a perceived person on the susceptibility to follow the confirmation bias. Contrary to the low metacognitive self individuals, who show a higher tendency for the confirmation bias within the competence than the community domain, persons with a high insight into their own biases express the same level of confirmation bias in no respect to the domain of the information. The value of the information has no significant influence.

  14. Comparative metabolomics in primates reveals the effects of diet and gene regulatory variation on metabolic divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blekhman, Ran; Perry, George H; Shahbaz, Sevini; Fiehn, Oliver; Clark, Andrew G; Gilad, Yoav

    2014-07-28

    Human diets differ from those of non-human primates. Among few obvious differences, humans consume more meat than most non-human primates and regularly cook their food. It is hypothesized that a dietary shift during human evolution has been accompanied by molecular adaptations in metabolic pathways. Consistent with this notion, comparative studies of gene expression levels in primates have found that the regulation of genes with metabolic functions tend to evolve rapidly in the human lineage. The metabolic consequences of these regulatory differences, however, remained unknown. To address this gap, we performed a comparative study using a combination of gene expression and metabolomic profiling in livers from humans, chimpanzees, and rhesus macaques. We show that dietary differences between species have a strong effect on metabolic concentrations. In addition, we found that differences in metabolic concentration across species are correlated with inter-species differences in the expression of the corresponding enzymes, which control the same metabolic reaction. We identified a number of metabolic compounds with lineage-specific profiles, including examples of human-species metabolic differences that may be directly related to dietary differences.

  15. Peripheral blood RNA gene expression profiling in illicit methcathinone users reveals effect on immune system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eSikk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Methcathinone (ephedrone is relatively easily accessible for abuse. Its users develop an extrapyramidal syndrome and it is not known if this is caused by methcathinone itself, by side-ingredients (manganese, or both. In the present study we aimed to clarify molecular mechanisms underlying this condition. We analyzed whole genome gene expression patterns of peripheral blood from 20 methcathinone users and 20 matched controls. Gene expression profile data was analyzed by Bayesian modelling and functional annotation. In order to verify the genechip results we performed quantitative real-time (RT PCR in selected genes. 326 out of analyzed 28,869 genes showed statistically significant differential expression with FDR adjusted p-values below 0.05. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed differential expression for the most of selected genes. Functional annotation and network analysis indicated that most of the genes were related to activation immunological disease, cellular movement and cardiovascular disease gene network (enrichment score 42. As HIV and HCV infections were confounding factors, we performed additional stratification of patients. A similar functional activation of the immunological disease pathway was evident when we compared patients according to the injection status (past versus current users, balanced for HIV and HCV infection. However, this difference was not large therefore the major effect was related to the HIV status of the patients. Mn-methcathinone abusers have blood transcriptional patterns mostly caused by their HIV and HCV infections.

  16. Analysis of genetically modified red-fleshed apples reveals effects on growth and consumer attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espley, Richard V; Bovy, Arnaud; Bava, Christina; Jaeger, Sara R; Tomes, Sumathi; Norling, Cara; Crawford, Jonathan; Rowan, Daryl; McGhie, Tony K; Brendolise, Cyril; Putterill, Jo; Schouten, Henk J; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

    2013-05-01

    Consumers of whole foods, such as fruits, demand consistent high quality and seek varieties with enhanced health properties, convenience or novel taste. We have raised the polyphenolic content of apple by genetic engineering of the anthocyanin pathway using the apple transcription factor MYB10. These apples have very high concentrations of foliar, flower and fruit anthocyanins, especially in the fruit peel. Independent lines were examined for impacts on tree growth, photosynthesis and fruit characteristics. Fruit were analysed for changes in metabolite and transcript levels. Fruit were also used in taste trials to study the consumer perception of such a novel apple. No negative taste attributes were associated with the elevated anthocyanins. Modification with this one gene provides near isogenic material and allows us to examine the effects on an established cultivar, with a view to enhancing consumer appeal independently of other fruit qualities. © 2012 The Authors Plant Biotechnology Journal © 2012 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Quantum Effectiveness Revealed by Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG as Applied in Academics, Corporate Consulting and Everyday Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Fannin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research data that demonstrates changes in neuronal patterns to achieve optimally balanced brain performance. The optimally balanced brain state is applied in academics, consulting and business coaching to change subconscious belief patterns that tend to minimize effective thought and behavior. This kind of research might well be very important and useful in processes oriented toward integrating academic, consulting, business coaching activities, and similar processes. It may also be significant in finding ways of integrating research and education. The author based his conclusion on the documentation of one hundred twenty-five cases where data was gathered over a 12 month period, in three different locations, with different EEG technicians, using two different types of EEG equipment; the pvalue is <=0.010. Consequently the conclusions are well supported. The creation of the essential neuropathways, indicated by the author might certainly help in processes oriented to integrate academic informing in its three main components (research, education and consulting, as well as in improving the performance of each of these three activities.

  18. Effect of iron oxide loading on magnetoferritin structure in solution as revealed by SAXS and SANS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melníková, L; Petrenko, V I; Avdeev, M V; Garamus, V M; Almásy, L; Ivankov, O I; Bulavin, L A; Mitróová, Z; Kopčanský, P

    2014-11-01

    Synthetic biological macromolecule of magnetoferritin containing an iron oxide core inside a protein shell (apoferritin) is prepared with different content of iron. Its structure in aqueous solution is analysed by small-angle synchrotron X-ray (SAXS) and neutron (SANS) scattering. The loading factor (LF) defined as the average number of iron atoms per protein is varied up to LF=800. With an increase of the LF, the scattering curves exhibit a relative increase in the total scattered intensity, a partial smearing and a shift of the match point in the SANS contrast variation data. The analysis shows an increase in the polydispersity of the proteins and a corresponding effective increase in the relative content of magnetic material against the protein moiety of the shell with the LF growth. At LFs above ∼150, the apoferritin shell undergoes structural changes, which is strongly indicative of the fact that the shell stability is affected by iron oxide presence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Indentation Size Effects in Single Crystal Copper as Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2007-11-19

    The indentation size effect (ISE) has been observed in numerous nanoindentation studies on crystalline materials; it is found that the hardness increases dramatically with decreasing indentation size - a 'smaller is stronger' phenomenon. Some have attributed the ISE to the existence of strain gradients and the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Since the GND density is directly related to the local lattice curvature, the Scanning X-ray Microdiffraction ({mu}SXRD) technique, which can quantitatively measure relative lattice rotations through the streaking of Laue diffractions, can used to study the strain gradients. The synchrotron {mu}SXRD technique we use - which was developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley Lab - allows for probing the local plastic behavior of crystals with sub-micrometer resolution. Using this technique, we studied the local plasticity for indentations of different depths in a Cu single crystal. Broadening of Laue diffractions (streaking) was observed, showing local crystal lattice rotation due to the indentation-induced plastic deformation. A quantitative analysis of the streaking allows us to estimate the average GND density in the indentation plastic zones. The size dependence of the hardness, as found by nanoindentation, will be described, and its correlation to the observed lattice rotations will be discussed.

  20. A mitochondrial analysis reveals distinct founder effect signatures in Canarian and Balearic goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A; Manunza, A; Jordana, J; Capote, J; Pons, A; Pais, J; Delgado, T; Atoche, P; Cabrera, B; Martínez, A; Landi, V; Delgado, J V; Argüello, A; Vidal, O; Lalueza-Fox, C; Ramírez, O; Amills, M

    2015-08-01

    In the course of human migrations, domestic animals often have been translocated to islands with the aim of assuring food availability. These founder events are expected to leave a genetic footprint that may be recognised nowadays. Herewith, we have examined the mitochondrial diversity of goat populations living in the Canarian and Balearic archipelagos. Median-joining network analysis produced very distinct network topologies for these two populations. Indeed, a majority of Canarian goats shared a single ancestral haplotype that segregated in all sampled islands, suggesting a single founder effect followed by a stepping-stone pattern of diffusion. This haplotype also was present in samples collected from archaeological assemblies at Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, making evident its widespread distribution in ancient times. In stark contrast, goats from Majorca and Ibiza did not share any mitochondrial haplotypes, indicating the occurrence of two independent founder events. Furthermore, in Majorcan goats, we detected the segregation of the mitochondrial G haplogroup that has only been identified in goats from Egypt, Iran and Turkey. This finding suggests the translocation of Asian and/or African goats to Majorca, possibly as a consequence of the Phoenician and Carthaginian colonisations of this island. © 2015 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  1. Statistical modeling reveals the effect of absolute humidity on dengue in Singapore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Yan Xu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Weather factors are widely studied for their effects on indicating dengue incidence trends. However, these studies have been limited due to the complex epidemiology of dengue, which involves dynamic interplay of multiple factors such as herd immunity within a population, distinct serotypes of the virus, environmental factors and intervention programs. In this study, we investigate the impact of weather factors on dengue in Singapore, considering the disease epidemiology and profile of virus serotypes. A Poisson regression combined with Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM was used to evaluate and compare the impact of weekly Absolute Humidity (AH and other weather factors (mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed on dengue incidence from 2001 to 2009. The same analysis was also performed on three sub-periods, defined by predominant circulating serotypes. The performance of DLNM regression models were then evaluated through the Akaike's Information Criterion. From the correlation and DLNM regression modeling analyses of the studied period, AH was found to be a better predictor for modeling dengue incidence than the other unique weather variables. Whilst mean temperature (MeanT also showed significant correlation with dengue incidence, the relationship between AH or MeanT and dengue incidence, however, varied in the three sub-periods. Our results showed that AH had a more stable impact on dengue incidence than temperature when virological factors were taken into consideration. AH appeared to be the most consistent factor in modeling dengue incidence in Singapore. Considering the changes in dominant serotypes, the improvements in vector control programs and the inconsistent weather patterns observed in the sub-periods, the impact of weather on dengue is modulated by these other factors. Future studies on the impact of climate change on dengue need to take all the other contributing

  2. Statistical modeling reveals the effect of absolute humidity on dengue in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hai-Yan; Fu, Xiuju; Lee, Lionel Kim Hock; Ma, Stefan; Goh, Kee Tai; Wong, Jiancheng; Habibullah, Mohamed Salahuddin; Lee, Gary Kee Khoon; Lim, Tian Kuay; Tambyah, Paul Anantharajah; Lim, Chin Leong; Ng, Lee Ching

    2014-05-01

    Weather factors are widely studied for their effects on indicating dengue incidence trends. However, these studies have been limited due to the complex epidemiology of dengue, which involves dynamic interplay of multiple factors such as herd immunity within a population, distinct serotypes of the virus, environmental factors and intervention programs. In this study, we investigate the impact of weather factors on dengue in Singapore, considering the disease epidemiology and profile of virus serotypes. A Poisson regression combined with Distributed Lag Non-linear Model (DLNM) was used to evaluate and compare the impact of weekly Absolute Humidity (AH) and other weather factors (mean temperature, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind speed) on dengue incidence from 2001 to 2009. The same analysis was also performed on three sub-periods, defined by predominant circulating serotypes. The performance of DLNM regression models were then evaluated through the Akaike's Information Criterion. From the correlation and DLNM regression modeling analyses of the studied period, AH was found to be a better predictor for modeling dengue incidence than the other unique weather variables. Whilst mean temperature (MeanT) also showed significant correlation with dengue incidence, the relationship between AH or MeanT and dengue incidence, however, varied in the three sub-periods. Our results showed that AH had a more stable impact on dengue incidence than temperature when virological factors were taken into consideration. AH appeared to be the most consistent factor in modeling dengue incidence in Singapore. Considering the changes in dominant serotypes, the improvements in vector control programs and the inconsistent weather patterns observed in the sub-periods, the impact of weather on dengue is modulated by these other factors. Future studies on the impact of climate change on dengue need to take all the other contributing factors into

  3. Serial MR Spectroscopy Reveals a Direct Metabolic Effect of Cediranib in Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heisoog; Catana, Ciprian; Ratai, Eva-Maria; Andronesi, Ovidiu C.; Jennings, D.; Batchelor, Tracy T.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) is increasingly used in clinical studies of brain tumor to provide information about tissue metabolic profiles. In this study, we evaluated changes in the levels of metabolites predominant in recurrent glioblastoma (rGBM), to characterize the response of rGBM to anti-angiogenic therapy. We examined thirty-one rGBM patients treated with daily doses of cediranib, acquiring serial chemical shift imaging data at specific time points during the treatment regimen. We defined spectra from three regions of interest (ROIs)—enhancing tumor (ET), peritumoral tissue (PT), and normal tissue on the contralateral side (cNT)—in post-contrast T1-weighted images, and normalized the concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline (Cho) in each ROI to the concentration of creatine in cNT (norCre). We analyzed the ratios of these normalized metabolites (i.e., NAA/Cho, NAA/norCre, and Cho/norCre) by averaging all patients and categorizing two different survival groups. Relative to pre-treatment values, NAA/Cho in ET was unchanged through day 28. However, after day 28, NAA/Cho significantly increased in relation to a significant increase in NAA/norCre and a decrease in Cho/norCre; interestingly, the observed trend was reversed after day 56, consistent with the clinical course of GBM recurrence. Notably, ROC analysis indicated that NAA/Cho in tumor shows a high prediction to 6-month overall survival. These metabolic changes in these rGBM patients strongly suggest a direct metabolic effect of cediranib, and might also reflect an anti-tumor response to anti-angiogenic treatment during the first two months of treatment. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. PMID:21507932

  4. EDARV370A associated facial characteristics in Uyghur population revealing further pleiotropic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qianqian; Li, Jinxi; Tan, Jingze; Yang, Yajun; Zhang, Manfei; Wu, Sijie; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Juan; Qin, Pengfei; Guan, Yaqun; Jiao, Yi; Zhang, Zhaoxia; Sabeti, Pardis C; Tang, Kun; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Wang, Sijia

    2016-01-01

    An adaptive variant of human Ectodysplasin receptor, EDARV370A, had undergone strong positive selection in East Asia. In mice and humans, EDARV370A was found to affect ectodermal-derived characteristics, including hair thickness, hair shape, active sweat gland density and teeth formation. Facial characteristics are also largely ectodermal derived. In this study, taking advantage of an admixed population of East Asian and European ancestry-the Uyghur, we aim to test whether EDARV370A is affecting facial characteristics and to investigate its pleiotropic nature and genetic model. In a sample of 1027 Uyghurs, we discover that EDARV370A is significantly associated with several facial characteristics, in particular shape of earlobe (P = 3.64 × 10 (-6) ) and type of chin (P = 9.23 × 10 (-5) ), with successful replication in other East Asian populations. Additionally, in this Uyghur population, we replicate previous association findings of incisors shoveling (P = 1.02 × 10 (-7) ), double incisors shoveling (P = 1.86 × 10 (-12) ) and hair straightness (P = 3.99 × 10 (-16) ), providing strong evidence supporting an additive model for the EDARV370A associations. Partial least square path model confirms EDARV370A systematically affect these weakly related ectodermal-derived characteristics, suggesting the pleiotropic effect of EDARV370A mainly plays roles in early embryo development. This study extends our knowledge about the pleiotropic nature of EDARV370A and provides potential clues to its adaptation fitness in human evolution.

  5. The behavioral economics of social anxiety disorder reveal a robust effect for interpersonal traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodebaugh, Thomas L; Tonge, Natasha A; Weisman, Jaclyn S; Lim, Michelle H; Fernandez, Katya C; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that reduced generosity among individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) in behavioral economic tasks may result from constraint in changing behavior according to interpersonal contingencies. That is, people with SAD may be slower to be more generous when the situation warrants. Conversely, more global effects on generosity may be related to interpersonal vindictiveness, a dimension only somewhat related to SAD. A total of 133 participants, 73 with the generalized form of SAD, completed self-report instruments and a behavioral economic task with simulated interpersonal (friend, romantic partner, stranger) interactions. In a separate visit, friends (n = 88) also came to the lab and rated participants on vindictiveness. Interpersonal vindictiveness was associated with reduced initial and overall giving to simulated friends. SAD predicted a lack of increased giving to a simulated friend, and attenuated an increase in giving to simulated known versus unknown players compared to participants without SAD. Friend-reported vindictiveness predicted in the same direction as diagnosis. However, the findings for SAD were less robust than those for vindictiveness. SAD is perhaps weakly related to behavioral constraint in economic tasks that simulate interpersonal interactions, whereas vindictiveness is strongly related to lower overall generosity as well as (via friend report) behavioral constraint. Further study is needed to better characterize the construct of vindictiveness. Our findings dovetail with the suggestion that SAD is related to impairment in the proposed affiliation and attachment system, but further suggest that direct study of that system may be more fruitful than focusing on disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phosphoproteomics reveals the effect of ethylene in soybean root under flooding stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiaojian; Sakata, Katsumi; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2014-12-05

    Flooding has severe negative effects on soybean growth. To explore the flooding-responsive mechanisms in early-stage soybean, a phosphoproteomic approach was used. Two-day-old soybean plants were treated without or with flooding for 3, 6, 12, and 24 h, and root tip proteins were then extracted and analyzed at each time point. After 3 h of flooding exposure, the fresh weight of soybeans increased, whereas the ATP content of soybean root tips decreased. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, a total of 114 phosphoproteins were identified in the root tip samples, and 34 of the phosphoproteins were significantly changed with respect to phosphorylation status after 3 h of flooding stress. Among these phosphoproteins, eukaryotic translation initiation factors were dephosphorylated, whereas several protein synthesis-related proteins were phosphorylated. The mRNA expression levels of sucrose phosphate synthase 1F and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G were down-regulated, whereas UDP-glucose 6-dehydrogenase mRNA expression was up-regulated during growth but down-regulated under flooding stress. Furthermore, bioinformatic protein interaction analysis of flooding-responsive proteins based on temporal phosphorylation patterns indicated that eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G was located in the center of the network during flooding. Soybean eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 G has homology to programmed cell death 4 protein and is implicated in ethylene signaling. The weight of soybeans was increased with treatment by an ethylene-releasing agent under flooding condition, but it was decreased when plants were exposed to an ethylene receptor antagonist. These results suggest that the ethylene signaling pathway plays an important role, via the protein phosphorylation, in mechanisms of plant tolerance to the initial stages of flooding stress in soybean root tips.

  7. Tip-of-the-tongue states reveal age differences in the syllable frequency effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Meagan T; Abrams, Lise

    2011-01-01

    Syllable frequency has been shown to facilitate production in some languages but has yielded inconsistent results in English and has never been examined in older adults. Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) states represent a unique type of production failure where the phonology of a word is unable to be retrieved, suggesting that the frequency of phonological forms, like syllables, may influence the occurrence of TOT states. In the current study, we investigated the role of first-syllable frequency on TOT incidence and resolution in young (18-26 years of age), young-old (60-74 years of age), and old-old (75-89 years of age) adults. Data from 3 published studies were compiled, where TOTs were elicited by presenting definition-like questions and asking participants to respond with "Know," "Don't Know," or "TOT." Young-old and old-old adults, but not young adults, experienced more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency first syllables relative to high-frequency first syllables. Furthermore, age differences in TOT incidence occurred only for words with low-frequency first syllables. In contrast, when a prime word with the same first syllable as the target was presented during TOT states, all age groups resolved more TOTs for words beginning with low-frequency syllables. These findings support speech production models that allow for bidirectional activation between conceptual, lexical, and phonological forms of words. Furthermore, the age-specific effects of syllable frequency provide insight into the progression of age-linked changes to phonological processes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. Scaling of avian bipedal locomotion reveals independent effects of body mass and leg posture on gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, Monica A; Birn-Jeffery, Aleksandra

    2018-05-22

    Birds provide an interesting opportunity to study the relationships between body size, limb morphology and bipedal locomotor function. Birds are ecologically diverse and span a large range of body size and limb proportions, yet all use their hindlimbs for bipedal terrestrial locomotion, for at least some part of their life history. Here, we review the scaling of avian striding bipedal gaits to explore how body mass and leg morphology influence walking and running. We collate literature data from 21 species, spanning a 2500× range in body mass from painted quail to ostriches. Using dynamic similarity theory to interpret scaling trends, we find evidence for independent effects of body mass, leg length and leg posture on gait. We find no evidence for scaling of duty factor with body size, suggesting that vertical forces scale with dynamic similarity. However, at dynamically similar speeds, large birds use relatively shorter stride lengths and higher stride frequencies compared with small birds. We also find that birds with long legs for their mass, such as the white stork and red-legged seriema, use longer strides and lower swing frequencies, consistent with the influence of high limb inertia on gait. We discuss the observed scaling of avian bipedal gait in relation to mechanical demands for force, work and power relative to muscle actuator capacity, muscle activation costs related to leg cycling frequency, and considerations of stability and agility. Many opportunities remain for future work to investigate how morphology influences gait dynamics among birds specialized for different habitats and locomotor behaviors. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Neural Decoding of Bistable Sounds Reveals an Effect of Intention on Perceptual Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billig, Alexander J; Davis, Matthew H; Carlyon, Robert P

    2018-03-14

    Auditory signals arrive at the ear as a mixture that the brain must decompose into distinct sources based to a large extent on acoustic properties of the sounds. An important question concerns whether listeners have voluntary control over how many sources they perceive. This has been studied using pure high (H) and low (L) tones presented in the repeating pattern HLH-HLH-, which can form a bistable percept heard either as an integrated whole (HLH-) or as segregated into high (H-H-) and low (-L-) sequences. Although instructing listeners to try to integrate or segregate sounds affects reports of what they hear, this could reflect a response bias rather than a perceptual effect. We had human listeners (15 males, 12 females) continuously report their perception of such sequences and recorded neural activity using MEG. During neutral listening, a classifier trained on patterns of neural activity distinguished between periods of integrated and segregated perception. In other conditions, participants tried to influence their perception by allocating attention either to the whole sequence or to a subset of the sounds. They reported hearing the desired percept for a greater proportion of time than when listening neutrally. Critically, neural activity supported these reports; stimulus-locked brain responses in auditory cortex were more likely to resemble the signature of segregation when participants tried to hear segregation than when attempting to perceive integration. These results indicate that listeners can influence how many sound sources they perceive, as reflected in neural responses that track both the input and its perceptual organization. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Can we consciously influence our perception of the external world? We address this question using sound sequences that can be heard either as coming from a single source or as two distinct auditory streams. Listeners reported spontaneous changes in their perception between these two interpretations while

  10. An integrated lipidomics and metabolomics reveal nephroprotective effect and biochemical mechanism of Rheum officinale in chronic renal failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Hao; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Wei, Feng; Cheng, Xian-Long; Bai, Xu; Zhao, Ying-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a major public health problem worldwide. Earlier studies have revealed salutary effects of rhubarb extracts in CRF. In this study, we employed lipidomic and metabolomic approaches to identify the plasma biomarkers and to determine the effect of treatment with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extracts of rhubarb in a rat model of CRF with adenine-induced chronic tubulointerstitial nephropathy. In addition, clinical biochemistry, histological evaluation and pro-fibrotic protein expression were analyzed. Significant changes were found between the CRF and control groups representing characteristic phenotypes of rats with CRF. Treatment with the three rhubarb extracts improved renal injury and dysfunction, either fully or partially reversed the plasma metabolites abnormalities and attenuated upregulation of pro-fibrotic proteins including TGF-β1, α-SMA, PAI-1, CTGF, FN and collagen-1. The nephroprotective effect of ethyl acetate extract was better than other extracts. The differential metabolites were closely associated with glycerophospholipid, fatty acid and amino acid metabolisms. The results revealed a strong link between renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and glycerophospholipid metabolism and L-carnitine metabolism in the development of CRF. Amelioration of CRF with the three rhubarb extracts was associated with the delayed development and/or reversal the disorders in key metabolites associated with adenine-induced CRF. PMID:26903149

  11. Detailed monitoring of a small but recovering population reveals sublethal effects of disease and unexpected interactions with supplemental feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollington, Simon; Greenwood, Andrew; Jones, Carl G; Hoeck, Paquita; Chowrimootoo, Aurélie; Smith, Donal; Richards, Heather; Tatayah, Vikash; Groombridge, Jim J

    2015-07-01

    Infectious diseases are widely recognized to have substantial impact on wildlife populations. These impacts are sometimes exacerbated in small endangered populations, and therefore, the success of conservation reintroductions to aid the recovery of such species can be seriously threatened by outbreaks of infectious disease. Intensive management strategies associated with conservation reintroductions can further compound these negative effects in such populations. Exploring the sublethal effects of disease outbreaks among natural populations is challenging and requires longitudinal, individual life-history data on patterns of reproductive success and other indicators of individual fitness. Long-term monitoring data concerning detailed reproductive information of the reintroduced Mauritius parakeet (Psittacula echo) population collected before, during and after a disease outbreak was investigated. Deleterious effects of an outbreak of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) were revealed on hatch success, but these effects were remarkably short-lived and disproportionately associated with breeding pairs which took supplemental food. Individual BFDV infection status was not predicted by any genetic, environmental or conservation management factors and was not associated with any of our measures of immune function, perhaps suggesting immunological impairment. Experimental immunostimulation using the PHA (phytohaemagglutinin assay) challenge technique did, however, provoke a significant cellular immune response. We illustrate the resilience of this bottlenecked and once critically endangered, island-endemic species to an epidemic outbreak of BFDV and highlight the value of systematic monitoring in revealing inconspicuous but nonetheless substantial ecological interactions. Our study demonstrates that the emergence of such an infectious disease in a population ordinarily associated with increased susceptibility does not necessarily lead to deleterious impacts on population

  12. (1)H NMR-based metabonomics revealed protective effect of Naodesheng bioactive extract on ischemic stroke rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lan; Zhen, Lifeng; Xu, Yatao; Yang, Yongxia; Feng, Suxiang; Wang, Shumei; Liang, Shengwang

    2016-06-20

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability in the world. However, current therapies are limited. Naodesheng, a widely used traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has shown a good clinical curative effect on ischemic stroke. Also, Naodesheng has been suggested to have neuroprotective effect on focal cerebral ischemia rats, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of Naodesheng bioactive extract on the metabolic changes in brain tissue, plasma and urine induced by cerebral ischemia perfusion injury, and explore the possible metabolic mechanisms by using a (1)H NMR-based metabonomics approach. A middle cerebral artery occlusion rat model was established and confirmed by the experiments of neurobehavioral abnormality evaluation, brain tissue TTC staining and pathological examination. The metabolic changes in brain tissue, plasma and urine were then assessed by a (1)H NMR technique combined with multivariate statistical analysis method. These NMR data showed that cerebral ischemia reperfusion induced great metabolic disorders in brain tissue, plasma and urine metabolisms. However, Naodesheng bioactive extract could reverse most of the imbalanced metabolites. Meanwhile, it was found that both the medium and high dosages of Naodesheng bioactive extract were more effective on the metabolic changes than the low dosage, consistent with histopathological assessments. These results revealed that Naodesheng had protective effect on ischemic stroke rats and the underlying mechanisms involved multiple metabolic pathways, including energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, oxidative stress and inflammatory injury. The present study could provide evidence that metabonomics revealed its capacity to evaluate the holistic efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine and explore the underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In Vivo Screening Using Transgenic Zebrafish Embryos Reveals New Effects of HDAC Inhibitors Trichostatin A and Valproic Acid on Organogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Li

    Full Text Available The effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs on reproduction are well known, whereas their developmental effects are much less characterized. However, exposure to endocrine disruptors during organogenesis may lead to deleterious and permanent problems later in life. Zebrafish (Danio rerio transgenic lines expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP in specific organs and tissues are powerful tools to uncover developmental defects elicited by EDCs. Here, we used seven transgenic lines to visualize in vivo whether a series of EDCs and other pharmaceutical compounds can alter organogenesis in zebrafish. We used transgenic lines expressing GFP in pancreas, liver, blood vessels, inner ear, nervous system, pharyngeal tooth and pectoral fins. This screen revealed that four of the tested chemicals have detectable effects on different organs, which shows that the range of effects elicited by EDCs is wider than anticipated. The endocrine disruptor tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA, as well as the three drugs diclofenac, trichostatin A (TSA and valproic acid (VPA induced abnormalities in the embryonic vascular system of zebrafish. Moreover, TSA and VPA induced specific alterations during the development of pancreas, an observation that was confirmed by in situ hybridization with specific markers. Developmental delays were also induced by TSA and VPA in the liver and in pharyngeal teeth, resulting in smaller organ size. Our results show that EDCs can induce a large range of developmental alterations during embryogenesis of zebrafish and establish GFP transgenic lines as powerful tools to screen for EDCs effects in vivo.

  14. Event-related potentials reveal linguistic suppression effect but not enhancement effect on categorical perception of color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Aitao; Yang, Ling; Yu, Yanping; Zhang, Meichao; Shao, Yulan; Zhang, Honghong

    2014-08-01

    The present study used the event-related potential technique to investigate the nature of linguistic effect on color perception. Four types of stimuli based on hue differences between a target color and a preceding color were used: zero hue step within-category color (0-WC); one hue step within-category color (1-WC); one hue step between-category color (1-BC); and two hue step between-category color (2-BC). The ERP results showed no significant effect of stimulus type in the 100-200 ms time window. However, in the 200-350 ms time window, ERP responses to 1-WC target color overlapped with that to 0-WC target color for right visual field (RVF) but not left visual field (LVF) presentation. For the 1-BC condition, ERP amplitudes were comparable in the two visual fields, both being significantly different from the 0-WC condition. The 2-BC condition showed the same pattern as the 1-BC condition. These results suggest that the categorical perception of color in RVF is due to linguistic suppression on within-category color discrimination but not between-category color enhancement, and that the effect is independent of early perceptual processes. © 2014 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Groundwater circulation and utilisation in an unconfined carbonate system - revealing the potential effect of climate change and humankind activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Ádám; Mádl-Szönyi, Judit

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of gravitational groundwater flow systems in carbonate regions were presented by Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth (2015) based on theoretical considerations, identification and classification of groundwater flow-related field phenomena and numerical simulation. It was revealed that the changes of flow pattern in carbonate framework attributed to groundwater utilization and/or climate change are more apparent due to the effective hydraulic conductivity of carbonates. Consequently, natural or artificial disturbances of water level propagate farther, deeper and faster in carbonates than in siliciclastic basins. These changes could result in degradation and reorganization of hierarchical flow systems, modification of recharge and discharge areas and even alteration of physicochemical parameters (Mádl-Szönyi & Tóth, 2015). This paper presents the application of the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept to the hydrogeologically complex thick carbonate system of the Transdanubian Range, Hungary, depicting the flow pattern of the area and to a practical problem of a local study area, conflicts of interest of water supply and water use of a golf course. The question is how will the natural discharge on the golf course be influenced by the planned karst drinking water production well. In addition, the effects of climate change on this conflict were evaluated. We demonstrate the importance of the understanding the appropriate scale in karst studies and illustrate how the gravity-driven regional groundwater flow concept can help to determine it. For this purpose, the hydrogeological conditions of the study site were examined at different scales. The goals were to define the appropriate scale and reveal the effects of tectonic structures; and give prognoses for the possible impact of a planned drinking water well and climate change on the golf course based on numerical simulation. The study also showed the low geothermal potential of the area.

  16. Data on the effect of conductive hearing loss on auditory and visual cortex activity revealed by intrinsic signal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichert, Manuel; Bolz, Jürgen

    2017-10-01

    This data article provides additional data related to the research article entitled "Simultaneous intrinsic signal imaging of auditory and visual cortex reveals profound effects of acute hearing loss on visual processing" (Teichert and Bolz, 2017) [1]. The primary auditory and visual cortex (A1 and V1) of adult male C57BL/6J mice (P120-P240) were mapped simultaneously using intrinsic signal imaging (Kalatsky and Stryker, 2003) [2]. A1 and V1 activity evoked by combined auditory and visual stimulation were measured before and after conductive hearing loss (CHL) induced by bilateral malleus removal. We provide data showing that A1 responsiveness evoked by sounds of different sound pressure levels (SPL) decreased after CHL whereas visually evoked V1 activity increased after this intervention. In addition, we also provide imaging data on percentage of V1 activity increases after CHL compared to pre-CHL.

  17. Multiplex Brain Proteomic Analysis Revealed the Molecular Therapeutic Effects of Buyang Huanwu Decoction on Cerebral Ischemic Stroke Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Jhang Chen

    Full Text Available Stroke is the second-leading cause of death worldwide, and tissue plasminogen activator (TPA is the only drug used for a limited group of stroke patients in the acute phase. Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD, a traditional Chinese medicine prescription, has long been used for improving neurological functional recovery in stroke. In this study, we characterized the therapeutic effect of TPA and BHD in a cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (CIR injury mouse model using multiplex proteomics approach. After the iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis, 1310 proteins were identified from the mouse brain with <1% false discovery rate. Among them, 877 quantitative proteins, 10.26% (90/877, 1.71% (15/877, and 2.62% (23/877 of the proteins was significantly changed in the CIR, BHD treatment, and TPA treatment, respectively. Functional categorization analysis showed that BHD treatment preserved the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB (Alb, Fga, and Trf, suppressed excitotoxicity (Grm5, Gnai, and Gdi, and enhanced energy metabolism (Bdh, thereby revealing its multiple effects on ischemic stroke mice. Moreover, the neurogenesis marker doublecortin was upregulated, and the activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3 and Tau was inhibited, which represented the neuroprotective effects. However, TPA treatment deteriorated BBB breakdown. This study highlights the potential of BHD in clinical applications for ischemic stroke.

  18. Long-Term Field Study Reveals Subtle Effects of the Invasive Alga Sargassum muticum upon the Epibiota of Zostera marina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey DeAmicis

    Full Text Available Invasive species can alter coastal ecosystems both directly, e.g. through competition for substratum and nutrients, and indirectly. Indirect effects may be mediated by creation of dissimilar or inimical habitats, changes in predator and/or prey assemblages, alterations in associated biota, and perturbations of water movement and thermal regimes. Previous studies have shown that invasive algae can modify native habitat architecture, disrupt intricately linked food webs and alter epibiotic assemblages. In the UK, the seagrass Zostera marina supports a diverse epibiotic assemblage, influencing key factors such as sediment dynamics, depositional regime and trophic linkages. Increasing encroachment of the invasive alga Sargassum muticum into seagrass meadows changes the physical and chemical characteristics of the local environment and creates the potential for changes in the epibionts associated with the seagrass blades, threatening the integrity of the seagrass ecosystem. We investigated the effects of S. muticum invasion upon the epibiota of Z. marina in a drowned river valley in SW England seasonally from spring to autumn over four years in an in-situ manipulative experiment, comparing permanent quadrats with and without artificially introduced S. muticum. Epibiota were weighed, identified to the most detailed operational taxonomic unit (OTU possible, and unitary organisms were enumerated. Multivariate PERMANOVA+ analysis revealed significant differences in epibiont assemblages between Sargassum treatments. Linear mixed effects models indicated that differences in epibiota assemblage composition were not reflected as significant differences in mean biomass per sample, or number of epibiont OTUs per sample. We conclude that S. muticum invasion into Z. marina meadows may significantly alter the species composition and abundance distribution of epibiotic assemblages found on the blades of the seagrass. Thus S. muticum invasion could have more wide

  19. A realistic in vitro exposure revealed seasonal differences in (pro-)inflammatory effects from ambient air in Fribourg, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisig, Christoph; Petri-Fink, Alke; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air pollutant levels vary widely in space and time, therefore thorough local evaluation of possible effects is needed. In vitro approaches using lung cell cultures grown at the air-liquid interface and directly exposed to ambient air can offer a reliable addition to animal experimentations and epidemiological studies. To evaluate the adverse effects of ambient air in summer and winter a multi-cellular lung model (16HBE14o-, macrophages, and dendritic cells) was exposed in a mobile cell exposure system. Cells were exposed on up to three consecutive days each 12 h to ambient air from Fribourg, Switzerland, during summer and winter seasons. Higher particle number, particulate matter mass, and nitrogen oxide levels were observed in winter ambient air compared to summer. Good cell viability was seen in cells exposed to summer air and short-term winter air, but cells exposed three days to winter air were compromised. Exposure of summer ambient air revealed no significant upregulation of oxidative stress or pro-inflammatory genes. On the opposite, the winter ambient air exposure led to an increased oxidative stress after two exposure days, and an increase in three assessed pro-inflammatory genes already after 12 h of exposure. We found that even with a short exposure time of 12 h adverse effects in vitro were observed only during exposure to winter but not summer ambient air. With this work we have demonstrated that our simple, fast, and cost-effective approach can be used to assess (adverse) effects of ambient air.

  20. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine exerts antitumor effects and reveals BATF2 as a poor prognostic marker for childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Augusto Faria; Borges, Kleiton Silva; Suazo, Veridiana Kiill; Geron, Lenisa; Corrêa, Carolina Alves Pereira; Castro-Gamero, Angel Mauricio; de Vasconcelos, Elton José Rosas; de Oliveira, Ricardo Santos; Neder, Luciano; Yunes, José Andres; Dos Santos Aguiar, Simone; Scrideli, Carlos Alberto; Tone, Luiz Gonzaga

    2017-02-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most common solid tumor among pediatric patients and corresponds to 20 % of all pediatric intracranial tumors in this age group. Its treatment currently involves significant side effects. Epigenetic changes such as DNA methylation may contribute to its development and progression. DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitors have shown promising anticancer effects. The agent Zebularine acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and shows low toxicity and high efficacy, being a promising adjuvant agent for anti-cancer chemotherapy. Several studies have reported its effects on different types of tumors; however, there are no studies reporting its effects on MB. We analyzed its potential anticancer effects in four pediatric MB cell lines. The treatment inhibited proliferation and clonogenicity, increased the apoptosis rate and the number of cells in the S phase (p < 0.05), as well as the expression of p53, p21, and Bax, and decreased cyclin A, Survivin and Bcl-2 proteins. In addition, the combination of zebularine with the chemotherapeutic agents vincristine and cisplatin resulted in synergism and antagonism, respectively. Zebularine also modulated the activation of the SHH pathway, reducing SMO and GLI1 levels and one of its targets, PTCH1, without changing SUFU levels. A microarray analysis revealed different pathways modulated by the drug, including the Toll-Like Receptor pathway and high levels of the BATF2 gene. The low expression of this gene was associated with a worse prognosis in MB. Taken together, these data suggest that Zebularine may be a potential drug for further in vivo studies of MB treatment.

  1. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  2. Lasting modulation effects of rTMS on neural activity and connectivity as revealed by resting-state EEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Shou, Guofa; Yuan, Han; Urbano, Diamond; Cha, Yoon-Hee

    2014-07-01

    The long-lasting neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of great interest for therapeutic applications in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, due to which functional connectivity among brain regions is profoundly disturbed. Classic TMS studies selectively alter neural activity in specific brain regions and observe neural activity changes on nonperturbed areas to infer underlying connectivity and its changes. Less has been indicated in direct measures of functional connectivity and/or neural network and on how connectivity/network alterations occur. Here, we developed a novel analysis framework to directly investigate both neural activity and connectivity changes induced by rTMS from resting-state EEG (rsEEG) acquired in a group of subjects with a chronic disorder of imbalance, known as the mal de debarquement syndrome (MdDS). Resting-state activity in multiple functional brain areas was identified through a data-driven blind source separation analysis on rsEEG data, and the connectivity among them was characterized using a phase synchronization measure. Our study revealed that there were significant long-lasting changes in resting-state neural activity, in theta, low alpha, and high alpha bands and neural networks in theta, low alpha, high alpha and beta bands, over broad cortical areas 4 to 5 h after the last application of rTMS in a consecutive five-day protocol. Our results of rsEEG connectivity further indicated that the changes, mainly in the alpha band, over the parietal and occipital cortices from pre- to post-TMS sessions were significantly correlated, in both magnitude and direction, to symptom changes in this group of subjects with MdDS. This connectivity measure not only suggested that rTMS can generate positive treatment effects in MdDS patients, but also revealed new potential targets for future therapeutic trials to improve treatment effects. It is promising that the new connectivity measure

  3. Metal and Isotope Analysis of Bird Feathers in a Contaminated Estuary Reveals Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, and Potential Toxic Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einoder, L D; MacLeod, C K; Coughanowr, C

    2018-07-01

    The Derwent estuary, in south east Tasmania, is highly contaminated with heavy metals, mainly due to past industrial pollution. This study sought to determine the extent of contamination, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification in the resident bird community and therefore to infer the potential for adverse effects in birds. Thirteen metals were measured from breast feathers (n = 51 individuals) of eight sympatric species of aquatic bird. Stable carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) isotopes were used to identify dietary sources of contaminants, trophic level, and potential biomagnification through food chains. Generalised linear models revealed that metal burdens were often poorly correlated with δ 13 C, indicating their uptake from a range of freshwater, brackish, and marine carbon sources-not surprising due to widespread contamination across the tidal estuary. Feather mercury increased significantly with trophic level (inferred from δ 15 N). White-bellied Sea-eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster samples contained 240 times more mercury than feral Goose Anser cygnoides. Feather arsenic and copper concentrations were significantly higher in birds feeding lower in the food chain. For several piscivorous species, both chick and adults were sampled revealing significantly higher feather mercury, zinc, and selenium in adults. Feathers from birds found dead along the banks of the estuary had significantly higher lead loads than from live birds, and numerous individuals had levels of mercury, zinc, and lead above toxic thresholds reported in other studies. These results highlight the need to include biota from higher trophic levels in contaminant monitoring programs to understand fully the fate and broader implications of contaminants in the environment.

  4. Combining chemical genomics screens in yeast to reveal spectrum of effects of chemical inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giaever Guri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single genome-wide screens for the effect of altered gene dosage on drug sensitivity in the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae provide only a partial picture of the mechanism of action of a drug. Results Using the example of the tumor cell invasion inhibitor dihydromotuporamine C, we show that a more complete picture of drug action can be obtained by combining different chemical genomics approaches – analysis of the sensitivity of ρ0 cells lacking mitochondrial DNA, drug-induced haploinsufficiency, suppression of drug sensitivity by gene overexpression and chemical-genetic synthetic lethality screening using strains deleted of nonessential genes. Killing of yeast by this chemical requires a functional mitochondrial electron-transport chain and cytochrome c heme lyase function. However, we find that it does not require genes associated with programmed cell death in yeast. The chemical also inhibits endocytosis and intracellular vesicle trafficking and interferes with vacuolar acidification in yeast and in human cancer cells. These effects can all be ascribed to inhibition of sphingolipid biosynthesis by dihydromotuporamine C. Conclusion Despite their similar conceptual basis, namely altering drug sensitivity by modifying gene dosage, each of the screening approaches provided a distinct set of information that, when integrated, revealed a more complete picture of the mechanism of action of a drug on cells.

  5. Intra-event isotope and raindrop size data of tropical rain reveal effects concealed by event averaged data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managave, S. R.; Jani, R. A.; Narayana Rao, T.; Sunilkumar, K.; Satheeshkumar, S.; Ramesh, R.

    2016-08-01

    Evaporation of rain is known to contribute water vapor, a potent greenhouse gas, to the atmosphere. Stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic compositions (δ18O and, δD, respectively) of precipitation, usually measured/presented as values integrated over rain events or monthly mean values, are important tools for detecting evaporation effects. The slope ~8 of the linear relationship between such time-averaged values of δD and δ18O (called the meteoric water line) is widely accepted as a proof of condensation under isotopic equilibrium and absence of evaporation of rain during atmospheric fall. Here, through a simultaneous investigation of the isotopic and drop size distributions of seventeen rain events sampled on an intra-event scale at Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E), southern India, we demonstrate that the evaporation effects, not evident in the time-averaged data, are significantly manifested in the sub-samples of individual rain events. We detect this through (1) slopes significantly less than 8 for the δD-δ18O relation on intra-event scale and (2) significant positive correlations between deuterium excess ( d-excess = δD - 8*δ18O; lower values in rain indicate evaporation) and the mass-weighted mean diameter of the raindrops ( D m ). An estimated ~44 % of rain is influenced by evaporation. This study also reveals a signature of isotopic equilibration of rain with the cloud base vapor, the processes important for modeling isotopic composition of precipitation. d-excess values of rain are modified by the post-condensation processes and the present approach offers a way to identify the d-excess values least affected by such processes. Isotope-enabled global circulation models could be improved by incorporating intra-event isotopic data and raindrop size dependent isotopic effects.

  6. In vitro phase I metabolism of gamabufotalin and arenobufagin: Reveal the effect of substituent group on metabolic stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yujie; Wang, Chao; Tian, Xiangge; Huo, Xiaokui; Feng, Lei; Sun, Chengpeng; Ge, Guangbo; Yang, Ling; Ning, Jing; Ma, Xiaochi

    2017-09-01

    Bufadienolides are a major class of bioactive compounds derived from amphibian skin secretion. Gamabufotalin (GB) and arenobufagin (AB) are among the top of the intensively investigated natural bufadienolides for their outstanding biological activities. This study aimed to characterize the phase I metabolism of GB and AB with respect to the metabolic profiles, enzymes involved, and catalytic efficacy, thereafter tried to reveal substituent effects on metabolism. Two mono-hydroxylated products of GB and AB were detected in the incubation mixtures, and they were accurately identified as 1- and 5-hydroxylated bufadienolides by NMR and HPLC-MS techniques. Reaction phenotyping studies demonstrated that CYP3A mediated the metabolism of the two bufadienolides with a high specific selectivity. Further kinetic evaluation demonstrated that the metabolism stability of GB and AB were better than other reported bufadienolides. Additionally, the CYP3A5 preference for hydroxylation of AB was observed, which was different to the selectivity of CYP3As for bufadienolides suggested by our previous report. This study can provide important data for elucidating the phase I metabolism of GB and AB and can lead to a better understanding of the bufadienolide-CYP3A interaction which is helpful for preclinical development and rational use of bufadienolides. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Substituent effects on the redox states of locally functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes revealed by in situ photoluminescence spectroelectrochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Tomonari; Shiraki, Tomohiro; Nakashima, Naotoshi

    2017-11-09

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) with local chemical modification have been recognized as a novel near infrared (NIR) photoluminescent nanomaterial due to the emergence of a new red-shifted photoluminescence (PL) with enhanced quantum yields. As a characteristic feature of the locally functionalized SWNTs (lf-SWNTs), PL wavelength changes occur with the structural dependence of the substituent structures in the modified aryl groups, showing up to a 60 nm peak shift according to an electronic property difference of the aryl groups. Up to now, however, the structural effect on the electronic states of the lf-SWNTs has been discussed only on the basis of theoretical calculations due to the very limited amount of modifications. Herein, we describe the successfully-determined electronic states of the aryl-modified lf-SWNTs with different substituents (Ar-X SWNTs) using an in situ PL spectroelectrochemical method based on electrochemical quenching of the PL intensities analyzed by the Nernst equation. In particular, we reveal that the local functionalization of (6,5)SWNTs induced potential changes in the energy levels of the HOMO and the LUMO by -23 to -38 meV and +20 to +22 meV, respectively, compared to those of the pristine SWNTs, which generates exciton trapping sites with narrower band gaps. Moreover, the HOMO levels of the Ar-X SWNTs specifically shift in a negative potential direction by 15 meV according to an enhancement of the electron-accepting property of the substituents in the aryl groups that corresponds to an increase in the Hammet substituent constants, suggesting the importance of the dipole effect from the aryl groups on the lf-SWNTs to the level shift of the frontier orbitals. Our method is a promising way to characterize the electronic features of the lf-SWNTs.

  8. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axsen, Jonn [Institute of Transportation Studies, Univ. of California at Davis, 2028 Academic Surge, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Mountain, Dean C. [DeGroote School of Business, McMaster Univ., 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M4 (Canada); Jaccard, Mark [School of Resource and Environmental Management, Simon Fraser Univ., 8888 Univ. Drive, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada)

    2009-08-15

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  9. Combining stated and revealed choice research to simulate the neighbor effect: The case of hybrid-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axsen, Jonn; Mountain, Dean C.; Jaccard, Mark

    2009-01-01

    According to intuition and theories of diffusion, consumer preferences develop along with technological change. However, most economic models designed for policy simulation unrealistically assume static preferences. To improve the behavioral realism of an energy-economy policy model, this study investigates the ''neighbor effect'', where a new technology becomes more desirable as its adoption becomes more widespread in the market. We measure this effect as a change in aggregated willingness to pay under different levels of technology penetration. Focusing on hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs), an online survey experiment collected stated preference (SP) data from 535 Canadian and 408 Californian vehicle owners under different hypothetical market conditions. Revealed preference (RP) data was collected from the same respondents by eliciting the year, make and model of recent vehicle purchases from regions with different degrees of HEV popularity: Canada with 0.17% new market share, and California with 3.0% new market share. We compare choice models estimated from RP data only with three joint SP-RP estimation techniques, each assigning a different weight to the influence of SP and RP data in coefficient estimates. Statistically, models allowing more RP influence outperform SP influenced models. However, results suggest that because the RP data in this study is afflicted by multicollinearity, techniques that allow more SP influence in the beta estimates while maintaining RP data for calibrating vehicle class constraints produce more realistic estimates of willingness to pay. Furthermore, SP influenced coefficient estimates also translate to more realistic behavioral parameters for CIMS, allowing more sensitivity to policy simulations. (author)

  10. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  11. Metabolomics Reveals Cryptic Interactive Effects of Species Interactions and Environmental Stress on Nitrogen and Sulfur Metabolism in Seagrass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Castorani, Max C. N.; Glud, Ronnie N.

    2016-01-01

    Eutrophication of estuaries and coastal seas is accelerating, increasing light stress on subtidal marine plants and changing their interactions with other species. To date, we have limited understanding of how such variations in environmental and biological stress modify the impact of interactions...... among foundational species and eventually affect ecosystem health. Here, we used metabolomics to assess the impact of light reductions on interactions between the seagrass Zostera marina, an important habitat-forming marine plant, and the abundant and commercially important blue mussel Mytilus edulis....... Plant performance varied with light availability but was unaffected by the presence of mussels. Metabolomic analysis, on the other hand, revealed an interaction between light availability and presence of M. edulis on seagrass metabolism. Under high light, mussels stimulated seagrass nitrogen and energy...

  12. An RT distribution analysis of relatedness proportion effects in lexical decision and semantic categorization reveals different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wit, Bianca; Kinoshita, Sachiko

    2015-01-01

    The magnitude of the semantic priming effect is known to increase as the proportion of related prime-target pairs in an experiment increases. This relatedness proportion (RP) effect was studied in a lexical decision task at a short prime-target stimulus onset asynchrony (240 ms), which is widely assumed to preclude strategic prospective usage of the prime. The analysis of the reaction time (RT) distribution suggested that the observed RP effect reflected a modulation of a retrospective semantic matching process. The pattern of the RP effect on the RT distribution found here is contrasted to that reported in De Wit and Kinoshita's (2014) semantic categorization study, and it is concluded that the RP effect is driven by different underlying mechanisms in lexical decision and semantic categorization.

  13. Metabonomic Analysis Reveals Efficient Ameliorating Effects of Acupoint Stimulations on the Menopause-caused Alterations in Mammalian Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Limin; Wang, Yulan; Xu, Yunxiang; Lei, Hehua; Zhao, Ying; Li, Huihui; Lin, Xiaosheng; Chen, Guizhen; Tang, Huiru

    2014-01-01

    Acupoint stimulations are effective in ameliorating symptoms of menopause which is an unavoidable ageing consequence for women. To understand the mechanistic aspects of such treatments, we systematically analyzed the effects of acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding on the ovariectomy-induced rat metabolic changes using NMR and GC-FID/MS methods. Results showed that ovariectomization (OVX) caused comprehensive metabolic changes in lipid peroxidation, glycolysis, TCA cycle, choline and amino acid metabolisms. Both acupoint laser-irradiation and catgut-embedding ameliorated the OVX-caused metabonomic changes more effectively than hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with nilestriol. Such effects of acupoint stimulations were highlighted in alleviating lipid peroxidation, restoring glucose homeostasis and partial reversion of the OVX-altered amino acid metabolism. These findings provided new insights into the menopause effects on mammalian biochemistry and beneficial effects of acupoint stimulations in comparison with HRT, demonstrating metabonomics as a powerful approach for potential applications in disease prognosis and developments of effective therapies.

  14. Hypoxia Stress Test Reveals Exaggerated Cardiovascular Effects in Hypertensive Rats after Exposure to the Air Pollutant Acrolein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...

  15. Bayesian Diallel Analysis Reveals Mx1-Dependent and Mx1-Independent Effects on Response to Influenza A Virus in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L. Maurizio

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A virus (IAV is a respiratory pathogen that causes substantial morbidity and mortality during both seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Infection outcomes in unexposed populations are affected by host genetics, but the host genetic architecture is not well understood. Here, we obtain a broad view of how heritable factors affect a mouse model of response to IAV infection using an 8 × 8 diallel of the eight inbred founder strains of the Collaborative Cross (CC. Expanding on a prior statistical framework for modeling treatment response in diallels, we explore how a range of heritable effects modify acute host response to IAV through 4 d postinfection. Heritable effects in aggregate explained ∼57% of the variance in IAV-induced weight loss. Much of this was attributable to a pattern of additive effects that became more prominent through day 4 postinfection and was consistent with previous reports of antiinfluenza myxovirus resistance 1 (Mx1 polymorphisms segregating between these strains; these additive effects largely recapitulated haplotype effects observed at the Mx1 locus in a previous study of the incipient CC, and are also replicated here in a CC recombinant intercross population. Genetic dominance of protective Mx1 haplotypes was observed to differ by subspecies of origin: relative to the domesticus null Mx1 allele, musculus acts dominantly whereas castaneus acts additively. After controlling for Mx1, heritable effects, though less distinct, accounted for ∼34% of the phenotypic variance. Implications for future mapping studies are discussed.

  16. Cytogenetic analyses of Azadirachtin reveal absence of genotoxicity but marked antiproliferative effects in human lymphocytes and CHO cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosesso, Pasquale; Bohm, Lothar; Pepe, Gaetano; Fiore, Mario; Carpinelli, Alice; Gäde, Gerd; Nagini, Siddavaram; Ottavianelli, Alessandro; Degrassi, Francesca

    2012-09-18

    In this work we have examined the genotoxic potential of the bioinsecticide Azadirachtin A (AZA) and its influence on cell proliferation on human lymphocytes and Chinese Hamster ovary (CHO) cells. AZA genotoxicity was assessed by the analysis of chromosomal aberrations and sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) in the absence and presence of rat liver S9 metabolism. Primary DNA damage was also investigated by means of the comet assay. The results obtained clearly indicate that AZA is not genotoxic in mammalian cells. On the other hand, AZA proved to interfere with cell cycle progression as shown by modulation of frequencies of first (M1) and second division (M2) metaphases detected by 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling. Accumulation of M1 metaphases were more pronounced in human lymphocytes. In the transformed CHO cell line, however, significant increases of multinucleated interphases and polyploid cells were observed at long treatment time. At higher dose-levels, the incidence of polyploidy was close to 100%. Identification of spindle structure and number of centrosomes by fluorescent immunostaining with α- and γ-tubulin antibodies revealed aberrant mitoses exhibiting multipolar spindles with several centrosomal signals. These findings suggest that AZA can act either through a stabilizing activity of microtubules or by inhibition of Aurora A, since both mechanisms are able to generate genetically unstable polyploid cells with multipolar spindles and multinucleated interphases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of L-dopa in Parkinson's disease as revealed by neurophysiological studies of motor and sensory functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppa, Antonio; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Berardelli, Alfredo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2017-02-01

    This review will first discuss evidence of motor and sensory abnormalities as yielded by neurophysiological techniques in patients with PD. It will then go on to describe the effects of L-dopa replacement on motor and sensory abnormalities in PD as assessed by neurophysiological studies. Areas covered: We analyzed papers in English using Pubmed with the following keywords: L-dopa, dopamine, bradykinesia, basal ganglia, kinematic analysis, TMS, motor cortex plasticity, motor cortex excitability, somatosensory discrimination threshold, pain Expert commentary: L-dopa improves the amplitude and speed of upper limb voluntary movements, but it does not restore abnormalities in the sequence effect or voluntary facial movements. L-dopa only partially normalizes changes in motor cortex excitability and plasticity and has also contrasting effects on the sensory system and on sensory-motor integration. The neurophysiological studies reviewed here show that PD is more than a hypo-dopaminergic disease, and non-dopaminergic mechanisms should also be considered.

  18. Revealed willingness-to-pay versus standard cost-effectiveness thresholds: Evidence from the South African HIV Investment Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Rath, Gesine; van Rensburg, Craig; Larson, Bruce; Jamieson, Lise; Rosen, Sydney

    2017-01-01

    The use of cost-effectiveness thresholds based on a country's income per capita has been criticized for not being relevant to decision making, in particular in middle-income countries such as South Africa. The recent South African HIV Investment Case produced an alternative cost-effectiveness threshold for HIV prevention and treatment interventions based on estimates of life years saved and the country's committed HIV budget. We analysed the optimal mix of HIV interventions over a baseline of the current HIV programme under the committed HIV budget for 2016-2018. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) as cost per life-year saved (LYS) of 16 HIV prevention and treatment interventions over 20 years (2016-2035). We iteratively evaluated the most cost effective option (defined by an intervention and its coverage) over a rolling baseline to which the more cost effective options had already been added, thereby allowing for diminishing marginal returns to interventions. We constrained the list of interventions to those whose combined cost was affordable under the current HIV budget. Costs are presented from the government perspective, unadjusted for inflation and undiscounted, in 2016 USD. The current HIV budget of about $1.6 billion per year was sufficient to pay for the expansion of condom availability, medical male circumcision, universal treatment, and infant testing at 6 weeks to maximum coverage levels, while also implementing a social and behavior change mass media campaign with a message geared at increasing testing uptake and reducing the number of sexual partners. The combined ICER of this package of services was $547/ LYS. The ICER of the next intervention that was above the affordability threshold was $872/LYS. The results of the South African HIV Investment Case point to an HIV cost-effectiveness threshold based on affordability under the current budget of $547-872 per life year saved, a small fraction of the country's GDP per capita of

  19. Spliced leader-based analyses reveal the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on gene expression in the copepod Pseudodiaptomus poplesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Yunyun; Yang, Feifei; Xu, Donghui; Chen, Hongju; Zhang, Huan; Liu, Guangxing

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic and carcinogenic pollutants that can adversely affect the development, growth and reproduction of marine organisms including copepods. However, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms regulating the response to PAH exposure in marine planktonic copepods is limited. In this study, we investigated the survival and gene expression of the calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus poplesia upon exposure to two PAHs, 1, 2-dimethylnaphthalene (1, 2-NAPH) and pyrene. Acute toxicity responses resulted in 96-h LC 50 of 788.98μgL -1 and 54.68μgL -1 for 1, 2-NAPH and pyrene, respectively. Using the recently discovered copepod spliced leader as a primer, we constructed full-length cDNA libraries from copepods exposed to sublethal concentrations and revealed 289 unique genes of diverse functions, including stress response genes and novel genes previously undocumented for this species. Eighty-three gene families were specifically expressed in PAH exposure libraries. We further analyzed the expression of seven target genes by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR in a time-course test with three sublethal concentrations. These target genes have primary roles in detoxification, oxidative defense, and signal transduction, and include different forms of glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione peroxidases (GPX), peroxiredoxin (PRDX), methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (MSDH) and ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate (RAC1). Expression stability of seven candidate reference genes were evaluated and the two most stable ones (RPL15 and RPS20 for 1, 2-NAPH exposure, RPL15 and EF1D for pyrene exposure) were used to normalize the expression levels of the target genes. Significant upregulation was detected in GST-T, GST-DE, GPX4, PRDX6 and RAC1 upon 1, 2-NAPH exposure, and GST-DE and MSDH upon pyrene exposure. These results indicated that the oxidative stress was induced and that signal transduction might be affected by PAH

  20. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Global transcriptional profiling of Burkholderia pseudomallei under salt stress reveals differential effects on the Bsa type III secretion system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singsuksawat Ekapot

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis where the highest reported incidence world wide is in the Northeast of Thailand, where saline soil and water are prevalent. Moreover, recent reports indicate a potential pathogenic role for B. pseudomallei in cystic fibrosis lung disease, where an increased sodium chloride (NaCl concentration in airway surface liquid has been proposed. These observations raise the possibility that high salinity may represent a favorable niche for B. pseudomallei. We therefore investigated the global transcriptional response of B. pseudomallei to increased salinity using microarray analysis. Results Transcriptome analysis of B. pseudomallei under salt stress revealed several genes significantly up-regulated in the presence of 320 mM NaCl including genes associated with the bsa-derived Type III secretion system (T3SS. Microarray data were verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR. Western blot analysis confirmed the increased expression and secretion of the invasion-associated type III secreted proteins BipD and BopE in B. pseudomallei cultures at 170 and 320 mM NaCl relative to salt-free medium. Furthermore, salt-treated B. pseudomallei exhibited greater invasion efficiency into the lung epithelial cell line A549 in a manner partly dependent on a functional Bsa system. Conclusions B. pseudomallei responds to salt stress by modulating the transcription of a relatively small set of genes, among which is the bsa locus associated with invasion and virulence. Expression and secretion of Bsa-secreted proteins was elevated in the presence of exogenous salt and the invasion efficiency was enhanced. Our data indicate that salinity has the potential to influence the virulence of B. pseudomallei.

  2. Metabolomics reveals the mechanisms for the cardiotoxicity of Pinelliae Rhizoma and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Tan, Yong; Tsui, Man-Shan; Yi, Hua; Fu, Xiu-Qiong; Li, Ting; Chan, Chi Leung; Guo, Hui; Li, Ya-Xi; Zhu, Pei-Li; Tse, Anfernee Kai Wing; Cao, Hui; Lu, Ai-Ping; Yu, Zhi-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Pinelliae Rhizoma (PR) is a commonly used Chinese medicinal herb, but it has been frequently reported about its toxicity. According to the traditional Chinese medicine theory, processing can reduce the toxicity of the herbs. Here, we aim to determine if processing reduces the toxicity of raw PR, and to explore the underlying mechanisms of raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Biochemical and histopathological approaches were used to evaluate the toxicities of raw and processed PR. Rat serum metabolites were analyzed by LC-TOF-MS. Ingenuity pathway analysis of the metabolomics data highlighted the biological pathways and network functions involved in raw PR-induced toxicities and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing, which were verified by molecular approaches. Results showed that raw PR caused cardiotoxicity, and processing reduced the toxicity. Inhibition of mTOR signaling and activation of the TGF-β pathway contributed to raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity, and free radical scavenging might be responsible for the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. Our data shed new light on the mechanisms of raw PR-induced cardiotoxicity and the toxicity-reducing effect of processing. This study provides scientific justifications for the traditional processing theory of PR, and should help in optimizing the processing protocol and clinical combinational application of PR.

  3. Speciation Behavior of Copper(II) Acetate in Simple Organic Solvents - Revealing the Effect of Trace Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tsybizová, A.; Ryland, B. L.; Tsierkezos, N.; Stahl, S. S.; Roithová, J.; Schröder, Detlef

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, č. 8 (2014), s. 1407-1412 ISSN 1434-1948 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/11/0338 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : solvent effects * copper * mass spectrometry * EPR spectrometry * electrospray ionization Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.942, year: 2014

  4. Spatiotemporal maps reveal regional differences in the effects on gut motility for Lactobacillus reuteri and rhamnosus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, R Y; Pasyk, M; Wang, B; Forsythe, P; Bienenstock, J; Mao, Y-K; Sharma, P; Stanisz, A M; Kunze, W A

    2013-03-01

    Commensal bacteria such as probiotics that are neuroactive acutely affect the amplitudes of intestinal migrating motor complexes (MMCs). What is lacking for an improved understanding of these motility effects are region specific measurements of velocity and frequency. We have combined intraluminal pressure recordings with spatiotemporal diameter maps to analyze more completely effects of different strains of beneficial bacteria on motility. Intraluminal peak pressure (PPr) was measured and video recordings made of mouse ex vivo jejunum and colon segments before and after intraluminal applications of Lactobacillus rhamnosus (JB-1) or Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938). Migrating motor complex frequency and velocity were calculated. JB-1 decreased jejunal frequencies by 56% and 34% in colon. Jejunal velocities increased 171%, but decreased 31% in colon. Jejunal PPr decreased by 55% and in colon by 21%. DSM 17938 increased jejunal frequencies 63% and in colon 75%; jejunal velocity decreased 57%, but increased in colon 146%; jejunal PPr was reduced 26% and 12% in colon. TRAM-34 decreased frequency by 71% and increased velocity 200% for jejunum, but increased frequency 46% and velocity 50% for colon; PPr was decreased 59% for jejunum and 39% for colon. The results show that probiotics and other beneficial bacteria have strain and region-specific actions on gut motility that can be successfully discriminated using spatiotemporal mapping of diameter changes. Effects are not necessarily the same in colon and jejunum. Further research is needed on the detailed effects of the strains on enteric neuron currents for each gut region. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A novel experimental system using the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and its fungal endophytes reveals diverse and context-dependent effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jessica M; Hauser, Duncan A; Hinson, Rosemary; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    Fungal symbioses are ubiquitous in plants, but their effects have mostly been studied in seed plants. This study aimed to assess the diversity of fungal endophyte effects in a bryophyte and identify factors contributing to the variability of outcomes in these interactions. Fungal endophyte cultures and axenic liverwort clones were isolated from wild populations of the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. These collections were combined in a gnotobiotic system to test the effects of fungal isolates on the growth rates of hosts under laboratory conditions. Under the experimental conditions, fungi isolated from M. polymorpha ranged from aggressively pathogenic to strongly growth-promoting, but the majority of isolates caused no detectable change in host growth. Growth promotion by selected fungi depended on nutrient concentrations and was inhibited by coinoculation with multiple fungi. The M. polymorpha endophyte system expands the resources for this model liverwort. The experiments presented here demonstrate a wealth of diversity in fungal interactions even in a host reported to lack standard mycorrhizal symbiosis. In addition, they show that some known pathogens of vascular plants live in M. polymorpha and can confer benefits to this nonvascular host. This highlights the importance of studying endophyte effects across the plant tree of life. © 2018 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2018 New Phytologist Trust.

  6. Revealed willingness-to-pay versus standard cost-effectiveness thresholds: Evidence from the South African HIV Investment Case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesine Meyer-Rath

    Full Text Available The use of cost-effectiveness thresholds based on a country's income per capita has been criticized for not being relevant to decision making, in particular in middle-income countries such as South Africa. The recent South African HIV Investment Case produced an alternative cost-effectiveness threshold for HIV prevention and treatment interventions based on estimates of life years saved and the country's committed HIV budget.We analysed the optimal mix of HIV interventions over a baseline of the current HIV programme under the committed HIV budget for 2016-2018. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER as cost per life-year saved (LYS of 16 HIV prevention and treatment interventions over 20 years (2016-2035. We iteratively evaluated the most cost effective option (defined by an intervention and its coverage over a rolling baseline to which the more cost effective options had already been added, thereby allowing for diminishing marginal returns to interventions. We constrained the list of interventions to those whose combined cost was affordable under the current HIV budget. Costs are presented from the government perspective, unadjusted for inflation and undiscounted, in 2016 USD.The current HIV budget of about $1.6 billion per year was sufficient to pay for the expansion of condom availability, medical male circumcision, universal treatment, and infant testing at 6 weeks to maximum coverage levels, while also implementing a social and behavior change mass media campaign with a message geared at increasing testing uptake and reducing the number of sexual partners. The combined ICER of this package of services was $547/ LYS. The ICER of the next intervention that was above the affordability threshold was $872/LYS.The results of the South African HIV Investment Case point to an HIV cost-effectiveness threshold based on affordability under the current budget of $547-872 per life year saved, a small fraction of the country's GDP

  7. Psychology of fragrance use: perception of individual odor and perfume blends reveals a mechanism for idiosyncratic effects on fragrance choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenochová, Pavlína; Vohnoutová, Pavla; Roberts, S Craig; Oberzaucher, Elisabeth; Grammer, Karl; Havlíček, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Cross-culturally, fragrances are used to modulate body odor, but the psychology of fragrance choice has been largely overlooked. The prevalent view is that fragrances mask an individual's body odor and improve its pleasantness. In two experiments, we found positive effects of perfume on body odor perception. Importantly, however, this was modulated by significant interactions with individual odor donors. Fragrances thus appear to interact with body odor, creating an individually-specific odor mixture. In a third experiment, the odor mixture of an individual's body odor and their preferred perfume was perceived as more pleasant than a blend of the same body odor with a randomly-allocated perfume, even when there was no difference in pleasantness between the perfumes. This indicates that fragrance use extends beyond simple masking effects and that people choose perfumes that interact well with their own odor. Our results provide an explanation for the highly individual nature of perfume choice.

  8. Influence of thermal barrier effect of grain boundaries on bulk cascades in alpha-zirconium revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Yanan; Lai, Wensheng, E-mail: wslai@tsinghua.edu.cn

    2016-03-15

    The effect of grain boundaries (GBs) on bulk cascades in nano-structured alpha-zirconium has been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. It turns out that the existence of GBs increases the defect productivity in grains, suggesting that the GBs may act as a thermal barrier and postpone the annihilation of defects within grains. Moreover, it is found that the thermal barrier effect of GBs facilitates the shift of symmetric tilt GBs to the grain with higher temperature, and the smaller the tilt angle is, the easier the boundary shift will be. Thus, the influence of GBs on radiation damage in the nano-structured materials comes from the competition between damage increase in grains and defect annihilation at GBs.

  9. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, Henrik Barner

    2008-01-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions...... of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region...... of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa...

  10. Revealing Forest Harvesting Effects on Large Peakflows in Rain-On-Snow Environment with a New Stochastic Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, W. N.; Alila, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Using nine pairs of control-treatment watersheds with varying climate, physiography, and harvesting practices in the Rain-On-Snow (ROS) environment of the Pacific Northwest region, we explore the linkage between environmental control and the sensitivity of peakflow response to harvesting effects. Compared to previous paired watershed studies in ROS environment, we employed an experimental design of Frequency Pairing to isolate the effects of disturbances on systems' response. In contrary, the aspect of changing frequency distributions is not commonly invoked in previous literatures on the topic of forests and floods. Our results show how harvesting can dramatically increase the magnitude of all peakflows on record and how such effects can increase with increasing return periods, as a consequence of substantial increases to the mean and variance of the peakflow frequency distribution. Most critically, peakflows with return period larger than 10 years can increase in frequency, where the larger the peakflow event the more frequent it may become. The sensitivity of the upper tail of the frequency distribution of peakflows was found to be linked to the physiographic and climatic characteristics via a unifying synchronization / desynchronization spatial scaling mechanism that controls the generation of rain-on-snow runoff. This new physically-based stochastic hydrology understanding on the response of watersheds in ROS environments runs counter the deterministic prevailing wisdom of forest hydrology, which presumes a limited and diminishing role of forest cover as the magnitude of the peakflow event increases. By demonstrating the need for invoking the dimension of frequency in the understanding and prediction of the effects of harvesting on peakflows, findings from this study suggested that pure deterministic hypotheses and experimental designs that solely focusing on the changing magnitude of peakflows have been misguiding forest hydrology research for over a century

  11. Effects of Hormone Therapy on Brain Volumes Changes of Postmenopausal Women Revealed by Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Morphometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhao Zhang

    Full Text Available The Women's Health Initiative Memory Study Magnetic Resonance Imaging (WHIMS-MRI provides an opportunity to evaluate how menopausal hormone therapy (HT affects the structure of older women's brains. Our earlier work based on region of interest (ROI analysis demonstrated potential structural changes underlying adverse effects of HT on cognition. However, the ROI-based analysis is limited in statistical power and precision, and cannot provide fine-grained mapping of whole-brain changes.We aimed to identify local structural differences between HT and placebo groups from WHIMS-MRI in a whole-brain refined level, by using a novel method, named Optimally-Discriminative Voxel-Based Analysis (ODVBA. ODVBA is a recently proposed imaging pattern analysis approach for group comparisons utilizing a spatially adaptive analysis scheme to accurately locate areas of group differences, thereby providing superior sensitivity and specificity to detect the structural brain changes over conventional methods.Women assigned to HT treatments had significant Gray Matter (GM losses compared to the placebo groups in the anterior cingulate and the adjacent medial frontal gyrus, and the orbitofrontal cortex, which persisted after multiple comparison corrections. There were no regions where HT was significantly associated with larger volumes compared to placebo, although a trend of marginal significance was found in the posterior cingulate cortical area. The CEE-Alone and CEE+MPA groups, although compared with different placebo controls, demonstrated similar effects according to the spatial patterns of structural changes.HT had adverse effects on GM volumes and risk for cognitive impairment and dementia in older women. These findings advanced our understanding of the neurobiological underpinnings of HT effects.

  12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging reveals different neural substrates for the effects of orexin-1 and orexin-2 receptor antagonists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Gozzi

    Full Text Available Orexins are neuro-modulatory peptides involved in the control of diverse physiological functions through interaction with two receptors, orexin-1 (OX1R and orexin-2 (OX2R. Recent evidence in pre-clinical models points toward a putative dichotomic role of the two receptors, with OX2R predominantly involved in the regulation of the sleep/wake cycle and arousal, and the OX1R being more specifically involved in reward processing and motivated behaviour. However, the specific neural substrates underlying these distinct processes in the rat brain remain to be elucidated. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI in the rat to map the modulatory effect of selective OXR blockade on the functional response produced by D-amphetamine, a psychostimulant and arousing drug that stimulates orexigenic activity. OXR blockade was produced by GSK1059865 and JNJ1037049, two novel OX1R and OX2R antagonists with unprecedented selectivity at the counter receptor type. Both drugs inhibited the functional response to D-amphetamine albeit with distinct neuroanatomical patterns: GSK1059865 focally modulated functional responses in striatal terminals, whereas JNJ1037049 induced a widespread pattern of attenuation characterised by a prominent cortical involvement. At the same doses tested in the fMRI study, JNJ1037049 exhibited robust hypnotic properties, while GSK1059865 failed to display significant sleep-promoting effects, but significantly reduced drug-seeking behaviour in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. Collectively, these findings highlight an essential contribution of the OX2R in modulating cortical activity and arousal, an effect that is consistent with the robust hypnotic effect exhibited by JNJ1037049. The subcortical and striatal pattern observed with GSK1059865 represent a possible neurofunctional correlate for the modulatory role of OX1R in controlling reward-processing and goal-oriented behaviours in the rat.

  13. A 3-lever discrimination procedure reveals differences in the subjective effects of low and high doses of MDMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David N; Langen, Anna-Lena; Schenk, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Drug discrimination studies have suggested that the subjective effects of low doses of (±)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) are readily differentiated from those of d-amphetamine (AMPH) and that the discriminative stimulus properties are mediated by serotonergic and dopaminergic mechanisms, respectively. Previous studies, however, have primarily examined responses to doses that do not produce substantial increases in extracellular dopamine. The present study determined whether doses of MDMA that produce increases in synaptic dopamine would also produce subjective effects that were more like AMPH and were sensitive to pharmacological manipulation of D1-like receptors. A three-lever drug discrimination paradigm was used. Rats were trained to respond on different levers following saline, AMPH (0.5mg/kg, IP) or MDMA (1.5mg/kg, IP) injections. Generalization curves were generated for a range of different doses of both drugs and the effect of the D1-like antagonist, SCH23390 on the discriminative stimulus effects of different doses of MDMA was determined. Rats accurately discriminated MDMA, AMPH and saline. Low doses of MDMA produced almost exclusive responding on the MDMA lever but at doses of 3.0mg/kg MDMA or higher, responding shifted to the AMPH lever. The AMPH response produced by higher doses of MDMA was attenuated by pretreatment with SCH23390. The data suggest that low doses and higher doses of MDMA produce distinct discriminative stimuli. The shift to AMPH-like responding following administration of higher doses of MDMA, and the decrease in this response following administration of SCH23390 suggests a dopaminergic component to the subjective experience of MDMA at higher doses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transcriptome analysis reveals the host response to Schmallenberg virus in bovine cells and antagonistic effects of the NSs protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomström, Anne-Lie; Gu, Quan; Barry, Gerald; Wilkie, Gavin; Skelton, Jessica K; Baird, Margaret; McFarlane, Melanie; Schnettler, Esther; Elliott, Richard M; Palmarini, Massimo; Kohl, Alain

    2015-04-19

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a member of the Orthobunyavirus genus (Bunyaviridae family) causing malformations and abortions in ruminants. Although, as for other members of this family/genus, the non-structural protein NSs has been shown to be an interferon antagonist, very little is known regarding the overall inhibitory effects and targets of orthobunyavirus NSs proteins on host gene expression during infection. Therefore, using RNA-seq this study describes changes to the transcriptome of primary bovine cells following infection with Schmallenberg virus (SBV) or with a mutant lacking the non-structural protein NSs (SBVdelNSs) providing a detailed comparison of the effect of NSs expression on the host cell. The sequence reads from all samples (uninfected cells, SBV and SBVdelNSs) assembled well to the bovine host reference genome (on average 87.43% of the reads). During infection with SBVdelNSs, 649 genes were differentially expressed compared to uninfected cells (78.7% upregulated) and many of these were known antiviral and IFN-stimulated genes. On the other hand, only nine genes were differentially expressed in SBV infected cells compared to uninfected control cells, demonstrating the strong inhibitory effect of NSs on cellular gene expression. However, the majority of the genes that were expressed during SBV infection are involved in restriction of viral replication and spread indicating that SBV does not completely manage to shutdown the host antiviral response. In this study we show the effects of SBV NSs on the transcriptome of infected cells as well as the cellular response to wild type SBV. Although NSs is very efficient in shutting down genes of the host innate response, a number of possible antiviral factors were identified. Thus the data from this study can serve as a base for more detailed mechanistic studies of SBV and other orthobunyaviruses.

  15. Relativistic, QED and nuclear effects in highly charged ions revealed by resonant electron-ion recombination in storage rings

    OpenAIRE

    Schippers, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    Dielectronic recombination (DR) of few-electron ions has evolved into a sensitive spectroscopic tool for highly charged ions. This is due to technological advances in electron-beam preparation and ion-beam cooling techniques at heavy-ion storage rings. Recent experiments prove unambiguously that DR collision spectroscopy has become sensitive to 2nd order QED and to nuclear effects. This review discusses the most recent developments in high-resolution spectroscopy of low-energy DR resonances, ...

  16. Metabolomics reveals effects of maternal smoking on endogenous metabolites from lipid metabolism in cord blood of newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Rolle-Kampczyk, Ulrike E.; Krumsiek, Jan; Otto, Wolfgang; Röder, Stefan W; Kohajda, Tibor; Borte, Michael; Theis, Fabian; Lehmann, Irina; von Bergen, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A general detrimental effect of smoking during pregnancy on the health of newborn children is well-documented, but the detailed mechanisms remain elusive. Objectives Beside the specific influence of environmental tobacco smoke derived toxicants on developmental regulation the impact on the metabolism of newborn children is of particular interest, first as a general marker of foetal development and second due to its potential predictive value for the later occurrence of metabolic ...

  17. Effective population size dynamics reveal impacts of historic climatic events and recent anthropogenic pressure in African elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okello, J B A; Wittemyer, G; Rasmussen, H B; Arctander, P; Nyakaana, S; Douglas-Hamilton, I; Siegismund, H R

    2008-09-01

    Two hundred years of elephant hunting for ivory, peaking in 1970-1980s, caused local extirpations and massive population declines across Africa. The resulting genetic impacts on surviving populations have not been studied, despite the importance of understanding the evolutionary repercussions of such human-mediated events on this keystone species. Using Bayesian coalescent-based genetic methods to evaluate time-specific changes in effective population size, we analysed genetic variation in 20 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci from 400 elephants inhabiting the greater Samburu-Laikipia region of northern Kenya. This area experienced a decline of between 80% and 90% in the last few decades when ivory harvesting was rampant. The most significant change in effective population size, however, occurred approximately 2500 years ago during a mid-Holocene period of climatic drying in tropical Africa. Contrary to expectations, detailed analyses of four contemporary age-based cohorts showed that the peak poaching epidemic in the 1970s caused detectable temporary genetic impacts, with genetic diversity rebounding as juveniles surviving the poaching era became reproductively mature. This study demonstrates the importance of climatic history in shaping the distribution and genetic history of a keystone species and highlights the utility of coalescent-based demographic approaches in unravelling ancestral demographic events despite a lack of ancient samples. Unique insights into the genetic signature of mid-Holocene climatic change in Africa and effects of recent poaching pressure on elephants are discussed.

  18. Get rich quick: the signal to respond procedure reveals the time course of semantic richness effects during visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargreaves, Ian S; Pexman, Penny M

    2014-05-01

    According to several current frameworks, semantic processing involves an early influence of language-based information followed by later influences of object-based information (e.g., situated simulations; Santos, Chaigneau, Simmons, & Barsalou, 2011). In the present study we examined whether these predictions extend to the influence of semantic variables in visual word recognition. We investigated the time course of semantic richness effects in visual word recognition using a signal-to-respond (STR) paradigm fitted to a lexical decision (LDT) and a semantic categorization (SCT) task. We used linear mixed effects to examine the relative contributions of language-based (number of senses, ARC) and object-based (imageability, number of features, body-object interaction ratings) descriptions of semantic richness at four STR durations (75, 100, 200, and 400ms). Results showed an early influence of number of senses and ARC in the SCT. In both LDT and SCT, object-based effects were the last to influence participants' decision latencies. We interpret our results within a framework in which semantic processes are available to influence word recognition as a function of their availability over time, and of their relevance to task-specific demands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Meta-analysis reveals complex marine biological responses to the interactive effects of ocean acidification and warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Ben P; Gwynn-Jones, Dylan; Moore, Pippa J

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification and warming are considered two of the greatest threats to marine biodiversity, yet the combined effect of these stressors on marine organisms remains largely unclear. Using a meta-analytical approach, we assessed the biological responses of marine organisms to the effects of ocean acidification and warming in isolation and combination. As expected biological responses varied across taxonomic groups, life-history stages, and trophic levels, but importantly, combining stressors generally exhibited a stronger biological (either positive or negative) effect. Using a subset of orthogonal studies, we show that four of five of the biological responses measured (calcification, photosynthesis, reproduction, and survival, but not growth) interacted synergistically when warming and acidification were combined. The observed synergisms between interacting stressors suggest that care must be made in making inferences from single-stressor studies. Our findings clearly have implications for the development of adaptive management strategies particularly given that the frequency of stressors interacting in marine systems will be likely to intensify in the future. There is now an urgent need to move toward more robust, holistic, and ecologically realistic climate change experiments that incorporate interactions. Without them accurate predictions about the likely deleterious impacts to marine biodiversity and ecosystem functioning over the next century will not be possible. PMID:23610641

  20. Systematic chemical analysis approach reveals superior antioxidant capacity via the synergistic effect of flavonoid compounds in red vegetative tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xiaoxiao; Lu, Yanfen; Peng, Zhen; Fan, Shuangxi; Yao, Yuncong

    2018-02-01

    The flavonoid system comprises an abundance of compounds with multiple functions; however, their potential synergism in antioxidant function remains unclear. We established an approach using ever-red (RL) and ever-green leaves (GL) of crabapple cultivars during their development to determine interrelationships among flavonoid compounds. RL scored significantly better than GL in terms of the type, composition, and diversity of flavonoids than GL. Principal component analysis predicted flavonoids in RL to have positive interaction effects, and the total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher than the sum of antioxidant capacities of the individual compounds. This synergy was verified by the high antioxidant capacity in rat serum after feeding on red leaves. Our findings suggest that the synergistic effect is a result of the high transcription levels regulated by McMYBs in RL. In summary, individual flavonoids cooperate in a flavonoid system, thus producing a synergistic antioxidant effect, and the approach used herein can provide insights into the roles of flavonoids and other compounds in future studies.

  1. Pre-clinical evaluation of N-acetylcysteine reveals side effects in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinniger, Gavin J; Terrill, Jessica R; Assan, Evanna B; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2017-12-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been proposed as a therapeutic intervention for DMD boys, but potential adverse effects of NAC have not been widely investigated. We used young (6 weeks old) growing mdx mice to investigate the capacity of NAC supplementation (2% in drinking water for 6 weeks) to improve dystrophic muscle function and to explore broader systemic effects of NAC treatment. NAC treatment improved normalised measures of muscle function, and decreased inflammation and oxidative stress, but significantly reduced body weight gain, muscle weight and liver weight. Unexpected significant adverse effects of NAC on body and muscle weights indicate that interpretation of muscle function based on normalised force measures should be made with caution and careful consideration is needed when proposing the use of NAC as a therapeutic treatment for young DMD boys. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked muscle wasting disease characterised by severe muscle weakness, necrosis, inflammation and oxidative stress. The antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been proposed as a potential therapeutic intervention for DMD boys. We investigated the capacity of NAC to improve dystrophic muscle function in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Young (6 weeks old) mdx and non-dystrophic C57 mice receiving 2% NAC in drinking water for 6 weeks were compared with untreated mice. Grip strength and body weight were measured weekly, before the 12 week old mice were anaesthetised and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were excised for functional analysis and tissues were sampled for biochemical analyses. Compared to untreated mice, the mean (SD) normalised grip strength was significantly greater in NAC-treated mdx [3.13 (0.58) vs 4.87 (0.78) g body weight (bw) -1 ; P muscles [9.80 (2.27) vs 13.07 (3.37) N cm -2 ; P = 0

  2. A Nonlinear Dynamic Approach Reveals a Long-Term Stroke Effect on Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation at Multiple Time Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Lo, Men-Tzung; Peng, Chung-Kang; Liu, Yanhui; Novak, Vera

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral autoregulation (CA) is an important vascular control mechanism responsible for relatively stable cerebral blood flow despite changes of systemic blood pressure (BP). Impaired CA may leave brain tissue unprotected against potentially harmful effects of BP fluctuations. It is generally accepted that CA is less effective or even inactive at frequencies >∼0.1 Hz. Without any physiological foundation, this concept is based on studies that quantified the coupling between BP and cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) using transfer function analysis. This traditional analysis assumes stationary oscillations with constant amplitude and period, and may be unreliable or even invalid for analysis of nonstationary BP and BFV signals. In this study we propose a novel computational tool for CA assessment that is based on nonlinear dynamic theory without the assumption of stationary signals. Using this method, we studied BP and BFV recordings collected from 39 patients with chronic ischemic infarctions and 40 age-matched non-stroke subjects during baseline resting conditions. The active CA function in non-stroke subjects was associated with an advanced phase in BFV oscillations compared to BP oscillations at frequencies from ∼0.02 to 0.38 Hz. The phase shift was reduced in stroke patients even at > = 6 months after stroke, and the reduction was consistent at all tested frequencies and in both stroke and non-stroke hemispheres. These results provide strong evidence that CA may be active in a much wider frequency region than previously believed and that the altered multiscale CA in different vascular territories following stroke may have important clinical implications for post-stroke recovery. Moreover, the stroke effects on multiscale cerebral blood flow regulation could not be detected by transfer function analysis, suggesting that nonlinear approaches without the assumption of stationarity are more sensitive for the assessment of the coupling of nonstationary

  3. The stream of experience when watching artistic movies. Dynamic aesthetic effects revealed by the continuous evaluation procedure (CEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia eMuth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Research in perception and appreciation is often focused on snapshots, stills of experience. Static approaches allow for multidimensional assessment, but are unable to catch the crucial dynamics of affective and perceptual processes; for instance, aesthetic phenomena such as the ‘Aesthetic-Aha’ (the increase in liking after the sudden detection of Gestalt, effects of expectation, or Berlyne’s idea that ‘disorientation’ with a ‘promise of success’ elicits interest. We conducted empirical studies on indeterminate artistic movies depicting the evolution and metamorphosis of Gestalt and investigated (i the effects of sudden perceptual insights on liking; that is, Aesthetic Aha-effects, (ii the dynamics of interest before moments of insight, and (iii the dynamics of complexity before and after moments of insight. Via the so-called Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP enabling analogous evaluation in a continuous way, participants assessed the material on two aesthetic dimensions blockwise either in a gallery or a laboratory. The material’s inherent dynamics were described via assessments of liking, interest, determinacy and surprise along with a computational analysis on the variable complexity. We identified moments of insight as peaks in determinacy and surprise. Statistically significant changes in liking and interest demonstrated that: (i insights increase liking, (ii interest already increases 1,500 ms before such moments of insight, supporting the idea that it is evoked by an expectation of understanding, and (iii insights occur during increasing complexity. We propose a preliminary model of dynamics in liking and interest with regard to complexity and perceptual insight and discuss descriptions of participants’ experiences of insight. Our results point to the importance of systematic analyses of dynamics in art perception and appreciation.

  4. Biological effect of aqueous C60 aggregates on Scenedesmus obliquus revealed by transcriptomics and non-targeted metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Chunlei; Zhang, Bo; He, Yiliang; Hu, Chaoyang; Ng, Qin Xiang; Zhang, Hui; Ong, Choon Nam; ZhifenLin

    2017-02-15

    This work evaluated biological effect of nC 60 on Scenedesmus obliquus. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of nC 60 for 7days. Low-dose of nC 60 was found to have a minor growth inhibitory effect. The transcriptomics and metabolomics were integrated to examine intricate molecular and cellular effects of nC 60 on Scenedesmus obliquus. We found that Scenedesmus obliquus cells exposed to nC 60 had several significant alterations in cellular transcription and biochemical processes. During the 7-day exposure to nC 60 , 2234 and 2,448 unigenes were differentially expressed by 0.1mg/L and 1mg/L nC 60 -treated groups compared with the control, including 2085 or 2247 up-regulated genes and 149 or 201 down-regulated genes, respectively. We successfully identified 22 metabolites, including 6 significantly changed metabolites, such as sucrose, d-glucose, and malic acid. The citrate cycle (TCA cycle) (ko00020) was the main target of both differentially expressed genes and metabolic change. However, accumulation of sucrose (end-product) could have induced feedback inhibition of photosynthesis in Scenedesmus obliquus, explaining the slight growth inhibition observed. The results provided a mechanistic understanding of the growth inhibition of nC 60 toxicity. These genes and metabolites are useful biomarkers for future studies and offer new insights into the early detectable changes in Scenedesmus obliquus with nC 60 exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Forecasting the effects of land use scenarios on farmland birds reveal a potential mitigation of climate change impacts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Princé

    Full Text Available Climate and land use changes are key drivers of current biodiversity trends, but interactions between these drivers are poorly modeled, even though they could amplify or mitigate negative impacts of climate change. Here, we attempt to predict the impacts of different agricultural change scenarios on common breeding birds within farmland included in the potential future climatic suitable areas for these species. We used the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES to integrate likely changes in species climatic suitability, based on species distribution models, and changes in area of farmland, based on the IMAGE model, inside future climatic suitable areas. We also developed six farmland cover scenarios, based on expert opinion, which cover a wide spectrum of potential changes in livestock farming and cropping patterns by 2050. We ran generalized linear mixed models to calibrate the effects of farmland cover and climate change on bird specific abundance within 386 small agricultural regions. We used model outputs to predict potential changes in bird populations on the basis of predicted changes in regional farmland cover, in area of farmland and in species climatic suitability. We then examined the species sensitivity according to their habitat requirements. A scenario based on extensification of agricultural systems (i.e., low-intensity agriculture showed the greatest potential to reduce reverse current declines in breeding birds. To meet ecological requirements of a larger number of species, agricultural policies accounting for regional disparities and landscape structure appear more efficient than global policies uniformly implemented at national scale. Interestingly, we also found evidence that farmland cover changes can mitigate the negative effect of climate change. Here, we confirm that there is a potential for countering negative effects of climate change by adaptive management of landscape. We argue that such studies will help inform

  6. The stream of experience when watching artistic movies. Dynamic aesthetic effects revealed by the Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muth, Claudia; Raab, Marius H; Carbon, Claus-Christian

    2015-01-01

    Research in perception and appreciation is often focused on snapshots, stills of experience. Static approaches allow for multidimensional assessment, but are unable to catch the crucial dynamics of affective and perceptual processes; for instance, aesthetic phenomena such as the "Aesthetic-Aha" (the increase in liking after the sudden detection of Gestalt), effects of expectation, or Berlyne's idea that "disorientation" with a "promise of success" elicits interest. We conducted empirical studies on indeterminate artistic movies depicting the evolution and metamorphosis of Gestalt and investigated (i) the effects of sudden perceptual insights on liking; that is, "Aesthetic Aha"-effects, (ii) the dynamics of interest before moments of insight, and (iii) the dynamics of complexity before and after moments of insight. Via the so-called Continuous Evaluation Procedure (CEP) enabling analogous evaluation in a continuous way, participants assessed the material on two aesthetic dimensions blockwise either in a gallery or a laboratory. The material's inherent dynamics were described via assessments of liking, interest, determinacy, and surprise along with a computational analysis on the variable complexity. We identified moments of insight as peaks in determinacy and surprise. Statistically significant changes in liking and interest demonstrated that: (i) insights increase liking, (ii) interest already increases 1500 ms before such moments of insight, supporting the idea that it is evoked by an expectation of understanding, and (iii) insights occur during increasing complexity. We propose a preliminary model of dynamics in liking and interest with regard to complexity and perceptual insight and discuss descriptions of participants' experiences of insight. Our results point to the importance of systematic analyses of dynamics in art perception and appreciation.

  7. In-clustering effects in InAlN and InGaN revealed by high pressure studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorczyca, I.; Suski, T.; Kaminska, A.

    2010-01-01

    results are compared with the results of photoluminescence measurements performed at high hydrostatic pressures on InAlN and InGaN quasi-bulk epilayers. We discuss the modification of the uppermost valence band due to formation of In clusters which, together with the related lattice relaxations, may......Electronic band structure calculations of InAlN and InGaN under pressure are presented for two different arrangements of the In atoms, uniform and clustered. The band gap pressure coefficients exhibit strong bowing, and the effect is especially large when indium atoms are clustered. The theoretical...

  8. Time-varying spectral analysis revealing differential effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia: non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-T; Wu, H-T; Tsao, J; Yien, H-W; Hseu, S-S

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect various physiological dynamics. In particular, variation of R-R peak interval (RRI) of electrocardiography appears regularly oscillatory in deeper levels of anaesthesia and less regular in lighter levels of anaesthesia. We proposed a new index, non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio (NRR), to quantify this feature and investigated its potential to estimate depth of anaesthesia. Thirty-one female patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The oscillatory pattern transition of RRI was visualised by the time-varying power spectrum and quantified by NRR. The prediction of anaesthetic events, including skin incision, first reaction of motor movement during emergence period, loss of consciousness (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by NRR were evaluated by serial prediction probability (PK ) analysis; the ability to predict the decrease of effect-site sevoflurane concentration was also evaluated. The results were compared with Bispectral Index (BIS). NRR well-predicted first reaction (PK  > 0.90) 30 s ahead, earlier than BIS and significantly better than HRV indices. NRR well-correlated with sevoflurane concentration, although its correlation was inferior to BIS, while HRV indices had no such correlation. BIS indicated LOC and ROC best. Our findings suggest that NRR provides complementary information to BIS regarding the differential effects of anaesthetics on the brain, especially the subcortical motor activity. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Linking anti-predator behaviour to prey demography reveals limited risk effects of an actively hunting large carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Arthur D; Kauffman, Matthew J; McWhirter, Douglas E; Jimenez, Michael D; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Albeke, Shannon E; Sawyer, Hall; White, P J

    2013-08-01

    Ecological theory predicts that the diffuse risk cues generated by wide-ranging, active predators should induce prey behavioural responses but not major, population- or community-level consequences. We evaluated the non-consumptive effects (NCEs) of an active predator, the grey wolf (Canis lupus), by simultaneously tracking wolves and the behaviour, body fat, and pregnancy of elk (Cervus elaphus), their primary prey in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. When wolves approached within 1 km, elk increased their rates of movement, displacement and vigilance. Even in high-risk areas, however, these encounters occurred only once every 9 days. Ultimately, despite 20-fold variation in the frequency of encounters between wolves and individual elk, the risk of predation was not associated with elk body fat or pregnancy. Our findings suggest that the ecological consequences of actively hunting large carnivores, such as the wolf, are more likely transmitted by consumptive effects on prey survival than NCEs on prey behaviour. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd/CNRS.

  10. The extracellular proteome of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12 reveals proteins with putative roles in probiotic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilad, Ofir; Svensson, Birte; Viborg, Alexander Holm

    2011-01-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert health‐promoting effects on the human host, as demonstrated for numerous strains of the genus Bifidobacterium. To unravel the proteins involved in the interactions between the host and the extensively used and well‐studied probiotic strain Bifidobacte......Probiotics are live microorganisms that exert health‐promoting effects on the human host, as demonstrated for numerous strains of the genus Bifidobacterium. To unravel the proteins involved in the interactions between the host and the extensively used and well‐studied probiotic strain...... Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB‐12, proteins secreted by the bacterium, i.e. belonging to the extracellular proteome present in the culture medium, were identified by 2‐DE coupled with MALDI‐TOF MS. Among the 74 distinct proteins identified, 31 are predicted to carry out their physiological role either...... functions include binding of plasminogen, formation of fimbriae, adhesion to collagen, attachment to mucin and intestinal cells as well as induction of immunomodulative response. These findings suggest a role of the proteins in colonization of the gastrointestinal tract, adhesion to host tissues...

  11. Effects of reduced natural background radiation on Drosophila melanogaster growth and development as revealed by the FLYINGLOW program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morciano, Patrizia; Iorio, Roberto; Iovino, Daniela; Cipressa, Francesca; Esposito, Giuseppe; Porrazzo, Antonella; Satta, Luigi; Alesse, Edoardo; Tabocchini, Maria Antonella; Cenci, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    Natural background radiation of Earth and cosmic rays played a relevant role during the evolution of living organisms. However, how chronic low doses of radiation can affect biological processes is still unclear. Previous data have indicated that cells grown at the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory (LNGS, L'Aquila) of National Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) of Italy, where the dose rate of cosmic rays and neutrons is significantly reduced with respect to the external environment, elicited an impaired response against endogenous damage as compared to cells grown outside LNGS. This suggests that environmental radiation contributes to the development of defense mechanisms at cellular level. To further understand how environmental radiation affects metabolism of living organisms, we have recently launched the FLYINGLOW program that aims at exploiting Drosophila melanogaster as a model for evaluating the effects of low doses/dose rates of radiation at the organismal level. Here, we will present a comparative data set on lifespan, motility and fertility from different Drosophila strains grown in parallel at LNGS and in a reference laboratory at the University of L'Aquila. Our data suggest the reduced radiation environment can influence Drosophila development and, depending on the genetic background, may affect viability for several generations even when flies are moved back to normal background radiation. As flies are considered a valuable model for human biology, our results might shed some light on understanding the effect of low dose radiation also in humans. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Unexperienced mechanical effects of muscular fatigue can be predicted by the Central Nervous System as revealed by anticipatory postural adjustments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Muscular fatigue effects have been shown to be compensated by the implementation of adaptive compensatory neuromuscular strategies, resulting in modifications of the initial motion coordination. However, no studies have focused on the efficiency of the feedforward motor commands when muscular fatigue occurs for the first time during a particular movement. This study included 18 healthy subjects who had to perform arm-raising movements in a standing posture at a maximal velocity before and after a fatiguing procedure involving focal muscles. The arm-raising task implies the generation of predictive processes of control, namely Anticipatory Postural Adjustments (APAs), whose temporal and quantitative features have been shown to be dependent on the kinematics of the upcoming arm-raising movement. By altering significantly the kinematic profile of the focal movement with a fatiguing procedure, we sought to find out whether APAs scaled to the lower mechanical disturbance. APAs were measured using surface electromyography. Following the fatiguing procedure, acceleration peaks of the arm movement decreased by ~27%. APAs scaled to this lower fatigue-related disturbance during the very first trial post-fatigue, suggesting that the Central Nervous System can predict unexperienced mechanical effects of muscle fatigue. It is suggested that these results are accounted for by prediction processes in which the central integration of the groups III and IV afferents leads to an update of the internal model by remapping the relationship between focal motor command magnitude and the actual mechanical output.

  13. Photoelectric effect in the relativistic domain revealed by the time-reversed process for highly charged uranium ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoehlker, T.; Mokler, P.H.; Kozhuharov, C.; Warczak, A.

    1996-10-01

    The photoelectric effect in the near relativistic energy regime of 80 to 350 keV is studied by the time-reversed process in ion-atom collisions, i.e. by the radiative capture of a quasi-free target electron. We review shell and subshell differential photon-angular distribution studies of radiative capture into highly-charged uranium ions. The experimental data are compared with exact relativistic calculations and give detailed insight into both the atomic structure of high-Z few-electron ions and into the fundamental electron-photon interaction process involved. In particular it is shown that the angular-differential measurements provide a unique method to study the magnetic interaction in relativistic electron-photon encoun- (orig.)

  14. Temporal analyses of Salmonellae in a headwater spring ecosystem reveals the effects of precipitation and runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaertner, James P; Garres, Tiffany; Becker, Jesse C; Jimenez, Maria L; Forstner, Michael R J; Hahn, Dittmar

    2009-03-01

    Sediments and water from the spring and slough arm of Spring Lake, the pristine headwaters of the San Marcos River, Texas, were analyzed for Salmonellae by culture and molecular techniques before and after three major precipitation events, each with intermediate dry periods. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-assisted analyses of enrichment cultures detected Salmonellae in samples after all three precipitation events, but failed to detect them immediately prior to the rainfall events. Detection among individual locations differed with respect to the precipitation event analyzed, and strains isolated were highly variable with respect to serovars. These results demonstrate that rainwater associated effects, most likely surface runoff, provide an avenue for short-term pollution of aquatic systems with Salmonellae that do not, however, appear to establish for the long-term in water nor sediments.

  15. Road and rail traffic noise induce comparable extra-aural effects as revealed during a short-term memory test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen Gallasch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine extraaural effects as induced by 20 min of road (ROAD and 20 min of rail (RAIL traffic noise with same loudness (75 dBA, a laboratory study was carried out. The study (N = 54 consisted of 28 high and 26 low-annoyed healthy individuals as determined by a traffic annoyance test. To control attention, all individuals performed a nonauditory short-term memory test during the noise exposures. A within-subject design, with phases of ROAD, RAIL, and CALM (memory test only, alternated by phases of rest, was defined. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (sBP, total peripheral resistance (TPR, as well as three autonomic variables, preejection period (PEP, 0.15–0.4 Hz high-frequency component of HR variability (HF, and salivary stress biomarker alpha amylase (sAA were measured. In relation to CALM, HR increased (RAIL +2.1%, ROAD +2.5%, sBP tended to increase against the end of noise exposure, PEP decreased (RAIL −0.7%, ROAD −0.8%, HF decreased (RAIL −3.4%, ROAD −2.9%, and sAA increased (RAIL +78%, ROAD +69%. No differences were found between RAIL and ROAD, indicating that both noise stressors induced comparable extraaural effects. Factor annoyance showed significant during CALM. Here a reduced sympathetic drive (higher PEP values combined with an increased vascular tone (higher TPR values was found at the high-annoyed subgroup.

  16. Quantitative proteomic analysis reveals effects of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) on invasion-promoting proteins secreted by glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangar, Vineet; Funk, Cory C; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Campbell, David S; Moritz, Robert L; Price, Nathan D

    2014-10-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is a highly invasive and aggressive brain tumor with an invariably poor prognosis. The overexpression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a primary influencer of invasion and proliferation in tumor cells and the constitutively active EGFRvIII mutant, found in 30-65% of Glioblastoma multiforme, confers more aggressive invasion. To better understand how EGFR contributes to tumor aggressiveness, we investigated the effect of EGFR on the secreted levels of 65 rationally selected proteins involved in invasion. We employed selected reaction monitoring targeted mass spectrometry using stable isotope labeled internal peptide standards to quantity proteins in the secretome from five GBM (U87) isogenic cell lines in which EGFR, EGFRvIII, and/or PTEN were expressed. Our results show that cell lines with EGFR overexpression and constitutive EGFRvIII expression differ remarkably in the expression profiles for both secreted and intracellular signaling proteins, and alterations in EGFR signaling result in reproducible changes in concentrations of secreted proteins. Furthermore, the EGFRvIII-expressing mutant cell line secretes the majority of the selected invasion-promoting proteins at higher levels than other cell lines tested. Additionally, the intracellular and extracellular protein measurements indicate elevated oxidative stress in the EGFRvIII-expressing cell line. In conclusion, the results of our study demonstrate that EGFR signaling has a significant effect on the levels of secreted invasion-promoting proteins, likely contributing to the aggressiveness of Glioblastoma multiforme. Further characterization of these proteins may provide candidates for new therapeutic strategies and targets as well as biomarkers for this aggressive disease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. 4-Phenylbutyric Acid Reveals Good Beneficial Effects on Vital Organ Function via Anti-Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Septic Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangming; Wu, Huiling; Zang, JiaTao; Yang, Guangming; Zhu, Yu; Wu, Yue; Chen, Xiangyun; Lan, Dan; Li, Tao

    2016-08-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are the common complications in ICUs. Vital organ function disorder contributes a critical role in high mortality after severe sepsis or septic shock, in which endoplasmic reticulum stress plays an important role. Whether anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid is beneficial to sepsis and the underlying mechanisms are not known. Laboratory investigation. State Key Laboratory of Trauma, Burns and Combined Injury. Sprague-Dawley rats. Using cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats, lipopolysaccharide-treated vascular smooth muscle cells, and cardiomyocytes, effects of 4-phenylbutyric acid on vital organ function and the relationship with endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress were observed. Conventional treatment, including fluid resuscitation, vasopressin, and antibiotic, only slightly improved the hemodynamic variable, such as mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output, and slightly improved the vital organ function and the animal survival of septic shock rats. Supplementation of 4-phenylbutyric acid (5 mg/kg; anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress), especially administered at early stage, significantly improved the hemodynamic variables, vital organ function, such as liver, renal, and intestinal barrier function, and animal survival in septic shock rats. 4-Phenylbutyric acid application inhibited the endoplasmic reticulum stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins, such as CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein in vital organs, such as heart and superior mesenteric artery after severe sepsis. Further studies showed that 4-phenylbutyric acid inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cytokine release, apoptosis, and oxidative stress via inhibition of nuclear factor-κB, caspase-3 and caspase-9, and increasing glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase expression, respectively. Anti

  18. Proteomic responses reveal the differential effects induced by cadmium in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis at early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lanlan; Peng, Xiao; Yu, Deliang; Ji, Chenglong; Zhao, Jianmin; Wu, Huifeng

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) has become an important metal contaminant and posed severe risk on the organisms in the coastal environments of the Bohai Sea. Marine mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis is widely distributed along the Bohai coast and consumed as seafood by local residents. Evidences indicate that the early stages of marine organisms are more sensitive to metal contaminants. In this study, we applied two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics to characterize the biological effects of Cd (50 μg L(-1)) in the early life stages (D-shape larval and juvenile) of mussels. The different proteomic responses demonstrated the differential responsive mechanisms to Cd exposure in these two early life stages of mussels. In details, results indicated that Cd mainly induced immune and oxidative stresses in both D-shape larval and juvenile mussels via different pathways. In addition, the significant up-regulation of triosephosphate isomerase and metallothionein confirmed the enhanced energy demand and mobilized detoxification mechanism in D-shape larval mussels exposed to Cd. In juvenile mussels, Cd exposure also induced clear apoptosis. Overall, this work suggests that Cd is a potential immune toxicant to mussel M. galloprovincialis at early life stages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metabolic routing of dietary nutrients in birds: effects of diet quality and macronutrient composition revealed using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podlesak, David W; McWilliams, Scott R

    2006-01-01

    During fall migration many songbirds switch from consuming primarily insects to consuming mostly fruit. Fruits with more carbohydrates and less protein may be sufficient to rebuild expended fat stores, but such fruits may be inadequate to replace catabolized protein. We manipulated the concentrations and isotopic signatures of macronutrients in diets fed to birds to study the effects of diet quality on metabolic routing of dietary nutrients. We estimated that approximately 45% and 75%, respectively, of the carbon in proteinaceous tissue of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets came from nonprotein dietary sources. In contrast, we estimated that approximately 100% and 20%-80%, respectively, of the nitrogen in proteinaceous tissues of birds switched to high- or low-protein diets was attributable to dietary protein. Thus, the routing and assimilation of dietary carbon and nitrogen differed depending on diet composition. As a result, delta (15)N of tissues collected from wild animals that consume high-quality diets may reliably indicate the dietary protein source, whereas delta (13)C of these same tissues is likely the product of metabolic routing of carbon from several macronutrients. These results have implications for how isotopic discrimination is best estimated and how we can study macronutrient routing in wild animals.

  20. EST-SSR marker revealed effective over biochemical and morphological scepticism towards identification of specific turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Ambika; Jena, Sudipta; Kar, Basudeba; Sahoo, Suprava; Ray, Asit; Singh, Subhashree; Joshi, Raj Kumar; Acharya, Laxmikanta; Nayak, Sanghamitra

    2017-05-01

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., family Zingiberaceae) is one of the most economically important plants for its use in food, medicine, and cosmetic industries. Cultivar identification is a major constraint in turmeric, owing to high degree of morphological similarity that in turn, affects its commercialization. The present study addresses this constraint, using EST-SSR marker based, molecular identification of 8 elite cultivars and 88 accessions in turmeric. Fifty EST-SSR primers were screened against eight cultivars of turmeric (Suroma, Roma, Lakadong, Megha, Alleppey Supreme, Kedaram, Pratibha, and Suvarna); out of which 11 primers showed polymorphic banding pattern. The polymorphic information content (PIC) of these primers ranged from 0.13 to 0.48. However, only three SSR loci (CSSR 14, CSSR 15, and CSSR 18) gave reproducible unique banding pattern clearly distinguishing the cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna' from other cultivars tested. These three unique SSR markers also proved to be effective in identification of 'Lakadong' cultivars when analysed with 88 accessions of turmeric collected from different agro-climatic regions. Furthermore, two identified cultivars (Lakadong and Suvarna) could also be precisely differentiated when analysed and based on phylogenetic tree, with other 94 genotypes of turmeric. The novel SSR markers can be used for identification and authentication of two commercially important turmeric cultivars 'Lakadong' and 'Suvarna'.

  1. Clinical and molecular characterization of duplications encompassing the human SHOX gene reveal a variable effect on stature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, N Simon; Harvey, John F; Bunyan, David J; Rankin, Julia; Grigelioniene, Giedre; Bruno, Damien L; Tan, Tiong Y; Tomkins, Susan; Hastings, Robert

    2009-07-01

    Deletions of the SHOX gene are well documented and cause disproportionate short stature and variable skeletal abnormalities. In contrast interstitial SHOX duplications limited to PAR1 appear to be very rare and the clinical significance of the only case report in the literature is unclear. Mapping of this duplication has now shown that it includes the entire SHOX gene but little flanking sequence and so will not encompass any of the long-range enhancers required for SHOX transcription. We now describe the clinical and molecular characterization of three additional cases. The duplications all included the SHOX coding sequence but varied in the amount of flanking sequence involved. The probands were ascertained for a variety of reasons: hypotonia and features of Asperger syndrome, Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis (LWD), and a family history of cleft palate. However, the presence of a duplication did not correlate with any of these features or with evidence of skeletal abnormality. Remarkably, the proband with LWD had inherited both a SHOX deletion and a duplication. The effect of the duplications on stature was variable: height appeared to be elevated in some carriers, particularly in those with the largest duplications, but was still within the normal range. SHOX duplications are likely to be under ascertained and more cases need to be identified and characterized in detail in order to accurately determine their phenotypic consequences.

  2. Screening of E. coli β-clamp Inhibitors Revealed that Few Inhibit Helicobacter pylori More Effectively: Structural and Functional Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Pandey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristic of interaction with various enzymes and processivity-promoting nature during DNA replication makes β-clamp an important drug target. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori have several unique features in DNA replication machinery that makes it different from other microorganisms. To find out whether difference in DNA replication proteins behavior accounts for any difference in drug response when compared to E. coli, in the present study, we have tested E. coli β-clamp inhibitor molecules against H. pylori β-clamp. Various approaches were used to test the binding of inhibitors to H. pylori β-clamp including docking, surface competition assay, complex structure determination, as well as antimicrobial assay. Out of five shortlisted inhibitor molecules on the basis of docking score, three molecules, 5-chloroisatin, carprofen, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide were co-crystallized with H. pylori β-clamp and the structures show that they bind at the protein-protein interaction site as expected. In vivo studies showed only two molecules, 5-chloroisatin, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide inhibited the growth of the pylori with MIC values in micro molar range, which is better than the inhibitory effect of the same drugs on E. coli. Therefore, the evaluation of such drugs against H. pylori may explore the possibility to use to generate species-specific pharmacophore for development of new drugs against H. pylori.

  3. Physiological responses to copper in giant clams: a comparison of two methods in revealing effects on photosynthesis in zooxanthellae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfwing, Tina; Blidberg, Eva; Tedengren, Michael

    2002-08-01

    In the present work physiological responses to a short term, sub-lethal exposure to copper (5 microg Cu2 l(-1) were studied on two species of giant clams, Tridacna gigas and Hippopus hippopus. All giant clams (fam. Tridacnidae) maintain a symbiotic relationship with photo-synthesising microalgae (zooxanthellae) and the phytotoxic effects of this copper concentration were approached with two different end points: changes in oxygen production and maximal quantum yield (Fv/Fm). Additionally we measured respiration, whereby Pg:R ratios could be calculated for the system (algae and clam) and used as an indicator of stress. Cu accumulation was only determined for T. gigas and showed significantly higher tissue concentrations in exposed specimens (11.3 microg Cu g(-1) dry wt) compared to the controls (4.2 microg Cu g(-1)). Both species displayed significantly reduced Pg:R ratios due to exposure, mainly explained by lowered gross production. No indication of stress was shown in the fluorescence measurements and possible explanations are discussed in the paper. We propose that inhibitions in the slow kinetics of photosynthesis were not captured by this fluorescence parameter. Accordingly we suggest that measurements of maximum fluorescence yield should be accompanied by complementary parameters when studying pollutants with unclear phytotoxic mechanisms.

  4. Temporal-pattern similarity analysis reveals the beneficial and detrimental effects of context reinstatement on human memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudigl, Tobias; Vollmar, Christian; Noachtar, Soheyl; Hanslmayr, Simon

    2015-04-01

    A powerful force in human memory is the context in which memories are encoded (Tulving and Thomson, 1973). Several studies suggest that the reinstatement of neural encoding patterns is beneficial for memory retrieval (Manning et al., 2011; Staresina et al., 2012; Jafarpour et al., 2014). However, reinstatement of the original encoding context is not always helpful, for instance, when retrieving a memory in a different contextual situation (Smith and Vela, 2001). It is an open question whether such context-dependent memory effects can be captured by the reinstatement of neural patterns. We investigated this question by applying temporal and spatial pattern similarity analysis in MEG and intracranial EEG in a context-match paradigm. Items (words) were tagged by individual dynamic context stimuli (movies). The results show that beta oscillatory phase in visual regions and the parahippocampal cortex tracks the incidental reinstatement of individual context trajectories on a single-trial level. Crucially, memory benefitted from reinstatement when the encoding and retrieval contexts matched but suffered from reinstatement when the contexts did not match. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/355373-12$15.00/0.

  5. Comparative proteomic analysis reveals the positive effect of exogenous spermidine on photosynthesis and salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Ting; Shan, Xi; Li, Bin; Shu, Sheng; Sun, Jin; Guo, Shirong

    2016-08-01

    Our results based on proteomics data and physiological alterations proposed the putative mechanism of exogenous Spd enhanced salinity tolerance in cucumber seedlings. Current studies showed that exogenous spermidine (Spd) could alleviate harmful effects of salinity. It is important to increase our understanding of the beneficial physiological responses of exogenous Spd treatment, and to determine the molecular responses underlying these responses. Here, we combined a physiological analysis with iTRAQ-based comparative proteomics of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) leaves, treated with 0.1 mM exogenous Spd, 75 mM NaCl and/or exogenous Spd. A total of 221 differentially expressed proteins were found and involved in 30 metabolic pathways, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, stress response, signal transduction and antioxidant. Based on functional classification of the differentially expressed proteins and the physiological responses, we found cucumber seedlings treated with Spd under salt stress had higher photosynthesis efficiency, upregulated tetrapyrrole synthesis, stronger ROS scavenging ability and more protein biosynthesis activity than NaCl treatment, suggesting that these pathways may promote salt tolerance under high salinity. This study provided insights into how exogenous Spd protects photosynthesis and enhances salt tolerance in cucumber seedlings.

  6. Revealing fosfomycin primary effect on Staphylococcus aureus transcriptome: modulation of cell envelope biosynthesis and phosphoenolpyruvate induced starvation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruden Kristina

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Staphylococcus aureus is a highly adaptable human pathogen and there is a constant search for effective antibiotics. Fosfomycin is a potent irreversible inhibitor of MurA, an enolpyruvyl transferase that uses phosphoenolpyruvate as substrate. The goal of this study was to identify the pathways and processes primarily affected by fosfomycin at the genome-wide transcriptome level to aid development of new drugs. Results S. aureus ATCC 29213 cells were treated with sub-MIC concentrations of fosfomycin and harvested at 10, 20 and 40 minutes after treatment. S. aureus GeneChip statistical data analysis was complemented by gene set enrichment analysis. A visualization tool for mapping gene expression data into biological pathways was developed in order to identify the metabolic processes affected by fosfomycin. We have shown that the number of significantly differentially expressed genes in treated cultures increased with time and with increasing fosfomycin concentration. The target pathway - peptidoglycan biosynthesis - was upregulated following fosfomycin treatment. Modulation of transport processes, cofactor biosynthesis, energy metabolism and nucleic acid biosynthesis was also observed. Conclusions Several pathways and genes downregulated by fosfomycin have been identified, in contrast to previously described cell wall active antibiotics, and was explained by starvation response induced by phosphoenolpyruvate accumulation. Transcriptomic profiling, in combination with meta-analysis, has been shown to be a valuable tool in determining bacterial response to a specific antibiotic.

  7. Cooperative Effects of Zwitterionic-Ionic Surfactant Mixtures on the Interfacial Water Structure Revealed by Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xuecong; Yang, Fangyuan; Chen, Shunli; Zhu, Xuefeng; Wang, Chuanyi

    2018-05-08

    Cooperative effects of a series of equimolar binary zwitterionic-ionic surfactant mixtures on the interfacial water structure at the air-water interfaces have been studied by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG-VS). For zwitterionic surfactant palmityl sulfobetaine (SNC 16 ), anionic surfactant sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), and cationic surfactant cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with the same length of alkyl chain, significantly enhanced ordering of interfacial water molecules was observed for the zwitterionic-anionic surfactant mixtures SNC 16 -SHS, indicating that SNC 16 interacts more strongly with SHS than with CTAB because of the strong headgroup-headgroup electrostatic attraction for SNC 16 -SHS. Meanwhile, the SFG amplitude ratio of methyl and methylene symmetric stretching modes was used to verify the stronger interaction between SNC 16 and SHS. The conformational order indicator increased from 0.64 for SNC 16 to 7.17 for SNC 16 -SHS but only 0.94 for SNC 16 -CTAB. In addition, another anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was introduced to study the influence of chain-chain interaction. Decreased SFG amplitude of interfacial water molecules for SNC 16 -SDS was observed. Therefore, both the headgroup-headgroup electrostatic interaction and chain-chain van der Waals attractive interaction of the surfactants play an important role in enhancing the ordering of interfacial water molecules. The results provided experimental and theoretical bases for practical applications of the surfactants.

  8. Screening of E. coli β-clamp Inhibitors Revealed that Few Inhibit Helicobacter pylori More Effectively: Structural and Functional Characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Preeti; Verma, Vijay; Dhar, Suman Kumar; Gourinath, Samudrala

    2018-01-11

    The characteristic of interaction with various enzymes and processivity-promoting nature during DNA replication makes β-clamp an important drug target. Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) have several unique features in DNA replication machinery that makes it different from other microorganisms. To find out whether difference in DNA replication proteins behavior accounts for any difference in drug response when compared to E. coli , in the present study, we have tested E. coli β-clamp inhibitor molecules against H. pylori β-clamp. Various approaches were used to test the binding of inhibitors to H. pylori β-clamp including docking, surface competition assay, complex structure determination, as well as antimicrobial assay. Out of five shortlisted inhibitor molecules on the basis of docking score, three molecules, 5-chloroisatin, carprofen, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide were co-crystallized with H. pylori β-clamp and the structures show that they bind at the protein-protein interaction site as expected. In vivo studies showed only two molecules, 5-chloroisatin, and 3,4-difluorobenzamide inhibited the growth of the pylori with MIC values in micro molar range, which is better than the inhibitory effect of the same drugs on E. coli . Therefore, the evaluation of such drugs against H. pylori may explore the possibility to use to generate species-specific pharmacophore for development of new drugs against H. pylori .

  9. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  10. Transcriptome-Based Analysis in Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 Reveals New Insights into Resveratrol Effects at System Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverón, Inés; Plaza-Vinuesa, Laura; Franch, Mónica; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Muñoz, Rosario; López de Felipe, Félix

    2018-05-01

    This study was undertaken to expand our insights into the mechanisms involved in the tolerance to resveratrol (RSV) that operate at system-level in gut microorganisms and advance knowledge on new RSV-responsive gene circuits. Whole genome transcriptional profiling was used to characterize the molecular response of Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1 to RSV. DNA repair mechanisms were induced by RSV and responses were triggered to decrease the load of copper, a metal required for RSV-mediated DNA cleavage, and H 2 S, a genotoxic gas. To counter the effects of RSV, L. plantarum strongly up- or downregulated efflux systems and ABC transporters pointing to transport control of RSV across the membrane as a key mechanism for RSV tolerance. L. plantarum also downregulated tRNAs, induced chaperones, and reprogrammed its transcriptome to tightly control ammonia levels. RSV induced a probiotic effector gene and a likely deoxycholate transporter, two functions that improve the host health status. Our data identify novel protective mechanisms involved in RSV tolerance operating at system level in a gut microbe. These insights could influence the way RSV is used for a better management of gut microbial ecosystems to obtain associated health benefits. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Effects of Repeated Concussions and Sex on Early Processing of Emotional Facial Expressions as Revealed by Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier-Toutant, Frédérike; Guay, Samuel; Beaulieu, Christelle; Léveillé, Édith; Turcotte-Giroux, Alexandre; Papineau, Samaël D; Brisson, Benoit; D'Hondt, Fabien; De Beaumont, Louis

    2018-05-06

    Concussions affect the processing of emotional stimuli. This study aimed to investigate how sex interacts with concussion effects on early event-related brain potentials (ERP) measures (P1, N1) of emotional facial expressions (EFE) processing in asymptomatic, multi-concussion athletes during an EFE identification task. Forty control athletes (20 females and 20 males) and 43 multi-concussed athletes (22 females and 21 males), recruited more than 3 months after their last concussion, were tested. Participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale, and an Emotional Facial Expression Identification Task. Pictures of male and female faces expressing neutral, angry, and happy emotions were randomly presented and the emotion depicted had to be identified as fast as possible during EEG acquisition. Relative to controls, concussed athletes of both sex exhibited a significant suppression of P1 amplitude recorded from the dominant right hemisphere while performing the emotional face expression identification task. The present study also highlighted a sex-specific suppression of the N1 component amplitude after concussion which affected male athletes. These findings suggest that repeated concussions alter the typical pattern of right-hemisphere response dominance to EFE in early stages of EFE processing and that the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the processing of emotional stimuli are distinctively affected across sex. (JINS, 2018, 24, 1-11).

  12. Framing effects reveal discrete lexical-semantic and sublexical procedures in reading: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danelli, Laura; Marelli, Marco; Berlingeri, Manuela; Tettamanti, Marco; Sberna, Maurizio; Paulesu, Eraldo; Luzzatti, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    According to the dual-route model, a printed string of letters can be processed by either a grapheme-to-phoneme conversion (GPC) route or a lexical-semantic route. Although meta-analyses of the imaging literature support the existence of distinct but interacting reading procedures, individual neuroimaging studies that explored neural correlates of reading yielded inconclusive results. We used a list-manipulation paradigm to provide a fresh empirical look at this issue and to isolate specific areas that underlie the two reading procedures. In a lexical condition, we embedded disyllabic Italian words (target stimuli) in lists of either loanwords or trisyllabic Italian words with unpredictable stress position. In a GPC condition, similar target stimuli were included within lists of pseudowords. The procedure was designed to induce participants to emphasize either the lexical-semantic or the GPC reading procedure, while controlling for possible linguistic confounds and keeping the reading task requirements stable across the two conditions. Thirty-three adults participated in the behavioral study, and 20 further adult participants were included in the fMRI study. At the behavioral level, we found sizeable effects of the framing manipulations that included slower voice onset times for stimuli in the pseudoword frames. At the functional anatomical level, the occipital and temporal regions, and the intraparietal sulcus were specifically activated when subjects were reading target words in a lexical frame. The inferior parietal and anterior fusiform cortex were specifically activated in the GPC condition. These patterns of activation represented a valid classifying model of fMRI images associated with target reading in both frames in the multi-voxel pattern analyses. Further activations were shared by the two procedures in the occipital and inferior parietal areas, in the premotor cortex, in the frontal regions and the left supplementary motor area. These regions are most

  13. New auxin analogs with growth-promoting effects in intact plants reveal a chemical strategy to improve hormone delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savaldi-Goldstein, Sigal; Baiga, Thomas J; Pojer, Florence; Dabi, Tsegeye; Butterfield, Cristina; Parry, Geraint; Santner, Aaron; Dharmasiri, Nihal; Tao, Yi; Estelle, Mark; Noel, Joseph P; Chory, Joanne

    2008-09-30

    Plant growth depends on the integration of environmental cues and phytohormone-signaling pathways. During seedling emergence, elongation of the embryonic stem (hypocotyl) serves as a readout for light and hormone-dependent responses. We screened 10,000 chemicals provided exogenously to light-grown seedlings and identified 100 compounds that promote hypocotyl elongation. Notably, one subset of these chemicals shares structural characteristics with the synthetic auxins, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (1-NAA); however, traditional auxins (e.g., indole-3-acetic acid [IAA], 2,4-D, 1-NAA) have no effect on hypocotyl elongation. We show that the new compounds act as "proauxins" akin to prodrugs. Our data suggest that these compounds diffuse efficiently to the hypocotyls, where they undergo cleavage at varying rates, releasing functional auxins. To investigate this principle, we applied a masking strategy and designed a pro-2,4-D. Unlike 2,4-D alone, this pro-2,4-D enhanced hypocotyl elongation. We further demonstrated the utility of the proauxins by characterizing auxin responses in light-grown hypocotyls of several auxin receptor mutants. These new compounds thus provide experimental access to a tissue previously inaccessible to exogenous application of auxins. Our studies exemplify the combined power of chemical genetics and biochemical analyses for discovering and refining prohormone analogs with selective activity in specific plant tissues. In addition to the utility of these compounds for addressing questions related to auxin and light-signaling interactions, one can envision using these simple principles to study other plant hormone and small molecule responses in temporally and spatially controlled ways.

  14. Decadal-scale ecosystem memory reveals interactive effects of drought and insect defoliation on boreal forest productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itter, M.; D'Orangeville, L.; Dawson, A.; Kneeshaw, D.; Finley, A. O.

    2017-12-01

    temporal persistence of drought and defoliation stress on boreal forest growth dynamics and provide an empirical estimate of their interactive effects with explicit uncertainty.

  15. RESOLVING THE ξ BOO BINARY WITH CHANDRA, AND REVEALING THE SPECTRAL TYPE DEPENDENCE OF THE CORONAL 'FIP EFFECT'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    On 2008 May 2, Chandra observed the X-ray spectrum of ξ Boo (G8 V+K4 V), resolving the binary for the first time in X-rays and allowing the coronae of the two stars to be studied separately. With the contributions of ξ Boo A and B to the system's total X-ray emission now observationally established (88.5% and 11.5%, respectively), consideration of mass loss measurements for GK dwarfs of various activity levels (including one for ξ Boo) leads to the surprising conclusion that ξ Boo B may dominate the wind from the binary, with ξ Boo A's wind being very weak despite its active corona. Emission measure (EM) distributions and coronal abundances are computed for both stars and compared with Chandra measurements of other moderately active stars with G8-K5 spectral types, all of which exhibit a narrow peak in EM near log T = 6.6, indicating that the coronal heating process in these stars has a strong preference for this temperature. As is the case for the Sun and many other stars, our sample of stars shows coronal abundance anomalies dependent on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the element. We see no dependence of the degree of 'FIP effect' on activity, but there is a dependence on spectral type, a correlation that becomes more convincing when moderately active main-sequence stars with a broader range of spectral types are considered. This clear dependence of coronal abundances on spectral type weakens if the stellar sample is allowed to be contaminated by evolved stars, interacting binaries, or extremely active stars with log L X >29, explaining why this correlation has not been recognized in the past.

  16. Resolving the xi Boo Binary with Chandra, and Revealing the Spectral Type Dependence of the Coronal "Fip Effect"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brian E.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    2010-01-01

    On 2008 May 2, Chandra observed the X-ray spectrum of xi Boo (G8 V+K4 V), resolving the binary for the first time in X-rays and allowing the coronae of the two stars to be studied separately. With the contributions of ξ Boo A and B to the system's total X-ray emission now observationally established (88.5% and 11.5% respectively), consideration of mass loss measurements for GK dwarfs of various activity levels (including one for xi Boo) leads to the surprising conclusion that xi Boo B may dominate the wind from the binary, with xi Boo A's wind being very weak despite its active corona. Emission measure (EM) distributions and coronal abundances are computed for both stars and compared with Chandra measurements of other moderately active stars with G8-K5 spectral types, all of which exhibit a narrow peak in EM near log T = 6.6, indicating that the coronal heating process in these stars has a strong preference for this temperature. As is the case for the Sun and many other stars, our sample of stars shows coronal abundance anomalies dependent on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the element. We see no dependence of the degree of FIP effect on activity, but there is a dependence on spectral type, a correlation that becomes more convincing when moderately active main-sequence stars with a broader range of spectral types are considered. This clear dependence of coronal abundances on spectral type weakens if the stellar sample is allowed to be contaminated by evolved stars, interacting binaries or extremely active stars with logLX 29, explaining why this correlation has not been recognized in the past.

  17. Long-term data from a small mammal community reveal loss of diversity and potential effects of local climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Simone; Sanchez-Suarez, Cristina; Rouco, Carlos; Palomo, L Javier; Fernández, M Carmen; Kufner, Maura B; Moreno, Sacramento

    2017-10-01

    Climate change affects distribution and persistence of species. However, forecasting species' responses to these changes requires long-term data series that are often lacking in ecological studies. We used 15 years of small mammal trapping data collected between 1978 and 2015 in 3 areas at Doñana National Park (southwest Spain) to (i) describe changes in species composition and (ii) test the association between local climate conditions and size of small mammal populations. Overall, 5 species were captured: wood mouse Apodemus sylvaticus , algerian mouse Mus spretus , greater white-toothed shrew Crocidura russula , garden dormouse Eliomys quercinus , and black rat Rattus rattus . The temporal pattern in the proportion of captures of each species suggests that the small mammal diversity declined with time. Although the larger species (e.g., E. quercinus ), better adapted to colder climate, have disappeared from our trapping records, M. spretus , a small species inhabiting southwest Europe and the Mediterranean coast of Africa, currently is almost the only trapped species. We used 2-level hierarchical models to separate changes in abundance from changes in probability of capture using records of A. sylvaticus in all 3 areas and of M. spretus in 1. We found that heavy rainfall and low temperatures were positively related to abundance of A. sylvaticus , and that the number of extremely hot days was negatively related to abundance of M. spretus . Despite other mechanisms are likely to be involved, our findings support the importance of climate for the distribution and persistence of these species and raise conservation concerns about potential cascading effects in the Doñana ecosystem.

  18. 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals effects of photoperiod on cecal microbiota of broiler roosters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Photoperiod is an important factor in stimulating broiler performance in commercial poultry practice. However, the mechanism by which photoperiod affects the performance of broiler chickens has not been adequately explored. The current study evaluated the effects of three different photoperiod regimes (short day (LD = 8 h light, control (CTR = 12.5 h light, and long day (SD = 16 h light on the cecal microbiota of broiler roosters by sequencing bacterial 16S rRNA genes. At the phylum level, the dominant bacteria were Firmicutes (CTR: 68%, SD: 69%, LD: 67% and Bacteroidetes (CTR: 25%, SD: 26%, and LD: 28%. There was a greater abundance of Proteobacteria (p < 0.01 and Cyanobacteria (p < 0.05 in chickens in the LD group than in those in the CTR group. A significantly greater abundance of Actinobacteria was observed in CTR chickens than in SD and LD chickens (p < 0.01. The abundance of Deferribacteres was significantly higher in LD chickens than in SD chickens (p < 0.01. Fusobacteria and Proteobacteria were more abundant in SD chickens than in CTR and LD chickens. The predicted functional properties indicate that cellular processes may be influenced by photoperiod. Conversely, carbohydrate metabolism was enhanced in CTR chickens as compared to that in SD and LD chickens. The current results indicate that different photoperiod regimes may influence the abundance of specific bacterial populations and then contribute to differences in the functional properties of gut microbiota of broiler roosters.

  19. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, Timothy D., E-mail: tim.jardine@usask.ca [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); Kidd, Karen A. [Canadian Rivers Institute and Department of Biology, University of New Brunswick, Saint John, NB E2L 4L5 (Canada); O’ Driscoll, Nelson [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Acadia University, Wolfville, NS B4P 2R6 (Canada)

    2013-05-15

    concentrations in the diets of primary consumers and predatory insects in lower pH waters led to lower BMFs, these feeding groups showed insignificant relationships between Hg and pH; thus, altered BMFs associated with dietary concentrations can dampen the effects of environmental conditions on Hg concentrations.

  20. Food web analysis reveals effects of pH on mercury bioaccumulation at multiple trophic levels in streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, Timothy D.; Kidd, Karen A.; O’ Driscoll, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    of primary consumers and predatory insects in lower pH waters led to lower BMFs, these feeding groups showed insignificant relationships between Hg and pH; thus, altered BMFs associated with dietary concentrations can dampen the effects of environmental conditions on Hg concentrations

  1. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Jeremy D; Kelly, Jeffrey F; Bridge, Eli S; Engel, Michael H; Reinking, Dan L; Boyle, W Alice

    2015-01-01

    = - 2.03; p = 0.042) and, in as much, suggested widespread nest losses during the storm. Severe weather events may represent major stressors to ground-nesting birds, especially for recent fledglings. We call for others to exploit opportunities to study the effects of severe weather when these rare but devastating stressors impact established field research sites.

  2. Pallid bands in feathers and associated stable isotope signatures reveal effects of severe weather stressors on fledgling sparrows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy D. Ross

    2015-03-01

    within our sample relative to expectations from past cohorts (z = − 2.03; p = 0.042 and, in as much, suggested widespread nest losses during the storm. Severe weather events may represent major stressors to ground-nesting birds, especially for recent fledglings. We call for others to exploit opportunities to study the effects of severe weather when these rare but devastating stressors impact established field research sites.

  3. Model Studies of the Histidine-Tyrosine Cross-Link in Cytochrome c Oxidase Reveal the Flexible Substituent Effect of the Imidazole Moiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Derek A.; Pesavento, Russell P.; van der Donk, Wilfred A.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies were carried out to interrogate the effect of an imidazole substituent in each of the ortho, meta, and para positions on the pKa, E°, and O–H BDE of phenol. The results reveal that imidazole substitution lowers the pKa of phenol and increases the E° of phenoxide due to its σ-electron withdrawing ability (σp− = +0.21, σm− = +0.45) but decreases the O–H BDE and E° of phenol due to its σ-electron-donating ability (σp+ = −0.45). PMID:15957934

  4. Effects of Perfluorooctanoic Acid on Metabolic Profiles in Brain and Liver of Mouse Revealed by a High-throughput Targeted Metabolomics Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nanyang; Wei, Si; Li, Meiying; Yang, Jingping; Li, Kan; Jin, Ling; Xie, Yuwei; Giesy, John P.; Zhang, Xiaowei; Yu, Hongxia

    2016-04-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a perfluoroalkyl acid, can result in hepatotoxicity and neurobehavioral effects in animals. The metabolome, which serves as a connection among transcriptome, proteome and toxic effects, provides pathway-based insights into effects of PFOA. Since understanding of changes in the metabolic profile during hepatotoxicity and neurotoxicity were still incomplete, a high-throughput targeted metabolomics approach (278 metabolites) was used to investigate effects of exposure to PFOA for 28 d on brain and liver of male Balb/c mice. Results of multivariate statistical analysis indicated that PFOA caused alterations in metabolic pathways in exposed individuals. Pathway analysis suggested that PFOA affected metabolism of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and energetics. Ten and 18 metabolites were identified as potential unique biomarkers of exposure to PFOA in brain and liver, respectively. In brain, PFOA affected concentrations of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and glutamate in brain, which provides novel insights into mechanisms of PFOA-induced neurobehavioral effects. In liver, profiles of lipids revealed involvement of β-oxidation and biosynthesis of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in PFOA-induced hepatotoxicity, while alterations in metabolism of arachidonic acid suggesting potential of PFOA to cause inflammation response in liver. These results provide insight into the mechanism and biomarkers for PFOA-induced effects.

  5. Metabolome analysis reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the poly(γ-glutamic acid) biosynthesis of Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Hitoshi; Meissner, Lena; Palmen, Thomas; Bamba, Takeshi; Büchs, Jochen; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2016-04-01

    Poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA) is a polymer composed of L- and/or D-glutamic acids that is produced by Bacillus sp. Because the polymer has various features as water soluble, edible, non-toxic and so on, it has attracted attention as a candidate for many applications such as foods, cosmetics and so on. However, although it is well known that the intracellular metabolism of Bacillus sp. is mainly regulated by catabolite control, the effect of the catabolite control on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. is largely unknown. This study is the first report of metabolome analysis on the PGA producing Bacillus sp. that reveals the effect of carbon catabolite control on the metabolism of PGA producing Bacillus licheniformis ATCC 9945. Results showed that the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing medium showed higher PGA production than the cells in glucose-containing medium. Furthermore, metabolome analysis revealed that the activators of CcpA and CodY, global regulatory proteins of the intracellular metabolism, accumulated in the cells cultivated in glycerol-containing and glucose-containing medium, respectively, with CodY apparently inhibiting PGA production. Moreover, the cells seemed to produce glutamate from citrate and ammonium using glutamine synthetase/glutamate synthase. Pulsed addition of di-ammonium hydrogen citrate, as suggested by the metabolome result, was able to achieve the highest value so far for PGA production in B. licheniformis. Copyright © 2015 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Proteomic and Metabolomic Analyses Reveal Contrasting Anti-Inflammatory Effects of an Extract of Mucor Racemosus Secondary Metabolites Compared to Dexamethasone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Samuel M; Muqaku, Besnik; Ullmann, Ronald; Bileck, Andrea; Kreutz, Dominique; Mader, Johanna C; Knasmüller, Siegfried; Gerner, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Classical drug assays are often confined to single molecules and targeting single pathways. However, it is also desirable to investigate the effects of complex mixtures on complex systems such as living cells including the natural multitude of signalling pathways. Evidence based on herbal medicine has motivated us to investigate potential beneficial health effects of Mucor racemosus (M rac) extracts. Secondary metabolites of M rac were collected using a good-manufacturing process (GMP) approved production line and a validated manufacturing process, in order to obtain a stable product termed SyCircue (National Drug Code USA: 10424-102). Toxicological studies confirmed that this product does not contain mycotoxins and is non-genotoxic. Potential effects on inflammatory processes were investigated by treating stimulated cells with M rac extracts and the effects were compared to the standard anti-inflammatory drug dexamethasone on the levels of the proteome and metabolome. Using 2D-PAGE, slight anti-inflammatory effects were observed in primary white blood mononuclear cells, which were more pronounced in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Proteome profiling based on nLC-MS/MS analysis of tryptic digests revealed inhibitory effects of M rac extracts on pro-inflammatory cytoplasmic mediators and secreted cytokines and chemokines in these endothelial cells. This finding was confirmed using targeted proteomics, here treatment of stimulated cells with M rac extracts down-regulated the secretion of IL-6, IL-8, CXCL5 and GROA significantly. Finally, the modulating effects of M rac on HUVECs were also confirmed on the level of the metabolome. Several metabolites displayed significant concentration changes upon treatment of inflammatory activated HUVECs with the M rac extract, including spermine and lysophosphatidylcholine acyl C18:0 and sphingomyelin C26:1, while the bulk of measured metabolites remained unaffected. Interestingly, the effects of M rac

  7. A network analysis of ¹⁵O-H₂O PET reveals deep brain stimulation effects on brain network of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Park, Bumhee; Kim, Hae Yu; Oh, Maeng-Keun; Kim, Joong Il; Yoon, Misun; Lee, Jong Doo; Chang, Jin Woo

    2015-05-01

    As Parkinson's disease (PD) can be considered a network abnormality, the effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) need to be investigated in the aspect of networks. This study aimed to examine how DBS of the bilateral subthalamic nucleus (STN) affects the motor networks of patients with idiopathic PD during motor performance and to show the feasibility of the network analysis using cross-sectional positron emission tomography (PET) images in DBS studies. We obtained [¹⁵O]H₂O PET images from ten patients with PD during a sequential finger-to-thumb opposition task and during the resting state, with DBS-On and DBS-Off at STN. To identify the alteration of motor networks in PD and their changes due to STN-DBS, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to all the cross-sectional PET images. We analysed the strength of each component according to DBS effects, task effects and interaction effects. ICA blindly decomposed components of functionally associated distributed clusters, which were comparable to the results of univariate statistical parametric mapping. ICA further revealed that STN-DBS modifies usage-strengths of components corresponding to the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuits in PD patients by increasing the hypoactive basal ganglia and by suppressing the hyperactive cortical motor areas, ventrolateral thalamus and cerebellum. Our results suggest that STN-DBS may affect not only the abnormal local activity, but also alter brain networks in patients with PD. This study also demonstrated the usefulness of ICA for cross-sectional PET data to reveal network modifications due to DBS, which was not observable using the subtraction method.

  8. The Effect of Pleistocene Climate Fluctuations on Distribution of European Abalone (Haliotis tuberculata), Revealed by Combined Mitochondrial and Nuclear Marker Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, Valérie; Van Wormhoudt, Alain

    2017-04-01

    The genetic differentiation among the populations of the European abalone Haliotis tuberculata was investigated using different markers to better understand the evolutionary history and exchanges between populations. Three markers were used: mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), the sperm lysin nuclear gene, and eight nuclear microsatellites. These markers present different characteristics concerning mutation rate and inheritance, which provided complementary information about abalone history and gene diversity. Genetic diversity and relationships among subspecies were calculated from a sample of approximately 500 individuals, collected from 17 different locations in the north-eastern Atlantic Ocean, Macaronesia, and Mediterranean Sea. COI marker was used to explore the phylogeny of the species with a network analysis and two phylogenetic methods. The analysis revealed 18 major haplotypes grouped into two distinct clades with a pairwise sequence divergence up to 3.5 %. These clades do not correspond to subspecies but revealed many contacts along Atlantic coast during the Pleistocene interglaciations. The sperm lysin gene analysis separated two different subtaxa: one associated to Macaronesian islands, and the other to all other populations. Moreover, a small population of the northern subtaxon was isolated in the Adriatic Sea-probably before the separation of the two lineages-and evolved independently. Microsatellites were analyzed by different genetics methods, including the Bayesian clustering method and migration patterns analysis. It revealed genetically distinct microsatellite patterns among populations from Mediterranean Sea, Brittany and Normandy, Morocco, and Canary and Balearic islands. Gene flow is asymmetric among the regions; the Azores and the Canary Islands are particularly isolated and have low effective population sizes. Our results support the hypothesis that climate changes since the Pleistocene glaciations have played a major role in the

  9. Ant exclusion in citrus over an 8-year period reveals a pervasive yet changing effect of ants on a Mediterranean spider assemblage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, L; Piñol, J; Barrientos, J A; Espadaler, X

    2013-09-01

    Ants and spiders are ubiquitous generalist predators that exert top-down control on herbivore populations. Research shows that intraguild interactions between ants and spiders can negatively affect spider populations, but there is a lack of long-term research documenting the strength of such interactions and the potentially different effects of ants on the diverse array of species in a spider assemblage. Similarly, the suitability of family-level surrogates for finding patterns revealed by species-level data (taxonomic sufficiency) has almost never been tested in spider assemblages. We present a long-term study in which we tested the impact of ants on the spider assemblage of a Mediterranean citrus grove by performing sequential 1-year experimental exclusions on tree canopies for 8 years. We found that ants had a widespread influence on the spider assemblage, although the effect was only evident in the last 5 years of the study. During those years, ants negatively affected many spiders, and effects were especially strong for sedentary spiders. Analyses at the family level also detected assemblage differences between treatments, but they concealed the different responses to ant exclusion shown by some related spider species. Our findings show that the effects of experimental manipulations in ecology can vary greatly over time and highlight the need for long-term studies to document species interactions.

  10. Structure-activity relationships for flavone interactions with amyloid β reveal a novel anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Dylan T; Das, Sukanya; Ridell, Jessica; Smid, Scott D

    2017-07-15

    Naturally-occurring flavonoids have well documented anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective properties against the hallmark toxic protein in Alzheimer's disease, amyloid β (Aβ). However the extensive diversity of flavonoids has limited the insight into the precise structure-activity relationships that confer such bioactive properties against the Aβ protein. In the present study we have characterised the Aβ binding properties, anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effects of a discreet set of flavones, including the recently described novel protein sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Quercetin, transilitin, jaceosidin, nobiletin and 2-D08 were incubated with human Aβ 1-42 for 48h in vitro and effects on Aβ fibrillisation kinetics and morphology measured using Thioflavin T (ThT) and electron microscopy respectively, in addition to effects on neuronal PC12 cell viability. Of the flavones studied, only quercetin, transilitin and 2-D08 significantly inhibited Aβ 1-42 aggregation and toxicity in PC12 cells. Of those, 2-D08 was the most effective inhibitor. The strong anti-amyloid activity of 2-D08 indicates that extensive hydroxylation in the B ring is the most important determinant of activity against β amyloid within the flavone scaffold. The lack of efficacy of jaceosidin and nobiletin indicate that extension of B ring hydroxylation with methoxyl groups result in an incremental loss of anti-fibrillar and neuroprotective activity, highlighting the constraint to vicinal hydroxyl groups in the B ring for effective inhibition of aggregation. These findings reveal further structural insights into anti-amyloid bioactivity of flavonoids in addition to a novel and efficacious anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of the semi-synthetic flavone and sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Such modified flavones may facilitate drug development targeting multiple pathways in neurodegenerative disease. Crown Copyright © 2017

  11. Revealing the Effects of the Herbal Pair of Euphorbia kansui and Glycyrrhiza on Hepatocellular Carcinoma Ascites with Integrating Network Target Analysis and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanqiong; Lin, Ya; Zhao, Haiyu; Guo, Qiuyan; Yan, Chen; Lin, Na

    2016-01-01

    Although the herbal pair of Euphorbia kansui (GS) and Glycyrrhiza (GC) is one of the so-called "eighteen antagonistic medicaments" in Chinese medicinal literature, it is prescribed in a classic Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) formula Gansui-Banxia-Tang for cancerous ascites, suggesting that GS and GC may exhibit synergistic or antagonistic effects in different combination designs. Here, we modeled the effects of GS/GC combination with a target interaction network and clarified the associations between the network topologies involving the drug targets and the drug combination effects. Moreover, the "edge-betweenness" values, which is defined as the frequency with which edges are placed on the shortest paths between all pairs of modules in network, were calculated, and the ADRB1-PIK3CG interaction exhibited the greatest edge-betweenness value, suggesting its crucial role in connecting the other edges in the network. Because ADRB1 and PIK3CG were putative targets of GS and GC, respectively, and both had functional interactions with AVPR2 approved as known therapeutic target for ascites, we proposed that the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis might be involved in the effects of the GS-GC combination on ascites. This proposal was further experimentally validated in a H22 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) ascites model. Collectively, this systems-level investigation integrated drug target prediction and network analysis to reveal the combination principles of the herbal pair of GS and GC. Experimental validation in an in vivo system provided convincing evidence that different combination designs of GS and GC might result in synergistic or antagonistic effects on HCC ascites that might be partially related to their regulation of the ADRB1-PIK3CG-AVPR2 signal axis.

  12. Nongenotoxic effects and a reduction of the DXR-induced genotoxic effects of Helianthus annuus Linné (sunflower) seeds revealed by micronucleus assays in mouse bone marrow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boriollo, Marcelo Fabiano Gomes; Souza, Luiz Silva; Resende, Marielly Reis; Silva, Thaísla Andrielle da; Oliveira, Nelma de Mello Silva; Resck, Maria Cristina Costa; Dias, Carlos Tadeu dos Santos; Fiorini, João Evangelista

    2014-04-02

    This research evaluated the genotoxicity of oil and tincture of H. annuus L. seeds using the micronucleus assay in bone marrow of mice. The interaction between these preparations and the genotoxic effects of doxorubicin (DXR) was also analysed (antigenotoxicity test). Experimental groups were evaluated at 24-48 h post treatment with N-Nitroso-N-ethylurea (positive control - NEU), DXR (chemotherapeutic), NaCl (negative control), a sunflower tincture (THALS) and two sources of sunflower oils (POHALS and FOHALS). Antigenotoxic assays were carried out using the sunflower tincture and oils separately and in combination with NUE or DXR. For THALS, analysis of the MNPCEs showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250-2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. A significant reduction in MNPCE was observed when THALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) was administered in combination with DXR (5 mg.Kg-1). For POHALS or FOHALS, analysis of the MNPCEs also showed no significant differences between treatment doses (250-2,000 mg.Kg-1) and NaCl. However, the combination DXR + POHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) or DXR + FOHALS (2,000 mg.Kg-1) not contributed to the MNPCEs reduction. This research suggests absence of genotoxicity of THALS, dose-, time- and sex-independent, and its combination with DXR can reduce the genotoxic effects of DXR. POHALS and FOHALS also showed absence of genotoxicity, but their association with DXR showed no antigenotoxic effects.

  13. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lladó, S., E-mail: llado@biomed.cas.cz [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Covino, S., E-mail: covino@biomed.cas.cz [Institute of Microbiology, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Vídenská 1083, 142 20 Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Solanas, A.M., E-mail: asolanas@ub.edu [Department of Microbiology, University of Barcelona, Diagonal 645, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Petruccioli, M., E-mail: petrucci@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); D’annibale, A., E-mail: dannib@unitus.it [Department for Innovation in Biological, Agro-Food and Forest Systems [DIBAF], University of Tuscia, Via S. Camillo de Lellis snc, 01100 Viterbo (Italy); Viñas, M., E-mail: marc.vinas@irta.cat [GIRO Joint Research Unit IRTA-UPC, Institute of Research and Technology Food and Agriculture [IRTA], Torre Marimon, E-08140 Caldes de Montbui (Spain)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success.

  14. Comparisons of host mitochondrial, nuclear and endosymbiont bacterial genes reveal cryptic fig wasp species and the effects of Wolbachia on host mtDNA evolution and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Gui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Figs and fig-pollinating wasp species usually display a highly specific one-to-one association. However, more and more studies have revealed that the "one-to-one" rule has been broken. Co-pollinators have been reported, but we do not yet know how they evolve. They may evolve from insect speciation induced or facilitated by Wolbachia which can manipulate host reproduction and induce reproductive isolation. In addition, Wolbachia can affect host mitochondrial DNA evolution, because of the linkage between Wolbachia and associated mitochondrial haplotypes, and thus confound host phylogeny based on mtDNA. Previous research has shown that fig wasps have the highest incidence of Wolbachia infection in all insect taxa, and Wolbachia may have great influence on fig wasp biology. Therefore, we look forward to understanding the influence of Wolbachia on mitochondrial DNA evolution and speciation in fig wasps. Results We surveyed 76 pollinator wasp specimens from nine Ficus microcarpa trees each growing at a different location in Hainan and Fujian Provinces, China. We found that all wasps were morphologically identified as Eupristina verticillata, but diverged into three clades with 4.22-5.28% mtDNA divergence and 2.29-20.72% nuclear gene divergence. We also found very strong concordance between E. verticillata clades and Wolbachia infection status, and the predicted effects of Wolbachia on both mtDNA diversity and evolution by decreasing mitochondrial haplotypes. Conclusions Our study reveals that the pollinating wasp E. verticillata on F. microcarpa has diverged into three cryptic species, and Wolbachia may have a role in this divergence. The results also indicate that Wolbachia strains infecting E. verticillata have likely resulted in selective sweeps on host mitochondrial DNA.

  15. Quantum well effect in bulk PbI(2) crystals revealed by the anisotropy of photoluminescence and Raman spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltog, I; Baibarac, M; Lefrant, S

    2009-01-14

    On subjecting a bulk 2H-PbI(2) crystal to vacuum annealing at 500 K followed by a sudden cooling at liquid nitrogen temperature stacking faults are generated that separate distinct layers of nanometric thickness in which different numbers of I-Pb-I atomic layers are bundled together. Such structures, containing two, three, four, five etc I-Pb-I atomic layers, behave as quantum wells of different widths. The signature of such a transformation is given by a shift towards higher energies of the fundamental absorption edge, which is experimentally revealed by specific anisotropies in the photoluminescence and Raman spectra. The quantum confining effect is made visible by specific variations of a wide extra-excitonic band (G) at 2.06 eV that originates in the radiative recombination of carriers (electrons and holes), trapped on the surface defects. The excitation spectrum of the G band, with p polarized exciting light, reveals a fine structure comprised of narrow bands at 2.75, 2.64, 2.59 and 2.56 eV, which are associated with the PbI(2) quantum wells formed from two, three, four and five I-Pb-I atomic layers of 0.7 nm thickness. Regardless of the polarization state of the laser exciting light of 514.5 nm (2.41 eV), which is close to the band gap energy of PbI(2) (2.52 eV), the Raman scattering on bulk as-grown PbI(2) crystals has the character of a resonant process. For p polarized exciting light, the Raman scattering process on vacuum annealed PbI(2) becomes non-resonant. This originates from the quantum well structures generated inside the crystal, whose band gap energies are higher than the energy of the exciting light.

  16. Pyrosequencing reveals the effect of mobilizing agents and lignocellulosic substrate amendment on microbial community composition in a real industrial PAH-polluted soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lladó, S.; Covino, S.; Solanas, A.M.; Petruccioli, M.; D’annibale, A.; Viñas, M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Soil microbial community assessment through classical (MPN) and molecular tools (DGGE and pyrosequencing) is provided. • A failure of exogenous white rot fungi to colonize the polluted soil is shown by DGGE and pyrosequencing. • Surfactant Brij 30 hampers 4-ring PAHs degradation due to toxicity over Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes populations. • A high prevalence of Fusarium and Scedosporium populations is revealed during soil bioremediation. • Cupriavidus, Mycobacterium and Chithinophagaceae are potential HMW–PAH degraders in the soil. - Abstract: Bacterial and fungal biodiversity throughout different biostimulation and bioaugmentation treatments applied to an industrial creosote-polluted soil were analyzed by means of polyphasic approach in order to gain insight into the microbial community structure and dynamics. Pyrosequencing data obtained from initial creosote polluted soil (after a biopiling step) revealed that Alpha and Gammaproteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial groups, whereas Fusarium and Scedosporium were the main fungal genera in the contaminated soil. At the end of 60-days laboratory scale bioremediation assays, pyrosequencing and DGGE data showed that (i) major bacterial community shifts were caused by the type of mobilizing agent added to the soil and, to a lesser extent, by the addition of lignocellulosic substrate; and (ii) the presence of the non-ionic surfactant (Brij 30) hampered the proliferation of Actinobacteria (Mycobacteriaceae) and Bacteroidetes (Chitinophagaceae) and, in the absence of lignocellulosic substrate, also impeded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) degradation. The results show the importance of implementing bioremediation experiments combined with microbiome assessment to gain insight on the effect of crucial parameters (e.g. use of additives) over the potential functions of complex microbial communities harbored in polluted soils, essential for bioremediation success

  17. Genetic effects of PDGFRB and MARCH1 identified in GWAS revealing strong associations with semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuli; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Cong; Qin, Chunhua; Cai, Wentao; Cao, Mingyue; Zhang, Shengli

    2017-07-03

    Using a genome-wide association study strategy, our previous study discovered 19 significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to semen production traits in Chinese Holstein bulls. Among them, three SNPs were within or close to the phosphodiesterase 3A (PDE3A), membrane associated ring-CH-type finger 1 (MARCH1) and platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) genes. The present study was designed with the objectives of identifying genetic polymorphism of the PDE3A, PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes and their effects on semen production traits in a Holstein bull population. A total of 20 SNPs were detected and genotyped in 730 bulls. Association analyses using de-regressed estimated breeding values of each semen production trait revealed four statistically significant SNPs for one or more semen production traits (P semen volume per ejaculate. Furthermore, high expression of the MARCH1 gene was observed in sperm cells. One SNP (rs43445726) in the regulatory region of MARCH1 had a significant effect on gene expression. Our study demonstrated the significant associations of genetic variants of the PDGFRB and MARCH1 genes with semen production traits. The identified SNPs may serve as genetic markers to optimize breeding programs for semen production traits in Holstein bull populations.

  18. Honey bee odorant-binding protein 14: effects on thermal stability upon odorant binding revealed by FT-IR spectroscopy and CD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaighofer, Andreas; Kotlowski, Caroline; Araman, Can; Chu, Nam; Mastrogiacomo, Rosa; Becker, Christian; Pelosi, Paolo; Knoll, Wolfgang; Larisika, Melanie; Nowak, Christoph

    2014-03-01

    In the present work, we study the effect of odorant binding on the thermal stability of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) odorant-binding protein 14. Thermal denaturation of the protein in the absence and presence of different odorant molecules was monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and circular dichroism (CD). FT-IR spectra show characteristic bands for intermolecular aggregation through the formation of intermolecular β-sheets during the heating process. Transition temperatures in the FT-IR spectra were evaluated using moving-window 2D correlation maps and confirmed by CD measurements. The obtained results reveal an increase of the denaturation temperature of the protein when bound to an odorant molecule. We could also discriminate between high- and low-affinity odorants by determining transition temperatures, as demonstrated independently by the two applied methodologies. The increased thermal stability in the presence of ligands is attributed to a stabilizing effect of non-covalent interactions between odorant-binding protein 14 and the odorant molecule.

  19. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A F Langer

    Full Text Available The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta. Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  20. Community barcoding reveals little effect of ocean acidification on the composition of coastal plankton communities: Evidence from a long-term mesocosm study in the Gullmar Fjord, Skagerrak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Julia A F; Sharma, Rahul; Schmidt, Susanne I; Bahrdt, Sebastian; Horn, Henriette G; Algueró-Muñiz, María; Nam, Bora; Achterberg, Eric P; Riebesell, Ulf; Boersma, Maarten; Thines, Marco; Schwenk, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    The acidification of the oceans could potentially alter marine plankton communities with consequences for ecosystem functioning. While several studies have investigated effects of ocean acidification on communities using traditional methods, few have used genetic analyses. Here, we use community barcoding to assess the impact of ocean acidification on the composition of a coastal plankton community in a large scale, in situ, long-term mesocosm experiment. High-throughput sequencing resulted in the identification of a wide range of planktonic taxa (Alveolata, Cryptophyta, Haptophyceae, Fungi, Metazoa, Hydrozoa, Rhizaria, Straminipila, Chlorophyta). Analyses based on predicted operational taxonomical units as well as taxonomical compositions revealed no differences between communities in high CO2 mesocosms (~ 760 μatm) and those exposed to present-day CO2 conditions. Observed shifts in the planktonic community composition were mainly related to seasonal changes in temperature and nutrients. Furthermore, based on our investigations, the elevated CO2 did not affect the intraspecific diversity of the most common mesozooplankter, the calanoid copepod Pseudocalanus acuspes. Nevertheless, accompanying studies found temporary effects attributed to a raise in CO2. Differences in taxa composition between the CO2 treatments could, however, only be observed in a specific period of the experiment. Based on our genetic investigations, no compositional long-term shifts of the plankton communities exposed to elevated CO2 conditions were observed. Thus, we conclude that the compositions of planktonic communities, especially those in coastal areas, remain rather unaffected by increased CO2.

  1. Metabolite Profile Analysis Reveals Functional Effects of 28-Day Vitamin B-6 Restriction on One-Carbon Metabolism and Tryptophan Catabolic Pathways in Healthy Men and Women123

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa R.; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A.; Midttun, Øivind; Quinlivan, Eoin P.; Garrett, Timothy J.; Coats, Bonnie; Shankar, Meena N.; Percival, Susan S.; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E.; Ueland, Per Magne; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2013-01-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status, as reflected by low plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) concentration, is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. PLP plays many roles, including in one-carbon metabolism for the acquisition and transfer of carbon units and in the transsulfuration pathway. PLP also serves as a coenzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan. We hypothesize that the pattern of these metabolites can provide information reflecting the functional impact of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. We report here the concentration of major constituents of one-carbon metabolic processes and the tryptophan catabolic pathway in plasma from 23 healthy men and women before and after a 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (restriction yielded increased cystathionine (53% pre- and 76% postprandial; P restriction yielded lower kynurenic acid (22% pre- and 20% postprandial; P restriction and multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis supported this conclusion. Thus, plasma concentrations of creatine, cystathionine, kynurenic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine jointly reveal effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on the profiles of one-carbon and tryptophan metabolites and serve as biomarkers of functional effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. PMID:23966327

  2. Metabolite profile analysis reveals functional effects of 28-day vitamin B-6 restriction on one-carbon metabolism and tryptophan catabolic pathways in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Vanessa R; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Lamers, Yvonne; Ralat, Maria A; Midttun, Øivind; Quinlivan, Eoin P; Garrett, Timothy J; Coats, Bonnie; Shankar, Meena N; Percival, Susan S; Chi, Yueh-Yun; Muller, Keith E; Ueland, Per Magne; Stacpoole, Peter W; Gregory, Jesse F

    2013-11-01

    Suboptimal vitamin B-6 status, as reflected by low plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration, is associated with increased risk of vascular disease. PLP plays many roles, including in one-carbon metabolism for the acquisition and transfer of carbon units and in the transsulfuration pathway. PLP also serves as a coenzyme in the catabolism of tryptophan. We hypothesize that the pattern of these metabolites can provide information reflecting the functional impact of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency. We report here the concentration of major constituents of one-carbon metabolic processes and the tryptophan catabolic pathway in plasma from 23 healthy men and women before and after a 28-d controlled dietary vitamin B-6 restriction (restriction yielded increased cystathionine (53% pre- and 76% postprandial; P restriction yielded lower kynurenic acid (22% pre- and 20% postprandial; P restriction and multilevel partial least squares-discriminant analysis supported this conclusion. Thus, plasma concentrations of creatine, cystathionine, kynurenic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine jointly reveal effects of vitamin B-6 restriction on the profiles of one-carbon and tryptophan metabolites and serve as biomarkers of functional effects of marginal vitamin B-6 deficiency.

  3. Exposure of xenopus laevis tadpoles to cadmium reveals concentration-dependent bimodal effects on growth and monotonic effects on development and thyroid gland activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2008-01-01

    Xenopus laevis were exposed to 0-855 ??g cadmium (Cd)/l (measured concentrations) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 47 days postfertilization. Measurements included embryonic survival and, at 47 days, tadpole survival, snout-vent length, tail length, total length, hindlimb length, weight, Nieuwkoop-Faber (NF) stage of development, initiation of metamorphic climax (??? NF 58), and thyroid follicle cell height. Embryonic and larval survival were unaffected by Cd. Relative to control tadpoles, reduced tail and total length were observed at 0.1- 8 and at 855 ??g Cd/l; and reduced snout-vent length, hindlimb length, and weight were observed at 0.1-1 and at 855 ??g Cd/l. Mean stage of development and rate of initiation of climax were unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l; however, none of the tadpoles exposed to 855 ??g Cd/l progressed beyond mid-premetamorphosis (NF 51). Thyroid glands with fully formed follicles were observed in all tadpoles ??? NF 49 examined. Follicle cell height was unaffected by Cd at 0-84 ??g/l but it was reduced at 855 ??g/l; in the latter, cell height was reduced even when compared with NF 49-51 tadpoles pooled from the 0 to 84 ??g Cd/l groups. In conclusion, (1) Cd affected tadpole growth in a bimodal pattern with the first and second inhibitory modes at concentrations below and above 84 ??g Cd/l, respectively; (2) exposure to high Cd concentrations (855 ??g/l) reduced thyroid activity and arrested tadpole development at mid-premetamorphosis; and (3) unlike its effect on growth, Cd inhibited tadpole development and thyroid function in a seemingly monotonic pattern.

  4. Revealing conceptual understanding of international business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sue Ashley; Dr. Harmen Schaap; Prof.Dr. Elly de Bruijn

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students’ conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual

  5. Revealing the effect of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol and curcumin on mPGES-1, GSK-3β and β-catenin pathway in A549 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Demirpolat; Betul, Yerer Mukerrem

    2016-10-25

    In our study, anticancer effects of 6-gingerol, 6-shogaol from ginger and curcumin from turmeric were investigated and the results were compared with each other. We aimed to reveal their effects on microsomal prostaglandine E2 synthase 1 (mPGES-1) which is related with cancer progression and inflammation as well as β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) that are the main components of Wnt/GSK3 pathway. As it is known activation of GSK-3β and high levels of mPGES-1 pathway leads to cell proliferation and aggravates cancer progression. Therefore both of them are potential targets for cancer therapy. 6-shogaol and 6-gingerol' s effect on this pathway is not known very well up to now while curcumin that is known as an mPGES-1 inhibitor has anticancer properties via this pathway and many other pathways. Besides being in Zingiberaceae family, ginger's 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol have a molecular similarity with turmeric's curcumin. In our study we investigated their effects using a popular non small lung cancer cell line named A549 which expresses mPGES-1 and has active GSK3β pathway. IL-1β was used for inducing mPGES-1 and enabling the cancer characteristics such as cell proliferation. So compounds that inactivates or decreases the level of these components might be potential anticancer agents. A549 cells were incubated with interleukin 1β (IL-1β) for 24 h in order to maintain mPGES-1 enzyme induction. Experiments were performed both on IL-1β and non-IL-1β group. Real time cell analysis was performed to determine the cytotoxicity. Samples for western blotting and RT-PCR were collected after 24 h incubation with compounds to determine the amount of mPGES-1, GSK-3β, p-GSK-3β, β-catenin protein and mRNA. PGE2 which is the end product of mPGES-1 was measured by using ELISA kit. As a result of cell profile assay, cells exposed to IL-1β proliferate faster than non-IL-1β ones. This shows that induced mPGES-1 might play a role through GSK3β pathway

  6. Toxicological effects of benzo(a)pyrene, DDT and their mixture on the green mussel Perna viridis revealed by proteomic and metabolomic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinqin; Chen, Hao; Li, Yuhu; Zhou, Hailong; Han, Qian; Diao, Xiaoping

    2016-02-01

    Benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) are persistent organic pollutants and environmental estrogens (EEs) with known toxicity towards the green mussel, Perna viridis. In this study, the toxic effects of BaP (10 µg/L) and DDT (10 µg/L) and their mixture were assessed in green mussel gills with proteomic and metabolomic approaches. Metabolic responses indicated that BaP mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation by significantly decrease in branched chain amino acids, dimethylamine and dimethylglycine in gills of male green mussels after exposure for 7 days. DDT mainly caused disturbance in osmotic regulation and energy metabolism by differential alteration of betaine, dimethylamine, dimethylglycine, amino acids, and succinate in gills of male green mussels. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT didn't show obvious metabolite changes. Proteomic analysis showed different protein expression profiles between different treatment groups, which demonstrated that BaP, DDT and their mixture may have different modes of action. Proteomic responses revealed that BaP induced cell apoptosis, disturbance in protein digestion and energy metabolism in gills of green mussels, whereas DDT exposure altered proteins that were associated with oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein digestion and energy metabolism. However, the mixture of BaP and DDT affected proteins related to the oxidative stress, cytoskeleton and cell structure, protein biosynthesis and modification, energy metabolism, growth and apoptosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Musical rhythm and pitch: A differential effect on auditory dynamics as revealed by the N1/MMN/P3a complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo-de-Larrea-Mancera, E Sebastian; Rodríguez-Agudelo, Yaneth; Solís-Vivanco, Rodolfo

    2017-06-01

    Music represents a complex form of human cognition. To what extent our auditory system is attuned to music is yet to be clearly understood. Our principal aim was to determine whether the neurophysiological operations underlying pre-attentive auditory change detection (N1 enhancement (N1e)/Mismatch Negativity (MMN)) and the subsequent involuntary attentional reallocation (P3a) towards infrequent sound omissions, are influenced by differences in musical content. Specifically, we intended to explore any interaction effects that rhythmic and pitch dimensions of musical organization may have over these processes. Results showed that both the N1e and MMN amplitudes were differentially influenced by rhythm and pitch dimensions. MMN latencies were shorter for musical structures containing both features. This suggests some neurocognitive independence between pitch and rhythm domains, but also calls for further address on possible interactions between both of them at the level of early, automatic auditory detection. Furthermore, results demonstrate that the N1e reflects basic sensory memory processes. Lastly, we show that the involuntary switch of attention associated with the P3a reflects a general-purpose mechanism not modulated by musical features. Altogether, the N1e/MMN/P3a complex elicited by infrequent sound omissions revealed evidence of musical influence over early stages of auditory perception. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying off-target effects of etomoxir reveals that carnitine palmitoyltransferase I is essential for cancer cell proliferation independent of β-oxidation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong-Hui Yao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that some cancer cells rely upon fatty acid oxidation (FAO for energy. Here we show that when FAO was reduced approximately 90% by pharmacological inhibition of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT1 with low concentrations of etomoxir, the proliferation rate of various cancer cells was unaffected. Efforts to pharmacologically inhibit FAO more than 90% revealed that high concentrations of etomoxir (200 μM have an off-target effect of inhibiting complex I of the electron transport chain. Surprisingly, however, when FAO was reduced further by genetic knockdown of CPT1, the proliferation rate of these same cells decreased nearly 2-fold and could not be restored by acetate or octanoic acid supplementation. Moreover, CPT1 knockdowns had altered mitochondrial morphology and impaired mitochondrial coupling, whereas cells in which CPT1 had been approximately 90% inhibited by etomoxir did not. Lipidomic profiling of mitochondria isolated from CPT1 knockdowns showed depleted concentrations of complex structural and signaling lipids. Additionally, expression of a catalytically dead CPT1 in CPT1 knockdowns did not restore mitochondrial coupling. Taken together, these results suggest that transport of at least some long-chain fatty acids into the mitochondria by CPT1 may be required for anabolic processes that support healthy mitochondrial function and cancer cell proliferation independent of FAO.

  10. A Systematic, Integrated Study on the Neuroprotective Effects of Hydroxysafflor Yellow A Revealed by H1 NMR-Based Metabonomics and the NF-κB Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA is the main active component of the Chinese herb Carthamus tinctorius L.. Purified HSYA is used as a neuroprotective agent to prevent cerebral ischemia. Injectable safflor yellow (50 mg, containing 35 mg HSYA is widely used to treat patients with ischemic cardiocerebrovascular disease. However, it is unknown how HSYA exerts a protective effect on cerebral ischemia at the molecular level. A systematical integrated study, including histopathological examination, neurological evaluation, blood-brain barrier (BBB, metabonomics, and the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB pathway, was applied to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms of HSYA neuroprotection at the molecular level. HSYA could travel across the BBB, significantly reducing the infarct volume and improving the neurological functions of rats with ischemia. Treatment with HSYA could lead to relative corrections of the impaired metabolic pathways through energy metabolism disruption, excitatory amino acid toxicity, oxidative stress, and membrane disruption revealed by 1H NMR-based metabonomics. Meanwhile, HSYA treatment inhibits the NF-κB pathway via suppressing proinflammatory cytokine expression and p65 translocation and binding activity while upregulating an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

  11. A draft de novo genome assembly for the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus reveals evidence for a rapid decline in effective population size beginning in the Late Pleistocene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette A Halley

    Full Text Available Wild populations of northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite have declined across nearly all of their U.S. range, and despite their importance as an experimental wildlife model for ecotoxicology studies, no bobwhite draft genome assembly currently exists. Herein, we present a bobwhite draft de novo genome assembly with annotation, comparative analyses including genome-wide analyses of divergence with the chicken (Gallus gallus and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata genomes, and coalescent modeling to reconstruct the demographic history of the bobwhite for comparison to other birds currently in decline (i.e., scarlet macaw; Ara macao. More than 90% of the assembled bobwhite genome was captured within 14,000 unique genes and proteins. Bobwhite analyses of divergence with the chicken and zebra finch genomes revealed many extremely conserved gene sequences, and evidence for lineage-specific divergence of noncoding regions. Coalescent models for reconstructing the demographic history of the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw provided evidence for population bottlenecks which were temporally coincident with human colonization of the New World, the late Pleistocene collapse of the megafauna, and the last glacial maximum. Demographic trends predicted for the bobwhite and the scarlet macaw also were concordant with how opposing natural selection strategies (i.e., skewness in the r-/K-selection continuum would be expected to shape genome diversity and the effective population sizes in these species, which is directly relevant to future conservation efforts.

  12. Mass Cytometry Analysis Reveals the Landscape and Dynamics of CD32a+ CD4+ T Cells From Early HIV Infection to Effective cART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coindre, Sixtine; Tchitchek, Nicolas; Alaoui, Lamine; Vaslin, Bruno; Bourgeois, Christine; Goujard, Cecile; Avettand-Fenoel, Veronique; Lecuroux, Camille; Bruhns, Pierre; Le Grand, Roger; Beignon, Anne-Sophie; Lambotte, Olivier; Favier, Benoit

    2018-01-01

    CD32a has been proposed as a specific marker of latently HIV-infected CD4 + T cells. However, CD32a was recently found to be expressed on CD4 + T cells of healthy donors, leading to controversy on the relevance of this marker in HIV persistence. Here, we used mass cytometry to characterize the landscape and variation in the abundance of CD32a + CD4 + T cells during HIV infection. To this end, we analyzed CD32a + CD4 + T cells in primary HIV infection before and after effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and in healthy donors. We found that CD32a + CD4 + T cells include heterogeneous subsets that are differentially affected by HIV infection. Our analysis revealed that naive ( N ), central memory ( CM ), and effector/memory ( Eff/Mem ) CD32a + CD4 + T-cell clusters that co-express LILRA2- and CD64-activating receptors were more abundant in primary HIV infection and cART stages. Conversely, LILRA2 - CD32a + CD4 + T-cell clusters of either the T N , T CM , or T Eff/Mem phenotype were more abundant in healthy individuals. Finally, an activated CD32a + CD4 + T Eff/Mem cell cluster co-expressing LILRA2, CD57, and NKG2C was more abundant in all HIV stages, particularly during primary HIV infection. Overall, our data show that multiple abundance modifications of CD32a + CD4 + T-cell subsets occur in the early phase of HIV infection, and some of which are conserved after effective cART. Our study brings a better comprehension of the relationship between CD32a expression and CD4 + T cells during HIV infection.

  13. Mass Cytometry Analysis Reveals the Landscape and Dynamics of CD32a+ CD4+ T Cells From Early HIV Infection to Effective cART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sixtine Coindre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available CD32a has been proposed as a specific marker of latently HIV-infected CD4+ T cells. However, CD32a was recently found to be expressed on CD4+ T cells of healthy donors, leading to controversy on the relevance of this marker in HIV persistence. Here, we used mass cytometry to characterize the landscape and variation in the abundance of CD32a+ CD4+ T cells during HIV infection. To this end, we analyzed CD32a+ CD4+ T cells in primary HIV infection before and after effective combination antiretroviral therapy (cART and in healthy donors. We found that CD32a+ CD4+ T cells include heterogeneous subsets that are differentially affected by HIV infection. Our analysis revealed that naive (N, central memory (CM, and effector/memory (Eff/Mem CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell clusters that co-express LILRA2- and CD64-activating receptors were more abundant in primary HIV infection and cART stages. Conversely, LILRA2− CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell clusters of either the TN, TCM, or TEff/Mem phenotype were more abundant in healthy individuals. Finally, an activated CD32a+ CD4+ TEff/Mem cell cluster co-expressing LILRA2, CD57, and NKG2C was more abundant in all HIV stages, particularly during primary HIV infection. Overall, our data show that multiple abundance modifications of CD32a+ CD4+ T-cell subsets occur in the early phase of HIV infection, and some of which are conserved after effective cART. Our study brings a better comprehension of the relationship between CD32a expression and CD4+ T cells during HIV infection.

  14. New pleiotropic effects of eliminating a rare tRNA from Streptomyces coelicolor, revealed by combined proteomic and transcriptomic analysis of liquid cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hotchkiss Graham

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Streptomyces coelicolor, bldA encodes the only tRNA for a rare leucine codon, UUA. This tRNA is unnecessary for growth, but is required for some aspects of secondary metabolism and morphological development. We describe a transcriptomic and proteomic analysis of the effects of deleting bldA on cellular processes during submerged culture: conditions relevant to the industrial production of antibiotics. Results At the end of rapid growth, a co-ordinated transient up-regulation of about 100 genes, including many for ribosomal proteins, was seen in the parent strain but not the ΔbldA mutant. Increased basal levels of the signal molecule ppGpp in the mutant strain may be responsible for this difference. Transcripts or proteins from a further 147 genes classified as bldA-influenced were mostly expressed late in culture in the wild-type, though others were significantly transcribed during exponential growth. Some were involved in the biosynthesis of seven secondary metabolites; and some have probable roles in reorganising metabolism after rapid growth. Many of the 147 genes were "function unknown", and may represent unknown aspects of Streptomyces biology. Only two of the 147 genes contain a TTA codon, but some effects of bldA could be traced to TTA codons in regulatory genes or polycistronic operons. Several proteins were affected post-translationally by the bldA deletion. There was a statistically significant but weak positive global correlation between transcript and corresponding protein levels. Different technical limitations of the two approaches were a major cause of discrepancies in the results obtained with them. Conclusion Although deletion of bldA has very conspicuous effects on the gross phenotype, the bldA molecular phenotype revealed by the "dualomic" approach has shown that only about 2% of the genome is affected; but this includes many previously unknown effects at a variety of different levels, including post

  15. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L. Oldeschulte

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus; hereafter bobwhite and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0 and second- (v2.0 generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb, which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%, genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%, and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165 were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8% and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%, as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0, and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0, including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0 and bobwhite (v2.0 genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15–20 KYA.

  16. Annotated Draft Genome Assemblies for the Northern Bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and the Scaled Quail (Callipepla squamata) Reveal Disparate Estimates of Modern Genome Diversity and Historic Effective Population Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldeschulte, David L; Halley, Yvette A; Wilson, Miranda L; Bhattarai, Eric K; Brashear, Wesley; Hill, Joshua; Metz, Richard P; Johnson, Charles D; Rollins, Dale; Peterson, Markus J; Bickhart, Derek M; Decker, Jared E; Sewell, John F; Seabury, Christopher M

    2017-09-07

    Northern bobwhite ( Colinus virginianus ; hereafter bobwhite) and scaled quail ( Callipepla squamata ) populations have suffered precipitous declines across most of their US ranges. Illumina-based first- (v1.0) and second- (v2.0) generation draft genome assemblies for the scaled quail and the bobwhite produced N50 scaffold sizes of 1.035 and 2.042 Mb, thereby producing a 45-fold improvement in contiguity over the existing bobwhite assembly, and ≥90% of the assembled genomes were captured within 1313 and 8990 scaffolds, respectively. The scaled quail assembly (v1.0 = 1.045 Gb) was ∼20% smaller than the bobwhite (v2.0 = 1.254 Gb), which was supported by kmer-based estimates of genome size. Nevertheless, estimates of GC content (41.72%; 42.66%), genome-wide repetitive content (10.40%; 10.43%), and MAKER-predicted protein coding genes (17,131; 17,165) were similar for the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) assemblies, respectively. BUSCO analyses utilizing 3023 single-copy orthologs revealed a high level of assembly completeness for the scaled quail (v1.0; 84.8%) and the bobwhite (v2.0; 82.5%), as verified by comparison with well-established avian genomes. We also detected 273 putative segmental duplications in the scaled quail genome (v1.0), and 711 in the bobwhite genome (v2.0), including some that were shared among both species. Autosomal variant prediction revealed ∼2.48 and 4.17 heterozygous variants per kilobase within the scaled quail (v1.0) and bobwhite (v2.0) genomes, respectively, and estimates of historic effective population size were uniformly higher for the bobwhite across all time points in a coalescent model. However, large-scale declines were predicted for both species beginning ∼15-20 KYA. Copyright © 2017 Oldeschulte et al.

  17. A spectrophotometer-based diffusivity assay reveals that diffusion hindrance of small molecules in extracellular matrix gels used in 3D cultures is dominated by viscous effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgoczy, Roland; Pastor, Isabel; Colom, Adai; Giménez, Alicia; Mas, Francesc; Alcaraz, Jordi

    2014-08-01

    The design of 3D culture studies remains challenging due to the limited understanding of extracellular matrix (ECM)-dependent hindered diffusion and the lack of simple diffusivity assays. To address these limitations, we set up a cost-effective diffusivity assay based on a Transwell plate and the spectrophotometer of a Microplate Reader, which are readily accessible to cell biology groups. The spectrophotometer-based assay was used to assess the apparent diffusivity D of FITC-dextrans with molecular weight (4-70kDa) spanning the physiological range of signaling factors in a panel of acellular ECM gels including Matrigel, fibrin and type I collagen. Despite their technical differences, D data exhibited ∼15% relative difference with respect to FRAP measurements. Our results revealed that diffusion hindrance of small particles is controlled by the enhanced viscosity of the ECM gel in conformance with the Stokes-Einstein equation rather than by geometrical factors. Moreover, we provided a strong rationale that the enhanced ECM viscosity is largely contributed to by unassembled ECM macromolecules. We also reported that gels with the lowest D exhibited diffusion hindrance closest to the large physiologic hindrance of brain tissue, which has a typical pore size much smaller than ECM gels. Conversely, sparse gels (≤1mg/ml), which are extensively used in 3D cultures, failed to reproduce the hindered diffusion of tissues, thereby supporting that dense (but not sparse) ECM gels are suitable tissue surrogates in terms of macromolecular transport. Finally, the consequences of reduced diffusivity in terms of optimizing the design of 3D culture experiments were addressed in detail. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Metabolomics reveals dose effects of low-dose chronic exposure to uranium in rats: identification of candidate biomarkers in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grison, Stéphane; Favé, Gaëlle; Maillot, Matthieu; Manens, Line; Delissen, Olivia; Blanchardon, Éric; Dublineau, Isabelle; Aigueperse, Jocelyne; Bohand, Sandra; Martin, Jean-Charles; Souidi, Maâmar

    2016-01-01

    Data are sparse about the potential health risks of chronic low-dose contamination of humans by uranium (natural or anthropogenic) in drinking water. Previous studies report some molecular imbalances but no clinical signs due to uranium intake. In a proof-of-principle study, we reported that metabolomics is an appropriate method for addressing this chronic low-dose exposure in a rat model (uranium dose: 40 mg L -1 ; duration: 9 months, n = 10). In the present study, our aim was to investigate the dose-effect pattern and identify additional potential biomarkers in urine samples. Compared to our previous protocol, we doubled the number of rats per group (n = 20), added additional sampling time points (3 and 6 months) and included several lower doses of natural uranium (doses used: 40, 1.5, 0.15 and 0.015 mg L -1 ). LC-MS metabolomics was performed on urine samples and statistical analyses were made with SIMCA-P+ and R packages. The data confirmed our previous results and showed that discrimination was both dose and time related. Uranium exposure was revealed in rats contaminated for 9 months at a dose as low as 0.15 mg L -1 . Eleven features, including the confidently identified N1-methylnicotinamide, N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetylglycine, discriminated control from contaminated rats with a specificity and a sensitivity ranging from 83 to 96 %, when combined into a composite score. These findings show promise for the elucidation of underlying radiotoxicologic mechanisms and the design of a diagnostic test to assess exposure in urine, in a dose range experimentally estimated to be above a threshold between 0.015 and 0.15 mg L -1 .

  19. Effect of Warfarin Treatment on Survival of Patients With Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) in the Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-Term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E; Miller, Dave P; Sen, Ginny P; Selej, Mona; Benton, Wade W; Hill, Nicholas S; Farber, Harrison W

    2015-12-22

    Long-term anticoagulation is recommended in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). In contrast, limited data support anticoagulation in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc-PAH). We assessed the effect of warfarin anticoagulation on survival in IPAH and SSc-PAH patients enrolled in Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL), a longitudinal registry of group I PAH. Patients who initiated warfarin on study (n=187) were matched 1:1 with patients never on warfarin, by enrollment site, etiology, and diagnosis status. Descriptive analyses were conducted to compare warfarin users and nonusers by etiology. Survival analyses with and without risk adjustment were performed from the time of warfarin initiation or a corresponding quarterly update in matched pairs to avoid immortal time bias. Time-varying covariate models were used as sensitivity analyses. Mean warfarin treatment was 1 year; mean international normalized ratios were 1.9 (IPAH) and 2.0 (SSc-PAH). Two-thirds of patients initiating warfarin discontinued treatment before the last study assessment. There was no survival difference with warfarin in IPAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.37; P=0.21) or in SSc-PAH patients (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.60; P=0.15) in comparison with matched controls. However, SSc-PAH patients receiving warfarin within the previous year (hazard ratio, 1.57; P=0.031) or any time postbaseline (hazard ratio, 1.49; P=0.046) had increased mortality in comparison with warfarin-naïve patients. No significant survival advantage was observed in IPAH patients who started warfarin. In SSc-PAH patients, long-term warfarin was associated with poorer survival than in patients not receiving warfarin, even after adjusting for confounders. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00370214. © 2015 The Authors.

  20. Transcriptome Comparative Profiling of Barley eibi1 Mutant Reveals Pleiotropic Effects of HvABCG31 Gene on Cuticle Biogenesis and Stress Responsive Pathways

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    Eviatar Nevo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wild barley eibi1 mutant with HvABCG31 gene mutation has low capacity to retain leaf water, a phenotype associated with reduced cutin deposition and a thin cuticle. To better understand how such a mutant plant survives, we performed a genome-wide gene expression analysis. The leaf transcriptomes between the near-isogenic lines eibi1 and the wild type were compared using the 22-k Barley1 Affymetrix microarray. We found that the pleiotropic effect of the single gene HvABCG31 mutation was linked to the co-regulation of metabolic processes and stress-related system. The cuticle development involved cytochrome P450 family members and fatty acid metabolism pathways were significantly up-regulated by the HvABCG31 mutation, which might be anticipated to reduce the levels of cutin monomers or wax and display conspicuous cuticle defects. The candidate genes for responses to stress were induced by eibi1 mutant through activating the jasmonate pathway. The down-regulation of co-expressed enzyme genes responsible for DNA methylation and histone deacetylation also suggested that HvABCG31 mutation may affect the epigenetic regulation for barley development. Comparison of transcriptomic profiling of barley under biotic and abiotic stresses revealed that the functions of HvABCG31 gene to high-water loss rate might be different from other osmotic stresses of gene mutations in barley. The transcriptional profiling of the HvABCG31 mutation provided candidate genes for further investigation of the physiological and developmental changes caused by the mutant.

  1. An Effect of Cadmium and Lead Ions on Escherichia coli with the Cloned Gene for Metallothionein (MT-3) Revealed by Electrochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Vojtech; Chudobova, Dagmar; Tmejova, Katerina; Cihalova, Kristyna; Krizkova, Sona; Guran, Roman; Kominkova, Marketa; Zurek, Michal; Kremplova, Monika; Jimenez, Ana Maria Jimenez; Konecna, Marie

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the application of electrochemical methods for studying of bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) before and after the application of cadmium and/or lead ions in four concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 150 μM). Bacterial strains Escherichia coli and Escherichia coli expressing human metallothionein gene (MT-3) were used like model organisms for studying of metals influence to metallothionein expression. Metallothionein was isolated using fast protein liquid chromatography and quantified by electrochemical methods. The occurrence of metallothionein in E.coli was confirmed by gel electrophoresis by the presence of the bands at 15 (MT dimer) and 22 kDa (MT trimer). The changes in electrochemical records due to the interactions of metallothioneins (MT-3 and MT-2A) with cadmium and lead ions showed decline of Cat2 signal of MT with the increasing interaction time because of metal ions binding to cysteines. Electrochemical determination also revealed that Cd(II) remains in E. coli cells in the higher amount than Pb (II). Opposite situation was found at E. coli–MT-3 strain. The antimicrobial effect of cadmium ions was determined by IC 50 and was statistically calculated as 39.2 and 95.5 μM for E. coli without cloned MT-3 and E. coli carrying MT-3 gene, respectively. High provided concentration IC 50 in strains after lead ions application (352.5 μM for E. coli without cloning and 207.0 μM for E. coli carrying cloned MT-3 gene) indicates lower toxicity of lead ions on bacterial strains compared to the cadmium ions

  2. A little similarity goes a long way: the effects of peripheral but self-revealing similarities on improving and sustaining interracial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Magee, Joe C; Gordon, Sarah H; Gullett, Lindy

    2014-07-01

    Integrating theory on close relationships and intergroup relations, we construct a manipulation of similarity that we demonstrate can improve interracial interactions across different settings. We find that manipulating perceptions of similarity on self-revealing attributes that are peripheral to the interaction improves interactions in cross-race dyads and racially diverse task groups. In a getting-acquainted context, we demonstrate that the belief that one's different-race partner is similar to oneself on self-revealing, peripheral attributes leads to less anticipatory anxiety than the belief that one's partner is similar on peripheral, nonself-revealing attributes. In another dyadic context, we explore the range of benefits that perceptions of peripheral, self-revealing similarity can bring to different-race interaction partners and find (a) less anxiety during interaction, (b) greater interest in sustained contact with one's partner, and (c) stronger accuracy in perceptions of one's partners' relationship intentions. By contrast, participants in same-race interactions were largely unaffected by these manipulations of perceived similarity. Our final experiment shows that among small task groups composed of racially diverse individuals, those whose members perceive peripheral, self-revealing similarity perform superior to those who perceive dissimilarity. Implications for using this approach to improve interracial interactions across different goal-driven contexts are discussed.

  3. Transcriptome analysis of the digestive system of a wood-feeding termite (Coptotermes formosanus) revealed a unique mechanism for effective biomass degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Alei; Cheng, Yanbing; Wang, Yongli; Zhu, Daochen; Le, Yilin; Wu, Jian; Xie, Rongrong; Yuan, Joshua S; Sun, Jianzhong

    2018-01-01

    Wood-feeding termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, represents a highly efficient system for biomass deconstruction and utilization. However, the detailed mechanisms of lignin modification and carbohydrate degradation in this system are still largely elusive. In order to reveal the inherent mechanisms for efficient biomass degradation, four different organs (salivary glands, foregut, midgut, and hindgut) within a complete digestive system of a lower termite, C. formosanus , were dissected and collected. Comparative transcriptomics was carried out to analyze these organs using high-throughput RNA sequencing. A total of 71,117 unigenes were successfully assembled, and the comparative transcriptome analyses revealed significant differential distributions of GH (glycosyl hydrolase) genes and auxiliary redox enzyme genes in different digestive organs. Among the GH genes in the salivary glands, the most abundant were GH9, GH22, and GH1 genes. The corresponding enzymes may have secreted into the foregut and midgut to initiate the hydrolysis of biomass and to achieve a lignin-carbohydrate co-deconstruction system. As the most diverse GH families, GH7 and GH5 were primarily identified from the symbiotic protists in the hindgut. These enzymes could play a synergistic role with the endogenous enzymes from the host termite for biomass degradation. Moreover, twelve out of fourteen genes coding auxiliary redox enzymes from the host termite origin were induced by the feeding of lignin-rich diets. This indicated that these genes may be involved in lignin component deconstruction with its redox network during biomass pretreatment. These findings demonstrate that the termite digestive system synergized the hydrolysis and redox reactions in a programmatic process, through different parts of its gut system, to achieve a maximized utilization of carbohydrates. The detailed unique mechanisms identified from the termite digestive system may provide new insights for advanced design of

  4. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  5. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  6. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) reveals a dissociation between SNARC and MARC effects: Implication for the polarity correspondence account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rosa, Elisa; Bardi, Lara; Umiltà, Carlo; Masina, Fabio; Forgione, Margherita; Mapelli, Daniela

    2017-08-01

    The concept of stimulus response compatibility (SRC) refers to the existence of a privileged association between a specific stimulus feature and a specific response feature. Two examples of SRC are the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) and the Markedness Association of Response Codes (MARC) effects. According to the polarity correspondence principle, these two SRC effects occur because of a match between the most salient dimensions of stimulus and response. Specifically, the SNARC effect would be caused by a match between right-sided responses and large numbers, while a match between right-sided responses and even numbers would give rise to the MARC effect. The aim of the present study was to test the validity of the polarity correspondence principle in explaining these two SRC effects. To this end, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over left and right posterior parietal cortex (PPC), which is thought to be the neural basis of salience processing, during a parity judgement task. Results showed that cathodal tDCS over the PPC significantly reduced the MARC effect but did not affect the SNARC effect, suggesting a dissociation between the two effects. That is, the MARC would rely on a salience processing mechanism, whereas the SNARC would not. Despite this interpretation is in need of further experimental confirmations (i.e., testing different tasks or using different tDCS montages), our results suggest that the polarity correspondence principle can be a plausible explanation only for the MARC effect but not for the SNARC effect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Diverse Brain Myeloid Expression Profiles Reveal Distinct Microglial Activation States and Aspects of Alzheimer’s Disease Not Evident in Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad A. Friedman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Microglia, the CNS-resident immune cells, play important roles in disease, but the spectrum of their possible activation states is not well understood. We derived co-regulated gene modules from transcriptional profiles of CNS myeloid cells of diverse mouse models, including new tauopathy model datasets. Using these modules to interpret single-cell data from an Alzheimer’s disease (AD model, we identified microglial subsets—distinct from previously reported “disease-associated microglia”—expressing interferon-related or proliferation modules. We then analyzed whole-tissue RNA profiles from human neurodegenerative diseases, including a new AD dataset. Correcting for altered cellular composition of AD tissue, we observed elevated expression of the neurodegeneration-related modules, but also modules not implicated using expression profiles from mouse models alone. We provide a searchable, interactive database for exploring gene expression in all these datasets (http://research-pub.gene.com/BrainMyeloidLandscape. Understanding the dimensions of CNS myeloid cell activation in human disease may reveal opportunities for therapeutic intervention.

  8. Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA fourth airborne campaign was conducted in July–August 2006 to study the chemical composition of the middle and upper troposphere in West Africa with the major objective to better understand the processing of chemical emissions by the West African Monsoon (WAM and its associated regional-scale and vertical transports. In particular, the french airborne experiment was organized around two goals. The first was to characterize the impact of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs on the ozone budget in the upper troposphere and the evolution of the chemical composition of these convective plumes as they move westward toward the Atlantic Ocean. The second objective was to discriminate the impact of remote sources of pollution over West Africa, including transport from the middle east, Europe, Asia and from southern hemispheric fires. Observations of O3, CO, NOx, H2O and hydroperoxide above West Africa along repeated meridional transects were coupled with transport analysis based on the FLEXPART lagrangian model. The cross analysis of trace gas concentrations and transport pathways revealed 5 types of air masses: convective uplift of industrial and urban emissions, convective uplift of biogenic emissions, slow advection from Cotonou polluted plumes near the coast, meridional transport of upper tropospheric air from the subtropical barrier region, and meridional transport of Southern Hemisphere (SH biomass burning emissions. O3/CO correlation plots and the correlation plots of H2O2 with a OH proxy revealed not only a control of the trace gas variability by transport processes but also significant photochemical reactivity in the mid- and upper troposphere. The study of four MCSs outflow showed contrasted chemical composition and air mass origins depending on the MCSs lifetime and latitudinal position. Favorables conditions for ozone

  9. Revealing Conceptual Understanding of International Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Sue; Schaap, Harmen; de Bruijn, Elly

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify an adequate approach for revealing conceptual understanding in higher professional education. Revealing students' conceptual understanding is an important step towards developing effective curricula, assessment and aligned teaching strategies to enhance conceptual understanding in higher education. Essays and concept…

  10. Combined fishing and climate forcing in the southern Benguela upwelling ecosystem: an end-to-end modelling approach reveals dampened effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Travers-Trolet

    Full Text Available The effects of climate and fishing on marine ecosystems have usually been studied separately, but their interactions make ecosystem dynamics difficult to understand and predict. Of particular interest to management, the potential synergism or antagonism between fishing pressure and climate forcing is analysed in this paper, using an end-to-end ecosystem model of the southern Benguela ecosystem, built from coupling hydrodynamic, biogeochemical and multispecies fish models (ROMS-N2P2Z2D2-OSMOSE. Scenarios of different intensities of upwelling-favourable wind stress combined with scenarios of fishing top-predator fish were tested. Analyses of isolated drivers show that the bottom-up effect of the climate forcing propagates up the food chain whereas the top-down effect of fishing cascades down to zooplankton in unfavourable environmental conditions but dampens before it reaches phytoplankton. When considering both climate and fishing drivers together, it appears that top-down control dominates the link between top-predator fish and forage fish, whereas interactions between the lower trophic levels are dominated by bottom-up control. The forage fish functional group appears to be a central component of this ecosystem, being the meeting point of two opposite trophic controls. The set of combined scenarios shows that fishing pressure and upwelling-favourable wind stress have mostly dampened effects on fish populations, compared to predictions from the separate effects of the stressors. Dampened effects result in biomass accumulation at the top predator fish level but a depletion of biomass at the forage fish level. This should draw our attention to the evolution of this functional group, which appears as both structurally important in the trophic functioning of the ecosystem, and very sensitive to climate and fishing pressures. In particular, diagnoses considering fishing pressure only might be more optimistic than those that consider combined effects

  11. Light-Mediated Kinetic Control Reveals the Temporal Effect of the Raf/MEK/ERK Pathway in PC12 Cell Neurite Outgrowth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Duan, Liting; Ong, Qunxiang; Lin, Ziliang; Varman, Pooja Mahendra; Sung, Kijung; Cui, Bianxiao

    2014-01-01

    It has been proposed that differential activation kinetics allows cells to use a common set of signaling pathways to specify distinct cellular outcomes. For example, nerve growth factor (NGF) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) induce different activation kinetics of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and result in differentiation and proliferation, respectively. However, a direct and quantitative linkage between the temporal profile of Raf/MEK/ERK activation and the cellular outputs has not been established due to a lack of means to precisely perturb its signaling kinetics. Here, we construct a light-gated protein-protein interaction system to regulate the activation pattern of the Raf/MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Light-induced activation of the Raf/MEK/ERK cascade leads to significant neurite outgrowth in rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cell lines in the absence of growth factors. Compared with NGF stimulation, light stimulation induces longer but fewer neurites. Intermittent on/off illumination reveals that cells achieve maximum neurite outgrowth if the off-time duration per cycle is shorter than 45 min. Overall, light-mediated kinetic control enables precise dissection of the temporal dimension within the intracellular signal transduction network. PMID:24667437

  12. Deletion of the Androgen Receptor in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice Elevates Retinol Binding Protein 4 and Reveals Independent Effects on Visceral Fat Mass and on Glucose Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInnes, Kerry J.; Smith, Lee B.; Hunger, Nicole I.; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Andrew, Ruth; Walker, Brian R.

    2012-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency is epidemic in obese ageing males with type 2 diabetes, but the direction of causality remains unclear. Testosterone-deficient males and global androgen receptor (AR) knockout mice are insulin resistant with increased fat, but it is unclear whether AR signaling in adipose tissue mediates body fat redistribution and alters glucose homoeostasis. To investigate this, mice with selective knockdown of AR in adipocytes (fARKO) were generated. Male fARKO mice on normal diet had reduced perigonadal fat but were hyperinsulinemic and by age 12 months, were insulin deficient in the absence of obesity. On high-fat diet, fARKO mice had impaired compensatory insulin secretion and hyperglycemia, with increased susceptibility to visceral obesity. Adipokine screening in fARKO mice revealed a selective increase in plasma and intra-adipose retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) that preceded obesity. AR activation in murine 3T3 adipocytes downregulated RBP4 mRNA. We conclude that AR signaling in adipocytes not only protects against high-fat diet–induced visceral obesity but also regulates insulin action and glucose homeostasis, independently of adiposity. Androgen deficiency in adipocytes in mice resembles human type 2 diabetes, with early insulin resistance and evolving insulin deficiency. PMID:22415878

  13. A gloomy picture: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials reveals disappointing effectiveness of programs aiming at preventing child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke Ra; Stoltenborgh, Marije; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-10-18

    Consistent findings about the effectiveness of parent programs to prevent or reduce child maltreatment are lacking. In the present meta-analysis we synthesized findings from 27 independent samples from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effectiveness of 20 different intervention programs aimed at (i) preventing the occurrence of child maltreatment in the general population or with at-risk but non-maltreating families, or (ii) reducing the incidence of child maltreatment in maltreating families. A significant combined effect on maltreatment (d = 0.13; N = 4883) disappeared after the trim-and-fill approach that takes into account publication bias against smaller studies without significant outcomes. However, moderator analyses showed that larger effect sizes were found for more recent studies, studies with smaller samples, programs that provide parent training instead of only support, programs that target maltreating instead of at-risk families, and programs with a moderate length (6-12 months) or a moderate number of sessions (16-30). More RCTs are needed to further unravel which factors are associated with program effectiveness. Because currently existing programs appeared to only reduce and not prevent child maltreatment, efforts in the field of preventive intervention should also focus on the development and testing of preventive programs for families at risk for child maltreatment.

  14. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  15. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  16. Systematic analysis of off-target effects in an RNAi screen reveals microRNAs affecting sensitivity to TRAIL-induced apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enright Anton J

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA inhibition by siRNAs is a frequently used approach to identify genes required for specific biological processes. However RNAi screening using siRNAs is hampered by non-specific or off target effects of the siRNAs, making it difficult to separate genuine hits from false positives. It is thought that many of the off-target effects seen in RNAi experiments are due to siRNAs acting as microRNAs (miRNAs, causing a reduction in gene expression of unintended targets via matches to the 6 or 7 nt 'seed' sequence. We have conducted a careful examination of off-target effects during an siRNA screen for novel regulators of the TRAIL apoptosis induction pathway(s. Results We identified 3 hexamers and 3 heptamer seed sequences that appeared multiple times in the top twenty siRNAs in the TRAIL apoptosis screen. Using a novel statistical enrichment approach, we systematically identified a further 17 hexamer and 13 heptamer seed sequences enriched in high scoring siRNAs. The presence of one of these seeds sequences (which could explain 6 of 8 confirmed off-target effects is sufficient to elicit a phenotype. Three of these seed sequences appear in the human miRNAs miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-384. Transfection of mimics of these miRNAs protects several cell types from TRAIL-induced cell death. Conclusions We have demonstrated a role for miR-26a, miR-145 and miR-26a in TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Further these results show that RNAi screening enriches for siRNAs with relevant off-target effects. Some of these effects can be identified by the over-representation of certain seed sequences in high-scoring siRNAs and we demonstrate the usefulness of such systematic analysis of enriched seed sequences.

  17. Local effect of enhancer of zeste-like reveals cooperation of epigenetic and cis-acting determinants for zygotic genome rearrangements.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maoussi Lhuillier-Akakpo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia, differentiation of the somatic nucleus from the zygotic nucleus is characterized by massive and reproducible deletion of transposable elements and of 45,000 short, dispersed, single-copy sequences. A specific class of small RNAs produced by the germline during meiosis, the scnRNAs, are involved in the epigenetic regulation of DNA deletion but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that trimethylation of histone H3 (H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 displays a dynamic nuclear localization that is altered when the endonuclease required for DNA elimination is depleted. We identified the putative histone methyltransferase Ezl1 necessary for H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 establishment and show that it is required for correct genome rearrangements. Genome-wide analyses show that scnRNA-mediated H3 trimethylation is necessary for the elimination of long, repeated germline DNA, while single copy sequences display differential sensitivity to depletion of proteins involved in the scnRNA pathway, Ezl1- a putative histone methyltransferase and Dcl5- a protein required for iesRNA biogenesis. Our study reveals cis-acting determinants, such as DNA length, also contribute to the definition of germline sequences to delete. We further show that precise excision of single copy DNA elements, as short as 26 bp, requires Ezl1, suggesting that development specific H3K27me3 and H3K9me3 ensure specific demarcation of very short germline sequences from the adjacent somatic sequences.

  18. Multivariate Analysis of Water Quality and Benthic Macrophyte Communities in Florida Bay, USA Reveals Hurricane Effects and Susceptibility to Seagrass Die-Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Cole

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Seagrass communities, dominated by Thalassia testudinum, form the principal benthic ecosystem within Florida Bay, Florida USA. The bay has had several large-scale seagrass die-offs in recent decades associated with drought and hypersaline conditions. In addition, three category-5 hurricanes passed in close proximity to the bay during the fall of 2005. This study investigated temporal and spatial trends in macrophyte abundance and water quality from 2006 to 2013 at 15 permanent transect sites, which were co-located with long-term water quality stations. Relationships, by year and by transect location (basin, between antecedent water quality (mean, minimum and maximum for a 6-month period and benthic macrophyte communities were examined using multivariate analyses. Total phosphorus, salinity, pH, turbidity, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN, DIN to phosphate ratio (DIN:PO4-3, chlorophyll a, and dissolved oxygen correlated with temporal and spatial variations in the macrophyte communities. Temporal analysis (MDS and LINKTREE indicated that the fall 2005 hurricanes affected both water quality and macrophyte communities for approximately a 2-year period. Spatial analysis revealed that five basins, which subsequently exhibited a major seagrass die-off during summer 2015, significantly differed from the other ten basins in macrophyte community structure and water quality more than 2 years before this die-off event. High total phosphorus, high pH, low DIN, and low DIN:PO4-3, in combination with deep sediments and high seagrass cover were characteristic of sites that subsequently exhibited severe die-off. Our results indicate basins with more mixed seagrass communities and higher macroalgae abundance are less susceptible to die-off, which is consistent with the management goals of promoting more heterogeneous benthic macrophyte communities.

  19. Flux pinning properties of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films containing a high density of nanoprecipitates: A comparative study to reveal size effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Hirofumi; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Temperature dependence of critical current density Jc(H, T) was measured in moderate magnetic fields (H ⊥ film) in two thermally co-evaporated YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) thin films (A, B) and two YBCO films (C, D) deposited using a pulsed-laser deposition method. All sample films were grown epitaxially with the c-axis perpendicular to the surface of a single-crystalline substrate. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that these four films contained a high density of nanoprecipitates with typical sizes of 3.6 - 5.0 nm (A), 5.0 - 7.1 nm (B), 7.0 - 10.1 nm (C) and 8.7 - 14.3 nm (D). Films A and B contained very fine nanoprecipitates, whose typical diameters Dtyp are smaller than double the estimated Ginzburg-Landau coherence length 2ξab at T = 77 K, and exhibited a steep increase of Jc with decreasing temperature. Whereas, film D, which contained relatively large nanoprecipitates (Dtyp > 2ξab at T ≤ 70 K), exhibited a gradual increase in Jc. This led to a remarkable crossing of the Jc(T) curves. The temperature dependence of Jc(H//c) under a fixed magnetic field is approximated by Jc ∼ (1 - T/Tc)m(1 + T/Tc)2 where the index m is larger for films containing finer precipitates; that is, m(A) > m(B) > m(C) > m(D). This means that finer nanoprecipitates generally cause steeper Jc increase at low temperatures, which is the origin of the observed crossing phenomenon. The experimental results are reasonably explained by several theoretical models based on the direct summation of elementary pinning forces fp calculated by core pinning interactions.

  20. Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome of tomato using a shotgun proteomic approach, with the final goal of elucidating plant response mechanisms to these stresses. This approach yielded 643 proteins reliably identified and quantified with 7...

  1. Molecular gut-content analysis of a predator assemblage reveals the effect of habitat manipulation on biological control in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite growing evidence that habitat manipulation can alter predators’ impact on target prey consumption, few studies have directly examined the effect of habitat context on conservation biological control in the field. Because of contradictory evidence in the literature for the outcome of habita...

  2. Experimental method to reveal the effect of rotor magnet size and air gap on artificial heart driving motor torque and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, K X; Yuan, H Y; Ru, W M; Zeng, P

    2002-01-01

    To investigate experimentally the effect of rotor magnet design on artificial heart driving motor performance, seven rotors with different magnet lengths or thicknesses, as well as different peripheral angles, were manufactured and tested in the same motor stator with different rotating speeds. The input power (voltage and current) and output torque were measured and the motor efficiency was computed. The results demonstrated that the reduction of rotor magnet size and the enlargement of the air gap between the rotor magnets and the stator coil core have no significant effect on motor efficiency, but will reduce the torque value on which the motor achieves the highest efficiency; it could be remedied however by increasing the rotating speed, because the torque at the high efficiency point will increase along with the rotating speed. These results may provide a basis for developing small rotor magnets, large air gap and high efficiency motors for driving an artificial heart pump.

  3. Revealing the effect of electrode materials on the performance of low-voltage pentacene thin film transistor by in-situ surface potential measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Q L; Liu, Q C; Jin, H Y; Ouyang, M; Xie, W G

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effect of contact potential between Au, CuO x and Au-CuO x , and pentacene thin films by Kevin Probe microscopy Compared to the Au contact, although the injection barrier is lower for CuO x contact, the extraction barrier is higher, and the total contact resistance is only slightly smaller. The better performance of CuO x contact device results from the doping effect from the p-type CuO x . The introduction of additional Au top layer deposited on the thin CuO x layer lowersthe extraction barrier and facilitates better carrier transfer, which further reduces the contact resistance. Therefore, both the apparent mobility and channel mobility are the best in the device with Au-CuO x double layer contact. (paper)

  4. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L

    2017-01-01

    bone mineral density loci: WNT4, GALNT3, MEPE, CPED1/WNT16, TNFSF11, RIN3, and PPP6R3/LRP5. Variants in the TOM1L2/SREBF1 locus exert opposing effects TB-LM and TBLH-BMD, and have a stronger association with the former trait. We show that SREBF1 is expressed in murine and human osteoblasts, as well...

  5. Do eye movements reveal differences between monolingual and bilingual children's first-language and second-language reading? A focus on word frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitford, Veronica; Joanisse, Marc F

    2018-09-01

    An extensive body of research has examined reading acquisition and performance in monolingual children. Surprisingly, however, much less is known about reading in bilingual children, who outnumber monolingual children globally. Here, we address this important imbalance in the literature by employing eye movement recordings to examine both global (i.e., text-level) and local (i.e., word-level) aspects of monolingual and bilingual children's reading performance across their first-language (L1) and second-language (L2). We also had a specific focus on lexical accessibility, indexed by word frequency effects. We had three main findings. First, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L1 reading performance relative to monolingual children, including larger L1 word frequency effects. Second, bilingual children displayed reduced global and local L2 versus L1 reading performance, including larger L2 word frequency effects. Third, both groups of children displayed reduced global and local reading performance relative to adult comparison groups (across their known languages), including larger word frequency effects. Notably, our first finding was not captured by traditional offline measures of reading, such as standardized tests, suggesting that these measures may lack the sensitivity to detect such nuanced between-group differences in reading performance. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that bilingual children's simultaneous exposure to two reading systems leads to eye movement reading behavior that differs from that of monolingual children and has important consequences for how lexical information is accessed and integrated in both languages. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A screen for F1 hybrid male rescue reveals no major-effect hybrid lethality loci in the Drosophila melanogaster autosomal genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuykendall, Tawny N; Satyaki, P; Ji, Shuqing; Clay, Derek M; Edelman, Nathaniel B; Kimchy, Alexandra; Li, Ling-Hei; Nuzzo, Erin A; Parekh, Neil; Park, Suna; Barbash, Daniel A

    2014-10-27

    Hybrid sons between Drosophila melanogaster females and D. simulans males die as 3rd instar larvae. Two genes, D. melanogaster Hybrid male rescue (Hmr) on the X chromosome, and D. simulans Lethal hybrid rescue (Lhr) on chromosome II, interact to cause this lethality. Loss-of-function mutations in either gene suppress lethality, but several pieces of evidence suggest that additional factors are required for hybrid lethality. Here we screen the D. melanogaster autosomal genome by using the Bloomington Stock Center Deficiency kit to search for additional regions that can rescue hybrid male lethality. Our screen is designed to identify putative hybrid incompatibility (HI) genes similar to Hmr and Lhr which, when removed, are dominant suppressors of lethality. After screening 89% of the autosomal genome, we found no regions that rescue males to the adult stage. We did, however, identify several regions that rescue up to 13% of males to the pharate adult stage. This weak rescue suggests the presence of multiple minor-effect HI loci, but we were unable to map these loci to high resolution, presumably because weak rescue can be masked by genetic background effects. We attempted to test one candidate, the dosage compensation gene male specific lethal-3 (msl-3), by using RNA interference with short hairpin microRNA constructs targeted specifically against D. simulans msl-3 but failed to achieve knockdown, in part due to off-target effects. We conclude that the D. melanogaster autosomal genome likely does not contain additional major-effect HI loci. We also show that Hmr is insufficient to fully account for the lethality associated with the D. melanogaster X chromosome, suggesting that additional X-linked genes contribute to hybrid lethality. Copyright © 2014 Cuykendall et al.

  7. Systematic analysis of fly models with multiple drivers reveals different effects of ataxin-1 and huntingtin in neuron subtype-specific expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Risa Shiraishi

    Full Text Available The fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, is a commonly used model organism for neurodegenerative diseases. Its major advantages include a short lifespan and its susceptibility to manipulation using sophisticated genetic techniques. Here, we report the systematic comparison of fly models of two polyglutamine (polyQ diseases. We induced expression of the normal and mutant forms of full-length Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin exon 1 in cholinergic, dopaminergic, and motor neurons, and glial cells using cell type-specific drivers. We systematically analyzed their effects based on multiple phenotypes: eclosion rate, lifespan, motor performance, and circadian rhythms of spontaneous activity. This systematic assay system enabled us to quantitatively evaluate and compare the functional disabilities of different genotypes. The results suggest different effects of Ataxin-1 and Huntingtin on specific types of neural cells during development and in adulthood. In addition, we confirmed the therapeutic effects of LiCl and butyrate using representative models. These results support the usefulness of this assay system for screening candidate chemical compounds that modify the pathologies of polyQ diseases.

  8. Effects of sampling methods on the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter in sediment pore waters as revealed by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meilian; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Hur, Jin

    2015-10-01

    Despite literature evidence suggesting the importance of sampling methods on the properties of sediment pore waters, their effects on the dissolved organic matter (PW-DOM) have been unexplored to date. Here, we compared the effects of two commonly used sampling methods (i.e., centrifuge and Rhizon sampler) on the characteristics of PW-DOM for the first time. The bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) absorption, and excitation-emission matrixes coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) of the PW-DOM samples were compared for the two sampling methods with the sediments from minimal to severely contaminated sites. The centrifuged samples were found to have higher average values of DOC, UV absorption, and protein-like EEM-PARAFAC components. The samples collected with the Rhizon sampler, however, exhibited generally more humified characteristics than the centrifuged ones, implying a preferential collection of PW-DOM with respect to the sampling methods. Furthermore, the differences between the two sampling methods seem more pronounced in relatively more polluted sites. Our observations were possibly explained by either the filtration effect resulting from the smaller pore size of the Rhizon sampler or the desorption of DOM molecules loosely bound to minerals during centrifugation, or both. Our study suggests that consistent use of one sampling method is crucial for PW-DOM studies and also that caution should be taken in the comparison of data collected with different sampling methods.

  9. The effects of plant extracts on microbial community structure in a rumen-simulating continuous-culture system as revealed by molecular profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferme, D; Banjac, M; Calsamiglia, S; Busquet, M; Kamel, C; Avgustin, G

    2004-01-01

    An in vitro study in dual-flow continuous-culture fermentors was conducted with two different concentrations of monensin, cinnamaldehyde or garlic extract added to 1:1 forage-to-concentrate diet in order to determine their effects on selected rumen bacterial populations. Samples were subjected to total DNA extraction, restriction analysis of PCR amplified parts of 16S rRNA genes (ARDRA) and subsequent analysis of the restriction profiles by lab-on-chip technology with the Agilent's Bioanalyser 2100. Eub338-BacPre primer pair was used to select for the bacteria from the genera Bacteroides, Porphyromonas and Prevotella, especially the latter representing the dominant Gram-negative bacterial population in the rumen. Preliminary results of HaeIII restriction analysis show that the effects of monensin, cinnamaldehyde and garlic extract on the BacPre targeted ruminal bacteria are somewhat different in regard to targeted populations and to the nature of the effect. Garlic extract was found to trigger the most intensive changes in the structure of the BacPre targeted population. Comparison of the in silico restriction analysis of BacPre sequences deposited in different DNA databanks and of the results of performed amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis showed differences between the predicted and obtained HaeIII restriction profiles, and suggested the presence of novel, still unknown Prevotella populations in studied samples.

  10. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana leaves in response to acute boron deficiency and toxicity reveals effects on photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and protein synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei; Mishra, Sasmita; Heckathorn, Scott A; Frantz, Jonathan M; Krause, Charles

    2014-02-15

    Boron (B) stress (deficiency and toxicity) is common in plants, but as the functions of this essential micronutrient are incompletely understood, so too are the effects of B stress. To investigate mechanisms underlying B stress, we examined protein profiles in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana plants grown under normal B (30 μM), compared to plants transferred for 60 and 84 h (i.e., before and after initial visible symptoms) in deficient (0 μM) or toxic (3 mM) levels of B. B-responsive polypeptides were sequenced by mass spectrometry, following 2D gel electrophoresis, and 1D gels and immunoblotting were used to confirm the B-responsiveness of some of these proteins. Fourteen B-responsive proteins were identified, including: 9 chloroplast proteins, 6 proteins of photosynthetic/carbohydrate metabolism (rubisco activase, OEC23, photosystem I reaction center subunit II-1, ATPase δ-subunit, glycolate oxidase, fructose bisphosphate aldolase), 6 stress proteins, and 3 proteins involved in protein synthesis (note that the 14 proteins may fall into multiple categories). Most (8) of the B-responsive proteins decreased under both B deficiency and toxicity; only 3 increased with B stress. Boron stress decreased, or had no effect on, 3 of 4 oxidative stress proteins examined, and did not affect total protein. Hence, our results indicate relatively early specific effects of B stress on chloroplasts and protein synthesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Healthy and adverse effects of plant-derived functional metabolites: the need of revealing their content and bioactivity in a complex food matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Teresa; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Giardi, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, both food quality and its effect on human health have become a fundamental issue all over the world. As a consequence of this new and increased awareness, American, European, and Asian policymakers have strongly encouraged the research programs on food quality and safety thematic. Attempts to improve human health and to satisfy people's desire for healthcare without intake of pharmaceuticals, has led the food industry to focus attention on functional or nutraceutical food. For a long time, compounds with nutraceutical activity have been produced chemically, but the new demands for a sustainable life have gradually led the food industry to move towards natural compounds, mainly those derived from plants. Many phytochemicals are known to promote good health, but, sometimes, undesirable effects are also reported. Furthermore, several products present on the market show few benefits and sometimes even the reverse - unhealthy effects; the evidence of efficacy is often unconvincing and epidemiological studies are necessary to prove the truth of their claims. Therefore, there is a need for reliable analytical control systems to measure the bioactivity, content, and quality of these additives in the complex food matrix. This review describes the most widespread nutraceutics and an analytical control of the same using recently developed biosensors which are promising candidates for routine control of functional foods.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi reservoir—triatomine vector co-occurrence networks reveal meta-community effects by synanthropic mammals on geographic dispersal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N. Ibarra-Cerdeña

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Contemporary patterns of land use and global climate change are modifying regional pools of parasite host species. The impact of host community changes on human disease risk, however, is difficult to assess due to a lack of information about zoonotic parasite host assemblages. We have used a recently developed method to infer parasite-host interactions for Chagas Disease (CD from vector-host co-occurrence networks. Vector-host networks were constructed to analyze topological characteristics of the network and ecological traits of species’ nodes, which could provide information regarding parasite regional dispersal in Mexico. Twenty-eight triatomine species (vectors and 396 mammal species (potential hosts were included using a data-mining approach to develop models to infer most-likely interactions. The final network contained 1,576 links which were analyzed to calculate centrality, connectivity, and modularity. The model predicted links of independently registered Trypanosoma cruzi hosts, which correlated with the degree of parasite-vector co-occurrence. Wiring patterns differed according to node location, while edge density was greater in Neotropical as compared to Nearctic regions. Vectors with greatest public health importance (i.e., Triatoma dimidiata, T. barberi, T. pallidipennis, T. longipennis, etc, did not have stronger links with particular host species, although they had a greater frequency of significant links. In contrast, hosts classified as important based on network properties were synanthropic mammals. The latter were the most common parasite hosts and are likely bridge species between these communities, thereby integrating meta-community scenarios beneficial for long-range parasite dispersal. This was particularly true for rodents, >50% of species are synanthropic and more than 20% have been identified as T. cruzi hosts. In addition to predicting potential host species using the co-occurrence networks, they reveal regions with

  13. SU-F-J-217: Accurate Dose Volume Parameters Calculation for Revealing Rectum Dose-Toxicity Effect Using Deformable Registration in Cervical Cancer Brachytherapy: A Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhen, X; Chen, H; Liao, Y; Zhou, L [Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong (China); Hrycushko, B; Albuquerque, K; Gu, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of employing deformable registration methods for accurate rectum dose volume parameters calculation and their potentials in revealing rectum dose-toxicity between complication and non-complication cervical cancer patients with brachytherapy treatment. Method and Materials: Data from 60 patients treated with BT including planning images, treatment plans, and follow-up clinical exam were retrospectively collected. Among them, 12 patients complained about hematochezia were further examined with colonoscopy and scored as Grade 1–3 complication (CP). Meanwhile, another 12 non-complication (NCP) patients were selected as a reference group. To seek for potential gains in rectum toxicity prediction when fractional anatomical deformations are account for, the rectum dose volume parameters D0.1/1/2cc of the selected patients were retrospectively computed by three different approaches: the simple “worstcase scenario” (WS) addition method, an intensity-based deformable image registration (DIR) algorithm-Demons, and a more accurate, recent developed local topology preserved non-rigid point matching algorithm (TOP). Statistical significance of the differences between rectum doses of the CP group and the NCP group were tested by a two-tailed t-test and results were considered to be statistically significant if p < 0.05. Results: For the D0.1cc, no statistical differences are found between the CP and NCP group in all three methods. For the D1cc, dose difference is not detected by the WS method, however, statistical differences between the two groups are observed by both Demons and TOP, and more evident in TOP. For the D2cc, the CP and NCP cases are statistically significance of the difference for all three methods but more pronounced with TOP. Conclusion: In this study, we calculated the rectum D0.1/1/2cc by simple WS addition and two DIR methods and seek for gains in rectum toxicity prediction. The results favor the claim that accurate dose

  14. Transcriptomics reveal transgenerational effects in purple sea urchin embryos: Adult acclimation to upwelling conditions alters the response of their progeny to differential pCO2 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Juliet M; Johnson, Kevin M; Kelly, Morgan W; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2018-03-01

    Understanding the mechanisms with which organisms can respond to a rapidly changing ocean is an important research priority in marine sciences, especially in the light of recent predictions regarding the pace of ocean change in the coming decades. Transgenerational effects, in which the experience of the parental generation can shape the phenotype of their offspring, may serve as such a mechanism. In this study, adult purple sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, were conditioned to regionally and ecologically relevant pCO 2 levels and temperatures representative of upwelling (colder temperature and high pCO 2 ) and nonupwelling (average temperature and low pCO 2 ) conditions typical of coastal upwelling regions in the California Current System. Following 4.5 months of conditioning, adults were spawned and offspring were raised under either high or low pCO 2 levels, to examine the role of maternal effects. Using RNA-seq and comparative transcriptomics, our results indicate that differential conditioning of the adults had an effect on the gene expression patterns of the progeny during the gastrula stage of early development. For example, maternal conditioning under upwelling conditions intensified the transcriptomic response of the progeny when they were raised under high versus low pCO 2 conditions. Additionally, mothers that experienced upwelling conditions produced larger progeny. The overall findings of this study are complex, but do suggest that transgenerational plasticity in situ could act as an important mechanism by which populations might keep pace with rapid environmental change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. A comparative study of APLI and APCI in IMS at atmospheric pressure to reveal and explain peak broadening effects by the use of APLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihlenborg, Marvin; Raupers, Björn; Gunzer, Frank; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2015-11-21

    The details of the ionization mechanism in atmospheric pressure are still not completely known. In order to obtain further insight into the occurring processes in atmospheric pressure laser ionization (APLI) a comparative study of atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) and APLI is presented in this paper. This study is carried out using similar experimental condition at atmospheric pressure employing a commercial ion mobility spectrometer (IMS). Two different peak broadening mechanisms can then be assigned, one related to a range of different species generated and detected, and furthermore for the first time a power broadening effect on the signals can be identified.

  16. Phenotype anchoring in zebrafish reveals a potential role for matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in tamoxifen's effects on skin epithelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugel, Sean M., E-mail: Sean.Bugel@oregonstate.edu; Wehmas, Leah C., E-mail: wehmasl@onid.oregonstate.edu; La Du, Jane K., E-mail: Jane.LaDu@oregonstate.edu; Tanguay, Robert L., E-mail: Robert.Tanguay@oregonstate.edu

    2016-04-01

    The zebrafish is a powerful alternative model used to link phenotypes with molecular effects to discover drug mode of action. Using a zebrafish embryo-larval toxicity bioassay, we evaluated the effects of tamoxifen — a widely used anti-estrogen chemotherapeutic. Zebrafish exposed to ≥ 10 μM tamoxifen exhibited a unique necrotic caudal fin phenotype that was rapidly induced regardless of developmental life-stage when treatment was applied. To define tamoxifen's bioactivity resulting in this phenotype, targeted gene expression was used to evaluate 100 transcripts involved in tissue remodeling, calcium signaling, cell cycle and cell death, growth factors, angiogenesis and hypoxia. The most robustly misregulated transcripts in the tail were matrix metalloproteinases mmp9 and mmp13a, induced 127 and 1145 fold, respectively. Expression of c-fos, c-jun, and ap1s1 were also moderately elevated (3–7 fold), consistent with AP-1 activity — a transcription factor that regulates MMP expression. Immunohistochemistry confirmed high levels of induction for MMP13a in affected caudal fin skin epithelial tissue. The necrotic caudal fin phenotype was significantly attenuated or prevented by three functionally unique MMP inhibitors: EDTA (metal chelator), GM 6001 (broad MMP inhibitor), and SR 11302 (AP-1 transcription factor inhibitor), suggesting MMP-dependence. SR 11302 also inhibited induction of mmp9, mmp13a, and a putative MMP target, igfbp1a. Overall, our studies suggest that tamoxifen's effect is the result of perturbation of the MMP system in the skin leading to ectopic expression, cytotoxicity, and the necrotic caudal fin phenotype. These studies help advance our understanding of tamoxifen's non-classical mode of action and implicate a possible role for MMPs in tissues such as skin. - Highlights: • Tamoxifen rapidly induced a unique necrotic caudal fin phenotype in zebrafish. • Apoptosis co-localized temporally and spatially in the necrotic tail.

  17. Bivariate genome-wide association meta-analysis of pediatric musculoskeletal traits reveals pleiotropic effects at the SREBF1/TOM1L2 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medina-Gomez, Carolina; Kemp, John P; Dimou, Niki L

    2017-01-01

    Bone mineral density is known to be a heritable, polygenic trait whereas genetic variants contributing to lean mass variation remain largely unknown. We estimated the shared SNP heritability and performed a bivariate GWAS meta-analysis of total-body lean mass (TB-LM) and total-body less head bone...... as in human muscle tissue. This is the first bivariate GWAS meta-analysis to demonstrate genetic factors with pleiotropic effects on bone mineral density and lean mass.Bone mineral density and lean skeletal mass are heritable traits. Here, Medina-Gomez and colleagues perform bivariate GWAS analyses of total...

  18. Metabolomic Analyses of Brain Tissue in Sepsis Induced by Cecal Ligation Reveal Specific Redox Alterations-Protective Effects of the Oxygen Radical Scavenger Edaravone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hara, Naomi; Chijiiwa, Miyuki; Yara, Miki

    2015-01-01

    at analyzing the preventive effect of the free radical scavenger edaravone on sepsis-induced brain alterations. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and the mice were divided into three groups-CLP vehicle (CLPV), CLP and edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) (CLPE......), and sham-operated (Sham). Mice in CLPV and CLPE were injected with saline or edaravone intraperitoneally at a dose of 10 mg/kg twice daily. The treatments were initiated 4 days prior to the surgical procedure. Mortality, histological changes, electron microscopy (EM), and expression of Bcl-2 family genes...

  19. Neutrophil proteomic analysis reveals the participation of antioxidant enzymes, motility and ribosomal proteins in the prevention of ischemic effects by preconditioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arshid, S; Tahir, M; Fontes, B

    2017-01-01

    therapeutic application; however the exact underlying mechanism is not clear. Neutrophils play an important role in the mechanism of injuries caused by ischemia and reperfusion while IPC led to a decrease in neutrophil stimulation and activation. The effect of preconditioning on the neutrophil proteome...... in such conditions, there is no report of a proteomic study providing a broader view of this scenario. Here we describe a group of proteins significantly regulated by ischemia and reperfusion being such regulation prevented by preconditioning. Such finding may provide relevant information for a deeper understanding...

  20. Studies of UCP2 transgenic and knockout mice reveal that liver UCP2 is not essential for the antiobesity effects of fish oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Sano, Kayo; Shozawa, Chikako; Osaka, Toshimasa; Ezaki, Osamu

    2008-03-01

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) is a possible target molecule for energy dissipation. Many dietary fats, including safflower oil and lard, induce obesity in C57BL/6 mice, whereas fish oil does not. Fish oil increases UCP2 expression in hepatocytes and may enhance UCP2 activity by activating the UCP2 molecule or altering the lipid bilayer environment. To examine the role of liver UCP2 in obesity, we created transgenic mice that overexpressed human UCP2 in hepatocytes and examined whether UCP2 transgenic mice showed less obesity when fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard). In addition, we examined whether fish oil had antiobesity effects in UCP2 knockout mice. UCP2 transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet (safflower oil or lard) developed obesity to a similar degree. UCP2 knockout and wild-type mice fed fish oil had lower rates of obesity than mice fed safflower oil. Remarkably, safflower oil did not induce obesity in female UCP2 knockout mice, an unexpected phenotype for which we presently have no explanation. However, this unexpected effect was not observed in male UCP2 knockout mice or in UCP2 knockout mice fed a high-lard diet. These data indicate that liver UCP2 is not essential for fish oil-induced decreases in body fat.

  1. An Atomic Force Microscope Study Revealed Two Mechanisms in the Effect of Anticancer Drugs on Rate-Dependent Young's Modulus of Human Prostate Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ren

    Full Text Available Mechanical properties of cells have been recognized as a biomarker for cellular cytoskeletal organization. As chemical treatments lead to cell cytoskeletal rearrangements, thereby, modifications of cellular mechanical properties, investigating cellular mechanical property variations provides insightful knowledge to effects of chemical treatments on cancer cells. In this study, the effects of eight different anticancer drugs on the mechanical properties of human prostate cancer cell (PC-3 are investigated using a recently developed control-based nanoindentation measurement (CNM protocol on atomic force microscope (AFM. The CNM protocol overcomes the limits of other existing methods to in-liquid nanoindentation measurement of live cells on AFM, particularly for measuring mechanical properties of live cells. The Young's modulus of PC-3 cells treated by the eight drugs was measured by varying force loading rates over three orders of magnitude, and compared to the values of the control. The results showed that the Young's modulus of the PC-3 cells increased substantially by the eight drugs tested, and became much more pronounced as the force load rate increased. Moreover, two distinct trends were clearly expressed, where under the treatment of Disulfiram, paclitaxel, and MK-2206, the exponent coefficient of the frequency- modulus function remained almost unchanged, while with Celebrex, BAY, Totamine, TPA, and Vaproic acid, the exponential rate was significantly increased.

  2. Assessing the effects of iron enrichment across holobiont compartments reveals reduced microbial nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea coral Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils; Pogoreutz, Claudia; Ziegler, Maren; Ashok, Ananya; Barreto, Marcelle M.; Chaidez, Veronica; Grupstra, Carsten G. B.; Ng, Yi Mei; Perna, Gabriela; Aranda, Manuel; Voolstra, Christian R.

    2017-01-01

    The productivity of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical waters is sustained by an efficient uptake and recycling of nutrients. In reef-building corals, the engineers of these ecosystems, this nutrient recycling is facilitated by a constant exchange of nutrients between the animal host and endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), bacteria, and other microbes. Due to the complex interactions in this so-called coral holobiont, it has proven difficult to understand the environmental limitations of productivity in corals. Among others, the micronutrient iron has been proposed to limit primary productivity due to its essential role in photosynthesis and bacterial processes. Here, we tested the effect of iron enrichment on the physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea during a 12-day experiment. Contrary to previous reports, we did not see an increase in zooxanthellae population density or gross photosynthesis. Conversely, respiration rates were significantly increased, and microbial nitrogen fixation was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data suggest that iron is not a limiting factor of primary productivity in Red Sea corals. Rather, increased metabolic demands in response to iron enrichment, as evidenced by increased respiration rates, may reduce carbon (i.e., energy) availability in the coral holobiont, resulting in reduced microbial nitrogen fixation. This decrease in nitrogen supply in turn may exacerbate the limitation of other nutrients, creating a negative feedback loop. Thereby, our results highlight that the effects of iron enrichment appear to be strongly dependent on local environmental conditions and ultimately may depend on the availability of other nutrients.

  3. Soft x-ray irradiation effects of Li₂O₂, Li₂CO₃ and Li₂O revealed by absorption spectroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruimin Qiao

    Full Text Available Li(2O(2, Li(2CO(3, and Li(2O are three critical compounds in lithium-air and lithium-ion energy storage systems. Extensive measurements have been carried out to study the chemical species and their evolutions at difference stages of the device operation. While x-ray spectroscopy has been demonstrated to be one of the most powerful tools for such purpose, no systematic study on the irradiation effects have been reported. Here we carry out extensive time, position, and irradiation dependent Li K-edge soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy on these compounds with so far the best energy resolution. The ultra-high resolution in the current study allows the features in the absorption spectra to be well-resolved. The spectral lineshape thus serves as the fingerprints of these compounds, enabling the tracking of their evolution under x-ray irradiation. We found that both Li(2O(2 and Li(2CO(3 evidently evolve towards Li(2O under the soft x-ray irradiation with Li(2CO(3 exhibiting a surprisingly higher sensitivity to x-rays than Li(2O(2. On the other hand, Li(2O remains the most stable compound despite experiencing substantial irradiation dose. We thus conclude that high resolution soft x-ray spectroscopy could unambiguously fingerprint different chemical species, but special cautions on irradiation effects would be needed in performing the experiments and interpreting the data properly.

  4. Genomic Characterization of Variable Surface Antigens Reveals a Telomere Position Effect as a Prerequisite for RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranasic, Damir; Oppermann, Timo; Cheaib, Miriam; Cullum, John; Schmidt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic or phenotypic variation is a widespread phenomenon of expression of variable surface protein coats on eukaryotic microbes. To clarify the mechanism behind mutually exclusive gene expression, we characterized the genetic properties of the surface antigen multigene family in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia and the epigenetic factors controlling expression and silencing. Genome analysis indicated that the multigene family consists of intrachromosomal and subtelomeric genes; both classes apparently derive from different gene duplication events: whole-genome and intrachromosomal duplication. Expression analysis provides evidence for telomere position effects, because only subtelomeric genes follow mutually exclusive transcription. Microarray analysis of cultures deficient in Rdr3, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, in comparison to serotype-pure wild-type cultures, shows cotranscription of a subset of subtelomeric genes, indicating that the telomere position effect is due to a selective occurrence of Rdr3-mediated silencing in subtelomeric regions. We present a model of surface antigen evolution by intrachromosomal gene duplication involving the maintenance of positive selection of structurally relevant regions. Further analysis of chromosome heterogeneity shows that alternative telomere addition regions clearly affect transcription of closely related genes. Consequently, chromosome fragmentation appears to be of crucial importance for surface antigen expression and evolution. Our data suggest that RNAi-mediated control of this genetic network by trans-acting RNAs allows rapid epigenetic adaptation by phenotypic variation in combination with long-term genetic adaptation by Darwinian evolution of antigen genes. PMID:25389173

  5. Assessing the effects of iron enrichment across holobiont compartments reveals reduced microbial nitrogen fixation in the Red Sea coral Pocillopora verrucosa

    KAUST Repository

    Radecker, Nils

    2017-07-31

    The productivity of coral reefs in oligotrophic tropical waters is sustained by an efficient uptake and recycling of nutrients. In reef-building corals, the engineers of these ecosystems, this nutrient recycling is facilitated by a constant exchange of nutrients between the animal host and endosymbiotic photosynthetic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae), bacteria, and other microbes. Due to the complex interactions in this so-called coral holobiont, it has proven difficult to understand the environmental limitations of productivity in corals. Among others, the micronutrient iron has been proposed to limit primary productivity due to its essential role in photosynthesis and bacterial processes. Here, we tested the effect of iron enrichment on the physiology of the coral Pocillopora verrucosa from the central Red Sea during a 12-day experiment. Contrary to previous reports, we did not see an increase in zooxanthellae population density or gross photosynthesis. Conversely, respiration rates were significantly increased, and microbial nitrogen fixation was significantly decreased. Taken together, our data suggest that iron is not a limiting factor of primary productivity in Red Sea corals. Rather, increased metabolic demands in response to iron enrichment, as evidenced by increased respiration rates, may reduce carbon (i.e., energy) availability in the coral holobiont, resulting in reduced microbial nitrogen fixation. This decrease in nitrogen supply in turn may exacerbate the limitation of other nutrients, creating a negative feedback loop. Thereby, our results highlight that the effects of iron enrichment appear to be strongly dependent on local environmental conditions and ultimately may depend on the availability of other nutrients.

  6. Muscle spindle thixotropy affects force perception through afferent-induced facilitation of the motor pathways as revealed by the Kohnstamm effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjo, Florian; Forestier, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    This study was designed to explore the effects of intrafusal thixotropy, a property affecting muscle spindle sensitivity, on the sense of force. For this purpose, psychophysical measurements of force perception were performed using an isometric force matching paradigm of elbow flexors consisting of matching different force magnitudes (5, 10 and 20% of subjects' maximal voluntary force). We investigated participants' capacity to match these forces after their indicator arm had undergone voluntary isometric conditioning contractions known to alter spindle thixotropy, i.e., contractions performed at long ('hold long') or short muscle lengths ('hold short'). In parallel, their reference arm was conditioned at the intermediate muscle length ('hold-test') at which the matchings were performed. The thixotropy hypothesis predicts that estimation errors should only be observed at low force levels (up to 10% of the maximal voluntary force) with overestimation of the forces produced following 'hold short' conditioning and underestimation following 'hold long' conditioning. We found the complete opposite, especially following 'hold-short' conditioning where subjects underestimated the force they generated with similar relative error magnitudes across force levels. In a second experiment, we tested the hypothesis that estimation errors depended on the degree of afferent-induced facilitation using the Kohnstamm phenomenon as a probe of motor pathway excitability. Because the stronger post-effects were observed following 'hold-short' conditioning, it appears that the conditioning-induced excitation of spindle afferents leads to force misjudgments by introducing a decoupling between the central effort and the cortical motor outputs.

  7. Dynamic causal modeling revealed dysfunctional effective connectivity in both, the cortico-basal-ganglia and the cerebello-cortical motor network in writers' cramp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inken Rothkirch

    Full Text Available Writer's cramp (WC is a focal task-specific dystonia characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions while writing, particularly with the dominant hand. Since structural lesions rarely cause WC, it has been assumed that the disease might be caused by a functional maladaptation within the sensory-motor system. Therefore, our objective was to examine the differences between patients suffering from WC and a healthy control (HC group with regard to the effective connectivity that describes causal influences one brain region exerts over another within the motor network. The effective connectivity within a network including contralateral motor cortex (M1, supplementary motor area (SMA, globus pallidus (GP, putamen (PU and ipsilateral cerebellum (CB was investigated using dynamic causal modeling (DCM for fMRI. Eight connectivity models of functional motor systems were compared. Fifteen WC patients and 18 age-matched HC performed a sequential, five-element finger-tapping task with the non-dominant and non-affected left hand within a 3 T MRI-scanner as quickly and accurately as possible. The task was conducted in a fixed block design repeated 15 times and included 30 s of tapping followed by 30 s of rest. DCM identified the same model in WC and HC as superior for reflecting basal ganglia and cerebellar motor circuits of healthy subjects. The M1-PU, as well as M1-CB connectivity, was more strongly influenced by tapping in WC, but the intracortical M1-SMA connection was more facilitating in controls. Inhibiting influences originating from GP to M1 were stronger in controls compared to WC patients whereby facilitating influences the PU exerts over CB and CB exerts over M1 were not as strong. Although the same model structure explains the given data best, DCM confirms previous research demonstrating a malfunction in effective connectivity intracortically (M1-SMA and in the cortico-basal ganglia circuitry in WC. In addition, DCM analysis

  8. Long-Term Effect of a Leonardite Iron Humate Improving Fe Nutrition As Revealed in Silico, in Vivo, and in Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieschi, María T; Caballero-Molada, Marcos; Menéndez, Nieves; Naranjo, Miguel A; Lucena, Juan J

    2017-08-09

    Novel, cheap and ecofriendly fertilizers that solve the usual iron deficiency problem in calcareous soil are needed. The aim of this work is to study the long-term effect of an iron leonardite fertilizer on citrus nutrition taking into account a properly characterization, kinetic response with a ligand competition experiment, efficiency assessment using Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain and finally, in field conditions with citrus as test plants. Its efficiency was compared with the synthetic iron chelate FeEDDHA. Leonardite iron humate (LIH) is mainly humic acid with a high-condensed structure where iron is present as ferrihydrite and Fe 3+ polynuclear compounds stabilized by organic matter. Iron and humic acids form aggregates that decrease the iron release from these kinds of fertilizers. Furthermore, LIH repressed almost 50% of the expression of FET3, FTR1, SIT1, and TIS11 genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, indicating increasing iron provided in cells and improved iron nutrition in citrus.

  9. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Sam; Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R.

    2007-01-01

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters

  10. Single and double metallothionein knockout in the nematode C. elegans reveals cadmium dependent and independent toxic effects on life history traits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Sam [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom); School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom); Stuerzenbaum, Stephen R. [School of Biosciences, Cardiff University, Main Building, Park Place, Cardiff CF10 3TL (United Kingdom) and School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Division, King' s College London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NH (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: stephen.sturzenbaum@kcl.ac.uk

    2007-01-15

    The genome of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains two metallothionein genes, both involved in metal homeostasis and/or detoxification. Single metallothionein knockout mutants have been created and now, for the first time, a double mutant has been isolated. Life history studies in the presence or absence of cadmium showed that all metallothionein mutants are viable. Although cadmium did not influence longevity, a dose dependent reduction in total brood size and volumetric growth was observed in wild type animals, which was magnified in single knockouts and further exacerbated in the double knockout. However, the metallothionein deletion caused two effects that are independent of cadmium exposure, namely all knockout strains displayed a reduced total brood size and the deletion of both metallothionein loci caused a significant reduction in volumetric growth. In summary, metallothionein is undoubtedly an important player in cadmium detoxification, but evidently also an important factor in cadmium independent pathways. - Metallothionein is a modifier of life-history parameters.

  11. Depletion of cytotoxic T-cells does not protect NUP98-HOXD13 mice from myelodysplastic syndrome but reveals a modest tumor immunosurveillance effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl M Gough

    Full Text Available Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS and aplastic anemia (AA patients both present with symptoms of bone marrow failure. In many AA patients, these features are thought to result from an oligoclonal expansion of cytotoxic T-cells that destroy haematopoietic stem or progenitor cells. This notion is supported by the observation that AA patients respond to immunosuppressive therapy. A fraction of MDS patients also respond well to immunosuppressive therapy suggesting a similar role for cytotoxic T-cells in the etiology of MDS, however the role of cytotoxic T-cells in MDS remains unclear. Mice that express a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13 transgene develop a MDS that closely mimics the human condition in terms of dysplasia, ineffective hematopoiesis, and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML. We followed a cohort of NHD13 mice lacking the Rag1 protein (NHD13/Rag1KO to determine if the absence of lymphocytes might 1 delay the onset and/or diminish the severity of the MDS, or 2 effect malignant transformation and survival of the NHD13 mice. No difference was seen in the onset or severity of MDS between the NHD13 and NHD13/Rag1KO mice. However, NHD13/Rag1KO mice had decreased survival and showed a trend toward increased incidence of transformation to AML compared to the NHD13 mice, suggesting protection from AML transformation by a modest immuno-surveillance effect. In the absence of functional Tcrb signaling in the NHD13/Rag1KO T-cell tumors, Pak7 was identified as a potential Tcrb surrogate survival signal.

  12. Identification of estrogen receptor dimer selective ligands reveals growth-inhibitory effects on cells that co-express ERα and ERβ.

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    Emily Powell

    Full Text Available Estrogens play essential roles in the progression of mammary and prostatic diseases. The transcriptional effects of estrogens are transduced by two estrogen receptors, ERα and ERβ, which elicit opposing roles in regulating proliferation: ERα is proliferative while ERβ is anti-proliferative. Exogenous expression of ERβ in ERα-positive cancer cell lines inhibits cell proliferation in response to estrogen and reduces xenografted tumor growth in vivo, suggesting that ERβ might oppose ERα's proliferative effects via formation of ERα/β heterodimers. Despite biochemical and cellular evidence of ERα/β heterodimer formation in cells co-expressing both receptors, the biological roles of the ERα/β heterodimer remain to be elucidated. Here we report the identification of two phytoestrogens that selectively activate ERα/β heterodimers at specific concentrations using a cell-based, two-step high throughput small molecule screen for ER transcriptional activity and ER dimer selectivity. Using ERα/β heterodimer-selective ligands at defined concentrations, we demonstrate that ERα/β heterodimers are growth inhibitory in breast and prostate cells which co-express the two ER isoforms. Furthermore, using Automated Quantitative Analysis (AQUA to examine nuclear expression of ERα and ERβ in human breast tissue microarrays, we demonstrate that ERα and ERβ are co-expressed in the same cells in breast tumors. The co-expression of ERα and ERβ in the same cells supports the possibility of ERα/β heterodimer formation at physio- and pathological conditions, further suggesting that targeting ERα/β heterodimers might be a novel therapeutic approach to the treatment of cancers which co-express ERα and ERβ.

  13. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E Shave

    Full Text Available Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius, in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  14. Occupancy modeling reveals territory-level effects of nest boxes on the presence, colonization, and persistence of a declining raptor in a fruit-growing region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shave, Megan E; Lindell, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    Nest boxes for predators in agricultural regions are an easily implemented tool to improve local habitat quality with potential benefits for both conservation and agriculture. The potential for nest boxes to increase raptor populations in agricultural regions is of particular interest given their positions as top predators. This study examined the effects of cherry orchard nest boxes on the local breeding population of a declining species, the American Kestrel (Falco sparverius), in a fruit-growing region of Michigan. During the 2013-2016 study, we added a total of 23 new nest boxes in addition to 24 intact boxes installed previously; kestrels used up to 100% of our new boxes each season. We conducted temporally-replicated surveys along four roadside transects divided into 1.6 km × 500 m sites. We developed a multi-season occupancy model under a Bayesian framework and found that nest boxes had strong positive effects on first-year site occupancy, site colonization, and site persistence probabilities. The estimated number of occupied sites increased between 2013 and 2016, which correlated with the increase in number of sites with boxes. Kestrel detections decreased with survey date but were not affected by time of day or activity at the boxes themselves. These results indicate that nest boxes determined the presence of kestrels at our study sites and support the conclusion that the local kestrel population is likely limited by nest site availability. Furthermore, our results are highly relevant to the farmers on whose properties the boxes were installed, for we can conclude that installing a nest box in an orchard resulted in a high probability of kestrels occupying that orchard or the areas adjacent to it.

  15. Effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the protein profiles of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) xylem sap as revealed by shotgun analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Laita, Laura; Gutierrez-Carbonell, Elain; Takahashi, Daisuke; Abadía, Anunciación; Uemura, Matsuo; Abadía, Javier; López-Millán, Ana Flor

    2018-01-06

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome of tomato using a shotgun proteomic approach, with the final goal of elucidating plant response mechanisms to these stresses. This approach yielded 643 proteins reliably identified and quantified with 70% of them predicted as secretory. Iron and Mn deficiencies caused statistically significant and biologically relevant abundance changes in 119 and 118 xylem sap proteins, respectively. In both deficiencies, metabolic pathways most affected were protein metabolism, stress/oxidoreductases and cell wall modifications. First, results suggest that Fe deficiency elicited more stress responses than Mn deficiency, based on the changes in oxidative and proteolytic enzymes. Second, both nutrient deficiencies affect the secondary cell wall metabolism, with changes in Fe deficiency occurring via peroxidase activity, and in Mn deficiency involving peroxidase, Cu-oxidase and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins. Third, the primary cell wall metabolism was affected by both nutrient deficiencies, with changes following opposite directions as judged from the abundances of several glycoside-hydrolases with endo-glycolytic activities and pectin esterases. Fourth, signaling pathways via xylem involving CLE and/or lipids as well as changes in phosphorylation and N-glycosylation also play a role in the responses to these stresses. Biological significance In spite of being essential for the delivery of nutrients to the shoots, our knowledge of xylem responses to nutrient deficiencies is very limited. The present work applies a shotgun proteomic approach to unravel the effects of Fe and Mn deficiencies on the xylem sap proteome. Overall, Fe deficiency seems to elicit more stress in the xylem sap proteome than Mn deficiency, based on the changes measured in proteolytic and oxido-reductase proteins, whereas both nutrients exert modifications in the composition of the primary and secondary

  16. Effects of β-glucan polysaccharide revealed by the dominant lethal assay and micronucleus assays, and reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Juliano Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available β-glucan is a well-known polysaccharide for its chemopreventive effect. This study aimed to evaluate the chemopreventive ability of β-glucan in somatic and germ cells through the dominant lethal and micronucleus assays, and its influence on the reproductive performance of male mice exposed to cyclophosphamide. The results indicate that β-glucan is capable of preventing changes in DNA in both germ cells and somatic ones. Changes in germ cells were evaluated by the dominant lethal assay and showed damage reduction percentages of 46.46% and 43.79% for the doses of 100 and 150 mg/kg. For the somatic changes, evaluated by micronucleus assay in peripheral blood cells in the first week of treatment, damage reduction percentages from 80.63-116.32% were found. In the fifth and sixth weeks, the percentage ranged from 10.20-52.54% and -0.95-62.35%, respectively. Besides the chemopreventive efficiency it appears that the β-glucan, when combined with cyclophosphamide, is able to improve the reproductive performance of males verified by the significant reduction in rates of post-implantation losses and reabsorption in the mating of nulliparous females with males treated with cyclophosphamide.

  17. Comprehensive behavioural analysis of Long Evans and Sprague-Dawley rats reveals differential effects of housing conditions on tests relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karly M Turner

    Full Text Available Genetic (G and environmental (E manipulations are known to alter behavioural outcomes in rodents, however many animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders only use a restricted selection of strain and housing conditions. The aim of this study was to examine GxE interactions comparing two outbred rat strains, which were housed in either standard or enriched cages. The strains selected were the albino Sprague-Dawley rat, commonly used for animal models, and the other was the pigmented Long Evans rat, which is frequently used in cognitive studies. Rats were assessed using a comprehensive behavioural test battery and included well-established tests frequently employed to examine animal models of neuropsychiatric diseases, measuring aspects of anxiety, exploration, sensorimotor gating and cognition. Selective strain and housing effects were observed on a number of tests. These included increased locomotion and reduced pre-pulse inhibition in Long Evans rats compared to Sprague Dawley rats; and rats housed in enriched cages had reduced anxiety-like behaviour compared to standard housed rats. Long Evans rats required fewer sessions than Sprague Dawley rats to learn operant tasks, including a signal detection task and reversal learning. Furthermore, Long Evans rats housed in enriched cages acquired simple operant tasks faster than standard housed Long Evans rats. Cognitive phenotypes in animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders would benefit from using strain and housing conditions where there is greater potential for both enhancement and deficits in performance.

  18. The Effect of Wood Alignment on Wood Grinding – Part 1: Properties of Pulp and Fines Revealed in the Grinding Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkki Tapani Saharinen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In industrial wood grinding, logs are pressed against a rotating stone, with the logs and fiber axis parallel to the axis of the stone. The objective of this study is to clarify how the wood alignment affects the process and pulp properties. In this research, wood blocks were fed into a laboratory grinder with various alignments in relation to the surface of the grinding stone. The effects of the alignment on the properties of the pulp and the amount and quality of fines were measured. A grinding mechanism was proposed. The results show that the pulp quality is very sensitive to the angle between the stone surface and the log. In gentle refining, the fiber structure is loosened by fatigue before it is bent on the surface; pressure pulses produce fibrillar material, and fibers develop toward having good bonding ability. In forced grinding, the process is “violent”, and the fiber wears and becomes crushed immediately on the surface into small particles with low bonding ability.

  19. Highly Tissue Substructure-Specific Effects of Human Papilloma Virus in Mucosa of HIV-Infected Patients Revealed by Laser-Dissection Microscopy-Assisted Gene Expression Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarth, Nicole; Szubin, Richard; Dolganov, Greg M.; Watnik, Mitchell R.; Greenspan, Deborah; Da Costa, Maria; Palefsky, Joel M.; Jordan, Richard; Roederer, Mario; Greenspan, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) causes focal infections of epithelial layers in skin and mucosa. HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) appear to be at increased risk of developing HPV-induced oral warts. To identify the mechanisms that allow long-term infection of oral epithelial cells in these patients, we used a combination of laser-dissection microscopy (LDM) and highly sensitive and quantitative, non-biased, two-step multiplex real-time RT-PCR to study pathogen-induced alterations of specific tissue subcompartments. Expression of 166 genes was compared in three distinct epithelial and subepithelial compartments isolated from biopsies of normal mucosa from HIV-infected and non-infected patients and of HPV32-induced oral warts from HIV-infected patients. In contrast to the underlying HIV infection and/or HAART, which did not significantly elaborate tissue substructure-specific effects, changes in oral warts were strongly tissue substructure-specific. HPV 32 seems to establish infection by selectively enhancing epithelial cell growth and differentiation in the stratum spinosum and to evade the immune system by actively suppressing inflammatory responses in adjacent underlying tissues. With this highly sensitive and quantitative method tissue-specific expression of hundreds of genes can be studied simultaneously in a few cells. Because of its large dynamic measurement range it could also become a method of choice to confirm and better quantify results obtained by microarray analysis. PMID:15331396

  20. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinwis, G.C.M., E-mail: g.c.m.grinwis@uu.n [Department of Pathobiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine University of Utrecht, P.O. Box 80.158, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands); Wester, P.W. [Laboratory for Toxicology, Pathology and Genetics, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, P.O. Box 1, 3720 BA Bilthoven (Netherlands); Vethaak, A.D. [Deltares, Unit Coastal and Marine Systems, P.O. Box 177, 2600 MH Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-10-15

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 mug TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  1. Histopathological effects of chronic aqueous exposure to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) to environmentally relevant concentrations reveal thymus atrophy in European flounder (Platichthys flesus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinwis, G.C.M.; Wester, P.W.; Vethaak, A.D.

    2009-01-01

    Although the use of tributyltin in antifouling paints has been banned, this compound is still a serious pollutant of the marine environment. This paper describes a unique study in which European flounder (Platichthys flesus) were chronically (8 months) exposed to bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide (TBTO) in the water under controlled laboratory conditions. Residue levels in selected tissues (liver, muscle) and general health status indices were measured and the effects on several organs (gills, liver, mesonephros, ovary/testis, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract) were examined histopathologically. Additionally, morphometric analysis of the thymus was performed. The major finding is that exposure of flounder to 5 μg TBTO/l over a period of 8 months, resulting in body burdens comparable to high field levels, induced significant reduction of thymus volume, possibly affecting immunocompetence of the animals. Chronic exposure of European flounder to tributyltin is therefore likely to affect the general health status of this species in heavily polluted aquatic environments. - Current levels of tributyltin antifouling contamination are still likely to affect the general health status of estuarine flatfish in heavily polluted environments.

  2. Removing the effect of response time on brain activity reveals developmental differences in conflict processing in the posterior medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carp, Joshua; Fitzgerald, Kate Dimond; Taylor, Stephan F; Weissman, Daniel H

    2012-01-02

    In functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies, researchers often attempt to ensure that group differences in brain activity are not confounded with group differences in mean reaction time (RT). However, even when groups are matched for performance, they may differ in terms of the RT-BOLD relationship: the degree to which brain activity varies with RT on a trial-by-trial basis. Group activation differences might therefore be influenced by group differences in the relationship between brain activity and time on task. Here, we investigated whether correcting for this potential confound alters group differences in brain activity. Specifically, we reanalyzed data from a functional MRI study of response conflict in children and adults, in which conventional analyses indicated that conflict-related activity did not differ between groups. We found that the RT-BOLD relationship was weaker in children than in adults. Consequently, after removing the effect of RT on brain activity, children exhibited greater conflict-related activity than adults in both the posterior medial prefrontal cortex and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results identify the RT-BOLD relationship as an important potential confound in fMRI studies of group differences. They also suggest that the magnitude of the RT-BOLD relationship may be a useful biomarker of brain maturity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. UAV Remote Sensing Can Reveal the Effects of Low-Impact Seismic Lines on Surface Morphology, Hydrology, and Methane (CH4) Release in a Boreal Treed Bog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovitt, J.; Rahman, M. M.; Saraswati, S.; McDermid, G. J.; Strack, M.; Xu, B.

    2018-03-01

    Peatlands are globally significant stores of soil carbon, where local methane (CH4) emissions are strongly linked to water table position and microtopography. Historically, these factors have been difficult to measure in the field, constraining our capacity to observe local patterns of variability. In this paper, we show how remote sensing surveys conducted from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) platforms can be used to map microtopography and depth to water over large areas with good accuracy, paving the way for spatially explicit estimates of CH4 emissions. This approach enabled us to observe—for the first time—the effects of low-impact seismic lines (LIS; petroleum exploration corridors) on surface morphology and CH4 emissions in a treed-bog ecosystem in northern Alberta, Canada. Through compaction, LIS lines were found to flatten the observed range in microtopographic elevation by 46 cm and decrease mean depth to water by 15.4 cm, compared to surrounding undisturbed conditions. These alterations are projected to increase CH4 emissions by 20-120% relative to undisturbed areas in our study area, which translates to a total rise of 0.011-0.027 kg CH4 day-1 per linear kilometer of LIS ( 2 m wide). The 16 km of LIS present at our 61 ha study site were predicted to boost CH4 emissions by 20-70 kg between May and September 2016.

  4. Comparative proteomic and physiological analyses reveal the protective effect of exogenous polyamines in the bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) response to salt and drought stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Haitao; Ye, Tiantian; Chan, Zhulong

    2013-11-01

    Polyamines conferred enhanced abiotic stress tolerance in multiple plant species. However, the effect of polyamines on abiotic stress and physiological change in bermudagrass, the most widely used warm-season turfgrasses, are unknown. In this study, pretreatment of exogenous polyamine conferred increased salt and drought tolerances in bermudagrass. Comparative proteomic analysis was performed to further investigate polyamines mediated responses, and 36 commonly regulated proteins by at least two types of polyamines in bermudagrass were successfully identified, including 12 proteins with increased level, 20 proteins with decreased level and other 4 specifically expressed proteins. Among them, proteins involved in electron transport and energy pathways were largely enriched, and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) and three antioxidant enzymes were extensively regulated by polyamines. Dissection of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels indicated that polyamine-derived H2O2 production might play dual roles under abiotic stress conditions. Moreover, accumulation of osmolytes was also observed after application of exogenous polyamines, which is consistent with proteomics results that several proteins involved in carbon fixation pathway were mediated commonly by polyamines pretreatment. Taken together, we proposed that polyamines could activate multiple pathways that enhance bermudagrass adaption to salt and drought stresses. These findings might be applicable for genetically engineering of grasses and crops to improve stress tolerance.

  5. Studies of HVC Plasticity in Adult Canaries Reveal Social Effects and Sex Differences as Well as Limitations of Multiple Markers Available to Assess Adult Neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchouk, Olesya T; Ball, Gregory F; Cornil, Charlotte A; Balthazart, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M), with a female (M-F) or with another male (M-M) while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M). All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX), which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.

  6. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Surakka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225. We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102 for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR on total cholesterol (TC with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.

  7. Partial least squares methods for spectrally estimating lunar soil FeO abundance: A stratified approach to revealing nonlinear effect and qualitative interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin

    2008-12-01

    Partial least squares (PLS) regressions were applied to lunar highland and mare soil data characterized by the Lunar Soil Characterization Consortium (LSCC) for spectral estimation of the abundance of lunar soil chemical constituents FeO and Al2O3. The LSCC data set was split into a number of subsets including the total highland, Apollo 16, Apollo 14, and total mare soils, and then PLS was applied to each to investigate the effect of nonlinearity on the performance of the PLS method. The weight-loading vectors resulting from PLS were analyzed to identify mineral species responsible for spectral estimation of the soil chemicals. The results from PLS modeling indicate that the PLS performance depends on the correlation of constituents of interest to their major mineral carriers, and the Apollo 16 soils are responsible for the large errors of FeO and Al2O3 estimates when the soils were modeled along with other types of soils. These large errors are primarily attributed to the degraded correlation FeO to pyroxene for the relatively mature Apollo 16 soils as a result of space weathering and secondary to the interference of olivine. PLS consistently yields very accurate fits to the two soil chemicals when applied to mare soils. Although Al2O3 has no spectrally diagnostic characteristics, this chemical can be predicted for all subset data by PLS modeling at high accuracies because of its correlation to FeO. This correlation is reflected in the symmetry of the PLS weight-loading vectors for FeO and Al2O3, which prove to be very useful for qualitative interpretation of the PLS results. However, this qualitative interpretation of PLS modeling cannot be achieved using principal component regression loading vectors.

  8. Studies of HVC Plasticity in Adult Canaries Reveal Social Effects and Sex Differences as Well as Limitations of Multiple Markers Available to Assess Adult Neurogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesya T Shevchouk

    Full Text Available In songbirds, neurogenesis in the song control nucleus HVC is sensitive to the hormonal and social environment but the dynamics of this process is difficult to assess with a single exogenous marker of new neurons. We simultaneously used three independent markers to investigate HVC neurogenesis in male and female canaries. Males were castrated, implanted with testosterone and housed either alone (M, with a female (M-F or with another male (M-M while females were implanted with 17β-estradiol and housed with a male (F-M. All subjects received injections of the two thymidine analogues, BrdU and of EdU, respectively 21 and 10 days before brain collection. Cells containing BrdU or EdU or expressing doublecortin (DCX, which labels newborn neurons, were quantified. Social context and sex differentially affected total BrdU+, EdU+, BrdU+EdU- and DCX+ populations. M-M males had a higher density of BrdU+ cells in the ventricular zone adjacent to HVC and of EdU+ in HVC than M-F males. M birds had a higher ratio of BrdU+EdU- to EdU+ cells than M-F subjects suggesting higher survival of newer neurons in the former group. Total number of HVC DCX+ cells was lower in M-F than in M-M males. Sex differences were also dependent of the type of marker used. Several technical limitations associated with the use of these multiple markers were also identified. These results indicate that proliferation, recruitment and survival of new neurons can be independently affected by environmental conditions and effects can only be fully discerned through the use of multiple neurogenesis markers.

  9. Changes in wild bee fauna of a grassland in Brazil reveal negative effects associated with growing urbanization during the last 40 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline C. Martins

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Bee fauna and associated flora from a grassland site in Brazil, surveyed 40 and 20 years ago, were newly surveyed with comparable methodology to evaluate changes in the bee fauna of this site, considering that human population and urbanization has exponentially increased in the last 40 years. In general, bee species richness has declined in 22%, as well as their abundance. Some of the previously abundant species are now absent, including Bombus bellicosus Smith, 1879, Gaesischia fulgurans (Holmberg, 1903 and Thectochlora basiatra (Strand, 1910. No particular trend of differential decrease among either taxonomic or functional groups was observed, except for a minor increase in the proportion of oligolectic species and a 50% reduction in the number of large species. The first two surveys were more similar to each other in species richness per bee genus, while the two most recent grouped together based on measures of anthropogenic impact. Furthermore, the number of plant species visited by bees increased, with a pronounced increase in ruderal and exotic species. Crop cultivation, competition with honeybees and climate changes may all be related to bee decline. Nevertheless, the effects of urbanization, in particular intense land occupation and few preserved natural areas can be pointed as the main causes of species decline. Due to continuing increase in human population, increased erosion in diversity is expected. Habitat protection is an additional challenge to bee conservation in the region, with no local conservation units set aside for grasslands. State and municipal agencies should urgently consider the establishment of reserves for the few remaining patches of natural grasslands.

  10. Differential Permeabilization Effects of Ca2+ and Valinomycin on the Inner and Outer Mitochondrial Membranes as Revealed by Proteomics Analysis of Proteins Released from Mitochondria*S⃞

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Akiko; Yamamoto, Takenori; Yamazaki, Naoshi; Yamashita, Kikuji; Kataoka, Masatoshi; Nagata, Toshihiko; Terada, Hiroshi; Shinohara, Yasuo

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that cytochrome c is released from mitochondria when the permeability transition (PT) of this organelle is induced by Ca2+. Our previous study showed that valinomycin also caused the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria but without inducing this PT (Shinohara, Y., Almofti, M. R., Yamamoto, T., Ishida, T., Kita, F., Kanzaki, H., Ohnishi, M., Yamashita, K., Shimizu, S., and Terada, H. (2002) Permeability transition-independent release of mitochondrial cytochrome c induced by valinomycin. Eur. J. Biochem. 269, 5224–5230). These results indicate that cytochrome c may be released from mitochondria with or without the induction of PT. In the present study, we examined the protein species released from valinomycin- and Ca2+-treated mitochondria by LC-MS/MS analysis. As a result, the proteins located in the intermembrane space were found to be specifically released from valinomycin-treated mitochondria, whereas those in the intermembrane space and in the matrix were released from Ca2+-treated mitochondria. These results were confirmed by Western analysis. Furthermore to examine how the protein release occurred, we examined the correlation between the species of released proteins and those of the abundant proteins in mitochondria. Consequently most of the proteins released from mitochondria treated with either agent were highly expressed proteins in mitochondria, indicating that the release occurred not selectively but in a manner dependent on the concentration of the proteins. Based on these results, the permeabilization effects of Ca2+ and valinomycin on the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes are discussed. PMID:19218587

  11. Deep Illumina-based shotgun sequencing reveals dietary effects on the structure and function of the fecal microbiome of growing kittens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Deusch

    Full Text Available Previously, we demonstrated that dietary protein:carbohydrate ratio dramatically affects the fecal microbial taxonomic structure of kittens using targeted 16S gene sequencing. The present study, using the same fecal samples, applied deep Illumina shotgun sequencing to identify the diet-associated functional potential and analyze taxonomic changes of the feline fecal microbiome.Fecal samples from kittens fed one of two diets differing in protein and carbohydrate content (high-protein, low-carbohydrate, HPLC; and moderate-protein, moderate-carbohydrate, MPMC were collected at 8, 12 and 16 weeks of age (n = 6 per group. A total of 345.3 gigabases of sequence were generated from 36 samples, with 99.75% of annotated sequences identified as bacterial. At the genus level, 26% and 39% of reads were annotated for HPLC- and MPMC-fed kittens, with HPLC-fed cats showing greater species richness and microbial diversity. Two phyla, ten families and fifteen genera were responsible for more than 80% of the sequences at each taxonomic level for both diet groups, consistent with the previous taxonomic study. Significantly different abundances between diet groups were observed for 324 genera (56% of all genera identified demonstrating widespread diet-induced changes in microbial taxonomic structure. Diversity was not affected over time. Functional analysis identified 2,013 putative enzyme function groups were different (p<0.000007 between the two dietary groups and were associated to 194 pathways, which formed five discrete clusters based on average relative abundance. Of those, ten contained more (p<0.022 enzyme functions with significant diet effects than expected by chance. Six pathways were related to amino acid biosynthesis and metabolism linking changes in dietary protein with functional differences of the gut microbiome.These data indicate that feline feces-derived microbiomes have large structural and functional differences relating to the dietary

  12. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals the effects of different cooling temperatures on the diffusion of water molecules and perfusion within human skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagisawa, O.; Fukubayashi, T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of local cooling on the diffusion of water molecules and perfusion within muscle at different cooling temperatures. Materials and methods: Magnetic resonance diffusion-weighted (DW) images of the leg (seven males) were obtained before and after 30 min cooling (0, 10, and 20 o C), and after a 30 min recovery period. Two types of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC; ADC1, reflecting both water diffusion and perfusion within muscle, and ADC2, approximating the true water diffusion coefficient) of the ankle dorsiflexors were calculated from DW images. T2-weighted images were also obtained to calculate T2 values of the ankle dorsiflexors. The skin temperature was measured before, during, and after cooling. Results: Both ADC values significantly decreased after cooling under all cooling conditions; the rate of decrease depended on the cooling temperature used (ADC1: -36% at 0 o C, -27.8% at 10 o C, and -22.6% at 20 o C; ADC2: -26% at 0 o C, -21.1% at 10 o C, and -14.6% at 20 o C). These significant decreases were maintained during the recovery period. Conversely, the T2 value showed no significant changes. Under all cooling conditions, skin temperature significantly decreased during cooling; the rate of decrease depended on the cooling temperature used (-74.8% at 0 o C, -51.1% at 10 o C, and -26.8% at 20 o C). Decreased skin temperatures were not restored to pre-cooling values during the recovery period under any cooling conditions. Conclusion: Local cooling decreased the water diffusion and perfusion within muscle with decreased skin temperature; the rates of decrease depended on the cooling temperature used. These decreases were maintained for 30 min after cooling.

  13. Preclinical evaluation of the imipridone family, analogs of clinical stage anti-cancer small molecule ONC201, reveals potent anti-cancer effects of ONC212.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jessica; Kline, Christina Leah; Ralff, Marie D; Lev, Avital; Lulla, Amriti; Zhou, Lanlan; Olson, Gary L; Nallaganchu, Bhaskara Rao; Benes, Cyril H; Allen, Joshua E; Prabhu, Varun V; Stogniew, Martin; Oster, Wolfgang; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2017-10-02

    Anti-cancer small molecule ONC201 upregulates the integrated stress response (ISR) and acts as a dual inactivator of Akt/ERK, leading to TRAIL gene activation. ONC201 is under investigation in multiple clinical trials to treat patients with cancer. Given the unique imipridone core chemical structure of ONC201, we synthesized a series of analogs to identify additional compounds with distinct therapeutic properties. Several imipridones with a broad range of in vitro potencies were identified in an exploration of chemical derivatives. Based on in vitro potency in human cancer cell lines and lack of toxicity to normal human fibroblasts, imipridones ONC206 and ONC212 were prioritized for further study. Both analogs inhibited colony formation, and induced apoptosis and downstream signaling that involves the integrated stress response and Akt/ERK, similar to ONC201. Compared to ONC201, ONC206 demonstrated improved inhibition of cell migration while ONC212 exhibited rapid kinetics of activity. ONC212 was further tested in >1000 human cancer cell lines in vitro and evaluated for safety and anti-tumor efficacy in vivo. ONC212 exhibited broad-spectrum efficacy at nanomolar concentrations across solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Skin cancer emerged as a tumor type with improved efficacy relative to ONC201. Orally administered ONC212 displayed potent anti-tumor effects in vivo, a broad therapeutic window and a favorable PK profile. ONC212 was efficacious in vivo in BRAF V600E melanoma models that are less sensitive to ONC201. Based on these findings, ONC212 warrants further development as a drug candidate. It is clear that therapeutic utility extends beyond ONC201 to include additional imipridones.

  14. A Systems Biology Approach Reveals Differences in the Dynamics of Colonization and Degradation of Grass vs. Hay by Rumen Microbes with Minor Effects of Vitamin E Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Belanche

    2017-08-01

    of feed degradation. Vitamin E supplementation had minor effects but promoted a simplification of the LAB community and a slight acceleration in the SAB colonization sequence which could explain the higher DM degradation during the secondary colonization. Our findings suggest that when possible, grass should be fed instead of hay, in order to accelerate feed utilization by rumen microbes.

  15. Effect of a long-term afforestation of pine in a beech domain in NE-Spain revealed by analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; Badía-Villas, David; Tomás Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; González-Pérez, José Antonio

    2015-04-01

    The replacement of native beech forests (Fagus sylvatica) by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) afforestation may exert changes in soil properties, particularly in soil organic matter (SOM) [1]. It is known that the products generated by Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS) pyrolysis of organic matter are related to their origin [2 and references therein]. Therefore this technique can be used to investigate said changes. In this work, Py-GC/MS is used to study changes in SOM quality surrogated to the effect of the centennial replacement of beech by Scots pine. The soils studied were two acid soil profiles developed on quartzites under a humid climate at an altitude of 1400-1500 masl from Moncayo (Iberian range, NE-Spain). For each soil profile three organic layers (litter: OL, fragmented litter OF and humified litter OH) and the mineral soil horizons (Ah, E, Bhs and C) were sampled. After 100 years since the pine afforestation, differences in the relative abundance of lipids released by pyrolysis were observed in the O-layers ranging from 3.82-7.20% in pine soils and 0.98-1.25% in beech soils. No differences were observed in mineral horizons with depth except for the C horizons where beech lipid content was much higher (21.25%) than in that under pine (1.07%). Both pine and beech soils show similar nitrogen compounds relative contents along the soil profile, increasing from OL to Ah (3.49-9.11% and 2.75-11.73% in beech and pine respectively) with a conspicuous reduction in the E horizon. It is remarkable the absence of nitrogen compounds in beech Bhs and C horizons. The relative content of aromatic compounds in O-layers show opposite trends for beech and pine; an enrichment in aromatic compounds is observed in beech OL layer (12.39%) decreasing to 4.11% in OH layer in contrast, whereas for pine O-layers the aromatic compounds relative abundance was higher in the OH (5.83%) than in the OL layer (2.8%). Mineral Ah and E horizons show similar values in

  16. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  17. Revealing the Effectivenesses of Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui Chin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to report the history of communication strategy and highlight the importance of strategic competence. It provides the histories and characterizations of communication strategy. Besides, it presents from which perspectives these definitions of communication strategies were developed. Various earlier and latter…

  18. Cosmic Flasher Reveals All!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-01

    For more information on magnetars and soft gamma-ray repeaters, see the Background Information which includes a "movie" of the flashing magnetar nebula, as seen by the VLA. Astronomers have found evidence for the most powerful magnetic field ever seen in the universe. They found it by observing a long-sought, short-lived "afterglow" of subatomic particles ejected from a magnetar -- a neutron star with a magnetic field billions of times stronger than any on Earth and 100 times stronger than any other previously known in the Universe. The afterglow is believed to be the aftermath of a massive starquake on the neutron star's surface. "And where there's smoke, there's fire, and we've seen the 'smoke' that tells us there's a magnetar out there," says Dale Frail, who used the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope to make the discovery. "Nature has created a unique laboratory where there are magnetic fields far stronger than anything that can be created here on Earth. As a result, the study of these objects enables us to study the effects of extraordinarily intense magnetic fields on matter," explains Dr. Morris L. Aizenman, Executive Officer in the Division of Astronomy at the National Science Foundation. Frail, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, New Mexico, along with Shri Kulkarni and Josh Bloom, astronomers at Caltech, discovered radio emission coming from a strange object 15,000 light-years away in our own Milky Way Galaxy. The radio emission was seen after the object experienced an outburst of gamma-rays and X-rays in late August. "This emission comes from particles ejected at nearly the speed of light from the surface of the neutron star interacting with the extremely powerful magnetic field," said Kulkarni. This is the first time this phenomenon, predicted by theorists, has been seen so clearly from a suspected magnetar. "Magnetars are expected to behave in certain ways. Astronomers have seen

  19. New Nordic Diet versus Average Danish Diet: A Randomized Controlled Trial Revealed Healthy Long-Term Effects of the New Nordic Diet by GC-MS Blood Plasma Metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakimov, Bekzod; Poulsen, Sanne Kellebjerg; Savorani, Francesco; Acar, Evrim; Gürdeniz, Gözde; Larsen, Thomas M; Astrup, Arne; Dragsted, Lars O; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-06-03

    A previous study has shown effects of the New Nordic Diet (NND) to stimulate weight loss and lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obese Danish women and men in a randomized, controlled dietary intervention study. This work demonstrates long-term metabolic effects of the NND as compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD) in blood plasma and reveals associations between metabolic changes and health beneficial effects of the NND including weight loss. A total of 145 individuals completed the intervention and blood samples were taken along with clinical examinations before the intervention started (week 0) and after 12 and 26 weeks. The plasma metabolome was measured using GC-MS, and the final metabolite table contained 144 variables. Significant and novel metabolic effects of the diet, resulting weight loss, gender, and intervention study season were revealed using PLS-DA and ASCA. Several metabolites reflecting specific differences in the diets, especially intake of plant foods and seafood, and in energy metabolism related to ketone bodies and gluconeogenesis formed the predominant metabolite pattern discriminating the intervention groups. Among NND subjects, higher levels of vaccenic acid and 3-hydroxybutanoic acid were related to a higher weight loss, while higher concentrations of salicylic, lactic, and N-aspartic acids and 1,5-anhydro-d-sorbitol were related to a lower weight loss. Specific gender and seasonal differences were also observed. The study strongly indicates that healthy diets high in fish, vegetables, fruit, and whole grain facilitated weight loss and improved insulin sensitivity by increasing ketosis and gluconeogenesis in the fasting state.

  20. A combined metabolomic and phylogenetic study reveals putatively prebiotic effects of high molecular weight arabino-oligosaccharides when assessed by in vitro fermentation in bacterial communities derived from humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sulek, Karolina; Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Schmidt, Line Rieck

    2014-01-01

    Prebiotic oligosaccharides are defined by their selective stimulation of growth and/or activity of bacteria in the digestive system in ways claimed to be beneficial for health. However, apart from the short chain fatty acids, little is known about bacterial metabolites created by fermentation...... of prebiotics, and the significance of the size of the oligosaccharides remains largely unstudied. By in vitro fermentations in human fecal microbial communities (derived from six different individuals), we studied the effects of high-mass (HA, >1 kDa), low-mass (LA, ... plant structures. Additionally, the combination of qPCR and LC–MS revealed a number of other putative interactions between intestinal microbes and the oligosaccharides, which contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms behind prebiotic impact on human health....

  1. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  2. Gastric myoelectric activity during cisplatin-induced acute and delayed emesis reveals a temporal impairment of slow waves in ferrets: effects not reversed by the GLP-1 receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zengbing; Ngan, Man P; Lin, Ge; Yew, David T W; Fan, Xiaodan; Andrews, Paul L R; Rudd, John A

    2017-11-17

    Preclinical studies show that the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, exendin (9-39), can reduce acute emesis induced by cisplatin. In the present study, we investigate the effect of exendin (9-39) (100 nmol/24 h, i.c.v), on cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.)-induced acute and delayed emesis and changes indicative of 'nausea' in ferrets. Cisplatin induced 37.2 ± 2.3 and 59.0 ± 7.7 retches + vomits during the 0-24 (acute) and 24-72 h (delayed) periods, respectively. Cisplatin also increased ( P Advanced multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis revealed that the slow wave signal shape became more simplistic during delayed emesis. Cisplatin did not affect blood pressure (BP), but transiently increased heart rate, and decreased heart rate variability (HRV) during acute emesis; HRV spectral analysis indicated a shift to 'sympathetic dominance'. A hyperthermic response was seen during acute emesis, but hypothermia occurred during delayed emesis and there was also a decrease in HR. Exendin (9-39) did not improve feeding and drinking but reduced cisplatin-induced acute emesis by ~59 % ( P waves may represent a novel approach to treat the side effects of chemotherapy.

  3. Mutagenesis of Dengue Virus Protein NS2A Revealed a Novel Domain Responsible for Virus-Induced Cytopathic Effect and Interactions between NS2A and NS2B Transmembrane Segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Han; Tsai, Kuen-Nan; Tian, Jia Ni; Wu, Jian-Sung; Wu, Su-Ying; Chern, Jyh-Haur; Chen, Chun-Hong; Yueh, Andrew

    2017-06-15

    The NS2A protein of dengue virus (DENV) has eight predicted transmembrane segments (pTMS1 to -8) and participates in RNA replication, virion assembly, and host antiviral response. However, the roles of specific amino acid residues within the pTMS regions of NS2A during the viral life cycle are not clear. Here, we explore the function of DENV NS2A by introducing a series of alanine substitutions into the N-terminal half (pTMS1 to -4) of the protein in the context of a DENV infectious clone or subgenomic replicon. Six NS2A mutants (NM5, -7, -9, and -17 to -19) around pTMS1 and -2 displayed a novel phenotype showing a >1,000-fold reduction in virus yield, an absence of plaque formation despite wild-type-like replicon activity, and infectious-virus-like particle yields. HEK-293 cells infected with the six NS2A mutant viruses failed to cause a virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) by MitoCapture staining, cell proliferation, and lactate dehydrogenase release assays. Sequencing analyses of pseudorevertant viruses derived from lethal-mutant viruses revealed two consensus reversion mutations, leucine to phenylalanine at codon 181 (L181F) within pTMS7 of NS2A and isoleucine to threonine at codon 114 (I114T) within NS2B. The introduction of an NS2A-L181F mutation into the lethal (NM15, -16, -25, and -33) and CPE-defective (NM7, -9, and -19) mutants substantially rescued virus infectivity and virus-induced CPE, respectively, whereas the NS2B-L114T mutation rescued the NM16, -25, and -33 mutants. In conclusion, the results revealed the essential roles of the N-terminal half of NS2A in RNA replication and virus-induced CPE. Intramolecular interactions between pTMSs of NS2A and intermolecular interactions between the NS2A and NS2B proteins were also implicated. IMPORTANCE The characterization of the N-terminal (current study) and C-terminal halves of DENV NS2A is the most comprehensive mutagenesis study to date to investigate the function of NS2A during the flaviviral life cycle

  4. Revealed preference with limited consideration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demuynck, T.; Seel, C.

    2014-01-01

    We derive revealed preference tests for models where individuals use consideration sets to simplify their consumption problem. Our basic test provides necessary and sufficient conditions for consistency of observed choices with the existence of consideration set restrictions. The same conditions can

  5. Decision Making and Revealed Preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    If our decision-making processes are to some extent shaped by evolutionary pressures and our environment is different from that to which we adapted, some of our choices will not be in our best interest. But revealed preference is the only tool that we have so far to conduct a normative analysis...

  6. Effect of cytosolic pH on inward currents reveals structural characteristics of the proton transport cycle in the influenza A protein M2 in cell-free membrane patches of Xenopus oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia L DiFrancesco

    Full Text Available Transport activity through the mutant D44A of the M2 proton channel from influenza virus A was measured in excised inside-out macro-patches of Xenopus laevis oocytes at cytosolic pH values of 5.5, 7.5 and 8.2. The current-voltage relationships reveal some peculiarities: 1. "Transinhibition", i.e., instead of an increase of unidirectional outward current with increasing cytosolic H(+ concentration, a decrease of unidirectional inward current was found. 2. Strong inward rectification. 3. Exponential rise of current with negative potentials. In order to interpret these findings in molecular terms, different kinetic models have been tested. The transinhibition basically results from a strong binding of H(+ to a site in the pore, presumably His37. This assumption alone already provides inward rectification and exponential rise of the IV curves. However, it results in poor global fits of the IV curves, i.e., good fits were only obtained for cytosolic pH of 8.2, but not for 7.5. Assuming an additional transport step as e.g. caused by a constriction zone at Val27 resulted in a negligible improvement. In contrast, good global fits for cytosolic pH of 7.5 and 8.2 were immediately obtained with a cyclic model. A "recycling step" implies that the protein undergoes conformational changes (assigned to Trp41 and Val27 during transport which have to be reset before the next proton can be transported. The global fit failed at the low currents at pHcyt = 5.5, as expected from the interference of putative transport of other ions besides H(+. Alternatively, a regulatory effect of acidic cytosolic pH may be assumed which strongly modifies the rate constants of the transport cycle.

  7. Transparency masters for mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1980-01-01

    Transparency Masters for Mathematics Revealed focuses on master diagrams that can be used for transparencies for an overhead projector or duplicator masters for worksheets. The book offers information on a compilation of master diagrams prepared by John R. Stafford, Jr., audiovisual supervisor at the University of Missouri at Kansas City. Some of the transparencies are designed to be shown horizontally. The initial three masters are number lines and grids that can be used in a mathematics course, while the others are adaptations of text figures which are slightly altered in some instances. The

  8. Communication Games Reveal Preparation Contextuality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameedi, Alley; Tavakoli, Armin; Marques, Breno; Bourennane, Mohamed

    2017-12-01

    A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle. Using this, we prove that all mixed quantum states of any finite dimension are preparation contextual. We report on an experimental realization of a communication game involving three-level quantum systems from which we observe a strong violation of the constraints of preparation noncontextuality.

  9. The chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity of plutonium chemistry was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were aqueous solution based, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, it was found that an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element will be reported

  10. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  11. Focus groups reveal consumer ambivalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    According to qualitative research, Salvadoreans are ambivalent about the use of contraceptives. Since complete responsibility for management of the CSM project was accepted by the Association Demografica Salvadorena (ADS), the agency which operates the contraceptive social marketing project in El Salvador, in November 1980, the need for decisions in such areas as product price increases, introduction of new condom brands, promotion of the vaginal foaming tablet, and assessment of product sales performance had arisen. The ICSMP funded market research, completed during 1983, was intended to provide the data on which such decisions by ADS could be based. The qualitative research involved 8 focus groups, comprised of men and women, aged 18-45, contraceptive users and nonusers, from the middle and lower socioeconomic strata of the city of San Salvador and other suburban areas. In each group a moderator led discussion of family planning and probed respondents for specific attitudes, knowledge, and behavior regarding the use of contraceptives. To assess attitudes at a more emotional level, moderators asked respondents to "draw" their ideas on certain issues. A marked discrepancy was revealed between respondents' intellectual responses to the issues raised in group discussion, as opposed to their feelings expressed in the drawings. Intellectually, participants responded very positively to family planning practice, but when they were asked to draw their perceptions, ambivalent feelings emerged. Drawings of both the user and the nonuser convey primarily negative aspects for either choice. The user is tense and moody toward her children; the nonuser loses her attractiveness and "dies." Figures also show drawings of some of the attitudes of single and married male participants. 1 drawing shows an incomplete and a complete circle, symbolizing a sterilized man (incomplete) and a nonsterilized man (complete). Another picture depicts a chained man who has lost his freedom

  12. [The cynical game of the tobacco industry. Many years' efforts to deny or cover-up the negative effects of tobacco are revealed by the forced publication of internal documents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambe, Mats; Hallhagen, Erika; Boëthius, Göran

    2002-06-13

    Scrutiny of internal tobacco industry documents, now available on the Internet, reveals that Sweden and Finland were classified as "priority 1" areas in which to intensify efforts to resist tobacco control measures. In the late 1980s Philip Morris increased its activities in Scandinavia in order to counteract penal taxation threats and marketing restrictions. Swedish scientists were engaged by the tobacco industry in the "White Coat" project, a program expected to shed doubt on research linking passive smoking to health risks. The Swedish tobacco company Swedish Match collaborated with Philip Morris in challenging measures to limit tobacco use, including the new, stricter tobacco law proposed in the early 1990s.

  13. Puerto Rico Revealed Preference Survey Data 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Revealed preference models provide insights into recreational angler behavior and the economic value of recreational fishing trips. Revealed preference data is...

  14. Hidden acoustic information revealed by intentional nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, David R.

    2017-11-01

    Acoustic waves are omnipresent in modern life and are well described by the linearized equations of fluid dynamics. Once generated, acoustic waves carry and collect information about their source and the environment through which they propagate, respectively, and this information may be retrieved by analyzing recordings of these waves. Because of this, acoustics is the primary means for observation, surveillance, reconnaissance, and remote sensing in otherwise opaque environments, such as the Earth's oceans and crust, and the interior of the human body. For such information-retrieval tasks, acoustic fields are nearly always interrogated within their recorded frequency range or bandwidth. However, this frequency-range restriction is not general; acoustic fields may also carry (hidden) information at frequencies outside their bandwidth. Although such a claim may seem counter intuitive, hidden acoustic-field information can be revealed by re-introducing a marquee trait of fluid dynamics: nonlinearity. In particular, an intentional quadratic nonlinearity - a form of intra-signal heterodyning - can be used to obtain acoustic field information at frequencies outside a recorded acoustic field's bandwidth. This quadratic nonlinearity enables a variety of acoustic remote sensing applications that were long thought to be impossible. In particular, it allows the detrimental effects of sparse recordings and random scattering to be suppressed when the original acoustic field has sufficient bandwidth. In this presentation, the topic is developed heuristically, with a just brief exposition of the relevant mathematics. Hidden acoustic field information is then revealed from simulated and measured acoustic fields in simple and complicated acoustic environments involving frequencies from a few Hertz to more than 100 kHz, and propagation distances from tens of centimeters to hundreds of kilometers. Sponsored by ONR, NAVSEA, and NSF.

  15. The 'revealed preferences' theory: Assumptions and conjectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, C.H.

    1983-01-01

    Being kind of intuitive psychology the 'Revealed-Preferences'- theory based approaches towards determining the acceptable risks are a useful method for the generation of hypotheses. In view of the fact that reliability engineering develops faster than methods for the determination of reliability aims the Revealed-Preferences approach is a necessary preliminary help. Some of the assumptions on which the 'Revealed-Preferences' theory is based will be identified and analysed and afterwards compared with experimentally obtained results. (orig./DG) [de

  16. Synergetic Use of Principal Component Analysis Applied to Normed Physicochemical Measurements and GC × GC-MS to Reveal the Stabilization Effect of Selected Essential Oils on Heated Rapeseed Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Lilia; Cordella, Christophe B Y; Rutledge, Douglas N; Lefèvre, Fanny; Watiez, Mickaël; Breton, Sylvie; Sassiat, Patrick; Thiebaut, Didier; Vial, Jérôme

    2017-06-01

    Lipid oxidation leads to the formation of volatile compounds and very often to off-flavors. In the case of the heating of rapeseed oil, unpleasant odors, characterized as a fishy odor, are emitted. In this study, 2 different essential oils (coriander and nutmeg essential oils) were added to refined rapeseed oil as odor masking agents. The aim of this work was to determine a potential antioxidant effect of these essential oils on the thermal stability of rapeseed oil subject to heating cycles between room temperature and 180 °C. For this purpose, normed determinations of different parameters (peroxide value, anisidine value, and the content of total polar compounds, free fatty acids and tocopherols) were carried out to examine the differences between pure and degraded oil. No significant difference was observed between pure rapeseed oil and rapeseed oil with essential oils for each parameter separately. However, a stabilizing effect of the essential oils, with a higher effect for the nutmeg essential oil was highlighted by principal component analysis applied on physicochemical dataset. Moreover, the analysis of the volatile compounds performed by GC × GC showed a substantial loss of the volatile compounds of the essential oils from the first heating cycle. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  17. Effect of structural in-depth heterogeneities on electrical properties of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48) O3 thin films as revealed by nano-beam X-ray diffraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaxelaire, N.; Kovacova, V.; Bernasconi, A.; Le Rhun, G.; Alvarez-Murga, M.; Vaughan, G. B. M.; Defay, E.; Gergaud, P.

    2016-09-01

    A direct quantification of a structural in-depth composition in the lead zirconate titanate Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 thin films of morphotropic composition has been conducted using the newly available X-ray nano-pencil beam (i.e., beam size of 100 nm × 1 μm) diffraction approach. We tested two samples with different Zr/Ti chemical gradients. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a significant microstructural gradient between the rhombohedral and tetragonal phases through PbZrxTi1-xO3 (PZT) films with a 100 nm in-depth resolution. The phase gradient extends over around 350 nm, and it is repeated through the PZT film three times, which corresponds to the number of thermal annealings. Moreover, this microstructural gradient is in agreement with the Zr/Ti chemical gradient observed by the secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Indeed, the quantity of tetragonal phases rises in the Ti-rich zones as revealed by SIMS, and the quantity of rhombohedral phases rises in the Zr-rich zones. We also demonstrated a huge difference in the in-depth phase variation between the two tested samples. The gradient free sample still contains 4.7% of phase variation through the film and the amplified gradient contains 9.6% of phase variation through the film. Knowing that the gradient free sample shows better electric and piezoelectric coefficients, one can draw a correlation between the chemical composition, crystallographic homogeneity, and electro-mechanical properties of the film. The more close the film is to the morphotropic composition and the more it is crystallographically homogeneous, the higher the piezoelectric coefficients of the PZT are. Finally, the adequate knowledge of phase variation and its relation to the fabrication technique are crucial for the enhancement of the PZT electro-mechanical properties. Our methodology and findings open up new perspectives in establishing a relevant quantitative feedback to reach an ultimate electro-mechanical coupling in the sol-gel PZT thin films.

  18. Mixed Membrane Matrices Based on Nafion/UiO-66/SO3H-UiO-66 Nano-MOFs: Revealing the Effect of Crystal Size, Sulfonation, and Filler Loading on the Mechanical and Conductivity Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadio, Anna; Narducci, Riccardo; Casciola, Mario; Marmottini, Fabio; D'Amato, Roberto; Jazestani, Mehdi; Chiniforoshan, Hossein; Costantino, Ferdinando

    2017-12-06

    Mixed membrane matrices (MMMs) made up with Nafion and nanocrystals of zirconium metal-organic framework (MOF) UiO-66 or the analogous sulfonated SO 3 H-UiO-66 were prepared by varying the filler loading and the size of the crystals. The combined effects of size and loading, together with the presence of sulfonic groups covalently linked to the MOFs, were studied with regard to the conductivity and mechanical properties of the obtained composite matrices. A large screening of membranes was preliminarily made and, on the most promising samples, an accurate conductivity study at different relative humidities and temperatures was also carried out. The results showed that membranes containing large crystals (200 nm average size) in low amounts (around 2%) displayed the best results in terms of proton conductivity values, reaching values by 30% higher than those of pure Nafion, while leaving the mechanical properties substantially unchanged. On the contrary, MMMs containing MOFs of small size (20 nm average size) did not show any conductivity improvements if compared to pure Nafion membranes. The effect of MOF sulfonation was negligible at low filler loading whereas it became important at loading values around 10%. Finally, membranes with a high filler loading (up to 60 wt %) of sulfonated UiO-66 showed a slight reduction of conductivity in comparison with membranes loaded at 20% of nonsulfonated ones.

  19. Sequence tagging reveals unexpected modifications in toxicoproteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Surendra; Chambers, Matthew C.; Codreanu, Simona G.; Liebler, Daniel C.; Collins, Ben C.; Pennington, Stephen R.; Gallagher, William M.; Tabb, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicoproteomic samples are rich in posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins. Identifying these modifications via standard database searching can incur significant performance penalties. Here we describe the latest developments in TagRecon, an algorithm that leverages inferred sequence tags to identify modified peptides in toxicoproteomic data sets. TagRecon identifies known modifications more effectively than the MyriMatch database search engine. TagRecon outperformed state of the art software in recognizing unanticipated modifications from LTQ, Orbitrap, and QTOF data sets. We developed user-friendly software for detecting persistent mass shifts from samples. We follow a three-step strategy for detecting unanticipated PTMs in samples. First, we identify the proteins present in the sample with a standard database search. Next, identified proteins are interrogated for unexpected PTMs with a sequence tag-based search. Finally, additional evidence is gathered for the detected mass shifts with a refinement search. Application of this technology on toxicoproteomic data sets revealed unintended cross-reactions between proteins and sample processing reagents. Twenty five proteins in rat liver showed signs of oxidative stress when exposed to potentially toxic drugs. These results demonstrate the value of mining toxicoproteomic data sets for modifications. PMID:21214251

  20. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.; Freudinger, Lawrence C.

    2008-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA s Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This report specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as a final report for that internship. The topics discussed include: the documentation of REVEAL source code; the migration of REVEAL to other platforms; and an end-to-end field test that successfully validates the efforts.

  1. Effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler on exacerbations versus formoterol in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: The 6-month, randomized RISE (Revealing the Impact of Symbicort in reducing Exacerbations in COPD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Gary T; Tashkin, Donald P; Skärby, Tor; Jorup, Carin; Sandin, Kristina; Greenwood, Michael; Pemberton, Kristine; Trudo, Frank

    2017-11-01

    Prevention of exacerbations is a primary goal for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapy. This randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, multicenter study evaluated the effect of budesonide/formoterol pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) versus formoterol dry powder inhaler (DPI) on reducing COPD exacerbations. 1219 patients aged ≥40 years with moderate-to-very-severe COPD (per lung function) and a history of ≥1 COPD exacerbation received budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg twice daily (BID) during a 4-week run-in. Patients were then randomized 1:1 to receive budesonide/formoterol pMDI 320/9 μg BID (n = 606) or formoterol DPI 9 μg BID (n = 613) for 26 weeks. Exacerbations were identified using predefined criteria for symptom worsening and treatment with systemic corticosteroids and/or antibiotics and/or hospitalization. The primary endpoint was annual rate of exacerbations. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI resulted in a 24% reduction in annual rate of exacerbations (0.85 vs 1.12; rate ratio: 0.76 [95% CI: 0.62, 0.92]; P = 0.006), and a significant risk reduction for time to first exacerbation (hazard ratio: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.64, 0.96]; P = 0.016) versus formoterol DPI. The most commonly reported adverse events (AEs; ≥3%) in budesonide/formoterol and formoterol groups were COPD (4.5% vs 8.6%) and nasopharyngitis (5.0% vs 5.2%). Pneumonia AEs were reported in 0.5% and 1.0% of budesonide/formoterol-treated and formoterol-treated patients, respectively. Budesonide/formoterol pMDI is an effective treatment option for reducing exacerbation rates in COPD patients with moderate-to-very-severe airflow limitation and history of exacerbations. No increase in pneumonia was observed with budesonide/formoterol; safety data were consistent with its established profile. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealing gene action for production characteristics by inbreeding, based on a long-term selection ... The gene action involved in the expression of production characters was investigated, using the effect of the theoretical inbreeding ..... and predicted selection responses for growth, fat and lean traits in mice. J. Anim. Sci.

  3. In Folio Respiratory Fluxomics Revealed by {sup 13}C Isotopic Labeling and H/D Isotope Effects Highlight the Non-cyclic Nature of the Tricarboxylic Acid 'Cycle' in Illuminated Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherkez, G.; Mahe, A.; Gauthier, P.; Hodges, M. [Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome IFR87, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Tcherkez, G.; Mauve, C.; Cornic, G. [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Ecologie Systematique Evolution (G.C.), Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Gout, E.; Bligny, R. [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, {sup 13}C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA 'cycle' does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. (authors)

  4. In Folio Respiratory Fluxomics Revealed by 13C Isotopic Labeling and H/D Isotope Effects Highlight the Non-cyclic Nature of the Tricarboxylic Acid 'Cycle' in Illuminated Leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tcherkez, G.; Mahe, A.; Gauthier, P.; Hodges, M.; Tcherkez, G.; Mauve, C.; Cornic, G.; Gout, E.; Bligny, R.

    2009-01-01

    While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, 13 C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA 'cycle' does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. (authors)

  5. In Folio Respiratory Fluxomics Revealed by {sup 13}C Isotopic Labeling and H/D Isotope Effects Highlight the Non-cyclic Nature of the Tricarboxylic Acid 'Cycle' in Illuminated Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tcherkez, G; Mahe, A; Gauthier, P; Hodges, M [Institut de Biotechnologie des Plantes, Plateforme Metabolisme-Metabolome IFR87, Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Tcherkez, G; Mauve, C; Cornic, G [Laboratoire d' Ecophysiologie Vegetale, Ecologie Systematique Evolution (G.C.), Batiment 630, Universite Paris-Sud 11, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Gout, E; Bligny, R [Laboratoire de Physiologie Cellulaire Vegetale, Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique-Grenoble, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2009-07-01

    While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, {sup 13}C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA 'cycle' does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. (authors)

  6. In Folio Respiratory Fluxomics Revealed by 13C Isotopic Labeling and H/D Isotope Effects Highlight the Noncyclic Nature of the Tricarboxylic Acid “Cycle” in Illuminated Leaves1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Gauthier, Paul; Mauve, Caroline; Gout, Elizabeth; Bligny, Richard; Cornic, Gabriel; Hodges, Michael

    2009-01-01

    While the possible importance of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle reactions for leaf photosynthesis operation has been recognized, many uncertainties remain on whether TCA cycle biochemistry is similar in the light compared with the dark. It is widely accepted that leaf day respiration and the metabolic commitment to TCA decarboxylation are down-regulated in illuminated leaves. However, the metabolic basis (i.e. the limiting steps involved in such a down-regulation) is not well known. Here, we investigated the in vivo metabolic fluxes of individual reactions of the TCA cycle by developing two isotopic methods, 13C tracing and fluxomics and the use of H/D isotope effects, with Xanthium strumarium leaves. We provide evidence that the TCA “cycle” does not work in the forward direction like a proper cycle but, rather, operates in both the reverse and forward directions to produce fumarate and glutamate, respectively. Such a functional division of the cycle plausibly reflects the compromise between two contrasted forces: (1) the feedback inhibition by NADH and ATP on TCA enzymes in the light, and (2) the need to provide pH-buffering organic acids and carbon skeletons for nitrate absorption and assimilation. PMID:19675152

  7. Effects of blending poly(D,L-lactide) with poly(ethylene glycol) on the higher-order crystalline structures of poly(ethylene glycol) as revealed by small-angle X-ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, N D; Kimura, G; Yamashiro, Y; Fujiwara, H; Sasaki, S; Sakurai, S; Hoa, T P; Mochizuki, M

    2011-01-01

    Effects of blending poly(lactic acid) (PLA) with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on higher-order crystalline structures of PEG were examined using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). For this purpose, the fact that two polymers are both crystalline makes situtation much complicated. To simplify, non-crystalline PLA is suitable. Thus, we used poly(D,L-lactic acid) (DLPLA), which is random copolymer comprising D- and L-lactic acid moieties. Multiple scattering peaks arising from the regular crystalline lamellar structure were observed for the PEG homopolymer and the blends. Surprisingly, the structure is much more regular for the blend DLPLA/PEG at composition of 20/80 wt.% than for the PEG homopolymer. Also for this blend sample as well as for a PEG homopolymer, very peculiar SAXS profiles were observed just 1 deg. C below T m of PEG. This is found to be a particle scattering of plate-like objects, which has never been reported for polymer blends or crystalline polymers. Futhermore, it was found that there was strong hysteresis of the higher-order structure formation.

  8. Ecosystem scale acoustic sensing reveals humpback whale behavior synchronous with herring spawning processes and re-evaluation finds no effect of sonar on humpback song occurrence in the Gulf of Maine in fall 2006.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Gong

    Full Text Available We show that humpback-whale vocalization behavior is synchronous with peak annual Atlantic herring spawning processes in the Gulf of Maine. With a passive, wide-aperture, densely-sampled, coherent hydrophone array towed north of Georges Bank in a Fall 2006 Ocean Acoustic Waveguide Remote Sensing (OAWRS experiment, vocalizing whales could be instantaneously detected and localized over most of the Gulf of Maine ecosystem in a roughly 400-km diameter area by introducing array gain, of 18 dB, orders of magnitude higher than previously available in acoustic whale sensing. With humpback-whale vocalizations consistently recorded at roughly 2000/day, we show that vocalizing humpbacks (i were overwhelmingly distributed along the northern flank of Georges Bank, coinciding with the peak spawning time and location of Atlantic herring, and (ii their overall vocalization behavior was strongly diurnal, synchronous with the formation of large nocturnal herring shoals, with a call rate roughly ten-times higher at night than during the day. Humpback-whale vocalizations were comprised of (1 highly diurnal non-song calls, suited to hunting and feeding behavior, and (2 songs, which had constant occurrence rate over a diurnal cycle, invariant to diurnal herring shoaling. Before and during OAWRS survey transmissions: (a no vocalizing whales were found at Stellwagen Bank, which had negligible herring populations, and (b a constant humpback-whale song occurrence rate indicates the transmissions had no effect on humpback song. These measurements contradict the conclusions of Risch et al. Our analysis indicates that (a the song occurrence variation reported in Risch et al. is consistent with natural causes other than sonar, (b the reducing change in song reported in Risch et al. occurred days before the sonar survey began, and (c the Risch et al. method lacks the statistical significance to draw the conclusions of Risch et al. because it has a 98-100% false-positive rate

  9. Burned-out seminoma revealed by solitary rib bone metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishisho, Toshihiko; Miyagi, Ryo; Sairyo, Koichi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Orthopedics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan); Sakaki, Mika [Saitama Medical University International Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Hidaka-city, Saitama (Japan); Takao, Shoichiro [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima-city, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-10-15

    Burned-out tumor is a rare phenomenon in which a testicular tumor regresses in the primary lesion and progresses in a metastatic lesion. We report the case of a 30-year-old male with burned-out seminoma revealed by open biopsy of solitary 10th rib bone metastasis. He underwent inguinal orchiectomy, which revealed hyalinization, indicating a spontaneously regressed testicular tumor. Chemotherapy for seminoma was administered in three cycles of bleomycin + etoposide + cisplatin therapy. The chemotherapy was effective, and wide resection of the rib was subsequently performed. No postoperative chemotherapy was performed, and there has been no evidence of recurrence for 3 years postoperatively. (orig.)

  10. Radio Telescopes Reveal Unseen Galactic Cannibalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    Radio-telescope images have revealed previously-unseen galactic cannibalism -- a triggering event that leads to feeding frenzies by gigantic black holes at the cores of galaxies. Astronomers have long suspected that the extra-bright cores of spiral galaxies called Seyfert galaxies are powered by supermassive black holes consuming material. However, they could not see how the material is started on its journey toward the black hole. Optical/Radio Comparison Visible-light (left) and radio (right) image of galaxy pair: Radio image shows gas streaming between galaxies. CREDIT: Kuo et al., NRAO/AUI/NSF Click on image for more graphics. One leading theory said that Seyfert galaxies have been disturbed by close encounters with neighboring galaxies, thus stirring up their gas and bringing more of it within the gravitational reach of the black hole. However, when astronomers looked at Seyferts with visible-light telescopes, only a small fraction showed any evidence of such an encounter. Now, new images of hydrogen gas in Seyferts made using the National Science Foundation's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope show the majority of them are, in fact, disturbed by ongoing encounters with neighbor galaxies. "The VLA lifted the veil on what's really happening with these galaxies," said Cheng-Yu Kuo, a graduate student at the University of Virginia. "Looking at the gas in these galaxies clearly showed that they are snacking on their neighbors. This is a dramatic contrast with their appearance in visible starlight," he added. The effect of the galactic encounters is to send gas and dust toward the black hole and produce energy as the material ultimately is consumed. Black holes, concentrations of matter so dense that not even light can escape their gravitational pull, reside at the cores of many galaxies. Depending on how rapidly the black hole is eating, the galaxy can show a wide range of energetic activity. Seyfert galaxies have the mildest version of this activity, while

  11. Differential network analysis reveals genetic effects on catalepsy modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu D Iancu

    Full Text Available We performed short-term bi-directional selective breeding for haloperidol-induced catalepsy, starting from three mouse populations of increasingly complex genetic structure: an F2 intercross, a heterogeneous stock (HS formed by crossing four inbred strains (HS4 and a heterogeneous stock (HS-CC formed from the inbred strain founders of the Collaborative Cross (CC. All three selections were successful, with large differences in haloperidol response emerging within three generations. Using a custom differential network analysis procedure, we found that gene coexpression patterns changed significantly; importantly, a number of these changes were concordant across genetic backgrounds. In contrast, absolute gene-expression changes were modest and not concordant across genetic backgrounds, in spite of the large and similar phenotypic differences. By inferring strain contributions from the parental lines, we are able to identify significant differences in allelic content between the selected lines concurrent with large changes in transcript connectivity. Importantly, this observation implies that genetic polymorphisms can affect transcript and module connectivity without large changes in absolute expression levels. We conclude that, in this case, selective breeding acts at the subnetwork level, with the same modules but not the same transcripts affected across the three selections.

  12. Dark chocolate’s compositional effects revealed by oscillatory rheology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, K.; Depypere, F.; De Graef, V.; Schall, P.; Fall, A.; Bonn, D.; Dewettinck, K.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, two types of oscillatory shear rheology are applied on dark chocolate with varying volume fraction, particle size distribution, and soy lecithin concentration. The first, a conventional strain sweep, allows for the separation of the elastic and viscous properties during the yielding.

  13. Towards functional effects of polyphenols : modulation of energy metabolism revealed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, de V.C.J.

    2007-01-01

    A diet rich in fruits and vegetables contains high levels of polyphenols (up to 1 gram per day). Epidemiological studies suggest that a high dietary intake of selected polyphenols can be protective against development of cardiovascular heart diseases in humans. In addition, mechanistic studies

  14. REVEAL: Software Documentation and Platform Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael A.; Veibell, Victoir T.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Environment for Vehicle Embedded Analysis on Linux (REVEAL) is reconfigurable data acquisition software designed for network-distributed test and measurement applications. In development since 2001, it has been successfully demonstrated in support of a number of actual missions within NASA's Suborbital Science Program. Improvements to software configuration control were needed to properly support both an ongoing transition to operational status and continued evolution of REVEAL capabilities. For this reason the project described in this report targets REVEAL software source documentation and deployment of the software on a small set of hardware platforms different from what is currently used in the baseline system implementation. This presentation specifically describes the actions taken over a ten week period by two undergraduate student interns and serves as an overview of the content of the final report for that internship.

  15. Microradiometers Reveal Ocean Health, Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    When NASA researcher Stanford Hooker is in the field, he pays close attention to color. For Hooker, being in the field means being at sea. On one such research trip to the frigid waters of the Arctic, with a Coast Guard icebreaker looming nearby and the snow-crusted ice shelf a few feet away, Hooker leaned over the edge of his small boat and lowered a tethered device into the bright turquoise water, a new product devised by a NASA partner and enabled by a promising technology for oceanographers and atmospheric scientists alike. Color is a function of light. Pure water is clear, but the variation in color observed during a visit to the beach or a flight along a coastline depends on the water s depth and the constituents in it, how far down the light penetrates and how it is absorbed and scattered by dissolved and suspended material. Hooker cares about ocean color because of what it can reveal about the health of the ocean, and in turn, the health of our planet. "The main thing we are interested in is the productivity of the water," Hooker says. The seawater contains phytoplankton, microscopic plants, which are the food base for the ocean s ecosystems. Changes in the water s properties, whether due to natural seasonal effects or human influence, can lead to problems for delicate ecosystems such as coral reefs. Ocean color can inform researchers about the quantities and distribution of phytoplankton and other materials, providing clues as to how the world ocean is changing. NASA s Coastal Zone Color Scanner, launched in 1978, was the first ocean color instrument flown on a spacecraft. Since then, the Agency s ocean color research capabilities have become increasingly sophisticated with the launch of the SeaWiFS instrument in 1997 and the twin MODIS instruments carried into orbit on NASA s Terra (1999) and Aqua (2002) satellites. The technology provides sweeping, global information on ocean color on a scale unattainable by any other means. One issue that arises from

  16. Omics strategies for revealing Yersinia pestis virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ruifu; Du, Zongmin; Han, Yanping; Zhou, Lei; Song, Yajun; Zhou, Dongsheng; Cui, Yujun

    2012-01-01

    Omics has remarkably changed the way we investigate and understand life. Omics differs from traditional hypothesis-driven research because it is a discovery-driven approach. Mass datasets produced from omics-based studies require experts from different fields to reveal the salient features behind these data. In this review, we summarize omics-driven studies to reveal the virulence features of Yersinia pestis through genomics, trascriptomics, proteomics, interactomics, etc. These studies serve as foundations for further hypothesis-driven research and help us gain insight into Y. pestis pathogenesis. PMID:23248778

  17. Expression of microRNAs and interferon-related genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) infected with Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bela-Ong, Dennis; Schyth, Brian Dall; Lorenzen, Niels

    The fish rhabdovirus Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) causes severe disease in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The potential threat from wildlife marine reservoir of VHSV, particularly to sea-farmed fish demands disease protection measures. Identification of biomarkers during...

  18. Revealed Preference Theory, Rationality, and Neoclassical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Revealed Preference Theory (Samuelson 1938) is an attempt to establish economic theory as a genuine empirical science by ridding it of nonempirical psychological concepts. Samuelson's goal was to rid economic theory of the last vestiges of utility analysis. Samuelson structured his theory on a set of preference axioms ...

  19. [Mastitis revealing Churg-Strauss syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannepond, C; Le Fourn, E; de Muret, A; Ouldamer, L; Carmier, D; Machet, L

    2014-01-01

    Churg-Strauss syndrome often involves the skin, and this may sometimes reveal the disease. A 25-year-old woman was referred to a gynaecologist for inflammation of the right breast with breast discharge. Cytological analysis of the liquid showed numerous inflammatory cells, particularly polymorphonuclear eosinophils and neutrophils. Ultrasound examination of the breast was consistent with galactophoritis. CRP was normal, and hypereosinophilia was seen. The patient was subsequently referred to a dermatology unit. Skin examination revealed inflammation of the entire breast, which was painful, warm and erythematous; the border was oedematous with blisters. Necrotic lesions were also present on the thumbs and knees. Skin biopsy of the breast showed a dermal infiltrate with abundant infiltrate of polymorphonuclear eosinophils, including patchy necrosis and intraepidermal vesicles. Histological examination of a biopsy sample from a thumb revealed eosinophilic granuloma and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. The patient was also presenting asthma, pulmonary infiltrates and mononeuropathy at L3, consistent with Churg-Strauss syndrome. Breast involvement in Churg-Strauss syndrome is very rare (only one other case has been reported). This is the first case in which the breast condition revealed the disease. Cutaneous involvement of the breast is, however, also compatible with Wells' cellulitis. The lesions quickly disappeared with 1mg/kg/d oral prednisolone. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Revealed preference tests for collective household behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; de Rock, B.; Vermeulen, F.M.P.; Verriest, E.; Molina, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter contains a state of the art of revealed preference tests for consistency of observed household behavior with Pareto efficiency. These tests are entirely nonparametric, since they do not require any assumptions regarding the parametric form of individual preferences or the intrahousehold

  1. Adaptation to High Ethanol Reveals Complex Evolutionary Pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Voordeckers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tolerance to high levels of ethanol is an ecologically and industrially relevant phenotype of microbes, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this complex trait remain largely unknown. Here, we use long-term experimental evolution of isogenic yeast populations of different initial ploidy to study adaptation to increasing levels of ethanol. Whole-genome sequencing of more than 30 evolved populations and over 100 adapted clones isolated throughout this two-year evolution experiment revealed how a complex interplay of de novo single nucleotide mutations, copy number variation, ploidy changes, mutator phenotypes, and clonal interference led to a significant increase in ethanol tolerance. Although the specific mutations differ between different evolved lineages, application of a novel computational pipeline, PheNetic, revealed that many mutations target functional modules involved in stress response, cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and respiration. Measuring the fitness effects of selected mutations introduced in non-evolved ethanol-sensitive cells revealed several adaptive mutations that had previously not been implicated in ethanol tolerance, including mutations in PRT1, VPS70 and MEX67. Interestingly, variation in VPS70 was recently identified as a QTL for ethanol tolerance in an industrial bio-ethanol strain. Taken together, our results show how, in contrast to adaptation to some other stresses, adaptation to a continuous complex and severe stress involves interplay of different evolutionary mechanisms. In addition, our study reveals functional modules involved in ethanol resistance and identifies several mutations that could help to improve the ethanol tolerance of industrial yeasts.

  2. Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    A new study using results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory provides one of the best pieces of evidence yet that many supermassive black holes are spinning extremely rapidly. The whirling of these giant black holes drives powerful jets that pump huge amounts of energy into their environment and affects galaxy growth. A team of scientists compared leading theories of jets produced by rotating supermassive black holes with Chandra data. A sampling of nine giant galaxies that exhibit large disturbances in their gaseous atmospheres showed that the central black holes in these galaxies must be spinning at near their maximum rates. People Who Read This Also Read... NASA’s Swift Satellite Catches First Supernova in The Act of Exploding Black Holes Have Simple Feeding Habits Jet Power and Black Hole Assortment Revealed in New Chandra Image Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself "We think these monster black holes are spinning close to the limit set by Einstein's theory of relativity, which means that they can drag material around them at close to the speed of light," said Rodrigo Nemmen, a visiting graduate student at Penn State University, and lead author of a paper on the new results presented at American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. The research reinforces other, less direct methods previously used which have indicated that some stellar and supermassive black holes are spinning rapidly. According to Einstein's theory, a rapidly spinning black hole makes space itself rotate. This effect, coupled with gas spiraling toward the black hole, can produce a rotating, tightly wound vertical tower of magnetic field that flings a large fraction of the inflowing gas away from the vicinity of the black hole in an energetic, high-speed jet. Computer simulations by other authors have suggested that black holes may acquire their rapid spins when galaxies merge, and through the accretion of gas from their surroundings. "Extremely fast spin might be very common for large

  3. Reveal quantum correlation in complementary bases

    OpenAIRE

    Shengjun Wu; Zhihao Ma; Zhihua Chen; Sixia Yu

    2014-01-01

    An essential feature of genuine quantum correlation is the simultaneous existence of correlation in complementary bases. We reveal this feature of quantum correlation by defining measures based on invariance under a basis change. For a bipartite quantum state, the classical correlation is the maximal correlation present in a certain optimum basis, while the quantum correlation is characterized as a series of residual correlations in the mutually unbiased bases. Compared with other approaches ...

  4. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Raoufi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent.

  5. Midface swelling reveals nasofrontal dermal sinus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houneida, Zaghouani Ben Alaya; Manel, Limeme; Latifa, Harzallah; Habib, Amara; Dejla, Bakir; Chekib, Kraiem

    2012-01-01

    Nasofrontal dermal sinuses are very rare and generally occur in children. This congenital malformation can be revealed by midface swelling, which can be complicated by local infection or neuromeningitis. Such complications make the dermal sinus a life-threatening disease. Two cases of nasofrontal dermal sinuses are reported in this work. The first case is an 11-month-old girl who presented with left orbitonasal soft tissue swelling accompanied by inflammation. Physical examination found fever, left orbitonasal thickening, and a puncture hole letting out pus. Computed tomography revealed microabscesses located at the left orbitonasal soft tissues, a frontal bone defect, and an intracranial cyst. Magnetic resonance imaging showed the transosseous tract between the glabella and the brain and affirmed the epidermoid nature of the intracranial cyst. The second case is a 7-year-old girl who presented with a nasofrontal non-progressive mass that intermittently secreted a yellow liquid through an external orifice located at the glabella. MRI revealed a cystic mass located in the deep layer of the glabellar skin related to an epidermoid cyst with a nasofrontal dermal sinus tract. In both cases, surgical excision was performed, and pathological confirmation was made for the diagnoses of dermal sinuses. The postoperative course was favorable. Through these cases, the authors stress the role of imaging methods in confirming the diagnosis and looking for associated cysts (dermoid and epidermoid) to improve recognition of this rare disease. Knowledge of the typical clinical presentations, imaging manifestations, and most common sites of occurrence of this malformation are needed to formulate a differential diagnosis.

  6. Structures of Astromaterials Revealed by EBSD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M.

    2018-01-01

    Groups at the Johnson Space Center and the University of Tokyo have been using electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) to reveal the crystal structures of extraterrestrial minerals for many years. Even though we also routinely use transmission electron microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and conventional electron diffraction, we find that EBSD is the most powerful technique for crystal structure elucidation in many instances. In this talk I describe a few of the cases where we have found EBSD to provide crucial, unique information. See attachment.

  7. [Encopresis revealing myotonic dystrophy in 2 children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avez-Couturier, J; Michaud, L; Cuisset, J-M; Lamblin, M-D; Dolhem, P; Turck, D; Vallée, L; Gottrand, F

    2009-05-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are very frequent in myotonic dystrophy but largely unrecognized. They can be the revealing factors of the disease. We report 2 cases of 10 and 17-year-old children with persistent encopresis starting at the age of 3 and 5 years in spite of laxative treatment. Neurological examination and anorectal manometry provided the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy. Procainamide treatment was introduced and the digestive symptoms improved. Any child with encopresis should have complete evaluation to rule out the diagnosis of myotonic dystrophy and physicians should look for upper and/or lower gastrointestinal symptoms in every patient with myotonic dystrophy.

  8. Transcriptome classification reveals molecular subtypes in psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainali Chrysanthi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease characterised by chronically elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, leading to aberrant keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although certain clinical phenotypes, such as plaque psoriasis, are well defined, it is currently unclear whether there are molecular subtypes that might impact on prognosis or treatment outcomes. Results We present a pipeline for patient stratification through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in paired lesional and non-lesional psoriatic tissue samples, compared with controls, to establish differences in RNA expression patterns across all tissue types. Ensembles of decision tree predictors were employed to cluster psoriatic samples on the basis of gene expression patterns and reveal gene expression signatures that best discriminate molecular disease subtypes. This multi-stage procedure was applied to several published psoriasis studies and a comparison of gene expression patterns across datasets was performed. Conclusion Overall, classification of psoriasis gene expression patterns revealed distinct molecular sub-groups within the clinical phenotype of plaque psoriasis. Enrichment for TGFb and ErbB signaling pathways, noted in one of the two psoriasis subgroups, suggested that this group may be more amenable to therapies targeting these pathways. Our study highlights the potential biological relevance of using ensemble decision tree predictors to determine molecular disease subtypes, in what may initially appear to be a homogenous clinical group. The R code used in this paper is available upon request.

  9. [Severe pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allou, N; Coolen-Allou, N; Delmas, B; Cordier, C; Allyn, J

    2016-12-01

    High-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) is associated with high mortality rate (>50%). In some cases, diagnosis of PE remains a challenge with atypical presentations like in this case report with a PE revealed by status epilepticus. We report the case of a 40-year-old man without prior disease, hospitalized in ICU for status epilepticus. All paraclinical examinations at admission did not show any significant abnormalities (laboratory tests, cardiologic and neurological investigations). On day 1, he presented a sudden circulatory collapse and echocardiography showed right intra-auricular thrombus. He was treated by thrombolysis and arteriovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After stabilization, computed tomography showed severe bilateral PE. He developed multi-organ failure and died 4days after admission. Pulmonary embolism revealed by status epilepticus has rarely been reported and is associated with poor prognosis. Physicians should be aware and think of the possibility of PE in patients with status epilepticus without any history or risk factors of seizure and normal neurological investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. [Localized purpura revealing vascular prosthetic graft infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boureau, A S; Lescalie, F; Cassagnau, E; Clairand, R; Connault, J

    2013-07-01

    Prosthetic graft infection after vascular reconstruction is a rare but serious complication. We report a case of infection occurring late after implantation of an iliofemoral prosthetic vascular graft. The Staphylococcus aureus infection was revealed by vascular purpura localized on the right leg 7 years after implantation of a vascular prosthesis. This case illustrates an uncommonly late clinical manifestation presenting as an acute infection 7 years after the primary operation. In this situation, the presentation differs from early infection, which generally occurs within the first four postoperative months. Diagnosis and treatment remain a difficult challenge because prosthetic graft infection is a potentially life-threatening complication. Morbidity and mortality rates are high. Here we detail specific aspects of the clinical and radiological presentation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Chain networking revealed by molecular dynamics simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yexin; Tsige, Mesfin; Wang, Shi-Qing

    Based on Kremer-Grest model for entangled polymer melts, we demonstrate how the response of a polymer glass depends critically on the chain length. After quenching two melts of very different chain lengths (350 beads per chain and 30 beads per chain) into deeply glassy states, we subject them to uniaxial extension. Our MD simulations show that the glass of long chains undergoes stable necking after yielding whereas the system of short chains is unable to neck and breaks up after strain localization. During ductile extension of the polymer glass made of long chain significant chain tension builds up in the load-bearing strands (LBSs). Further analysis is expected to reveal evidence of activation of the primary structure during post-yield extension. These results lend support to the recent molecular model 1 and are the simulations to demonstrate the role of chain networking. This work is supported, in part, by a NSF Grant (DMR-EAGER-1444859)

  12. Social patterns revealed through random matrix theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Camellia; Jalan, Sarika

    2014-11-01

    Despite the tremendous advancements in the field of network theory, very few studies have taken weights in the interactions into consideration that emerge naturally in all real-world systems. Using random matrix analysis of a weighted social network, we demonstrate the profound impact of weights in interactions on emerging structural properties. The analysis reveals that randomness existing in particular time frame affects the decisions of individuals rendering them more freedom of choice in situations of financial security. While the structural organization of networks remains the same throughout all datasets, random matrix theory provides insight into the interaction pattern of individuals of the society in situations of crisis. It has also been contemplated that individual accountability in terms of weighted interactions remains as a key to success unless segregation of tasks comes into play.

  13. Neutron Imaging Reveals Internal Plant Hydraulic Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Horita, Jusuke [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Many terrestrial ecosystem processes are constrained by water availability and transport within the soil. Knowledge of plant water fluxes is thus critical for assessing mechanistic processes linked to biogeochemical cycles, yet resolution of root structure and xylem water transport dynamics has been a particularly daunting task for the ecologist. Through neutron imaging, we demonstrate the ability to non-invasively monitor individual root functionality and water fluxes within Zea mays L. (maize) and Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass) seedlings growing in a sandy medium. Root structure and growth were readily imaged by neutron radiography and neutron computed tomography. Seedlings were irrigated with water or deuterium oxide and imaged through time as a growth lamp was cycled on to alter leaf demand for water. Sub-millimeter scale resolution reveals timing and magnitudes of root water uptake, redistribution within the roots, and root-shoot hydraulic linkages, relationships not well characterized by other techniques.

  14. Ceres Revealed in a Grain of Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolensky, M. E.; Bodnar, R. J.; Fries, M.; Chan, Q. H.-S.; Kebukawa, Y.; Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Komatsu, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Steele, A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Zag and Monahans (1998) are H chondrite regolith breccias containing 4.5 giga-year-old halite crystals which contain abundant inclusions of aqueous fluids, solids and organics. These all originated on a cryo-volcanically-active C class asteroid, probably 1 Ceres; the halite was transported to the regolith of the H chondrite parent asteroid, potentially 6 Hebe. Detailed analysis of these solids will thus potentially reveal the mineralogy of Ceres. Mineralogy of solids in the Monahans Halite Solid grains are present in the halites, which were entrained within the mother brines during eruption, including material from the interior and surface of the erupting body. The solids include abundant, widely variable organics that could not have been significantly heated (which would have resulted in the loss of fluids from the halite). Our analyses by Raman microprobe, SEM/EDX, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, UPLC-FD/QToF-MS, C-XANES and TEM reveal that these trapped grains include macromolecular carbon (MMC) similar in structure to CV3 chondrite matrix carbon, aliphatic carbon compounds, olivine (Fo99-59), high- and low-Ca pyroxene, feldspars, phyllosilicates, magnetite, sulfides, metal, lepidocrocite, carbonates, diamond, apatite and zeolites. Conclusions: The halite in Monahans and Zag derive from a water and carbon-rich object that was cryo-volcanically active in the early solar system, probably Ceres. The Dawn spacecraft found that Ceres includes C chondrite materials. Our samples include both protolith and aqueously-altered samples of the body, permitting understanding of alteration conditions. Whatever the halite parent body, it was rich in a wide variety of organics and warm, liquid water at the solar system's dawn.

  15. Can Parasites Really Reveal Environmental Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review assesses the usefulness of parasites as bioindicators of environmental impact. Relevant studies published in the past decade were compiled; factorial meta-analysis demonstrated significant effects and interactions between parasite levels and the presence and concentra...

  16. Revealing low-energy part of the beta spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvi, S.; Celiktas, C.

    2002-01-01

    An effective method is proposed to separate electronic noise from the beta-particle spectra revealing lower energy part of the spectra. The available methods for reducing the noise problem cut the noise along with the low-energy part of the beta spectra by using a discriminator. Our setup eliminates this undesirable effect by shifting the noise toward the lowest energy scale leaving the low-energy part of spectra undisturbed. We achieved this noise-pulse-separation by treating the noise as a pulse so that we can exploit the application of the pulse-shape analyzer equipment used for pulse shape identification of particles and rejection of defective pulses. To the best of our knowledge this method of the noise separation is a novel approach

  17. ERYTHEMA NODOSUM REVEALING ACUTE MYELOID LEUKEMIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chebbi Wafa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Erythema nodosum (EN is the most common type of panniculitis. It may be idiopathic or secondary to various etiologies. However, the occurrence of erythema nodosum in malignant hemopathy had rarely been reported. Case report: A 42 year-old woman presented with a four week history of recurrent multiple painful erythematous nodules developed on the lower limbs associated with arthralgia of the ankles and fever. The clinical features of skin lesions with contusiform color evolution allowed establishing the diagnosis of EN. No underlying cause was found. The skin lesions were improved with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine. Three months later, the patient consulted for recurrence of EN associated with fever, inflammatory polyarthralgia and hepatosplenomegaly. The peripheral blood count revealed pancytopenia. A bone marrow examination confirmed the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia type 2. Initiation of chemotherapy was followed by the complete disappearance of skin lesions of EN. Conclusion: Paraneoplastic erythema nodosum is a rare entity. In the literature, a few cases of association with leukemia have been reported. Exploration for solid neoplasms or hemopathy in case of recurrent EN or resistance to conventional treatment should be systematic

  18. Revealing the values behind convenience food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botonaki, Anna; Mattas, Konstadinos

    2010-12-01

    The increasing importance of convenience in consumer food choices has attracted researchers' interest. In the effort to understand how convenience affects consumers' food preferences, values are believed to play an important role. The present study attempts to examine the way personal values suggested by Schwartz (1992) are associated with behaviour and attitudes regarding convenience food. A number of constructs describing food related attitudes and behaviours were developed and their relationship with personal values was analyzed following the methodology proposed by Brunsø, Scholderer, and Grunert (2004). Data were collected through a questionnaire survey from a random sample of consumers in Thessaloniki city, Greece. The results reveal that convenience food consumption and convenience orientation in the food domain are mainly connected with values that motivate people to seek new experiences, act independently and enhance their own personal interests, while are in conflict with values of conservation and self-transcendence. The opposite holds for other food related attitudes and behaviours like involvement with cooking and variety in diet. The findings seem to be of particular interest not only for marketers of food products, but also for food policy makers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Revealing source signatures in ambient BTEX concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalel, Amir; Yuval; Broday, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Management of ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) is essential for maintaining low ozone levels in urban areas where its formation is under a VOC-limited regime. The significant decrease in traffic-induced VOC emissions in many developed countries resulted in relatively comparable shares of traffic and non-traffic VOC emissions in urban airsheds. A key step for urban air quality management is allocating ambient VOC concentrations to their pertinent sources. This study presents an approach that can aid in identifying sources that contribute to observed BTEX concentrations in areas characterized by low BTEX concentrations, where traditional source apportionment techniques are not useful. Analysis of seasonal and diurnal variations of ambient BTEX concentrations from two monitoring stations located in distinct areas reveal the possibility to identify source categories. Specifically, the varying oxidation rates of airborne BTEX compounds are used to allocate contributions of traffic emissions and evaporative sources to observed BTEX concentrations. - BTEX sources are identified from temporal variations of ambient concentration

  20. VISTA Reveals the Secret of the Unicorn

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    A new infrared image from ESO's VISTA survey telescope reveals an extraordinary landscape of glowing tendrils of gas, dark clouds and young stars within the constellation of Monoceros (the Unicorn). This star-forming region, known as Monoceros R2, is embedded within a huge dark cloud. The region is almost completely obscured by interstellar dust when viewed in visible light, but is spectacular in the infrared. An active stellar nursery lies hidden inside a massive dark cloud rich in molecules and dust in the constellation of Monoceros. Although it appears close in the sky to the more familiar Orion Nebula it is actually almost twice as far from Earth, at a distance of about 2700 light-years. In visible light a grouping of massive hot stars creates a beautiful collection of reflection nebulae where the bluish starlight is scattered from parts of the dark, foggy outer layers of the molecular cloud. However, most of the new-born massive stars remain hidden as the thick interstellar dust strongly absorbs their ultraviolet and visible light. In this gorgeous infrared image taken from ESO's Paranal Observatory in northern Chile, the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA [1], eso0949) penetrates the dark curtain of cosmic dust and reveals in astonishing detail the folds, loops and filaments sculpted from the dusty interstellar matter by intense particle winds and the radiation emitted by hot young stars. "When I first saw this image I just said 'Wow!' I was amazed to see all the dust streamers so clearly around the Monoceros R2 cluster, as well as the jets from highly embedded young stellar objects. There is such a great wealth of exciting detail revealed in these VISTA images," says Jim Emerson, of Queen Mary, University of London and leader of the VISTA consortium. With its huge field of view, large mirror and sensitive camera, VISTA is ideal for obtaining deep, high quality infrared images of large areas of the sky, such as the Monoceros R2 region

  1. On revealing graph cycles via boundary measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belishev, M I; Wada, N

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with boundary value inverse problems on a metric graph, the structure of the graph being assumed unknown. The question under consideration is how to detect from the dynamical and/or spectral inverse data whether the graph contains cycles (is not a tree). For any graph Ω, the dynamical as well as spectral boundary inverse data determine the so-called wave diameter d w : H -1 (Ω) → R defined on functionals supported in the graph. The known fact is that if Ω is a tree then d w ≥ 0 holds and, in this case, the inverse data determine Ω up to isometry. A graph Ω is said to be coordinate if the functions {dist Ω (., γ)} γin∂Ω constitute a coordinate system on Ω. For such graphs, we propose a procedure, which reveals the presence/absence of cycles. The hypothesis is that Ω contains cycles if and only if d w takes negative values. We do not justify this hypothesis in the general case but reduce it to a certain special class of graphs (suns)

  2. Featured Image: Revealing Hidden Objects with Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    Stunning color astronomical images can often be the motivation for astronomers to continue slogging through countless data files, calculations, and simulations as we seek to understand the mysteries of the universe. But sometimes the stunning images can, themselves, be the source of scientific discovery. This is the case with the below image of Lynds Dark Nebula 673, located in the Aquila constellation, that was captured with the Mayall 4-meter telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory by a team of scientists led by Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage). After creating the image with a novel color-composite imaging method that reveals faint H emission (visible in red in both images here), Rector and collaborators identified the presence of a dozen new Herbig-Haro objects small cloud patches that are caused when material is energetically flung out from newly born stars. The image adapted above shows three of the new objects, HH 118789, aligned with two previously known objects, HH 32 and 332 suggesting they are driven by the same source. For more beautiful images and insight into the authors discoveries, check out the article linked below!Full view of Lynds Dark Nebula 673. Click for the larger view this beautiful composite image deserves! [T.A. Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage) and H. Schweiker (WIYN and NOAO/AURA/NSF)]CitationT. A. Rector et al 2018 ApJ 852 13. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa9ce1

  3. Feather corticosterone reveals developmental stress in seabirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Alexis P; Suzuki, Yuya; Elliott, Kyle H; Hatch, Scott A; Watanuki, Yutaka; Kitaysky, Alexander S

    2014-07-01

    In nest-bound avian offspring, food shortages typically trigger a release of the stress hormone corticosterone (CORT). Recent studies indicate that CORT is passively deposited in the tissue of growing feathers and thus may provide an integrated measure of stress incurred during development in the nest. The current hypothesis predicts that, assuming a constant rate of feather growth, elevated CORT circulating in the blood corresponds to higher levels of CORT in feather tissue, but experimental evidence for nutritionally stressed chicks is lacking. Here, we examined how food limitation affects feather CORT content in the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca moncerata). We (i) used captive chicks reared on control versus restricted diets, and (ii) applied this technique to free-living chicks with unknown nutritional histories that fledged at three separate colonies. We found that (i) feather growth was not affected by experimentally induced nutritional stress; (ii) captive chicks raised on a restricted diet had higher levels of CORT in their primary feathers; (iii) feather CORT deposition is a sensitive method of detecting nutritional stress; and (iv) free-living fledglings from the colony with poor reproductive performance had higher CORT in their primary feathers. We conclude that feather CORT is a sensitive integrated measure revealing the temporal dynamics of food limitations experienced by rhinoceros auklet nestlings. The use of feather CORT may be a powerful endocrine tool in ecological and evolutionary studies of bird species with similar preferential allocation of limited resources to feather development. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. [Polymyalgia rheumatica revealing a lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocquempot, K; Defuentes, G; Duron-Martineau, S; Berets, O; Vaylet, F; Margery, J

    2013-01-01

    Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory condition belonging to the connective tissue diseases, which occurs quite frequently in the elderly. Previously, cases have been reported in association with malignant tumours, in a synchronous fashion or prior to the appearance of the cancer. In these cases, the polymyalgia rheumatica is considered to be a paraneoplastic syndrome. We report the cases of a 63-year-old woman and a 58-year-old man with severe proximal girdle pain associated to a high-level of systemic inflammatory markers and a diagnosis of polymyalgia rheumatica was made. In the face of a lack of ineffectiveness of analgesic and anti-inflammatory treatments, an intensive investigation was undertaken which in both cases revealed an adenocarcinoma of the lung. The rheumatic manifestations responded well to chemotherapy targeting the lung tumour. We present here a review of the literature to give prominence to the diagnostic pitfalls that can occur around paraneoplastic polymyalgia rheumatica. The presence of therapeutic resistance at the onset of treatment and other atypical features may suggest the presence of an occult malignancy. Copyright © 2012 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  6. The Family Gap Reconsidered: What Wombmates Reveal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Marianne; Skipper, Lars

    We shed new light on the effects of having children on hourly wages by exploiting access to data on the entire population of employed twins in Denmark. In addition we use administrative data on absenteeism; the amount of hours off due to holidays and sickness. Our results suggest that childbearin...

  7. Preliminary investigations reveal that Bacillus thuringiensis δ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The imminent introduction of transgenic crops into Kenya requires a rigorous assessment of the potential risks involved. This study focused on the possible effect of Bacillus thuringiensisδ-endotoxin [CryIA(c)] on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) associated with sorghum. In green house experiments, sorghum seedlings ...

  8. Statistical metamodeling for revealing synergistic antimicrobial interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiang Chia Chen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Many bacterial pathogens are becoming drug resistant faster than we can develop new antimicrobials. To address this threat in public health, a metamodel antimicrobial cocktail optimization (MACO scheme is demonstrated for rapid screening of potent antibiotic cocktails using uropathogenic clinical isolates as model systems. With the MACO scheme, only 18 parallel trials were required to determine a potent antimicrobial cocktail out of hundreds of possible combinations. In particular, trimethoprim and gentamicin were identified to work synergistically for inhibiting the bacterial growth. Sensitivity analysis indicated gentamicin functions as a synergist for trimethoprim, and reduces its minimum inhibitory concentration for 40-fold. Validation study also confirmed that the trimethoprim-gentamicin synergistic cocktail effectively inhibited the growths of multiple strains of uropathogenic clinical isolates. With its effectiveness and simplicity, the MACO scheme possesses the potential to serve as a generic platform for identifying synergistic antimicrobial cocktails toward management of bacterial infection in the future.

  9. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  10. Dramatic Outburst Reveals Nearest Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Sgr. The radio observations revealed the presence of a jet escaping from the system at mind-boggling speeds. Only three other galactic X-ray stellar systems have been found to eject material at such speeds. They have been dubbed "microquasars" because, on a smaller scale, they resemble quasars, which lie at the hearts of distant galaxies and also spew out high-velocity jets of particles. In galaxy-core quasars, the black holes are millions of times more massive than the Sun; in the more nearby microquasars the black holes are roughly three to twenty times more massive than the Sun. The extremely high velocity of the jets suggests that their origin lies close to the event horizon of a black hole. Microquasar activity is thought to arise when the black hole in the binary system draws material away from its companion star. The material surrounding the black hole forms a rapidly spinning disk called an accretion disk. This disk is heated by friction to millions of degrees, causing it to emit X-rays. As spiralling gas moves into the gravity well of the black hole, it moves faster and faster. Magnetic fields in the disk are believed to expel the charged subatomic particles at speeds close to that of light. As the charged particles interact with the magnetic fields, they emit radio waves. If some of the material escapes by being magnetically expelled into space, the matter may continue moving at the tremendous speed it had attained near the black hole. After their ejection, the jets of particles expand and cool, fading from astronomers' view. V4641 Sgr excites astronomers because it is close and because it acted so differently from other microquasars. In other microquasars, outbursts have dimmed more slowly over weeks or months rather than hours. "There's something fundamentally different about this one; it's more extreme than any other example," Hjellming said. "And because this system happens to be so close to us, `it is very likely that there are more objects like V4641

  11. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshamsi, Aamena; Pianesi, Fabio; Lepri, Bruno; Pentland, Alex; Rahwan, Iyad

    2015-01-01

    Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional) states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported) face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people) cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits) of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  12. Beyond Contagion: Reality Mining Reveals Complex Patterns of Social Influence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamena Alshamsi

    Full Text Available Contagion, a concept from epidemiology, has long been used to characterize social influence on people's behavior and affective (emotional states. While it has revealed many useful insights, it is not clear whether the contagion metaphor is sufficient to fully characterize the complex dynamics of psychological states in a social context. Using wearable sensors that capture daily face-to-face interaction, combined with three daily experience sampling surveys, we collected the most comprehensive data set of personality and emotion dynamics of an entire community of work. From this high-resolution data about actual (rather than self-reported face-to-face interaction, a complex picture emerges where contagion (that can be seen as adaptation of behavioral responses to the behavior of other people cannot fully capture the dynamics of transitory states. We found that social influence has two opposing effects on states: adaptation effects that go beyond mere contagion, and complementarity effects whereby individuals' behaviors tend to complement the behaviors of others. Surprisingly, these effects can exhibit completely different directions depending on the stable personality or emotional dispositions (stable traits of target individuals. Our findings provide a foundation for richer models of social dynamics, and have implications on organizational engineering and workplace well-being.

  13. Ananke: temporal clustering reveals ecological dynamics of microbial communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene are widely used in microbial community analysis. A common first step in marker-gene analysis is grouping genes into clusters to reduce data sets to a more manageable size and potentially mitigate the effects of sequencing error. Instead of clustering based on sequence identity, marker-gene data sets collected over time can be clustered based on temporal correlation to reveal ecologically meaningful associations. We present Ananke, a free and open-source algorithm and software package that complements existing sequence-identity-based clustering approaches by clustering marker-gene data based on time-series profiles and provides interactive visualization of clusters, including highlighting of internal OTU inconsistencies. Ananke is able to cluster distinct temporal patterns from simulations of multiple ecological patterns, such as periodic seasonal dynamics and organism appearances/disappearances. We apply our algorithm to two longitudinal marker gene data sets: faecal communities from the human gut of an individual sampled over one year, and communities from a freshwater lake sampled over eleven years. Within the gut, the segregation of the bacterial community around a food-poisoning event was immediately clear. In the freshwater lake, we found that high sequence identity between marker genes does not guarantee similar temporal dynamics, and Ananke time-series clusters revealed patterns obscured by clustering based on sequence identity or taxonomy. Ananke is free and open-source software available at https://github.com/beiko-lab/ananke.

  14. Revealing networks from dynamics: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timme, Marc; Casadiego, Jose

    2014-01-01

    What can we learn from the collective dynamics of a complex network about its interaction topology? Taking the perspective from nonlinear dynamics, we briefly review recent progress on how to infer structural connectivity (direct interactions) from accessing the dynamics of the units. Potential applications range from interaction networks in physics, to chemical and metabolic reactions, protein and gene regulatory networks as well as neural circuits in biology and electric power grids or wireless sensor networks in engineering. Moreover, we briefly mention some standard ways of inferring effective or functional connectivity. (topical review)

  15. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, R; Rhodes, J; Ellis, R; Scoville, N; Capak, P [CALTECH, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rhodes, J [CALTECH, Jet Prop Lab, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Leauthaud, A; Kneib, J P [Lab Astrophys Marseille, F-13376 Marseille, (France); Finoguenov, A [Max Planck Inst Extraterr Phys, D-85748 Garching, (Germany); Bacon, D; Taylor, A [Inst Astron, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom); Aussel, H; Refregier, A [CNRS, CEA, Unite Mixte Rech, AIM, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Koekemoer, A; Mobasher, B [Univ Paris 07, CE Saclay, UMR 7158, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); McCracken, H [Space Telescope Sci Inst, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Pires, S; Starck, J L [Univ Paris 06, Inst Astrophys Paris, F-75014 Paris, (France); Pires, S [Ctr Etud Saclay, CEA, DSM, DAPNIA, SEDI, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Sasaki, S; Taniguchi, Y [Ehime Univ, Dept Phys, Matsuyama, Ehime 7908577, (Japan); Taylor, J [Univ Waterloo, Dept Phys and Astron, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter - whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built. (authors)

  16. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massey, R.; Rhodes, J.; Ellis, R.; Scoville, N.; Capak, P.; Rhodes, J.; Leauthaud, A.; Kneib, J.P.; Finoguenov, A.; Bacon, D.; Taylor, A.; Aussel, H.; Refregier, A.; Koekemoer, A.; Mobasher, B.; McCracken, H.; Pires, S.; Starck, J.L.; Pires, S.; Sasaki, S.; Taniguchi, Y.; Taylor, J.

    2007-01-01

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter - whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built. (authors)

  17. Dark matter maps reveal cosmic scaffolding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Richard; Rhodes, Jason; Ellis, Richard; Scoville, Nick; Leauthaud, Alexie; Finoguenov, Alexis; Capak, Peter; Bacon, David; Aussel, Hervé; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Koekemoer, Anton; McCracken, Henry; Mobasher, Bahram; Pires, Sandrine; Refregier, Alexandre; Sasaki, Shunji; Starck, Jean-Luc; Taniguchi, Yoshi; Taylor, Andy; Taylor, James

    2007-01-18

    Ordinary baryonic particles (such as protons and neutrons) account for only one-sixth of the total matter in the Universe. The remainder is a mysterious 'dark matter' component, which does not interact via electromagnetism and thus neither emits nor reflects light. As dark matter cannot be seen directly using traditional observations, very little is currently known about its properties. It does interact via gravity, and is most effectively probed through gravitational lensing: the deflection of light from distant galaxies by the gravitational attraction of foreground mass concentrations. This is a purely geometrical effect that is free of astrophysical assumptions and sensitive to all matter--whether baryonic or dark. Here we show high-fidelity maps of the large-scale distribution of dark matter, resolved in both angle and depth. We find a loose network of filaments, growing over time, which intersect in massive structures at the locations of clusters of galaxies. Our results are consistent with predictions of gravitationally induced structure formation, in which the initial, smooth distribution of dark matter collapses into filaments then into clusters, forming a gravitational scaffold into which gas can accumulate, and stars can be built.

  18. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kuhn

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  20. Inheritance Patterns in Citation Networks Reveal Scientific Memes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Tobias; Perc, Matjaž; Helbing, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    Memes are the cultural equivalent of genes that spread across human culture by means of imitation. What makes a meme and what distinguishes it from other forms of information, however, is still poorly understood. Our analysis of memes in the scientific literature reveals that they are governed by a surprisingly simple relationship between frequency of occurrence and the degree to which they propagate along the citation graph. We propose a simple formalization of this pattern and validate it with data from close to 50 million publication records from the Web of Science, PubMed Central, and the American Physical Society. Evaluations relying on human annotators, citation network randomizations, and comparisons with several alternative approaches confirm that our formula is accurate and effective, without a dependence on linguistic or ontological knowledge and without the application of arbitrary thresholds or filters.

  1. Numerical cosmology: Revealing the universe using computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Centrella, J.; Matzner, R.A.; Tolman, B.W.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper the authors present two research projects which study the evolution of different periods in the history of the universe using numerical simulations. The first investigates the synthesis of light elements in an inhomogeneous early universe dominated by shocks and non-linear gravitational waves. The second follows the evolution of large scale structures during the later history of the universe and calculates their effect on the 3K background radiation. Their simulations are carried out using modern supercomputers and make heavy use of multidimensional color graphics, including film to elucidate the results. Both projects provide the authors the opportunity to do experiments in cosmology and assess their results against fundamental cosmological observations

  2. NSAIDs: Old Drugs Reveal New Anticancer Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A. Piazza

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and cyclooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors have antineoplastic activity, but toxicity from cyclooxygenase (COX inhibition and the suppression of physiologically important prostaglandins limits their use for cancer chemoprevention. Previous studies as reviewed here suggest that the mechanism for their anticancer properties does not require COX inhibition, but instead involves an off-target effect. In support of this possibility, recent molecular modeling studies have shown that the NSAID sulindac can be chemically modified to selectively design out its COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activity. Unexpectedly, certain derivatives that were synthesized based on in silico modeling displayed increased potency to inhibit tumor cell growth. Other experiments have shown that sulindac can inhibit phosphodiesterase to increase intracellular cyclic GMP levels and that this activity is closely associated with its ability to selectively induce apoptosis of tumor cells. Together, these studies suggest that COX-independent mechanisms can be targeted to develop safer and more efficacious drugs for cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Recombination rate plasticity: revealing mechanisms by design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefick, Stephen; Rushton, Chase

    2017-01-01

    For over a century, scientists have known that meiotic recombination rates can vary considerably among individuals, and that environmental conditions can modify recombination rates relative to the background. A variety of external and intrinsic factors such as temperature, age, sex and starvation can elicit ‘plastic’ responses in recombination rate. The influence of recombination rate plasticity on genetic diversity of the next generation has interesting and important implications for how populations evolve. Further, many questions remain regarding the mechanisms and molecular processes that contribute to recombination rate plasticity. Here, we review 100 years of experimental work on recombination rate plasticity conducted in Drosophila melanogaster. We categorize this work into four major classes of experimental designs, which we describe via classic studies in D. melanogaster. Based on these studies, we highlight molecular mechanisms that are supported by experimental results and relate these findings to studies in other systems. We synthesize lessons learned from this model system into experimental guidelines for using recent advances in genotyping technologies, to study recombination rate plasticity in non-model organisms. Specifically, we recommend (1) using fine-scale genome-wide markers, (2) collecting time-course data, (3) including crossover distribution measurements, and (4) using mixed effects models to analyse results. To illustrate this approach, we present an application adhering to these guidelines from empirical work we conducted in Drosophila pseudoobscura. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Evolutionary causes and consequences of recombination rate variation in sexual organisms’. PMID:29109222

  4. Memory as discrimination: what distraction reveals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, C Philip; Hanczakowski, Maciej; Hodgetts, Helen M; Marsh, John E; Jones, Dylan M

    2013-11-01

    Recalling information involves the process of discriminating between relevant and irrelevant information stored in memory. Not infrequently, the relevant information needs to be selected from among a series of related possibilities. This is likely to be particularly problematic when the irrelevant possibilities not only are temporally or contextually appropriate, but also overlap semantically with the target or targets. Here, we investigate the extent to which purely perceptual features that discriminate between irrelevant and target material can be used to overcome the negative impact of contextual and semantic relatedness. Adopting a distraction paradigm, it is demonstrated that when distractors are interleaved with targets presented either visually (Experiment 1) or auditorily (Experiment 2), a within-modality semantic distraction effect occurs; semantically related distractors impact upon recall more than do unrelated distractors. In the semantically related condition, the number of intrusions in recall is reduced, while the number of correctly recalled targets is simultaneously increased by the presence of perceptual cues to relevance (color features in Experiment 1 or speaker's gender in Experiment 2). However, as is demonstrated in Experiment 3, even presenting semantically related distractors in a language and a sensory modality (spoken Welsh) distinct from that of the targets (visual English) is insufficient to eliminate false recalls completely or to restore correct recall to levels seen with unrelated distractors . Together, the study shows how semantic and nonsemantic discriminability shape patterns of both erroneous and correct recall.

  5. Neural correlates of the LSD experience revealed by multimodal neuroimaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carhart-Harris, Robin L; Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh; Roseman, Leor; Kaelen, Mendel; Droog, Wouter; Murphy, Kevin; Tagliazucchi, Enzo; Schenberg, Eduardo E; Nest, Timothy; Orban, Csaba; Leech, Robert; Williams, Luke T; Williams, Tim M; Bolstridge, Mark; Sessa, Ben; McGonigle, John; Sereno, Martin I; Nichols, David; Hellyer, Peter J; Hobden, Peter; Evans, John; Singh, Krish D; Wise, Richard G; Curran, H Valerie; Feilding, Amanda; Nutt, David J

    2016-04-26

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is the prototypical psychedelic drug, but its effects on the human brain have never been studied before with modern neuroimaging. Here, three complementary neuroimaging techniques: arterial spin labeling (ASL), blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) measures, and magnetoencephalography (MEG), implemented during resting state conditions, revealed marked changes in brain activity after LSD that correlated strongly with its characteristic psychological effects. Increased visual cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF), decreased visual cortex alpha power, and a greatly expanded primary visual cortex (V1) functional connectivity profile correlated strongly with ratings of visual hallucinations, implying that intrinsic brain activity exerts greater influence on visual processing in the psychedelic state, thereby defining its hallucinatory quality. LSD's marked effects on the visual cortex did not significantly correlate with the drug's other characteristic effects on consciousness, however. Rather, decreased connectivity between the parahippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) correlated strongly with ratings of "ego-dissolution" and "altered meaning," implying the importance of this particular circuit for the maintenance of "self" or "ego" and its processing of "meaning." Strong relationships were also found between the different imaging metrics, enabling firmer inferences to be made about their functional significance. This uniquely comprehensive examination of the LSD state represents an important advance in scientific research with psychedelic drugs at a time of growing interest in their scientific and therapeutic value. The present results contribute important new insights into the characteristic hallucinatory and consciousness-altering properties of psychedelics that inform on how they can model certain pathological states and potentially treat others.

  6. Eye movement monitoring reveals differential influences of emotion on memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lily Riggs

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Research shows that memory for emotional aspects of an event may be enhanced at the cost of impaired memory for surrounding peripheral details. However, this has only been assessed directly via verbal reports which reveal the outcome of a long stream of processing but cannot shed light on how/when emotion may affect the retrieval process. In the present experiment, eye movement monitoring was used as an indirect measure of memory as it can reveal aspects of online memory processing. For example, do emotions modulate the nature of memory representations or the speed with which such memories can be accessed? Participants viewed central negative and neutral scenes surrounded by three neutral objects and after a brief delay, memory was assessed indirectly via eye movement monitoring and then directly via verbal reports. Consistent with the previous literature, emotion enhanced central and impaired peripheral memory as indexed by eye movement scanning and verbal reports. This suggests that eye movement scanning may contribute and/or is related to conscious access of memory. However, the central/peripheral tradeoff effect was not observed in an early measure of eye movement behavior, i.e. participants were faster to orient to a critical region of change in the periphery irrespective of whether it was previously studied in a negative or neutral context. These findings demonstrate emotion’s differential influences on different aspects of retrieval. In particular, emotion appears to affect the detail within, and/or the evaluation of, stored memory representations, but it may not affect the initial access to those representations.

  7. A Network Based Methodology to Reveal Patterns in Knowledge Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando López-Cruz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper motivates, presents and demonstrates in use a methodology based in complex network analysis to support research aimed at identification of sources in the process of knowledge transfer at the interorganizational level. The importance of this methodology is that it states a unified model to reveal knowledge sharing patterns and to compare results from multiple researches on data from different periods of time and different sectors of the economy. This methodology does not address the underlying statistical processes. To do this, national statistics departments (NSD provide documents and tools at their websites. But this proposal provides a guide to model information inferences gathered from data processing revealing links between sources and recipients of knowledge being transferred and that the recipient detects as main source to new knowledge creation. Some national statistics departments set as objective for these surveys the characterization of innovation dynamics in firms and to analyze the use of public support instruments. From this characterization scholars conduct different researches. Measures of dimensions of the network composed by manufacturing firms and other organizations conform the base to inquiry the structure that emerges from taking ideas from other organizations to incept innovations. These two sets of data are actors of a two- mode-network. The link between two actors (network nodes, one acting as the source of the idea. The second one acting as the destination comes from organizations or events organized by organizations that “provide” ideas to other group of firms. The resulting demonstrated design satisfies the objective of being a methodological model to identify sources in knowledge transfer of knowledge effectively used in innovation.

  8. Memory functions reveal structural properties of gene regulatory networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Carrasco, Ruben

    2018-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks (GRNs) control cellular function and decision making during tissue development and homeostasis. Mathematical tools based on dynamical systems theory are often used to model these networks, but the size and complexity of these models mean that their behaviour is not always intuitive and the underlying mechanisms can be difficult to decipher. For this reason, methods that simplify and aid exploration of complex networks are necessary. To this end we develop a broadly applicable form of the Zwanzig-Mori projection. By first converting a thermodynamic state ensemble model of gene regulation into mass action reactions we derive a general method that produces a set of time evolution equations for a subset of components of a network. The influence of the rest of the network, the bulk, is captured by memory functions that describe how the subnetwork reacts to its own past state via components in the bulk. These memory functions provide probes of near-steady state dynamics, revealing information not easily accessible otherwise. We illustrate the method on a simple cross-repressive transcriptional motif to show that memory functions not only simplify the analysis of the subnetwork but also have a natural interpretation. We then apply the approach to a GRN from the vertebrate neural tube, a well characterised developmental transcriptional network composed of four interacting transcription factors. The memory functions reveal the function of specific links within the neural tube network and identify features of the regulatory structure that specifically increase the robustness of the network to initial conditions. Taken together, the study provides evidence that Zwanzig-Mori projections offer powerful and effective tools for simplifying and exploring the behaviour of GRNs. PMID:29470492

  9. [Necrotic leg ulcer revealing vasculitis induced by vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabli, H; Hocar, O; Akhdari, N; Amal, S; Hakkou, M; Hamdaoui, A

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin K antagonists are widely used in thromboembolic diseases. Hemorrhagic complications related to drug overdose represent their main side effect. We report a rare side effect, a severe and unexpected type of skin vasculitis - necrotic leg ulcer - induced by vitamin K antagonist. A 63-year-old female with a history of diabetes developed hyperalgesic necrotic ulcerations on the lower limbs one month after starting an acenocoumarol-based treatment for ischemic heart disease. Histological examination revealed lymphocytic vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis. Etiological explorations searching for vasculitis were negative. In the absence of a precise etiology, drug-induced ulcer was suspected. Low molecular weight heparin was prescribed to replace acenocoumarol. The lesions slowly resolved with topical treatment. The chronological criteria and the negativity of etiological explorations allowed the diagnosis of vitamin K antagonist-induced necrotic skin ulcer. Clinicians should be aware of this rare complication induced by oral anticoagulants because of its practical therapeutic implications. This is the first case of necrotic leg ulcer induced by acenocoumarol corresponding histologically to necrotising lymphocytic vasculitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia; Thimma, Manjula; Kumaran, M.; Sougrat, Rachid; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  11. Comparative metatranscriptomics reveals decline of a neustonic planktonic population

    KAUST Repository

    Mojib, Nazia

    2016-10-20

    The neuston layer in tropical seas provides a good model to study the effects of increased levels of different stressors (e.g., temperature, ultraviolet radiation and Trichodesmium blooms). Here, we use a comparative in situ metatranscriptomics approach to reveal the functional genomic composition of metabolically active neustonic mesozooplankton community in response to the summer conditions in the Red Sea. The neustonic population exhibited changes in composition and abundance with a significant decline in copepods and appendicularia in July, when Trichodesmium cells were more abundant along with high temperatures and UV-B radiation. Nearly 23,000 genes were differentially expressed at the community level when the metatranscriptomes of the neustonic zooplankton were compared in April, July, and October. On a wider Phylum level, the genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, carbon, nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids were significantly overrepresented in both arthropods and chordates in April and October. On organism level for copepods, expression of genes responsive to oxidative stress, defense against bacteria, immune response, and virus reproduction were increased along with the observed increased appearance of copepod carcasses in the samples collected during July. The differences in expression correspond either to secondary effects of the Trichodesmium bloom or more likely to the increased UV-B radiation in July. Given the dearth of information on the zooplankton gene expression in response to environmental stimuli, our study provides the first transcriptome landscape of the mesozooplankton community during a period of increased mortality of the copepod and appendicularia population.

  12. Subfield profitability analysis reveals an economic case for cropland diversification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, E.; McNunn, G. S.; Schulte, L. A.; Bonner, I. J.; Muth, D. J.; Babcock, B. A.; Sharma, B.; Heaton, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    Public agencies and private enterprises increasingly desire to achieve ecosystem service outcomes in agricultural systems, but are limited by perceived conflicts between economic and ecosystem service goals and a lack of tools enabling effective operational management. Here we use Iowa—an agriculturally homogeneous state representative of the Maize Belt—to demonstrate an economic rationale for cropland diversification at the subfield scale. We used a novel computational framework that integrates disparate but publicly available data to map ˜3.3 million unique potential management polygons (9.3 Mha) and reveal subfield opportunities to increase overall field profitability. We analyzed subfield profitability for maize/soybean fields during 2010-2013—four of the most profitable years in recent history—and projected results for 2015. While cropland operating at a loss of US 250 ha-1 or more was negligible between 2010 and 2013 at 18 000-190 000 ha (profitable areas, incorporating conservation management that breaks even (e.g., planting low-input perennials), into low-yielding portions of fields could increase overall cropland profitability by 80%. This approach is applicable to the broader region and differs substantially from the status quo of ‘top-down’ land management for conservation by harnessing private interest to align profitability with the production of ecosystem services.

  13. Proteomics Analysis Reveals Previously Uncharacterized Virulence Factors in Vibrio proteolyticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Ray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Vibrio include many pathogens of humans and marine animals that share genetic information via horizontal gene transfer. Hence, the Vibrio pan-genome carries the potential to establish new pathogenic strains by sharing virulence determinants, many of which have yet to be characterized. Here, we investigated the virulence properties of Vibrio proteolyticus, a Gram-negative marine bacterium previously identified as part of the Vibrio consortium isolated from diseased corals. We found that V. proteolyticus causes actin cytoskeleton rearrangements followed by cell lysis in HeLa cells in a contact-independent manner. In search of the responsible virulence factor involved, we determined the V. proteolyticus secretome. This proteomics approach revealed various putative virulence factors, including active type VI secretion systems and effectors with virulence toxin domains; however, these type VI secretion systems were not responsible for the observed cytotoxic effects. Further examination of the V. proteolyticus secretome led us to hypothesize and subsequently demonstrate that a secreted hemolysin, belonging to a previously uncharacterized clan of the leukocidin superfamily, was the toxin responsible for the V. proteolyticus-mediated cytotoxicity in both HeLa cells and macrophages. Clearly, there remains an armory of yet-to-be-discovered virulence factors in the Vibrio pan-genome that will undoubtedly provide a wealth of knowledge on how a pathogen can manipulate host cells.

  14. Revealing the hidden structural phases of FeRh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinwoong; Ramesh, R.; Kioussis, Nicholas

    2016-11-01

    Ab initio electronic structure calculations reveal that tetragonal distortion has a dramatic effect on the relative stability of the various magnetic structures (C-, A-, G-, A'-AFM, and FM) of FeRh giving rise to a wide range of novel stable/metastable structures and magnetic phase transitions between these states. We predict that the cubic G-AFM structure, which was believed thus far to be the ground state, is metastable and that the tetragonally expanded G-AFM is the stable structure. The low energy barrier separating these states suggests phase coexistence at room temperature. We propose an A'-AFM phase to be the global ground state among all magnetic phases which arises from the strain-induced tuning of the exchange interactions. The results elucidate the underlying mechanism for the recent experimental findings of electric-field control of magnetic phase transition driven via tetragonal strain. The magnetic phase transitions open interesting prospects for exploiting strain engineering for the next-generation memory devices.

  15. A Global Synthesis Reveals Gaps in Coastal Habitat Restoration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Stacy Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal ecosystems have drastically declined in coverage and condition across the globe. To combat these losses, marine conservation has recently employed habitat restoration as a strategy to enhance depleted coastal ecosystems. For restoration to be a successful enterprise, however, it is necessary to identify and address potential knowledge gaps and review whether the field has tracked scientific advances regarding best practices. This enables managers, researchers, and practitioners alike to more readily establish restoration priorities and goals. We synthesized the peer-reviewed, published literature on habitat restoration research in salt marshes, oyster reefs, and seagrasses to address three questions related to restoration efforts: (i How frequent is cross-sector authorship in coastal restoration research? (ii What is the geographic distribution of coastal restoration research? and (iii Are abiotic and biotic factors equally emphasized in the literature, and how does this vary with time? Our vote-count survey indicated that one-third of the journal-published studies listed authors from at least two sectors, and 6% listed authors from all three sectors. Across all habitat types, there was a dearth of studies from Africa, Asia, and South America. Finally, despite many experimental studies demonstrating that species interactions can greatly affect the recovery and persistence of coastal foundation species, only one-fourth of the studies we examined discussed their effects on restoration. Combined, our results reveal gaps and discrepancies in restoration research that should be addressed in order to further propel coastal restoration science.

  16. Revealing Amphiphilic Nanodornains of Anti-Biofouling Polymer Coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amadei, CA; Yang, R; Chiesa, M; Gleason, KK; Santos, S

    2014-04-09

    Undesired bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation on wetted surfaces leads to significant economic and environmental costs in various industries. Amphiphilic coatings with molecular hydrophilic and hydrophobic patches can mitigate such biofouling effectively in an environmentally friendly manner. The coatings are synthesized by copolymerizing (Hydroxyethyl)methacrylate and perfluorodecylacrylate via initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). In previous studies, the size of the patches was estimated to be similar to 1.4-1.75 nm by fitting protein adsorption data to a theoretical model. However, no direct observations of the molecular heterogeneity exist and therefore the origin of the fouling resistance of amphiphilic coatings remains unclear. Here, the amphiphilic nature is investigated by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM). High-resolution images obtained by penetrating and oscillating the AFM tip under the naturally present water layer with sub-nanometer amplitudes reveal, for the first time, the existence of amphiphilic nanodomains (1-2 nm(2)). Compositional heterogeneity at the nanoscale is further corroborated by a statistical analysis on the data obtained with dynamic AM-AFM force spectroscopy. Variations in the long range attractive forces, responsible for water affinity, are also identified. These nanoscopic results on the polymers wettability are also confirmed by contact angle measurements (i.e., static and dynamic). The unprecedented ability to visualize the amphiphilic nanodomains as well as sub-nanometer crystalline structures provides strong evidence for the existence of previously postulated nanostructures, and sheds light on the underlying antifouling mechanism of amphiphilic chemistry.

  17. Satellite-detected fluorescence reveals global physiology of ocean phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Behrenfeld

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton photosynthesis links global ocean biology and climate-driven fluctuations in the physical environment. These interactions are largely expressed through changes in phytoplankton physiology, but physiological status has proven extremely challenging to characterize globally. Phytoplankton fluorescence does provide a rich source of physiological information long exploited in laboratory and field studies, and is now observed from space. Here we evaluate the physiological underpinnings of global variations in satellite-based phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence. The three dominant factors influencing fluorescence distributions are chlorophyll concentration, pigment packaging effects on light absorption, and light-dependent energy-quenching processes. After accounting for these three factors, resultant global distributions of quenching-corrected fluorescence quantum yields reveal a striking consistency with anticipated patterns of iron availability. High fluorescence quantum yields are typically found in low iron waters, while low quantum yields dominate regions where other environmental factors are most limiting to phytoplankton growth. Specific properties of photosynthetic membranes are discussed that provide a mechanistic view linking iron stress to satellite-detected fluorescence. Our results present satellite-based fluorescence as a valuable tool for evaluating nutrient stress predictions in ocean ecosystem models and give the first synoptic observational evidence that iron plays an important role in seasonal phytoplankton dynamics of the Indian Ocean. Satellite fluorescence may also provide a path for monitoring climate-phytoplankton physiology interactions and improving descriptions of phytoplankton light use efficiencies in ocean productivity models.

  18. Integrative modelling reveals mechanisms linking productivity and plant species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, James B; Anderson, T Michael; Seabloom, Eric W; Borer, Elizabeth T; Adler, Peter B; Harpole, W Stanley; Hautier, Yann; Hillebrand, Helmut; Lind, Eric M; Pärtel, Meelis; Bakker, Jonathan D; Buckley, Yvonne M; Crawley, Michael J; Damschen, Ellen I; Davies, Kendi F; Fay, Philip A; Firn, Jennifer; Gruner, Daniel S; Hector, Andy; Knops, Johannes M H; MacDougall, Andrew S; Melbourne, Brett A; Morgan, John W; Orrock, John L; Prober, Suzanne M; Smith, Melinda D

    2016-01-21

    How ecosystem productivity and species richness are interrelated is one of the most debated subjects in the history of ecology. Decades of intensive study have yet to discern the actual mechanisms behind observed global patterns. Here, by integrating the predictions from multiple theories into a single model and using data from 1,126 grassland plots spanning five continents, we detect the clear signals of numerous underlying mechanisms linking productivity and richness. We find that an integrative model has substantially higher explanatory power than traditional bivariate analyses. In addition, the specific results unveil several surprising findings that conflict with classical models. These include the isolation of a strong and consistent enhancement of productivity by richness, an effect in striking contrast with superficial data patterns. Also revealed is a consistent importance of competition across the full range of productivity values, in direct conflict with some (but not all) proposed models. The promotion of local richness by macroecological gradients in climatic favourability, generally seen as a competing hypothesis, is also found to be important in our analysis. The results demonstrate that an integrative modelling approach leads to a major advance in our ability to discern the underlying processes operating in ecological systems.

  19. Identifying and annotating human bifunctional RNAs reveals their versatile functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Geng; Yang, Juan; Chen, Jiwei; Song, Yunjie; Cao, Ruifang; Shi, Tieliu; Shi, Leming

    2016-10-01

    Bifunctional RNAs that possess both protein-coding and noncoding functional properties were less explored and poorly understood. Here we systematically explored the characteristics and functions of such human bifunctional RNAs by integrating tandem mass spectrometry and RNA-seq data. We first constructed a pipeline to identify and annotate bifunctional RNAs, leading to the characterization of 132 high-confidence bifunctional RNAs. Our analyses indicate that bifunctional RNAs may be involved in human embryonic development and can be functional in diverse tissues. Moreover, bifunctional RNAs could interact with multiple miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins to exert their corresponding roles. Bifunctional RNAs may also function as competing endogenous RNAs to regulate the expression of many genes by competing for common targeting miRNAs. Finally, somatic mutations of diverse carcinomas may generate harmful effect on corresponding bifunctional RNAs. Collectively, our study not only provides the pipeline for identifying and annotating bifunctional RNAs but also reveals their important gene-regulatory functions.

  20. Facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis: A case report ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a 62 year-old-man with facial cellulitis revealing choreo-acanthocytosis (ChAc). He showed chorea that started 20 years ago. The orofacial dyskinisia with tongue and cheek biting resulted in facial cellulitis. The peripheral blood smear revealed acanthocytosis of 25%. The overall of chorea, orofacial dyskinetic ...

  1. Metabolomic Profiling of the Malaria Box Reveals Antimalarial Target Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allman, Erik L.; Painter, Heather J.; Samra, Jasmeet; Carrasquilla, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    The threat of widespread drug resistance to frontline antimalarials has renewed the urgency for identifying inexpensive chemotherapeutic compounds that are effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite species responsible for the greatest number of malaria-related deaths worldwide. To aid in the fight against malaria, a recent extensive screening campaign has generated thousands of lead compounds with low micromolar activity against blood stage parasites. A subset of these leads has been compiled by the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) into a collection of structurally diverse compounds known as the MMV Malaria Box. Currently, little is known regarding the activity of these Malaria Box compounds on parasite metabolism during intraerythrocytic development, and a majority of the targets for these drugs have yet to be defined. Here we interrogated the in vitro metabolic effects of 189 drugs (including 169 of the drug-like compounds from the Malaria Box) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). The resulting metabolic fingerprints provide information on the parasite biochemical pathways affected by pharmacologic intervention and offer a critical blueprint for selecting and advancing lead compounds as next-generation antimalarial drugs. Our results reveal several major classes of metabolic disruption, which allow us to predict the mode of action (MoA) for many of the Malaria Box compounds. We anticipate that future combination therapies will be greatly informed by these results, allowing for the selection of appropriate drug combinations that simultaneously target multiple metabolic pathways, with the aim of eliminating malaria and forestalling the expansion of drug-resistant parasites in the field. PMID:27572391

  2. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollo, C.; Porchet, F.; Meuli, R.

    2003-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  3. Spontaneous bilateral subdural haematomas in the posterior cranial fossa revealed by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollo, C.; Porchet, F. [Department of Neurosurgery, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland); Meuli, R. [Department of Radiology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Vaudois, 1011, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2003-08-01

    A 52-year-old woman treated for acute myeloproliferative disease developed progressive stupor. CT showed obstructive hydrocephalus resulting from unexplained mass effect on the fourth ventricle. MRI revealed bilateral extra-axial collections in the posterior cranial fossa, giving high signal on T1- and T2-weighted images, suggesting subacute subdural haematomas. Subdural haematomas can be suspected on CT when there is unexplained mass effect. MRI may be essential to confirm the diagnosis and plan appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  4. Fish mucus metabolome reveals fish life-history traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverter, M.; Sasal, P.; Banaigs, B.; Lecchini, D.; Lecellier, G.; Tapissier-Bontemps, N.

    2017-06-01

    Fish mucus has important biological and ecological roles such as defense against fish pathogens and chemical mediation among several species. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry metabolomic approach was developed to study gill mucus of eight butterflyfish species in Moorea (French Polynesia), and the influence of several fish traits (geographic site and reef habitat, species taxonomy, phylogeny, diet and parasitism levels) on the metabolic variability was investigated. A biphasic extraction yielding two fractions (polar and apolar) was used. Fish diet (obligate corallivorous, facultative corallivorous or omnivorous) arose as the main driver of the metabolic differences in the gill mucus in both fractions, accounting for 23% of the observed metabolic variability in the apolar fraction and 13% in the polar fraction. A partial least squares discriminant analysis allowed us to identify the metabolites (variable important in projection, VIP) driving the differences between fish with different diets (obligate corallivores, facultative corallivores and omnivorous). Using accurate mass data and fragmentation data, we identified some of these VIP as glycerophosphocholines, ceramides and fatty acids. Level of monogenean gill parasites was the second most important factor shaping the gill mucus metabolome, and it explained 10% of the metabolic variability in the polar fraction and 5% in the apolar fraction. A multiple regression tree revealed that the metabolic variability due to parasitism in the polar fraction was mainly due to differences between non-parasitized and parasitized fish. Phylogeny and butterflyfish species were factors contributing significantly to the metabolic variability of the apolar fraction (10 and 3%, respectively) but had a less pronounced effect in the polar fraction. Finally, geographic site and reef habitat of butterflyfish species did not influence the gill mucus metabolome of butterflyfishes.

  5. Reveal genes functionally associated with ACADS by a network study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yulong; Su, Zhiguang

    2015-09-15

    Establishing a systematic network is aimed at finding essential human gene-gene/gene-disease pathway by means of network inter-connecting patterns and functional annotation analysis. In the present study, we have analyzed functional gene interactions of short-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase gene (ACADS). ACADS plays a vital role in free fatty acid β-oxidation and regulates energy homeostasis. Modules of highly inter-connected genes in disease-specific ACADS network are derived by integrating gene function and protein interaction data. Among the 8 genes in ACADS web retrieved from both STRING and GeneMANIA, ACADS is effectively conjoined with 4 genes including HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. The functional analysis is done via ontological briefing and candidate disease identification. We observed that the highly efficient-interlinked genes connected with ACADS are HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1. Interestingly, the ontological aspect of genes in the ACADS network reveals that ACADS, HAHDA and HADHB play equally vital roles in fatty acid metabolism. The gene ACAT1 together with ACADS indulges in ketone metabolism. Our computational gene web analysis also predicts potential candidate disease recognition, thus indicating the involvement of ACADS, HAHDA, HADHB, ECHS1 and ACAT1 not only with lipid metabolism but also with infant death syndrome, skeletal myopathy, acute hepatic encephalopathy, Reye-like syndrome, episodic ketosis, and metabolic acidosis. The current study presents a comprehensible layout of ACADS network, its functional strategies and candidate disease approach associated with ACADS network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A fifth major genetic group among honeybees revealed in Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alburaki, Mohamed; Bertrand, Bénédicte; Legout, Hélène; Moulin, Sibyle; Alburaki, Ali; Sheppard, Walter Steven; Garnery, Lionel

    2013-12-06

    Apiculture has been practiced in North Africa and the Middle-East from antiquity. Several thousand years of selective breeding have left a mosaic of Apis mellifera subspecies in the Middle-East, many uniquely adapted and survived to local environmental conditions. In this study we explore the genetic diversity of A. mellifera from Syria (n = 1258), Lebanon (n = 169) and Iraq (n = 35) based on 14 short tandem repeat (STR) loci in the context of reference populations from throughout the Old World (n = 732). Our data suggest that the Syrian honeybee Apis mellifera syriaca occurs in both Syrian and Lebanese territories, with no significant genetic variability between respective populations from Syria and Lebanon. All studied populations clustered within a new fifth independent nuclear cluster, congruent with an mtDNA Z haplotype identified in a previous study. Syrian honeybee populations are not associated with Oriental lineage O, except for sporadic introgression into some populations close to the Turkish and Iraqi borders. Southern Syrian and Lebanese populations demonstrated high levels of genetic diversity compared to the northern populations. This study revealed the effects of foreign queen importations on Syrian bee populations, especially for the region of Tartus, where extensive introgression of A. m. anatolica and/or A. m. caucasica alleles were identified. The policy of creating genetic conservation centers for the Syrian subspecies should take into consideration the influence of the oriental lineage O from the northern Syrian border and the large population of genetically divergent indigenous honeybees located in southern Syria.

  7. Revealing driving factors of China's PM2.5 pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Zhao, H.; Zhang, Q.; Geng, G.; Tong, D.; Peng, L.; He, K.

    2017-12-01

    China's rapid economic development and intensive energy consumption are deteriorating the air quality significantly. Understanding the key driving factors behind China's growing emissions of air pollutants and the accompanying PM2.5 pollution is critical for the development of China's clean air policies and also provides insight into how other emerging economies may develop a clear sky future. Here we reveal the socioeconomic drivers of the variations of China's PM2.5 concentrations during 2002-2012 by using an interdisciplinary framework that integrates an emission inventory model, an index decomposition analysis model, and a regional air quality model. The decomposition results demostrate that the improvements in emission efficiency and energy efficiency failed to offset the increased emissions of both primary PM2.5 and gaseous PM2.5 precursors (including SO2 NOx, and volatile organic compounds) triggered by the surging economic growth during 2002-2012. During the same time, the effects of energy structure, production structure and population growth were relatively less significant to all pollutants, which indicates the potential of large emission abatements through energy structure and production structure adjustment. Sensitivity simulations by the air quality model based on the provincial decomposition results also show that the economic growth have outpaced efficiency improvements in the increments of PM2.5 concentrations during the study years. As China continues to develop rapidly, future policies should promote further improvements in efficiency and accelerate the adjustments toward clean energy and production structures, which are critical for reducing China's emissions and alleviating the severe PM2.5 pollution.

  8. Drought sensitivity of Amazonian carbon balance revealed by atmospheric measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatti, L. V.; Gloor, M.; Miller, J. B.; Doughty, C. E.; Malhi, Y.; Domingues, L. G.; Basso, L. S.; Martinewski, A.; Correia, C. S. C.; Borges, V. F.; Freitas, S.; Braz, R.; Anderson, L. O.; Rocha, H.; Grace, J.; Phillips, O. L.; Lloyd, J.

    2014-02-01

    Feedbacks between land carbon pools and climate provide one of the largest sources of uncertainty in our predictions of global climate. Estimates of the sensitivity of the terrestrial carbon budget to climate anomalies in the tropics and the identification of the mechanisms responsible for feedback effects remain uncertain. The Amazon basin stores a vast amount of carbon, and has experienced increasingly higher temperatures and more frequent floods and droughts over the past two decades. Here we report seasonal and annual carbon balances across the Amazon basin, based on carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide measurements for the anomalously dry and wet years 2010 and 2011, respectively. We find that the Amazon basin lost 0.48+/-0.18 petagrams of carbon per year (PgCyr-1) during the dry year but was carbon neutral (0.06+/-0.1PgCyr-1) during the wet year. Taking into account carbon losses from fire by using carbon monoxide measurements, we derived the basin net biome exchange (that is, the carbon flux between the non-burned forest and the atmosphere) revealing that during the dry year, vegetation was carbon neutral. During the wet year, vegetation was a net carbon sink of 0.25+/-0.14PgCyr-1, which is roughly consistent with the mean long-term intact-forest biomass sink of 0.39+/-0.10PgCyr-1 previously estimated from forest censuses. Observations from Amazonian forest plots suggest the suppression of photosynthesis during drought as the primary cause for the 2010 sink neutralization. Overall, our results suggest that moisture has an important role in determining the Amazonian carbon balance. If the recent trend of increasing precipitation extremes persists, the Amazon may become an increasing carbon source as a result of both emissions from fires and the suppression of net biome exchange by drought.

  9. Rheology of transgenic switchgrass reveals practical aspects of biomass processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Guigui; Frazier, Taylor; Jorgensen, Julianne; Zhao, Bingyu; Frazier, Charles E

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical properties of transgenic switchgrass have practical implications for biorefinery technologies. Presented are fundamentals for simple (thermo)mechanical measurements of genetically transformed switchgrass. Experimental basics are provided for the novice, where the intention is to promote collaboration between plant biologists and materials scientists. Stem sections were subjected to two stress modes: (1) torsional oscillation in the linear response region, and (2) unidirectional torsion to failure. Specimens were analyzed while submerged/saturated in ethylene glycol, simulating natural hydration and allowing experimental temperatures above 100 °C for an improved view of the lignin glass transition. Down-regulation of the 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase gene (reduced lignin content and altered monomer composition) generally resulted in less stiff and weaker stems. These observations were associated with a reduction in the temperature and activation energy of the lignin glass transition, but surprisingly with no difference in the breadth and intensity of the tan  δ signal. The results showed promise in further investigations of how rheological methods relate to stem lignin content, composition, and functional properties in the field and in bioprocessing. Measurements such as these are complicated by small specimen size; however, torsional rheometers (relatively common in polymer laboratories) are well suited for this task. As opposed to the expense and complication of relative humidity control, solvent-submersion rheological methods effectively reveal fundamental structure/property relationships in plant tissues. Demonstrated are low-strain linear methods, and also nonlinear yield and failure analysis; the latter is very uncommon for typical rheological equipment.

  10. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Jasim Aljumaili

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon’s information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He of 0.60 and mean Nei’s gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei’s genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816 from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  11. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Rafii, M Y; Latif, M A; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index ( I ) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity ( H e ) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development.

  12. Genetic Diversity of Aromatic Rice Germplasm Revealed By SSR Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasim Aljumaili, Saba; Sakimin, Siti Zaharah; Arolu, Ibrahim Wasiu; Miah, Gous

    2018-01-01

    Aromatic rice cultivars constitute a small but special group of rice and are considered the best in terms of quality and aroma. Aroma is one of the most significant quality traits of rice, and variety with aroma has a higher price in the market. This research was carried out to study the genetic diversity among the 50 aromatic rice accessions from three regions (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak) with 3 released varieties as a control using the 32 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The objectives of this research were to quantify the genetic divergence of aromatic rice accessions using SSR markers and to identify the potential accessions for introgression into the existing rice breeding program. Genetic diversity index among the three populations such as Shannon information index (I) ranged from 0.25 in control to 0.98 in Sabah population. The mean numbers of effective alleles and Shannon's information index were 0.36 and 64.90%, respectively. Similarly, the allelic diversity was very high with mean expected heterozygosity (He) of 0.60 and mean Nei's gene diversity index of 0.36. The dendrogram based on UPGMA and Nei's genetic distance classified the 53 rice accessions into 10 clusters. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that 89% of the total variation observed in this germplasm came from within the populations, while 11% of the variation emanated among the populations. These results reflect the high genetic differentiation existing in this aromatic rice germplasm. Using all these criteria and indices, seven accessions (Acc9993, Acc6288, Acc6893, Acc7580, Acc6009, Acc9956, and Acc11816) from three populations have been identified and selected for further evaluation before introgression into the existing breeding program and for future aromatic rice varietal development. PMID:29736396

  13. Comparative mapping reveals similar linkage of functional genes to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    genes between O. sativa and B. napus may have consistent function and control similar traits, which may be ..... acea chromosomes reveals islands of conserved organization. ... 1998 Conserved structure and function of the Arabidopsis flow-.

  14. Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and menopausal women: report of two cases. Majdouline Boujoual, Ihsan Hakimi, Farid Kassidi, Youssef Akhoudad, Nawal Sahel, Adil Rkiouak, Mohamed Allaoui, Hafsa Chahdi, Mohamed Oukabli, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Rahali Moussaoui, Mohamed ...

  15. DNA markers reveal genetic structure and localized diversity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uqhdesma

    2016-10-12

    Oct 12, 2016 ... STRUCTURE analysis revealed 4 clusters of genetically ..... 10000 cycles and 50000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) iterations and 10 replicate runs performed for each K value to ..... WL, Lee M, Porter K (2000). Genetic ...

  16. Characteristics of the tomato chromoplast revealed by proteomic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Barsan, Cristina; Sanchez-Bel, Paloma; Rombaldi, César Valmor; Egea, Isabel; Rossignol, Michel; Kuntz, Marcel; Zouine, Mohamed; Latché, Alain; Bouzayen, Mondher; Pech, Jean-Claude

    2010-01-01

    Chromoplasts are non-photosynthetic specialized plastids that are important in ripening tomato fruit (Solanum lycopersicum) since, among other functions, they are the site of accumulation of coloured compounds. Analysis of the proteome of red fruit chromoplasts revealed the presence of 988 proteins corresponding to 802 Arabidopsis unigenes, among which 209 had not been listed so far in plastidial databanks. These data revealed several features of the chromoplast. Proteins of lipid metabolism ...

  17. UTV Expansion Pack: Special-Purpose Rank-Revealing Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fierro, Ricardo D.; Hansen, Per Christian

    2005-01-01

    This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank-r...... values of a sparse or structured matrix. These new algorithms have applications in signal processing, optimization and LSI information retrieval.......This collection of Matlab 7.0 software supplements and complements the package UTV Tools from 1999, and includes implementations of special-purpose rank-revealing algorithms developed since the publication of the original package. We provide algorithms for computing and modifying symmetric rank......-revealing VSV decompositions, we expand the algorithms for the ULLV decomposition of a matrix pair to handle interference-type problems with a rank-deficient covariance matrix, and we provide a robust and reliable Lanczos algorithm which - despite its simplicity - is able to capture all the dominant singular...

  18. Camelid genomes reveal evolution and adaptation to desert environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huiguang; Guang, Xuanmin; Al-Fageeh, Mohamed B; Cao, Junwei; Pan, Shengkai; Zhou, Huanmin; Zhang, Li; Abutarboush, Mohammed H; Xing, Yanping; Xie, Zhiyuan; Alshanqeeti, Ali S; Zhang, Yanru; Yao, Qiulin; Al-Shomrani, Badr M; Zhang, Dong; Li, Jiang; Manee, Manee M; Yang, Zili; Yang, Linfeng; Liu, Yiyi; Zhang, Jilin; Altammami, Musaad A; Wang, Shenyuan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Wenbin; Liu, Sanyang; Ba, La; Liu, Chunxia; Yang, Xukui; Meng, Fanhua; Wang, Shaowei; Li, Lu; Li, Erli; Li, Xueqiong; Wu, Kaifeng; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Junyi; Yin, Ye; Yang, Huanming; Al-Swailem, Abdulaziz M; Wang, Jun

    2014-10-21

    Bactrian camel (Camelus bactrianus), dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) and alpaca (Vicugna pacos) are economically important livestock. Although the Bactrian camel and dromedary are large, typically arid-desert-adapted mammals, alpacas are adapted to plateaus. Here we present high-quality genome sequences of these three species. Our analysis reveals the demographic history of these species since the Tortonian Stage of the Miocene and uncovers a striking correlation between large fluctuations in population size and geological time boundaries. Comparative genomic analysis reveals complex features related to desert adaptations, including fat and water metabolism, stress responses to heat, aridity, intense ultraviolet radiation and choking dust. Transcriptomic analysis of Bactrian camels further reveals unique osmoregulation, osmoprotection and compensatory mechanisms for water reservation underpinned by high blood glucose levels. We hypothesize that these physiological mechanisms represent kidney evolutionary adaptations to the desert environment. This study advances our understanding of camelid evolution and the adaptation of camels to arid-desert environments.

  19. The Physical Mechanism of Frictional Aging Revealed by Nanoindentation Creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, C.; Carpick, R. W.; Goldsby, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    A classical observation from rock friction experiments is that friction increases linearly with the logarithm of the time of stationary contact, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as aging. Aging is most often attributed to an increase in the real area of contact due to asperity creep. However, recent atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments and molecular dynamics simulations suggest that time-dependent siloxane (Si—O—Si) bonding gives rise to aging in silica-silica contacts in the absence of plastic deformation. Determining whether an increase in contact `quantity' (due to creep), contact `quality' (due to chemical bonding), or another unknown mechanism causes aging is a challenging experimental task, despite its importance for developing a physical basis for rate and state friction laws. An intriguing observation is that aging is absent in friction experiments on quartz rocks and gouge at humidities water on asperity creep (via hydrolytic weakening) or on the adhesive strength of contacts. To discern between these possibilities, we have conducted nanoindentation experiments on single crystals of quartz to measure their indentation hardness and creep behavior at humidities of 2% to 50%, and in vacuum. Samples were loaded at 1000 mN/s to a peak load of 15, 40, or 400 mN, which was then held constant for 10 s. After the peak load is reached, the tip sinks into the material with time due to creep of the indentation contact. Our experiments reveal that there is no effect of varying humidity on either indentation hardness or indentation creep behavior over the full range of humidities investigated. If asperity creep were the dominant mechanism of frictional aging for quartz in the experiments cited above, then significant increases in hardness and decreases in the growth rate of indentation contacts at low humidities is expected, in stark contrast with our nanoindentation data. Our experiments indicate that asperity creep cannot be the cause of aging in quartz

  20. Using qubits to reveal quantum signatures of an oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shantanu

    In this thesis, we seek to study the qubit-oscillator system with the aim to identify and quantify inherent quantum features of the oscillator. We show that the quantum signatures of the oscillator get imprinted on the dynamics of the joint system. The two key features which we explore are the quantized energy spectrum of the oscillator and the non-classicality of the oscillator's wave function. To investigate the consequences of the oscillator's discrete energy spectrum, we consider the qubit to be coupled to the oscillator through the Rabi Hamiltonian. Recent developments in fabrication technology have opened up the possibility to explore parameter regimes which were conventionally inaccessible. Motivated by these advancements, we investigate in this thesis a parameter space where the qubit frequency is much smaller than the oscillator frequency and the Rabi frequency is allowed to be an appreciable fraction of the bare frequency of the oscillator. We use the adiabatic approximation to understand the dynamics in this quasi-degenerate qubit regime. By deriving a dressed master equation, we systematically investigate the effects of the environment on the system dynamics. We develop a spectroscopic technique, using which one can probe the steady state response of the driven and damped system. The spectroscopic signal clearly reveals the quantized nature of the oscillator's energy spectrum. We extend the adiabatic approximation, earlier developed only for the single qubit case, to a scenario where multiple qubits interact with the oscillator. Using the extended adiabatic approximation, we study the collapse and revival of multi-qubit observables. We develop analytic expressions for the revival signals which are in good agreement with the numerically evaluated results. Within the quantum restriction imposed by Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, the uncertainty in the position and momentum of an oscillator is minimum and shared equally when the oscillator is prepared

  1. [Postnatal diagnosis of gastric volvulus revealing congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Nouyrigat, V; Grévent, D; Hervieux, E; Chéron, G

    2017-05-01

    Postnatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) are rare and have a better prognosis than those diagnosed prenatally. Postnatal symptoms can be respiratory, digestive, or mixed. Gastric volvulus can reveal CDH. Symptoms are pain, abdominal distension, and/or vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography provides the diagnosis. Prognosis is related to early surgical management in complicated forms with intestinal occlusion or sub-occlusion. We report on an infant who presented with vomiting, which revealed gastric volvulus associated with a CDH. Progression was favorable after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi G. Parker

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

  3. ID-check: Online concealed information test reveals true identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuere, B.; Kleinberg, B.

    2016-01-01

    The Internet has already changed people's lives considerably and is likely to drastically change forensic research. We developed a web-based test to reveal concealed autobiographical information. Initial studies identified a number of conditions that affect diagnostic efficiency. By combining these

  4. Intratumor Heterogeneity and Branched Evolution Revealed by Multiregion Sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerlinger, Marco; Rowan, Andrew J.; Horswell, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    .RESULTS: Phylogenetic reconstruction revealed branched evolutionary tumor growth, with 63 to 69% of all somatic mutations not detectable across every tumor region. Intratumor heterogeneity was observed for a mutation within an autoinhibitory domain of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase, correlating with S6...

  5. An acute adrenal insufficiency revealing pituitary metastases of lung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 69-year-old men presented with vomiting, low blood pressure and hypoglycemia. Hormonal exploration confirmed a hypopituitarism. Appropriate therapy was initiated urgently. The hypothalamic-pituitary MRI showed a pituitary hypertrophy, a nodular thickening of the pituitary stalk. The chest X Rays revealed pulmonary ...

  6. The microbiome of Brazilian mangrove sediments as revealed by metagenomics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreote, Fernando Dini; Jiménez Avella, Diego; Chaves, Diego; Dias, Armando Cavalcante Franco; Luvizotto, Danice Mazzer; Dini-Andreote, Francisco; Fasanella, Cristiane Cipola; Lopez, Maryeimy Varon; Baena, Sandra; Taketani, Rodrigo Gouvêa; de Melo, Itamar Soares

    2012-01-01

    Here we embark in a deep metagenomic survey that revealed the taxonomic and potential metabolic pathways aspects of mangrove sediment microbiology. The extraction of DNA from sediment samples and the direct application of pyrosequencing resulted in approximately 215 Mb of data from four distinct

  7. Species Richness and Diversity Reveal that Human-Modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family diversity and richness showed no significant differences across the sites. The spider species consisted of primarily three functional groups: ground wanderers, web builders and plant wanderers, and showed no within-group differences in abundance between sites. Similarity index between the study sites revealed a ...

  8. Landmark Study Reveals Antarctic Glacier's Long History of Retreat

    OpenAIRE

    Kuska, Dale M.

    2016-01-01

    Faculty Showcase Archive Article Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. A major study, released in late November in the journal “Nature,” reveals the history of retreat of the massive Pine Island Glacier (PIG) in western Antarctica, widely considered one of the largest contributors to global sea-level rise.

  9. Extensive translational regulation during seed germination revealed by polysomal profiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Bing; Peviani, Alessia; Horst, van der Sjors; Gamm, Magdalena; Snel, Berend; Bentsink, Leónie; Hanson, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    This work investigates the extent of translational regulation during seed germination. The polysome occupancy of each gene is determined by genome-wide profiling of total mRNA and polysome-associated mRNA. This reveals extensive translational regulation during Arabidopsis thaliana seed

  10. Quantitative phosphoproteomics reveals widespread full phosphorylation site occupancy during mitosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Martin Lee; Brunak, Søren; Olsen, JV

    2010-01-01

    and phosphorylation sites were grouped according to their cell cycle kinetics and compared to publicly available messenger RNA microarray data. Most detected phosphorylation sites and more than 20% of all quantified proteins showed substantial regulation, mainly in mitotic cells. Kinase-motif analysis revealed global...

  11. Chemical milling solution reveals stress corrosion cracks in titanium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braski, D. N.

    1967-01-01

    Solution of hydrogen flouride, hydrogen peroxide, and water reveals hot salt stress corrosion cracks in various titanium alloys. After the surface is rinsed in water, dried, and swabbed with the solution, it can be observed by the naked eye or at low magnification.

  12. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geffroy, B.; Diallo, I.; Paulin, R.

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV [fr

  13. Structure defects in malachite revealed by positron annihilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geffroy, B; Diallo, I; Paulin, R [Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires, CEN/Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1984-01-01

    Positron lifetime is measured between 77 and 400 K in two malachite samples with different mineralogical structures. The complex spectrum found in zoned malachite reveals a microporosity which remains stable in this range of temperature. Besides, above 200 K, equilibrium defects appear. Their formation energy is estimated to be Esub(f) = 0.27 +- 0.02 eV.

  14. Seasonal succession in zooplankton feeding traits reveals trophic trait coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kenitz, Kasia; Visser, Andre; Mariani, Patrizio

    2017-01-01

    non-motile cells flourishing in spring and motile community dominating during summer. The zooplankton community is dominated by active feeding-current feeders with peak biomass in the late spring declining during summer. The model reveals how zooplankton grazing reinforces protist plankton seasonal...

  15. Integrated genomics of Mucorales reveals novel therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucormycosis is a life-threatening infection caused by Mucorales fungi. We sequenced 30 fungal genomes and performed transcriptomics with three representative Rhizopus and Mucor strains with human airway epithelial cells during fungal invasion to reveal key host and fungal determinants contributing ...

  16. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Biosciences; Volume 41; Issue 4. Genetic and biochemical evidences reveal novel insights into the mechanism underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sae2-mediated abrogation of DNA replication stress. INDRAJEET GHODKE K MUNIYAPPA. ARTICLE Volume 41 Issue 4 December 2016 pp ...

  17. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA reveals a complete lineage sorti ng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glossogobius callidus exhibits broad salinity tolerance and is distributed in both estuarine and freshwater environments in southern Africa. Previous studies revealed substantial morphological and molecular variation among populations, suggesting they constitute a species complex. The present study utilised phylogenetic ...

  18. Dual gene activation and knockout screen reveals directional dependencies in genetic networks. | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the direction of information flow is essential for characterizing how genetic networks affect phenotypes. However, methods to find genetic interactions largely fail to reveal directional dependencies. We combine two orthogonal Cas9 proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus to carry out a dual screen in which one gene is activated while a second gene is deleted in the same cell. We analyze the quantitative effects of activation and knockout to calculate genetic interaction and directionality scores for each gene pair.

  19. The Consistency of Consumer's Stated Preference and Revealed Preference : Evidence from Agricultural Product Market in China

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Qing; Zhou, Hui; Nanseki, Teruaki; Wang, Jimin; 南石, 晃明

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the consistency of consumer's stated preference (SP) and revealed preference (RP) for fresh certified pork by using Beijing urban residents' questionnaire survey data in December 2010. It models the factors of the consistency of SP–RP and calculates the marginal effect coefficients. The results indicate that these factors of whether consumer's household have children under 18 years old, consumer's knowledge about certified products and searching frequency about food qualit...

  20. Hyperspectral imaging technology for revealing the original handwritings covered by the same inks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanyuan Lian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents a preliminary investigation on the applicability of hyperspectral imaging technology for nondestructive and rapid analysis to reveal covered original handwritings. The hyperspectral imager Nuance-Macro was used to collect the reflected light signature of inks from the overlapping parts. The software Nuance1p46 was used to analyze the reflected light signature of inks which shows the covered original handwritings. Different types of black/blue ballpoint pen inks and black/blue gel pen inks were chosen for sample preparation. From the hyperspectral images examined, the covered original handwritings of application were revealed in 90.5%, 69.1%, 49.5%, and 78.6% of the cases. Further, the correlation between the revealing effect and spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts was interpreted through theoretical analysis and experimental verification. The results indicated that when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were the same or very similar to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting could not be shown. On the contrary, when the spectral characteristics of the reflected light of inks at the overlapping parts were different to that of the ink that was used to cover the original handwriting, the original handwriting was revealed.

  1. Cosmic "Dig" Reveals Vestiges of the Milky Way's Building Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    penetrate the dust clouds and reveal its myriads of stars. "It is only thanks to the outstanding instruments mounted on ESO's Very Large Telescope," says co-author Barbara Lanzoni, "that we have finally been able to 'disperse the fog' and gain a new perspective on the origin of the galactic bulge itself." A technical jewel lies behind the scenes of this discovery, namely the Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics Demonstrator (MAD), a cutting-edge instrument that allows the VLT to achieve superbly detailed images in the infrared. Adaptive optics is a technique through which astronomers can overcome the blurring that the Earth's turbulent atmosphere inflicts on astronomical images obtained from ground-based telescopes; MAD is a prototype of even more powerful, next-generation adaptive optics instruments [1]. Through the sharp eye of the VLT, the astronomers also found that Terzan 5 is more massive than previously thought: along with the complex composition and troubled star formation history of the system, this suggests that it might be the surviving remnant of a disrupted proto-galaxy, which merged with the Milky Way during its very early stages and thus contributed to form the galactic bulge. "This could be the first of a series of further discoveries shedding light on the origin of bulges in galaxies, which is still hotly debated," concludes Ferraro. "Several similar systems could be hidden behind the bulge's dust: it is in these objects that the formation history of our Milky Way is written." Notes [1] Telescopes on the ground suffer from a blurring effect introduced by atmospheric turbulence. This turbulence causes the stars to twinkle in a way that delights poets but frustrates astronomers, since it smears out the fine details of the images. However, with adaptive optics (AO) techniques, this major drawback can be overcome so that the telescope produces images that are as sharp as theoretically possible, i.e. approaching conditions in space. Adaptive optics systems work by

  2. Intracranial Hemorrhage Revealing Pseudohypoparathyroidism as a Cause of Fahr Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijit Swami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pseudohypoparathyroidism is an infrequently encountered disease. It is one of the causes of Fahr syndrome which also is a rare clinical entity caused by multiple diseases. A 4-year-old man hospitalized for sudden onset left hemiparesis and hypertension was diagnosed to have right thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage on plain CT scan of the head which also revealed co-existent extensive intracranial calcifications involving the basal ganglia and cerebellum bilaterally. General physical examination revealed features of Albright hereditary osteodystrophy, goitre, hypertension, left hemiparesis, and signs of cerebellar dysfunction. Laboratory findings suggested hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia along with high TSH, low FT4, low FT3, and high anti-TPO antibody. Though bilateral intracranial calcifications are usually encountered as an incidental radiological finding in the CT scan of brain, in this case, the patient admitted for thalamic and midbrain hemorrhage was on investigation for associated intracranial calcification, and goitre was also found to have coexisting pseudohypoparathyroidism and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  3. Tax Policy Trends: Republicans Reveal Proposed Tax Overhaul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Bazel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available REPUBLICANS REVEAL PROPOSED TAX OVERHAUL The White House and Congressional Republicans have revealed their much-anticipated proposal for reform of the U.S. personal and corporate tax systems. The proposal titled, “UNIFIED FRAMEWORK FOR FIXING OUR BROKEN TAX CODE” outlines a number of central policy changes, which will significantly alter the U.S. corporate tax system. The proposal includes a top federal marginal rate reduction for the sole proprietorships, partnerships and S corporation—small business equivalents— from 39.6% to 25% (state income tax rates would no longer be deductible. Large corporations would also see a meaningful federal rate reduction given the proposed drop in the federal corporate income tax rate from 35% to 20%. Additionally, the proposal includes a generous temporary measure intended to stimulate investment, full capital expensing for machinery with a partial limitation of interest deductions.

  4. Obscure pulmonary masses: bronchial impaction revealed by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugatch, R.D.; Gale, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Dilated bronchi impacted with mucus or tumor are recognized on standard chest radiographs because they are surrounded by aerated pulmonary parenchyma. When imaged in different projections, these lesions produce a variety of appearances that are generally familiar. This report characterizes less familiar computed tomographic (CT) findings in eight patients with pathologic bronchial distension of congenital, neoplastic, or infectious etiologies and correlates them with chest films. In seven patients, CT readily revealed dilated bronchi and/or regional lung hypodensity. In four of these cases, CT led to the initial suspicion of dilated bronchi. CT should be used early in the evaluation of atypical pulmonary mass lesions or to confirm suspected bronchial impaction because of the high probability it will reveal diagnostic features

  5. What proverb understanding reveals about how people think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, R W; Beitel, D

    1995-07-01

    The ability to understand proverbial sayings, such as a rolling stone gathers no moss, has been of great interest to researchers in many areas of psychology. Most psychologists assume that understanding the figurative meanings of proverbs requires various kinds of higher order cognitive abilities. The authors review the findings on proverb interpretation to examine the question of what proverb use and understanding reveals about the ways normal and dysfunctional individuals think. The widely held idea that failure to provide a figurative interpretation of a proverb necessarily reflects a deficit in specialized abstract thinking is rejected. Moreover, the ability to correctly explain what a proverb means does not necessarily imply that an individual can think abstractly. Various empirical evidence, nonetheless, suggests that the ability to understand many proverbs reveals the presence of metaphorical schemes that are ubiquitous in everyday thought.

  6. Acting without seeing: eye movements reveal visual processing without awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-04-01

    Visual perception and eye movements are considered to be tightly linked. Diverse fields, ranging from developmental psychology to computer science, utilize eye tracking to measure visual perception. However, this prevailing view has been challenged by recent behavioral studies. Here, we review converging evidence revealing dissociations between the contents of perceptual awareness and different types of eye movement. Such dissociations reveal situations in which eye movements are sensitive to particular visual features that fail to modulate perceptual reports. We also discuss neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and clinical studies supporting the role of subcortical pathways for visual processing without awareness. Our review links awareness to perceptual-eye movement dissociations and furthers our understanding of the brain pathways underlying vision and movement with and without awareness. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Digital tissue and what it may reveal about the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Josh L; Lichtman, Jeff W

    2017-10-30

    Imaging as a means of scientific data storage has evolved rapidly over the past century from hand drawings, to photography, to digital images. Only recently can sufficiently large datasets be acquired, stored, and processed such that tissue digitization can actually reveal more than direct observation of tissue. One field where this transformation is occurring is connectomics: the mapping of neural connections in large volumes of digitized brain tissue.

  8. Focus Groups to Reveal Parents' Needs for Prenatal Education

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Louise

    2002-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a useful qualitative research technique to obtain data from small groups about their opinions, attitudes, and/or feelings on a given subject. This particular technique has been used in Western Quebec in order to reveal the opinions, needs, and feelings of health professionals and future parents concerning prenatal education. As part of the region's priorities for 2002, all future parents in this part of the province were to be offered prenatal, government-paid, comm...

  9. Parascapular mass revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbault, Anais; Ornetti, Paul; Chevallier, Olivier; Avril, Julien; Pottecher, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a parascapular abscess revealing primary tuberculosis of the posterior arch in a 31-year-old man. Sectional imaging is essential in order to detect the different lesions of this atypical spinal tuberculosis as osteolysis of the posterior arch extendible to vertebral body, osteocondensation, epidural extension which is common in this location, and high specificity of a zygapophysial, costo-vertebral or transverse arthritis. PMID:27709081

  10. [Colonic duplication revealed by intestinal obstruction due to fecal impaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azahouani, A; Hida, M; Benhaddou, H

    2015-12-01

    Colonic duplications are very rare in children. With rectal duplications, they are the rarest locations of alimentary tract duplications, most often diagnosed in the first years of life. We report an unusual case of colic duplication with fecal impaction in a 9-month-old boy revealed by intestinal obstruction. We discuss the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this malformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. 'Big bang' of B-cell development revealed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murre, Cornelis

    2018-01-15

    Earlier studies have identified transcription factors that specify B-cell fate, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be revealed. Two new studies by Miyai and colleagues (pp. 112-126) and Li and colleagues (pp. 96-111) in this issue of Genes & Development provide new and unprecedented insights into the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that establish B-cell identity. © 2018 Murre; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  12. The oxygen-isotope effect on the in-plane penetration depth in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} as revealed by muon-spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khasanov, R [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Shengelaya, A [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland); Conder, K [Laboratory for Neutron Scattering, ETH Zuerich and PSI Villigen, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Morenzoni, E [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Savic, I M [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, 11001 Belgrade (Yugoslavia); Keller, H [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, CH-8057 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2003-01-22

    The oxygen-isotope ({sup 16}O/{sup 18}O) effect (OIE) on the in-plane penetration depth {lambda}{sub ab} (0) in underdoped Y{sub 1-x} Pr{sub x} Ba{sub 2} Cu{sub 3} O{sub 7-{delta}} was studied by means of muon-spin rotation. A pronounced OIE on {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) was observed with a relative isotope shift of {delta}{lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} /{lambda} {sub ab}{sup -2} = -5(2)% for x=0.3 and -9(2)% for x=0.4. The OIE exponents of T{sub c} and of {lambda}{sub ab}{sup -2} (0) exhibit a relation that appears to be generic for cuprate superconductors. (letter to the editor)

  13. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  14. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Rex Gaskins, H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition

  15. Mutational scanning reveals the determinants of protein insertion and association energetics in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan; Biran, Ido; Fridman, Yearit; Bibi, Eitan; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-29

    Insertion of helix-forming segments into the membrane and their association determines the structure, function, and expression levels of all plasma membrane proteins. However, systematic and reliable quantification of membrane-protein energetics has been challenging. We developed a deep mutational scanning method to monitor the effects of hundreds of point mutations on helix insertion and self-association within the bacterial inner membrane. The assay quantifies insertion energetics for all natural amino acids at 27 positions across the membrane, revealing that the hydrophobicity of biological membranes is significantly higher than appreciated. We further quantitate the contributions to membrane-protein insertion from positively charged residues at the cytoplasm-membrane interface and reveal large and unanticipated differences among these residues. Finally, we derive comprehensive mutational landscapes in the membrane domains of Glycophorin A and the ErbB2 oncogene, and find that insertion and self-association are strongly coupled in receptor homodimers.

  16. Dissection of a locus on mouse chromosome 5 reveals arthritis promoting and inhibitory genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindvall, Therese; Karlsson, Jenny; Holmdahl, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    with Eae39 congenic- and sub-interval congenic mice, carrying RIIIS/J genes on the B10.RIII genetic background, revealed three loci within Eae39 that control disease and anti-collagen antibody titers. Two of the loci promoted disease and the third locus was protecting from collagen induced arthritis...... development. By further breeding of mice with small congenic fragments, we identified a 3.2 Megabasepair (Mbp) interval that regulates disease. CONCLUSIONS: Disease promoting- and protecting genes within the Eae39 locus on mouse chromosome 5, control susceptibility to collagen induced arthritis. A disease......-protecting locus in the telomeric part of Eae39 results in lower anti-collagen antibody responses. The study shows the importance of breeding sub-congenic mouse strains to reveal genetic effects on complex diseases....

  17. Genomewide mapping reveals a combination of different genetic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    could not investigate all kinds of genetic effects, especially epistatic effects, simultaneously on the whole genome. ... consistent with different loci affecting heterosis for different ...... Jones D. F. 1917 Dominance of linked factors as a means of.

  18. Revealed Comparative Advantage of Services in Cariforum Countries