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  1. Volunteer Conservation Action Data Reveals Large-Scale and Long-Term Negative Population Trends of a Widespread Amphibian, the Common Toad (Bufo bufo)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrovan, Silviu O.

    2016-01-01

    Rare and threatened species are the most frequent focus of conservation science and action. With the ongoing shift from single-species conservation towards the preservation of ecosystem services, there is a greater need to understand abundance trends of common species because declines in common species can disproportionately impact ecosystems function. We used volunteer-collected data in two European countries, the United Kingdom (UK) and Switzerland, since the 1970s to assess national and regional trends for one of Europe’s most abundant amphibian species, the common toad (Bufo bufo). Millions of toads were moved by volunteers across roads during this period in an effort to protect them from road traffic. For Switzerland, we additionally estimated trends for the common frog (Rana temporaria), a similarly widespread and common amphibian species. We used state-space models to account for variability in detection and effort and included only populations with at least 5 years of data; 153 populations for the UK and 141 for Switzerland. Common toads declined continuously in each decade in both countries since the 1980s. Given the declines, this common species almost qualifies for International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) red-listing over this period despite volunteer conservation efforts. Reasons for the declines and wider impacts remain unknown. By contrast, common frog populations were stable or increasing in Switzerland, although there was evidence of declines after 2003. “Toads on Roads” schemes are vital citizen conservation action projects, and the data from such projects can be used for large scale trend estimations of widespread amphibians. We highlight the need for increased research into the status of common amphibian species in addition to conservation efforts focusing on rare and threatened species. PMID:27706154

  2. Landsat 7 Reveals Large-scale Fractal Motion of Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    get carried along within the vortices, but these are soon mixed into the surrounding clouds. Landsat is unique in its ability to image both the small-scale eddies that mix clear and cloudy air, down to the 30 meter pixel size of Landsat, but also having a wide enough field-of-view, 180 km, to reveal the connection of the turbulence to large-scale flows such as the subtropical oceanic gyres. Landsat 7, with its new onboard digital recorder, has extended this capability away from the few Landsat ground stations to remote areas such as Alejandro Island, and thus is gradually providing a global dynamic picture of evolving human-scale phenomena. (For more details on von Karman vortices, refer to http://climate.gsfc.nasa.gov/cahalan) Image and caption courtesy Bob Cahalan, NASA GSFC

  3. Large-scale physical activity data reveal worldwide activity inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Tim; Sosič, Rok; Hicks, Jennifer L; King, Abby C; Delp, Scott L; Leskovec, Jure

    2017-07-20

    To be able to curb the global pandemic of physical inactivity and the associated 5.3 million deaths per year, we need to understand the basic principles that govern physical activity. However, there is a lack of large-scale measurements of physical activity patterns across free-living populations worldwide. Here we leverage the wide usage of smartphones with built-in accelerometry to measure physical activity at the global scale. We study a dataset consisting of 68 million days of physical activity for 717,527 people, giving us a window into activity in 111 countries across the globe. We find inequality in how activity is distributed within countries and that this inequality is a better predictor of obesity prevalence in the population than average activity volume. Reduced activity in females contributes to a large portion of the observed activity inequality. Aspects of the built environment, such as the walkability of a city, are associated with a smaller gender gap in activity and lower activity inequality. In more walkable cities, activity is greater throughout the day and throughout the week, across age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) groups, with the greatest increases in activity found for females. Our findings have implications for global public health policy and urban planning and highlight the role of activity inequality and the built environment in improving physical activity and health.

  4. Creating restoration landscapes: partnerships in large-scale conservation in the UK

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    William M. Adams

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly recognized that ecological restoration demands conservation action beyond the borders of existing protected areas. This requires the coordination of land uses and management over a larger area, usually with a range of partners, which presents novel institutional challenges for conservation planners. Interviews were undertaken with managers of a purposive sample of large-scale conservation areas in the UK. Interviews were open-ended and analyzed using standard qualitative methods. Results show a wide variety of organizations are involved in large-scale conservation projects, and that partnerships take time to create and demand resilience in the face of different organizational practices, staff turnover, and short-term funding. Successful partnerships with local communities depend on the establishment of trust and the availability of external funds to support conservation land uses. We conclude that there is no single institutional model for large-scale conservation: success depends on finding institutional strategies that secure long-term conservation outcomes, and ensure that conservation gains are not reversed when funding runs out, private owners change priorities, or land changes hands.

  5. Building Participation in Large-scale Conservation: Lessons from Belize and Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Guite Hastings

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by biogeography and a desire for alignment with the funding priorities of donors, the twenty-first century has seen big international NGOs shifting towards a large-scale conservation approach. This shift has meant that even before stakeholders at the national and local scale are involved, conservation programmes often have their objectives defined and funding allocated. This paper uses the experiences of Conservation International′s Marine Management Area Science (MMAS programme in Belize and Panama to explore how to build participation at the national and local scale while working within the bounds of the current conservation paradigm. Qualitative data about MMAS was gathered through a multi-sited ethnographic research process, utilising document review, direct observation, and semi-structured interviews with 82 informants in Belize, Panama, and the United States of America. Results indicate that while a large-scale approach to conservation disadvantages early national and local stakeholder participation, this effect can be mediated through focusing engagement efforts, paying attention to context, building horizontal and vertical partnerships, and using deliberative processes that promote learning. While explicit consideration of geopolitics and local complexity alongside biogeography in the planning phase of a large-scale conservation programme is ideal, actions taken by programme managers during implementation can still have a substantial impact on conservation outcomes.

  6. A review of large-scale conservation in England, Scotland and Wales (JP019)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eignebrod, Felix; Watmough, Gary Richard

    . To maximise the success of future projects, there is a need to get a better overview of the many large-scale conservation (LSC) initiatives that already exist, and to investigate what can be learned from past experience. To date there has been no thorough study of the scope, spatial extent, management...

  7. Native fish conservation areas: A vision for large-scale conservation of native fish communities

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    Williams, Jack E.; Williams, Richard N.; Thurow, Russell F.; Elwell, Leah; Philipp, David P.; Harris, Fred A.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Martinez, Patrick J.; Miller, Dirk; Reeves, Gordon H.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Sedell, James R.

    2011-01-01

    The status of freshwater fishes continues to decline despite substantial conservation efforts to reverse this trend and recover threatened and endangered aquatic species. Lack of success is partially due to working at smaller spatial scales and focusing on habitats and species that are already degraded. Protecting entire watersheds and aquatic communities, which we term "native fish conservation areas" (NFCAs), would complement existing conservation efforts by protecting intact aquatic communities while allowing compatible uses. Four critical elements need to be met within a NFCA: (1) maintain processes that create habitat complexity, diversity, and connectivity; (2) nurture all of the life history stages of the fishes being protected; (3) include a long-term enough watershed to provide long-term persistence of native fish populations; and (4) provide management that is sustainable over time. We describe how a network of protected watersheds could be created that would anchor aquatic conservation needs in river basins across the country.

  8. Ecoregion-Based Conservation Planning in the Mediterranean: Dealing with Large-Scale Heterogeneity

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    Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Sini, Maria; Gerovasileiou, Vasilis; Mazor, Tessa; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P.; Abdulla, Ameer; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Gucu, Ali Cemal; Karamanlidis, Alexandros A.; Rodic, Petra; Panayotidis, Panayotis; Taskin, Ergun; Jaklin, Andrej; Voultsiadou, Eleni; Webster, Chloë; Zenetos, Argyro; Katsanevakis, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    socioeconomically heterogeneous basin, and (c) it adopts ecoregions as the most appropriate level for large-scale planning. PMID:24155901

  9. The iBeetle large-scale RNAi screen reveals gene functions for insect development and physiology.

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    Schmitt-Engel, Christian; Schultheis, Dorothea; Schwirz, Jonas; Ströhlein, Nadi; Troelenberg, Nicole; Majumdar, Upalparna; Dao, Van Anh; Grossmann, Daniela; Richter, Tobias; Tech, Maike; Dönitz, Jürgen; Gerischer, Lizzy; Theis, Mirko; Schild, Inga; Trauner, Jochen; Koniszewski, Nikolaus D B; Küster, Elke; Kittelmann, Sebastian; Hu, Yonggang; Lehmann, Sabrina; Siemanowski, Janna; Ulrich, Julia; Panfilio, Kristen A; Schröder, Reinhard; Morgenstern, Burkhard; Stanke, Mario; Buchhholz, Frank; Frasch, Manfred; Roth, Siegfried; Wimmer, Ernst A; Schoppmeier, Michael; Klingler, Martin; Bucher, Gregor

    2015-07-28

    Genetic screens are powerful tools to identify the genes required for a given biological process. However, for technical reasons, comprehensive screens have been restricted to very few model organisms. Therefore, although deep sequencing is revealing the genes of ever more insect species, the functional studies predominantly focus on candidate genes previously identified in Drosophila, which is biasing research towards conserved gene functions. RNAi screens in other organisms promise to reduce this bias. Here we present the results of the iBeetle screen, a large-scale, unbiased RNAi screen in the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which identifies gene functions in embryonic and postembryonic development, physiology and cell biology. The utility of Tribolium as a screening platform is demonstrated by the identification of genes involved in insect epithelial adhesion. This work transcends the restrictions of the candidate gene approach and opens fields of research not accessible in Drosophila.

  10. Large-scale cellular-resolution gene profiling in human neocortex reveals species-specific molecular signatures

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    Zeng, Hongkui; Shen, Elaine H.; Hohmann, John G.; Oh, Wook Seung; Bernard, Amy; Royall, Joshua J.; Glattfelder, Katie J.; Sunkin, Susan M.; Morris, John A.; Guillozet-Bongaarts, Angela L.; Smith, Kimberly A.; Ebbert, Amanda J.; Swanson, Beryl; Kuan, Leonard; Page, Damon T.; Overly, Caroline C.; Lein, Ed S.; Hawrylycz, Michael J.; Hof, Patrick R.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Jones, Allan R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Although there have been major advances in elucidating the functional biology of the human brain, relatively little is known of its cellular and molecular organization. Here we report a large-scale characterization of the expression of ~1,000 genes important for neural functions, by in situ hybridization with cellular resolution in visual and temporal cortices of adult human brains. These data reveal diverse gene expression patterns and remarkable conservation of each individual gene’s expression among individuals (95%), cortical areas (84%), and between human and mouse (79%). A small but substantial number of genes (21%) exhibited species-differential expression. Distinct molecular signatures, comprised of genes both common between species and unique to each, were identified for each major cortical cell type. The data suggest that gene expression profile changes may contribute to differential cortical function across species, in particular, a shift from corticosubcortical to more predominant corticocortical communications in the human brain. PMID:22500809

  11. Rhythms of consciousness: binocular rivalry reveals large-scale oscillatory network dynamics mediating visual perception.

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    Sam M Doesburg

    Full Text Available Consciousness has been proposed to emerge from functionally integrated large-scale ensembles of gamma-synchronous neural populations that form and dissolve at a frequency in the theta band. We propose that discrete moments of perceptual experience are implemented by transient gamma-band synchronization of relevant cortical regions, and that disintegration and reintegration of these assemblies is time-locked to ongoing theta oscillations. In support of this hypothesis we provide evidence that (1 perceptual switching during binocular rivalry is time-locked to gamma-band synchronizations which recur at a theta rate, indicating that the onset of new conscious percepts coincides with the emergence of a new gamma-synchronous assembly that is locked to an ongoing theta rhythm; (2 localization of the generators of these gamma rhythms reveals recurrent prefrontal and parietal sources; (3 theta modulation of gamma-band synchronization is observed between and within the activated brain regions. These results suggest that ongoing theta-modulated-gamma mechanisms periodically reintegrate a large-scale prefrontal-parietal network critical for perceptual experience. Moreover, activation and network inclusion of inferior temporal cortex and motor cortex uniquely occurs on the cycle immediately preceding responses signaling perceptual switching. This suggests that the essential prefrontal-parietal oscillatory network is expanded to include additional cortical regions relevant to tasks and perceptions furnishing consciousness at that moment, in this case image processing and response initiation, and that these activations occur within a time frame consistent with the notion that conscious processes directly affect behaviour.

  12. “Approach” and “Threshold” Effects of Large-scale Urban Events on Heritage Conservation:A Study on Heritage Conservation from Standpoint of Cultural Anthropology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale urban events like the Olympic Games,the World Expo,etc.,have brought about an "approach" leading to renewed conservation measures for old city areas.While they make many heritages receive better protection,they also create new problem of "threshold" to heritage conservation;thus,ideas about the effects of large-scale urban events on cultural heritage preservation are polarized into two opposite directions.Using cultural anthropology as the basis of analysis,this article interprets how these conflicting concepts came to be.As large-scale urban events accelerate and strengthen urban development,they also often cause the abandonment of specific cultural elements during the process of heritage conservation for the oldest city areas.This leads to a general loss of direction in cultural protection efforts.A potential solution is to unearth the cultural spirit of the old cities and preserve it through practical technologies,in considering the specific function of large-scale urban events.In so doing,it is possible to explore new directions and approaches to conserve the heritages of the old city under the guide of urban cultural development strategies.

  13. Observational Features of Large-Scale Structures as Revealed by the Catastrophe Model of Solar Eruptions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale magnetic structures are the main carrier of major eruptions in the solar atmosphere. These structures are rooted in the photosphere and are driven by the unceasing motion of the photospheric material through a series of equilibrium configurations. The motion brings energy into the coronal magnetic field until the system ceases to be in equilibrium. The catastrophe theory for solar eruptions indicates that loss of mechanical equilibrium constitutes the main trigger mechanism of major eruptions, usually shown up as solar flares,eruptive prominences, and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Magnetic reconnection which takes place at the very beginning of the eruption as a result of plasma instabilities/turbulence inside the current sheet, converts magnetic energy into heating and kinetic energy that are responsible for solar flares, and for accelerating both plasma ejecta (flows and CMEs) and energetic particles. Various manifestations are thus related to one another, and the physics behind these relationships is catastrophe and magnetic reconnection. This work reports on recent progress in both theoretical research and observations on eruptive phenomena showing the above manifestations. We start by displaying the properties of large-scale structures in the corona and the related magnetic fields prior to an eruption, and show various morphological features of the disrupting magnetic fields. Then, in the framework of the catastrophe theory,we look into the physics behind those features investigated in a succession of previous works,and discuss the approaches they used.

  14. The Space-Time Conservative Schemes for Large-Scale, Time-Accurate Flow Simulations with Tetrahedral Meshes

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    Venkatachari, Balaji Shankar; Streett, Craig L.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Friedlander, David J.; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung

    2016-01-01

    Despite decades of development of unstructured mesh methods, high-fidelity time-accurate simulations are still predominantly carried out on structured, or unstructured hexahedral meshes by using high-order finite-difference, weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO), or hybrid schemes formed by their combinations. In this work, the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) method is used to simulate several flow problems including supersonic jet/shock interaction and its impact on launch vehicle acoustics, and direct numerical simulations of turbulent flows using tetrahedral meshes. This paper provides a status report for the continuing development of the space-time conservation element solution element (CESE) numerical and software framework under the Revolutionary Computational Aerosciences (RCA) project. Solution accuracy and large-scale parallel performance of the numerical framework is assessed with the goal of providing a viable paradigm for future high-fidelity flow physics simulations.

  15. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events.

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    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-06-01

    An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca

  16. Solving Man-Induced Large-Scale Conservation Problems: The Spanish Imperial Eagle and Power Lines

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    López-López, Pascual; Ferrer, Miguel; Madero, Agustín; Casado, Eva; McGrady, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Background Man-induced mortality of birds caused by electrocution with poorly-designed pylons and power lines has been reported to be an important mortality factor that could become a major cause of population decline of one of the world rarest raptors, the Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti). Consequently it has resulted in an increasing awareness of this problem amongst land managers and the public at large, as well as increased research into the distribution of electrocution events and likely mitigation measures. Methodology/Principal Findings We provide information of how mitigation measures implemented on a regional level under the conservation program of the Spanish imperial eagle have resulted in a positive shift of demographic trends in Spain. A 35 years temporal data set (1974–2009) on mortality of Spanish imperial eagle was recorded, including population censuses, and data on electrocution and non-electrocution of birds. Additional information was obtained from 32 radio-tracked young eagles and specific field surveys. Data were divided into two periods, before and after the approval of a regional regulation of power line design in 1990 which established mandatory rules aimed at minimizing or eliminating the negative impacts of power lines facilities on avian populations. Our results show how population size and the average annual percentage of population change have increased between the two periods, whereas the number of electrocuted birds has been reduced in spite of the continuous growing of the wiring network. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that solving bird electrocution is an affordable problem if political interest is shown and financial investment is made. The combination of an adequate spatial planning with a sustainable development of human infrastructures will contribute positively to the conservation of the Spanish imperial eagle and may underpin population growth and range expansion, with positive side effects on other endangered

  17. Development of large scale wind energy conservation system. Development of large scale wind energy conversion system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for development of large scale wind energy conversion system. The study on technological development of key components evaluates performance of, and confirms reliability and applicability of, hydraulic systems centered by those equipped with variable pitch mechanisms and electrohydraulic servo valves that control them. The study on blade conducts fatigue and crack-propagation tests, which show that the blades developed have high strength. The study on speed-increasing gear conducts load tests, confirming the effects of reducing vibration and noise by modification of the gear teeth. The study on NACELLE cover conducts vibration tests to confirm its vibration characteristics, and analyzes three-dimensional vibration by the finite element method. Some components for a 500kW commercial wind mill are fabricated, including rotor heads, variable pitch mechanisms, speed-increasing gears, YAW systems, and hydraulic control systems. The others fabricated include a remote supervisory control system for maintenance, system to integrate the wind mill into a power system, and electrical control devices in which site conditions, such as atmospheric temperature and lightening, are taken into consideration.

  18. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis of the domestic goat reveals six haplogroups with high diversity.

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    Saeid Naderi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: From the beginning of domestication, the transportation of domestic animals resulted in genetic and demographic processes that explain their present distribution and genetic structure. Thus studying the present genetic diversity helps to better understand the history of domestic species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The genetic diversity of domestic goats has been characterized with 2430 individuals from all over the old world, including 946 new individuals from regions poorly studied until now (mainly the Fertile Crescent. These individuals represented 1540 haplotypes for the HVI segment of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA control region. This large-scale study allowed the establishment of a clear nomenclature of the goat maternal haplogroups. Only five of the six previously defined groups of haplotypes were divergent enough to be considered as different haplogroups. Moreover a new mitochondrial group has been localized around the Fertile Crescent. All groups showed very high haplotype diversity. Most of this diversity was distributed among groups and within geographic regions. The weak geographic structure may result from the worldwide distribution of the dominant A haplogroup (more than 90% of the individuals. The large-scale distribution of other haplogroups (except one, may be related to human migration. The recent fragmentation of local goat populations into discrete breeds is not detectable with mitochondrial markers. The estimation of demographic parameters from mismatch analyses showed that all groups had a recent demographic expansion corresponding roughly to the period when domestication took place. But even with a large data set it remains difficult to give relative dates of expansion for different haplogroups because of large confidence intervals. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose standard criteria for the definition of the different haplogroups based on the result of mismatch analysis and on the use of sequences of

  19. Large-Scale Habitat Corridors for Biodiversity Conservation: A Forest Corridor in Madagascar.

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    Tanjona Ramiadantsoa

    Full Text Available In biodiversity conservation, habitat corridors are assumed to increase landscape-level connectivity and to enhance the viability of otherwise isolated populations. While the role of corridors is supported by empirical evidence, studies have typically been conducted at small spatial scales. Here, we assess the quality and the functionality of a large 95-km long forest corridor connecting two large national parks (416 and 311 km2 in the southeastern escarpment of Madagascar. We analyze the occurrence of 300 species in 5 taxonomic groups in the parks and in the corridor, and combine high-resolution forest cover data with a simulation model to examine various scenarios of corridor destruction. At present, the corridor contains essentially the same communities as the national parks, reflecting its breadth which on average matches that of the parks. In the simulation model, we consider three types of dispersers: passive dispersers, which settle randomly around the source population; active dispersers, which settle only in favorable habitat; and gap-avoiding active dispersers, which avoid dispersing across non-habitat. Our results suggest that long-distance passive dispersers are most sensitive to ongoing degradation of the corridor, because increasing numbers of propagules are lost outside the forest habitat. For a wide range of dispersal parameters, the national parks are large enough to sustain stable populations until the corridor becomes severely broken, which will happen around 2065 if the current rate of forest loss continues. A significant decrease in gene flow along the corridor is expected after 2040, and this will exacerbate the adverse consequences of isolation. Our results demonstrate that simulation studies assessing the role of habitat corridors should pay close attention to the mode of dispersal and the effects of regional stochasticity.

  20. The ecological future of the North American bison: Conceiving long-term, large-scale conservation of a species

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    Sanderson, E.W.; Redford, K.; Weber, Bill; Aune, K.; Baldes, Dick; Berger, J.; Carter, Dave; Curtin, C.; Derr, James N.; Dobrott, S.J.; Fearn, Eva; Fleener, Craig; Forrest, Steven C.; Gerlach, Craig; Gates, C. Cormack; Gross, J.E.; Gogan, P.; Grassel, Shaun M.; Hilty, Jodi A.; Jensen, Marv; Kunkel, Kyran; Lammers, Duane; List, R.; Minkowski, Karen; Olson, Tom; Pague, Chris; Robertson, Paul B.; Stephenson, Bob

    2008-01-01

    Many wide-ranging mammal species have experienced significant declines over the last 200 years; restoring these species will require long-term, large-scale recovery efforts. We highlight 5 attributes of a recent range-wide vision-setting exercise for ecological recovery of the North American bison (Bison bison) that are broadly applicable to other species and restoration targets. The result of the exercise, the “Vermejo Statement” on bison restoration, is explicitly (1) large scale, (2) long term, (3) inclusive, (4) fulfilling of different values, and (5) ambitious. It reads, in part, “Over the next century, the ecological recovery of the North American bison will occur when multiple large herds move freely across extensive landscapes within all major habitats of their historic range, interacting in ecologically significant ways with the fullest possible set of other native species, and inspiring, sustaining and connecting human cultures.” We refined the vision into a scorecard that illustrates how individual bison herds can contribute to the vision. We also developed a set of maps and analyzed the current and potential future distributions of bison on the basis of expert assessment. Although more than 500,000 bison exist in North America today, we estimated they occupy social values of previous times. By formulating an inclusive, affirmative, and specific vision through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, we hope to provide a foundation for conservation of bison, and other wide-ranging species, over the next 100 years.

  1. scMRI reveals large-scale brain network abnormalities in autism.

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    Brandon A Zielinski

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex neurological condition characterized by childhood onset of dysfunction in multiple cognitive domains including socio-emotional function, speech and language, and processing of internally versus externally directed stimuli. Although gross brain anatomic differences in autism are well established, recent studies investigating regional differences in brain structure and function have yielded divergent and seemingly contradictory results. How regional abnormalities relate to the autistic phenotype remains unclear. We hypothesized that autism exhibits distinct perturbations in network-level brain architecture, and that cognitive dysfunction may be reflected by abnormal network structure. Network-level anatomic abnormalities in autism have not been previously described. We used structural covariance MRI to investigate network-level differences in gray matter structure within two large-scale networks strongly implicated in autism, the salience network and the default mode network, in autistic subjects and age-, gender-, and IQ-matched controls. We report specific perturbations in brain network architecture in the salience and default-mode networks consistent with clinical manifestations of autism. Extent and distribution of the salience network, involved in social-emotional regulation of environmental stimuli, is restricted in autism. In contrast, posterior elements of the default mode network have increased spatial distribution, suggesting a 'posteriorization' of this network. These findings are consistent with a network-based model of autism, and suggest a unifying interpretation of previous work. Moreover, we provide evidence of specific abnormalities in brain network architecture underlying autism that are quantifiable using standard clinical MRI.

  2. Dynamics of Disagreement: Large-Scale Temporal Network Analysis Reveals Negative Interactions in Online Collaboration

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    Tsvetkova, Milena; García-Gavilanes, Ruth; Yasseri, Taha

    2016-11-01

    Disagreement and conflict are a fact of social life. However, negative interactions are rarely explicitly declared and recorded and this makes them hard for scientists to study. In an attempt to understand the structural and temporal features of negative interactions in the community, we use complex network methods to analyze patterns in the timing and configuration of reverts of article edits to Wikipedia. We investigate how often and how fast pairs of reverts occur compared to a null model in order to control for patterns that are natural to the content production or are due to the internal rules of Wikipedia. Our results suggest that Wikipedia editors systematically revert the same person, revert back their reverter, and come to defend a reverted editor. We further relate these interactions to the status of the involved editors. Even though the individual reverts might not necessarily be negative social interactions, our analysis points to the existence of certain patterns of negative social dynamics within the community of editors. Some of these patterns have not been previously explored and carry implications for the knowledge collection practice conducted on Wikipedia. Our method can be applied to other large-scale temporal collaboration networks to identify the existence of negative social interactions and other social processes.

  3. Large-scale Watershed Modeling: NHDPlus Resolution with Achievable Conservation Scenarios in the Western Lake Erie Basin

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    Yen, H.; White, M. J.; Arnold, J. G.; Keitzer, S. C.; Johnson, M. V. V.; Atwood, J. D.; Daggupati, P.; Herbert, M. E.; Sowa, S. P.; Ludsin, S.; Robertson, D. M.; Srinivasan, R.; Rewa, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    By the substantial improvement of computer technology, large-scale watershed modeling has become practically feasible in conducting detailed investigations of hydrologic, sediment, and nutrient processes. In the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB), water quality issues caused by anthropogenic activities are not just interesting research subjects but, have implications related to human health and welfare, as well as ecological integrity, resistance, and resilience. In this study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) and the finest resolution stream network, NHDPlus, were implemented on the WLEB to examine the interactions between achievable conservation scenarios with corresponding additional projected costs. During the calibration/validation processes, both hard (temporal) and soft (non-temporal) data were used to ensure the modeling outputs are coherent with actual watershed behavior. The results showed that widespread adoption of conservation practices intended to provide erosion control could deliver average reductions of sediment and nutrients without additional nutrient management changes. On the other hand, responses of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (DIP) dynamics may be different than responses of total nitrogen and total phosphorus dynamics under the same conservation practice. Model results also implied that fewer financial resources are required to achieve conservation goals if the goal is to achieve reductions in targeted watershed outputs (ex. NO3 or DIP) rather than aggregated outputs (ex. total nitrogen or total phosphorus). In addition, it was found that the model's capacity to simulate seasonal effects and responses to changing conservation adoption on a seasonal basis could provide a useful index to help alleviate additional cost through temporal targeting of conservation practices. Scientists, engineers, and stakeholders can take advantage of the work performed in this study as essential information while conducting policy

  4. Large-Scale Agricultural Management and Soil Meso- and Macrofauna Conservation in the Argentine Pampas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Camilo Bedano

    2016-07-01

    -dependent; and there is a wide variety of practices in the main types of agricultural systems, making generalizations difficult. A review of the existing studies on soil meso- and macrofauna in agroecosystems, revealed that (a agricultural soils, regardless of farming system, are strongly modified in biological aspects compared to the same soils without human interventions; (b there are no conclusive results about no-till benefits compared to reduced tillage or conventional tillage; (c agricultural managements that are alternative to the traditional conventional systems are very poorly represented in research.

  5. Tree Age Distributions Reveal Large-Scale Disturbance-Recovery Cycles in Three Tropical Forests

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    Vlam, Mart; van der Sleen, Peter; Groenendijk, Peter; Zuidema, Pieter A.

    2017-01-01

    Over the past few decades there has been a growing realization that a large share of apparently ‘virgin’ or ‘old-growth’ tropical forests carries a legacy of past natural or anthropogenic disturbances that have a substantial effect on present-day forest composition, structure and dynamics. Yet, direct evidence of such disturbances is scarce and comparisons of disturbance dynamics across regions even more so. Here we present a tree-ring based reconstruction of disturbance histories from three tropical forest sites in Bolivia, Cameroon, and Thailand. We studied temporal patterns in tree regeneration of shade-intolerant tree species, because establishment of these trees is indicative for canopy disturbance. In three large areas (140–300 ha), stem disks and increment cores were collected for a total of 1154 trees (>5 cm diameter) from 12 tree species to estimate the age of every tree. Using these age estimates we produced population age distributions, which were analyzed for evidence of past disturbance. Our approach allowed us to reconstruct patterns of tree establishment over a period of around 250 years. In Bolivia, we found continuous regeneration rates of three species and a peaked age distribution of a long-lived pioneer species. In both Cameroon and Thailand we found irregular age distributions, indicating strongly reduced regeneration rates over a period of 10–60 years. Past fires, windthrow events or anthropogenic disturbances all provide plausible explanations for the reported variation in tree age across the three sites. Our results support the recent idea that the long-term dynamics of tropical forests are impacted by large-scale disturbance-recovery cycles, similar to those driving temperate forest dynamics. PMID:28105034

  6. Large-scale Models Reveal the Two-component Mechanics of Striated Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jarosch

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a comprehensive explanation of striated muscle mechanics and contraction on the basis of filament rotations. Helical proteins, particularly the coiled-coils of tropomyosin, myosin and α-actinin, shorten their H-bonds cooperatively and produce torque and filament rotations when the Coulombic net-charge repulsion of their highly charged side-chains is diminished by interaction with ions. The classical “two-component model” of active muscle differentiated a “contractile component” which stretches the “series elastic component” during force production. The contractile components are the helically shaped thin filaments of muscle that shorten the sarcomeres by clockwise drilling into the myosin cross-bridges with torque decrease (= force-deficit. Muscle stretch means drawing out the thin filament helices off the cross-bridges under passive counterclockwise rotation with torque increase (= stretch activation. Since each thin filament is anchored by four elastic α-actinin Z-filaments (provided with forceregulating sites for Ca2+ binding, the thin filament rotations change the torsional twist of the four Z-filaments as the “series elastic components”. Large scale models simulate the changes of structure and force in the Z-band by the different Z-filament twisting stages A, B, C, D, E, F and G. Stage D corresponds to the isometric state. The basic phenomena of muscle physiology, i. e. latency relaxation, Fenn-effect, the force-velocity relation, the length-tension relation, unexplained energy, shortening heat, the Huxley-Simmons phases, etc. are explained and interpreted with the help of the model experiments.

  7. Large-scale analysis of conserved rare codon clusters suggests an involvement in co-translational molecular recognition events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Matthieu; Gaudreault, Francis; Najmanovich, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Motivation: An increasing amount of evidence from experimental and computational analysis suggests that rare codon clusters are functionally important for protein activity. Most of the studies on rare codon clusters were performed on a limited number of proteins or protein families. In the present study, we present the Sherlocc program and how it can be used for large scale protein family analysis of evolutionarily conserved rare codon clusters and their relation to protein function and structure. This large-scale analysis was performed using the whole Pfam database covering over 70% of the known protein sequence universe. Our program Sherlocc, detects statistically relevant conserved rare codon clusters and produces a user-friendly HTML output. Results: Statistically significant rare codon clusters were detected in a multitude of Pfam protein families. The most statistically significant rare codon clusters were predominantly identified in N-terminal Pfam families. Many of the longest rare codon clusters are found in membrane-related proteins which are required to interact with other proteins as part of their function, for example in targeting or insertion. We identified some cases where rare codon clusters can play a regulating role in the folding of catalytically important domains. Our results support the existence of a widespread functional role for rare codon clusters across species. Finally, we developed an online filter-based search interface that provides access to Sherlocc results for all Pfam families. Availability: The Sherlocc program and search interface are open access and are available at http://bcb.med.usherbrooke.ca Contact: rafael.najmanovich@usherbrooke.ca Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:22467916

  8. Topological properties in the spatial distribution of amphibians in Alabama USA for the use of large scale conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale biodiversity conservation is urgently needed due to increasing habitat loss and fragmentation. Understanding topological perspectives of species' distribution patterns can provide useful information for linking conservation studies at larger scales. We studied topological properties of localities in Alabama where 60 species of 12 families of amphibians were present. Analysis included a clustering coefficient which measures the strength of a population group, the relationship between occurrence localities and species number, the fractal dimension of occurrence localities (which emphasizes spatial irregularity, and distance to nearest-neighbor. The results indicate that the clustering coefficients of most amphibian species were low, but were higher for species with few occurrence localities, such as Rana sylvatica and Limnaoedus ocularis. The general relationship between species number and occurrence localities was that the majority of species held few localities in their distribution, while the remaining species occupied a greater number of localities. The fractal dimension (FD for all amphibian localities was about 1.58, although FD was low for most individual species. We identified four relationships in the distribution of distance to nearest-neighbor: linear, logarithmic, power and polynomial. These topological properties may indicate intrinsic features about amphibians in Alabama and provide useful information for regional planning. Enhancing landscape linkages across a large area using undisturbed areas, such as 300-500 km in diameter may be a good approach to conservation practice in this region. Steps needed for biodiversity conservation planning in Alabama include creating or conserving small habitats across agricultural and urban land, and maintaining suitable spatial complexity and distance to nearest neighbors.

  9. Development of large scale and wind energy conservation system. Operational studies on a large-scale wind energy conservation system; Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no kaihatsu. Ogata furyoku hatsuden system no unten kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for operational studies on a large-scale wind energy conversion system. A total of 8 domestic and foreign cases are studied for wind energy conversion cost, to clarify the causes for higher cost of the Japanese system. The wind power systems studied include Japanese (5 units at Tappi Wind Park, the same type supplied by company M), US (California Wind Farm, 300 units) and UK (Wales Wind Farm, 103 units) systems. The investment costs are 639, 285 and 189 thousand yen/kW for the Japanese, US and UK systems, respectively. It is also revealed that the power plant itself and assembling costs account for a majority (70 to 88%) of the total investment cost. The higher cost of the Japanese system results from a smaller number of units installed, and the power plant cost can be drastically reduced by mass production. Increasing size also reduces cost greatly.

  10. Large-scale experimental landscapes reveal distinctive effects of patch shape and connectivity on arthropod communities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orrock, John, L.; Curler, Gregory, R.; Danielson, Brent, J.; Coyle, David. R.

    2011-09-14

    The size, shape, and isolation of habitat patches can affect organism behavior and population dynamics, but little is known about the relative role of shape and connectivity in affecting ecological communities at large spatial scales. Using six sampling sessions from July 2001 until August 2002, we collected 33,685 arthropods throughout seven 12-ha experimental landscapes consisting of clear-cut patches surrounded by a matrix of mature pine forest. Patches were explicitly designed to manipulate connectivity (via habitat corridors) independently of area and edge effects. We found that patch shape, rather than connectivity, affected ground-dwelling arthropod richness and beta diversity (i.e. turnover of genera among patches). Arthropod communities contained fewer genera and exhibited less turnover in high-edge connected and high-edge unconnected patches relative to low-edge unconnected patches of similar area. Connectivity, rather than patch shape, affected the evenness of ground-dwelling arthropod communities; regardless of patch shape, high-edge connected patches had lower evenness than low- or high-edge unconnected patches. Among the most abundant arthropod orders, increased richness in low-edge unconnected patches was largely due to increased richness of Coleoptera, whereas Hymenoptera played an important role in the lower evenness in connected patches and patterns of turnover. These findings suggest that anthropogenic habitat alteration can have distinct effects on ground-dwelling arthropod communities that arise due to changes in shape and connectivity. Moreover, this work suggests that corridors, which are common conservation tools that change both patch shape and connectivity, can have multiple effects on arthropod communities via different mechanisms, and each effect may alter components of community structure.

  11. Large-scale inhomogeneity in sapphire test masses revealed by Rayleigh scattering imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zewu; Ju, Li; Eon, François; Gras, Slawomir; Zhao, Chunnong; Jacob, John; Blair, David G.

    2004-03-01

    Rayleigh scattering in test masses can introduce noise and reduce the sensitivity of laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors. In this paper, we present laser Rayleigh scattering imaging as a technique to investigate sapphire test masses. The system provides three-dimensional Rayleigh scattering mapping of entire test masses and quantitative evaluation of the Rayleigh scattering coefficient. Rayleigh scattering mapping of two sapphire samples reveals point defects as well as inhomogeneous structures in the samples. We present results showing significant non-uniform scattering within two 4.5 kg sapphire test masses manufactured by the heat exchanger method.

  12. Revealing the Large-Scale Structures of Interstellar Gas Associated with the Magellanic SNR N132D

    CERN Document Server

    Sano, H; Yoshiike, S; Fukuda, T; Tachihara, K; Inutsuka, S; Kawamura, A; Fujii, K; Mizuno, N; Inoue, T; Onishi, T; Acero, F; Vink, J

    2015-01-01

    We report preliminary results of large-scale distribution toward the Magellanic supernova remnant N132D using Mopra and Chandra archival datasets. We identified a cavity-like CO structure along the X-ray shell toward the southern half of it. The total mass of associating molecular gas is $\\sim10^4 M_\\odot$, which is smaller than the previous study by an order of magnitude. Further observations using ALMA, ASTE, and Mopra will reveal the detailed spatial structures and its physical conditions.

  13. Acoustic telemetry reveals large-scale migration patterns of walleye in Lake Huron.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd A Hayden

    Full Text Available Fish migration in large freshwater lacustrine systems such as the Laurentian Great Lakes is not well understood. The walleye (Sander vitreus is an economically and ecologically important native fish species throughout the Great Lakes. In Lake Huron walleye has recently undergone a population expansion as a result of recovery of the primary stock, stemming from changing food web dynamics. During 2011 and 2012, we used acoustic telemetry to document the timing and spatial scale of walleye migration in Lake Huron and Saginaw Bay. Spawning walleye (n = 199 collected from a tributary of Saginaw Bay were implanted with acoustic tags and their migrations were documented using acoustic receivers (n = 140 deployed throughout U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron. Three migration pathways were described using multistate mark-recapture models. Models were evaluated using the Akaike Information Criterion. Fish sex did not influence migratory behavior but did affect migration rate and walleye were detected on all acoustic receiver lines. Most (95% tagged fish migrated downstream from the riverine tagging and release location to Saginaw Bay, and 37% of these fish emigrated from Saginaw Bay into Lake Huron. Remarkably, 8% of walleye that emigrated from Saginaw Bay were detected at the acoustic receiver line located farthest from the release location more than 350 km away. Most (64% walleye returned to the Saginaw River in 2012, presumably for spawning. Our findings reveal that fish from this stock use virtually the entirety of U.S. nearshore waters of Lake Huron.

  14. Large-scale analysis by SAGE reveals new mechanisms of v-erbA oncogene action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faure Claudine

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The v-erbA oncogene, carried by the Avian Erythroblastosis Virus, derives from the c-erbAα proto-oncogene that encodes the nuclear receptor for triiodothyronine (T3R. v-ErbA transforms erythroid progenitors in vitro by blocking their differentiation, supposedly by interference with T3R and RAR (Retinoic Acid Receptor. However, v-ErbA target genes involved in its transforming activity still remain to be identified. Results: By using Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE, we identified 110 genes deregulated by v-ErbA and potentially implicated in the transformation process. Bioinformatic analysis of promoter sequence and transcriptional assays point out a potential role of c-Myb in the v-ErbA effect. Furthermore, grouping of newly identified target genes by function revealed both expected (chromatin/transcription and unexpected (protein metabolism functions potentially deregulated by v-ErbA. We then focused our study on 15 of the new v-ErbA target genes and demonstrated by real time PCR that in majority their expression was activated neither by T3, nor RA, nor during differentiation. This was unexpected based upon the previously known role of v-ErbA. Conclusion: This paper suggests the involvement of a wealth of new unanticipated mechanisms of v-ErbA action.

  15. Cost-Effective Large-Scale Occupancy-Abundance Monitoring of Invasive Brushtail Possums (Trichosurus Vulpecula on New Zealand's Public Conservation Land.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M Gormley

    Full Text Available There is interest in large-scale and unbiased monitoring of biodiversity status and trend, but there are few published examples of such monitoring being implemented. The New Zealand Department of Conservation is implementing a monitoring program that involves sampling selected biota at the vertices of an 8-km grid superimposed over the 8.6 million hectares of public conservation land that it manages. The introduced brushtail possum (Trichosurus Vulpecula is a major threat to some biota and is one taxon that they wish to monitor and report on. A pilot study revealed that the traditional method of monitoring possums using leg-hold traps set for two nights, termed the Trap Catch Index, was a constraint on the cost and logistical feasibility of the monitoring program. A phased implementation of the monitoring program was therefore conducted to collect data for evaluating the trade-off between possum occupancy-abundance estimates and the costs of sampling for one night rather than two nights. Reducing trapping effort from two nights to one night along four trap-lines reduced the estimated costs of monitoring by 5.8% due to savings in labour, food and allowances; it had a negligible effect on estimated national possum occupancy but resulted in slightly higher and less precise estimates of relative possum abundance. Monitoring possums for one night rather than two nights would provide an annual saving of NZ$72,400, with 271 fewer field days required for sampling. Possums occupied 60% (95% credible interval; 53-68 of sampling locations on New Zealand's public conservation land, with a mean relative abundance (Trap Catch Index of 2.7% (2.0-3.5. Possum occupancy and abundance were higher in forest than in non-forest habitats. Our case study illustrates the need to evaluate relationships between sampling design, cost, and occupancy-abundance estimates when designing and implementing large-scale occupancy-abundance monitoring programs.

  16. Large-scale analysis of Arabidopsis transcription reveals a basal co-regulation network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chamovitz Daniel A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analyses of gene expression data from microarray experiments has become a central tool for identifying co-regulated, functional gene modules. A crucial aspect of such analysis is the integration of data from different experiments and different laboratories. How to weigh the contribution of different experiments is an important point influencing the final outcomes. We have developed a novel method for this integration, and applied it to genome-wide data from multiple Arabidopsis microarray experiments performed under a variety of experimental conditions. The goal of this study is to identify functional globally co-regulated gene modules in the Arabidopsis genome. Results Following the analysis of 21,000 Arabidopsis genes in 43 datasets and about 2 × 108 gene pairs, we identified a globally co-expressed gene network. We found clusters of globally co-expressed Arabidopsis genes that are enriched for known Gene Ontology annotations. Two types of modules were identified in the regulatory network that differed in their sensitivity to the node-scoring parameter; we further showed these two pertain to general and specialized modules. Some of these modules were further investigated using the Genevestigator compendium of microarray experiments. Analyses of smaller subsets of data lead to the identification of condition-specific modules. Conclusion Our method for identification of gene clusters allows the integration of diverse microarray experiments from many sources. The analysis reveals that part of the Arabidopsis transcriptome is globally co-expressed, and can be further divided into known as well as novel functional gene modules. Our methodology is general enough to apply to any set of microarray experiments, using any scoring function.

  17. Lifespan Development of the Human Brain Revealed by Large-Scale Network Eigen-Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Fan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying functional connectivity patterns of the developing and aging brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution through infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Normal aging is related to some resting state brain networks disruption, which are associated with certain cognitive decline. It is a big challenge to design an integral metric to track connectome evolution patterns across the lifespan, which is to understand the principles of network organization in the human brain. In this study, we first defined a brain network eigen-entropy (NEE based on the energy probability (EP of each brain node. Next, we used the NEE to characterize the lifespan orderness trajectory of the whole-brain functional connectivity of 173 healthy individuals ranging in age from 7 to 85 years. The results revealed that during the lifespan, the whole-brain NEE exhibited a significant non-linear decrease and that the EP distribution shifted from concentration to wide dispersion, implying orderness enhancement of functional connectome over age. Furthermore, brain regions with significant EP changes from the flourishing (7–20 years to the youth period (23–38 years were mainly located in the right prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, and were involved in emotion regulation and executive function in coordination with the action of the sensory system, implying that self-awareness and voluntary control performance significantly changed during neurodevelopment. However, the changes from the youth period to middle age (40–59 years were located in the mesial temporal lobe and caudate, which are associated with long-term memory, implying that the memory of the human brain begins to decline with age during this period. Overall, the findings suggested that the human connectome

  18. Metaproteomics reveals major microbial players and their biodegradation functions in a large-scale aerobic composting plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dongming; Li, Mingxiao; Xi, Beidou; Zhao, Yue; Wei, Zimin; Song, Caihong; Zhu, Chaowei

    2015-11-01

    Composting is an appropriate management alternative for municipal solid waste; however, our knowledge about the microbial regulation of this process is still scare. We employed metaproteomics to elucidate the main biodegradation pathways in municipal solid waste composting system across the main phases in a large-scale composting plant. The investigation of microbial succession revealed that Bacillales, Actinobacteria and Saccharomyces increased significantly with respect to abundance in composting process. The key microbiologic population for cellulose degradation in different composting stages was different. Fungi were found to be the main producers of cellulase in earlier phase. However, the cellulolytic fungal communities were gradually replaced by a purely bacterial one in active phase, which did not support the concept that the thermophilic fungi are active through the thermophilic phase. The effective decomposition of cellulose required the synergy between bacteria and fungi in the curing phase.

  19. Large-Scale Structure of the Molecular Gas in Taurus Revealed by High Linear Dynamic Range Spectral Line Mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Goldsmith, Paul F; Narayanan, Gopal; Snell, Ronald; Li, Di; Brunt, Chris

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a 100 square degree survey of the Taurus Molecular Cloud region in the J = 1-0 transition of 12CO and 13CO. The image of the cloud in each velocity channel includes ~ 3 million Nyquist sampled pixels on a 20" grid. The high sensitivity and large linear dynamic range of the maps in both isotopologues reveal a very complex, highly structured cloud morphology. There are large scale correlated structures evident in 13CO emission having very fine dimensions, including filaments, cavities, and rings. The 12CO emission shows a quite different structure, with particularly complex interfaces between regions of greater and smaller column density defining the boundaries of the largest-scale cloud structures. The axes of the striations seen in the 12CO emission from relatively diffuse gas are aligned with the direction of the magnetic field. Using a column density-dependent model for the CO fractional abundance, we derive the mass of the region mapped to be 24,000 solar masses, a factor of three ...

  20. Systems Perturbation Analysis of a Large-Scale Signal Transduction Model Reveals Potentially Influential Candidates for Cancer Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Allen, Laura; Hochfelder, Colleen; Majumder, Mahbubul; Helikar, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Dysregulation in signal transduction pathways can lead to a variety of complex disorders, including cancer. Computational approaches such as network analysis are important tools to understand system dynamics as well as to identify critical components that could be further explored as therapeutic targets. Here, we performed perturbation analysis of a large-scale signal transduction model in extracellular environments that stimulate cell death, growth, motility, and quiescence. Each of the model’s components was perturbed under both loss-of-function and gain-of-function mutations. Using 1,300 simulations under both types of perturbations across various extracellular conditions, we identified the most and least influential components based on the magnitude of their influence on the rest of the system. Based on the premise that the most influential components might serve as better drug targets, we characterized them for biological functions, housekeeping genes, essential genes, and druggable proteins. The most influential components under all environmental conditions were enriched with several biological processes. The inositol pathway was found as most influential under inactivating perturbations, whereas the kinase and small lung cancer pathways were identified as the most influential under activating perturbations. The most influential components were enriched with essential genes and druggable proteins. Moreover, known cancer drug targets were also classified in influential components based on the affected components in the network. Additionally, the systemic perturbation analysis of the model revealed a network motif of most influential components which affect each other. Furthermore, our analysis predicted novel combinations of cancer drug targets with various effects on other most influential components. We found that the combinatorial perturbation consisting of PI3K inactivation and overactivation of IP3R1 can lead to increased activity levels of apoptosis

  1. Large-scale expression analysis reveals distinct microRNA profiles at different stages of human neurodevelopment.

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    Brandon Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are short non-coding RNAs predicted to regulate one third of protein coding genes via mRNA targeting. In conjunction with key transcription factors, such as the repressor REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor, miRNAs play crucial roles in neurogenesis, which requires a highly orchestrated program of gene expression to ensure the appropriate development and function of diverse neural cell types. Whilst previous studies have highlighted select groups of miRNAs during neural development, there remains a need for amenable models in which miRNA expression and function can be analyzed over the duration of neurogenesis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed large-scale expression profiling of miRNAs in human NTera2/D1 (NT2 cells during retinoic acid (RA-induced transition from progenitors to fully differentiated neural phenotypes. Our results revealed dynamic changes of miRNA patterns, resulting in distinct miRNA subsets that could be linked to specific neurodevelopmental stages. Moreover, the cell-type specific miRNA subsets were very similar in NT2-derived differentiated cells and human primary neurons and astrocytes. Further analysis identified miRNAs as putative regulators of REST, as well as candidate miRNAs targeted by REST. Finally, we confirmed the existence of two predicted miRNAs; pred-MIR191 and pred-MIR222 associated with SLAIN1 and FOXP2, respectively, and provided some evidence of their potential co-regulation. CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we demonstrate that regulation of miRNAs occurs in precise patterns indicative of their roles in cell fate commitment, progenitor expansion and differentiation into neurons and glia. Furthermore, the similarity between our NT2 system and primary human cells suggests their roles in molecular pathways critical for human in vivo neurogenesis.

  2. Large-scale gene discovery in the oomycete Phytophthora infestans reveals likely components of phytopathogenicity shared with true fungi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randall, T.A.; Dwyer, R.A.; Huitema, E.; Beyer, K.; Cvitanich, C.; Kelkar, H.; Ah Fong, A.M.V.; Gates, K.; Roberts, S.; Yatzkan, E.; Gaffney, T.; Law, M.; Testa, A.; Torto-Alalibo, T.; Zhang Meng,; Zheng Li,; Mueller, E.; Windass, J.; Binder, A.; Birch, P.R.J.; Gisi, U.; Govers, F.; Gow, N.A.; Mauch, F.; West, van P.; Waugh, M.E.; Yu Jun,; Boller, T.; Kamoun, S.; Lam, S.T.; Judelson, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    o overview the gene content of the important pathogen Phytophthora infestans, large-scale cDNA and genomic sequencing was performed. A set of 75,757 high-quality expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from P. infestans was obtained from 20 cDNA libraries representing a broad range of growth conditions, stre

  3. Genome resequencing in Populus: Revealing large-scale genome variation and implications on specialized-trait genomics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muchero, Wellington [ORNL; Labbe, Jessy L [ORNL; Priya, Ranjan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); DiFazio, Steven P [West Virginia University, Morgantown; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    To date, Populus ranks among a few plant species with a complete genome sequence and other highly developed genomic resources. With the first genome sequence among all tree species, Populus has been adopted as a suitable model organism for genomic studies in trees. However, far from being just a model species, Populus is a key renewable economic resource that plays a significant role in providing raw materials for the biofuel and pulp and paper industries. Therefore, aside from leading frontiers of basic tree molecular biology and ecological research, Populus leads frontiers in addressing global economic challenges related to fuel and fiber production. The latter fact suggests that research aimed at improving quality and quantity of Populus as a raw material will likely drive the pursuit of more targeted and deeper research in order to unlock the economic potential tied in molecular biology processes that drive this tree species. Advances in genome sequence-driven technologies, such as resequencing individual genotypes, which in turn facilitates large scale SNP discovery and identification of large scale polymorphisms are key determinants of future success in these initiatives. In this treatise we discuss implications of genome sequence-enable technologies on Populus genomic and genetic studies of complex and specialized-traits.

  4. Captured metagenomics: large-scale targeting of genes based on 'sequence capture' reveals functional diversity in soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, Lokeshwaran; Kushwaha, Sandeep K; Hedlund, Katarina; Ahrén, Dag

    2015-12-01

    Microbial enzyme diversity is a key to understand many ecosystem processes. Whole metagenome sequencing (WMG) obtains information on functional genes, but it is costly and inefficient due to large amount of sequencing that is required. In this study, we have applied a captured metagenomics technique for functional genes in soil microorganisms, as an alternative to WMG. Large-scale targeting of functional genes, coding for enzymes related to organic matter degradation, was applied to two agricultural soil communities through captured metagenomics. Captured metagenomics uses custom-designed, hybridization-based oligonucleotide probes that enrich functional genes of interest in metagenomic libraries where only probe-bound DNA fragments are sequenced. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with targeted genes while maintaining their target diversity and their taxonomic distribution correlated well with the traditional ribosomal sequencing. The captured metagenomes were highly enriched with genes related to organic matter degradation; at least five times more than similar, publicly available soil WMG projects. This target enrichment technique also preserves the functional representation of the soils, thereby facilitating comparative metagenomics projects. Here, we present the first study that applies the captured metagenomics approach in large scale, and this novel method allows deep investigations of central ecosystem processes by studying functional gene abundances.

  5. Natural snowfall reveals large-scale flow structures in the wake of a 2.5-MW wind turbine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jiarong; Toloui, Mostafa; Chamorro, Leonardo P; Guala, Michele; Howard, Kevin; Riley, Sean; Tucker, James; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2014-06-24

    To improve power production and structural reliability of wind turbines, there is a pressing need to understand how turbines interact with the atmospheric boundary layer. However, experimental techniques capable of quantifying or even qualitatively visualizing the large-scale turbulent flow structures around full-scale turbines do not exist today. Here we use snowflakes from a winter snowstorm as flow tracers to obtain velocity fields downwind of a 2.5-MW wind turbine in a sampling area of ~36 × 36 m(2). The spatial and temporal resolutions of the measurements are sufficiently high to quantify the evolution of blade-generated coherent motions, such as the tip and trailing sheet vortices, identify their instability mechanisms and correlate them with turbine operation, control and performance. Our experiment provides an unprecedented in situ characterization of flow structures around utility-scale turbines, and yields significant insights into the Reynolds number similarity issues presented in wind energy applications.

  6. Organization and evolution of brain lipidome revealed by large-scale analysis of human, chimpanzee, macaque, and mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Katarzyna; Wei, Yuning; Yan, Zheng; Liu, Xiling; Xiong, Jieyi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Tomita, Masaru; Pääbo, Svante; Sherwood, Chet C; Hof, Patrick R; Ely, John J; Li, Yan; Steinhauser, Dirk; Willmitzer, Lothar; Giavalisco, Patrick; Khaitovich, Philipp

    2015-02-18

    Lipids are prominent components of the nervous system. Here we performed a large-scale mass spectrometry-based analysis of the lipid composition of three brain regions as well as kidney and skeletal muscle of humans, chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, and mice. The human brain shows the most distinct lipid composition: 76% of 5,713 lipid compounds examined in our study are either enriched or depleted in the human brain. Concentration levels of lipids enriched in the brain evolve approximately four times faster among primates compared with lipids characteristic of non-neural tissues and show further acceleration of change in human neocortical regions but not in the cerebellum. Human-specific concentration changes are supported by human-specific expression changes for corresponding enzymes. These results provide the first insights into the role of lipids in human brain evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-scale range collapse of Hawaiian forest birds under climate change and the need 21st century conservation options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas; Vorsino, Adam E.; Amidon, Fred A.; Paxton, Eben; Jacobi, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  8. A developmental framework for complex plasmodesmata formation revealed by large-scale imaging of the Arabidopsis leaf epidermis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Jessica; Beck, Martina; Zhou, Ji; Faulkner, Christine; Robatzek, Silke; Oparka, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodesmata (PD) form tubular connections that function as intercellular communication channels. They are essential for transporting nutrients and for coordinating development. During cytokinesis, simple PDs are inserted into the developing cell plate, while during wall extension, more complex (branched) forms of PD are laid down. We show that complex PDs are derived from existing simple PDs in a pattern that is accelerated when leaves undergo the sink-source transition. Complex PDs are inserted initially at the three-way junctions between epidermal cells but develop most rapidly in the anisocytic complexes around stomata. For a quantitative analysis of complex PD formation, we established a high-throughput imaging platform and constructed PDQUANT, a custom algorithm that detected cell boundaries and PD numbers in different wall faces. For anticlinal walls, the number of complex PDs increased with increasing cell size, while for periclinal walls, the number of PDs decreased. Complex PD insertion was accelerated by up to threefold in response to salicylic acid treatment and challenges with mannitol. In a single 30-min run, we could derive data for up to 11k PDs from 3k epidermal cells. This facile approach opens the door to a large-scale analysis of the endogenous and exogenous factors that influence PD formation.

  9. Rank Order Coding: a Retinal Information Decoding Strategy Revealed by Large-Scale Multielectrode Array Retinal Recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portelli, Geoffrey; Barrett, John M; Hilgen, Gerrit; Masquelier, Timothée; Maccione, Alessandro; Di Marco, Stefano; Berdondini, Luca; Kornprobst, Pierre; Sernagor, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    How a population of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) encodes the visual scene remains an open question. Going beyond individual RGC coding strategies, results in salamander suggest that the relative latencies of a RGC pair encode spatial information. Thus, a population code based on this concerted spiking could be a powerful mechanism to transmit visual information rapidly and efficiently. Here, we tested this hypothesis in mouse by recording simultaneous light-evoked responses from hundreds of RGCs, at pan-retinal level, using a new generation of large-scale, high-density multielectrode array consisting of 4096 electrodes. Interestingly, we did not find any RGCs exhibiting a clear latency tuning to the stimuli, suggesting that in mouse, individual RGC pairs may not provide sufficient information. We show that a significant amount of information is encoded synergistically in the concerted spiking of large RGC populations. Thus, the RGC population response described with relative activities, or ranks, provides more relevant information than classical independent spike count- or latency- based codes. In particular, we report for the first time that when considering the relative activities across the whole population, the wave of first stimulus-evoked spikes is an accurate indicator of stimulus content. We show that this coding strategy coexists with classical neural codes, and that it is more efficient and faster. Overall, these novel observations suggest that already at the level of the retina, concerted spiking provides a reliable and fast strategy to rapidly transmit new visual scenes.

  10. Large-scale network analysis of imagination reveals extended but limited top-down components in human visual cognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verkhlyutov V.M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whole-brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI activation in a group of 21 healthy adult subjects during perception, imagination and remembering of two dynamic visual scenarios. Activation of the posterior parts of the cortex prevailed when watching videos. The cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering were accompanied by a predominant activity in the anterior parts of the cortex. An independent component analysis identified seven large-scale cortical networks with relatively invariant spatial distributions across all experimental conditions. The time course of their activation over experimental sessions was task-dependent. These detected networks can be interpreted as a recombination of resting state networks. Both central and peripheral networks were identified within the primary visual cortex. The central network around the caudal pole of BA17 and centers of other visual areas was activated only by direct visual stimulation, while the peripheral network responded to the presentation of visual information as well as to the cognitive tasks of imagination and remembering. The latter result explains the particular susceptibility of peripheral and twilight vision to cognitive top-down influences that often result in false-alarm detections.

  11. Large-scale phylogenomic analyses reveal that two enigmatic protist lineages, telonemia and centroheliozoa, are related to photosynthetic chromalveolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burki, Fabien; Inagaki, Yuji; Bråte, Jon; Archibald, John M; Keeling, Patrick J; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas; Sakaguchi, Miako; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Horak, Ales; Kumar, Surendra; Klaveness, Dag; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Pawlowski, Jan; Shalchian-Tabrizi, Kamran

    2009-07-27

    Understanding the early evolution and diversification of eukaryotes relies on a fully resolved phylogenetic tree. In recent years, most eukaryotic diversity has been assigned to six putative supergroups, but the evolutionary origin of a few major "orphan" lineages remains elusive. Two ecologically important orphan groups are the heterotrophic Telonemia and Centroheliozoa. Telonemids have been proposed to be related to the photosynthetic cryptomonads or stramenopiles and centrohelids to haptophytes, but molecular phylogenies have failed to provide strong support for any phylogenetic hypothesis. Here, we investigate the origins of Telonema subtilis (a telonemid) and Raphidiophrys contractilis (a centrohelid) by large-scale 454 pyrosequencing of cDNA libraries and including new genomic data from two cryptomonads (Guillardia theta and Plagioselmis nannoplanctica) and a haptophyte (Imantonia rotunda). We demonstrate that 454 sequencing of cDNA libraries is a powerful and fast method of sampling a high proportion of protist genes, which can yield ample information for phylogenomic studies. Our phylogenetic analyses of 127 genes from 72 species indicate that telonemids and centrohelids are members of an emerging major group of eukaryotes also comprising cryptomonads and haptophytes. Furthermore, this group is possibly closely related to the SAR clade comprising stramenopiles (heterokonts), alveolates, and Rhizaria. Our results link two additional heterotrophic lineages to the predominantly photosynthetic chromalveolate supergroup, providing a new framework for interpreting the evolution of eukaryotic cell structures and the diversification of plastids.

  12. Analyses of transcriptome sequences reveal multiple ancient large-scale duplication events in the ancestor of Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devos, Nicolas; Szövényi, Péter; Weston, David J; Rothfels, Carl J; Johnson, Matthew G; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this research was to investigate whether there has been a whole-genome duplication (WGD) in the ancestry of Sphagnum (peatmoss) or the class Sphagnopsida, and to determine if the timing of any such duplication(s) and patterns of paralog retention could help explain the rapid radiation and current ecological dominance of peatmosses. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data were generated for nine taxa in Sphagnopsida (Bryophyta). Analyses of frequency plots for synonymous substitutions per synonymous site (Ks ) between paralogous gene pairs and reconciliation of 578 gene trees were conducted to assess evidence of large-scale or genome-wide duplication events in each transcriptome. Both Ks frequency plots and gene tree-based analyses indicate multiple duplication events in the history of the Sphagnopsida. The most recent WGD event predates divergence of Sphagnum from the two other genera of Sphagnopsida. Duplicate retention is highly variable across species, which might be best explained by local adaptation. Our analyses indicate that the last WGD could have been an important factor underlying the diversification of peatmosses and facilitated their rise to ecological dominance in peatlands. The timing of the duplication events and their significance in the evolutionary history of peat mosses are discussed.

  13. Targeted Sequencing Reveals Large-Scale Sequence Polymorphism in Maize Candidate Genes for Biomass Production and Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses M Muraya

    Full Text Available A major goal of maize genomic research is to identify sequence polymorphisms responsible for phenotypic variation in traits of economic importance. Large-scale detection of sequence variation is critical for linking genes, or genomic regions, to phenotypes. However, due to its size and complexity, it remains expensive to generate whole genome sequences of sufficient coverage for divergent maize lines, even with access to next generation sequencing (NGS technology. Because methods involving reduction of genome complexity, such as genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS, assess only a limited fraction of sequence variation, targeted sequencing of selected genomic loci offers an attractive alternative. We therefore designed a sequence capture assay to target 29 Mb genomic regions and surveyed a total of 4,648 genes possibly affecting biomass production in 21 diverse inbred maize lines (7 flints, 14 dents. Captured and enriched genomic DNA was sequenced using the 454 NGS platform to 19.6-fold average depth coverage, and a broad evaluation of read alignment and variant calling methods was performed to select optimal procedures for variant discovery. Sequence alignment with the B73 reference and de novo assembly identified 383,145 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, of which 42,685 were non-synonymous alterations and 7,139 caused frameshifts. Presence/absence variation (PAV of genes was also detected. We found that substantial sequence variation exists among genomic regions targeted in this study, which was particularly evident within coding regions. This diversification has the potential to broaden functional diversity and generate phenotypic variation that may lead to new adaptations and the modification of important agronomic traits. Further, annotated SNPs identified here will serve as useful genetic tools and as candidates in searches for phenotype-altering DNA variation. In summary, we demonstrated that sequencing of captured DNA is a powerful

  14. Large-scale genomic 2D visualization reveals extensive CG-AT skew correlation in bird genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deng Xuemei

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bird genomes have very different compositional structure compared with other warm-blooded animals. The variation in the base skew rules in the vertebrate genomes remains puzzling, but it must relate somehow to large-scale genome evolution. Current research is inclined to relate base skew with mutations and their fixation. Here we wish to explore base skew correlations in bird genomes, to develop methods for displaying and quantifying such correlations at different scales, and to discuss possible explanations for the peculiarities of the bird genomes in skew correlation. Results We have developed a method called Base Skew Double Triangle (BSDT for exhibiting the genome-scale change of AT/CG skew as a two-dimensional square picture, showing base skews at many scales simultaneously in a single image. By this method we found that most chicken chromosomes have high AT/CG skew correlation (symmetry in 2D picture, except for some microchromosomes. No other organisms studied (18 species show such high skew correlations. This visualized high correlation was validated by three kinds of quantitative calculations with overlapping and non-overlapping windows, all indicating that chicken and birds in general have a special genome structure. Similar features were also found in some of the mammal genomes, but clearly much weaker than in chickens. We presume that the skew correlation feature evolved near the time that birds separated from other vertebrate lineages. When we eliminated the repeat sequences from the genomes, the AT and CG skews correlation increased for some mammal genomes, but were still clearly lower than in chickens. Conclusion Our results suggest that BSDT is an expressive visualization method for AT and CG skew and enabled the discovery of the very high skew correlation in bird genomes; this peculiarity is worth further study. Computational analysis indicated that this correlation might be a compositional characteristic

  15. Large-scale profiling of signalling pathways reveals an asthma specific signature in bronchial smooth muscle cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrova, Elena; Nassa, Giovanni; Corleone, Giacomo; Buzdin, Anton; Aliper, Alexander M.; Terekhanova, Nadezhda; Shepelin, Denis; Zhavoronkov, Alexander; Tamm, Michael; Milanesi, Luciano; Weisz, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Background Bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) cells from asthmatic patients maintain in vitro a distinct hyper-reactive (“primed”) phenotype, characterized by increased release of pro-inflammatory factors and mediators, as well as hyperplasia and/or hypertrophy. This “primed” phenotype helps to understand pathogenesis of asthma, as changes in BSM function are essential for manifestation of allergic and inflammatory responses and airway wall remodelling. Objective To identify signalling pathways in cultured primary BSMs of asthma patients and non-asthmatic subjects by genome wide profiling of differentially expressed mRNAs and activated intracellular signalling pathways (ISPs). Methods Transcriptome profiling by cap-analysis-of-gene-expression (CAGE), which permits selection of preferentially capped mRNAs most likely to be translated into proteins, was performed in human BSM cells from asthmatic (n=8) and non-asthmatic (n=6) subjects and OncoFinder tool were then exploited for identification of ISP deregulations. Results CAGE revealed >600 RNAs differentially expressed in asthma vs control cells (p≤0.005), with asthma samples showing a high degree of similarity among them. Comprehensive ISP activation analysis revealed that among 269 pathways analysed, 145 (ppromoting pathways and up-regulated ones affecting cell growth and proliferation, inflammatory response, control of smooth muscle contraction and hypoxia-related signalization. Conclusions These first-time results can now be exploited toward development of novel therapeutic strategies targeting ISP signatures linked to asthma pathophysiology. PMID:26863634

  16. Laminar and dorsoventral molecular organization of the medial entorhinal cortex revealed by large-scale anatomical analysis of gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L Ramsden

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neural circuits in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC encode an animal's position and orientation in space. Within the MEC spatial representations, including grid and directional firing fields, have a laminar and dorsoventral organization that corresponds to a similar topography of neuronal connectivity and cellular properties. Yet, in part due to the challenges of integrating anatomical data at the resolution of cortical layers and borders, we know little about the molecular components underlying this organization. To address this we develop a new computational pipeline for high-throughput analysis and comparison of in situ hybridization (ISH images at laminar resolution. We apply this pipeline to ISH data for over 16,000 genes in the Allen Brain Atlas and validate our analysis with RNA sequencing of MEC tissue from adult mice. We find that differential gene expression delineates the borders of the MEC with neighboring brain structures and reveals its laminar and dorsoventral organization. We propose a new molecular basis for distinguishing the deep layers of the MEC and show that their similarity to corresponding layers of neocortex is greater than that of superficial layers. Our analysis identifies ion channel-, cell adhesion- and synapse-related genes as candidates for functional differentiation of MEC layers and for encoding of spatial information at different scales along the dorsoventral axis of the MEC. We also reveal laminar organization of genes related to disease pathology and suggest that a high metabolic demand predisposes layer II to neurodegenerative pathology. In principle, our computational pipeline can be applied to high-throughput analysis of many forms of neuroanatomical data. Our results support the hypothesis that differences in gene expression contribute to functional specialization of superficial layers of the MEC and dorsoventral organization of the scale of spatial representations.

  17. Integrative analysis of large scale expression profiles reveals core transcriptional response and coordination between multiple cellular processes in a cyanobacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi Maitrayee

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyanobacteria are the only known prokaryotes capable of oxygenic photosynthesis. They play significant roles in global biogeochemical cycles and carbon sequestration, and have recently been recognized as potential vehicles for production of renewable biofuels. Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 has been extensively used as a model organism for cyanobacterial studies. DNA microarray studies in Synechocystis have shown varying degrees of transcriptome reprogramming under altered environmental conditions. However, it is not clear from published work how transcriptome reprogramming affects pre-existing networks of fine-tuned cellular processes. Results We have integrated 163 transcriptome data sets generated in response to numerous environmental and genetic perturbations in Synechocystis. Our analyses show that a large number of genes, defined as the core transcriptional response (CTR, are commonly regulated under most perturbations. The CTR contains nearly 12% of Synechocystis genes found on its chromosome. The majority of genes in the CTR are involved in photosynthesis, translation, energy metabolism and stress protection. Our results indicate that a large number of differentially regulated genes identified in most reported studies in Synechocystis under different perturbations are associated with the general stress response. We also find that a majority of genes in the CTR are coregulated with 25 regulatory genes. Some of these regulatory genes have been implicated in cellular responses to oxidative stress, suggesting that reactive oxygen species are involved in the regulation of the CTR. A Bayesian network, based on the regulation of various KEGG pathways determined from the expression patterns of their associated genes, has revealed new insights into the coordination between different cellular processes. Conclusion We provide here the first integrative analysis of transcriptome data sets generated in a cyanobacterium. This

  18. Genome-wide DNA methylation analysis of neuroblastic tumors reveals clinically relevant epigenetic events and large-scale epigenomic alterations localized to telomeric regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Patrick G; Das, Sudipto; Bryan, Kenneth; Watters, Karen M; Alcock, Leah; Koster, Jan; Versteeg, Rogier; Stallings, Raymond L

    2011-05-15

    The downregulation of specific genes through DNA hypermethylation is a major hallmark of cancer, although the extent and genomic distribution of hypermethylation occurring within cancer genomes is poorly understood. We report on the first genome-wide analysis of DNA methylation alterations in different neuroblastic tumor subtypes and cell lines, revealing higher order organization and clinically relevant alterations of the epigenome. The methylation status of 33,485 discrete loci representing all annotated CpG islands and RefSeq gene promoters was assessed in primary neuroblastic tumors and cell lines. A comparison of genes that were hypermethylated exclusively in the clinically favorable ganglioneuroma/ganglioneuroblastoma tumors revealed that nine genes were associated with poor clinical outcome when overexpressed in the unfavorable neuroblastoma (NB) tumors. Moreover, an integrated DNA methylation and copy number analysis identified 80 genes that were recurrently concomitantly deleted and hypermethylated in NB, with 37 reactivated by 5-aza-deoxycytidine. Lower expression of four of these genes was correlated with poor clinical outcome, further implicating their inactivation in aggressive disease pathogenesis. Analysis of genome-wide hypermethylation patterns revealed 70 recurrent large-scale blocks of contiguously hypermethylated promoters/CpG islands, up to 590 kb in length, with a distribution bias toward telomeric regions. Genome-wide hypermethylation events in neuroblastic tumors are extensive and frequently occur in large-scale blocks with a significant bias toward telomeric regions, indicating that some methylation alterations have occurred in a coordinated manner. Our results indicate that methylation contributes toward the clinicopathological features of neuroblastic tumors, revealing numerous genes associated with poor patient survival in NB.

  19. A large-scale identification of direct targets of the tomato MADS box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR reveals the regulation of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Masaki; Nakano, Toshitsugu; Shima, Yoko; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2013-02-01

    The fruit ripening developmental program is specific to plants bearing fleshy fruits and dramatically changes fruit characteristics, including color, aroma, and texture. The tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS box transcription factor RIPENING INHIBITOR (RIN), one of the earliest acting ripening regulators, is required for both ethylene-dependent and -independent ripening regulatory pathways. Recent studies have identified two dozen direct RIN targets, but many more RIN targets remain to be identified. Here, we report the large-scale identification of direct RIN targets by chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled with DNA microarray analysis (ChIP-chip) targeting the predicted promoters of tomato genes. Our combined ChIP-chip and transcriptome analysis identified 241 direct RIN target genes that contain a RIN binding site and exhibit RIN-dependent positive or negative regulation during fruit ripening, suggesting that RIN has both activator and repressor roles. Examination of the predicted functions of RIN targets revealed that RIN participates in the regulation of lycopene accumulation, ethylene production, chlorophyll degradation, and many other physiological processes. Analysis of the effect of ethylene using 1-methylcyclopropene revealed that the positively regulated subset of RIN targets includes ethylene-sensitive and -insensitive transcription factors. Intriguingly, ethylene is involved in the upregulation of RIN expression during ripening. These results suggest that tomato fruit ripening is regulated by the interaction between RIN and ethylene signaling.

  20. Sound to language: different cortical processing for first and second languages in elementary school children as revealed by a large-scale study using fNIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-10-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6-10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children's brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language.

  1. Sound to Language: Different Cortical Processing for First and Second Languages in Elementary School Children as Revealed by a Large-Scale Study Using fNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2011-01-01

    A large-scale study of 484 elementary school children (6–10 years) performing word repetition tasks in their native language (L1-Japanese) and a second language (L2-English) was conducted using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. Three factors presumably associated with cortical activation, language (L1/L2), word frequency (high/low), and hemisphere (left/right), were investigated. L1 words elicited significantly greater brain activation than L2 words, regardless of semantic knowledge, particularly in the superior/middle temporal and inferior parietal regions (angular/supramarginal gyri). The greater L1-elicited activation in these regions suggests that they are phonological loci, reflecting processes tuned to the phonology of the native language, while phonologically unfamiliar L2 words were processed like nonword auditory stimuli. The activation was bilateral in the auditory and superior/middle temporal regions. Hemispheric asymmetry was observed in the inferior frontal region (right dominant), and in the inferior parietal region with interactions: low-frequency words elicited more right-hemispheric activation (particularly in the supramarginal gyrus), while high-frequency words elicited more left-hemispheric activation (particularly in the angular gyrus). The present results reveal the strong involvement of a bilateral language network in children’s brains depending more on right-hemispheric processing while acquiring unfamiliar/low-frequency words. A right-to-left shift in laterality should occur in the inferior parietal region, as lexical knowledge increases irrespective of language. PMID:21350046

  2. LARGE SCALE GLAZED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Anja Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    WORLD FAMOUS ARCHITECTS CHALLENGE TODAY THE EXPOSURE OF CONCRETE IN THEIR ARCHITECTURE. IT IS MY HOPE TO BE ABLE TO COMPLEMENT THESE. I TRY TO DEVELOP NEW AESTHETIC POTENTIALS FOR THE CONCRETE AND CERAMICS, IN LARGE SCALES THAT HAS NOT BEEN SEEN BEFORE IN THE CERAMIC AREA. IT IS EXPECTED TO RESULT...

  3. Large scale full-length cDNA sequencing reveals a unique genomic landscape in a lepidopteran model insect, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suetsugu, Yoshitaka; Futahashi, Ryo; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Kadono-Okuda, Keiko; Sasanuma, Shun-ichi; Narukawa, Junko; Ajimura, Masahiro; Jouraku, Akiya; Namiki, Nobukazu; Shimomura, Michihiko; Sezutsu, Hideki; Osanai-Futahashi, Mizuko; Suzuki, Masataka G; Daimon, Takaaki; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Taniai, Kiyoko; Asaoka, Kiyoshi; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kawaoka, Shinpei; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Noda, Hiroaki; Kasahara, Masahiro; Sugano, Sumio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fujiwara, Haruhiko; Kataoka, Hiroshi; Arunkumar, Kallare P; Tomar, Archana; Nagaraju, Javaregowda; Goldsmith, Marian R; Feng, Qili; Xia, Qingyou; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Shimada, Toru; Mita, Kazuei

    2013-09-01

    The establishment of a complete genomic sequence of silkworm, the model species of Lepidoptera, laid a foundation for its functional genomics. A more complete annotation of the genome will benefit functional and comparative studies and accelerate extensive industrial applications for this insect. To realize these goals, we embarked upon a large-scale full-length cDNA collection from 21 full-length cDNA libraries derived from 14 tissues of the domesticated silkworm and performed full sequencing by primer walking for 11,104 full-length cDNAs. The large average intron size was 1904 bp, resulting from a high accumulation of transposons. Using gene models predicted by GLEAN and published mRNAs, we identified 16,823 gene loci on the silkworm genome assembly. Orthology analysis of 153 species, including 11 insects, revealed that among three Lepidoptera including Monarch and Heliconius butterflies, the 403 largest silkworm-specific genes were composed mainly of protective immunity, hormone-related, and characteristic structural proteins. Analysis of testis-/ovary-specific genes revealed distinctive features of sexual dimorphism, including depletion of ovary-specific genes on the Z chromosome in contrast to an enrichment of testis-specific genes. More than 40% of genes expressed in specific tissues mapped in tissue-specific chromosomal clusters. The newly obtained FL-cDNA sequences enabled us to annotate the genome of this lepidopteran model insect more accurately, enhancing genomic and functional studies of Lepidoptera and comparative analyses with other insect orders, and yielding new insights into the evolution and organization of lepidopteran-specific genes.

  4. Effects of sex and proficiency in second language processing as revealed by a large-scale fNIRS study of school-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Lisa; Ojima, Shiro; Matsuba-Kurita, Hiroko; Dan, Ippeita; Tsuzuki, Daisuke; Katura, Takusige; Hagiwara, Hiroko

    2015-10-01

    Previous neuroimaging studies in adults have revealed that first and second languages (L1/L2) share similar neural substrates, and that proficiency is a major determinant of the neural organization of L2 in the lexical-semantic and syntactic domains. However, little is known about neural substrates of children in the phonological domain, or about sex differences. Here, we conducted a large-scale study (n = 484) of school-aged children using functional near-infrared spectroscopy and a word repetition task, which requires a great extent of phonological processing. We investigated cortical activation during word processing, emphasizing sex differences, to clarify similarities and differences between L1 and L2, and proficiency-related differences during early L2 learning. L1 and L2 shared similar neural substrates with decreased activation in L2 compared to L1 in the posterior superior/middle temporal and angular/supramarginal gyri for both sexes. Significant sex differences were found in cortical activation within language areas during high-frequency word but not during low-frequency word processing. During high-frequency word processing, widely distributed areas including the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in boys, while more restricted areas, excluding the angular/supramarginal gyri were activated in girls. Significant sex differences were also found in L2 proficiency-related activation: activation significantly increased with proficiency in boys, whereas no proficiency-related differences were found in girls. Importantly, cortical sex differences emerged with proficiency. Based on previous research, the present results indicate that sex differences are acquired or enlarged during language development through different cognitive strategies between sexes, possibly reflecting their different memory functions. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Large scale analysis of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone tails reveals global fine structure of cross-talk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwämmle, Veit; Aspalter, Claudia-Maria; Sidoli, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) is a powerful analytical method for the identification and quantification of co-existing post-translational modifications in histone proteins. One of the most important challenges in current chromatin biology is to characterize the relationships between co-existing histone...... marks, the order and hierarchy of their deposition, and their distinct biological functions. We developed the database CrossTalkDB to organize observed and reported co-existing histone marks as revealed by MS experiments of histone proteins and their derived peptides. Statistical assessment revealed...... sample-specific patterns for the co-frequency of histone post-translational modifications. We implemented a new method to identify positive and negative interplay between pairs of methylation and acetylation marks in proteins. Many of the detected features were conserved between different cell types...

  6. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David Carmona, F.; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martin, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castaneda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, Jose; Prieto-Gonzalez, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; Francisca Gonzalez-Escribano, M.; Ortiz-Fernandez, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narvaez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, Jose A.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schoenau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Oyvind; Molberg, Oyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P. C.; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; Gonzalez-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip a

  7. Rock-avalanche dynamics revealed by large-scale field mapping and seismic signals at a highly mobile avalanche in the West Salt Creek valley, western Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, Jeffrey A.; Baum, Rex L.; Allstadt, Kate; Kochevar, Bernard; Schmitt, Robert G.; Morgan, Matthew L.; White, Jonathan L.; Stratton, Benjamin T.; Hayashi, Timothy A.; Kean, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    On 25 May 2014, a rain-on-snow–induced rock avalanche occurred in the West Salt Creek valley on the northern flank of Grand Mesa in western Colorado (United States). The avalanche mobilized from a preexisting rock slide in the Green River Formation and traveled 4.6 km down the confined valley, killing three people. The avalanche was rare for the contiguous United States because of its large size (54.5 Mm3) and high mobility (height/length = 0.14). To understand the avalanche failure sequence, mechanisms, and mobility, we conducted a forensic analysis using large-scale (1:1000) structural mapping and seismic data. We used high-resolution, unmanned aircraft system imagery as a base for field mapping, and analyzed seismic data from 22 broadband stations (distances avalanche exerted on the earth and tracked these forces using curves in the avalanche path. Our results revealed that the rock avalanche was a cascade of landslide events, rather than a single massive failure. The sequence began with an early morning landslide/debris flow that started ∼10 h before the main avalanche. The main avalanche lasted ∼3.5 min and traveled at average velocities ranging from 15 to 36 m/s. For at least two hours after the avalanche ceased movement, a central, hummock-rich core continued to move slowly. Since 25 May 2014, numerous shallow landslides, rock slides, and rock falls have created new structures and modified avalanche topography. Mobility of the main avalanche and central core was likely enhanced by valley floor material that liquefied from undrained loading by the overriding avalanche. Although the base was likely at least partially liquefied, our mapping indicates that the overriding avalanche internally deformed predominantly by sliding along discrete shear surfaces in material that was nearly dry and had substantial frictional strength. These results indicate that the West Salt Creek avalanche, and probably other long-traveled avalanches, could be modeled as two

  8. Multi-modal analysis of functional connectivity and cerebral blood flow reveals shared and unique effects of propofol in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Maolin; Scheinost, Dustin; Ramani, Ramachandran; Constable, R Todd

    2017-03-01

    Anesthesia-induced changes in functional connectivity and cerebral blow flow (CBF) in large-scale brain networks have emerged as key markers of reduced consciousness. However, studies of functional connectivity disagree on which large-scale networks are altered or preserved during anesthesia, making it difficult to find a consensus amount studies. Additionally, pharmacological alterations in CBF could amplify or occlude changes in connectivity due to the shared variance between CBF and connectivity. Here, we used data-driven connectivity methods and multi-modal imaging to investigate shared and unique neural correlates of reduced consciousness for connectivity in large-scale brain networks. Rs-fMRI and CBF data were collected from the same subjects during an awake and deep sedation condition induced by propofol. We measured whole-brain connectivity using the intrinsic connectivity distribution (ICD), a method not reliant on pre-defined seed regions, networks of interest, or connectivity thresholds. The shared and unique variance between connectivity and CBF were investigated. Finally, to account for shared variance, we present a novel extension to ICD that incorporates cerebral blood flow (CBF) as a scaling factor in the calculation of global connectivity, labeled CBF-adjusted ICD). We observed altered connectivity in multiple large-scale brain networks including the default mode (DMN), salience, visual, and motor networks and reduced CBF in the DMN, frontoparietal network, and thalamus. Regional connectivity and CBF were significantly correlated during both the awake and propofol condition. Nevertheless changes in connectivity and CBF between the awake and deep sedation condition were only significantly correlated in a subsystem of the DMN, suggesting that, while there is significant shared variance between the modalities, changes due to propofol are relatively unique. Similar, but less significant, results were observed in the CBF-adjusted ICD analysis, providing

  9. The large-scale energetic ion layer in the high latitude Jovian magnetosphere as revealed by Ulysses/HI-SCALE cross-field intensity-gradient measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Anagnostopoulos, G C; Marhavilas, P K; Sarris, E T

    2012-01-01

    Ulysses investigated the high latitude Jovian magnetosphere for a second time after Pioneer 11 mission and gave us the opportunity to search the structure and the dynamics of this giant magnetosphere above the magnetodisc. Kivelson(1976) and Kennel & Coroniti(1979) reported that Pioneer 11 observed energetic particle intensities at high latitudes at the same level with those measured in the plasma sheet and inferred that they were not consistent with the magnetodisc model. Ulysses observations supported the idea about a large-scale layer of energetic ions and electrons in the outer high latitude Jovian magnetosphere (Cowley et al.1996; Anagnostopoulos et al. 2001). This study perform a number of further tests for the existence of the large scale layer of energetic ions in the outer high latitude Jovian magnetosphere by studying appropriate cross-B field anisotropies in order to monitor the ion northward/southward intensity gradients. In particular, we examined Ulysses/HI-SCALE observations of energetic io...

  10. On conservation and development of architecture and environment in the construction of large-scale national infrastructure——Exemptified by the Jiangsu Section of the Eastern Route South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Jin; LUO dianLi; WANG XingPing; TANG Jun; YU Gang

    2009-01-01

    The water-diverting route project's characteristics,natural landscapes,and histories and humanism of the Jiangsu Section of the Eastern Route South-to-North Water Diversion Project were systemically analyzed through proposing and studying the canal culture routes,the water resources heritage corridors,the landscape and recreation corridors,and the town economic corridors.The station areas along the water-diverting route were scientifically zoned and graded through quantitative and qualitative synthetic methods.Both planning compendiums and construction controlling methods were proposed based on the project grades of points,lines,and areas.Conservation and development of architecture and environment in the large-scale national infrastructure construction were explored systemically.Theories and methods of developing harmonious water-supplying functions,ecological functions,landscape effects,and cultural effects of large-scale water resources were examined.

  11. On conservation and development of architecture and environment in the construction of large-scale national infrastructure——Exemplified by the Jiangsu Section of the Eastern Route South-to-North Water Diversion Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The water-diverting route project’s characteristics,natural landscapes,and histories and humanism of the Jiangsu Section of the Eastern Route South-to-North Water Diversion Project were systemically analyzed through proposing and studying the canal culture routes,the water resources heritage corridors,the landscape and recreation corridors,and the town economic corridors.The station areas along the water-diverting route were scientifically zoned and graded through quantitative and qualitative synthetic methods.Both planning compendiums and construction controlling methods were proposed based on the project grades of points,lines,and areas.Conservation and development of architecture and environment in the large-scale national infrastructure construction were explored systemically.Theories and methods of developing harmonious water-supplying functions,ecological functions,landscape effects,and cultural effects of large-scale water resources were examined.

  12. A large-scale in vivo analysis reveals that TALENs are significantly more mutagenic than ZFNs generated using context-dependent assembly

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shijia; Oikonomou, Grigorios; Chiu, Cindy N.; Niles, Brett J.; Liu, Justin; Lee, Daniel A.; Antoshechkin, Igor; Prober, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and TAL effector nucleases (TALENs) have been shown to induce targeted mutations, but they have not been extensively tested in any animal model. Here, we describe a large-scale comparison of ZFN and TALEN mutagenicity in zebrafish. Using deep sequencing, we found that TALENs are significantly more likely to be mutagenic and induce an average of 10-fold more mutations than ZFNs. We observed a strong correlation between somatic and germ-line mutagenicity, and identi...

  13. Large Scale Solar Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the research was to evaluate large-scale solar heating connected to district heating (CSDHP), to build up a simulation tool and to demonstrate the application of the simulation tool for design studies and on a local energy planning case. The evaluation was mainly carried out...... model is designed and validated on the Marstal case. Applying the Danish Reference Year, a design tool is presented. The simulation tool is used for proposals for application of alternative designs, including high-performance solar collector types (trough solar collectors, vaccum pipe collectors......). Simulation programs are proposed as control supporting tool for daily operation and performance prediction of central solar heating plants. Finaly the CSHP technolgy is put into persepctive with respect to alternatives and a short discussion on the barries and breakthrough of the technology are given....

  14. Large scale tracking algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Love, Joshua Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melgaard, David Kennett [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Karelitz, David B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pitts, Todd Alan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zollweg, Joshua David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Anderson, Dylan Z. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Nandy, Prabal [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Whitlow, Gary L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bender, Daniel A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Byrne, Raymond Harry [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  15. Large scale tracking algorithms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Ross L.; Love, Joshua Alan; Melgaard, David Kennett; Karelitz, David B.; Pitts, Todd Alan; Zollweg, Joshua David; Anderson, Dylan Z.; Nandy, Prabal; Whitlow, Gary L.; Bender, Daniel A.; Byrne, Raymond Harry

    2015-01-01

    Low signal-to-noise data processing algorithms for improved detection, tracking, discrimination and situational threat assessment are a key research challenge. As sensor technologies progress, the number of pixels will increase signi cantly. This will result in increased resolution, which could improve object discrimination, but unfortunately, will also result in a significant increase in the number of potential targets to track. Many tracking techniques, like multi-hypothesis trackers, suffer from a combinatorial explosion as the number of potential targets increase. As the resolution increases, the phenomenology applied towards detection algorithms also changes. For low resolution sensors, "blob" tracking is the norm. For higher resolution data, additional information may be employed in the detection and classfication steps. The most challenging scenarios are those where the targets cannot be fully resolved, yet must be tracked and distinguished for neighboring closely spaced objects. Tracking vehicles in an urban environment is an example of such a challenging scenario. This report evaluates several potential tracking algorithms for large-scale tracking in an urban environment.

  16. A large-scale phylogeny of Synodontis (Mochokidae, Siluriformes) reveals the influence of geological events on continental diversity during the Cenozoic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinton, Aurélie; Agnèse, Jean-François; Paugy, Didier; Otero, Olga

    2013-03-01

    To explain the spatial variability of fish taxa at a large scale, two alternative proposals are usually evoked. In recent years, the debate has centred on the relative roles of present and historical processes in shaping biodiversity patterns. In Africa, attempts to understand the processes that determine the large scale distribution of fishes and exploration of historical contingencies have been under-investigated given that most of the phylogenetic studies focus on the history of the Great Lakes. Here, we explore phylogeographic events in the evolutionary history of Synodontis (Mohokidae, Siluriformes) over Africa during the Cenozoic focusing on the putative role of historical processes. We discuss how known geological events together with hydrographical changes contributed to shape Synodontis biogeographical history. Synodontis was chosen on the basis of its high diversity and distribution in Africa: it consists of approximately 120 species that are widely distributed in all hydrographic basins except the Maghreb and South Africa. We propose the most comprehensive phylogeny of this catfish genus. Our results provide support for the 'hydrogeological' hypothesis, which proposes that palaeohydrological changes linked with the geological context may have been the cause of diversification of freshwater fish deep in the Tertiary. More precisely, the two main geological structures that participated to shape the hydrographical network in Africa, namely the Central African Shear zone and the East African rift system, appear as strong drivers of Synodontis diversification and evolution. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Large-scale population assessment informs conservation management for seabirds in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean: A case study of Adélie penguins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Southwell

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are increasingly affected by fisheries, climate change and human presence. Antarctic seabirds are vulnerable to all these threats because they depend on terrestrial and marine environments to breed and forage. We assess the current distribution and total abundance of Adélie penguins in East Antarctica and find there are 3.5 (95% CI 2.9–4.2 million individuals of breeding age along the East Antarctic coastline and 5.9 (4.2–7.7 million individuals foraging in the adjacent ocean after the breeding season. One third of the breeding population numbering over 1 million individuals breed within 10 km of research stations, highlighting the potential for human activities to impact Adélie penguin populations despite their current high abundance. The 16 Antarctic Specially Protected Areas currently designated in East Antarctica offer protection to breeding populations close to stations in four of six regional populations. The East Antarctic breeding population consumes an average of 193 500 tonnes of krill and 18 800 tonnes of fish during a breeding season, with consumption peaking at the end of the breeding season. These findings can inform future conservation management decisions in the terrestrial environment under the Protocol on Environmental Protection to develop a systematic network of protected areas, and in the marine environment under the Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources to allow the consumption needs of Adélie penguins to be taken into account when setting fishery catch limits. Extending this work to other penguin, flying seabird, seal and whale species is a priority for conservation management in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean.

  18. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need for 21st Century Conservation Options [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortini, Lucas B; Vorsino, Adam E; Amidon, Fred A; Paxton, Eben H; Jacobi, James D

    2015-01-01

    Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics) are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows). Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  19. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need for 21st Century Conservation Options [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas B Fortini

    Full Text Available Hawaiian forest birds serve as an ideal group to explore the extent of climate change impacts on at-risk species. Avian malaria constrains many remaining Hawaiian forest bird species to high elevations where temperatures are too cool for malaria's life cycle and its principal mosquito vector. The impact of climate change on Hawaiian forest birds has been a recent focus of Hawaiian conservation biology, and has centered on the links between climate and avian malaria. To elucidate the differential impacts of projected climate shifts on species with known varying niches, disease resistance and tolerance, we use a comprehensive database of species sightings, regional climate projections and ensemble distribution models to project distribution shifts for all Hawaiian forest bird species. We illustrate that, under a likely scenario of continued disease-driven distribution limitation, all 10 species with highly reliable models (mostly narrow-ranged, single-island endemics are expected to lose >50% of their range by 2100. Of those, three are expected to lose all range and three others are expected to lose >90% of their range. Projected range loss was smaller for several of the more widespread species; however improved data and models are necessary to refine future projections. Like other at-risk species, Hawaiian forest birds have specific habitat requirements that limit the possibility of range expansion for most species, as projected expansion is frequently in areas where forest habitat is presently not available (such as recent lava flows. Given the large projected range losses for all species, protecting high elevation forest alone is not an adequate long-term strategy for many species under climate change. We describe the types of additional conservation actions practitioners will likely need to consider, while providing results to help with such considerations.

  20. A Large-Scale Genetic Analysis Reveals a Strong Contribution of the HLA Class II Region to Giant Cell Arteritis Susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, F. David; Mackie, Sarah L.; Martín, Jose-Ezequiel; Taylor, John C.; Vaglio, Augusto; Eyre, Stephen; Bossini-Castillo, Lara; Castañeda, Santos; Cid, Maria C.; Hernández-Rodríguez, José; Prieto-González, Sergio; Solans, Roser; Ramentol-Sintas, Marc; González-Escribano, M. Francisca; Ortiz-Fernández, Lourdes; Morado, Inmaculada C.; Narváez, Javier; Miranda-Filloy, José A.; Martínez-Berriochoa, Agustín; Unzurrunzaga, Ainhoa; Hidalgo-Conde, Ana; Madroñero-Vuelta, Ana B.; Fernández-Nebro, Antonio; Ordóñez-Cañizares, M. Carmen; Escalante, Begoña; Marí-Alfonso, Begoña; Sopeña, Bernardo; Magro, César; Raya, Enrique; Grau, Elena; Román, José A.; de Miguel, Eugenio; López-Longo, F. Javier; Martínez, Lina; Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Benjamín; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Luis; Díaz-López, J. Bernardino; Caminal-Montero, Luis; Martínez-Zapico, Aleida; Monfort, Jordi; Tío, Laura; Sánchez-Martín, Julio; Alegre-Sancho, Juan J.; Sáez-Comet, Luis; Pérez-Conesa, Mercedes; Corbera-Bellalta, Marc; García-Villanueva, M. Jesús; Fernández-Contreras, M. Encarnación; Sanchez-Pernaute, Olga; Blanco, Ricardo; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Ríos-Fernández, Raquel; Callejas, José L.; Fanlo-Mateo, Patricia; Martínez-Taboada, Víctor M.; Beretta, Lorenzo; Lunardi, Claudio; Cimmino, Marco A.; Gianfreda, Davide; Santilli, Daniele; Ramirez, Giuseppe A.; Soriano, Alessandra; Muratore, Francesco; Pazzola, Giulia; Addimanda, Olga; Wijmenga, Cisca; Witte, Torsten; Schirmer, Jan H.; Moosig, Frank; Schönau, Verena; Franke, Andre; Palm, Øyvind; Molberg, Øyvind; Diamantopoulos, Andreas P.; Carette, Simon; Cuthbertson, David; Forbess, Lindsy J.; Hoffman, Gary S.; Khalidi, Nader A.; Koening, Curry L.; Langford, Carol A.; McAlear, Carol A.; Moreland, Larry; Monach, Paul A.; Pagnoux, Christian; Seo, Philip; Spiera, Robert; Sreih, Antoine G.; Warrington, Kenneth J.; Ytterberg, Steven R.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Pease, Colin T.; Gough, Andrew; Green, Michael; Hordon, Lesley; Jarrett, Stephen; Watts, Richard; Levy, Sarah; Patel, Yusuf; Kamath, Sanjeet; Dasgupta, Bhaskar; Worthington, Jane; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Barrett, Jennifer H.; Salvarani, Carlo; Merkel, Peter A.; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Morgan, Ann W.; Martín, Javier

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a large-scale genetic analysis on giant cell arteritis (GCA), a polygenic immune-mediated vasculitis. A case-control cohort, comprising 1,651 case subjects with GCA and 15,306 unrelated control subjects from six different countries of European ancestry, was genotyped by the Immunochip array. We also imputed HLA data with a previously validated imputation method to perform a more comprehensive analysis of this genomic region. The strongest association signals were observed in the HLA region, with rs477515 representing the highest peak (p = 4.05 × 10−40, OR = 1.73). A multivariate model including class II amino acids of HLA-DRβ1 and HLA-DQα1 and one class I amino acid of HLA-B explained most of the HLA association with GCA, consistent with previously reported associations of classical HLA alleles like HLA-DRB1∗04. An omnibus test on polymorphic amino acid positions highlighted DRβ1 13 (p = 4.08 × 10−43) and HLA-DQα1 47 (p = 4.02 × 10−46), 56, and 76 (both p = 1.84 × 10−45) as relevant positions for disease susceptibility. Outside the HLA region, the most significant loci included PTPN22 (rs2476601, p = 1.73 × 10−6, OR = 1.38), LRRC32 (rs10160518, p = 4.39 × 10−6, OR = 1.20), and REL (rs115674477, p = 1.10 × 10−5, OR = 1.63). Our study provides evidence of a strong contribution of HLA class I and II molecules to susceptibility to GCA. In the non-HLA region, we confirmed a key role for the functional PTPN22 rs2476601 variant and proposed other putative risk loci for GCA involved in Th1, Th17, and Treg cell function. PMID:25817017

  1. Large-scale data analytics

    CERN Document Server

    Gkoulalas-Divanis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    Provides cutting-edge research in large-scale data analytics from diverse scientific areas Surveys varied subject areas and reports on individual results of research in the field Shares many tips and insights into large-scale data analytics from authors and editors with long-term experience and specialization in the field

  2. The perfect ash-storm: large-scale Pyroclastic Density Current experiments reveal highly mobile, self-fluidising and air-cushioned flow transport regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, G.; Cronin, S. J.; Breard, E.; Valentine, G.; Bursik, M. I.; Hort, M. K.; Freundt, A.

    2013-12-01

    We report on the first systematic series of large-scale Pyroclastic Density Current (PDC) experiments using the New Zealand PDC Generator, a novel international research facility in Physical Volcanology recently commissioned at Massey University. Repeatable highly energetic and hot PDCs are synthesized by the controlled ';eruption column-collapse' of up to 3500 kg of homogenously aerated Taupo ignimbrite material from a 15 m-elevated hopper onto an instrumented inclined flume. At discharge rates between 250-1300 kg/s and low- to moderate gas injection rates (yielding initial solids concentration of 15-70 vol%) channelized gas-particle mixture flows life-scaled to dense PDCs can be generated. The flow fronts of the currents reach velocities of up to 9.5 m/s over their first 12 m of travel and rapidly develop strong vertical density stratification. The PDCs typically form a highly mobile, surge that also laterally escapes the flume boundaries. Depending on the PDC starting conditions underflows with 1-45 vol% solids concentration are formed, while the upper surge contains <<1 vol.% solids. A characteristic feature of the underflow is the occurrence of 'ignitive' front breakouts, producing jetted lobes that accelerate outward from the flow front, initially forming a lobe-cleft structure, followed by segregation downslope into multiple flow pulses. Depending on initial solids concentration and discharge rate, stratified, dune-bedded and inversely graded bedforms are created whose thicknesses are remarkably uniform along the medial to distal runout path characterising highly mobile flow runout. Along with high-speed video footage we present time-series data of basal arrays of load- and gas-pore pressure transducers to characterise the mobile dense underflows. Data shows that the PDCs are comprised of a turbulent coarse-grained and air-ingesting front with particle-solids concentrations of 1-5 vol%. The front shows a brief phase of negative pore pressure due to the

  3. Large scale integration of drug-target information reveals poly-pharmacological drug action mechanisms in tumor cell line growth inhibition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Richard A.; Gostev, Mikhail; Ilisavskii, Sergei; Willis, Anne E.; Melino, Gerry; Antonov, Alexey V.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding therapeutic mechanisms of drug anticancer cytotoxicity represents a key challenge in preclinical testing. Here we have performed a meta-analysis of publicly available tumor cell line growth inhibition assays (~ 70 assays from 6 independent experimental groups covering ~ 500 000 molecules) with the primary goal of understanding molecular therapeutic mechanisms of cancer cytotoxicity. To implement this we have collected currently available information on protein targets for molecules that were tested in the assays. We used a statistical methodology to identify protein targets overrepresented among molecules exhibiting cancer cytotoxicity with the particular focus of identifying overrepresented patterns consisting of several proteins (i.e. proteins “A” and “B” and “C”). Our analysis demonstrates that targeting individual proteins can result in a significant increase (up to 50-fold) of the observed odds for a molecule to be an efficient inhibitor of tumour cell line growth. However, further insight into potential molecular mechanisms reveals a multi-target mode of action: targeting a pattern of several proteins drastically increases the observed odds (up to 500-fold) for a molecule to be tumour cytotoxic. In contrast, molecules targeting only one protein but not targeting an additional set of proteins tend to be nontoxic. Our findings support a poly-pharmacology drug discovery paradigm, demonstrating that anticancer cytotoxicity is a product, in most cases, of multi-target mode of drug action PMID:24553133

  4. Crystal structures of yeast beta-alanine synthase complexes reveal the mode of substrate binding and large scale domain closure movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Stina; Andersen, Birgit; Piskur, Jure; Dobritzsch, Doreen

    2007-12-07

    Beta-alanine synthase is the final enzyme of the reductive pyrimidine catabolic pathway, which is responsible for the breakdown of uracil and thymine in higher organisms. The fold of the homodimeric enzyme from the yeast Saccharomyces kluyveri identifies it as a member of the AcyI/M20 family of metallopeptidases. Its subunit consists of a catalytic domain harboring a di-zinc center and a smaller dimerization domain. The present site-directed mutagenesis studies identify Glu(159) and Arg(322) as crucial for catalysis and His(262) and His(397) as functionally important but not essential. We determined the crystal structures of wild-type beta-alanine synthase in complex with the reaction product beta-alanine, and of the mutant E159A with the substrate N-carbamyl-beta-alanine, revealing the closed state of a dimeric AcyI/M20 metallopeptidase-like enzyme. Subunit closure is achieved by a approximately 30 degrees rigid body domain rotation, which completes the active site by integration of substrate binding residues that belong to the dimerization domain of the same or the partner subunit. Substrate binding is achieved via a salt bridge, a number of hydrogen bonds, and coordination to one of the zinc ions of the di-metal center.

  5. Large scale fusion of gray matter and resting-state functional MRI reveals common and shared biological markers across the psychosis spectrum in the B-SNIP cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng eWang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses (schizophrenia (SZ, schizoaffective disorder (SAD, and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives and 242 healthy controls. All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI scanning. Joint independent analysis (jICA was used to fuse sMRI gray matter (GM and rs-fMRI amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (ALFF data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. Joint ICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network (DMN was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function and Schizo-Bipolar Scale (SBS scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality. Using a multivariate fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Further, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  6. Large scale screening of digeneans for Neorickettsia endosymbionts using real-time PCR reveals new Neorickettsia genotypes, host associations and geographic records.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen E Greiman

    Full Text Available Digeneans are endoparasitic flatworms with complex life cycles including one or two intermediate hosts (first of which is always a mollusk and a vertebrate definitive host. Digeneans may harbor intracellular endosymbiotic bacteria belonging to the genus Neorickettsia (order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae. Some Neorickettsia are able to invade cells of the digenean's vertebrate host and are known to cause diseases of wildlife and humans. In this study we report the results of screening 771 digenean samples for Neorickettsia collected from various vertebrates in terrestrial, freshwater, brackish, and marine habitats in the United States, China and Australia. Neorickettsia were detected using a newly designed real-time PCR protocol targeting a 152 bp fragment of the heat shock protein coding gene, GroEL, and verified with nested PCR and sequencing of a 1371 bp long region of 16S rRNA. Eight isolates of Neorickettsia have been obtained. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that 7 of these isolates, provisionally named Neorickettsia sp. 1-7 (obtained from allocreadiid Crepidostomum affine, haploporids Saccocoelioides beauforti and Saccocoelioides lizae, faustulid Bacciger sprenti, deropegid Deropegus aspina, a lecithodendriid, and a pleurogenid represent new genotypes and one (obtained from Metagonimoides oregonensis was identical to a published sequence of Neorickettsia known as SF agent. All digenean species reported in this study represent new host records. Three of the 6 digenean families (Haploporidae, Pleurogenidae, and Faustulidae are also reported for the first time as hosts of Neorickettsia. We have detected Neorickettsia in digeneans from China and Australia for the first time based on PCR and sequencing evidence. Our findings suggest that further surveys from broader geographic regions and wider selection of digenean taxa are likely to reveal new Neorickettsia lineages as well as new digenean host associations.

  7. Large-scale mitochondrial DNA analysis in Southeast Asia reveals evolutionary effects of cultural isolation in the multi-ethnic population of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerer, Monika; Horst, Jürgen; Erhart, Gertraud; Weißensteiner, Hansi; Schönherr, Sebastian; Pacher, Dominic; Forer, Lukas; Horst, David; Manhart, Angelika; Horst, Basil; Sanguansermsri, Torpong; Kloss-Brandstätter, Anita

    2014-01-28

    Myanmar is the largest country in mainland Southeast Asia with a population of 55 million people subdivided into more than 100 ethnic groups. Ruled by changing kingdoms and dynasties and lying on the trade route between India and China, Myanmar was influenced by numerous cultures. Since its independence from British occupation, tensions between the ruling Bamar and ethnic minorities increased. Our aim was to search for genetic footprints of Myanmar's geographic, historic and sociocultural characteristics and to contribute to the picture of human colonization by describing and dating of new mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups. Therefore, we sequenced the mtDNA control region of 327 unrelated donors and the complete mitochondrial genome of 44 selected individuals according to highest quality standards. Phylogenetic analyses of the entire mtDNA genomes uncovered eight new haplogroups and three unclassified basal M-lineages. The multi-ethnic population and the complex history of Myanmar were reflected in its mtDNA heterogeneity. Population genetic analyses of Burmese control region sequences combined with population data from neighboring countries revealed that the Myanmar haplogroup distribution showed a typical Southeast Asian pattern, but also Northeast Asian and Indian influences. The population structure of the extraordinarily diverse Bamar differed from that of the Karen people who displayed signs of genetic isolation. Migration analyses indicated a considerable genetic exchange with an overall positive migration balance from Myanmar to neighboring countries. Age estimates of the newly described haplogroups point to the existence of evolutionary windows where climatic and cultural changes gave rise to mitochondrial haplogroup diversification in Asia.

  8. Large Scale Dynamos in Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, Ethan T.

    2015-01-01

    We show that a differentially rotating conducting fluid automatically creates a magnetic helicity flux with components along the rotation axis and in the direction of the local vorticity. This drives a rapid growth in the local density of current helicity, which in turn drives a large scale dynamo. The dynamo growth rate derived from this process is not constant, but depends inversely on the large scale magnetic field strength. This dynamo saturates when buoyant losses of magnetic flux compete with the large scale dynamo, providing a simple prediction for magnetic field strength as a function of Rossby number in stars. Increasing anisotropy in the turbulence produces a decreasing magnetic helicity flux, which explains the flattening of the B/Rossby number relation at low Rossby numbers. We also show that the kinetic helicity is always a subdominant effect. There is no kinematic dynamo in real stars.

  9. Large-scale circuit simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y. P.

    1982-12-01

    The simulation of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) circuits falls beyond the capabilities of conventional circuit simulators like SPICE. On the other hand, conventional logic simulators can only give the results of logic levels 1 and 0 with the attendent loss of detail in the waveforms. The aim of developing large-scale circuit simulation is to bridge the gap between conventional circuit simulation and logic simulation. This research is to investigate new approaches for fast and relatively accurate time-domain simulation of MOS (Metal Oxide Semiconductors), LSI (Large Scale Integration) and VLSI circuits. New techniques and new algorithms are studied in the following areas: (1) analysis sequencing (2) nonlinear iteration (3) modified Gauss-Seidel method (4) latency criteria and timestep control scheme. The developed methods have been implemented into a simulation program PREMOS which could be used as a design verification tool for MOS circuits.

  10. The large-scale structure of vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Albareti, F D; Maroto, A L

    2014-01-01

    The vacuum state in quantum field theory is known to exhibit an important number of fundamental physical features. In this work we explore the possibility that this state could also present a non-trivial space-time structure on large scales. In particular, we will show that by imposing the renormalized vacuum energy-momentum tensor to be conserved and compatible with cosmological observations, the vacuum energy of sufficiently heavy fields behaves at late times as non-relativistic matter rather than as a cosmological constant. In this limit, the vacuum state supports perturbations whose speed of sound is negligible and accordingly allows the growth of structures in the vacuum energy itself. This large-scale structure of vacuum could seed the formation of galaxies and clusters very much in the same way as cold dark matter does.

  11. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Andrew R. J.

    Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), the state-of-the-art production techniques for computer chips, promises such powerful, inexpensive computing that, in the future, people will be able to communicate with computer devices in natural language or even speech. However, before full-scale VLSI implementation can occur, certain salient factors must be…

  12. 大型水利水电项目建设管理机制探索%Exploration on Construction Management Mechanism of Large-scale Water Conservancy and Hydropower Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    初曰亭

    2013-01-01

    The hydropower is a renewable energy with lower long-term cost and higher comprehensive benefits,and has very important strategic roles on improving energy structure,reducing greenhouse gas emissions,protecting environment,ensuring energy security and promoting sustainable economic and social development.The water control project generally has multiple public functions on flood control,irrigation,sediment control and navigation,and a positive and far-reaching impact on economic development,social harmony and environmental improvement of a region or a country.Therefore,the construction of large-scale water conservancy and hydropower project is an inevitable choice of a country to achieve sustainable development.The construction management practices of Tingzikou Water Control Project are summarized from the aspects of top-level design,scientific planning,thinking clearing,problem solving,policy support and reasonable benefits,which is to explore the construction management mechanisms of large-scale water conservancy and hydropower projects for solving the difficulties in the development and promoting the scientific development of these projects.%水电具有循环可再生、长期成本低、综合效益大等优势,对改善能源结构、减排温室气体、保护生态环境、保障能源安全和促进经济社会可持续发展具有十分重要的战略意义;而水利枢纽工程一般具有防洪、灌溉、拦沙减淤、通航等多重社会公益性功能,对一个地区乃至一个国家的经济发展、社会和谐、环境改善都有着积极而深远的影响.因此大型水利水电项目的建设是一个国家实现可持续发展的必然选择.从顶层设计、科学规划、理清思路、解决问题、政策配套和合理回报等角度总结、思考嘉陵江亭子口水利枢纽建设管理实践,探索大型水利水电建设管理机制,以利于解决好大型水利水电发展中的热点、难点问题,促进水利水电建设事业的科学发展.

  13. Large-scale solar heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tolonen, J.; Konttinen, P.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics

    1998-12-31

    In this project a large domestic solar heating system was built and a solar district heating system was modelled and simulated. Objectives were to improve the performance and reduce costs of a large-scale solar heating system. As a result of the project the benefit/cost ratio can be increased by 40 % through dimensioning and optimising the system at the designing stage. (orig.)

  14. Testing gravity on Large Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Raccanelli Alvise

    2013-01-01

    We show how it is possible to test general relativity and different models of gravity via Redshift-Space Distortions using forthcoming cosmological galaxy surveys. However, the theoretical models currently used to interpret the data often rely on simplifications that make them not accurate enough for precise measurements. We will discuss improvements to the theoretical modeling at very large scales, including wide-angle and general relativistic corrections; we then show that for wide and deep...

  15. Strings and large scale magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Olesen, P

    1995-01-01

    From computer simulations of magnetohydrodynamics one knows that a turbulent plasma becomes very intermittent, with the magnetic fields concentrated in thin flux tubes. This situation looks very "string-like", so we investigate whether strings could be solutions of the magnetohydrodynamics equations in the limit of infinite conductivity. We find that the induction equation is satisfied, and we discuss the Navier-Stokes equation (without viscosity) with the Lorentz force included. We argue that the string equations (with non-universal maximum velocity) should describe the large scale motion of narrow magnetic flux tubes, because of a large reparametrization (gauge) invariance of the magnetic and electric string fields.

  16. Japanese large-scale interferometers

    CERN Document Server

    Kuroda, K; Miyoki, S; Ishizuka, H; Taylor, C T; Yamamoto, K; Miyakawa, O; Fujimoto, M K; Kawamura, S; Takahashi, R; Yamazaki, T; Arai, K; Tatsumi, D; Ueda, A; Fukushima, M; Sato, S; Shintomi, T; Yamamoto, A; Suzuki, T; Saitô, Y; Haruyama, T; Sato, N; Higashi, Y; Uchiyama, T; Tomaru, T; Tsubono, K; Ando, M; Takamori, A; Numata, K; Ueda, K I; Yoneda, H; Nakagawa, K; Musha, M; Mio, N; Moriwaki, S; Somiya, K; Araya, A; Kanda, N; Telada, S; Sasaki, M; Tagoshi, H; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Ohara, K

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the TAMA 300 interferometer was to develop advanced technologies for kilometre scale interferometers and to observe gravitational wave events in nearby galaxies. It was designed as a power-recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer and was intended as a step towards a final interferometer in Japan. The present successful status of TAMA is presented. TAMA forms a basis for LCGT (large-scale cryogenic gravitational wave telescope), a 3 km scale cryogenic interferometer to be built in the Kamioka mine in Japan, implementing cryogenic mirror techniques. The plan of LCGT is schematically described along with its associated R and D.

  17. Models of large scale structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S. (Physics Dept., Univ. of Durham (UK))

    1991-01-01

    The ingredients required to construct models of the cosmic large scale structure are discussed. Input from particle physics leads to a considerable simplification by offering concrete proposals for the geometry of the universe, the nature of the dark matter and the primordial fluctuations that seed the growth of structure. The remaining ingredient is the physical interaction that governs dynamical evolution. Empirical evidence provided by an analysis of a redshift survey of IRAS galaxies suggests that gravity is the main agent shaping the large-scale structure. In addition, this survey implies large values of the mean cosmic density, {Omega}> or approx.0.5, and is consistent with a flat geometry if IRAS galaxies are somewhat more clustered than the underlying mass. Together with current limits on the density of baryons from Big Bang nucleosynthesis, this lends support to the idea of a universe dominated by non-baryonic dark matter. Results from cosmological N-body simulations evolved from a variety of initial conditions are reviewed. In particular, neutrino dominated and cold dark matter dominated universes are discussed in detail. Finally, it is shown that apparent periodicities in the redshift distributions in pencil-beam surveys arise frequently from distributions which have no intrinsic periodicity but are clustered on small scales. (orig.).

  18. Large-Scale Galaxy Bias

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian

    2016-01-01

    This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a pedagogical proof of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which includes the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in i...

  19. Large scale biomimetic membrane arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Søndergaard; Perry, Mark; Vogel, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    To establish planar biomimetic membranes across large scale partition aperture arrays, we created a disposable single-use horizontal chamber design that supports combined optical-electrical measurements. Functional lipid bilayers could easily and efficiently be established across CO2 laser micro......-structured 8 x 8 aperture partition arrays with average aperture diameters of 301 +/- 5 mu m. We addressed the electro-physical properties of the lipid bilayers established across the micro-structured scaffold arrays by controllable reconstitution of biotechnological and physiological relevant membrane...... peptides and proteins. Next, we tested the scalability of the biomimetic membrane design by establishing lipid bilayers in rectangular 24 x 24 and hexagonal 24 x 27 aperture arrays, respectively. The results presented show that the design is suitable for further developments of sensitive biosensor assays...

  20. Testing gravity on Large Scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raccanelli Alvise

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We show how it is possible to test general relativity and different models of gravity via Redshift-Space Distortions using forthcoming cosmological galaxy surveys. However, the theoretical models currently used to interpret the data often rely on simplifications that make them not accurate enough for precise measurements. We will discuss improvements to the theoretical modeling at very large scales, including wide-angle and general relativistic corrections; we then show that for wide and deep surveys those corrections need to be taken into account if we want to measure the growth of structures at a few percent level, and so perform tests on gravity, without introducing systematic errors. Finally, we report the results of some recent cosmological model tests carried out using those precise models.

  1. Conference on Large Scale Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Hearn, D; Pardalos, P

    1994-01-01

    On February 15-17, 1993, a conference on Large Scale Optimization, hosted by the Center for Applied Optimization, was held at the University of Florida. The con­ ference was supported by the National Science Foundation, the U. S. Army Research Office, and the University of Florida, with endorsements from SIAM, MPS, ORSA and IMACS. Forty one invited speakers presented papers on mathematical program­ ming and optimal control topics with an emphasis on algorithm development, real world applications and numerical results. Participants from Canada, Japan, Sweden, The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Greece, and Denmark gave the meeting an important international component. At­ tendees also included representatives from IBM, American Airlines, US Air, United Parcel Serice, AT & T Bell Labs, Thinking Machines, Army High Performance Com­ puting Research Center, and Argonne National Laboratory. In addition, the NSF sponsored attendance of thirteen graduate students from universities in the United States and abro...

  2. Large Scale Correlation Clustering Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Bagon, Shai

    2011-01-01

    Clustering is a fundamental task in unsupervised learning. The focus of this paper is the Correlation Clustering functional which combines positive and negative affinities between the data points. The contribution of this paper is two fold: (i) Provide a theoretic analysis of the functional. (ii) New optimization algorithms which can cope with large scale problems (>100K variables) that are infeasible using existing methods. Our theoretic analysis provides a probabilistic generative interpretation for the functional, and justifies its intrinsic "model-selection" capability. Furthermore, we draw an analogy between optimizing this functional and the well known Potts energy minimization. This analogy allows us to suggest several new optimization algorithms, which exploit the intrinsic "model-selection" capability of the functional to automatically recover the underlying number of clusters. We compare our algorithms to existing methods on both synthetic and real data. In addition we suggest two new applications t...

  3. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-12-23

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community.

  4. Large Scale Magnetostrictive Valve Actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A.; Holleman, Elizabeth; Eddleman, David

    2008-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's Valves, Actuators and Ducts Design and Development Branch developed a large scale magnetostrictive valve actuator. The potential advantages of this technology are faster, more efficient valve actuators that consume less power and provide precise position control and deliver higher flow rates than conventional solenoid valves. Magnetostrictive materials change dimensions when a magnetic field is applied; this property is referred to as magnetostriction. Magnetostriction is caused by the alignment of the magnetic domains in the material s crystalline structure and the applied magnetic field lines. Typically, the material changes shape by elongating in the axial direction and constricting in the radial direction, resulting in no net change in volume. All hardware and testing is complete. This paper will discuss: the potential applications of the technology; overview of the as built actuator design; discuss problems that were uncovered during the development testing; review test data and evaluate weaknesses of the design; and discuss areas for improvement for future work. This actuator holds promises of a low power, high load, proportionally controlled actuator for valves requiring 440 to 1500 newtons load.

  5. Large-scale pool fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steinhaus Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of research into the burning behavior of large pool fires and fuel spill fires is presented. The features which distinguish such fires from smaller pool fires are mainly associated with the fire dynamics at low source Froude numbers and the radiative interaction with the fire source. In hydrocarbon fires, higher soot levels at increased diameters result in radiation blockage effects around the perimeter of large fire plumes; this yields lower emissive powers and a drastic reduction in the radiative loss fraction; whilst there are simplifying factors with these phenomena, arising from the fact that soot yield can saturate, there are other complications deriving from the intermittency of the behavior, with luminous regions of efficient combustion appearing randomly in the outer surface of the fire according the turbulent fluctuations in the fire plume. Knowledge of the fluid flow instabilities, which lead to the formation of large eddies, is also key to understanding the behavior of large-scale fires. Here modeling tools can be effectively exploited in order to investigate the fluid flow phenomena, including RANS- and LES-based computational fluid dynamics codes. The latter are well-suited to representation of the turbulent motions, but a number of challenges remain with their practical application. Massively-parallel computational resources are likely to be necessary in order to be able to adequately address the complex coupled phenomena to the level of detail that is necessary.

  6. Handbook of Large-Scale Random Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Bollobas, Bela; Miklos, Dezso

    2008-01-01

    Covers various aspects of large-scale networks, including mathematical foundations and rigorous results of random graph theory, modeling and computational aspects of large-scale networks, as well as areas in physics, biology, neuroscience, sociology and technical areas

  7. Large-Scale Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. Nicol; H. R. Ammerlahn; M. E. Goldsby; M. M. Johnson; D. E. Rhodes; A. S. Yoshimura

    2000-12-01

    Large enterprises are ever more dependent on their Large-Scale Information Systems (LSLS), computer systems that are distinguished architecturally by distributed components--data sources, networks, computing engines, simulations, human-in-the-loop control and remote access stations. These systems provide such capabilities as workflow, data fusion and distributed database access. The Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) contains many examples of LSIS components, a fact that motivates this research. However, most LSIS in use grew up from collections of separate subsystems that were not designed to be components of an integrated system. For this reason, they are often difficult to analyze and control. The problem is made more difficult by the size of a typical system, its diversity of information sources, and the institutional complexities associated with its geographic distribution across the enterprise. Moreover, there is no integrated approach for analyzing or managing such systems. Indeed, integrated development of LSIS is an active area of academic research. This work developed such an approach by simulating the various components of the LSIS and allowing the simulated components to interact with real LSIS subsystems. This research demonstrated two benefits. First, applying it to a particular LSIS provided a thorough understanding of the interfaces between the system's components. Second, it demonstrated how more rapid and detailed answers could be obtained to questions significant to the enterprise by interacting with the relevant LSIS subsystems through simulated components designed with those questions in mind. In a final, added phase of the project, investigations were made on extending this research to wireless communication networks in support of telemetry applications.

  8. Conundrum of the Large Scale Streaming

    CERN Document Server

    Malm, T M

    1999-01-01

    The etiology of the large scale peculiar velocity (large scale streaming motion) of clusters would increasingly seem more tenuous, within the context of the gravitational instability hypothesis. Are there any alternative testable models possibly accounting for such large scale streaming of clusters?

  9. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  10. Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlatev, Z.; Brandt, J.; Builtjes, P. J. H.

    Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998......Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Large Scale Computations in Air Pollution Modelling, Sofia, Bulgaria, 6-10 July 1998...

  11. A study of MLFMA for large-scale scattering problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastriter, Michael Larkin

    This research is centered in computational electromagnetics with a focus on solving large-scale problems accurately in a timely fashion using first principle physics. Error control of the translation operator in 3-D is shown. A parallel implementation of the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA) was studied as far as parallel efficiency and scaling. The large-scale scattering program (LSSP), based on the ScaleME library, was used to solve ultra-large-scale problems including a 200lambda sphere with 20 million unknowns. As these large-scale problems were solved, techniques were developed to accurately estimate the memory requirements. Careful memory management is needed in order to solve these massive problems. The study of MLFMA in large-scale problems revealed significant errors that stemmed from inconsistencies in constants used by different parts of the algorithm. These were fixed to produce the most accurate data possible for large-scale surface scattering problems. Data was calculated on a missile-like target using both high frequency methods and MLFMA. This data was compared and analyzed to determine possible strategies to increase data acquisition speed and accuracy through multiple computation method hybridization.

  12. Large scale network-centric distributed systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sarbazi-Azad, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    A highly accessible reference offering a broad range of topics and insights on large scale network-centric distributed systems Evolving from the fields of high-performance computing and networking, large scale network-centric distributed systems continues to grow as one of the most important topics in computing and communication and many interdisciplinary areas. Dealing with both wired and wireless networks, this book focuses on the design and performance issues of such systems. Large Scale Network-Centric Distributed Systems provides in-depth coverage ranging from ground-level hardware issu

  13. Network robustness under large-scale attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Ruifang; Cui, Shuguang

    2014-01-01

    Network Robustness under Large-Scale Attacks provides the analysis of network robustness under attacks, with a focus on large-scale correlated physical attacks. The book begins with a thorough overview of the latest research and techniques to analyze the network responses to different types of attacks over various network topologies and connection models. It then introduces a new large-scale physical attack model coined as area attack, under which a new network robustness measure is introduced and applied to study the network responses. With this book, readers will learn the necessary tools to evaluate how a complex network responds to random and possibly correlated attacks.

  14. Large scale mechanical metamaterials as seismic shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miniaci, Marco; Krushynska, Anastasiia; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M.

    2016-08-01

    Earthquakes represent one of the most catastrophic natural events affecting mankind. At present, a universally accepted risk mitigation strategy for seismic events remains to be proposed. Most approaches are based on vibration isolation of structures rather than on the remote shielding of incoming waves. In this work, we propose a novel approach to the problem and discuss the feasibility of a passive isolation strategy for seismic waves based on large-scale mechanical metamaterials, including for the first time numerical analysis of both surface and guided waves, soil dissipation effects, and adopting a full 3D simulations. The study focuses on realistic structures that can be effective in frequency ranges of interest for seismic waves, and optimal design criteria are provided, exploring different metamaterial configurations, combining phononic crystals and locally resonant structures and different ranges of mechanical properties. Dispersion analysis and full-scale 3D transient wave transmission simulations are carried out on finite size systems to assess the seismic wave amplitude attenuation in realistic conditions. Results reveal that both surface and bulk seismic waves can be considerably attenuated, making this strategy viable for the protection of civil structures against seismic risk. The proposed remote shielding approach could open up new perspectives in the field of seismology and in related areas of low-frequency vibration damping or blast protection.

  15. Gnotobiotic zebrafish reveal evolutionarily conserved responses to the gut microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, John F.; Samuel, Buck S.; Gordon, Jeffrey I.

    2004-01-01

    Animals have developed the means for supporting complex and dynamic consortia of microorganisms during their life cycle. A transcendent view of vertebrate biology therefore requires an understanding of the contributions of these indigenous microbial communities to host development and adult physiology. These contributions are most obvious in the gut, where studies of gnotobiotic mice have disclosed that the microbiota affects a wide range of biological processes, including nutrient processing and absorption, development of the mucosal immune system, angiogenesis, and epithelial renewal. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) provides an opportunity to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions through genetic and chemical screens that take advantage of its transparency during larval and juvenile stages. Therefore, we developed methods for producing and rearing germ-free zebrafish through late juvenile stages. DNA microarray comparisons of gene expression in the digestive tracts of 6 days post fertilization germ-free, conventionalized, and conventionally raised zebrafish revealed 212 genes regulated by the microbiota, and 59 responses that are conserved in the mouse intestine, including those involved in stimulation of epithelial proliferation, promotion of nutrient metabolism, and innate immune responses. The microbial ecology of the digestive tracts of conventionally raised and conventionalized zebrafish was characterized by sequencing libraries of bacterial 16S rDNA amplicons. Colonization of germ-free zebrafish with individual members of its microbiota revealed the bacterial species specificity of selected host responses. Together, these studies establish gnotobiotic zebrafish as a useful model for dissecting the molecular foundations of host-microbial interactions in the vertebrate digestive tract. PMID:15070763

  16. Large Scale Metal Additive Techniques Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nycz, Andrzej [ORNL; Adediran, Adeola I [ORNL; Noakes, Mark W [ORNL; Love, Lonnie J [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In recent years additive manufacturing made long strides toward becoming a main stream production technology. Particularly strong progress has been made in large-scale polymer deposition. However, large scale metal additive has not yet reached parity with large scale polymer. This paper is a review study of the metal additive techniques in the context of building large structures. Current commercial devices are capable of printing metal parts on the order of several cubic feet compared to hundreds of cubic feet for the polymer side. In order to follow the polymer progress path several factors are considered: potential to scale, economy, environment friendliness, material properties, feedstock availability, robustness of the process, quality and accuracy, potential for defects, and post processing as well as potential applications. This paper focuses on current state of art of large scale metal additive technology with a focus on expanding the geometric limits.

  17. Large-scale synthesis of YSZ nanopowder by Pechini method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Morteza Hajizadeh-Oghaz; Reza Shoja Razavi; Mohammadreza Loghman Estarki

    2014-08-01

    Yttria–stabilized zirconia nanopowders were synthesized on a relatively large scale using Pechini method. In the present paper, nearly spherical yttria-stabilized zirconia nanopowders with tetragonal structure were synthesized by Pechini process from zirconium oxynitrate hexahydrate, yttrium nitrate, citric acid and ethylene glycol. The phase and structural analyses were accomplished by X-ray diffraction; morphological analysis was carried out by field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed nearly spherical yttria–stabilized zirconia powder with tetragonal crystal structure and chemical purity of 99.1% by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy on a large scale.

  18. Large-scale vapor transport of remotely evaporated seawater by a Rossby wave response to typhoon forcing during the Baiu/Meiyu season as revealed by the JRA-55 reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tadasuke; Kawamura, Ryuichi; Hirata, Hidetaka; Ichiyanagi, Kimpei; Tanoue, Masahiro; Yoshimura, Kei

    2014-07-01

    The modulation of large-scale moisture transport from the tropics into East Asia in response to typhoon-induced heating during the mature stage of the Baiu/Meiyu season is investigated using the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA-55), aided by a Rayleigh-type global isotope circulation model (ICM). We highlighted the typhoons that migrate northward along the western periphery of the North Pacific subtropical high and approach the vicinity of Japan. Anomalous anticyclonic circulations to the northeast and southeast of typhoons and cyclonic circulation to their west become evident as they migrate toward Japan, which could be interpreted as a Rossby wave response to typhoon heating. These resultant anomalous circulation patterns form moisture conveyor belt (MCB) stretching from the South Asian monsoon region to East Asia via the confluence region between the monsoon westerlies and central Pacific easterlies. The ICM results confirm that the well-defined nature of the MCB leads to penetration of the Indian Ocean, South China Sea, Philippine Sea, and Pacific Ocean water vapors into western Japan. The typhoons have the potential to accumulate large amounts of moisture from distant tropical oceans through the interaction of their Rossby wave response with the background flow. In the case of a typical typhoon, the total precipitable water around the typhoon center as it approaches Japan is maintained by the moisture supply from distant oceans rather than from the underlying ocean, which indirectly leads to the occurrence of heavy rainfall over western Japan.

  19. On the conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dilan CHEN; Jitao SUN

    2005-01-01

    We studied the conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control systems by using the comparison systems and vector Lyapunov functions.Then the less conservative sufficient conditions for conjunction practical stability and controllability of large-scale impulsive control system were obtained.

  20. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusica eVidovic

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  1. Large-scale integration of small molecule-induced genome-wide transcriptional responses, Kinome-wide binding affinities and cell-growth inhibition profiles reveal global trends characterizing systems-level drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, Dušica; Koleti, Amar; Schürer, Stephan C

    2014-01-01

    The Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS) project is a large-scale coordinated effort to build a comprehensive systems biology reference resource. The goals of the program include the generation of a very large multidimensional data matrix and informatics and computational tools to integrate, analyze, and make the data readily accessible. LINCS data include genome-wide transcriptional signatures, biochemical protein binding profiles, cellular phenotypic response profiles and various other datasets for a wide range of cell model systems and molecular and genetic perturbations. Here we present a partial survey of this data facilitated by data standards and in particular a robust compound standardization workflow; we integrated several types of LINCS signatures and analyzed the results with a focus on mechanism of action (MoA) and chemical compounds. We illustrate how kinase targets can be related to disease models and relevant drugs. We identified some fundamental trends that appear to link Kinome binding profiles and transcriptional signatures to chemical information and biochemical binding profiles to transcriptional responses independent of chemical similarity. To fill gaps in the datasets we developed and applied predictive models. The results can be interpreted at the systems level as demonstrated based on a large number of signaling pathways. We can identify clear global relationships, suggesting robustness of cellular responses to chemical perturbation. Overall, the results suggest that chemical similarity is a useful measure at the systems level, which would support phenotypic drug optimization efforts. With this study we demonstrate the potential of such integrated analysis approaches and suggest prioritizing further experiments to fill the gaps in the current data.

  2. Accelerating sustainability in large-scale facilities

    CERN Multimedia

    Marina Giampietro

    2011-01-01

    Scientific research centres and large-scale facilities are intrinsically energy intensive, but how can big science improve its energy management and eventually contribute to the environmental cause with new cleantech? CERN’s commitment to providing tangible answers to these questions was sealed in the first workshop on energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures held in Lund, Sweden, on the 13-14 October.   Participants at the energy management for large scale scientific infrastructures workshop. The workshop, co-organised with the European Spallation Source (ESS) and  the European Association of National Research Facilities (ERF), tackled a recognised need for addressing energy issues in relation with science and technology policies. It brought together more than 150 representatives of Research Infrastrutures (RIs) and energy experts from Europe and North America. “Without compromising our scientific projects, we can ...

  3. Large-Scale Analysis of Art Proportions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square) and with majo......While literature often tries to impute mathematical constants into art, this large-scale study (11 databases of paintings and photos, around 200.000 items) shows a different truth. The analysis, consisting of the width/height proportions, shows a value of rarely if ever one (square...

  4. Large-scale Complex IT Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, Ian; Calinescu, Radu; Keen, Justin; Kelly, Tim; Kwiatkowska, Marta; McDermid, John; Paige, Richard

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the issues around the construction of large-scale complex systems which are built as 'systems of systems' and suggests that there are fundamental reasons, derived from the inherent complexity in these systems, why our current software engineering methods and techniques cannot be scaled up to cope with the engineering challenges of constructing such systems. It then goes on to propose a research and education agenda for software engineering that identifies the major challenges and issues in the development of large-scale complex, software-intensive systems. Central to this is the notion that we cannot separate software from the socio-technical environment in which it is used.

  5. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  6. Topological Routing in Large-Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    A new routing scheme, Topological Routing, for large-scale networks is proposed. It allows for efficient routing without large routing tables as known from traditional routing schemes. It presupposes a certain level of order in the networks, known from Structural QoS. The main issues in applying...... Topological Routing to large-scale networks are discussed. Hierarchical extensions are presented along with schemes for shortest path routing, fault handling and path restoration. Further reserach in the area is discussed and perspectives on the prerequisites for practical deployment of Topological Routing...

  7. Large scale topic modeling made practical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlgreen, Bjarne Ørum; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2011-01-01

    Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number of docume......Topic models are of broad interest. They can be used for query expansion and result structuring in information retrieval and as an important component in services such as recommender systems and user adaptive advertising. In large scale applications both the size of the database (number...... topics at par with a much larger case specific vocabulary....

  8. Magnetic Helicity and Large Scale Magnetic Fields: A Primer

    CERN Document Server

    Blackman, Eric G

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic fields of laboratory, planetary, stellar, and galactic plasmas commonly exhibit significant order on large temporal or spatial scales compared to the otherwise random motions within the hosting system. Such ordered fields can be measured in the case of planets, stars, and galaxies, or inferred indirectly by the action of their dynamical influence, such as jets. Whether large scale fields are amplified in situ or a remnant from previous stages of an object's history is often debated for objects without a definitive magnetic activity cycle. Magnetic helicity, a measure of twist and linkage of magnetic field lines, is a unifying tool for understanding large scale field evolution for both mechanisms of origin. Its importance stems from its two basic properties: (1) magnetic helicity is typically better conserved than magnetic energy; and (2) the magnetic energy associated with a fixed amount of magnetic helicity is minimized when the system relaxes this helical structure to the largest scale available. H...

  9. Large-scale multimedia modeling applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Whelan, G.; Strenge, D.L.; Castleton, K.J.; Gelston, G.M.

    1995-08-01

    Over the past decade, the US Department of Energy (DOE) and other agencies have faced increasing scrutiny for a wide range of environmental issues related to past and current practices. A number of large-scale applications have been undertaken that required analysis of large numbers of potential environmental issues over a wide range of environmental conditions and contaminants. Several of these applications, referred to here as large-scale applications, have addressed long-term public health risks using a holistic approach for assessing impacts from potential waterborne and airborne transport pathways. Multimedia models such as the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were designed for use in such applications. MEPAS integrates radioactive and hazardous contaminants impact computations for major exposure routes via air, surface water, ground water, and overland flow transport. A number of large-scale applications of MEPAS have been conducted to assess various endpoints for environmental and human health impacts. These applications are described in terms of lessons learned in the development of an effective approach for large-scale applications.

  10. Evaluating Large-Scale Interactive Radio Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Charles; Naidoo, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the challenges involved in conducting evaluations of interactive radio programmes in South Africa with large numbers of schools, teachers, and learners. It focuses on the role such large-scale evaluation has played during the South African radio learning programme's development stage, as well as during its subsequent…

  11. Configuration management in large scale infrastructure development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, T.P.J. van; Belt, H. van de; Los, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    Large Scale Infrastructure (LSI) development projects such as the construction of roads, rail-ways and other civil engineering (water)works is tendered differently today than a decade ago. Traditional workflow requested quotes from construction companies for construction works where the works to be

  12. Computing in Large-Scale Dynamic Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruteanu, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    Software applications developed for large-scale systems have always been difficult to de- velop due to problems caused by the large number of computing devices involved. Above a certain network size (roughly one hundred), necessary services such as code updating, topol- ogy discovery and data dissem

  13. Sensitivity analysis for large-scale problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Whitworth, Sandra L.

    1987-01-01

    The development of efficient techniques for calculating sensitivity derivatives is studied. The objective is to present a computational procedure for calculating sensitivity derivatives as part of performing structural reanalysis for large-scale problems. The scope is limited to framed type structures. Both linear static analysis and free-vibration eigenvalue problems are considered.

  14. Large-scale perspective as a challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plomp, M.G.A.

    2012-01-01

    1. Scale forms a challenge for chain researchers: when exactly is something ‘large-scale’? What are the underlying factors (e.g. number of parties, data, objects in the chain, complexity) that determine this? It appears to be a continuum between small- and large-scale, where positioning on that cont

  15. Ensemble methods for large scale inverse problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heemink, A.W.; Umer Altaf, M.; Barbu, A.L.; Verlaan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Variational data assimilation, also sometimes simply called the ‘adjoint method’, is used very often for large scale model calibration problems. Using the available data, the uncertain parameters in the model are identified by minimizing a certain cost function that measures the difference between t

  16. Ethics of large-scale change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arler, Finn

    2006-01-01

    , which kind of attitude is appropriate when dealing with large-scale changes like these from an ethical point of view. Three kinds of approaches are discussed: Aldo Leopold's mountain thinking, the neoclassical economists' approach, and finally the so-called Concentric Circle Theories approach...

  17. Inflation, large scale structure and particle physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S F King

    2004-02-01

    We review experimental and theoretical developments in inflation and its application to structure formation, including the curvation idea. We then discuss a particle physics model of supersymmetric hybrid inflation at the intermediate scale in which the Higgs scalar field is responsible for large scale structure, show how such a theory is completely natural in the framework extra dimensions with an intermediate string scale.

  18. Large scale dynamics of protoplanetary discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béthune, William

    2017-08-01

    Planets form in the gaseous and dusty disks orbiting young stars. These protoplanetary disks are dispersed in a few million years, being accreted onto the central star or evaporated into the interstellar medium. To explain the observed accretion rates, it is commonly assumed that matter is transported through the disk by turbulence, although the mechanism sustaining turbulence is uncertain. On the other side, irradiation by the central star could heat up the disk surface and trigger a photoevaporative wind, but thermal effects cannot account for the observed acceleration and collimation of the wind into a narrow jet perpendicular to the disk plane. Both issues can be solved if the disk is sensitive to magnetic fields. Weak fields lead to the magnetorotational instability, whose outcome is a state of sustained turbulence. Strong fields can slow down the disk, causing it to accrete while launching a collimated wind. However, the coupling between the disk and the neutral gas is done via electric charges, each of which is outnumbered by several billion neutral molecules. The imperfect coupling between the magnetic field and the neutral gas is described in terms of "non-ideal" effects, introducing new dynamical behaviors. This thesis is devoted to the transport processes happening inside weakly ionized and weakly magnetized accretion disks; the role of microphysical effects on the large-scale dynamics of the disk is of primary importance. As a first step, I exclude the wind and examine the impact of non-ideal effects on the turbulent properties near the disk midplane. I show that the flow can spontaneously organize itself if the ionization fraction is low enough; in this case, accretion is halted and the disk exhibits axisymmetric structures, with possible consequences on planetary formation. As a second step, I study the launching of disk winds via a global model of stratified disk embedded in a warm atmosphere. This model is the first to compute non-ideal effects from

  19. Comparison of protein interaction networks reveals species conservation and divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Maikun

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent progresses in high-throughput proteomics have provided us with a first chance to characterize protein interaction networks (PINs, but also raised new challenges in interpreting the accumulating data. Results Motivated by the need of analyzing and interpreting the fast-growing data in the field of proteomics, we propose a comparative strategy to carry out global analysis of PINs. We compare two PINs by combining interaction topology and sequence similarity to identify conserved network substructures (CoNSs. Using this approach we perform twenty-one pairwise comparisons among the seven recently available PINs of E.coli, H.pylori, S.cerevisiae, C.elegans, D.melanogaster, M.musculus and H.sapiens. In spite of the incompleteness of data, PIN comparison discloses species conservation at the network level and the identified CoNSs are also functionally conserved and involve in basic cellular functions. We investigate the yeast CoNSs and find that many of them correspond to known complexes. We also find that different species harbor many conserved interaction regions that are topologically identical and these regions can constitute larger interaction regions that are topologically different but similar in framework. Based on the species-to-species difference in CoNSs, we infer potential species divergence. It seems that different species organize orthologs in similar but not necessarily the same topology to achieve similar or the same function. This attributes much to duplication and divergence of genes and their associated interactions. Finally, as the application of CoNSs, we predict 101 protein-protein interactions (PPIs, annotate 339 new protein functions and deduce 170 pairs of orthologs. Conclusion Our result demonstrates that the cross-species comparison strategy we adopt is powerful for the exploration of biological problems from the perspective of networks.

  20. Growth Limits in Large Scale Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thomas Phillip

    the fundamental technological resources in network technologies are analysed for scalability. Here several technological limits to continued growth are presented. The third step involves a survey of major problems in managing large scale networks given the growth of user requirements and the technological...... limitations. The rising complexity of network management with the convergence of communications platforms is shown as problematic for both automatic management feasibility and for manpower resource management. In the fourth step the scope is extended to include the present society with the DDN project as its...... main focus. Here the general perception of the nature and role in society of large scale networks as a fundamental infrastructure is analysed. This analysis focuses on the effects of the technical DDN projects and on the perception of network infrastructure as expressed by key decision makers...

  1. Quantum Signature of Cosmological Large Scale Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Capozziello, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Capozziello, Salvatore; Martino, Salvatore De; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that to all large scale cosmological structures where gravitation is the only overall relevant interaction assembling the system (e.g. galaxies), there is associated a characteristic unit of action per particle whose order of magnitude coincides with the Planck action constant $h$. This result extends the class of physical systems for which quantum coherence can act on macroscopic scales (as e.g. in superconductivity) and agrees with the absence of screening mechanisms for the gravitational forces, as predicted by some renormalizable quantum field theories of gravity. It also seems to support those lines of thought invoking that large scale structures in the Universe should be connected to quantum primordial perturbations as requested by inflation, that the Newton constant should vary with time and distance and, finally, that gravity should be considered as an effective interaction induced by quantization.

  2. Process Principles for Large-Scale Nanomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Sven H; Breedveld, Victor; Mujica, Maritza; Filler, Michael A

    2017-06-07

    Nanomanufacturing-the fabrication of macroscopic products from well-defined nanoscale building blocks-in a truly scalable and versatile manner is still far from our current reality. Here, we describe the barriers to large-scale nanomanufacturing and identify routes to overcome them. We argue for nanomanufacturing systems consisting of an iterative sequence of synthesis/assembly and separation/sorting unit operations, analogous to those used in chemicals manufacturing. In addition to performance and economic considerations, phenomena unique to the nanoscale must guide the design of each unit operation and the overall process flow. We identify and discuss four key nanomanufacturing process design needs: (a) appropriately selected process break points, (b) synthesis techniques appropriate for large-scale manufacturing, (c) new structure- and property-based separations, and (d) advances in stabilization and packaging.

  3. Condition Monitoring of Large-Scale Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, David L.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides a summary of the research conducted for the NASA Ames Research Center under grant NAG2-1182 (Condition-Based Monitoring of Large-Scale Facilities). The information includes copies of view graphs presented at NASA Ames in the final Workshop (held during December of 1998), as well as a copy of a technical report provided to the COTR (Dr. Anne Patterson-Hine) subsequent to the workshop. The material describes the experimental design, collection of data, and analysis results associated with monitoring the health of large-scale facilities. In addition to this material, a copy of the Pennsylvania State University Applied Research Laboratory data fusion visual programming tool kit was also provided to NASA Ames researchers.

  4. Large-scale structure of the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandarin, S.F.; Doroshkevich, A.G.; Zel' dovich, Ya.B. (Inst. Prikladnoj Matematiki, Moscow, USSR)

    1983-01-01

    A review of theory of the large-scale structure of the Universe is given, including formation of clusters and superclusters of galaxies as well as large voids. Particular attention is paid to the theory of neutrino dominated Universe - the cosmological model where neutrinos with the rest mass of several tens eV dominate the mean density. Evolution of small perturbations is discussed, estimates of microwave backgorund radiation fluctuations is given for different angular scales. Adiabatic theory of the Universe structure formation, known as ''cake'' scenario and their successive fragmentation is given. This scenario is based on approximate nonlinear theory of gravitation instability. Results of numerical experiments, modeling the processes of large-scale structure formation are discussed.

  5. Large-scale structure of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shandarin, S.F.; Doroshkevich, A.G.; Zel' dovich, Y.B.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of theories for the origin of large-scale structure in the universe: clusters and superclusters of galaxies, and vast black regions practically devoid of galaxies. Special attention is paid to the theory of a neutrino-dominated universe: a cosmology in which electron neutrinos with a rest mass of a few tens of electron volts would contribute the bulk of the mean density. The evolution of small perturbations is discussed, and estimates are made for the temperature anisotropy of the microwave background radiation on various angular scales. The nonlinear stage in the evolution of smooth irrotational perturbations in a low-pressure medium is described in detail. Numerical experiments simulating large-scale structure formation processes are discussed, as well as their interpretation in the context of catastrophe theory.

  6. Wireless Secrecy in Large-Scale Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pinto, Pedro C; Win, Moe Z

    2011-01-01

    The ability to exchange secret information is critical to many commercial, governmental, and military networks. The intrinsically secure communications graph (iS-graph) is a random graph which describes the connections that can be securely established over a large-scale network, by exploiting the physical properties of the wireless medium. This paper provides an overview of the main properties of this new class of random graphs. We first analyze the local properties of the iS-graph, namely the degree distributions and their dependence on fading, target secrecy rate, and eavesdropper collusion. To mitigate the effect of the eavesdroppers, we propose two techniques that improve secure connectivity. Then, we analyze the global properties of the iS-graph, namely percolation on the infinite plane, and full connectivity on a finite region. These results help clarify how the presence of eavesdroppers can compromise secure communication in a large-scale network.

  7. ELASTIC: A Large Scale Dynamic Tuning Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Martínez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spectacular growth in the number of cores in current supercomputers poses design challenges for the development of performance analysis and tuning tools. To be effective, such analysis and tuning tools must be scalable and be able to manage the dynamic behaviour of parallel applications. In this work, we present ELASTIC, an environment for dynamic tuning of large-scale parallel applications. To be scalable, the architecture of ELASTIC takes the form of a hierarchical tuning network of nodes that perform a distributed analysis and tuning process. Moreover, the tuning network topology can be configured to adapt itself to the size of the parallel application. To guide the dynamic tuning process, ELASTIC supports a plugin architecture. These plugins, called ELASTIC packages, allow the integration of different tuning strategies into ELASTIC. We also present experimental tests conducted using ELASTIC, showing its effectiveness to improve the performance of large-scale parallel applications.

  8. Measuring Bulk Flows in Large Scale Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Feldman, H A; Feldman, Hume A.; Watkins, Richard

    1993-01-01

    We follow a formalism presented by Kaiser to calculate the variance of bulk flows in large scale surveys. We apply the formalism to a mock survey of Abell clusters \\'a la Lauer \\& Postman and find the variance in the expected bulk velocities in a universe with CDM, MDM and IRAS--QDOT power spectra. We calculate the velocity variance as a function of the 1--D velocity dispersion of the clusters and the size of the survey.

  9. Statistical characteristics of Large Scale Structure

    OpenAIRE

    Demianski; Doroshkevich

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the mass functions of different elements of the Large Scale Structure -- walls, pancakes, filaments and clouds -- and the impact of transverse motions -- expansion and/or compression -- on their statistical characteristics. Using the Zel'dovich theory of gravitational instability we show that the mass functions of all structure elements are approximately the same and the mass of all elements is found to be concentrated near the corresponding mean mass. At high redshifts, both t...

  10. Topologies for large scale photovoltaic power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The concern of increasing renewable energy penetration into the grid together with the reduction of prices of photovoltaic solar panels during the last decade have enabled the development of large scale solar power plants connected to the medium and high voltage grid. Photovoltaic generation components, the internal layout and the ac collection grid are being investigated for ensuring the best design, operation and control of these power plants. This ...

  11. Large-scale instabilities of helical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Cameron, Alexandre; Brachet, Marc-Étienne

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale hydrodynamic instabilities of periodic helical flows are investigated using $3$D Floquet numerical computations. A minimal three-modes analytical model that reproduce and explains some of the full Floquet results is derived. The growth-rate $\\sigma$ of the most unstable modes (at small scale, low Reynolds number $Re$ and small wavenumber $q$) is found to scale differently in the presence or absence of anisotropic kinetic alpha (\\AKA{}) effect. When an $AKA$ effect is present the scaling $\\sigma \\propto q\\; Re\\,$ predicted by the $AKA$ effect theory [U. Frisch, Z. S. She, and P. L. Sulem, Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena 28, 382 (1987)] is recovered for $Re\\ll 1$ as expected (with most of the energy of the unstable mode concentrated in the large scales). However, as $Re$ increases, the growth-rate is found to saturate and most of the energy is found at small scales. In the absence of \\AKA{} effect, it is found that flows can still have large-scale instabilities, but with a negative eddy-viscosity sca...

  12. Economically viable large-scale hydrogen liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardella, U.; Decker, L.; Klein, H.

    2017-02-01

    The liquid hydrogen demand, particularly driven by clean energy applications, will rise in the near future. As industrial large scale liquefiers will play a major role within the hydrogen supply chain, production capacity will have to increase by a multiple of today’s typical sizes. The main goal is to reduce the total cost of ownership for these plants by increasing energy efficiency with innovative and simple process designs, optimized in capital expenditure. New concepts must ensure a manageable plant complexity and flexible operability. In the phase of process development and selection, a dimensioning of key equipment for large scale liquefiers, such as turbines and compressors as well as heat exchangers, must be performed iteratively to ensure technological feasibility and maturity. Further critical aspects related to hydrogen liquefaction, e.g. fluid properties, ortho-para hydrogen conversion, and coldbox configuration, must be analysed in detail. This paper provides an overview on the approach, challenges and preliminary results in the development of efficient as well as economically viable concepts for large-scale hydrogen liquefaction.

  13. Large-Scale Visual Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris

    2014-04-01

    Modern high performance computers have speeds measured in petaflops and handle data set sizes measured in terabytes and petabytes. Although these machines offer enormous potential for solving very large-scale realistic computational problems, their effectiveness will hinge upon the ability of human experts to interact with their simulation results and extract useful information. One of the greatest scientific challenges of the 21st century is to effectively understand and make use of the vast amount of information being produced. Visual data analysis will be among our most most important tools in helping to understand such large-scale information. Our research at the Scientific Computing and Imaging (SCI) Institute at the University of Utah has focused on innovative, scalable techniques for large-scale 3D visual data analysis. In this talk, I will present state- of-the-art visualization techniques, including scalable visualization algorithms and software, cluster-based visualization methods and innovate visualization techniques applied to problems in computational science, engineering, and medicine. I will conclude with an outline for a future high performance visualization research challenges and opportunities.

  14. Large-scale neuromorphic computing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furber, Steve

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic computing covers a diverse range of approaches to information processing all of which demonstrate some degree of neurobiological inspiration that differentiates them from mainstream conventional computing systems. The philosophy behind neuromorphic computing has its origins in the seminal work carried out by Carver Mead at Caltech in the late 1980s. This early work influenced others to carry developments forward, and advances in VLSI technology supported steady growth in the scale and capability of neuromorphic devices. Recently, a number of large-scale neuromorphic projects have emerged, taking the approach to unprecedented scales and capabilities. These large-scale projects are associated with major new funding initiatives for brain-related research, creating a sense that the time and circumstances are right for progress in our understanding of information processing in the brain. In this review we present a brief history of neuromorphic engineering then focus on some of the principal current large-scale projects, their main features, how their approaches are complementary and distinct, their advantages and drawbacks, and highlight the sorts of capabilities that each can deliver to neural modellers.

  15. Large-Scale Fusion of Gray Matter and Resting-State Functional MRI Reveals Common and Distinct Biological Markers across the Psychosis Spectrum in the B-SNIP Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zheng; Meda, Shashwath A; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Tamminga, Carol A; Sweeney, John A; Clementz, Brett A; Schretlen, David J; Calhoun, Vince D; Lui, Su; Pearlson, Godfrey D

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses [schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP)] and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives, and 242 healthy controls (1). All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. Joint-independent component analysis (jICA) was used to fuse sMRI gray matter and rs-fMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. jICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal-striatal-thalamic-cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function, and schizo-bipolar scale scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality). Using a multivariate-fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers, we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Furthermore, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes.

  16. Analysis using large-scale ringing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baillie, S. R.

    2004-06-01

    survival and recruitment estimates from the French CES scheme to assess the relative contributions of survival and recruitment to overall population changes. He develops a novel approach to modelling survival rates from such multi–site data by using within–year recaptures to provide a covariate of between–year recapture rates. This provided parsimonious models of variation in recapture probabilities between sites and years. The approach provides promising results for the four species investigated and can potentially be extended to similar data from other CES/MAPS schemes. The final paper by Blandine Doligez, David Thomson and Arie van Noordwijk (Doligez et al., 2004 illustrates how large-scale studies of population dynamics can be important for evaluating the effects of conservation measures. Their study is concerned with the reintroduction of White Stork populations to the Netherlands where a re–introduction programme started in 1969 had resulted in a breeding population of 396 pairs by 2000. They demonstrate the need to consider a wide range of models in order to account for potential age, time, cohort and “trap–happiness” effects. As the data are based on resightings such trap–happiness must reflect some form of heterogeneity in resighting probabilities. Perhaps surprisingly, the provision of supplementary food did not influence survival, but it may havehad an indirect effect via the alteration of migratory behaviour. Spatially explicit modelling of data gathered at many sites inevitably results in starting models with very large numbers of parameters. The problem is often complicated further by having relatively sparse data at each site, even where the total amount of data gathered is very large. Both Julliard (2004 and Doligez et al. (2004 give explicit examples of problems caused by needing to handle very large numbers of parameters and show how they overcame them for their particular data sets. Such problems involve both the choice of appropriate

  17. The complexity nature of large-scale software systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Dong; Qi Guo-Ning; Gu Xin-Jian

    2006-01-01

    In software engineering, class diagrams are often used to describe the system's class structures in Unified Modelling Language (UML). A class diagram, as a graph, is a collection of static declarative model elements, such as classes, interfaces, and the relationships of their connections with each other. In this paper, class graphs are examined within several Java software systems provided by Sun and IBM, and some new features are found. For a large-scale Java software system, its in-degree distribution tends to an exponential distribution, while its out-degree and degree distributions reveal the power-law behaviour. And then a directed preferential-random model is established to describe the corresponding degree distribution features and evolve large-scale Java software systems.

  18. How Stakeholder Co-management Reproduces Conservation Conflicts: Revealing Rationality Problems in Swedish Wolf Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica von Essen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 'Stakeholder' has become the primary category of political actor in decision-making, not least within nature conservation. Drawing from Habermas' theory on communicative action, this article argues that there are democratic deficits to the stakeholder model that promote citizens to remain locked in predetermined, polarized positions. It contends that the stakeholder model must, hence, be scrutinized with respect to its potential role in perpetuating conservation conflicts in modernity. Using the case study of stakeholder-based game management delegations (GMDs in Sweden, our research identifies four barriers, which tie to the instrumental basis and liberal democratic legacy of the stakeholder approach: 1 strong sense of accountability; 2 overly purposive atmosphere; 3 overemphasis on decision as final outcome; and 4 perceived inability on the part of the delegates to influence science-led decision-making. The article suggests that these democratic deficits preclude the deliberation and contestation necessary to legitimate conservation policy. Indeed, stakeholder rationality causes citizens to become inert, instrumental agents who approach discussion with strategic rather than communicative rationality. We conclude that the deficits of the stakeholder model currently: 1 restrict democratic freedom for citizens; 2 engender a crisis of legitimacy of management; and 3 reproduce the conflict, which in Sweden relates to the conservation of wolves.

  19. RESTRUCTURING OF THE LARGE-SCALE SPRINKLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kozaczyk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the best ways for agriculture to become independent from shortages of precipitation is irrigation. In the seventies and eighties of the last century a number of large-scale sprinklers in Wielkopolska was built. At the end of 1970’s in the Poznan province 67 sprinklers with a total area of 6400 ha were installed. The average size of the sprinkler reached 95 ha. In 1989 there were 98 sprinklers, and the area which was armed with them was more than 10 130 ha. The study was conducted on 7 large sprinklers with the area ranging from 230 to 520 hectares in 1986÷1998. After the introduction of the market economy in the early 90’s and ownership changes in agriculture, large-scale sprinklers have gone under a significant or total devastation. Land on the State Farms of the State Agricultural Property Agency has leased or sold and the new owners used the existing sprinklers to a very small extent. This involved a change in crop structure, demand structure and an increase in operating costs. There has also been a threefold increase in electricity prices. Operation of large-scale irrigation encountered all kinds of barriers in practice and limitations of system solutions, supply difficulties, high levels of equipment failure which is not inclined to rational use of available sprinklers. An effect of a vision of the local area was to show the current status of the remaining irrigation infrastructure. The adopted scheme for the restructuring of Polish agriculture was not the best solution, causing massive destruction of assets previously invested in the sprinkler system.

  20. Large-Scale PV Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Shuai; Etingov, Pavel V.; Diao, Ruisheng; Ma, Jian; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Guo, Xinxin; Hafen, Ryan P.; Jin, Chunlian; Kirkham, Harold; Shlatz, Eugene; Frantzis, Lisa; McClive, Timothy; Karlson, Gregory; Acharya, Dhruv; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua; Hansen, Clifford; Chadliev, Vladimir; Smart, Michael; Salgo, Richard; Sorensen, Rahn; Allen, Barbara; Idelchik, Boris

    2011-07-29

    This research effort evaluates the impact of large-scale photovoltaic (PV) and distributed generation (DG) output on NV Energy’s electric grid system in southern Nevada. It analyzes the ability of NV Energy’s generation to accommodate increasing amounts of utility-scale PV and DG, and the resulting cost of integrating variable renewable resources. The study was jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy and NV Energy, and conducted by a project team comprised of industry experts and research scientists from Navigant Consulting Inc., Sandia National Laboratories, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and NV Energy.

  1. Conformal Anomaly and Large Scale Gravitational Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Salehi, H

    2000-01-01

    We present a model in which the breackdown of conformal symmetry of a quantum stress-tensor due to the trace anomaly is related to a cosmological effect in a gravitational model. This is done by characterizing the traceless part of the quantum stress-tensor in terms of the stress-tensor of a conformal invariant classical scalar field. We introduce a conformal frame in which the anomalous trace is identified with a cosmological constant. In this conformal frame we establish the Einstein field equations by connecting the quantum stress-tensor with the large scale distribution of matter in the universe.

  2. Large Scale Quantum Simulations of Nuclear Pasta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattoyev, Farrukh J.; Horowitz, Charles J.; Schuetrumpf, Bastian

    2016-03-01

    Complex and exotic nuclear geometries collectively referred to as ``nuclear pasta'' are expected to naturally exist in the crust of neutron stars and in supernovae matter. Using a set of self-consistent microscopic nuclear energy density functionals we present the first results of large scale quantum simulations of pasta phases at baryon densities 0 . 03 pasta configurations. This work is supported in part by DOE Grants DE-FG02-87ER40365 (Indiana University) and DE-SC0008808 (NUCLEI SciDAC Collaboration).

  3. Large scale wind power penetration in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karnøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    he Danish electricity generating system prepared to adopt nuclear power in the 1970s, yet has become the world's front runner in wind power with a national plan for 50% wind power penetration by 2020. This paper deploys a sociotechnical perspective to explain the historical transformation of "net...... expertise evolves and contributes to the normalization and large-scale penetration of wind power in the electricity generating system. The analysis teaches us how technological paths become locked-in, but also indicates keys for locking them out....

  4. Stabilization Algorithms for Large-Scale Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Toke Koldborg

    2006-01-01

    The focus of the project is on stabilization of large-scale inverse problems where structured models and iterative algorithms are necessary for computing approximate solutions. For this purpose, we study various iterative Krylov methods and their abilities to produce regularized solutions. Some......-curve. This heuristic is implemented as a part of a larger algorithm which is developed in collaboration with G. Rodriguez and P. C. Hansen. Last, but not least, a large part of the project has, in different ways, revolved around the object-oriented Matlab toolbox MOORe Tools developed by PhD Michael Jacobsen. New...

  5. What is a large-scale dynamo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigro, G.; Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    We consider kinematic dynamo action in a sheared helical flow at moderate to high values of the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm). We find exponentially growing solutions which, for large enough shear, take the form of a coherent part embedded in incoherent fluctuations. We argue that at large Rm large-scale dynamo action should be identified by the presence of structures coherent in time, rather than those at large spatial scales. We further argue that although the growth rate is determined by small-scale processes, the period of the coherent structures is set by mean-field considerations.

  6. Large scale phononic metamaterials for seismic isolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aravantinos-Zafiris, N. [Department of Sound and Musical Instruments Technology, Ionian Islands Technological Educational Institute, Stylianou Typaldou ave., Lixouri 28200 (Greece); Sigalas, M. M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece)

    2015-08-14

    In this work, we numerically examine structures that could be characterized as large scale phononic metamaterials. These novel structures could have band gaps in the frequency spectrum of seismic waves when their dimensions are chosen appropriately, thus raising the belief that they could be serious candidates for seismic isolation structures. Different and easy to fabricate structures were examined made from construction materials such as concrete and steel. The well-known finite difference time domain method is used in our calculations in order to calculate the band structures of the proposed metamaterials.

  7. Hiearchical Engine for Large Scale Infrastructure Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-15

    HELICS ls a new open-source, cyber-physlcal-energy co-simulation framework for electric power systems. HELICS Is designed to support very-large-scale (100,000+ federates) co­simulations with off-the-shelf power-system, communication, market, and end-use tools. Other key features Include cross platform operating system support, the integration of both eventdrlven (e.g., packetlzed communication) and time-series (e.g.,power flow) simulations, and the ability to co-Iterate among federates to ensure physical model convergence at each time step.

  8. Colloquium: Large scale simulations on GPU clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaschi, Massimo; Bisson, Mauro; Fatica, Massimiliano

    2015-06-01

    Graphics processing units (GPU) are currently used as a cost-effective platform for computer simulations and big-data processing. Large scale applications require that multiple GPUs work together but the efficiency obtained with cluster of GPUs is, at times, sub-optimal because the GPU features are not exploited at their best. We describe how it is possible to achieve an excellent efficiency for applications in statistical mechanics, particle dynamics and networks analysis by using suitable memory access patterns and mechanisms like CUDA streams, profiling tools, etc. Similar concepts and techniques may be applied also to other problems like the solution of Partial Differential Equations.

  9. Advancing Eucalyptus Genomics: Cytogenomics Reveals Conservation of Eucalyptus Genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Teresa; Barrela, Ricardo M.; Bergès, Hélène; Marques, Cristina; Loureiro, João; Morais-Cecílio, Leonor; Paiva, Jorge A. P.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus, and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta, and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH, and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S rDNA locus while the AT-rich heterochromatin pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich heterochromatin, along with genome sizes estimations, support the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich heterochromatin was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1) previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10) was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus. PMID:27148332

  10. Advancing Eucalyptus genomics: cytogenomics reveals conservation of Eucalyptus genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Mousinho Resina Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eucalyptus encloses several species with high ecological and economic value, being the subgenus Symphyomyrtus one of the most important. Species such as E. grandis and E. globulus are well characterized at the molecular level but knowledge regarding genome and chromosome organization is very scarce. Here we characterized and compared the karyotypes of three economically important species, E. grandis, E. globulus and E. calmadulensis, and three with ecological relevance, E. pulverulenta, E. cornuta and E. occidentalis, through an integrative approach including genome size estimation, fluorochrome banding, rDNA FISH and BAC landing comprising genes involved in lignin biosynthesis. All karyotypes show a high degree of conservation with pericentromeric 35S and 5S rDNA loci in the first and third pairs, respectively. GC-rich heterochromatin was restricted to the 35S locus while the AT-rich het pattern was species-specific. The slight differences in karyotype formulas and distribution of AT-rich het, along with genome sizes estimations, supports the idea of Eucalyptus genome evolution by local expansions of heterochromatin clusters. The unusual co-localization of both rDNA with AT-rich het was attributed mainly to the presence of silent transposable elements in those loci. The cinnamoyl CoA reductase gene (CCR1 previously assessed to linkage group 10 (LG10 was clearly localized distally at the long arm of chromosome 9 establishing an unexpected correlation between the cytogenetic chromosome 9 and the LG10. Our work is novel and contributes to the understanding of Eucalyptus genome organization which is essential to develop successful advanced breeding strategies for this genus.

  11. Internationalization Measures in Large Scale Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeding, Emanuel; Smith, Nancy

    2017-04-01

    Internationalization measures in Large Scale Research Projects Large scale research projects (LSRP) often serve as flagships used by universities or research institutions to demonstrate their performance and capability to stakeholders and other interested parties. As the global competition among universities for the recruitment of the brightest brains has increased, effective internationalization measures have become hot topics for universities and LSRP alike. Nevertheless, most projects and universities are challenged with little experience on how to conduct these measures and make internationalization an cost efficient and useful activity. Furthermore, those undertakings permanently have to be justified with the Project PIs as important, valuable tools to improve the capacity of the project and the research location. There are a variety of measures, suited to support universities in international recruitment. These include e.g. institutional partnerships, research marketing, a welcome culture, support for science mobility and an effective alumni strategy. These activities, although often conducted by different university entities, are interlocked and can be very powerful measures if interfaced in an effective way. On this poster we display a number of internationalization measures for various target groups, identify interfaces between project management, university administration, researchers and international partners to work together, exchange information and improve processes in order to be able to recruit, support and keep the brightest heads to your project.

  12. Large-scale Globally Propagating Coronal Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Warmuth

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale, globally propagating wave-like disturbances have been observed in the solar chromosphere and by inference in the corona since the 1960s. However, detailed analysis of these phenomena has only been conducted since the late 1990s. This was prompted by the availability of high-cadence coronal imaging data from numerous spaced-based instruments, which routinely show spectacular globally propagating bright fronts. Coronal waves, as these perturbations are usually referred to, have now been observed in a wide range of spectral channels, yielding a wealth of information. Many findings have supported the “classical” interpretation of the disturbances: fast-mode MHD waves or shocks that are propagating in the solar corona. However, observations that seemed inconsistent with this picture have stimulated the development of alternative models in which “pseudo waves” are generated by magnetic reconfiguration in the framework of an expanding coronal mass ejection. This has resulted in a vigorous debate on the physical nature of these disturbances. This review focuses on demonstrating how the numerous observational findings of the last one and a half decades can be used to constrain our models of large-scale coronal waves, and how a coherent physical understanding of these disturbances is finally emerging.

  13. Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.

  14. Accelerated large-scale multiple sequence alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Scott

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple sequence alignment (MSA is a fundamental analysis method used in bioinformatics and many comparative genomic applications. Prior MSA acceleration attempts with reconfigurable computing have only addressed the first stage of progressive alignment and consequently exhibit performance limitations according to Amdahl's Law. This work is the first known to accelerate the third stage of progressive alignment on reconfigurable hardware. Results We reduce subgroups of aligned sequences into discrete profiles before they are pairwise aligned on the accelerator. Using an FPGA accelerator, an overall speedup of up to 150 has been demonstrated on a large data set when compared to a 2.4 GHz Core2 processor. Conclusions Our parallel algorithm and architecture accelerates large-scale MSA with reconfigurable computing and allows researchers to solve the larger problems that confront biologists today. Program source is available from http://dna.cs.byu.edu/msa/.

  15. Clumps in large scale relativistic jets

    CERN Document Server

    Tavecchio, F; Celotti, A

    2003-01-01

    The relatively intense X-ray emission from large scale (tens to hundreds kpc) jets discovered with Chandra likely implies that jets (at least in powerful quasars) are still relativistic at that distances from the active nucleus. In this case the emission is due to Compton scattering off seed photons provided by the Cosmic Microwave Background, and this on one hand permits to have magnetic fields close to equipartition with the emitting particles, and on the other hand minimizes the requirements about the total power carried by the jet. The emission comes from compact (kpc scale) knots, and we here investigate what we can predict about the possible emission between the bright knots. This is motivated by the fact that bulk relativistic motion makes Compton scattering off the CMB photons efficient even when electrons are cold or mildly relativistic in the comoving frame. This implies relatively long cooling times, dominated by adiabatic losses. Therefore the relativistically moving plasma can emit, by Compton sc...

  16. Large-scale parametric survival analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sushil; Madigan, David; Cheng, Jerry Q; Burd, Randall S

    2013-10-15

    Survival analysis has been a topic of active statistical research in the past few decades with applications spread across several areas. Traditional applications usually consider data with only a small numbers of predictors with a few hundreds or thousands of observations. Recent advances in data acquisition techniques and computation power have led to considerable interest in analyzing very-high-dimensional data where the number of predictor variables and the number of observations range between 10(4) and 10(6). In this paper, we present a tool for performing large-scale regularized parametric survival analysis using a variant of the cyclic coordinate descent method. Through our experiments on two real data sets, we show that application of regularized models to high-dimensional data avoids overfitting and can provide improved predictive performance and calibration over corresponding low-dimensional models.

  17. Curvature constraints from Large Scale Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Di Dio, Enea; Raccanelli, Alvise; Durrer, Ruth; Kamionkowski, Marc; Lesgourgues, Julien

    2016-01-01

    We modified the CLASS code in order to include relativistic galaxy number counts in spatially curved geometries; we present the formalism and study the effect of relativistic corrections on spatial curvature. The new version of the code is now publicly available. Using a Fisher matrix analysis, we investigate how measurements of the spatial curvature parameter $\\Omega_K$ with future galaxy surveys are affected by relativistic effects, which influence observations of the large scale galaxy distribution. These effects include contributions from cosmic magnification, Doppler terms and terms involving the gravitational potential. As an application, we consider angle and redshift dependent power spectra, which are especially well suited for model independent cosmological constraints. We compute our results for a representative deep, wide and spectroscopic survey, and our results show the impact of relativistic corrections on the spatial curvature parameter estimation. We show that constraints on the curvature para...

  18. Large-scale simulations of reionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Katharina; /JILA, Boulder /Fermilab; Gnedin, Nickolay Y.; /Fermilab; Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; /JILA, Boulder

    2005-11-01

    We use cosmological simulations to explore the large-scale effects of reionization. Since reionization is a process that involves a large dynamic range--from galaxies to rare bright quasars--we need to be able to cover a significant volume of the universe in our simulation without losing the important small scale effects from galaxies. Here we have taken an approach that uses clumping factors derived from small scale simulations to approximate the radiative transfer on the sub-cell scales. Using this technique, we can cover a simulation size up to 1280h{sup -1} Mpc with 10h{sup -1} Mpc cells. This allows us to construct synthetic spectra of quasars similar to observed spectra of SDSS quasars at high redshifts and compare them to the observational data. These spectra can then be analyzed for HII region sizes, the presence of the Gunn-Peterson trough, and the Lyman-{alpha} forest.

  19. Large-Scale Tides in General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ip, Hiu Yan

    2016-01-01

    Density perturbations in cosmology, i.e. spherically symmetric adiabatic perturbations of a Friedmann-Lema\\^itre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime, are locally exactly equivalent to a different FLRW solution, as long as their wavelength is much larger than the sound horizon of all fluid components. This fact is known as the "separate universe" paradigm. However, no such relation is known for anisotropic adiabatic perturbations, which correspond to an FLRW spacetime with large-scale tidal fields. Here, we provide a closed, fully relativistic set of evolutionary equations for the nonlinear evolution of such modes, based on the conformal Fermi (CFC) frame. We show explicitly that the tidal effects are encoded by the Weyl tensor, and are hence entirely different from an anisotropic Bianchi I spacetime, where the anisotropy is sourced by the Ricci tensor. In order to close the system, certain higher derivative terms have to be dropped. We show that this approximation is equivalent to the local tidal approximation ...

  20. Grid sensitivity capability for large scale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagendra, Gopal K.; Wallerstein, David V.

    1989-01-01

    The considerations and the resultant approach used to implement design sensitivity capability for grids into a large scale, general purpose finite element system (MSC/NASTRAN) are presented. The design variables are grid perturbations with a rather general linking capability. Moreover, shape and sizing variables may be linked together. The design is general enough to facilitate geometric modeling techniques for generating design variable linking schemes in an easy and straightforward manner. Test cases have been run and validated by comparison with the overall finite difference method. The linking of a design sensitivity capability for shape variables in MSC/NASTRAN with an optimizer would give designers a powerful, automated tool to carry out practical optimization design of real life, complicated structures.

  1. Large scale water lens for solar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, A S; Vogel, B; Bastian, G

    2015-06-01

    Properties of large scale water lenses for solar concentration were investigated. These lenses were built from readily available materials, normal tap water and hyper-elastic linear low density polyethylene foil. Exposed to sunlight, the focal lengths and light intensities in the focal spot were measured and calculated. Their optical properties were modeled with a raytracing software based on the lens shape. We have achieved a good match of experimental and theoretical data by considering wavelength dependent concentration factor, absorption and focal length. The change in light concentration as a function of water volume was examined via the resulting load on the foil and the corresponding change of shape. The latter was extracted from images and modeled by a finite element simulation.

  2. Constructing sites on a large scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Tietjen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    for setting the design brief in a large scale urban landscape in Norway, the Jaeren region around the city of Stavanger. In this paper, we first outline the methodological challenges and then present and discuss the proposed method based on our teaching experiences. On this basis, we discuss aspects...... within the development of our urban landscapes. At the same time, urban and landscape designers are confronted with new methodological problems. Within a strategic transformation perspective, the formulation of the design problem or brief becomes an integrated part of the design process. This paper...... discusses new design (education) methods based on a relational concept of urban sites and design processes. Within this logic site survey is not simply a pre-design activity nor is it a question of comprehensive analysis. Site survey is an integrated part of the design process. By means of active site...

  3. Supporting large-scale computational science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musick, R

    1998-10-01

    A study has been carried out to determine the feasibility of using commercial database management systems (DBMSs) to support large-scale computational science. Conventional wisdom in the past has been that DBMSs are too slow for such data. Several events over the past few years have muddied the clarity of this mindset: 1. 2. 3. 4. Several commercial DBMS systems have demonstrated storage and ad-hoc quer access to Terabyte data sets. Several large-scale science teams, such as EOSDIS [NAS91], high energy physics [MM97] and human genome [Kin93] have adopted (or make frequent use of) commercial DBMS systems as the central part of their data management scheme. Several major DBMS vendors have introduced their first object-relational products (ORDBMSs), which have the potential to support large, array-oriented data. In some cases, performance is a moot issue. This is true in particular if the performance of legacy applications is not reduced while new, albeit slow, capabilities are added to the system. The basic assessment is still that DBMSs do not scale to large computational data. However, many of the reasons have changed, and there is an expiration date attached to that prognosis. This document expands on this conclusion, identifies the advantages and disadvantages of various commercial approaches, and describes the studies carried out in exploring this area. The document is meant to be brief, technical and informative, rather than a motivational pitch. The conclusions within are very likely to become outdated within the next 5-7 years, as market forces will have a significant impact on the state of the art in scientific data management over the next decade.

  4. Introducing Large-Scale Innovation in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiriou, Sofoklis; Riviou, Katherina; Cherouvis, Stephanos; Chelioti, Eleni; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-08-01

    Education reform initiatives tend to promise higher effectiveness in classrooms especially when emphasis is given to e-learning and digital resources. Practical changes in classroom realities or school organization, however, are lacking. A major European initiative entitled Open Discovery Space (ODS) examined the challenge of modernizing school education via a large-scale implementation of an open-scale methodology in using technology-supported innovation. The present paper describes this innovation scheme which involved schools and teachers all over Europe, embedded technology-enhanced learning into wider school environments and provided training to teachers. Our implementation scheme consisted of three phases: (1) stimulating interest, (2) incorporating the innovation into school settings and (3) accelerating the implementation of the innovation. The scheme's impact was monitored for a school year using five indicators: leadership and vision building, ICT in the curriculum, development of ICT culture, professional development support, and school resources and infrastructure. Based on about 400 schools, our study produced four results: (1) The growth in digital maturity was substantial, even for previously high scoring schools. This was even more important for indicators such as vision and leadership" and "professional development." (2) The evolution of networking is presented graphically, showing the gradual growth of connections achieved. (3) These communities became core nodes, involving numerous teachers in sharing educational content and experiences: One out of three registered users (36 %) has shared his/her educational resources in at least one community. (4) Satisfaction scores ranged from 76 % (offer of useful support through teacher academies) to 87 % (good environment to exchange best practices). Initiatives such as ODS add substantial value to schools on a large scale.

  5. Large-scale sequential quadratic programming algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldersveld, S.K.

    1992-09-01

    The problem addressed is the general nonlinear programming problem: finding a local minimizer for a nonlinear function subject to a mixture of nonlinear equality and inequality constraints. The methods studied are in the class of sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithms, which have previously proved successful for problems of moderate size. Our goal is to devise an SQP algorithm that is applicable to large-scale optimization problems, using sparse data structures and storing less curvature information but maintaining the property of superlinear convergence. The main features are: 1. The use of a quasi-Newton approximation to the reduced Hessian of the Lagrangian function. Only an estimate of the reduced Hessian matrix is required by our algorithm. The impact of not having available the full Hessian approximation is studied and alternative estimates are constructed. 2. The use of a transformation matrix Q. This allows the QP gradient to be computed easily when only the reduced Hessian approximation is maintained. 3. The use of a reduced-gradient form of the basis for the null space of the working set. This choice of basis is more practical than an orthogonal null-space basis for large-scale problems. The continuity condition for this choice is proven. 4. The use of incomplete solutions of quadratic programming subproblems. Certain iterates generated by an active-set method for the QP subproblem are used in place of the QP minimizer to define the search direction for the nonlinear problem. An implementation of the new algorithm has been obtained by modifying the code MINOS. Results and comparisons with MINOS and NPSOL are given for the new algorithm on a set of 92 test problems.

  6. Using Large Scale Test Results for Pedagogical Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolin, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The use and influence of large scale tests (LST), both national and international, has increased dramatically within the last decade. This process has revealed a tension between the legitimate need for information about the performance of the educational system and teachers to inform policy...... wash back effects known from other research but gave additionally some insight in teachers’ attitudes towards LSTs. To account for these findings results from another research project - the Validation of PISA – will be included. This project analyzed how PISA has influenced the Danish educational...

  7. Cold flows and large scale tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weygaert, R.; Hoffman, Y.

    1999-01-01

    Within the context of the general cosmological setting it has remained puzzling that the local Universe is a relatively cold environment, in the sense of small-scale peculiar velocities being relatively small. Indeed, it has since long figured as an important argument for the Universe having a low Ω, or if the Universe were to have a high Ω for the existence of a substantial bias between the galaxy and the matter distribution. Here we investigate the dynamical impact of neighbouring matter concentrations on local small-scale characteristics of cosmic flows. While regions where huge nearby matter clumps represent a dominating component in the local dynamics and kinematics may experience a faster collapse on behalf of the corresponding tidal influence, the latter will also slow down or even prevent a thorough mixing and virialization of the collapsing region. By means of N-body simulations starting from constrained realizations of regions of modest density surrounded by more pronounced massive structures, we have explored the extent to which the large scale tidal fields may indeed suppress the `heating' of the small-scale cosmic velocities. Amongst others we quantify the resulting cosmic flows through the cosmic Mach number. This allows us to draw conclusions about the validity of estimates of global cosmological parameters from local cosmic phenomena and the necessity to take into account the structure and distribution of mass in the local Universe.

  8. Large-scale autostereoscopic outdoor display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitterer, Jörg; Fidler, Franz; Saint Julien-Wallsee, Ferdinand; Schmid, Gerhard; Gartner, Wolfgang; Leeb, Walter; Schmid, Ulrich

    2013-03-01

    State-of-the-art autostereoscopic displays are often limited in size, effective brightness, number of 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances, all of which are mandatory requirements for large-scale outdoor displays. Conventional autostereoscopic indoor concepts like lenticular lenses or parallax barriers cannot simply be adapted for these screens due to the inherent loss of effective resolution and brightness, which would reduce both image quality and sunlight readability. We have developed a modular autostereoscopic multi-view laser display concept with sunlight readable effective brightness, theoretically up to several thousand 3D viewing zones, and maximum 3D viewing distances of up to 60 meters. For proof-of-concept purposes a prototype display with two pixels was realized. Due to various manufacturing tolerances each individual pixel has slightly different optical properties, and hence the 3D image quality of the display has to be calculated stochastically. In this paper we present the corresponding stochastic model, we evaluate the simulation and measurement results of the prototype display, and we calculate the achievable autostereoscopic image quality to be expected for our concept.

  9. Management of large-scale multimedia conferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cidon, Israel; Nachum, Youval

    1998-12-01

    The goal of this work is to explore management strategies and algorithms for large-scale multimedia conferencing over a communication network. Since the use of multimedia conferencing is still limited, the management of such systems has not yet been studied in depth. A well organized and human friendly multimedia conference management should utilize efficiently and fairly its limited resources as well as take into account the requirements of the conference participants. The ability of the management to enforce fair policies and to quickly take into account the participants preferences may even lead to a conference environment that is more pleasant and more effective than a similar face to face meeting. We suggest several principles for defining and solving resource sharing problems in this context. The conference resources which are addressed in this paper are the bandwidth (conference network capacity), time (participants' scheduling) and limitations of audio and visual equipment. The participants' requirements for these resources are defined and translated in terms of Quality of Service requirements and the fairness criteria.

  10. Large-scale wind turbine structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to show how structural technology was applied in the design of modern wind turbines, which were recently brought to an advanced stage of development as sources of renewable power. Wind turbine structures present many difficult problems because they are relatively slender and flexible; subject to vibration and aeroelastic instabilities; acted upon by loads which are often nondeterministic; operated continuously with little maintenance in all weather; and dominated by life-cycle cost considerations. Progress in horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) development was paced by progress in the understanding of structural loads, modeling of structural dynamic response, and designing of innovative structural response. During the past 15 years a series of large HAWTs was developed. This has culminated in the recent completion of the world's largest operating wind turbine, the 3.2 MW Mod-5B power plane installed on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Some of the applications of structures technology to wind turbine will be illustrated by referring to the Mod-5B design. First, a video overview will be presented to provide familiarization with the Mod-5B project and the important components of the wind turbine system. Next, the structural requirements for large-scale wind turbines will be discussed, emphasizing the difficult fatigue-life requirements. Finally, the procedures used to design the structure will be presented, including the use of the fracture mechanics approach for determining allowable fatigue stresses.

  11. Large-scale tides in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian

    2017-02-01

    Density perturbations in cosmology, i.e. spherically symmetric adiabatic perturbations of a Friedmann-Lemaȋtre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) spacetime, are locally exactly equivalent to a different FLRW solution, as long as their wavelength is much larger than the sound horizon of all fluid components. This fact is known as the "separate universe" paradigm. However, no such relation is known for anisotropic adiabatic perturbations, which correspond to an FLRW spacetime with large-scale tidal fields. Here, we provide a closed, fully relativistic set of evolutionary equations for the nonlinear evolution of such modes, based on the conformal Fermi (CFC) frame. We show explicitly that the tidal effects are encoded by the Weyl tensor, and are hence entirely different from an anisotropic Bianchi I spacetime, where the anisotropy is sourced by the Ricci tensor. In order to close the system, certain higher derivative terms have to be dropped. We show that this approximation is equivalent to the local tidal approximation of Hui and Bertschinger [1]. We also show that this very simple set of equations matches the exact evolution of the density field at second order, but fails at third and higher order. This provides a useful, easy-to-use framework for computing the fully relativistic growth of structure at second order.

  12. Large scale probabilistic available bandwidth estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Thouin, Frederic; Rabbat, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The common utilization-based definition of available bandwidth and many of the existing tools to estimate it suffer from several important weaknesses: i) most tools report a point estimate of average available bandwidth over a measurement interval and do not provide a confidence interval; ii) the commonly adopted models used to relate the available bandwidth metric to the measured data are invalid in almost all practical scenarios; iii) existing tools do not scale well and are not suited to the task of multi-path estimation in large-scale networks; iv) almost all tools use ad-hoc techniques to address measurement noise; and v) tools do not provide enough flexibility in terms of accuracy, overhead, latency and reliability to adapt to the requirements of various applications. In this paper we propose a new definition for available bandwidth and a novel framework that addresses these issues. We define probabilistic available bandwidth (PAB) as the largest input rate at which we can send a traffic flow along a pa...

  13. Gravitational redshifts from large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, Rupert A C

    2013-01-01

    The recent measurement of the gravitational redshifts of galaxies in galaxy clusters by Wojtak et al. has opened a new observational window on dark matter and modified gravity. By stacking clusters this determination effectively used the line of sight distortion of the cross-correlation function of massive galaxies and lower mass galaxies to estimate the gravitational redshift profile of clusters out to 4 Mpc/h. Here we use a halo model of clustering to predict the distortion due to gravitational redshifts of the cross-correlation function on scales from 1 - 100 Mpc/h. We compare our predictions to simulations and use the simulations to make mock catalogues relevant to current and future galaxy redshift surveys. Without formulating an optimal estimator, we find that the full BOSS survey should be able to detect gravitational redshifts from large-scale structure at the ~4 sigma level. Upcoming redshift surveys will greatly increase the number of galaxies useable in such studies and the BigBOSS and Euclid exper...

  14. Food appropriation through large scale land acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The increasing demand for agricultural products and the uncertainty of international food markets has recently drawn the attention of governments and agribusiness firms toward investments in productive agricultural land, mostly in the developing world. The targeted countries are typically located in regions that have remained only marginally utilized because of lack of modern technology. It is expected that in the long run large scale land acquisitions (LSLAs) for commercial farming will bring the technology required to close the existing crops yield gaps. While the extent of the acquired land and the associated appropriation of freshwater resources have been investigated in detail, the amount of food this land can produce and the number of people it could feed still need to be quantified. Here we use a unique dataset of land deals to provide a global quantitative assessment of the rates of crop and food appropriation potentially associated with LSLAs. We show how up to 300-550 million people could be fed by crops grown in the acquired land, should these investments in agriculture improve crop production and close the yield gap. In contrast, about 190-370 million people could be supported by this land without closing of the yield gap. These numbers raise some concern because the food produced in the acquired land is typically exported to other regions, while the target countries exhibit high levels of malnourishment. Conversely, if used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.

  15. Large-scale clustering of cosmic voids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kwan Chuen; Hamaus, Nico; Desjacques, Vincent

    2014-11-01

    We study the clustering of voids using N -body simulations and simple theoretical models. The excursion-set formalism describes fairly well the abundance of voids identified with the watershed algorithm, although the void formation threshold required is quite different from the spherical collapse value. The void cross bias bc is measured and its large-scale value is found to be consistent with the peak background split results. A simple fitting formula for bc is found. We model the void auto-power spectrum taking into account the void biasing and exclusion effect. A good fit to the simulation data is obtained for voids with radii ≳30 Mpc h-1 , especially when the void biasing model is extended to 1-loop order. However, the best-fit bias parameters do not agree well with the peak-background results. Being able to fit the void auto-power spectrum is particularly important not only because it is the direct observable in galaxy surveys, but also our method enables us to treat the bias parameters as nuisance parameters, which are sensitive to the techniques used to identify voids.

  16. Large scale digital atlases in neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawrylycz, M.; Feng, D.; Lau, C.; Kuan, C.; Miller, J.; Dang, C.; Ng, L.

    2014-03-01

    Imaging in neuroscience has revolutionized our current understanding of brain structure, architecture and increasingly its function. Many characteristics of morphology, cell type, and neuronal circuitry have been elucidated through methods of neuroimaging. Combining this data in a meaningful, standardized, and accessible manner is the scope and goal of the digital brain atlas. Digital brain atlases are used today in neuroscience to characterize the spatial organization of neuronal structures, for planning and guidance during neurosurgery, and as a reference for interpreting other data modalities such as gene expression and connectivity data. The field of digital atlases is extensive and in addition to atlases of the human includes high quality brain atlases of the mouse, rat, rhesus macaque, and other model organisms. Using techniques based on histology, structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging as well as gene expression data, modern digital atlases use probabilistic and multimodal techniques, as well as sophisticated visualization software to form an integrated product. Toward this goal, brain atlases form a common coordinate framework for summarizing, accessing, and organizing this knowledge and will undoubtedly remain a key technology in neuroscience in the future. Since the development of its flagship project of a genome wide image-based atlas of the mouse brain, the Allen Institute for Brain Science has used imaging as a primary data modality for many of its large scale atlas projects. We present an overview of Allen Institute digital atlases in neuroscience, with a focus on the challenges and opportunities for image processing and computation.

  17. Development of large-scale functional brain networks in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Supekar

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The ontogeny of large-scale functional organization of the human brain is not well understood. Here we use network analysis of intrinsic functional connectivity to characterize the organization of brain networks in 23 children (ages 7-9 y and 22 young-adults (ages 19-22 y. Comparison of network properties, including path-length, clustering-coefficient, hierarchy, and regional connectivity, revealed that although children and young-adults' brains have similar "small-world" organization at the global level, they differ significantly in hierarchical organization and interregional connectivity. We found that subcortical areas were more strongly connected with primary sensory, association, and paralimbic areas in children, whereas young-adults showed stronger cortico-cortical connectivity between paralimbic, limbic, and association areas. Further, combined analysis of functional connectivity with wiring distance measures derived from white-matter fiber tracking revealed that the development of large-scale brain networks is characterized by weakening of short-range functional connectivity and strengthening of long-range functional connectivity. Importantly, our findings show that the dynamic process of over-connectivity followed by pruning, which rewires connectivity at the neuronal level, also operates at the systems level, helping to reconfigure and rebalance subcortical and paralimbic connectivity in the developing brain. Our study demonstrates the usefulness of network analysis of brain connectivity to elucidate key principles underlying functional brain maturation, paving the way for novel studies of disrupted brain connectivity in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism.

  18. Developing Large-Scale Bayesian Networks by Composition

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this paper, we investigate the use of Bayesian networks to construct large-scale diagnostic systems. In particular, we consider the development of large-scale...

  19. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  20. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias (Rice University, Houston, TX); Wilcox, Lucas C. (Brown University, Providence, RI); Hill, Judith C. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Ghattas, Omar (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Berggren, Martin Olof (University of UppSala, Sweden); Akcelik, Volkan (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first

  1. Sensitivity technologies for large scale simulation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collis, Samuel Scott; Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Smith, Thomas Michael; Heinkenschloss, Matthias (Rice University, Houston, TX); Wilcox, Lucas C. (Brown University, Providence, RI); Hill, Judith C. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Ghattas, Omar (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Berggren, Martin Olof (University of UppSala, Sweden); Akcelik, Volkan (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Ober, Curtis Curry; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Keiter, Eric Richard

    2005-01-01

    Sensitivity analysis is critically important to numerous analysis algorithms, including large scale optimization, uncertainty quantification,reduced order modeling, and error estimation. Our research focused on developing tools, algorithms and standard interfaces to facilitate the implementation of sensitivity type analysis into existing code and equally important, the work was focused on ways to increase the visibility of sensitivity analysis. We attempt to accomplish the first objective through the development of hybrid automatic differentiation tools, standard linear algebra interfaces for numerical algorithms, time domain decomposition algorithms and two level Newton methods. We attempt to accomplish the second goal by presenting the results of several case studies in which direct sensitivities and adjoint methods have been effectively applied, in addition to an investigation of h-p adaptivity using adjoint based a posteriori error estimation. A mathematical overview is provided of direct sensitivities and adjoint methods for both steady state and transient simulations. Two case studies are presented to demonstrate the utility of these methods. A direct sensitivity method is implemented to solve a source inversion problem for steady state internal flows subject to convection diffusion. Real time performance is achieved using novel decomposition into offline and online calculations. Adjoint methods are used to reconstruct initial conditions of a contamination event in an external flow. We demonstrate an adjoint based transient solution. In addition, we investigated time domain decomposition algorithms in an attempt to improve the efficiency of transient simulations. Because derivative calculations are at the root of sensitivity calculations, we have developed hybrid automatic differentiation methods and implemented this approach for shape optimization for gas dynamics using the Euler equations. The hybrid automatic differentiation method was applied to a first

  2. Large Scale Flame Spread Environmental Characterization Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayman, Lauren K.; Olson, Sandra L.; Gokoghi, Suleyman A.; Brooker, John E.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Kacher, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    Under the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration Project (SFSDP), as a risk mitigation activity in support of the development of a large-scale fire demonstration experiment in microgravity, flame-spread tests were conducted in normal gravity on thin, cellulose-based fuels in a sealed chamber. The primary objective of the tests was to measure pressure rise in a chamber as sample material, burning direction (upward/downward), total heat release, heat release rate, and heat loss mechanisms were varied between tests. A Design of Experiments (DOE) method was imposed to produce an array of tests from a fixed set of constraints and a coupled response model was developed. Supplementary tests were run without experimental design to additionally vary select parameters such as initial chamber pressure. The starting chamber pressure for each test was set below atmospheric to prevent chamber overpressure. Bottom ignition, or upward propagating burns, produced rapid acceleratory turbulent flame spread. Pressure rise in the chamber increases as the amount of fuel burned increases mainly because of the larger amount of heat generation and, to a much smaller extent, due to the increase in gaseous number of moles. Top ignition, or downward propagating burns, produced a steady flame spread with a very small flat flame across the burning edge. Steady-state pressure is achieved during downward flame spread as the pressure rises and plateaus. This indicates that the heat generation by the flame matches the heat loss to surroundings during the longer, slower downward burns. One heat loss mechanism included mounting a heat exchanger directly above the burning sample in the path of the plume to act as a heat sink and more efficiently dissipate the heat due to the combustion event. This proved an effective means for chamber overpressure mitigation for those tests producing the most total heat release and thusly was determined to be a feasible mitigation

  3. GPU-based large-scale visualization

    KAUST Repository

    Hadwiger, Markus

    2013-11-19

    Recent advances in image and volume acquisition as well as computational advances in simulation have led to an explosion of the amount of data that must be visualized and analyzed. Modern techniques combine the parallel processing power of GPUs with out-of-core methods and data streaming to enable the interactive visualization of giga- and terabytes of image and volume data. A major enabler for interactivity is making both the computational and the visualization effort proportional to the amount of data that is actually visible on screen, decoupling it from the full data size. This leads to powerful display-aware multi-resolution techniques that enable the visualization of data of almost arbitrary size. The course consists of two major parts: An introductory part that progresses from fundamentals to modern techniques, and a more advanced part that discusses details of ray-guided volume rendering, novel data structures for display-aware visualization and processing, and the remote visualization of large online data collections. You will learn how to develop efficient GPU data structures and large-scale visualizations, implement out-of-core strategies and concepts such as virtual texturing that have only been employed recently, as well as how to use modern multi-resolution representations. These approaches reduce the GPU memory requirements of extremely large data to a working set size that fits into current GPUs. You will learn how to perform ray-casting of volume data of almost arbitrary size and how to render and process gigapixel images using scalable, display-aware techniques. We will describe custom virtual texturing architectures as well as recent hardware developments in this area. We will also describe client/server systems for distributed visualization, on-demand data processing and streaming, and remote visualization. We will describe implementations using OpenGL as well as CUDA, exploiting parallelism on GPUs combined with additional asynchronous

  4. Synchronization of coupled large-scale Boolean networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fangfei, E-mail: li-fangfei@163.com [Department of Mathematics, East China University of Science and Technology, No. 130, Meilong Road, Shanghai, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2014-03-15

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of two large-scale Boolean networks. First, the aggregation algorithm towards large-scale Boolean network is reviewed. Second, the aggregation algorithm is applied to study the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of large-scale Boolean networks. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed results.

  5. Synchronization of coupled large-scale Boolean networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfei

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of two large-scale Boolean networks. First, the aggregation algorithm towards large-scale Boolean network is reviewed. Second, the aggregation algorithm is applied to study the complete synchronization and partial synchronization of large-scale Boolean networks. Finally, an illustrative example is presented to show the efficiency of the proposed results.

  6. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; Toth, Balazs; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  7. Natamycin content and quality evaluation of yoghurt from small- and large-scale brands in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervisoglu, Muhammet; Gul, Osman; Aydemir, Oguz; Yazici, Fehmi; Kahyaoglu, Talip

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the presence of natamycin and quality parameters of yoghurt samples manufactured by small- and large-scale dairy firms in Turkey were investigated. Physicochemical and microbiological results revealed that, except Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus counts, the majority of the yoghurts manufactured by small-scale dairy firms were found to be out of the limits. Natamycin was detected in 31 and 2 yoghurt samples from small- and large-scale brands, respectively. The levels of natamycin in small-scale brand yoghurts were higher than those in large-scale brand yoghurts. Of the analysed samples, 42.3% did not comply with the Turkish Food Codex.

  8. A study of synthetic large scales in turbulent boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvvuri, Subrahmanyam; Luhar, Mitul; Barnard, Casey; Sheplak, Mark; McKeon, Beverley

    2013-11-01

    Synthetic spanwise-constant spatio-temporal disturbances are excited in a turbulent boundary layer through a spatially impulsive patch of dynamic wall-roughness. The downstream flow response is studied through hot wire anemometry, pressure measurements at the wall and direct measurements of wall-shear-stress made using a novel micro-machined capacitive floating element sensor. These measurements are phase-locked to the input perturbation to recover the synthetic large-scale motion and characterize its structure and wall signature. The phase relationship between the synthetic large scale and small scale activity provides further insights into the apparent amplitude modulation effect between them, and the dynamics of wall-bounded turbulent flows in general. Results from these experiments will be discussed in the context of the critical-layer behavior revealed by the resolvent analysis of McKeon & Sharma (J Fluid Mech, 2010), and compared with similar earlier work by Jacobi & McKeon (J Fluid Mech, 2011). Model predictions are shown to be in broad agreement with experiments. The support of AFOSR grant #FA 9550-12-1-0469, Resnick Institute Graduate Research Fellowship (S.D.) and Sandia Graduate Fellowship (C.B.) are gratefully acknowledged.

  9. Large-scale assembly of colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongta

    This study reports a simple, roll-to-roll compatible coating technology for producing three-dimensional highly ordered colloidal crystal-polymer composites, colloidal crystals, and macroporous polymer membranes. A vertically beveled doctor blade is utilized to shear align silica microsphere-monomer suspensions to form large-area composites in a single step. The polymer matrix and the silica microspheres can be selectively removed to create colloidal crystals and self-standing macroporous polymer membranes. The thickness of the shear-aligned crystal is correlated with the viscosity of the colloidal suspension and the coating speed, and the correlations can be qualitatively explained by adapting the mechanisms developed for conventional doctor blade coating. Five important research topics related to the application of large-scale three-dimensional highly ordered macroporous films by doctor blade coating are covered in this study. The first topic describes the invention in large area and low cost color reflective displays. This invention is inspired by the heat pipe technology. The self-standing macroporous polymer films exhibit brilliant colors which originate from the Bragg diffractive of visible light form the three-dimensional highly ordered air cavities. The colors can be easily changed by tuning the size of the air cavities to cover the whole visible spectrum. When the air cavities are filled with a solvent which has the same refractive index as that of the polymer, the macroporous polymer films become completely transparent due to the index matching. When the solvent trapped in the cavities is evaporated by in-situ heating, the sample color changes back to brilliant color. This process is highly reversible and reproducible for thousands of cycles. The second topic reports the achievement of rapid and reversible vapor detection by using 3-D macroporous photonic crystals. Capillary condensation of a condensable vapor in the interconnected macropores leads to the

  10. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project

    OpenAIRE

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project repres...

  11. Comparative genomic analysis of innate immunity reveals novel and conserved components in crustacean food crop species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Alvina G; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2017-05-18

    Growing global demands for crustacean food crop species have driven large investments in aquaculture research worldwide. However, large-scale production is susceptible to pathogen-mediated destruction particularly in developing economies. Thus, a thorough understanding of the immune system components of food crop species is imperative for research to combat pathogens. Through a comparative genomics approach utilising extant data from 55 species, we describe the innate immune system of the class Malacostraca, which includes all food crop species. We identify 7407 malacostracan genes from 39 gene families implicated in different aspects of host defence and demonstrate dynamic evolution of innate immunity components within this group. Malacostracans have achieved flexibility in recognising infectious agents through divergent evolution and expansion of pathogen recognition receptors genes. Antiviral RNAi, Toll and JAK-STAT signal transduction pathways have remained conserved within Malacostraca, although the Imd pathway appears to lack several key components. Immune effectors such as the antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have unique evolutionary profiles, with many malacostracan AMPs not found in other arthropods. Lastly, we describe four putative novel immune gene families, potentially representing important evolutionary novelties of the malacostracan immune system. Our analyses across the broader Malacostraca have allowed us to not only draw analogies with other arthropods but also to identify evolutionary novelties in immune modulation components and form strong hypotheses as to when key pathways have evolved or diverged. This will serve as a key resource for future immunology research in crustacean food crops.

  12. Large-scale translocation strategies for reintroducing red-cockaded woodpeckers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel Saenz; Kristen A. Baum; Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph; Ralph Costa

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of wild birds is a potential conservation strategy for the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker (Picoides borealis). We developed and tested 8 large-scale translocation strategy models for a regional red-cockaded woodpecker reintroduction program. The purpose of the reintroduction program is to increase the number of red-cockaded...

  13. Contractual Duration and Investment Incentives: Evidence from Large Scale Production Units in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Feng, Shuyi; D'Haese, Marijke; Lu, Hualiang; Qu, Futian

    2017-04-01

    Large Scale Production Units have become important forces in the supply of agricultural commodities and agricultural modernization in China. Contractual duration in farmland transfer to Large Scale Production Units can be considered to reflect land tenure security. Theoretically, long-term tenancy contracts can encourage Large Scale Production Units to increase long-term investments by ensuring land rights stability or favoring access to credit. Using a unique Large Scale Production Units- and plot-level field survey dataset from Jiangsu and Jiangxi Province, this study aims to examine the effect of contractual duration on Large Scale Production Units' soil conservation behaviours. IV method is applied to take into account the endogeneity of contractual duration and unobserved household heterogeneity. Results indicate that farmland transfer contract duration significantly and positively affects land-improving investments. Policies aimed at improving transaction platforms and intermediary organizations in farmland transfer to facilitate Large Scale Production Units to access farmland with long-term tenancy contracts may therefore play an important role in improving soil quality and land productivity.

  14. The XMM/Megacam-VST/VIRMOS Large Scale Structure Survey

    CERN Document Server

    Pierre, M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the XMM-LSS Survey is to map the large scale structure of the universe, as highlighted by clusters and groups of galaxies, out to a redshift of about 1, over a single 8x8 sq.deg. area. For the first time, this will reveal the topology of the distribution of the deep potential wells and provide statistical measurements at truly cosmological distances. In addition, clusters identified via their X-ray properties will form the basis for the first uniformly-selected, multi-wavelength survey of the evolution of clusters and individual cluster galaxies as a function of redshift. The survey will also address the very important question of the QSO distribution within the cosmic web.

  15. Unfolding large-scale online collaborative human dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Zha, Yilong; Zhou, Changsong

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale interacting human activities underlie all social and economic phenomena, but quantitative understanding of regular patterns and mechanism is very challenging and still rare. Self-organized online collaborative activities with precise record of event timing provide unprecedented opportunity. Our empirical analysis of the history of millions of updates in Wikipedia shows a universal double power-law distribution of time intervals between consecutive updates of an article. We then propose a generic model to unfold collaborative human activities into three modules: (i) individual behavior characterized by Poissonian initiation of an action, (ii) human interaction captured by a cascading response to others with a power-law waiting time, and (iii) population growth due to increasing number of interacting individuals. This unfolding allows us to obtain analytical formula that is fully supported by the universal patterns in empirical data. Our modeling approaches reveal "simplicity" beyond complex interac...

  16. The large scale dust distribution in the inner galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, M. G.; Dwek, E.; Gezari, D.; Silverberg, R.; Kelsall, T.; Stier, M.; Cheung, L.

    1983-01-01

    Initial results are presented from a new large-scale survey of the first quadrant of the galactic plane at wavelengths of 160, 260, and 300 microns. The submillimeter wavelength emission, interpreted as thermal radiation by dust grains, reveals an optically thin disk of angular width about 0.09 deg (FWHM) with a mean dust temperature of 23 K and significant variation of the dust mass column density. Comparison of the dust column density with the gas column density inferred from CO survey data shows a striking spatial correlation. The mean luminosity per hydrogen atom is found to be 2.5 x 10 to the -30th W/H, implying a radiant energy density in the vicinity of the dust an order of magnitude larger than in the solar neighborhood. The data favor dust in molecular clouds as the dominant submillimeter radiation source.

  17. Large-scale structure of time evolving citation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leicht, E. A.; Clarkson, G.; Shedden, K.; Newman, M. E. J.

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we examine a number of methods for probing and understanding the large-scale structure of networks that evolve over time. We focus in particular on citation networks, networks of references between documents such as papers, patents, or court cases. We describe three different methods of analysis, one based on an expectation-maximization algorithm, one based on modularity optimization, and one based on eigenvector centrality. Using the network of citations between opinions of the United States Supreme Court as an example, we demonstrate how each of these methods can reveal significant structural divisions in the network and how, ultimately, the combination of all three can help us develop a coherent overall picture of the network's shape.

  18. Thermal power generation projects ``Large Scale Solar Heating``; EU-Thermie-Projekte ``Large Scale Solar Heating``

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuebler, R.; Fisch, M.N. [Steinbeis-Transferzentrum Energie-, Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is the preparation of the ``Large-Scale Solar Heating`` programme for an Europe-wide development of subject technology. The following demonstration programme was judged well by the experts but was not immediately (1996) accepted for financial subsidies. In November 1997 the EU-commission provided 1,5 million ECU which allowed the realisation of an updated project proposal. By mid 1997 a small project was approved, that had been requested under the lead of Chalmes Industriteteknik (CIT) in Sweden and is mainly carried out for the transfer of technology. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel dieses Vorhabens ist die Vorbereitung eines Schwerpunktprogramms `Large Scale Solar Heating`, mit dem die Technologie europaweit weiterentwickelt werden sollte. Das daraus entwickelte Demonstrationsprogramm wurde von den Gutachtern positiv bewertet, konnte jedoch nicht auf Anhieb (1996) in die Foerderung aufgenommen werden. Im November 1997 wurden von der EU-Kommission dann kurzfristig noch 1,5 Mio ECU an Foerderung bewilligt, mit denen ein aktualisierter Projektvorschlag realisiert werden kann. Bereits Mitte 1997 wurde ein kleineres Vorhaben bewilligt, das unter Federfuehrung von Chalmers Industriteknik (CIT) in Schweden beantragt worden war und das vor allem dem Technologietransfer dient. (orig.)

  19. Multitree Algorithms for Large-Scale Astrostatistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    March, William B.; Ozakin, Arkadas; Lee, Dongryeol; Riegel, Ryan; Gray, Alexander G.

    2012-03-01

    this number every week, resulting in billions of objects. At such scales, even linear-time analysis operations present challenges, particularly since statistical analyses are inherently interactive processes, requiring that computations complete within some reasonable human attention span. The quadratic (or worse) runtimes of straightforward implementations become quickly unbearable. Examples of applications. These analysis subroutines occur ubiquitously in astrostatistical work. We list just a few examples. The need to cross-match objects across different catalogs has led to various algorithms, which at some point perform an AllNN computation. 2-point and higher-order spatial correlations for the basis of spatial statistics, and are utilized in astronomy to compare the spatial structures of two datasets, such as an observed sample and a theoretical sample, for example, forming the basis for two-sample hypothesis testing. Friends-of-friends clustering is often used to identify halos in data from astrophysical simulations. Minimum spanning tree properties have also been proposed as statistics of large-scale structure. Comparison of the distributions of different kinds of objects requires accurate density estimation, for which KDE is the overall statistical method of choice. The prediction of redshifts from optical data requires accurate regression, for which kernel regression is a powerful method. The identification of objects of various types in astronomy, such as stars versus galaxies, requires accurate classification, for which KDA is a powerful method. Overview. In this chapter, we will briefly sketch the main ideas behind recent fast algorithms which achieve, for example, linear runtimes for pairwise-distance problems, or similarly dramatic reductions in computational growth. In some cases, the runtime orders for these algorithms are mathematically provable statements, while in others we have only conjectures backed by experimental observations for the time being

  20. Fast large-scale reionization simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rajat M.; Zaroubi, Saleem; Ciardi, Benedetta; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Labropoulos, Panagiotis; Jelić, Vibor; Bernardi, Gianni; Brentjens, Michiel A.; de Bruyn, A. G.; Harker, Geraint J. A.; Koopmans, Leon V. E.; Mellema, Garrelt; Pandey, V. N.; Schaye, Joop; Yatawatta, Sarod

    2009-02-01

    We present an efficient method to generate large simulations of the epoch of reionization without the need for a full three-dimensional radiative transfer code. Large dark-matter-only simulations are post-processed to produce maps of the redshifted 21-cm emission from neutral hydrogen. Dark matter haloes are embedded with sources of radiation whose properties are either based on semi-analytical prescriptions or derived from hydrodynamical simulations. These sources could either be stars or power-law sources with varying spectral indices. Assuming spherical symmetry, ionized bubbles are created around these sources, whose radial ionized fraction and temperature profiles are derived from a catalogue of one-dimensional radiative transfer experiments. In case of overlap of these spheres, photons are conserved by redistributing them around the connected ionized regions corresponding to the spheres. The efficiency with which these maps are created allows us to span the large parameter space typically encountered in reionization simulations. We compare our results with other, more accurate, three-dimensional radiative transfer simulations and find excellent agreement for the redshifts and the spatial scales of interest to upcoming 21-cm experiments. We generate a contiguous observational cube spanning redshift 6 to 12 and use these simulations to study the differences in the reionization histories between stars and quasars. Finally, the signal is convolved with the Low Frequency Array (LOFAR) beam response and its effects are analysed and quantified. Statistics performed on this mock data set shed light on possible observational strategies for LOFAR.

  1. Development of large-scale structure in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Ostriker, J P

    1991-01-01

    This volume grew out of the 1988 Fermi lectures given by Professor Ostriker, and is concerned with cosmological models that take into account the large scale structure of the universe. He starts with homogeneous isotropic models of the universe and then, by considering perturbations, he leads us to modern cosmological theories of the large scale, such as superconducting strings. This will be an excellent companion for all those interested in the cosmology and the large scale nature of the universe.

  2. Zebrafish whole-adult-organism chemogenomics for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siew Hong Lam

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability to perform large-scale, expression-based chemogenomics on whole adult organisms, as in invertebrate models (worm and fly, is highly desirable for a vertebrate model but its feasibility and potential has not been demonstrated. We performed expression-based chemogenomics on the whole adult organism of a vertebrate model, the zebrafish, and demonstrated its potential for large-scale predictive and discovery chemical biology. Focusing on two classes of compounds with wide implications to human health, polycyclic (halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons [P(HAHs] and estrogenic compounds (ECs, we generated robust prediction models that can discriminate compounds of the same class from those of different classes in two large independent experiments. The robust expression signatures led to the identification of biomarkers for potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR and estrogen receptor (ER agonists, respectively, and were validated in multiple targeted tissues. Knowledge-based data mining of human homologs of zebrafish genes revealed highly conserved chemical-induced biological responses/effects, health risks, and novel biological insights associated with AHR and ER that could be inferred to humans. Thus, our study presents an effective, high-throughput strategy of capturing molecular snapshots of chemical-induced biological states of a whole adult vertebrate that provides information on biomarkers of effects, deregulated signaling pathways, and possible affected biological functions, perturbed physiological systems, and increased health risks. These findings place zebrafish in a strategic position to bridge the wide gap between cell-based and rodent models in chemogenomics research and applications, especially in preclinical drug discovery and toxicology.

  3. Probing large-scale structure with radio observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shea D.

    This thesis focuses on detecting magnetized relativistic plasma in the intergalactic medium (IGM) of filamentary large-scale structure (LSS) by observing synchrotron emission emitted by structure formation shocks. Little is known about the IGM beyond the largest clusters of galaxies, and synchrotron emission holds enormous promise as a means of probing magnetic fields and relativistic particle populations in these low density regions. I'll first report on observations taken at the Very Large Array and the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope of the diffuse radio source 0809+39. I use these observations to demonstrate that 0809+39 is likely the first "radio relic" discovered that is not associated with a rich |"X-ray emitting cluster of galaxies. I then demonstrate that an unconventional reprocessing of the NVSS polarization survey can reveal structures on scales from 15' to hundreds of degrees, far larger than the nominal shortest-baseline scale. This yields hundreds of new diffuse sources as well as the identification of a new nearby galactic loop . These observations also highlight the major obstacle that diffuse galactic foreground emission poses for any search for large-scale, low surface- brightness extragalactic emission. I therefore explore the cross-correlation of diffuse radio emission with optical tracers of LSS as a means of statistically detecting the presence of magnetic fields in the low-density regions of the cosmic web. This initial study with the Bonn 1.4 GHz radio survey yields an upper limit of 0.2 mG for large-scale filament magnetic fields. Finally, I report on new Green Bank Telescope and Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope observations of the famous Coma cluster of galaxies. Major findings include an extension to the Coma cluster radio relic source 1253+275 which makes its total extent ~2 Mpc, as well as a sharp edge, or "front", on the Western side of the radio halo which shows a strong correlation with merger activity associated with an

  4. The predictability of large-scale wind-driven flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahadevan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The singular values associated with optimally growing perturbations to stationary and time-dependent solutions for the general circulation in an ocean basin provide a measure of the rate at which solutions with nearby initial conditions begin to diverge, and hence, a measure of the predictability of the flow. In this paper, the singular vectors and singular values of stationary and evolving examples of wind-driven, double-gyre circulations in different flow regimes are explored. By changing the Reynolds number in simple quasi-geostrophic models of the wind-driven circulation, steady, weakly aperiodic and chaotic states may be examined. The singular vectors of the steady state reveal some of the physical mechanisms responsible for optimally growing perturbations. In time-dependent cases, the dominant singular values show significant variability in time, indicating strong variations in the predictability of the flow. When the underlying flow is weakly aperiodic, the dominant singular values co-vary with integral measures of the large-scale flow, such as the basin-integrated upper ocean kinetic energy and the transport in the western boundary current extension. Furthermore, in a reduced gravity quasi-geostrophic model of a weakly aperiodic, double-gyre flow, the behaviour of the dominant singular values may be used to predict a change in the large-scale flow, a feature not shared by an analogous two-layer model. When the circulation is in a strongly aperiodic state, the dominant singular values no longer vary coherently with integral measures of the flow. Instead, they fluctuate in a very aperiodic fashion on mesoscale time scales. The dominant singular vectors then depend strongly on the arrangement of mesoscale features in the flow and the evolved forms of the associated singular vectors have relatively short spatial scales. These results have several implications. In weakly aperiodic, periodic, and stationary regimes, the mesoscale energy

  5. Conservation and Rewiring of Functional Modules Revealed by an Epistasis Map in Fission Yeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roguev, Assen; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Zofall, Martin; Zhang, Ke; Fischer, Tamas; Collins, Sean R.; Qu, Hongjing; Shales, Michael; Park, Han-Oh; Hayles, Jacqueline; Hoe, Kwang-Lae; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ideker, Trey; Grewal, Shiv I.; Weissman, Jonathan S.; Krogan, Nevan J.

    2009-01-01

    An epistasis map (E-MAP) was constructed in the fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, by systematically measuring the phenotypes associated with pairs of mutations. This high-density, quantitative genetic interaction map focused on various aspects of chromosome function, including transcription regulation and DNA repair/replication. The E-MAP uncovered a previously unidentified component of the RNA interference (RNAi) machinery (rsh1) and linked the RNAi pathway to several other biological processes. Comparison of the S. pombe E-MAP to an analogous genetic map from the budding yeast revealed that, whereas negative interactions were conserved between genes involved in similar biological processes, positive interactions and overall genetic profiles between pairs of genes coding for physically associated proteins were even more conserved. Hence, conservation occurs at the level of the functional module (protein complex), but the genetic cross talk between modules can differ substantially. PMID:18818364

  6. The Large-scale Component of Mantle Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cserepes, L.

    Circulation in the Earth's mantle occurs on multiple spatial scales: this review dis- cusses the character of its large-scale or global components. Direct and strong evi- dence concerning the global flow comes, first of all, from the pattern of plate motion. Further indirect observational data which can be transformed into flow velocities by the equation of motion are the internal density heterogeneities revealed by seismic to- mography, and the geoid can also be used as an observational constraint. Due to their limited spatial resolution, global tomographic data automatically filter out the small- scale features and are therefore relevant to the global flow pattern. Flow solutions obtained from tomographic models, using the plate motion as boundary condition, re- veal that subduction is the downwelling of the global mantle circulation and that the deep-rooted upwellings are concentrated in 2-3 superplumes. Spectral analysis of the tomographic heterogeneities shows that the power of global flow appears dominantly in the lowest spherical harmonic orders 2-5. Theoretical convection calculations con- tribute substantially to the understanding of global flow. If basal heating of the mantle is significant, numerical models can reproduce the basic 2 to 5 cell pattern of con- vection even without the inclusion of surface plates. If plates are superimposed on the solution with their present arrangement and motion, the dominance of these low spherical harmonic orders is more pronounced. The cells are not necessarily closed, rather they show chaotic time-dependence, but they are normally bordered by long downwelling features, and they have usually a single superplume in the cell interior. Swarms of small plumes can develop in the large cells, especially when convection is partially layered due to an internal boundary such as the 670 km discontinuity (source of small plumes). These small plumes are usually tilted by the background large-scale flow which shows that they are

  7. Intensive agriculture erodes β-diversity at large scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karp, Daniel S; Rominger, Andrew J; Zook, Jim; Ranganathan, Jai; Ehrlich, Paul R; Daily, Gretchen C

    2012-09-01

    Biodiversity is declining from unprecedented land conversions that replace diverse, low-intensity agriculture with vast expanses under homogeneous, intensive production. Despite documented losses of species richness, consequences for β-diversity, changes in community composition between sites, are largely unknown, especially in the tropics. Using a 10-year data set on Costa Rican birds, we find that low-intensity agriculture sustained β-diversity across large scales on a par with forest. In high-intensity agriculture, low local (α) diversity inflated β-diversity as a statistical artefact. Therefore, at small spatial scales, intensive agriculture appeared to retain β-diversity. Unlike in forest or low-intensity systems, however, high-intensity agriculture also homogenised vegetation structure over large distances, thereby decoupling the fundamental ecological pattern of bird communities changing with geographical distance. This ~40% decline in species turnover indicates a significant decline in β-diversity at large spatial scales. These findings point the way towards multi-functional agricultural systems that maintain agricultural productivity while simultaneously conserving biodiversity.

  8. Safeguards instruments for Large-Scale Reprocessing Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakkila, E.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Case, R.S.; Sonnier, C. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Between 1987 and 1992 a multi-national forum known as LASCAR (Large Scale Reprocessing Plant Safeguards) met to assist the IAEA in development of effective and efficient safeguards for large-scale reprocessing plants. The US provided considerable input for safeguards approaches and instrumentation. This paper reviews and updates instrumentation of importance in measuring plutonium and uranium in these facilities.

  9. Electrodialysis system for large-scale enantiomer separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ent, van der E.M.; Thielen, T.P.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Padt, van der A.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to analytical methods, the range of technologies currently applied for large-scale enantiomer separations is not very extensive. Therefore, a new system has been developed for large-scale enantiomer separations that can be regarded as the scale-up of a capillary electrophoresis system. I

  10. Electrodialysis system for large-scale enantiomer separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ent, van der E.M.; Thielen, T.P.H.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Padt, van der A.; Keurentjes, J.T.F.

    2001-01-01

    In contrast to analytical methods, the range of technologies currently applied for large-scale enantiomer separations is not very extensive. Therefore, a new system has been developed for large-scale enantiomer separations that can be regarded as the scale-up of a capillary electrophoresis system.

  11. Prospects for large scale electricity storage in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krog Ekman, Claus; Jensen, Søren Højgaard

    2010-01-01

    In a future power systems with additional wind power capacity there will be an increased need for large scale power management as well as reliable balancing and reserve capabilities. Different technologies for large scale electricity storage provide solutions to the different challenges arising w...

  12. Governing large-scale social-ecological systems: Lessons from five cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forrest D Fleischman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares lessons drawn from five case studies of large scale governance of common-pool resources: management of forests in Indonesia, the Great Barrier Reef in Australia, the Rhine River in western Europe, the Ozone layer (i.e. the Montreal Protocol, and the Atlantic Bluefin Tuna (i.e. the International Convention on the Conservation of Atlantic Tuna. The goal is to assess the applicability of Ostrom’s design principles for sustainable resource governance to large scale systems, as well as to examine other important variables that may determine success in large scale systems. While we find support for some of Ostrom’s design principles (boundaries, monitoring, sanctions, fit to conditions, and conflict resolution mechanisms are all supported, other principles have only moderate to weak support. In particular, recognition of rights to organize and the accountability of monitors to resource users were not supported. We argue that these differences are the result of differences between small and large scale systems. At large scales, other kinds of political dynamics, including the role of scientists and civil society organizations, appear to play key roles. Other variables emphasized in common-pool resource studies, such as levels of dependence on resources, group size, heterogeneity, disturbances, and resource characteristics also receive mixed support, pointing to the need to reinterpret the meaning of common-pool resource theories in order for them to be applicable at larger scales.

  13. Distribution probability of large-scale landslides in central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Manita; Bhandary, Netra P.; Dahal, Ranjan Kumar; Yatabe, Ryuichi

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale landslides in the Himalaya are defined as huge, deep-seated landslide masses that occurred in the geological past. They are widely distributed in the Nepal Himalaya. The steep topography and high local relief provide high potential for such failures, whereas the dynamic geology and adverse climatic conditions play a key role in the occurrence and reactivation of such landslides. The major geoscientific problems related with such large-scale landslides are 1) difficulties in their identification and delineation, 2) sources of small-scale failures, and 3) reactivation. Only a few scientific publications have been published concerning large-scale landslides in Nepal. In this context, the identification and quantification of large-scale landslides and their potential distribution are crucial. Therefore, this study explores the distribution of large-scale landslides in the Lesser Himalaya. It provides simple guidelines to identify large-scale landslides based on their typical characteristics and using a 3D schematic diagram. Based on the spatial distribution of landslides, geomorphological/geological parameters and logistic regression, an equation of large-scale landslide distribution is also derived. The equation is validated by applying it to another area. For the new area, the area under the receiver operating curve of the landslide distribution probability in the new area is 0.699, and a distribution probability value could explain > 65% of existing landslides. Therefore, the regression equation can be applied to areas of the Lesser Himalaya of central Nepal with similar geological and geomorphological conditions.

  14. A Minimal Model for Large-scale Epitaxial Growth Kinetics of Graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, Huijun

    2015-01-01

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be $C_{1}$-attachment for concave growth front segments and $C_{5}$-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  15. Large-scale epitaxial growth kinetics of graphene: A kinetic Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai, E-mail: hzhlj@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Chemical Physics and Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscales, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2015-08-28

    Epitaxial growth via chemical vapor deposition is considered to be the most promising way towards synthesizing large area graphene with high quality. However, it remains a big theoretical challenge to reveal growth kinetics with atomically energetic and large-scale spatial information included. Here, we propose a minimal kinetic Monte Carlo model to address such an issue on an active catalyst surface with graphene/substrate lattice mismatch, which facilitates us to perform large scale simulations of the growth kinetics over two dimensional surface with growth fronts of complex shapes. A geometry-determined large-scale growth mechanism is revealed, where the rate-dominating event is found to be C{sub 1}-attachment for concave growth-front segments and C{sub 5}-attachment for others. This growth mechanism leads to an interesting time-resolved growth behavior which is well consistent with that observed in a recent scanning tunneling microscopy experiment.

  16. Organised convection embedded in a large-scale flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Ann Kristin; Stevens, Bjorn; Hohenegger, Cathy

    2017-04-01

    In idealised simulations of radiative convective equilibrium, convection aggregates spontaneously from randomly distributed convective cells into organized mesoscale convection despite homogeneous boundary conditions. Although these simulations apply very idealised setups, the process of self-aggregation is thought to be relevant for the development of tropical convective systems. One feature that idealised simulations usually neglect is the occurrence of a large-scale background flow. In the tropics, organised convection is embedded in a large-scale circulation system, which advects convection in along-wind direction and alters near surface convergence in the convective areas. A large-scale flow also modifies the surface fluxes, which are expected to be enhanced upwind of the convective area if a large-scale flow is applied. Convective clusters that are embedded in a large-scale flow therefore experience an asymmetric component of the surface fluxes, which influences the development and the pathway of a convective cluster. In this study, we use numerical simulations with explicit convection and add a large-scale flow to the established setup of radiative convective equilibrium. We then analyse how aggregated convection evolves when being exposed to wind forcing. The simulations suggest that convective line structures are more prevalent if a large-scale flow is present and that convective clusters move considerably slower than advection by the large-scale flow would suggest. We also study the asymmetric component of convective aggregation due to enhanced surface fluxes, and discuss the pathway and speed of convective clusters as a function of the large-scale wind speed.

  17. Evolutionary conservation of codon optimality reveals hidden signatures of cotranslational folding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechmann, Sebastian; Frydman, Judith

    2013-02-01

    The choice of codons can influence local translation kinetics during protein synthesis. Whether codon preference is linked to cotranslational regulation of polypeptide folding remains unclear. Here, we derive a revised translational efficiency scale that incorporates the competition between tRNA supply and demand. Applying this scale to ten closely related yeast species, we uncover the evolutionary conservation of codon optimality in eukaryotes. This analysis reveals universal patterns of conserved optimal and nonoptimal codons, often in clusters, which associate with the secondary structure of the translated polypeptides independent of the levels of expression. Our analysis suggests an evolved function for codon optimality in regulating the rhythm of elongation to facilitate cotranslational polypeptide folding, beyond its previously proposed role of adapting to the cost of expression. These findings establish how mRNA sequences are generally under selection to optimize the cotranslational folding of corresponding polypeptides.

  18. Probabilistic cartography of the large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    The BORG algorithm is an inference engine that derives the initial conditions given a cosmological model and galaxy survey data, and produces physical reconstructions of the underlying large-scale structure by assimilating the data into the model. We present the application of BORG to real galaxy catalogs and describe the primordial and late-time large-scale structure in the considered volumes. We then show how these results can be used for building various probabilistic maps of the large-scale structure, with rigorous propagation of uncertainties. In particular, we study dynamic cosmic web elements and secondary effects in the cosmic microwave background.

  19. Large scale and big data processing and management

    CERN Document Server

    Sakr, Sherif

    2014-01-01

    Large Scale and Big Data: Processing and Management provides readers with a central source of reference on the data management techniques currently available for large-scale data processing. Presenting chapters written by leading researchers, academics, and practitioners, it addresses the fundamental challenges associated with Big Data processing tools and techniques across a range of computing environments.The book begins by discussing the basic concepts and tools of large-scale Big Data processing and cloud computing. It also provides an overview of different programming models and cloud-bas

  20. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.

    2010-07-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation for current data, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass mν presently derived from LSS combined with cosmic microwave background (CMB) data does not in fact arise from the possible small-scale power suppression due to neutrino free-streaming, if we limit the model framework to minimal ΛCDM+mν. However, in more complicated models, such as those extended with extra light degrees of freedom and a dark energy equation of state parameter w differing from -1, shape information becomes crucial for the resolution of parameter degeneracies. This conclusion will remain true even when data from the Planck spacecraft are combined with SDSS DR7 data. In the course of our analysis, we update both the BAO likelihood function by including an exact numerical calculation of the time of decoupling, as well as the HPS likelihood, by introducing a new dewiggling procedure that generalises the previous approach to models with an arbitrary sound horizon at decoupling. These changes allow a consistent application of the BAO and HPS data sets to a much wider class of models, including the ones considered in this work. All the cases considered here are compatible with the conservative 95%-bounds ∑mν < 1.16eV, Neff = 4.8±2.0.

  1. Large-scale modelling of the divergent spectrin repeats in nesprins: giant modular proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autore, Flavia; Pfuhl, Mark; Quan, Xueping; Williams, Aisling; Roberts, Roland G; Shanahan, Catherine M; Fraternali, Franca

    2013-01-01

    Nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 are nuclear envelope (NE) proteins characterized by a common structure of an SR (spectrin repeat) rod domain and a C-terminal transmembrane KASH [Klarsicht-ANC-Syne-homology] domain and display N-terminal actin-binding CH (calponin homology) domains. Mutations in these proteins have been described in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and attributed to disruptions of interactions at the NE with nesprins binding partners, lamin A/C and emerin. Evolutionary analysis of the rod domains of the nesprins has shown that they are almost entirely composed of unbroken SR-like structures. We present a bioinformatical approach to accurate definition of the boundaries of each SR by comparison with canonical SR structures, allowing for a large-scale homology modelling of the 74 nesprin-1 and 56 nesprin-2 SRs. The exposed and evolutionary conserved residues identify important pbs for protein-protein interactions that can guide tailored binding experiments. Most importantly, the bioinformatics analyses and the 3D models have been central to the design of selected constructs for protein expression. 1D NMR and CD spectra have been performed of the expressed SRs, showing a folded, stable, high content α-helical structure, typical of SRs. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structural and elastic properties of consecutive SRs, revealing insights in the mechanical properties adopted by these modules in the cell.

  2. Large scale land acquisitions and REDD+: a synthesis of conflicts and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Sarah; Manceur, Ameur M.; Seppelt, Ralf; Hermans-Neumann, Kathleen; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Lou

    2017-03-01

    Large scale land acquisitions (LSLA), and Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) are both land based phenomena which when occurring in the same area, can compete with each other for land. A quantitative analysis of country characteristics revealed that land available for agriculture, accessibility, and political stability are key explanatory factors for a country being targeted for LSLA. Surprisingly LSLA occur in countries with lower accessibility. Countries with good land availability, poor accessibility and political stability may become future targets if they do not already have LSLA. Countries which high levels of agriculture-driven deforestation and LSLA, should develop interventions which reduce forest loss driven either directly or indirectly by LSLA as part of their REDD+ strategies. Both host country and investor-side policies have been identified which could be used more widely to reduce conflicts between LSLA and REDD+. Findings from this research highlight the need for and can inform the development of national and international policies on land acquisitions including green acquisitions such as REDD+. Land management must be considered with all its objectives—including food security, biodiversity conservation, and climate change mitigation—in a coherent strategy which engages relevant stakeholders. This is not currently occurring and might be a key ingredient to achieve the targets under the Sustainable Development Goals 2 and 15 and 16 (related to food security and sustainable agriculture and the protection of forests) among others.

  3. Large-scale modelling of the divergent spectrin repeats in nesprins: giant modular proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Autore

    Full Text Available Nesprin-1 and nesprin-2 are nuclear envelope (NE proteins characterized by a common structure of an SR (spectrin repeat rod domain and a C-terminal transmembrane KASH [Klarsicht-ANC-Syne-homology] domain and display N-terminal actin-binding CH (calponin homology domains. Mutations in these proteins have been described in Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy and attributed to disruptions of interactions at the NE with nesprins binding partners, lamin A/C and emerin. Evolutionary analysis of the rod domains of the nesprins has shown that they are almost entirely composed of unbroken SR-like structures. We present a bioinformatical approach to accurate definition of the boundaries of each SR by comparison with canonical SR structures, allowing for a large-scale homology modelling of the 74 nesprin-1 and 56 nesprin-2 SRs. The exposed and evolutionary conserved residues identify important pbs for protein-protein interactions that can guide tailored binding experiments. Most importantly, the bioinformatics analyses and the 3D models have been central to the design of selected constructs for protein expression. 1D NMR and CD spectra have been performed of the expressed SRs, showing a folded, stable, high content α-helical structure, typical of SRs. Molecular Dynamics simulations have been performed to study the structural and elastic properties of consecutive SRs, revealing insights in the mechanical properties adopted by these modules in the cell.

  4. Towards a self-consistent halo model for the nonlinear large-scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The halo model is a theoretically and empirically well-motivated framework for predicting the statistics of the nonlinear matter distribution in the Universe. However, current incarnations of the halo model suffer from two major deficiencies: $(i)$ they do not enforce the stress-energy conservation of matter; $(ii)$ they are not guaranteed to recover exact perturbation theory results on large scales. Here, we provide a formulation of the halo model ("EHM") that remedies both drawbacks in a consistent way, while attempting to maintain the predictivity of the approach. In the formulation presented here, mass and momentum conservation are guaranteed, and results of perturbation theory and the effective field theory can in principle be matched to any desired order on large scales. We find that a key ingredient in the halo model power spectrum is the halo stochasticity covariance, which has been studied to a much lesser extent than other ingredients such as mass function, bias, and profiles of halos. As written he...

  5. Large scale structures in liquid crystal/clay colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duijneveldt, Jeroen S van [School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Klein, Susanne [HP Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom); Leach, Edward [HP Laboratories, Filton Road, Stoke Gifford, Bristol BS34 8QZ (United Kingdom); Pizzey, Claire [School of Chemistry, Cantock' s Close, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Richardson, Robert M [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, Tyndall Avenue, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-20

    Suspensions of three different clays in K15, a thermotropic liquid crystal, have been studied by optical microscopy and small angle x-ray scattering. The three clays were claytone AF, a surface treated natural montmorillonite, laponite RD, a synthetic hectorite, and mined sepiolite. The claytone and laponite were sterically stabilized whereas sepiolite formed a relatively stable suspension in K15 without any surface treatment. Micrographs of the different suspensions revealed that all three suspensions contained large scale structures. The nature of these aggregates was investigated using small angle x-ray scattering. For the clays with sheet-like particles, claytone and laponite, the flocs contain a mixture of stacked and single platelets. The basal spacing in the stacks was independent of particle concentration in the suspension and the phase of the solvent. The number of platelets in the stack and their percentage in the suspension varied with concentration and the aspect ratio of the platelets. The lath shaped sepiolite did not show any tendency to organize into ordered structures. Here the aggregates are networks of randomly oriented single rods.

  6. Global Wildfire Forecasts Using Large Scale Climate Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu

    2016-04-01

    Using weather readings, fire early warning can provided forecast 4-6 hour in advance to minimize fire loss. The benefit would be dramatically enhanced if relatively accurate long-term projection can be also provided. Here we present a novel method for predicting global fire season severity (FSS) at least three months in advance using multiple large-scale climate indices (CIs). The predictive ability is proven effective for various geographic locations and resolution. Globally, as well as in most continents, the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant driving force controlling interannual FSS variability, whereas other CIs also play indispensable roles. We found that a moderate El Niño event is responsible for 465 (272-658 as interquartile range) Tg carbon release and an annual increase of 29,500 (24,500-34,800) deaths from inhalation exposure to air pollutants. Southeast Asia accounts for half of the deaths. Both intercorrelation and interaction of WPs and CIs are revealed, suggesting possible climate-induced modification of fire responses to weather conditions. Our models can benefit fire management in response to climate change.

  7. Silver nanoparticles: Large scale solvothermal synthesis and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wani, Irshad A.; Khatoon, Sarvari [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ganguly, Aparna [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ahmed, Jahangeer; Ganguli, Ashok K. [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ahmad, Tokeer, E-mail: tokeer.ch@jmi.ac.in [Nanochemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Silver nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a simple and modified solvothermal method at large scale using ethanol as the refluxing solvent and NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent. The nanopowder was investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV-visible and BET surface area studies. XRD studies reveal the monophasic nature of these highly crystalline silver nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopic studies show the monodisperse and highly uniform nanoparticles of silver of the particle size of 5 nm, however, the size is found to be 7 nm using dynamic light scattering which is in good agreement with the TEM and X-ray line broadening studies. The surface area was found to be 34.5 m{sup 2}/g. UV-visible studies show the absorption band at {approx}425 nm due to surface plasmon resonance. The percentage yield of silver nanoparticles was found to be as high as 98.5%.

  8. Simulation and experiment for large scale space structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongbo; Zhou, Jian; Zha, Zuoliang

    2013-04-01

    The future space structures are relatively large, flimsy, and lightweight. As a result, they are more easily affected or distortion by space environments compared to other space structures. This study examines the structural integrity of a large scale space structure. A new design of transient temperature field analysis method of the developable reflector on orbit environment is presented, which simulates physical characteristic of developable antenna reflector with a high precision. The different kinds of analysis denote that different thermal elastic characteristics of different materials. The three-dimension multi-physics coupling transient thermal distortion equations for the antenna are founded based on the Galerkins method. For a reflector on geosynchronous orbit, the transient temperature field results from this method are compared with these from NASA. It follows from the analysis that the precision of this method is high. An experimental system is established to verify the control mechanism with IEBIS and thermal sensor technique. The shape control experiments are finished by measuring and analyzing developable tube. Results reveal that the temperature levels of the developable antenna reflector alternate greatly in the orbital period, which is about ±120° when considering solar flux ,earth radiating flux and albedo scattering flux.

  9. Analyzing large-scale proteomics projects with latent semantic indexing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klie, Sebastian; Martens, Lennart; Vizcaíno, Juan Antonio; Côté, Richard; Jones, Phil; Apweiler, Rolf; Hinneburg, Alexander; Hermjakob, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Since the advent of public data repositories for proteomics data, readily accessible results from high-throughput experiments have been accumulating steadily. Several large-scale projects in particular have contributed substantially to the amount of identifications available to the community. Despite the considerable body of information amassed, very few successful analyses have been performed and published on this data, leveling off the ultimate value of these projects far below their potential. A prominent reason published proteomics data is seldom reanalyzed lies in the heterogeneous nature of the original sample collection and the subsequent data recording and processing. To illustrate that at least part of this heterogeneity can be compensated for, we here apply a latent semantic analysis to the data contributed by the Human Proteome Organization's Plasma Proteome Project (HUPO PPP). Interestingly, despite the broad spectrum of instruments and methodologies applied in the HUPO PPP, our analysis reveals several obvious patterns that can be used to formulate concrete recommendations for optimizing proteomics project planning as well as the choice of technologies used in future experiments. It is clear from these results that the analysis of large bodies of publicly available proteomics data by noise-tolerant algorithms such as the latent semantic analysis holds great promise and is currently underexploited.

  10. Bio-inspired wooden actuators for large scale applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Rüggeberg

    Full Text Available Implementing programmable actuation into materials and structures is a major topic in the field of smart materials. In particular the bilayer principle has been employed to develop actuators that respond to various kinds of stimuli. A multitude of small scale applications down to micrometer size have been developed, but up-scaling remains challenging due to either limitations in mechanical stiffness of the material or in the manufacturing processes. Here, we demonstrate the actuation of wooden bilayers in response to changes in relative humidity, making use of the high material stiffness and a good machinability to reach large scale actuation and application. Amplitude and response time of the actuation were measured and can be predicted and controlled by adapting the geometry and the constitution of the bilayers. Field tests in full weathering conditions revealed long-term stability of the actuation. The potential of the concept is shown by a first demonstrator. With the sensor and actuator intrinsically incorporated in the wooden bilayers, the daily change in relative humidity is exploited for an autonomous and solar powered movement of a tracker for solar modules.

  11. Large scale multiplex PCR improves pathogen detection by DNA microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krönke Martin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medium density DNA microchips that carry a collection of probes for a broad spectrum of pathogens, have the potential to be powerful tools for simultaneous species identification, detection of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance determinants. However, their widespread use in microbiological diagnostics is limited by the problem of low pathogen numbers in clinical specimens revealing relatively low amounts of pathogen DNA. Results To increase the detection power of a fluorescence-based prototype-microarray designed to identify pathogenic microorganisms involved in sepsis, we propose a large scale multiplex PCR (LSplex PCR for amplification of several dozens of gene-segments of 9 pathogenic species. This protocol employs a large set of primer pairs, potentially able to amplify 800 different gene segments that correspond to the capture probes spotted on the microarray. The LSplex protocol is shown to selectively amplify only the gene segments corresponding to the specific pathogen present in the analyte. Application of LSplex increases the microarray detection of target templates by a factor of 100 to 1000. Conclusion Our data provide a proof of principle for the improvement of detection of pathogen DNA by microarray hybridization by using LSplex PCR.

  12. Alignment between galaxies and large-scale structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. Faltenbacher; Cheng Li; Simon D. M. White; Yi-Peng Jing; Shu-De Mao; Jie Wang

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR6 (SDSS) and the Millennium Simulation (MS), we investigate the alignment between galaxies and large-scale struc-ture. For this purpose, we develop two new statistical tools, namely the alignment cor-relation function and the cos(20)-statistic. The former is a two-dimensional extension of the traditional two-point correlation function and the latter is related to the ellipticity correlation function used for cosmic shear measurements. Both are based on the cross correlation between a sample of galaxies with orientations and a reference sample which represents the large-scale structure. We apply the new statistics to the SDSS galaxy cat-alog. The alignment correlation function reveals an overabundance of reference galaxies along the major axes of red, luminous (L L*) galaxies out to projected separations of 60 h-1Mpc. The signal increases with central galaxy luminosity. No alignment signal is detected for blue galaxies. The cos(2θ)-statistic yields very similar results. Starting from a MS semi-analytic galaxy catalog, we assign an orientation to each red, luminous and central galaxy, based on that of the central region of the host halo (with size similar to that of the stellar galaxy). As an alternative, we use the orientation of the host halo itself. We find a mean projected misalignment between a halo and its central region of ~ 25°. The misalignment decreases slightly with increasing luminosity of the central galaxy. Using the orientations and luminosities of the semi-analytic galaxies, we repeat our alignment analysis on mock surveys of the MS. Agreement with the SDSS results is good if the central orientations are used. Predictions using the halo orientations as proxies for cen-tral galaxy orientations overestimate the observed alignment by more than a factor of 2. Finally, the large volume of the MS allows us to generate a two-dimensional map of the alignment correlation function, which shows the reference galaxy

  13. Simple Model for Simulating Characteristics of River Flow Velocity in Large Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husin Alatas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a simple computer based phenomenological model to simulate the characteristics of river flow velocity in large scale. We use shuttle radar tomography mission based digital elevation model in grid form to define the terrain of catchment area. The model relies on mass-momentum conservation law and modified equation of motion of falling body in inclined plane. We assume inelastic collision occurs at every junction of two river branches to describe the dynamics of merged flow velocity.

  14. The theory of large-scale ocean circulation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samelson, R. M

    2011-01-01

    "This is a concise but comprehensive introduction to the basic elements of the theory of large-scale ocean circulation for advanced students and researchers"-- "Mounting evidence that human activities...

  15. Learning networks for sustainable, large-scale improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCannon, C Joseph; Perla, Rocco J

    2009-05-01

    Large-scale improvement efforts known as improvement networks offer structured opportunities for exchange of information and insights into the adaptation of clinical protocols to a variety of settings.

  16. Personalized Opportunistic Computing for CMS at Large Scale

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    **Douglas Thain** is an Associate Professor of Computer Science and Engineering at the University of Notre Dame, where he designs large scale distributed computing systems to power the needs of advanced science and...

  17. An Evaluation Framework for Large-Scale Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    An evaluation framework for large-scale network structures is presented, which facilitates evaluations and comparisons of different physical network structures. A number of quantitative and qualitative parameters are presented, and their importance to networks discussed. Choosing a network...

  18. Modified gravity and large scale flows, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mould, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    Large scale flows have been a challenging feature of cosmography ever since galaxy scaling relations came on the scene 40 years ago. The next generation of surveys will offer a serious test of the standard cosmology.

  19. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    @@ The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.

  20. Some perspective on the Large Scale Scientific Computation Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU; Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The "Large Scale Scientific Computation (LSSC) Research"project is one of the State Major Basic Research projects funded by the Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology in the field ofinformation science and technology.……

  1. PetroChina to Expand Dushanzi Refinery on Large Scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ A large-scale expansion project for PetroChina Dushanzi Petrochemical Company has been given the green light, a move which will make it one of the largest refineries and petrochemical complexes in the country.

  2. Needs, opportunities, and options for large scale systems research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, G.L.

    1984-10-01

    The Office of Energy Research was recently asked to perform a study of Large Scale Systems in order to facilitate the development of a true large systems theory. It was decided to ask experts in the fields of electrical engineering, chemical engineering and manufacturing/operations research for their ideas concerning large scale systems research. The author was asked to distribute a questionnaire among these experts to find out their opinions concerning recent accomplishments and future research directions in large scale systems research. He was also requested to convene a conference which included three experts in each area as panel members to discuss the general area of large scale systems research. The conference was held on March 26--27, 1984 in Pittsburgh with nine panel members, and 15 other attendees. The present report is a summary of the ideas presented and the recommendations proposed by the attendees.

  3. Comparison Between Overtopping Discharge in Small and Large Scale Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, Einar; Burcharth, Hans F.

    2006-01-01

    small and large scale model tests show no clear evidence of scale effects for overtopping above a threshold value. In the large scale model no overtopping was measured for waveheights below Hs = 0.5m as the water sunk into the voids between the stones on the crest. For low overtopping scale effects...... are presented as the small-scale model underpredicts the overtopping discharge....

  4. Efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making for large scale settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assent, Ira

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative decision making is a successful approach in settings where data analysis and querying can be done interactively. In large scale systems with huge data volumes or many users, collaboration is often hindered by impractical runtimes. Existing work on improving collaboration focuses...... to bring about more effective and more efficient retrieval systems that support the users' decision making process. We sketch promising research directions for more efficient algorithms for collaborative decision making, especially for large scale systems....

  5. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the s...

  6. Vector dissipativity theory for large-scale impulsive dynamical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haddad Wassim M.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern complex large-scale impulsive systems involve multiple modes of operation placing stringent demands on controller analysis of increasing complexity. In analyzing these large-scale systems, it is often desirable to treat the overall impulsive system as a collection of interconnected impulsive subsystems. Solution properties of the large-scale impulsive system are then deduced from the solution properties of the individual impulsive subsystems and the nature of the impulsive system interconnections. In this paper, we develop vector dissipativity theory for large-scale impulsive dynamical systems. Specifically, using vector storage functions and vector hybrid supply rates, dissipativity properties of the composite large-scale impulsive systems are shown to be determined from the dissipativity properties of the impulsive subsystems and their interconnections. Furthermore, extended Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov conditions, in terms of the impulsive subsystem dynamics and interconnection constraints, characterizing vector dissipativeness via vector system storage functions, are derived. Finally, these results are used to develop feedback interconnection stability results for large-scale impulsive dynamical systems using vector Lyapunov functions.

  7. Status of large-scale analysis of post-translational modifications by mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jesper V; Mann, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    , but it has only been in the last ten years that mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics has begun to reveal the true extent of the PTM universe. In this overview for the special PTM issue in Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, we take stock of where MS-based proteomics stands in the large-scale analysis...

  8. Managing shifting species: Ancient DNA reveals conservation conundrums in a dynamic world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Jonathan M; Grosser, Stefanie

    2016-11-01

    The spread of exotic species represents a major driver of biological change across the planet. While dispersal and colonization are natural biological processes, we suggest that the failure to recognize increasing rates of human-facilitated self-introductions may represent a threat to native lineages. Notably, recent biogeographic analyses have revealed numerous cases of biological range shifts in response to anthropogenic impacts and climate change. In particular, ancient DNA analyses have revealed several cases in which lineages traditionally thought to be long-established "natives" are in fact recent colonizers. Such range expansion events have apparently occurred in response to human-mediated native biodiversity declines and ecosystem change, particularly in recently colonized, isolated ecosystems such as New Zealand. While such events can potentially boost local biodiversity, the spread of exotic lineages may also hasten the decline of indigenous species, so it is essential that conservation managers recognize these rapid biotic shifts.​. © 2016 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Large-scale-vortex dynamos in planar rotating convection

    CERN Document Server

    Guervilly, Céline; Jones, Chris A

    2016-01-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated how large-scale vortices may arise spontaneously in rotating planar convection. Here we examine the dynamo properties of such flows in rotating Boussinesq convection. For moderate values of the magnetic Reynolds number ($100 \\lesssim Rm \\lesssim 550$, with $Rm$ based on the box depth and the convective velocity), a large-scale (i.e. system-size) magnetic field is generated. The amplitude of the magnetic energy oscillates in time, out of phase with the oscillating amplitude of the large-scale vortex. The dynamo mechanism relies on those components of the flow that have length scales lying between that of the large-scale vortex and the typical convective cell size; smaller-scale flows are not required. The large-scale vortex plays a crucial role in the magnetic induction despite being essentially two-dimensional. For larger magnetic Reynolds numbers, the dynamo is small scale, with a magnetic energy spectrum that peaks at the scale of the convective cells. In this case, ...

  10. The Internet As a Large-Scale Complex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kihong; Willinger, Walter

    2005-06-01

    The Internet may be viewed as a "complex system" with diverse features and many components that can give rise to unexpected emergent phenomena, revealing much about its own engineering. This book brings together chapter contributions from a workshop held at the Santa Fe Institute in March 2001. This volume captures a snapshot of some features of the Internet that may be fruitfully approached using a complex systems perspective, meaning using interdisciplinary tools and methods to tackle the subject area. The Internet penetrates the socioeconomic fabric of everyday life; a broader and deeper grasp of the Internet may be needed to meet the challenges facing the future. The resulting empirical data have already proven to be invaluable for gaining novel insights into the network's spatio-temporal dynamics, and can be expected to become even more important when tryin to explain the Internet's complex and emergent behavior in terms of elementary networking-based mechanisms. The discoveries of fractal or self-similar network traffic traces, power-law behavior in network topology and World Wide Web connectivity are instances of unsuspected, emergent system traits. Another important factor at the heart of fair, efficient, and stable sharing of network resources is user behavior. Network systems, when habited by selfish or greedy users, take on the traits of a noncooperative multi-party game, and their stability and efficiency are integral to understanding the overall system and its dynamics. Lastly, fault-tolerance and robustness of large-scale network systems can exhibit spatial and temporal correlations whose effective analysis and management may benefit from rescaling techniques applied in certain physical and biological systems. The present book will bring together several of the leading workers involved in the analysis of complex systems with the future development of the Internet.

  11. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for Nuclear Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey J.

    2012-03-02

    IThe National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computing center for the DOE Office of Science, serving approximately 4,000 users and hosting some 550 projects that involve nearly 700 codes for a wide variety of scientific disciplines. In addition to large-scale computing resources NERSC provides critical staff support and expertise to help scientists make the most efficient use of these resources to advance the scientific mission of the Office of Science. In May 2011, NERSC, DOE’s Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) and DOE’s Office of Nuclear Physics (NP) held a workshop to characterize HPC requirements for NP research over the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC’s continuing involvement in anticipating future user needs and deploying necessary resources to meet these demands. The workshop revealed several key requirements, in addition to achieving its goal of characterizing NP computing. The key requirements include: 1. Larger allocations of computational resources at NERSC; 2. Visualization and analytics support; and 3. Support at NERSC for the unique needs of experimental nuclear physicists. This report expands upon these key points and adds others. The results are based upon representative samples, called “case studies,” of the needs of science teams within NP. The case studies were prepared by NP workshop participants and contain a summary of science goals, methods of solution, current and future computing requirements, and special software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, “multi-core” environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years. The report also includes a section with NERSC responses to the workshop findings. NERSC has many initiatives already underway that address key workshop findings and all of the action items are aligned with NERSC strategic plans.

  12. Developments in large-scale coastal flood hazard mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdoukas, Michalis I.; Voukouvalas, Evangelos; Mentaschi, Lorenzo; Dottori, Francesco; Giardino, Alessio; Bouziotas, Dimitrios; Bianchi, Alessandra; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc

    2016-08-01

    Coastal flooding related to marine extreme events has severe socioeconomic impacts, and even though the latter are projected to increase under the changing climate, there is a clear deficit of information and predictive capacity related to coastal flood mapping. The present contribution reports on efforts towards a new methodology for mapping coastal flood hazard at European scale, combining (i) the contribution of waves to the total water level; (ii) improved inundation modeling; and (iii) an open, physics-based framework which can be constantly upgraded, whenever new and more accurate data become available. Four inundation approaches of gradually increasing complexity and computational costs were evaluated in terms of their applicability to large-scale coastal flooding mapping: static inundation (SM); a semi-dynamic method, considering the water volume discharge over the dykes (VD); the flood intensity index approach (Iw); and the model LISFLOOD-FP (LFP). A validation test performed against observed flood extents during the Xynthia storm event showed that SM and VD can lead to an overestimation of flood extents by 232 and 209 %, while Iw and LFP showed satisfactory predictive skill. Application at pan-European scale for the present-day 100-year event confirmed that static approaches can overestimate flood extents by 56 % compared to LFP; however, Iw can deliver results of reasonable accuracy in cases when reduced computational costs are a priority. Moreover, omitting the wave contribution in the extreme total water level (TWL) can result in a ˜ 60 % underestimation of the flooded area. The present findings have implications for impact assessment studies, since combination of the estimated inundation maps with population exposure maps revealed differences in the estimated number of people affected within the 20-70 % range.

  13. Comparative genome analysis reveals a conserved family of actin-like proteins in apicomplexan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibley L David

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The phylum Apicomplexa is an early-branching eukaryotic lineage that contains a number of important human and animal pathogens. Their complex life cycles and unique cytoskeletal features distinguish them from other model eukaryotes. Apicomplexans rely on actin-based motility for cell invasion, yet the regulation of this system remains largely unknown. Consequently, we focused our efforts on identifying actin-related proteins in the recently completed genomes of Toxoplasma gondii, Plasmodium spp., Cryptosporidium spp., and Theileria spp. Results Comparative genomic and phylogenetic studies of apicomplexan genomes reveals that most contain only a single conventional actin and yet they each have 8–10 additional actin-related proteins. Among these are a highly conserved Arp1 protein (likely part of a conserved dynactin complex, and Arp4 and Arp6 homologues (subunits of the chromatin-remodeling machinery. In contrast, apicomplexans lack canonical Arp2 or Arp3 proteins, suggesting they lost the Arp2/3 actin polymerization complex on their evolutionary path towards intracellular parasitism. Seven of these actin-like proteins (ALPs are novel to apicomplexans. They show no phylogenetic associations to the known Arp groups and likely serve functions specific to this important group of intracellular parasites. Conclusion The large diversity of actin-like proteins in apicomplexans suggests that the actin protein family has diverged to fulfill various roles in the unique biology of intracellular parasites. Conserved Arps likely participate in vesicular transport and gene expression, while apicomplexan-specific ALPs may control unique biological traits such as actin-based gliding motility.

  14. Seismic safety in conducting large-scale blasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashukov, I. V.; Chaplygin, V. V.; Domanov, V. P.; Semin, A. A.; Klimkin, M. A.

    2017-09-01

    In mining enterprises to prepare hard rocks for excavation a drilling and blasting method is used. With the approach of mining operations to settlements the negative effect of large-scale blasts increases. To assess the level of seismic impact of large-scale blasts the scientific staff of Siberian State Industrial University carried out expertise for coal mines and iron ore enterprises. Determination of the magnitude of surface seismic vibrations caused by mass explosions was performed using seismic receivers, an analog-digital converter with recording on a laptop. The registration results of surface seismic vibrations during production of more than 280 large-scale blasts at 17 mining enterprises in 22 settlements are presented. The maximum velocity values of the Earth’s surface vibrations are determined. The safety evaluation of seismic effect was carried out according to the permissible value of vibration velocity. For cases with exceedance of permissible values recommendations were developed to reduce the level of seismic impact.

  15. Acoustic Studies of the Large Scale Ocean Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menemenlis, Dimitris

    1999-01-01

    Detailed knowledge of ocean circulation and its transport properties is prerequisite to an understanding of the earth's climate and of important biological and chemical cycles. Results from two recent experiments, THETIS-2 in the Western Mediterranean and ATOC in the North Pacific, illustrate the use of ocean acoustic tomography for studies of the large scale circulation. The attraction of acoustic tomography is its ability to sample and average the large-scale oceanic thermal structure, synoptically, along several sections, and at regular intervals. In both studies, the acoustic data are compared to, and then combined with, general circulation models, meteorological analyses, satellite altimetry, and direct measurements from ships. Both studies provide complete regional descriptions of the time-evolving, three-dimensional, large scale circulation, albeit with large uncertainties. The studies raise serious issues about existing ocean observing capability and provide guidelines for future efforts.

  16. Human pescadillo induces large-scale chromatin unfolding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hao; FANG Yan; HUANG Cuifen; YANG Xiao; YE Qinong

    2005-01-01

    The human pescadillo gene encodes a protein with a BRCT domain. Pescadillo plays an important role in DNA synthesis, cell proliferation and transformation. Since BRCT domains have been shown to induce chromatin large-scale unfolding, we tested the role of Pescadillo in regulation of large-scale chromatin unfolding. To this end, we isolated the coding region of Pescadillo from human mammary MCF10A cells. Compared with the reported sequence, the isolated Pescadillo contains in-frame deletion from amino acid 580 to 582. Targeting the Pescadillo to an amplified, lac operator-containing chromosome region in the mammalian genome results in large-scale chromatin decondensation. This unfolding activity maps to the BRCT domain of Pescadillo. These data provide a new clue to understanding the vital role of Pescadillo.

  17. Transport of Large Scale Poloidal Flux in Black Hole Accretion

    CERN Document Server

    Beckwith, Kris; Krolik, Julian H

    2009-01-01

    We perform a global, three-dimensional GRMHD simulation of an accretion torus embedded in a large scale vertical magnetic field orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. This simulation investigates how a large scale vertical field evolves within a turbulent accretion disk and whether global magnetic field configurations suitable for launching jets and winds can develop. We identify a ``coronal mechanism'' of magnetic flux motion, which dominates the global flux evolution. In this coronal mechanism, magnetic stresses driven by orbital shear create large-scale half-loops of magnetic field that stretch radially inward and then reconnect, leading to discontinuous jumps in the location of magnetic flux. This mechanism is supplemented by a smaller amount of flux advection in the accretion flow proper. Because the black hole in this case does not rotate, the magnetic flux on the horizon determines the mean magnetic field strength in the funnel around the disk axis; this field strength is regulated by a combination of th...

  18. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...... is very consistent, while the WMAP 9 year release appears more contaminated by non-CMB residuals than the 7 year release. The second part is concerned with the anomalies of the CMB from two approaches. One is based on an extended inflationary model as the origin of one specific large scale anomaly, namely....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  19. Large Scale Magnetohydrodynamic Dynamos from Cylindrical Differentially Rotating Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ebrahimi, F

    2015-01-01

    For cylindrical differentially rotating plasmas threaded with a uniform vertical magnetic field, we study large-scale magnetic field generation from finite amplitude perturbations using analytic theory and direct numerical simulations. Analytically, we impose helical fluctuations, a seed field, and a background flow and use quasi-linear theory for a single mode. The predicted large-scale field growth agrees with numerical simulations in which the magnetorotational instability (MRI) arises naturally. The vertically and azimuthally averaged toroidal field is generated by a fluctuation-induced EMF that depends on differential rotation. Given fluctuations, the method also predicts large-scale field growth for MRI-stable rotation profiles and flows with no rotation but shear.

  20. A relativistic signature in large-scale structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Bertacca, Daniele; Bruni, Marco; Koyama, Kazuya; Maartens, Roy; Matarrese, Sabino; Sasaki, Misao; Verde, Licia; Wands, David

    2016-09-01

    In General Relativity, the constraint equation relating metric and density perturbations is inherently nonlinear, leading to an effective non-Gaussianity in the dark matter density field on large scales-even if the primordial metric perturbation is Gaussian. Intrinsic non-Gaussianity in the large-scale dark matter overdensity in GR is real and physical. However, the variance smoothed on a local physical scale is not correlated with the large-scale curvature perturbation, so that there is no relativistic signature in the galaxy bias when using the simplest model of bias. It is an open question whether the observable mass proxies such as luminosity or weak lensing correspond directly to the physical mass in the simple halo bias model. If not, there may be observables that encode this relativistic signature.

  1. Balancing modern Power System with large scale of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Power system operators must ensure robust, secure and reliable power system operation even with a large scale integration of wind power. Electricity generated from the intermittent wind in large propor-tion may impact on the control of power system balance and thus deviations in the power system...... to be analysed with improved analytical tools and techniques. This paper proposes techniques for the active power balance control in future power systems with the large scale wind power integration, where power balancing model provides the hour-ahead dispatch plan with reduced planning horizon and the real time...... frequency in small or islanded power systems or tie line power flows in interconnected power systems. Therefore, the large scale integration of wind power into the power system strongly concerns the secure and stable grid operation. To ensure the stable power system operation, the evolving power system has...

  2. Large Scale Anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background with Planck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frejsel, Anne Mette

    This thesis focuses on the large scale anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and their possible origins. The investigations consist of two main parts. The first part is on statistical tests of the CMB, and the consistency of both maps and power spectrum. We find that the Planck data...... is very consistent, while the WMAP 9 year release appears more contaminated by non-CMB residuals than the 7 year release. The second part is concerned with the anomalies of the CMB from two approaches. One is based on an extended inflationary model as the origin of one specific large scale anomaly, namely....... Here we find evidence that the Planck CMB maps contain residual radiation in the loop areas, which can be linked to some of the large scale CMB anomalies: the point-parity asymmetry, the alignment of quadrupole and octupole and the dipolemodulation....

  3. Large-scale networks in engineering and life sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Findeisen, Rolf; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Reichl, Udo; Sundmacher, Kai

    2014-01-01

    This edited volume provides insights into and tools for the modeling, analysis, optimization, and control of large-scale networks in the life sciences and in engineering. Large-scale systems are often the result of networked interactions between a large number of subsystems, and their analysis and control are becoming increasingly important. The chapters of this book present the basic concepts and theoretical foundations of network theory and discuss its applications in different scientific areas such as biochemical reactions, chemical production processes, systems biology, electrical circuits, and mobile agents. The aim is to identify common concepts, to understand the underlying mathematical ideas, and to inspire discussions across the borders of the various disciplines.  The book originates from the interdisciplinary summer school “Large Scale Networks in Engineering and Life Sciences” hosted by the International Max Planck Research School Magdeburg, September 26-30, 2011, and will therefore be of int...

  4. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep; Nag, Akshay; Parmar, Rajni; Ghosh, Sneha; Bhau, Brijmohan Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis,is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (Nm: 3.37), low genetic differentiation (FST: 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  5. Genetic diversity and population structure of endangered Aquilaria malaccensis revealed potential for future conservation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pradeep Singh; Akshay Nag; Rajni Parmar; Sneha Ghosh; Brijmohan Singh Bhau; Ram Kumar Sharma

    2015-12-01

    The endangered Aquilaria malaccensis, is an important plant with high economic values. Characterization of genetic diversity and population structure is receiving tremendous attention for effective conservation of genetic resources. Considering important repositories of biological diversity, the genetic relationships of 127 A. malaccensis accessions from 10 home gardens of three states of northeast India were assessed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Of the 1153 fragments amplified with four AFLP primer combinations, 916 (79.4%) were found to be polymorphic. Polymorphic information content (PIC) and marker index (MI) of each primer combination correlate significantly with the number of genotypes resolved. Overall, a high genetic diversity (avg. 71.85%) was recorded. Further, high gene flow (m : 3.37), low genetic differentiation (ST : 0.069) and high within population genetic variation (93%) suggests that most of the genetic diversity is restricted within population. Neighbour joining (NJ), principal coordinate analysis (PCoA) and Bayesian-based STRUCTURE grouped all the accessions in two clusters with significant intermixing between populations, therefore, revealed that two genetically distinct gene pools are operating in the A. malaccensis populations cultivated in home gardens. Based on the various diversity inferences, five diverse populations (JOH, FN, HLF, DHM and ITN) were identified, which can be potentially exploited to develop conservation strategies for A. malaccensis.

  6. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin; Li

    2001-01-01

    This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.……

  7. Statistical equilibria of large scales in dissipative hydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Dallas, Vassilios; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2015-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the statistical properties of three-dimensional dissipative turbulent flows at scales larger than the forcing scale. Our results indicate that the large scale flow can be described to a large degree by the truncated Euler equations with the predictions of the zero flux solutions given by absolute equilibrium theory, both for helical and non-helical flows. Thus, the functional shape of the large scale spectra can be predicted provided that scales sufficiently larger than the forcing length scale but also sufficiently smaller than the box size are examined. Deviations from the predictions of absolute equilibrium are discussed.

  8. Fatigue Analysis of Large-scale Wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Yongli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper does research on top flange fatigue damage of large-scale wind turbine generator. It establishes finite element model of top flange connection system with finite element analysis software MSC. Marc/Mentat, analyzes its fatigue strain, implements load simulation of flange fatigue working condition with Bladed software, acquires flange fatigue load spectrum with rain-flow counting method, finally, it realizes fatigue analysis of top flange with fatigue analysis software MSC. Fatigue and Palmgren-Miner linear cumulative damage theory. The analysis result indicates that its result provides new thinking for flange fatigue analysis of large-scale wind turbine generator, and possesses some practical engineering value.

  9. Large-Scale Inverse Problems and Quantification of Uncertainty

    CERN Document Server

    Biegler, Lorenz; Ghattas, Omar

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale inverse problems and associated uncertainty quantification has become an important area of research, central to a wide range of science and engineering applications. Written by leading experts in the field, Large-scale Inverse Problems and Quantification of Uncertainty focuses on the computational methods used to analyze and simulate inverse problems. The text provides PhD students, researchers, advanced undergraduate students, and engineering practitioners with the perspectives of researchers in areas of inverse problems and data assimilation, ranging from statistics and large-sca

  10. [Issues of large scale tissue culture of medicinal plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Dong-Mei; Yuan, Yuan; Zhan, Zhi-Lai

    2014-09-01

    In order to increase the yield and quality of the medicinal plant and enhance the competitive power of industry of medicinal plant in our country, this paper analyzed the status, problem and countermeasure of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale. Although the biotechnology is one of the most efficient and promising means in production of medicinal plant, it still has problems such as stability of the material, safety of the transgenic medicinal plant and optimization of cultured condition. Establishing perfect evaluation system according to the characteristic of the medicinal plant is the key measures to assure the sustainable development of the tissue culture of medicinal plant on large scale.

  11. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Generation expansion planning (GEP) is the problem of finding the optimal strategy to plan the Construction of new generation while satisfying technical and economical constraints. In the deregulated and competitive environment, large-scale integration of wind generation (WG) in power system has...... necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...

  12. The fractal octahedron network of the large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Battaner, E

    1998-01-01

    In a previous article, we have proposed that the large scale structure network generated by large scale magnetic fields could consist of a network of octahedra only contacting at their vertexes. Assuming such a network could arise at different scales producing a fractal geometry, we study here its properties, and in particular how a sub-octahedron network can be inserted within an octahedron of the large network. We deduce that the scale of the fractal structure would range from $\\approx$100 Mpc, i.e. the scale of the deepest surveys, down to about 10 Mpc, as other smaller scale magnetic fields were probably destroyed in the radiation dominated Universe.

  13. Large-scale streaming motions and microwave background anisotropies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L. (Cantabria Universidad, Santander (Spain))

    1989-12-01

    The minimal microwave background radiation is calculated on each angular scale implied by the existence of large-scale streaming motions. These minimal anisotropies, due to the Sachs-Wolfe effect, are obtained for different experiments, and give quite different results from those found in previous work. They are not in conflict with present theories of galaxy formation. Upper limits are imposed on the scale at which large-scale streaming motions can occur by extrapolating results from present double-beam-switching experiments. 17 refs.

  14. Distributed chaos tuned to large scale coherent motions in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown, using direct numerical simulations and laboratory experiments data, that distributed chaos is often tuned to large scale coherent motions in anisotropic inhomogeneous turbulence. The examples considered are: fully developed turbulent boundary layer (range of coherence: $14 < y^{+} < 80$), turbulent thermal convection (in a horizontal cylinder), and Cuette-Taylor flow. Two ways of the tuning have been described: one via fundamental frequency (wavenumber) and another via subharmonic (period doubling). For the second way the large scale coherent motions are a natural component of distributed chaos. In all considered cases spontaneous breaking of space translational symmetry is accompanied by reflexional symmetry breaking.

  15. Topology Optimization of Large Scale Stokes Flow Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aage, Niels; Poulsen, Thomas Harpsøe; Gersborg-Hansen, Allan

    2008-01-01

    This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs.......This note considers topology optimization of large scale 2D and 3D Stokes flow problems using parallel computations. We solve problems with up to 1.125.000 elements in 2D and 128.000 elements in 3D on a shared memory computer consisting of Sun UltraSparc IV CPUs....

  16. Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benziger, Jay B.; Calaprice, Frank P. [Princeton University Princeton, Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2016-04-15

    Large-scale liquid scintillation detectors are capable of providing spectral yields of the low energy solar neutrinos. These detectors require > 100 tons of liquid scintillator with high optical and radiopurity. In this paper requirements for low-energy neutrino detection by liquid scintillation are specified and the procedures to achieve low backgrounds in large-scale liquid scintillation detectors for solar neutrinos are reviewed. The designs, operations and achievements of Borexino, KamLAND and SNO+ in measuring the low-energy solar neutrino fluxes are reviewed. (orig.)

  17. Optimal Dispatching of Large-scale Water Supply System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the use of optimal control techniques in large-scale water distribution networks. According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which may be solved by utilizing the hierarchical optimization method, is established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software tool has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Shenyang (China) is compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study show that the developed model is a very promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  18. Reliability Evaluation considering Structures of a Large Scale Wind Farm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Je-Seok; Cha, Seung-Tae; Wu, Qiuwei

    2012-01-01

    evaluation on wind farm is necessarily required. Also, because large scale offshore wind farm has a long repair time and a high repair cost as well as a high investment cost, it is essential to take into account the economic aspect. One of methods to efficiently build and to operate wind farm is to construct......Wind energy is one of the most widely used renewable energy resources. Wind power has been connected to the grid as large scale wind farm which is made up of dozens of wind turbines, and the scale of wind farm is more increased recently. Due to intermittent and variable wind source, reliability...

  19. Practical Large Scale Syntheses of New Drug Candidates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Yin Li

    2001-01-01

    @@ This presentation will be focus on Practical large scale syntheses of lead compounds and drug candidates from three major therapeutic areas from DuPont Pharmaceuticals Research Laboratory: 1). DMP777-a selective, non-toxic, orally active human elastase inhibitor; 2). DMP754-a potent glycoprotein IIb/IIIa antagonist; 3). R-Wafarin-the pure enantiomeric form of wafarin. The key technology used for preparation these drug candidates is asymmetric hydrogenation under very mild reaction conditions, which produced very high quality final products at large scale (>99% de, >99 A% and >99 wt%). Some practical and GMP aspects of process development will be also discussed.

  20. Fast paths in large-scale dynamic road networks

    CERN Document Server

    Nannicini, Giacomo; Barbier, Gilles; Krob, Daniel; Liberti, Leo

    2007-01-01

    Efficiently computing fast paths in large scale dynamic road networks (where dynamic traffic information is known over a part of the network) is a practical problem faced by several traffic information service providers who wish to offer a realistic fast path computation to GPS terminal enabled vehicles. The heuristic solution method we propose is based on a highway hierarchy-based shortest path algorithm for static large-scale networks; we maintain a static highway hierarchy and perform each query on the dynamically evaluated network.

  1. Intragenic suppressor of Osiaa23 revealed a conserved tryptophan residue crucial for protein-protein interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ni

    Full Text Available The Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA and Auxin Response Factor (ARF are two important families that play key roles in auxin signal transduction. Both of the families contain a similar carboxyl-terminal domain (Domain III/IV that facilitates interactions between these two families. In spite of the importance of protein-protein interactions among these transcription factors, the mechanisms involved in these interactions are largely unknown. In this study, we isolated six intragenic suppressors of an auxin insensitive mutant, Osiaa23. Among these suppressors, Osiaa23-R5 successfully rescued all the defects of the mutant. Sequence analysis revealed that an amino acid substitution occurred in the Tryptophan (W residue in Domain IV of Osiaa23. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that the mutation in Domain IV prevents the protein-protein interactions between Osiaa23 and OsARFs. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the W residue is conserved in both OsIAAs and OsARFs. Next, we performed site-specific amino acid substitutions within Domain IV of OsARFs, and the conserved W in Domain IV was exchanged by Serine (S. The mutated OsARF(WSs can be released from the inhibition of Osiaa23 and maintain the transcriptional activities. Expression of OsARF(WSs in Osiaa23 mutant rescued different defects of the mutant. Our results suggest a previously unknown importance of Domain IV in both families and provide an indirect way to investigate functions of OsARFs.

  2. Conserved BK channel-protein interactions reveal signals relevant to cell death and survival.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Sokolowski

    Full Text Available The large-conductance Ca(2+-activated K(+ (BK channel and its β-subunit underlie tuning in non-mammalian sensory or hair cells, whereas in mammals its function is less clear. To gain insights into species differences and to reveal putative BK functions, we undertook a systems analysis of BK and BK-Associated Proteins (BKAPS in the chicken cochlea and compared these results to other species. We identified 110 putative partners from cytoplasmic and membrane/cytoskeletal fractions, using a combination of coimmunoprecipitation, 2-D gel, and LC-MS/MS. Partners included 14-3-3γ, valosin-containing protein (VCP, stathmin (STMN, cortactin (CTTN, and prohibitin (PHB, of which 16 partners were verified by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation. Bioinformatics revealed binary partners, the resultant interactome, subcellular localization, and cellular processes. The interactome contained 193 proteins involved in 190 binary interactions in subcellular compartments such as the ER, mitochondria, and nucleus. Comparisons with mice showed shared hub proteins that included N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR and ATP-synthase. Ortholog analyses across six species revealed conserved interactions involving apoptosis, Ca(2+ binding, and trafficking, in chicks, mice, and humans. Functional studies using recombinant BK and RNAi in a heterologous expression system revealed that proteins important to cell death/survival, such as annexinA5, γ-actin, lamin, superoxide dismutase, and VCP, caused a decrease in BK expression. This revelation led to an examination of specific kinases and their effectors relevant to cell viability. Sequence analyses of the BK C-terminus across 10 species showed putative binding sites for 14-3-3, RAC-α serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β and phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1. Knockdown of 14-3-3 and Akt caused an increase in BK expression, whereas silencing of GSK3β and PDK1 had the opposite

  3. GroFi: Large-scale fiber placement research facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Krombholz

    2016-03-01

    and processes for large-scale composite components. Due to the use of coordinated and simultaneously working layup units a high exibility of the research platform is achieved. This allows the investigation of new materials, technologies and processes on both, small coupons, but also large components such as wing covers or fuselage skins.

  4. Flexibility in design of large-scale methanol plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Esben Lauge Sφrensen; Helge Holm-Larsen; Haldor Topsφe A/S

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a cost effective design for large-scale methanol production. It is demonstrated how recent technological progress can be utilised to design a methanol plant,which is inexpensive and easy to operate, while at the same time very robust towards variations in feed-stock composition and product specifications.

  5. Large-scale search for dark-matter axions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmann, C.A., LLNL; Kinion, D.; Stoeffl, W.; Van Bibber, K.; Daw, E.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); McBride, J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Peng, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Rosenberg, L.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Xin, H. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States); Laveigne, J. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Sikivie, P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Sullivan, N.S. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Tanner, D.B. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Moltz, D.M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Powell, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Clarke, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Nezrick, F.A. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Turner, M.S. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (United States); Golubev, N.A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia); Kravchuk, L.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia)

    1998-01-01

    Early results from a large-scale search for dark matter axions are presented. In this experiment, axions constituting our dark-matter halo may be resonantly converted to monochromatic microwave photons in a high-Q microwave cavity permeated by a strong magnetic field. Sensitivity at the level of one important axion model (KSVZ) has been demonstrated.

  6. Temporal Variation of Large Scale Flows in the Solar Interior

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sarbani Basu; H. M. Antia

    2000-09-01

    We attempt to detect short-term temporal variations in the rotation rate and other large scale velocity fields in the outer part of the solar convection zone using the ring diagram technique applied to Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data. The measured velocity field shows variations by about 10 m/s on the scale of few days.

  7. Large-scale Homogenization of Bulk Materials in Mammoth Silos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schott, D.L.

    2004-01-01

    This doctoral thesis concerns the large-scale homogenization of bulk materials in mammoth silos. The objective of this research was to determine the best stacking and reclaiming method for homogenization in mammoth silos. For this purpose a simulation program was developed to estimate the homogeniza

  8. Quantized pressure control in large-scale nonlinear hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persis, Claudio De; Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Jensen, Tom Nørgaard

    2010-01-01

    It was shown previously that semi-global practical pressure regulation at designated points of a large-scale nonlinear hydraulic network is guaranteed by distributed proportional controllers. For a correct implementation of the control laws, each controller, which is located at these designated poin

  9. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fu-guang; LIU Chuan-liang; WU Zhi-xia; ZHANG Chao-jun; ZHANG Xue-yan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacteriurn turnefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than 1000 transgenie lines are selected from the transgenic plants with molecular assistant breeding and conventional breeding methods.

  10. Segmentation by Large Scale Hypothesis Testing - Segmentation as Outlier Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus

    2010-01-01

    locally. We propose a method based on large scale hypothesis testing with a consistent method for selecting an appropriate threshold for the given data. By estimating the background distribution we characterize the segment of interest as a set of outliers with a certain probability based on the estimated...

  11. Large Scale Survey Data in Career Development Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diemer, Matthew A.

    2008-01-01

    Large scale survey datasets have been underutilized but offer numerous advantages for career development scholars, as they contain numerous career development constructs with large and diverse samples that are followed longitudinally. Constructs such as work salience, vocational expectations, educational expectations, work satisfaction, and…

  12. Large-scale coastal impact induced by a catastrophic storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fruergaard, Mikkel; Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Johannessen, Peter N

    breaching. Our results demonstrate that violent, millennial-scale storms can trigger significant large-scale and long-term changes on barrier coasts, and that coastal changes assumed to take place over centuries or even millennia may occur in association with a single extreme storm event....

  13. Regeneration and propagation of reed grass for large-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    전서범

    2012-01-26

    Jan 26, 2012 ... containing different sucrose concentrations; this experiment found that 60 g L-1 ... All these uses of reeds require the large-scale rege- ... numbers of plant in a small space within a short time ... callus stock and grown in vitro were used in this study. .... presence of 4-FA were converted to friable and light-.

  14. Dual Decomposition for Large-Scale Power Balancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halvgaard, Rasmus; Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Vandenberghe, Lieven

    2013-01-01

    Dual decomposition is applied to power balancing of exible thermal storage units. The centralized large-scale problem is decomposed into smaller subproblems and solved locallyby each unit in the Smart Grid. Convergence is achieved by coordinating the units consumption through a negotiation...

  15. Large-Scale Assessment and English Language Learners with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kristin K.; Ward, Jenna M.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Christensen, Laurene L.

    2017-01-01

    This article highlights a set of principles and guidelines, developed by a diverse group of specialists in the field, for appropriately including English language learners (ELLs) with disabilities in large-scale assessments. ELLs with disabilities make up roughly 9% of the rapidly increasing ELL population nationwide. In spite of the small overall…

  16. Large scale radial stability density of Hill's equation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, Henk; Levi, Mark; Simo, Carles

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with large scale aspects of Hill's equation (sic) + (a + bp(t)) x = 0, where p is periodic with a fixed period. In particular, the interest is the asymptotic radial density of the stability domain in the (a, b)-plane. It turns out that this density changes discontinuously in a certa

  17. Water Implications of Large-Scale Land Acquisitions in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Olalekan Williams

    2012-06-01

    The paper offers recommendations which can help the government to achieve its stated objective of developing a "policy framework and guidelines for large-scale land acquisitions by both local and foreign investors for biofuels that will protect the interests of investors and the welfare of Ghanaian farmers and landowners".

  18. Evaluating Large-scale National Public Management Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Morten Balle

    This article explores differences and similarities between two evaluations of large-scale administrative reforms which were carried out in the 2000s: The evaluation of the Norwegian NAV reform (EVANAV) and the evaluation of the Danish Local Government Reform (LGR). We provide a comparative analys...

  19. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena i

  20. Main Achievements of Cotton Large-scale Transformation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cotton large-scale transformation methods system was established based on innovation of cotton transformation methods.It obtains 8000 transgenic cotton plants per year by combining Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated,pollen-tube pathway and biolistic methods together efficiently.More than

  1. Newton Methods for Large Scale Problems in Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Samantha Leigh

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on practical ways of designing optimization algorithms for minimizing large-scale nonlinear functions with applications in machine learning. Chapter 1 introduces the overarching ideas in the thesis. Chapters 2 and 3 are geared towards supervised machine learning applications that involve minimizing a sum of loss…

  2. Large-Scale Machine Learning for Classification and Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, nowadays tremendous amounts of data including images and videos, up to millions or billions, can be collected for training machine learning models. Inspired by this trend, this thesis is dedicated to developing large-scale machine learning techniques for the purpose of making classification and nearest…

  3. Cost Overruns in Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarelli, Chantal C; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Molin, Eric J. E

    2010-01-01

    Managing large-scale transportation infrastructure projects is difficult due to frequent misinformation about the costs which results in large cost overruns that often threaten the overall project viability. This paper investigates the explanations for cost overruns that are given in the literature...

  4. Ultra-Large-Scale Systems: Scale Changes Everything

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-06

    Statistical Mechanics, Complexity Networks Are Everywhere Recurring “scale free” structure • internet & yeast protein structures Analogous dynamics...Design • Design Representation and Analysis • Assimilation • Determining and Managing Requirements 43 Ultra-Large-Scale Systems Linda Northrop: March

  5. The Role of Plausible Values in Large-Scale Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In large-scale assessment programs such as NAEP, TIMSS and PISA, students' achievement data sets provided for secondary analysts contain so-called "plausible values." Plausible values are multiple imputations of the unobservable latent achievement for each student. In this article it has been shown how plausible values are used to: (1) address…

  6. Large-scale data analysis using the Wigner function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnshaw, R. A.; Lei, C.; Li, J.; Mugassabi, S.; Vourdas, A.

    2012-04-01

    Large-scale data are analysed using the Wigner function. It is shown that the 'frequency variable' provides important information, which is lost with other techniques. The method is applied to 'sentiment analysis' in data from social networks and also to financial data.

  7. Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.

    2012-06-01

    In general, large-scale integration studies in Europe and the United States find that high penetrations of renewable generation are technically feasible with operational changes and increased access to transmission. This paper describes other key findings such as the need for fast markets, large balancing areas, system flexibility, and the use of advanced forecasting.

  8. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  9. High-Throughput, Large-Scale SNP Genotyping: Bioinformatics Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Margetic, Nino

    2004-01-01

    In order to provide a high-throughput, large-scale genotyping facility at the national level we have developed a set of inter-dependent information systems. A combination of commercial, publicly-available and in-house developed tools links a series of data repositories based both on flat files and relational databases providing an almost complete semi-automated pipeline.

  10. Chain Analysis for large-scale Communication systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The chain concept is introduced to explain how large-scale information infrastructures so often fail and sometimes even backfire. Next, the assessment framework of the doctrine of Chain-computerisation and its chain analysis procedure are outlined. In this procedure chain description precedes assess

  11. Large-Scale Machine Learning for Classification and Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of the Internet, nowadays tremendous amounts of data including images and videos, up to millions or billions, can be collected for training machine learning models. Inspired by this trend, this thesis is dedicated to developing large-scale machine learning techniques for the purpose of making classification and nearest…

  12. Newton Methods for Large Scale Problems in Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Samantha Leigh

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is on practical ways of designing optimization algorithms for minimizing large-scale nonlinear functions with applications in machine learning. Chapter 1 introduces the overarching ideas in the thesis. Chapters 2 and 3 are geared towards supervised machine learning applications that involve minimizing a sum of loss…

  13. Participatory Design of Large-Scale Information Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper; Hertzum, Morten

    2008-01-01

    In this article we discuss how to engage in large-scale information systems development by applying a participatory design (PD) approach that acknowledges the unique situated work practices conducted by the domain experts of modern organizations. We reconstruct the iterative prototyping approach...

  14. How large-scale subsidence affects stratocumulus transitions (discussion paper)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Dussen, J.J.; De Roode, S.R.; Siebesma, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Some climate modeling results suggest that the Hadley circulation might weaken in a future climate, causing a subsequent reduction in the large-scale subsidence velocity in the subtropics. In this study we analyze the cloud liquid water path (LWP) budget from large-eddy simulation (LES) results of

  15. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  16. Measurement, Sampling, and Equating Errors in Large-Scale Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    In large-scale assessments, such as state-wide testing programs, national sample-based assessments, and international comparative studies, there are many steps involved in the measurement and reporting of student achievement. There are always sources of inaccuracies in each of the steps. It is of interest to identify the source and magnitude of…

  17. A Chain Perspective on Large-scale Number Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    As large-scale number systems gain significance in social and economic life (electronic communication, remote electronic authentication), the correct functioning and the integrity of public number systems take on crucial importance. They are needed to uniquely indicate people, objects or phenomena i

  18. Large-Scale Innovation and Change in UK Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ…

  19. Primordial non-Gaussianity from the large scale structure

    CERN Document Server

    Desjacques, Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity is a potentially powerful discriminant of the physical mechanisms that generated the cosmological fluctuations observed today. Any detection of non-Gaussianity would have profound implications for our understanding of cosmic structure formation. In this paper, we review past and current efforts in the search for primordial non-Gaussianity in the large scale structure of the Universe.

  20. Planck intermediate results XLII. Large-scale Galactic magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A. R.; Alves, M. I. R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent models for the large-scale Galactic magnetic fields in the literature have been largely constrained by synchrotron emission and Faraday rotation measures. We use three different but representative models to compare their predicted polarized synchrotron and dust emission with that measured...

  1. Electric vehicles and large-scale integration of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Wen; Hu, Weihao; Lund, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    was 6.5% in 2009 and which has the plan to develop large-scale wind power. The results show that electric vehicles (EVs) have the ability to balance the electricity demand and supply and to further the wind power integration. In the best case, the energy system with EV can increase wind power...

  2. Large scale solar district heating. Evaluation, modelling and designing - Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, A.

    2000-07-01

    The appendices present the following: A) Cad-drawing of the Marstal CSHP design. B) Key values - large-scale solar heating in Denmark. C) Monitoring - a system description. D) WMO-classification of pyranometers (solarimeters). E) The computer simulation model in TRNSYS. F) Selected papers from the author. (EHS)

  3. New Visions for Large Scale Networks: Research and Applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    Networking and Information Technology Research and Development, Executive Office of the President — This paper documents the findings of the March 12-14, 2001 Workshop on New Visions for Large-Scale Networks: Research and Applications. The workshops objectives were...

  4. Transcriptome profiling of a curdlan-producing Agrobacterium reveals conserved regulatory mechanisms of exopolysaccharide biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruffing Anne M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ability to synthesize exopolysaccharides (EPS is widespread among microorganisms, and microbial EPS play important roles in biofilm formation, pathogen persistence, and applications in the food and medical industries. Although it is well established that EPS synthesis is invariably in response to environmental cues, it remains largely unknown how various environmental signals trigger activation of the biochemical synthesis machinery. Results We report here the transcriptome profiling of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749, a microorganism that produces large amounts of a glucose polymer known as curdlan under nitrogen starvation. Transcriptome analysis revealed a nearly 100-fold upregulation of the curdlan synthesis operon upon transition to nitrogen starvation, thus establishing the prominent role that transcriptional regulation plays in the EPS synthesis. In addition to known mechanisms of EPS regulation such as activation by c-di-GMP, we identify novel mechanisms of regulation in ATCC 31749, including RpoN-independent NtrC regulation and intracellular pH regulation by acidocalcisomes. Furthermore, we show evidence that curdlan synthesis is also regulated by conserved cell stress responses, including polyphosphate accumulation and the stringent response. In fact, the stringent response signal, pppGpp, appears to be indispensible for transcriptional activation of curdlan biosynthesis. Conclusions This study identifies several mechanisms regulating the synthesis of curdlan, an EPS with numerous applications. These mechanisms are potential metabolic engineering targets for improving the industrial production of curdlan from Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749. Furthermore, many of the genes identified in this study are highly conserved across microbial genomes, and we propose that the molecular elements identified in this study may serve as universal regulators of microbial EPS synthesis.

  5. A novel computational approach towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joonsuk

    Recent proposals of boson sampling and the corresponding experiments exhibit the possible disproof of extended Church-Turning Thesis. Furthermore, the application of boson sampling to molecular computation has been suggested theoretically. Till now, however, only small-scale experiments with a few photons have been successfully performed. The boson sampling experiments of 20-30 photons are expected to reveal the computational superiority of the quantum device. A novel theoretical proposal for the large-scale boson sampling using microwave photons is highly promising due to the deterministic photon sources and the scalability. Therefore, the certification protocol of large-scale boson sampling experiments should be presented to complete the exciting story. We propose, in this presentation, a computational protocol towards the certification of large-scale boson sampling. The correlations of paired photon modes and the time-dependent characteristic functional with its Fourier component can show the fingerprint of large-scale boson sampling. This work was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology(NRF-2015R1A6A3A04059773), the ICT R&D program of MSIP/IITP [2015-019, Fundamental Research Toward Secure Quantum Communication] and Mueunjae Institute for Chemistry (MIC) postdoctoral fellowship.

  6. Large Scale Computing and Storage Requirements for High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, Richard A.; Wasserman, Harvey

    2010-11-24

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the leading scientific computing facility for the Department of Energy's Office of Science, providing high-performance computing (HPC) resources to more than 3,000 researchers working on about 400 projects. NERSC provides large-scale computing resources and, crucially, the support and expertise needed for scientists to make effective use of them. In November 2009, NERSC, DOE's Office of Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR), and DOE's Office of High Energy Physics (HEP) held a workshop to characterize the HPC resources needed at NERSC to support HEP research through the next three to five years. The effort is part of NERSC's legacy of anticipating users needs and deploying resources to meet those demands. The workshop revealed several key points, in addition to achieving its goal of collecting and characterizing computing requirements. The chief findings: (1) Science teams need access to a significant increase in computational resources to meet their research goals; (2) Research teams need to be able to read, write, transfer, store online, archive, analyze, and share huge volumes of data; (3) Science teams need guidance and support to implement their codes on future architectures; and (4) Projects need predictable, rapid turnaround of their computational jobs to meet mission-critical time constraints. This report expands upon these key points and includes others. It also presents a number of case studies as representative of the research conducted within HEP. Workshop participants were asked to codify their requirements in this case study format, summarizing their science goals, methods of solution, current and three-to-five year computing requirements, and software and support needs. Participants were also asked to describe their strategy for computing in the highly parallel, multi-core environment that is expected to dominate HPC architectures over the next few years

  7. A first large-scale flood inundation forecasting model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumann, Guy J-P; Neal, Jeffrey C.; Voisin, Nathalie; Andreadis, Konstantinos M.; Pappenberger, Florian; Phanthuwongpakdee, Kay; Hall, Amanda C.; Bates, Paul D.

    2013-11-04

    At present continental to global scale flood forecasting focusses on predicting at a point discharge, with little attention to the detail and accuracy of local scale inundation predictions. Yet, inundation is actually the variable of interest and all flood impacts are inherently local in nature. This paper proposes a first large scale flood inundation ensemble forecasting model that uses best available data and modeling approaches in data scarce areas and at continental scales. The model was built for the Lower Zambezi River in southeast Africa to demonstrate current flood inundation forecasting capabilities in large data-scarce regions. The inundation model domain has a surface area of approximately 170k km2. ECMWF meteorological data were used to force the VIC (Variable Infiltration Capacity) macro-scale hydrological model which simulated and routed daily flows to the input boundary locations of the 2-D hydrodynamic model. Efficient hydrodynamic modeling over large areas still requires model grid resolutions that are typically larger than the width of many river channels that play a key a role in flood wave propagation. We therefore employed a novel sub-grid channel scheme to describe the river network in detail whilst at the same time representing the floodplain at an appropriate and efficient scale. The modeling system was first calibrated using water levels on the main channel from the ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) laser altimeter and then applied to predict the February 2007 Mozambique floods. Model evaluation showed that simulated flood edge cells were within a distance of about 1 km (one model resolution) compared to an observed flood edge of the event. Our study highlights that physically plausible parameter values and satisfactory performance can be achieved at spatial scales ranging from tens to several hundreds of thousands of km2 and at model grid resolutions up to several km2. However, initial model test runs in forecast mode

  8. Conserved S-Layer-Associated Proteins Revealed by Exoproteomic Survey of S-Layer-Forming Lactobacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brant R; Hymes, Jeffrey; Sanozky-Dawes, Rosemary; Henriksen, Emily DeCrescenzo; Barrangou, Rodolphe; Klaenhammer, Todd R

    2015-10-16

    The Lactobacillus acidophilus homology group comprises Gram-positive species that include L. acidophilus, L. helveticus, L. crispatus, L. amylovorus, L. gallinarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, L. gasseri, and L. johnsonii. While these bacteria are closely related, they have varied ecological lifestyles as dairy and food fermenters, allochthonous probiotics, or autochthonous commensals of the host gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cell surface components play a critical role in the molecular dialogue between bacteria and interaction signaling with the intestinal mucosa. Notably, the L. acidophilus complex is distinguished in two clades by the presence or absence of S-layers, which are semiporous crystalline arrays of self-assembling proteinaceous subunits found as the outermost layer of the bacterial cell wall. In this study, S-layer-associated proteins (SLAPs) in the exoproteomes of various S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species were proteomically identified, genomically compared, and transcriptionally analyzed. Four gene regions encoding six putative SLAPs were conserved in the S-layer-forming Lactobacillus species but not identified in the extracts of the closely related progenitor, L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus, which does not produce an S-layer. Therefore, the presence or absence of an S-layer has a clear impact on the exoproteomic composition of Lactobacillus species. This proteomic complexity and differences in the cell surface properties between S-layer- and non-S-layer-forming lactobacilli reveal the potential for SLAPs to mediate intimate probiotic interactions and signaling with the host intestinal mucosa.

  9. Stability Criteria for Large-Scale Linear Systems with Structured Uncertainties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Dengqing

    1996-01-01

    The robust stability analysis for large-scale linear systems with structured timevarying uncertainties is investigated in this paper. By using the scalar Lyapunov functions and the properties of M-matrix and nonnegative matrix, stability robustness measures are proposed. The robust stability criteria obtained are applied to derive an algebric criterion which is expressed directly in terms of plant parameters and is shown to be less conservative than the existing ones. A numerical example is given to demonstrate the stability criteria obtained and to compare them with the previous ones.

  10. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices.

  11. Large-scale flow generation by inhomogeneous helicity

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoi, Nobumitsu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of kinetic helicity (velocity--vorticity correlation) on turbulent momentum transport is investigated. The turbulent kinetic helicity (pseudoscalar) enters into the Reynolds stress (mirrorsymmetric tensor) expression in the form of a helicity gradient as the coupling coefficient for the mean vorticity and/or the angular velocity (axial vector), which suggests the possibility of mean-flow generation in the presence of inhomogeneous helicity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect, which was previously confirmed at the level of a turbulence- or closure-model simulation, is examined with the aid of direct numerical simulations of rotating turbulence with non-uniform helicity sustained by an external forcing. The numerical simulations show that the spatial distribution of the Reynolds stress is in agreement with the helicity-related term coupled with the angular velocity, and that a large-scale flow is generated in the direction of angular velocity. Such a large-scale flow is not induced in the case of hom...

  12. Series Design of Large-Scale NC Machine Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Zhi

    2007-01-01

    Product system design is a mature concept in western developed countries. It has been applied in war industry during the last century. However, up until now, functional combination is still the main method for product system design in China. Therefore, in terms of a concept of product generation and product interaction we are in a weak position compared with the requirements of global markets. Today, the idea of serial product design has attracted much attention in the design field and the definition of product generation as well as its parameters has already become the standard in serial product designs. Although the design of a large-scale NC machine tool is complicated, it can be further optimized by the precise exercise of object design by placing the concept of platform establishment firmly into serial product design. The essence of a serial product design has been demonstrated by the design process of a large-scale NC machine tool.

  13. Evaluation of Large-scale Public Sector Reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breidahl, Karen Nielsen; Gjelstrup, Gunnar; Hansen, Hanne Foss

    2017-01-01

    Research on the evaluation of large-scale public sector reforms is rare. This article sets out to fill that gap in the evaluation literature and argues that it is of vital importance. The impact of such reforms is considerable. Furthermore they change the context in which evaluations of other...... and more delimited policy areas take place. In our analysis we apply four governance perspectives (rational-instrumental, rational-interest based, institutional-cultural and a chaos perspective) in a comparative analysis of the evaluations of two large-scale public sector reforms in Denmark and Norway. We...... compare the evaluation process (focus and purpose), the evaluators and the organization of the evaluation as well as the utilization of the evaluation results. The analysis uncovers several significant findings including how the initial organization of the evaluation show strong impact on the utilization...

  14. Real-time simulation of large-scale floods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q.; Qin, Y.; Li, G. D.; Liu, Z.; Cheng, D. J.; Zhao, Y. H.

    2016-08-01

    According to the complex real-time water situation, the real-time simulation of large-scale floods is very important for flood prevention practice. Model robustness and running efficiency are two critical factors in successful real-time flood simulation. This paper proposed a robust, two-dimensional, shallow water model based on the unstructured Godunov- type finite volume method. A robust wet/dry front method is used to enhance the numerical stability. An adaptive method is proposed to improve the running efficiency. The proposed model is used for large-scale flood simulation on real topography. Results compared to those of MIKE21 show the strong performance of the proposed model.

  15. Bayesian large-scale structure inference and cosmic web analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Leclercq, Florent

    2015-01-01

    Surveys of the cosmic large-scale structure carry opportunities for building and testing cosmological theories about the origin and evolution of the Universe. This endeavor requires appropriate data assimilation tools, for establishing the contact between survey catalogs and models of structure formation. In this thesis, we present an innovative statistical approach for the ab initio simultaneous analysis of the formation history and morphology of the cosmic web: the BORG algorithm infers the primordial density fluctuations and produces physical reconstructions of the dark matter distribution that underlies observed galaxies, by assimilating the survey data into a cosmological structure formation model. The method, based on Bayesian probability theory, provides accurate means of uncertainty quantification. We demonstrate the application of BORG to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data and describe the primordial and late-time large-scale structure in the observed volume. We show how the approach has led to the fi...

  16. Constraining cosmological ultra-large scale structure using numerical relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Braden, Jonathan; Peiris, Hiranya V; Aguirre, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Cosmic inflation, a period of accelerated expansion in the early universe, can give rise to large amplitude ultra-large scale inhomogeneities on distance scales comparable to or larger than the observable universe. The cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy on the largest angular scales is sensitive to such inhomogeneities and can be used to constrain the presence of ultra-large scale structure (ULSS). We numerically evolve nonlinear inhomogeneities present at the beginning of inflation in full General Relativity to assess the CMB quadrupole constraint on the amplitude of the initial fluctuations and the size of the observable universe relative to a length scale characterizing the ULSS. To obtain a statistically significant number of simulations, we adopt a toy model in which inhomogeneities are injected along a preferred direction. We compute the likelihood function for the CMB quadrupole including both ULSS and the standard quantum fluctuations produced during inflation. We compute the posterior given...

  17. Ultra-large scale cosmology with next-generation experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, David; Ferreira, Pedro G; Maartens, Roy; Santos, Mario G

    2015-01-01

    Future surveys of large-scale structure will be able to measure perturbations on the scale of the cosmological horizon, and so could potentially probe a number of novel relativistic effects that are negligibly small on sub-horizon scales. These effects leave distinctive signatures in the power spectra of clustering observables and, if measurable, would open a new window on relativistic cosmology. We quantify the size and detectability of the effects for a range of future large-scale structure surveys: spectroscopic and photometric galaxy redshift surveys, intensity mapping surveys of neutral hydrogen, and continuum surveys of radio galaxies. Our forecasts show that next-generation experiments, reaching out to redshifts z ~ 4, will not be able to detect previously-undetected general-relativistic effects from the single-tracer power spectra alone, although they may be able to measure the lensing magnification in the auto-correlation. We also perform a rigorous joint forecast for the detection of primordial non-...

  18. First Mile Challenges for Large-Scale IoT

    KAUST Repository

    Bader, Ahmed

    2017-03-16

    The Internet of Things is large-scale by nature. This is not only manifested by the large number of connected devices, but also by the sheer scale of spatial traffic intensity that must be accommodated, primarily in the uplink direction. To that end, cellular networks are indeed a strong first mile candidate to accommodate the data tsunami to be generated by the IoT. However, IoT devices are required in the cellular paradigm to undergo random access procedures as a precursor to resource allocation. Such procedures impose a major bottleneck that hinders cellular networks\\' ability to support large-scale IoT. In this article, we shed light on the random access dilemma and present a case study based on experimental data as well as system-level simulations. Accordingly, a case is built for the latent need to revisit random access procedures. A call for action is motivated by listing a few potential remedies and recommendations.

  19. Supermassive black holes, large scale structure and holography

    CERN Document Server

    Mongan, T R

    2013-01-01

    A holographic analysis of large scale structure in the universe estimates the mass of supermassive black holes at the center of large scale structures with matter density varying inversely as the square of the distance from their center. The estimate is consistent with two important test cases involving observations of the supermassive black hole with mass 3.6\\times10^{-6} times the galactic mass in Sagittarius A^{*} near the center of our Milky Way and the 2\\times10^{9} solar mass black hole in the quasar ULAS J112001.48+064124.3 at redshift z=7.085. It is also consistent with upper bounds on central black hole masses in globular clusters M15, M19 and M22 developed using the Jansky Very Large Array in New Mexico.

  20. Optimization of Survivability Analysis for Large-Scale Engineering Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Poroseva, S V

    2012-01-01

    Engineering networks fall into the category of large-scale networks with heterogeneous nodes such as sources and sinks. The survivability analysis of such networks requires the analysis of the connectivity of the network components for every possible combination of faults to determine a network response to each combination of faults. From the computational complexity point of view, the problem belongs to the class of exponential time problems at least. Partially, the problem complexity can be reduced by mapping the initial topology of a complex large-scale network with multiple sources and multiple sinks onto a set of smaller sub-topologies with multiple sources and a single sink connected to the network of sources by a single link. In this paper, the mapping procedure is applied to the Florida power grid.

  1. Large-scale innovation and change in UK higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Brown

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on challenges universities face as they respond to change. It reviews current theories and models of change management, discusses why universities are particularly difficult environments in which to achieve large scale, lasting change and reports on a recent attempt by the UK JISC to enable a range of UK universities to employ technology to deliver such changes. Key lessons that emerged from these experiences are reviewed covering themes of pervasiveness, unofficial systems, project creep, opposition, pressure to deliver, personnel changes and technology issues. The paper argues that collaborative approaches to project management offer greater prospects of effective large-scale change in universities than either management-driven top-down or more champion-led bottom-up methods. It also argues that while some diminution of control over project outcomes is inherent in this approach, this is outweighed by potential benefits of lasting and widespread adoption of agreed changes.

  2. Distant galaxy clusters in the XMM Large Scale Structure survey

    CERN Document Server

    Willis, J P; Bremer, M N; Pierre, M; Adami, C; Ilbert, O; Maughan, B; Maurogordato, S; Pacaud, F; Valtchanov, I; Chiappetti, L; Thanjavur, K; Gwyn, S; Stanway, E R; Winkworth, C

    2012-01-01

    (Abridged) Distant galaxy clusters provide important tests of the growth of large scale structure in addition to highlighting the process of galaxy evolution in a consistently defined environment at large look back time. We present a sample of 22 distant (z>0.8) galaxy clusters and cluster candidates selected from the 9 deg2 footprint of the overlapping X-ray Multi Mirror (XMM) Large Scale Structure (LSS), CFHTLS Wide and Spitzer SWIRE surveys. Clusters are selected as extended X-ray sources with an accompanying overdensity of galaxies displaying optical to mid-infrared photometry consistent with z>0.8. Nine clusters have confirmed spectroscopic redshifts in the interval 0.80.8 clusters.

  3. Instrumentation Development for Large Scale Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Gregory T.; Cassell, Alan M.

    2011-01-01

    Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) technology is currently being considered for multiple atmospheric entry applications as the limitations of traditional entry vehicles have been reached. The Inflatable Re-entry Vehicle Experiment (IRVE) has successfully demonstrated this technology as a viable candidate with a 3.0 m diameter vehicle sub-orbital flight. To further this technology, large scale HIADs (6.0 8.5 m) must be developed and tested. To characterize the performance of large scale HIAD technology new instrumentation concepts must be developed to accommodate the flexible nature inflatable aeroshell. Many of the concepts that are under consideration for the HIAD FY12 subsonic wind tunnel test series are discussed below.

  4. Electron drift in a large scale solid xenon

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, J

    2015-01-01

    A study of charge drift in a large scale optically transparent solid xenon is reported. A pulsed high power xenon light source is used to liberate electrons from a photocathode. The drift speeds of the electrons are measured using a 8.7\\,cm long electrode in both the liquid and solid phase of xenon. In the liquid phase (163\\,K), the drift speed is 0.193 $\\pm$ 0.003 cm/$\\mu$s while the drift speed in the solid phase (157\\,K) is 0.397 $\\pm$ 0.006 cm/$\\mu$s at 900 V/cm over 8.0\\,cm of uniform electric fields. Therefore, it is demonstrated that a factor two faster electron drift speed in solid phase xenon compared to that in liquid in a large scale solid xenon.

  5. Prototype Vector Machine for Large Scale Semi-Supervised Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kai; Kwok, James T.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-04-29

    Practicaldataminingrarelyfalls exactlyinto the supervisedlearning scenario. Rather, the growing amount of unlabeled data poses a big challenge to large-scale semi-supervised learning (SSL). We note that the computationalintensivenessofgraph-based SSLarises largely from the manifold or graph regularization, which in turn lead to large models that are dificult to handle. To alleviate this, we proposed the prototype vector machine (PVM), a highlyscalable,graph-based algorithm for large-scale SSL. Our key innovation is the use of"prototypes vectors" for effcient approximation on both the graph-based regularizer and model representation. The choice of prototypes are grounded upon two important criteria: they not only perform effective low-rank approximation of the kernel matrix, but also span a model suffering the minimum information loss compared with the complete model. We demonstrate encouraging performance and appealing scaling properties of the PVM on a number of machine learning benchmark data sets.

  6. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    As a result of the growing demand for food, feed and industrial raw materials in the first decade of this century, and the usually welcoming policies regarding investors amongst the governments of developing countries, there has been a renewed interest in agriculture and an increase in large...... to ‘land grabbing’ for large-scale farming (i.e. outgrower schemes and contract farming could modernise agricultural production while allowing smallholders to maintain their land ownership), to integrate them into global agro-food value chains and to increase their productivity and welfare. However......, the impact of large-scale agriculture and outgrower schemes on productivity, household welfare and wages in developing countries is highly contentious. Chapter 1 of this thesis provides an introduction to the study, while also reviewing the key debate in the contemporary land ‘grabbing’ and historical large...

  7. Clusters and Large-Scale Structure: the Synchrotron Keys

    CERN Document Server

    Rudnick, L; Andernach, H; Battaglia, N; Brown, S; Brunetti, Gf; Burns, J; Clarke, T; Dolag, K; Farnsworth, D; Giovannini, G; Hallman, E; Johnston-Hollit, M; Jones, T W; Kang, H; Kassim, N; Kravtsov, A; Lazio, J; Lonsdale, C; McNamara, B; Myers, S; Owen, F; Pfrommer, C; Ryu, D; Sarazin, C; Subrahmanyan, R; Taylor, G; Taylor, R

    2009-01-01

    For over four decades, synchrotron-radiating sources have played a series of pathfinding roles in the study of galaxy clusters and large scale structure. Such sources are uniquely sensitive to the turbulence and shock structures of large-scale environments, and their cosmic rays and magnetic fields often play important dynamic and thermodynamic roles. They provide essential complements to studies at other wavebands. Over the next decade, they will fill essential gaps in both cluster astrophysics and the cosmological growth of structure in the universe, especially where the signatures of shocks and turbulence, or even the underlying thermal plasma itself, are otherwise undetectable. Simultaneously, synchrotron studies offer a unique tool for exploring the fundamental question of the origins of cosmic magnetic fields. This work will be based on the new generation of m/cm-wave radio telescopes now in construction, as well as major advances in the sophistication of 3-D MHD simulations.

  8. Cluster Galaxy Dynamics and the Effects of Large Scale Environment

    CERN Document Server

    White, Martin; Smit, Renske

    2010-01-01

    We use a high-resolution N-body simulation to study how the influence of large-scale structure in and around clusters causes correlated signals in different physical probes and discuss some implications this has for multi-physics probes of clusters. We pay particular attention to velocity dispersions, matching galaxies to subhalos which are explicitly tracked in the simulation. We find that not only do halos persist as subhalos when they fall into a larger host, groups of subhalos retain their identity for long periods within larger host halos. The highly anisotropic nature of infall into massive clusters, and their triaxiality, translates into an anisotropic velocity ellipsoid: line-of-sight galaxy velocity dispersions for any individual halo show large variance depending on viewing angle. The orientation of the velocity ellipsoid is correlated with the large-scale structure, and thus velocity outliers correlate with outliers caused by projection in other probes. We quantify this orientation uncertainty and ...

  9. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Santori, Charles; Beausoleil, Raymond G; Tezak, Nikolas; Hamerly, Ryan; Mabuchi, Hideo

    2014-01-01

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A netlist-based circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important...

  10. Imaging HF-induced large-scale irregularities above HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuth, Frank T.; Reinisch, Bodo W.; Kitrosser, David F.; Elder, John H.; Snyder, A. Lee; Sales, Gary S.

    2006-02-01

    The University of Massachusetts-Lowell digisonde is used with the HAARP high-frequency (HF), ionospheric modification facility to obtain radio images of artificially-produced, large-scale, geomagnetic field-aligned irregularities. F region irregularities generated with the HAARP beam pointed in the vertical and geomagnetic field-aligned directions are examined in a smooth background plasma. It is found that limited large-scale irregularity production takes place with vertical transmissions, whereas there is a dramatic increase in the number of source irregularities with the beam pointed parallel to the geomagnetic field. Strong irregularity production appears to be confined to within ~5° of the geomagnetic zenith and does not fill the volume occupied by the HF beam. A similar effect is observed in optical images of artificial airglow.

  11. In the fast lane: large-scale bacterial genome engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Tamás; Burland, Valerie; Pósfai, György

    2012-07-31

    The last few years have witnessed rapid progress in bacterial genome engineering. The long-established, standard ways of DNA synthesis, modification, transfer into living cells, and incorporation into genomes have given way to more effective, large-scale, robust genome modification protocols. Expansion of these engineering capabilities is due to several factors. Key advances include: (i) progress in oligonucleotide synthesis and in vitro and in vivo assembly methods, (ii) optimization of recombineering techniques, (iii) introduction of parallel, large-scale, combinatorial, and automated genome modification procedures, and (iv) rapid identification of the modifications by barcode-based analysis and sequencing. Combination of the brute force of these techniques with sophisticated bioinformatic design and modeling opens up new avenues for the analysis of gene functions and cellular network interactions, but also in engineering more effective producer strains. This review presents a summary of recent technological advances in bacterial genome engineering.

  12. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  13. Measuring large scale space perception in literary texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paolo

    2007-07-01

    A center and radius of “perception” (in the sense of environmental cognition) can be formally associated with a written text and operationally defined. Simple algorithms for their computation are presented, and indicators for anisotropy in large scale space perception are introduced. The relevance of these notions for the analysis of literary and historical records is briefly discussed and illustrated with an example taken from medieval historiography.

  14. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  15. Large-scale Alfvén vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishchenko, O. G., E-mail: onish@ifz.ru [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123242 Moscow, Russian Federation and Space Research Institute, 84/32 Profsouznaya str., 117997 Moscow (Russian Federation); Pokhotelov, O. A., E-mail: pokh@ifz.ru [Institute of Physics of the Earth, 10 B. Gruzinskaya, 123242 Moscow (Russian Federation); Horton, W., E-mail: wendell.horton@gmail.com [Institute for Fusion Studies and Applied Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78713 (United States); Scullion, E., E-mail: scullie@tcd.ie [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Fedun, V., E-mail: v.fedun@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S13JD (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    The new type of large-scale vortex structures of dispersionless Alfvén waves in collisionless plasma is investigated. It is shown that Alfvén waves can propagate in the form of Alfvén vortices of finite characteristic radius and characterised by magnetic flux ropes carrying orbital angular momentum. The structure of the toroidal and radial velocity, fluid and magnetic field vorticity, the longitudinal electric current in the plane orthogonal to the external magnetic field are discussed.

  16. UAV Data Processing for Large Scale Topographical Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2014-06-01

    Large scale topographical mapping in the third world countries is really a prominent challenge in geospatial industries nowadays. On one side the demand is significantly increasing while on the other hand it is constrained by limited budgets available for mapping projects. Since the advent of Act Nr.4/yr.2011 about Geospatial Information in Indonesia, large scale topographical mapping has been on high priority for supporting the nationwide development e.g. detail spatial planning. Usually large scale topographical mapping relies on conventional aerial survey campaigns in order to provide high resolution 3D geospatial data sources. Widely growing on a leisure hobby, aero models in form of the so-called Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) bring up alternative semi photogrammetric aerial data acquisition possibilities suitable for relatively small Area of Interest (AOI) i.e. Indonesia this area size can be used as a mapping unit since it usually concentrates on the basis of sub district area (kecamatan) level. In this paper different camera and processing software systems will be further analyzed for identifying the best optimum UAV data acquisition campaign components in combination with the data processing scheme. The selected AOI is covering the cultural heritage of Borobudur Temple as one of the Seven Wonders of the World. A detailed accuracy assessment will be concentrated within the object feature of the temple at the first place. Feature compilation involving planimetric objects (2D) and digital terrain models (3D) will be integrated in order to provide Digital Elevation Models (DEM) as the main interest of the topographic mapping activity. By doing this research, incorporating the optimum amount of GCPs in the UAV photo data processing will increase the accuracy along with its high resolution in 5 cm Ground Sampling Distance (GSD). Finally this result will be used as the benchmark for alternative geospatial data acquisition in the future in which it can support

  17. Hierarchical Engine for Large-scale Infrastructure Co-Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-24

    HELICS is designed to support very-large-scale (100,000+ federates) cosimulations with off-the-shelf power-system, communication, market, and end-use tools. Other key features include cross platform operating system support, the integration of both event driven (e.g., packetized communication) and time-series (e.g., power flow) simulations, and the ability to co-iterate among federates to ensure physical model convergence at each time step.

  18. Large scale-small scale duality and cosmological constant

    CERN Document Server

    Darabi, F

    1999-01-01

    We study a model of quantum cosmology originating from a classical model of gravitation where a self interacting scalar field is coupled to gravity with the metric undergoing a signature transition. We show that there are dual classical signature changing solutions, one at large scales and the other at small scales. It is possible to fine-tune the physics in both scales with an infinitesimal effective cosmological constant.

  19. Large-Scale Optimization for Bayesian Inference in Complex Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willcox, Karen [MIT; Marzouk, Youssef [MIT

    2013-11-12

    The SAGUARO (Scalable Algorithms for Groundwater Uncertainty Analysis and Robust Optimization) Project focused on the development of scalable numerical algorithms for large-scale Bayesian inversion in complex systems that capitalize on advances in large-scale simulation-based optimization and inversion methods. The project was a collaborative effort among MIT, the University of Texas at Austin, Georgia Institute of Technology, and Sandia National Laboratories. The research was directed in three complementary areas: efficient approximations of the Hessian operator, reductions in complexity of forward simulations via stochastic spectral approximations and model reduction, and employing large-scale optimization concepts to accelerate sampling. The MIT--Sandia component of the SAGUARO Project addressed the intractability of conventional sampling methods for large-scale statistical inverse problems by devising reduced-order models that are faithful to the full-order model over a wide range of parameter values; sampling then employs the reduced model rather than the full model, resulting in very large computational savings. Results indicate little effect on the computed posterior distribution. On the other hand, in the Texas--Georgia Tech component of the project, we retain the full-order model, but exploit inverse problem structure (adjoint-based gradients and partial Hessian information of the parameter-to-observation map) to implicitly extract lower dimensional information on the posterior distribution; this greatly speeds up sampling methods, so that fewer sampling points are needed. We can think of these two approaches as ``reduce then sample'' and ``sample then reduce.'' In fact, these two approaches are complementary, and can be used in conjunction with each other. Moreover, they both exploit deterministic inverse problem structure, in the form of adjoint-based gradient and Hessian information of the underlying parameter-to-observation map, to

  20. Information Tailoring Enhancements for Large-Scale Social Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-26

    Social Data Final Report Reporting Period: September 22, 2015 – September 16, 2016 Contract No. N00014-15-P-5138 Sponsored by ONR...Report September 22, 20 15 - September 16, 20 16 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Information Tailoring Enhancements for Large-Scale Social ...goals of(i) further enhancing capability to analyze unstructured social media data at scale and rapidly, and (ii) improving IAI social media software

  1. Large-scale prediction of drug-target relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Mónica; González, Paula

    2008-01-01

    , but also provides a more global view on drug-target relations. Here we review recent attempts to apply large-scale computational analyses to predict novel interactions of drugs and targets from molecular and cellular features. In this context, we quantify the family-dependent probability of two proteins...... to bind the same ligand as function of their sequence similarity. We finally discuss how phenotypic data could help to expand our understanding of the complex mechanisms of drug action....

  2. One-dimensional adhesion model for large scale structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayyunnapara Thomas Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss initial value problems and initial boundary value problems for some systems of partial differential equations appearing in the modelling for the large scale structure formation in the universe. We restrict the initial data to be bounded measurable and locally bounded variation function and use Volpert product to justify the product which appear in the equation. For more general initial data in the class of generalized functions of Colombeau, we construct the solution in the sense of association.

  3. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    OpenAIRE

    BOKDE, ARUN

    2015-01-01

    PUBLISHED Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypot...

  4. Multimodel Design of Large Scale Systems with Multiple Decision Makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    virtue. 5- , Lead me from darkneu to light. - Lead me from death to eternal Life. ( Vedic Payer) p. I, MULTIMODEL DESIGN OF LARGE SCALE SYSTEMS WITH...BFI-S2L) is stable for all e in H. To avoid mathematical complications, the feedback matrices of (2.31) are restricted to be of the form, S(e)= Fli + 0...control values used during all past sampling intervals. This information pattern, though not of ouch practical importance, is mathematically con

  5. A Large-Scale Study of Online Shopping Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Nalchigar, Soroosh; Weber, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    The continuous growth of electronic commerce has stimulated great interest in studying online consumer behavior. Given the significant growth in online shopping, better understanding of customers allows better marketing strategies to be designed. While studies of online shopping attitude are widespread in the literature, studies of browsing habits differences in relation to online shopping are scarce. This research performs a large scale study of the relationship between Internet browsing hab...

  6. Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Edward Y

    2011-01-01

    "Foundations of Large-Scale Multimedia Information Management and Retrieval - Mathematics of Perception" covers knowledge representation and semantic analysis of multimedia data and scalability in signal extraction, data mining, and indexing. The book is divided into two parts: Part I - Knowledge Representation and Semantic Analysis focuses on the key components of mathematics of perception as it applies to data management and retrieval. These include feature selection/reduction, knowledge representation, semantic analysis, distance function formulation for measuring similarity, and

  7. Multivariate Clustering of Large-Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Critchlow, T

    2003-06-13

    Simulations of complex scientific phenomena involve the execution of massively parallel computer programs. These simulation programs generate large-scale data sets over the spatio-temporal space. Modeling such massive data sets is an essential step in helping scientists discover new information from their computer simulations. In this paper, we present a simple but effective multivariate clustering algorithm for large-scale scientific simulation data sets. Our algorithm utilizes the cosine similarity measure to cluster the field variables in a data set. Field variables include all variables except the spatial (x, y, z) and temporal (time) variables. The exclusion of the spatial dimensions is important since ''similar'' characteristics could be located (spatially) far from each other. To scale our multivariate clustering algorithm for large-scale data sets, we take advantage of the geometrical properties of the cosine similarity measure. This allows us to reduce the modeling time from O(n{sup 2}) to O(n x g(f(u))), where n is the number of data points, f(u) is a function of the user-defined clustering threshold, and g(f(u)) is the number of data points satisfying f(u). We show that on average g(f(u)) is much less than n. Finally, even though spatial variables do not play a role in building clusters, it is desirable to associate each cluster with its correct spatial region. To achieve this, we present a linking algorithm for connecting each cluster to the appropriate nodes of the data set's topology tree (where the spatial information of the data set is stored). Our experimental evaluations on two large-scale simulation data sets illustrate the value of our multivariate clustering and linking algorithms.

  8. Large-Scale Integrated Carbon Nanotube Gas Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Joondong

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a promising one-dimensional nanostructure for various nanoscale electronics. Additionally, nanostructures would provide a significant large surface area at a fixed volume, which is an advantage for high-responsive gas sensors. However, the difficulty in fabrication processes limits the CNT gas sensors for the large-scale production. We review the viable scheme for large-area application including the CNT gas sensor fabrication and reaction mechanism with a practical d...

  9. Turbulent large-scale structure effects on wake meandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Y.-A.; Masson, C.; Aubrun, S.

    2015-06-01

    This work studies effects of large-scale turbulent structures on wake meandering using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) over an actuator disk. Other potential source of wake meandering such as the instablility mechanisms associated with tip vortices are not treated in this study. A crucial element of the efficient, pragmatic and successful simulations of large-scale turbulent structures in Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is the generation of the stochastic turbulent atmospheric flow. This is an essential capability since one source of wake meandering is these large - larger than the turbine diameter - turbulent structures. The unsteady wind turbine wake in ABL is simulated using a combination of LES and actuator disk approaches. In order to dedicate the large majority of the available computing power in the wake, the ABL ground region of the flow is not part of the computational domain. Instead, mixed Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions are applied at all the computational surfaces except at the outlet. Prescribed values for Dirichlet contribution of these boundary conditions are provided by a stochastic turbulent wind generator. This allows to simulate large-scale turbulent structures - larger than the computational domain - leading to an efficient simulation technique of wake meandering. Since the stochastic wind generator includes shear, the turbulence production is included in the analysis without the necessity of resolving the flow near the ground. The classical Smagorinsky sub-grid model is used. The resulting numerical methodology has been implemented in OpenFOAM. Comparisons with experimental measurements in porous-disk wakes have been undertaken, and the agreements are good. While temporal resolution in experimental measurements is high, the spatial resolution is often too low. LES numerical results provide a more complete spatial description of the flow. They tend to demonstrate that inflow low frequency content - or large- scale turbulent structures - is

  10. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales (LSD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Large Scale Density Estimation of Blue and Fin Whales ...sensors, or both. The goal of this research is to develop and implement a new method for estimating blue and fin whale density that is effective over...develop and implement a density estimation methodology for quantifying blue and fin whale abundance from passive acoustic data recorded on sparse

  11. Concurrent Programming Using Actors: Exploiting Large-Scale Parallelism,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-07

    ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK* Artificial Inteligence Laboratory AREA Is WORK UNIT NUMBERS 545 Technology Square...D-R162 422 CONCURRENT PROGRMMIZNG USING f"OS XL?ITP TEH l’ LARGE-SCALE PARALLELISH(U) NASI AC E Al CAMBRIDGE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE L. G AGHA ET AL...RESOLUTION TEST CHART N~ATIONAL BUREAU OF STANDA.RDS - -96 A -E. __ _ __ __’ .,*- - -- •. - MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY ARTIFICIAL

  12. Large-Scale Weather Disturbances in Mars’ Southern Extratropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jeffery L.; Kahre, Melinda A.

    2015-11-01

    Between late autumn and early spring, Mars’ middle and high latitudes within its atmosphere support strong mean thermal gradients between the tropics and poles. Observations from both the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) indicate that this strong baroclinicity supports intense, large-scale eastward traveling weather systems (i.e., transient synoptic-period waves). These extratropical weather disturbances are key components of the global circulation. Such wave-like disturbances act as agents in the transport of heat and momentum, and generalized scalar/tracer quantities (e.g., atmospheric dust, water-vapor and ice clouds). The character of large-scale, traveling extratropical synoptic-period disturbances in Mars' southern hemisphere during late winter through early spring is investigated using a moderately high-resolution Mars global climate model (Mars GCM). This Mars GCM imposes interactively lifted and radiatively active dust based on a threshold value of the surface stress. The model exhibits a reasonable "dust cycle" (i.e., globally averaged, a dustier atmosphere during southern spring and summer occurs). Compared to their northern-hemisphere counterparts, southern synoptic-period weather disturbances and accompanying frontal waves have smaller meridional and zonal scales, and are far less intense. Influences of the zonally asymmetric (i.e., east-west varying) topography on southern large-scale weather are examined. Simulations that adapt Mars’ full topography compared to simulations that utilize synthetic topographies emulating key large-scale features of the southern middle latitudes indicate that Mars’ transient barotropic/baroclinic eddies are highly influenced by the great impact basins of this hemisphere (e.g., Argyre and Hellas). The occurrence of a southern storm zone in late winter and early spring appears to be anchored to the western hemisphere via orographic influences from the Tharsis highlands, and the Argyre

  13. Experimental simulation of microinteractions in large scale explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, X.; Luo, R.; Yuen, W.W.; Theofanous, T.G. [California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Center for Risk Studies and Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents data and analysis of recent experiments conducted in the SIGMA-2000 facility to simulate microinteractions in large scale explosions. Specifically, the fragmentation behavior of a high temperature molten steel drop under high pressure (beyond critical) conditions are investigated. The current data demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of high pressure in suppressing the thermal effect of fragmentation under supercritical conditions. The results support the microinteractions idea, and the ESPROSE.m prediction of fragmentation rate. (author)

  14. Robust regression for large-scale neuroimaging studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Virgile; Da Mota, Benoit; Loth, Eva; Varoquaux, Gaël; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Brühl, Rüdiger; Butzek, Brigitte; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Garavan, Hugh; Lemaitre, Hervé; Mann, Karl; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Schad, Daniel J; Schümann, Gunter; Frouin, Vincent; Poline, Jean-Baptiste; Thirion, Bertrand

    2015-05-01

    Multi-subject datasets used in neuroimaging group studies have a complex structure, as they exhibit non-stationary statistical properties across regions and display various artifacts. While studies with small sample sizes can rarely be shown to deviate from standard hypotheses (such as the normality of the residuals) due to the poor sensitivity of normality tests with low degrees of freedom, large-scale studies (e.g. >100 subjects) exhibit more obvious deviations from these hypotheses and call for more refined models for statistical inference. Here, we demonstrate the benefits of robust regression as a tool for analyzing large neuroimaging cohorts. First, we use an analytic test based on robust parameter estimates; based on simulations, this procedure is shown to provide an accurate statistical control without resorting to permutations. Second, we show that robust regression yields more detections than standard algorithms using as an example an imaging genetics study with 392 subjects. Third, we show that robust regression can avoid false positives in a large-scale analysis of brain-behavior relationships with over 1500 subjects. Finally we embed robust regression in the Randomized Parcellation Based Inference (RPBI) method and demonstrate that this combination further improves the sensitivity of tests carried out across the whole brain. Altogether, our results show that robust procedures provide important advantages in large-scale neuroimaging group studies.

  15. Systematic Literature Review of Agile Scalability for Large Scale Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina saeeda

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In new methods, “agile” has come out as the top approach in software industry for the development of the soft wares. With different shapes agile is applied for handling the issues such as low cost, tight time to market schedule continuously changing requirements, Communication & Coordination, team size and distributed environment. Agile has proved to be successful in the small and medium size project, however, it have several limitations when applied on large size projects. The purpose of this study is to know agile techniques in detail, finding and highlighting its restrictions for large size projects with the help of systematic literature review. The systematic literature review is going to find answers for the Research questions: 1 How to make agile approaches scalable and adoptable for large projects?2 What are the existing methods, approaches, frameworks and practices support agile process in large scale projects? 3 What are limitations of existing agile approaches, methods, frameworks and practices with reference to large scale projects? This study will identify the current research problems of the agile scalability for large size projects by giving a detail literature review of the identified problems, existed work for providing solution to these problems and will find out limitations of the existing work for covering the identified problems in the agile scalability. All the results gathered will be summarized statistically based on these finding remedial work will be planned in future for handling the identified limitations of agile approaches for large scale projects.

  16. Critical thinking, politics on a large scale and media democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio IBÁÑEZ-MARTÍN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The first approximation to the social current reality offers us numerous motives for the worry. The spectacle of violence and of immorality can scare us easily. But more worrying still it is to verify that the horizon of conviviality, peace and wellbeing that Europe had been developing from the Treaty of Rome of 1957 has compromised itself seriously for the economic crisis. Today we are before an assault to the democratic politics, which is qualified, on the part of the media democracy, as an exhausted system, which is required to be changed into a new and great politics, a politics on a large scale. The article analyses the concept of a politics on a large scale, primarily attending to Nietzsche, and noting its union with the great philosophy and the great education. The study of the texts of Nietzsche leads us to the conclusion of how in them we often find an interesting analysis of the problems and a misguided proposal for solutions. We cannot think to suggest solutions to all the problems, but we outline various proposals about changes of political activity, that reasonably are defended from the media democracy. In conclusion, we point out that a politics on a large scale requires statesmen, able to suggest modes of life in common that can structure a long-term coexistence.

  17. Large Scale Magnetic Fields: Density Power Spectrum in Redshift Space

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh Gopal; Shiv K. Sethi

    2003-09-01

    We compute the density redshift-space power spectrum in the presence of tangled magnetic fields and compare it with existing observations. Our analysis shows that if these magnetic fields originated in the early universe then it is possible to construct models for which the shape of the power spectrum agrees with the large scale slope of the observed power spectrum. However requiring compatibility with observed CMBR anisotropies, the normalization of the power spectrum is too low for magnetic fields to have significant impact on the large scale structure at present. Magnetic fields of a more recent origin generically give density power spectrum ∝ 4 which doesn’t agree with the shape of the observed power spectrum at any scale. Magnetic fields generate curl modes of the velocity field which increase both the quadrupole and hexadecapole of the redshift space power spectrum. For curl modes, the hexadecapole dominates over quadrupole. So the presence of curl modes could be indicated by an anomalously large hexadecapole, which has not yet been computed from observation. It appears difficult to construct models in which tangled magnetic fields could have played a major role in shaping the large scale structure in the present epoch. However if they did, one of the best ways to infer their presence would be from the redshift space effects in the density power spectrum.

  18. A visualization framework for large-scale virtual astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chi-Wing

    Motivated by advances in modern positional astronomy, this research attempts to digitally model the entire Universe through computer graphics technology. Our first challenge is space itself. The gigantic size of the Universe makes it impossible to put everything into a typical graphics system at its own scale. The graphics rendering process can easily fail because of limited computational precision, The second challenge is that the enormous amount of data could slow down the graphics; we need clever techniques to speed up the rendering. Third, since the Universe is dominated by empty space, objects are widely separated; this makes navigation difficult. We attempt to tackle these problems through various techniques designed to extend and optimize the conventional graphics framework, including the following: power homogeneous coordinates for large-scale spatial representations, generalized large-scale spatial transformations, and rendering acceleration via environment caching and object disappearance criteria. Moreover, we implemented an assortment of techniques for modeling and rendering a variety of astronomical bodies, ranging from the Earth up to faraway galaxies, and attempted to visualize cosmological time; a method we call the Lightcone representation was introduced to visualize the whole space-time of the Universe at a single glance. In addition, several navigation models were developed to handle the large-scale navigation problem. Our final results include a collection of visualization tools, two educational animations appropriate for planetarium audiences, and state-of-the-art-advancing rendering techniques that can be transferred to practice in digital planetarium systems.

  19. Impact of Large-scale Geological Architectures On Recharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troldborg, L.; Refsgaard, J. C.; Engesgaard, P.; Jensen, K. H.

    Geological and hydrogeological data constitutes the basis for assessment of ground- water flow pattern and recharge zones. The accessibility and applicability of hard ge- ological data is often a major obstacle in deriving plausible conceptual models. Nev- ertheless focus is often on parameter uncertainty caused by the effect of geological heterogeneity due to lack of hard geological data, thus neglecting the possibility of alternative conceptualizations of the large-scale geological architecture. For a catchment in the eastern part of Denmark we have constructed different geologi- cal models based on different conceptualization of the major geological trends and fa- cies architecture. The geological models are equally plausible in a conceptually sense and they are all calibrated to well head and river flow measurements. Comparison of differences in recharge zones and subsequently well protection zones emphasize the importance of assessing large-scale geological architecture in hydrological modeling on regional scale in a non-deterministic way. Geostatistical modeling carried out in a transitional probability framework shows the possibility of assessing multiple re- alizations of large-scale geological architecture from a combination of soft and hard geological information.

  20. Image-based Exploration of Large-Scale Pathline Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2014-05-27

    While real-time applications are nowadays routinely used in visualizing large nu- merical simulations and volumes, handling these large-scale datasets requires high-end graphics clusters or supercomputers to process and visualize them. However, not all users have access to powerful clusters. Therefore, it is challenging to come up with a visualization approach that provides insight to large-scale datasets on a single com- puter. Explorable images (EI) is one of the methods that allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, it combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. In this thesis, we propose a novel image-based method that applies the concept of EI in visualizing large flow-field pathlines data. The goal of our work is to provide an optimized image-based method, which scales well with the dataset size. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathlines segments. With this view-dependent method it is possible to filter, color-code and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  1. Large-scale magnetic topologies of early M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Donati, JF; Petit, P; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Aurière, M; Cabanac, R; Dintrans, B; Fares, R; Gastine, T; Jardine, MM; Lignières, F; Paletou, F; Velez, J Ramirez; Théado, S

    2008-01-01

    We present here additional results of a spectropolarimetric survey of a small sample of stars ranging from spectral type M0 to M8 aimed at investigating observationally how dynamo processes operate in stars on both sides of the full convection threshold (spectral type M4). The present paper focuses on early M stars (M0--M3), i.e. above the full convection threshold. Applying tomographic imaging techniques to time series of rotationally modulated circularly polarised profiles collected with the NARVAL spectropolarimeter, we determine the rotation period and reconstruct the large-scale magnetic topologies of 6 early M dwarfs. We find that early-M stars preferentially host large-scale fields with dominantly toroidal and non-axisymmetric poloidal configurations, along with significant differential rotation (and long-term variability); only the lowest-mass star of our subsample is found to host an almost fully poloidal, mainly axisymmetric large-scale field ressembling those found in mid-M dwarfs. This abrupt chan...

  2. Multiresolution comparison of precipitation datasets for large-scale models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K. P.; Sapriza Azuri, G.; Davison, B.; DeBeer, C. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded precipitation datasets are crucial for driving large-scale models which are related to weather forecast and climate research. However, the quality of precipitation products is usually validated individually. Comparisons between gridded precipitation products along with ground observations provide another avenue for investigating how the precipitation uncertainty would affect the performance of large-scale models. In this study, using data from a set of precipitation gauges over British Columbia and Alberta, we evaluate several widely used North America gridded products including the Canadian Gridded Precipitation Anomalies (CANGRD), the National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) reanalysis, the Water and Global Change (WATCH) project, the thin plate spline smoothing algorithms (ANUSPLIN) and Canadian Precipitation Analysis (CaPA). Based on verification criteria for various temporal and spatial scales, results provide an assessment of possible applications for various precipitation datasets. For long-term climate variation studies (~100 years), CANGRD, NCEP, WATCH and ANUSPLIN have different comparative advantages in terms of their resolution and accuracy. For synoptic and mesoscale precipitation patterns, CaPA provides appealing performance of spatial coherence. In addition to the products comparison, various downscaling methods are also surveyed to explore new verification and bias-reduction methods for improving gridded precipitation outputs for large-scale models.

  3. Reliability assessment for components of large scale photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Amir; Ghadimi, Noradin; Mirabbasi, Davar

    2014-10-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) systems have significantly shifted from independent power generation systems to a large-scale grid-connected generation systems in recent years. The power output of PV systems is affected by the reliability of various components in the system. This study proposes an analytical approach to evaluate the reliability of large-scale, grid-connected PV systems. The fault tree method with an exponential probability distribution function is used to analyze the components of large-scale PV systems. The system is considered in the various sequential and parallel fault combinations in order to find all realistic ways in which the top or undesired events can occur. Additionally, it can identify areas that the planned maintenance should focus on. By monitoring the critical components of a PV system, it is possible not only to improve the reliability of the system, but also to optimize the maintenance costs. The latter is achieved by informing the operators about the system component's status. This approach can be used to ensure secure operation of the system by its flexibility in monitoring system applications. The implementation demonstrates that the proposed method is effective and efficient and can conveniently incorporate more system maintenance plans and diagnostic strategies.

  4. Searching for Large Scale Structure in Deep Radio Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Baleisis, A; Loan, A J; Wall, J V; Baleisis, Audra; Lahav, Ofer; Loan, Andrew J.; Wall, Jasper V.

    1997-01-01

    (Abridged Abstract) We calculate the expected amplitude of the dipole and higher spherical harmonics in the angular distribution of radio galaxies. The median redshift of radio sources in existing catalogues is z=1, which allows us to study large scale structure on scales between those accessible to present optical and infrared surveys, and that of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The dipole is due to 2 effects which turn out to be of comparable magnitude: (i) our motion with respect to the CMB, and (ii) large scale structure, parameterised here by a family of Cold Dark Matter power-spectra. We make specific predictions for the Green Bank (87GB) and Parkes-MIT-NRAO (PMN) catalogues. For these relatively sparse catalogues both the motion and large scale structure dipole effects are expected to be smaller than the Poisson shot-noise. However, we detect dipole and higher harmonics in the combined 87GB-PMN catalogue which are far larger than expected. We attribute this to a 2 % flux mismatch between the two...

  5. Geospatial Optimization of Siting Large-Scale Solar Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macknick, J.; Quinby, T.; Caulfield, E.; Gerritsen, M.; Diffendorfer, J.; Haines, S.

    2014-03-01

    Recent policy and economic conditions have encouraged a renewed interest in developing large-scale solar projects in the U.S. Southwest. However, siting large-scale solar projects is complex. In addition to the quality of the solar resource, solar developers must take into consideration many environmental, social, and economic factors when evaluating a potential site. This report describes a proof-of-concept, Web-based Geographical Information Systems (GIS) tool that evaluates multiple user-defined criteria in an optimization algorithm to inform discussions and decisions regarding the locations of utility-scale solar projects. Existing siting recommendations for large-scale solar projects from governmental and non-governmental organizations are not consistent with each other, are often not transparent in methods, and do not take into consideration the differing priorities of stakeholders. The siting assistance GIS tool we have developed improves upon the existing siting guidelines by being user-driven, transparent, interactive, capable of incorporating multiple criteria, and flexible. This work provides the foundation for a dynamic siting assistance tool that can greatly facilitate siting decisions among multiple stakeholders.

  6. Star formation associated with a large-scale infrared bubble

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jin-Long

    2014-01-01

    Using the data from the Galactic Ring Survey (GRS) and Galactic Legacy Infrared Mid-Plane Survey Extraordinaire (GLIMPSE), we performed a study for a large-scale infrared bubble with a size of about 16 pc at a distance of 2.0 kpc. We present the 12CO J=1-0, 13CO J=1-0 and C18O J=1-0 observations of HII region G53.54-0.01 (Sh2-82) obtained at the the Purple Mountain Observation (PMO) 13.7 m radio telescope to investigate the detailed distribution of associated molecular material. The large-scale infrared bubble shows a half-shell morphology at 8 um. H II regions G53.54-0.01, G53.64+0.24, and G54.09-0.06 are situated on the bubble. Comparing the radio recombination line velocities and associated 13CO J=1-0 components of the three H II regions, we found that the 8 um emission associated with H II region G53.54-0.01 should belong to the foreground emission, and only overlap with the large-scale infrared bubble in the line of sight. Three extended green objects (EGOs, the candidate massive young stellar objects), ...

  7. Equivalent common path method in large-scale laser comparator

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Mingzhao; Li, Jianshuang; Miao, Dongjing

    2015-02-01

    Large-scale laser comparator is main standard device that providing accurate, reliable and traceable measurements for high precision large-scale line and 3D measurement instruments. It mainly composed of guide rail, motion control system, environmental parameters monitoring system and displacement measurement system. In the laser comparator, the main error sources are temperature distribution, straightness of guide rail and pitch and yaw of measuring carriage. To minimize the measurement uncertainty, an equivalent common optical path scheme is proposed and implemented. Three laser interferometers are adjusted to parallel with the guide rail. The displacement in an arbitrary virtual optical path is calculated using three displacements without the knowledge of carriage orientations at start and end positions. The orientation of air floating carriage is calculated with displacements of three optical path and position of three retroreflectors which are precisely measured by Laser Tracker. A 4th laser interferometer is used in the virtual optical path as reference to verify this compensation method. This paper analyzes the effect of rail straightness on the displacement measurement. The proposed method, through experimental verification, can improve the measurement uncertainty of large-scale laser comparator.

  8. Large scale structure around a z=2.1 cluster

    CERN Document Server

    Hung, Chao-Ling; Chiang, Yi-Kuan; Capak, Peter; Cowley, Michael J; Darvish, Behnam; Kacprzak, Glenn G; Kovac, K; Lilly, Simon J; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Spitler, Lee R; Tran, Kim-Vy H; Yuan, Tiantian

    2016-01-01

    The most prodigious starburst galaxies are absent in massive galaxy clusters today, but their connection with large scale environments is less clear at $z\\gtrsim2$. We present a search of large scale structure around a galaxy cluster core at $z=2.095$ using a set of spectroscopically confirmed galaxies. We find that both color-selected star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) show significant overdensities around the $z=2.095$ cluster. A total of 8 DSFGs (including 3 X-ray luminous active galactic nuclei, AGNs) and 34 SFGs are found within a 10 arcmin radius (corresponds to $\\sim$15 cMpc at $z\\sim2.1$) from the cluster center and within a redshift range of $\\Delta z=0.02$, which leads to galaxy overdensities of $\\delta_{\\rm DSFG}\\sim12.3$ and $\\delta_{\\rm SFG}\\sim2.8$. The cluster core and the extended DSFG- and SFG-rich structure together demonstrate an active cluster formation phase, in which the cluster is accreting a significant amount of material from large scale structure whi...

  9. BILGO: Bilateral greedy optimization for large scale semidefinite programming

    KAUST Repository

    Hao, Zhifeng

    2013-10-03

    Many machine learning tasks (e.g. metric and manifold learning problems) can be formulated as convex semidefinite programs. To enable the application of these tasks on a large-scale, scalability and computational efficiency are considered as desirable properties for a practical semidefinite programming algorithm. In this paper, we theoretically analyze a new bilateral greedy optimization (denoted BILGO) strategy in solving general semidefinite programs on large-scale datasets. As compared to existing methods, BILGO employs a bilateral search strategy during each optimization iteration. In such an iteration, the current semidefinite matrix solution is updated as a bilateral linear combination of the previous solution and a suitable rank-1 matrix, which can be efficiently computed from the leading eigenvector of the descent direction at this iteration. By optimizing for the coefficients of the bilateral combination, BILGO reduces the cost function in every iteration until the KKT conditions are fully satisfied, thus, it tends to converge to a global optimum. In fact, we prove that BILGO converges to the global optimal solution at a rate of O(1/k), where k is the iteration counter. The algorithm thus successfully combines the efficiency of conventional rank-1 update algorithms and the effectiveness of gradient descent. Moreover, BILGO can be easily extended to handle low rank constraints. To validate the effectiveness and efficiency of BILGO, we apply it to two important machine learning tasks, namely Mahalanobis metric learning and maximum variance unfolding. Extensive experimental results clearly demonstrate that BILGO can solve large-scale semidefinite programs efficiently.

  10. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L.

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  11. Robust large-scale parallel nonlinear solvers for simulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, Brett William; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Kolda, Tamara Gibson (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-01

    This report documents research to develop robust and efficient solution techniques for solving large-scale systems of nonlinear equations. The most widely used method for solving systems of nonlinear equations is Newton's method. While much research has been devoted to augmenting Newton-based solvers (usually with globalization techniques), little has been devoted to exploring the application of different models. Our research has been directed at evaluating techniques using different models than Newton's method: a lower order model, Broyden's method, and a higher order model, the tensor method. We have developed large-scale versions of each of these models and have demonstrated their use in important applications at Sandia. Broyden's method replaces the Jacobian with an approximation, allowing codes that cannot evaluate a Jacobian or have an inaccurate Jacobian to converge to a solution. Limited-memory methods, which have been successful in optimization, allow us to extend this approach to large-scale problems. We compare the robustness and efficiency of Newton's method, modified Newton's method, Jacobian-free Newton-Krylov method, and our limited-memory Broyden method. Comparisons are carried out for large-scale applications of fluid flow simulations and electronic circuit simulations. Results show that, in cases where the Jacobian was inaccurate or could not be computed, Broyden's method converged in some cases where Newton's method failed to converge. We identify conditions where Broyden's method can be more efficient than Newton's method. We also present modifications to a large-scale tensor method, originally proposed by Bouaricha, for greater efficiency, better robustness, and wider applicability. Tensor methods are an alternative to Newton-based methods and are based on computing a step based on a local quadratic model rather than a linear model. The advantage of Bouaricha's method is that it can use any

  12. Foundational perspectives on causality in large-scale brain networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Michael; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-12-01

    A profusion of recent work in cognitive neuroscience has been concerned with the endeavor to uncover causal influences in large-scale brain networks. However, despite the fact that many papers give a nod to the important theoretical challenges posed by the concept of causality, this explosion of research has generally not been accompanied by a rigorous conceptual analysis of the nature of causality in the brain. This review provides both a descriptive and prescriptive account of the nature of causality as found within and between large-scale brain networks. In short, it seeks to clarify the concept of causality in large-scale brain networks both philosophically and scientifically. This is accomplished by briefly reviewing the rich philosophical history of work on causality, especially focusing on contributions by David Hume, Immanuel Kant, Bertrand Russell, and Christopher Hitchcock. We go on to discuss the impact that various interpretations of modern physics have had on our understanding of causality. Throughout all this, a central focus is the distinction between theories of deterministic causality (DC), whereby causes uniquely determine their effects, and probabilistic causality (PC), whereby causes change the probability of occurrence of their effects. We argue that, given the topological complexity of its large-scale connectivity, the brain should be considered as a complex system and its causal influences treated as probabilistic in nature. We conclude that PC is well suited for explaining causality in the brain for three reasons: (1) brain causality is often mutual; (2) connectional convergence dictates that only rarely is the activity of one neuronal population uniquely determined by another one; and (3) the causal influences exerted between neuronal populations may not have observable effects. A number of different techniques are currently available to characterize causal influence in the brain. Typically, these techniques quantify the statistical

  13. Characterization of the PRMT gene family in rice reveals conservation of arginine methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayaz Ahmad

    Full Text Available Post-translational methylation of arginine residues profoundly affects the structure and functions of protein and, hence, implicated in a myriad of essential cellular processes such as signal transduction, mRNA splicing and transcriptional regulation. Protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs, the enzymes catalyzing arginine methylation have been extensively studied in animals, yeast and, to some extent, in model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Eight genes coding for the PRMTs were identified in Oryza sativa, previously. Here, we report that these genes show distinct expression patterns in various parts of the plant. In vivo targeting experiment demonstrated that GFP-tagged OsPRMT1, OsPRMT5 and OsPRMT10 were localized to both the cytoplasm and nucleus, whereas OsPRMT6a and OsPRMT6b were predominantly localized to the nucleus. OsPRMT1, OsPRMT4, OsPRMT5, OsPRMT6a, OsPRMT6b and OsPRMT10 exhibited in vitro arginine methyltransferase activity against myelin basic protein, glycine-arginine-rich domain of fibrillarin and calf thymus core histones. Furthermore, they depicted specificities for the arginine residues in histones H3 and H4 and were classified into type I and Type II PRMTs, based on the formation of type of dimethylarginine in the substrate proteins. The two homologs of OsPRMT6 showed direct interaction in vitro and further titrating different amounts of these proteins in the methyltransferase assay revealed that OsPRMT6a inhibits the methyltransferase activity of OsPRMT6b, probably, by the formation of heterodimer. The identification and characterization of PRMTs in rice suggests the conservation of arginine methylation in monocots and hold promise for gaining further insight into regulation of plant development.

  14. Large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of Australian deep-water kelp forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel M Marzinelli

    Full Text Available Despite the significance of marine habitat-forming organisms, little is known about their large-scale distribution and abundance in deeper waters, where they are difficult to access. Such information is necessary to develop sound conservation and management strategies. Kelps are main habitat-formers in temperate reefs worldwide; however, these habitats are highly sensitive to environmental change. The kelp Ecklonia radiate is the major habitat-forming organism on subtidal reefs in temperate Australia. Here, we provide large-scale ecological data encompassing the latitudinal distribution along the continent of these kelp forests, which is a necessary first step towards quantitative inferences about the effects of climatic change and other stressors on these valuable habitats. We used the Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV facility of Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS to survey 157,000 m2 of seabed, of which ca 13,000 m2 were used to quantify kelp covers at multiple spatial scales (10-100 m to 100-1,000 km and depths (15-60 m across several regions ca 2-6° latitude apart along the East and West coast of Australia. We investigated the large-scale geographic variation in distribution and abundance of deep-water kelp (>15 m depth and their relationships with physical variables. Kelp cover generally increased with latitude despite great variability at smaller spatial scales. Maximum depth of kelp occurrence was 40-50 m. Kelp latitudinal distribution along the continent was most strongly related to water temperature and substratum availability. This extensive survey data, coupled with ongoing AUV missions, will allow for the detection of long-term shifts in the distribution and abundance of habitat-forming kelp and the organisms they support on a continental scale, and provide information necessary for successful implementation and management of conservation reserves.

  15. Comparative analysis of Phytophthora genes encoding secreted proteins reveals conserved synteny and lineage-specific gene duplications and deletions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, R.H.Y.; Tyler, B.M.; Govers, F.

    2006-01-01

    Comparative analysis of two Phytophthora genomes revealed overall colinearity in four genomic regions consisting of a 1.5-Mb sequence of Phytophthora sojae and a 0.9-Mb sequence of R ramorum. In these regions with conserved synteny, the gene order is largely similar; however, genome rearrangements a

  16. On the importance of nonlinear couplings in large-scale neutrino streams

    CERN Document Server

    Dupuy, Hélène

    2015-01-01

    We propose a procedure to evaluate the impact of nonlinear couplings on the evolution of massive neutrino streams in the context of large-scale structure growth. Such streams can be described by general nonlinear conservation equations, derived from a multiple-flow perspective, which generalize the conservation equations of non-relativistic pressureless fluids. The relevance of the nonlinear couplings is quantified with the help of the eikonal approximation applied to the subhorizon limit of this system. It highlights the role played by the relative displacements of different cosmic streams and it specifies, for each flow, the spatial scales at which the growth of structure is affected by nonlinear couplings. We found that, at redshift zero, such couplings can be significant for wavenumbers as small as $k=0.2\\,h$/Mpc for most of the neutrino streams.

  17. On the Phenomenology of an Accelerated Large-Scale Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martiros Khurshudyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this review paper, several new results towards the explanation of the accelerated expansion of the large-scale universe is discussed. On the other hand, inflation is the early-time accelerated era and the universe is symmetric in the sense of accelerated expansion. The accelerated expansion of is one of the long standing problems in modern cosmology, and physics in general. There are several well defined approaches to solve this problem. One of them is an assumption concerning the existence of dark energy in recent universe. It is believed that dark energy is responsible for antigravity, while dark matter has gravitational nature and is responsible, in general, for structure formation. A different approach is an appropriate modification of general relativity including, for instance, f ( R and f ( T theories of gravity. On the other hand, attempts to build theories of quantum gravity and assumptions about existence of extra dimensions, possible variability of the gravitational constant and the speed of the light (among others, provide interesting modifications of general relativity applicable to problems of modern cosmology, too. In particular, here two groups of cosmological models are discussed. In the first group the problem of the accelerated expansion of large-scale universe is discussed involving a new idea, named the varying ghost dark energy. On the other hand, the second group contains cosmological models addressed to the same problem involving either new parameterizations of the equation of state parameter of dark energy (like varying polytropic gas, or nonlinear interactions between dark energy and dark matter. Moreover, for cosmological models involving varying ghost dark energy, massless particle creation in appropriate radiation dominated universe (when the background dynamics is due to general relativity is demonstrated as well. Exploring the nature of the accelerated expansion of the large-scale universe involving generalized

  18. LARGE-SCALE CO2 TRANSPORTATION AND DEEP OCEAN SEQUESTRATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Sarv

    1999-03-01

    Technical and economical feasibility of large-scale CO{sub 2} transportation and ocean sequestration at depths of 3000 meters or grater was investigated. Two options were examined for transporting and disposing the captured CO{sub 2}. In one case, CO{sub 2} was pumped from a land-based collection center through long pipelines laid on the ocean floor. Another case considered oceanic tanker transport of liquid carbon dioxide to an offshore floating structure for vertical injection to the ocean floor. In the latter case, a novel concept based on subsurface towing of a 3000-meter pipe, and attaching it to the offshore structure was considered. Budgetary cost estimates indicate that for distances greater than 400 km, tanker transportation and offshore injection through a 3000-meter vertical pipe provides the best method for delivering liquid CO{sub 2} to deep ocean floor depressions. For shorter distances, CO{sub 2} delivery by parallel-laid, subsea pipelines is more cost-effective. Estimated costs for 500-km transport and storage at a depth of 3000 meters by subsea pipelines and tankers were 1.5 and 1.4 dollars per ton of stored CO{sub 2}, respectively. At these prices, economics of ocean disposal are highly favorable. Future work should focus on addressing technical issues that are critical to the deployment of a large-scale CO{sub 2} transportation and disposal system. Pipe corrosion, structural design of the transport pipe, and dispersion characteristics of sinking CO{sub 2} effluent plumes have been identified as areas that require further attention. Our planned activities in the next Phase include laboratory-scale corrosion testing, structural analysis of the pipeline, analytical and experimental simulations of CO{sub 2} discharge and dispersion, and the conceptual economic and engineering evaluation of large-scale implementation.

  19. Statistical Modeling of Large-Scale Scientific Simulation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eliassi-Rad, T; Baldwin, C; Abdulla, G; Critchlow, T

    2003-11-15

    With the advent of massively parallel computer systems, scientists are now able to simulate complex phenomena (e.g., explosions of a stars). Such scientific simulations typically generate large-scale data sets over the spatio-temporal space. Unfortunately, the sheer sizes of the generated data sets make efficient exploration of them impossible. Constructing queriable statistical models is an essential step in helping scientists glean new insight from their computer simulations. We define queriable statistical models to be descriptive statistics that (1) summarize and describe the data within a user-defined modeling error, and (2) are able to answer complex range-based queries over the spatiotemporal dimensions. In this chapter, we describe systems that build queriable statistical models for large-scale scientific simulation data sets. In particular, we present our Ad-hoc Queries for Simulation (AQSim) infrastructure, which reduces the data storage requirements and query access times by (1) creating and storing queriable statistical models of the data at multiple resolutions, and (2) evaluating queries on these models of the data instead of the entire data set. Within AQSim, we focus on three simple but effective statistical modeling techniques. AQSim's first modeling technique (called univariate mean modeler) computes the ''true'' (unbiased) mean of systematic partitions of the data. AQSim's second statistical modeling technique (called univariate goodness-of-fit modeler) uses the Andersen-Darling goodness-of-fit method on systematic partitions of the data. Finally, AQSim's third statistical modeling technique (called multivariate clusterer) utilizes the cosine similarity measure to cluster the data into similar groups. Our experimental evaluations on several scientific simulation data sets illustrate the value of using these statistical models on large-scale simulation data sets.

  20. Nonlinear evolution of large-scale structure in the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frenk, C.S.; White, S.D.M.; Davis, M.

    1983-08-15

    Using N-body simulations we study the nonlinear development of primordial density perturbation in an Einstein--de Sitter universe. We compare the evolution of an initial distribution without small-scale density fluctuations to evolution from a random Poisson distribution. These initial conditions mimic the assumptions of the adiabatic and isothermal theories of galaxy formation. The large-scale structures which form in the two cases are markedly dissimilar. In particular, the correlation function xi(r) and the visual appearance of our adiabatic (or ''pancake'') models match better the observed distribution of galaxies. This distribution is characterized by large-scale filamentary structure. Because the pancake models do not evolve in a self-similar fashion, the slope of xi(r) steepens with time; as a result there is a unique epoch at which these models fit the galaxy observations. We find the ratio of cutoff length to correlation length at this time to be lambda/sub min//r/sub 0/ = 5.1; its expected value in a neutrino dominated universe is 4(..cap omega..h)/sup -1/ (H/sub 0/ = 100h km s/sup -1/ Mpc/sup -1/). At early epochs these models predict a negligible amplitude for xi(r) and could explain the lack of measurable clustering in the Ly..cap alpha.. absorption lines of high-redshift quasars. However, large-scale structure in our models collapses after z = 2. If this collapse precedes galaxy formation as in the usual pancake theory, galaxies formed uncomfortably recently. The extent of this problem may depend on the cosmological model used; the present series of experiments should be extended in the future to include models with ..cap omega..<1.

  1. Design techniques for large scale linear measurement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candy, J.V.

    1979-03-01

    Techniques to design measurement schemes for systems modeled by large scale linear time invariant systems, i.e., physical systems modeled by a large number (> 5) of ordinary differential equations, are described. The techniques are based on transforming the physical system model to a coordinate system facilitating the design and then transforming back to the original coordinates. An example of a three-stage, four-species, extraction column used in the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements is presented. The basic ideas are briefly discussed in the case of noisy measurements. An example using a plutonium nitrate storage vessel (reprocessing) with measurement uncertainty is also presented.

  2. Large scale PV plants - also in Denmark. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahm, P. (PA Energy, Malling (Denmark)); Vedde, J. (SiCon. Silicon and PV consulting, Birkeroed (Denmark))

    2011-04-15

    Large scale PV (LPV) plants, plants with a capacity of more than 200 kW, has since 2007 constituted an increasing share of the global PV installations. In 2009 large scale PV plants with cumulative power more that 1,3 GWp were connected to the grid. The necessary design data for LPV plants in Denmark are available or can be found, although irradiance data could be improved. There seems to be very few institutional barriers for LPV projects, but as so far no real LPV projects have been processed, these findings have to be regarded as preliminary. The fast growing number of very large scale solar thermal plants for district heating applications supports these findings. It has further been investigated, how to optimize the lay-out of LPV plants. Under the Danish irradiance conditions with several winter months with very low solar height PV installations on flat surfaces will have to balance the requirements of physical space - and cost, and the loss of electricity production due to shadowing effects. The potential for LPV plants in Denmark are found in three main categories: PV installations on flat roof of large commercial buildings, PV installations on other large scale infrastructure such as noise barriers and ground mounted PV installations. The technical potential for all three categories is found to be significant and in the range of 50 - 250 km2. In terms of energy harvest PV plants will under Danish conditions exhibit an overall efficiency of about 10 % in conversion of the energy content of the light compared to about 0,3 % for biomass. The theoretical ground area needed to produce the present annual electricity consumption of Denmark at 33-35 TWh is about 300 km2 The Danish grid codes and the electricity safety regulations mention very little about PV and nothing about LPV plants. It is expected that LPV plants will be treated similarly to big wind turbines. A number of LPV plant scenarios have been investigated in detail based on real commercial offers and

  3. Large Scale Simulations of the Euler Equations on GPU Clusters

    KAUST Repository

    Liebmann, Manfred

    2010-08-01

    The paper investigates the scalability of a parallel Euler solver, using the Vijayasundaram method, on a GPU cluster with 32 Nvidia Geforce GTX 295 boards. The aim of this research is to enable large scale fluid dynamics simulations with up to one billion elements. We investigate communication protocols for the GPU cluster to compensate for the slow Gigabit Ethernet network between the GPU compute nodes and to maintain overall efficiency. A diesel engine intake-port and a nozzle, meshed in different resolutions, give good real world examples for the scalability tests on the GPU cluster. © 2010 IEEE.

  4. Cosmological parameters from large scale structure - geometric versus shape information

    CERN Document Server

    Hamann, Jan; Lesgourgues, Julien; Rampf, Cornelius; Wong, Yvonne Y Y

    2010-01-01

    The matter power spectrum as derived from large scale structure (LSS) surveys contains two important and distinct pieces of information: an overall smooth shape and the imprint of baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO). We investigate the separate impact of these two types of information on cosmological parameter estimation, and show that for the simplest cosmological models, the broad-band shape information currently contained in the SDSS DR7 halo power spectrum (HPS) is by far superseded by geometric information derived from the baryonic features. An immediate corollary is that contrary to popular beliefs, the upper limit on the neutrino mass m_\

  5. Practical Optimal Control of Large-scale Water Distribution Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lv Mou(吕谋); Song Shuang

    2004-01-01

    According to the network characteristics and actual state of the water supply system in China, the implicit model, which can be solved by the hierarchical optimization method, was established. In special, based on the analyses of the water supply system containing variable-speed pumps, a software has been developed successfully. The application of this model to the city of Hangzhou (China) was compared to experiential strategy. The results of this study showed that the developed model is a promising optimization method to control the large-scale water supply systems.

  6. Controlled growth of large-scale silver nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Cong-Wen; Yang Hai-Tao; Shen Cheng-Min; Li Zi-An; Zhang Huai-Ruo; Liu Fei; Yang Tian-Zhong; Chen Shu-Tang; Gao Hong-Jun

    2005-01-01

    Large-scale silver nanowires with controlled aspect ratio were synthesized via reducing silver nitrate with 1, 2-propanediol in the presence of poly (vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP). Scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and x-ray powder diffraction were employed to characterize these silver nanowires. The diameter of the silver nanowires can be readily controlled in the range of 100 to 400 nm by varying the experimental conditions. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results show that there exists no chemical bond between the silver and the nitrogen atoms. The interaction between PVP and silver nanowires is mainly through the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group.

  7. Accurate emulators for large-scale computer experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Haaland, Ben; 10.1214/11-AOS929

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale computer experiments are becoming increasingly important in science. A multi-step procedure is introduced to statisticians for modeling such experiments, which builds an accurate interpolator in multiple steps. In practice, the procedure shows substantial improvements in overall accuracy, but its theoretical properties are not well established. We introduce the terms nominal and numeric error and decompose the overall error of an interpolator into nominal and numeric portions. Bounds on the numeric and nominal error are developed to show theoretically that substantial gains in overall accuracy can be attained with the multi-step approach.

  8. Large-scale computing techniques for complex system simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Dubitzky, Werner; Schott, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Complex systems modeling and simulation approaches are being adopted in a growing number of sectors, including finance, economics, biology, astronomy, and many more. Technologies ranging from distributed computing to specialized hardware are explored and developed to address the computational requirements arising in complex systems simulations. The aim of this book is to present a representative overview of contemporary large-scale computing technologies in the context of complex systems simulations applications. The intention is to identify new research directions in this field and

  9. Application of methanol synthesis reactor to large-scale plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Ren; XU Rong-liang; LOU Shou-lin

    2006-01-01

    The developing status of world large-scale methanol production technology is analyzed and Linda's JW low-pressure methanol synthesis reactor with uniform temperature is described. JW serial reactors have been successfully introduced in and applied in Harbin Gasification Plant and the productivity has been increased by 50% and now nine sets of equipments are successfully running in Harbin Gasification Plant,Jiangsu Xinya, Shandong Kenli,Henan Zhongyuan, Handan Xinyangguang,' Shanxi Weihua and Inner Mongolia Tianye. Now it has manufacturing the reactors of 300,000 t/a for Liaoning Dahua. Some solutions for the structure problems of 1000 ~5000 t/d methanol synthesis rectors are put forward.

  10. Large-scale magnetic fields from inflation in teleparallel gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bamba, Kazuharu; Luo, Ling-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Generation of large-scale magnetic fields in inflationary cosmology is studied in teleparallelism, where instead of the scalar curvature in general relativity, the torsion scalar describes the gravity theory. In particular, we investigate a coupling of the electromagnetic field to the torsion scalar during inflation, which leads to the breaking of conformal invariance of the electromagnetic field. We demonstrate that for a power-law type coupling, the current magnetic field strength of $\\sim 10^{-9}$ G on 1 Mpc scale can be generated, if the backreaction effects and strong coupling problem are not taken into consideration.

  11. An Evaluation Framework for Large-Scale Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jens Myrup; Knudsen, Thomas Phillip; Madsen, Ole Brun

    2004-01-01

    structure is a matter of trade-offs between different desired properties, and given a specific case with specific known or expected demands and constraints, the parameters presented will be weighted differently. The decision of such a weighting is supported by a discussion of each parameter. The paper......An evaluation framework for large-scale network structures is presented, which facilitates evaluations and comparisons of different physical network structures. A number of quantitative and qualitative parameters are presented, and their importance to networks discussed. Choosing a network...

  12. Large scale solar cooling plants in America, Asia and Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, Christian; Olsacher, Nicole [S.O.L.I.D. GmbH, Graz (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Large scale solar cooling plants with an area between 120 - 1600 m{sup 2} are representative examples to illustrate S.O.L.I.D.'s experiences. The selected three reference solar cooling plants are located on three different continents: America, Asia and Europe. Every region has different framework conditions and its unforeseen challenges but professional experience and innovative ideas form the basis that each plant is operating well and satisfying the customer's demand. This verifies that solar cooling already is a proven technology. (orig.)

  13. Simple Method for Large-Scale Fabrication of Plasmonic Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Makarov, Sergey V; Mukhin, Ivan S; Shishkin, Ivan I; Mozharov, Alexey M; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2015-01-01

    A novel method for single-step, lithography-free, and large-scale laser writing of nanoparticle-based plasmonic structures has been developed. Changing energy of femtosecond laser pulses and thickness of irradiated gold film it is possible to vary diameter of the gold nanoparticles, while the distance between them can be varied by laser scanning parameters. This method has an advantage over the most previously demonstrated methods in its simplicity and versatility, while the quality of the structures is good enough for many applications. In particular, resonant light absorbtion/scattering and surface-enhanced Raman scattering have been demonstrated on the fabricated nanostructures.

  14. Large Scale Composite Manufacturing for Heavy Lift Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavana, Jacob; Cohen, Leslie J.; Houseal, Keth; Pelham, Larry; Lort, Richard; Zimmerman, Thomas; Sutter, James; Western, Mike; Harper, Robert; Stuart, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Risk reduction for the large scale composite manufacturing is an important goal to produce light weight components for heavy lift launch vehicles. NASA and an industry team successfully employed a building block approach using low-cost Automated Tape Layup (ATL) of autoclave and Out-of-Autoclave (OoA) prepregs. Several large, curved sandwich panels were fabricated at HITCO Carbon Composites. The aluminum honeycomb core sandwich panels are segments of a 1/16th arc from a 10 meter cylindrical barrel. Lessons learned highlight the manufacturing challenges required to produce light weight composite structures such as fairings for heavy lift launch vehicles.

  15. Petascale computations for Large-scale Atomic and Molecular collisions

    CERN Document Server

    McLaughlin, Brendan M

    2014-01-01

    Petaflop architectures are currently being utilized efficiently to perform large scale computations in Atomic, Molecular and Optical Collisions. We solve the Schroedinger or Dirac equation for the appropriate collision problem using the R-matrix or R-matrix with pseudo-states approach. We briefly outline the parallel methodology used and implemented for the current suite of Breit-Pauli and DARC codes. Various examples are shown of our theoretical results compared with those obtained from Synchrotron Radiation facilities and from Satellite observations. We also indicate future directions and implementation of the R-matrix codes on emerging GPU architectures.

  16. An iterative decoupling solution method for large scale Lyapunov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, T. M.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the numerical solution of the Lyapunov equation. A useful classification of the variety of solution techniques are the groupings of direct, transformation, and iterative methods. The paper summarizes those methods that are at least partly favorable numerically, giving special attention to two criteria: exploitation of a general sparse system matrix structure and efficiency in resolving the governing linear matrix equation for different matrices. An iterative decoupling solution method is proposed as a promising approach for solving large-scale Lyapunov equation when the system matrix exhibits a general sparse structure. A Fortran computer program that realizes the iterative decoupling algorithm is also discussed.

  17. Large-Scale Self-Consistent Nuclear Mass Calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Stoitsov, M V; Dobaczewski, J; Nazarewicz, W

    2006-01-01

    The program of systematic large-scale self-consistent nuclear mass calculations that is based on the nuclear density functional theory represents a rich scientific agenda that is closely aligned with the main research directions in modern nuclear structure and astrophysics, especially the radioactive nuclear beam physics. The quest for the microscopic understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear binding represents, in fact, a number of fundamental and crucial questions of the quantum many-body problem, including the proper treatment of correlations and dynamics in the presence of symmetry breaking. Recent advances and open problems in the field of nuclear mass calculations are presented and discussed.

  18. Generation of large-scale winds in horizontally anisotropic convection

    CERN Document Server

    von Hardenberg, J; Provenzale, A; Spiegel, E A

    2015-01-01

    We simulate three-dimensional, horizontally periodic Rayleigh-B\\'enard convection between free-slip horizontal plates, rotating about a horizontal axis. When both the temperature difference between the plates and the rotation rate are sufficiently large, a strong horizontal wind is generated that is perpendicular to both the rotation vector and the gravity vector. The wind is turbulent, large-scale, and vertically sheared. Horizontal anisotropy, engendered here by rotation, appears necessary for such wind generation. Most of the kinetic energy of the flow resides in the wind, and the vertical turbulent heat flux is much lower on average than when there is no wind.

  19. Large-Scale Agriculture and Outgrower Schemes in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    , whereas Chapter 4 indicates that sugarcane outgrowers’ easy access to credit and technology and their high productivity compared to the plantation does not necessarily improve their income and asset stocks particularly when participation in outgrower schemes is mandatory, the buyer has monopsony market...... commands a higher wage than ‘formal’ large-scale agriculture, while rather different wage determination mechanisms exist in the two sectors. Human capital characteristics (education and experience) partly explain the differences in wages within the formal sector, but play no significant role...

  20. Structure and function of large-scale brain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Leonard F; Barker, Lauren A; Joyce, Arthur W; Hrin, Skip

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces the functional neuroanatomy of large-scale brain systems. Both the structure and functions of these brain networks are presented. All human behavior is the result of interactions within and between these brain systems. This system of brain function completely changes our understanding of how cognition and behavior are organized within the brain, replacing the traditional lesion model. Understanding behavior within the context of brain network interactions has profound implications for modifying abstract constructs such as attention, learning, and memory. These constructs also must be understood within the framework of a paradigm shift, which emphasizes ongoing interactions within a dynamically changing environment.

  1. Clusters as cornerstones of large-scale structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlöber, S.; Retzlaff, J.; Turchaninov, V.

    1997-04-01

    Galaxy clusters are one of the best tracers of large-scale structure in the Universe on scales well above 100 Mpc. The authors investigate here the clustering properties of a redshift sample of Abell/ACO clusters and compare the observational sample with mock samples constructed from N-body simulations on the basis of four different cosmological models. The authors discuss the power spectrum, the Minkowski functionals and the void statistics of these samples and conclude, that the SCDM and TCDM models are ruled out whereas the ACDM and BSI models are in agreement with the observational data.

  2. Active power reserves evaluation in large scale PVPPs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crăciun, Bogdan-Ionut; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2013-01-01

    contribute to the total amount of Frequency Containment Reserves (FCR) required by TSOs, reserves which are released during transients. To realize this PVPPs have to operate below their maximum available power and operate in Frequency Sensitive Mode (FSM). The reserve can also be used to fulfill future grid...... of the ancillary services have to be shared by the renewable plants. The main focus of the proposed paper is to technically and economically analyze the possibility of having active power reserves in large scale PV power plants (PVPPs) without any auxiliary storage equipment. The provided reserves should...... codes (GCs) requirements such as Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) during high slopes of irradiance....

  3. Cost Overruns in Large-scale Transportation Infrastructure Projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantarelli, Chantal C; Flyvbjerg, Bent; Molin, Eric J. E

    2010-01-01

    Managing large-scale transportation infrastructure projects is difficult due to frequent misinformation about the costs which results in large cost overruns that often threaten the overall project viability. This paper investigates the explanations for cost overruns that are given in the literature....... Overall, four categories of explanations can be distinguished: technical, economic, psychological, and political. Political explanations have been seen to be the most dominant explanations for cost overruns. Agency theory is considered the most interesting for political explanations and an eclectic theory...

  4. Highly Scalable Trip Grouping for Large Scale Collective Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Risch, Tore

    2008-01-01

    Transportation-related problems, like road congestion, parking, and pollution, are increasing in most cities. In order to reduce traffic, recent work has proposed methods for vehicle sharing, for example for sharing cabs by grouping "closeby" cab requests and thus minimizing transportation cost...... and utilizing cab space. However, the methods published so far do not scale to large data volumes, which is necessary to facilitate large-scale collective transportation systems, e.g., ride-sharing systems for large cities. This paper presents highly scalable trip grouping algorithms, which generalize previous...

  5. Facilitating dynamo action via control of large-scale turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limone, A; Hatch, D R; Forest, C B; Jenko, F

    2012-12-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect is considered to be the major cause of magnetic field generation in geo- and astrophysical systems. Recent experimental and numerical results show that turbulence constitutes an obstacle to dynamos; yet its role in this context is not totally clear. Via numerical simulations, we identify large-scale turbulent vortices with a detrimental effect on the amplification of the magnetic field in a geometry of experimental interest and propose a strategy for facilitating the dynamo instability by manipulating these detrimental "hidden" dynamics.

  6. Large-Scale Patterns of Filament Channels and Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Duncan

    2016-07-01

    In this review the properties and large-scale patterns of filament channels and filaments will be considered. Initially, the global formation locations of filament channels and filaments are discussed, along with their hemispheric pattern. Next, observations of the formation of filament channels and filaments are described where two opposing views are considered. Finally, the wide range of models that have been constructed to consider the formation of filament channels and filaments over long time-scales are described, along with the origin of the hemispheric pattern of filaments.

  7. Modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2012-01-01

    , among which radiative heat transfer under oxy-fuel conditions is one of the fundamental issues. This paper demonstrates the nongray-gas effects in modeling of large-scale oxy-fuel combustion processes. Oxy-fuel combustion of natural gas in a 609MW utility boiler is numerically studied, in which....... The simulation results show that the gray and non-gray calculations of the same oxy-fuel WSGGM make distinctly different predictions in the wall radiative heat transfer, incident radiative flux, radiative source, gas temperature and species profiles. In relative to the non-gray implementation, the gray...

  8. Adiabatic hyperspherical approach to large-scale nuclear dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a fully microscopic approach to large-scale nuclear dynamics using a hyperradius as a collective coordinate. An adiabatic potential is defined by taking account of all possible configurations at a fixed hyperradius, and its hyperradius dependence plays a key role in governing the global nuclear motion. In order to go to larger systems beyond few-body systems, we suggest basis functions of a microscopic multicluster model, propose a method for calculating matrix elements of an adiabatic Hamiltonian with use of Fourier transforms, and test its effectiveness.

  9. Laser Welding of Large Scale Stainless Steel Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitemeyer, D.; Schultz, V.; Syassen, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In this paper a welding process for large scale stainless steel structures is presented. The process was developed according to the requirements of an aircraft application. Therefore, stringers are welded on a skin sheet in a t-joint configuration. The 0.6 mm thickness parts are welded with a thin disc laser, seam length up to 1920 mm are demonstrated. The welding process causes angular distortions of the skin sheet which are compensated by a subsequent laser straightening process. Based on a model straightening process parameters matching the induced welding distortion are predicted. The process combination is successfully applied to stringer stiffened specimens.

  10. Less is more: regularization perspectives on large scale machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Deep learning based techniques provide a possible solution at the expanse of theoretical guidance and, especially, of computational requirements. It is then a key challenge for large scale machine learning to devise approaches guaranteed to be accurate and yet computationally efficient. In this talk, we will consider a regularization perspectives on machine learning appealing to classical ideas in linear algebra and inverse problems to scale-up dramatically nonparametric methods such as kernel methods, often dismissed because of prohibitive costs. Our analysis derives optimal theoretical guarantees while providing experimental results at par or out-performing state of the art approaches.

  11. Search for Large Scale Anisotropies with the Pierre Auger Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonino, R.; Pierre Auger Collaboration

    The Pierre Auger Observatory studies the nature and the origin of Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays (>3\\cdot1018 eV). Completed at the end of 2008, it has been continuously operating for more than six years. Using data collected from 1 January 2004 until 31 March 2009, we search for large scale anisotropies with two complementary analyses in different energy windows. No significant anisotropies are observed, resulting in bounds on the first harmonic amplitude at the 1% level at EeV energies.

  12. Inflation in de Sitter spacetime and CMB large scales anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Dong; Wang, Ping; Chang, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The influence of cosmological constant type dark energy in the early universe is investigated. This is accommodated by a new dispersion relation in de Sitter spacetime. We perform a global fitting to explore the cosmological parameters space by using the CosmoMC package with the recently released Planck TT and WMAP Polarization datasets. Using the results from global fitting, we compute a new CMB temperature-temperature spectrum. The obtained TT spectrum has lower power compared with the one based on $\\Lambda$CDM model at large scales.

  13. Destruction of Be star disk by large scale magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ud-Doula, Asif; Owocki, Stanley P.; Kee, Nathaniel; Vanyo, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Classical Be stars are rapidly rotating stars with circumstellar disks that come and go on time scale of years. Recent observational data strongly suggests that these stars lack the ~10% incidence of global magnetic fields observed in other main-sequence B stars. Such an apparent lack of magnetic fields may indicate that Be disks are fundamentally incompatible with a significant large scale magnetic field. In this work, using numerical magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations, we show that a dipole field of only 100G can lead to the quick disruption of a Be disk. Such a limit is in line with the observational upper limits for these objects.

  14. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Chih Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable.

  15. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  16. An Atmospheric Large-Scale Cold Plasma Jet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓桂; 任春生; 马腾才; 冯岩; 王德真

    2012-01-01

    This letter reports on the generation and characteristics of a large-scale dielectric barrier discharge plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. With appropriate parameters, diffuse plasma with a 50×5 mm2 cross-sectional area is obtained. The characteristics of the discharges are diag- nosed by using electrical and optical methods. In addition to being generated in helium, plasma is also generated in a mixed gas of helium and oxygen. The oxygen atomic radiant intensity (3p5P→ 3s5S, 3p3P→3s3S transition) is not proportional to the proportion of oxygen in the gas mixture, as shown by the experimental results.

  17. An iterative decoupling solution method for large scale Lyapunov equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athay, T. M.; Sandell, N. R., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    A great deal of attention has been given to the numerical solution of the Lyapunov equation. A useful classification of the variety of solution techniques are the groupings of direct, transformation, and iterative methods. The paper summarizes those methods that are at least partly favorable numerically, giving special attention to two criteria: exploitation of a general sparse system matrix structure and efficiency in resolving the governing linear matrix equation for different matrices. An iterative decoupling solution method is proposed as a promising approach for solving large-scale Lyapunov equation when the system matrix exhibits a general sparse structure. A Fortran computer program that realizes the iterative decoupling algorithm is also discussed.

  18. Large-Scale Graph Processing Using Apache Giraph

    KAUST Repository

    Sakr, Sherif

    2017-01-07

    This book takes its reader on a journey through Apache Giraph, a popular distributed graph processing platform designed to bring the power of big data processing to graph data. Designed as a step-by-step self-study guide for everyone interested in large-scale graph processing, it describes the fundamental abstractions of the system, its programming models and various techniques for using the system to process graph data at scale, including the implementation of several popular and advanced graph analytics algorithms.

  19. Large-scale biophysical evaluation of protein PEGylation effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vernet, Erik; Popa, Gina; Pozdnyakova, Irina

    2016-01-01

    PEGylation is the most widely used method to chemically modify protein biopharmaceuticals, but surprisingly limited public data is available on the biophysical effects of protein PEGylation. Here we report the first large-scale study, with site-specific mono-PEGylation of 15 different proteins...... and characterization of 61 entities in total using a common set of analytical methods. Predictions of molecular size were typically accurate in comparison with actual size determined by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) or dynamic light scattering (DLS). In contrast, there was no universal trend regarding the effect...

  20. Optimization of large scale food production using Lean Manufacturing principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Eva Høy; Friis, Alan; Breum, Gitte

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses how the production principles of Lean Manufacturing (Lean) can be applied in a large-scale meal production. Lean principles are briefly presented, followed by a field study of how a kitchen at a Danish hospital has implemented Lean in the daily production. In the kitchen...... not be negatively affected by the rationalisation of production procedures. The field study shows that Lean principles can be applied in meal production and can result in increased production efficiency and systematic improvement of product quality without negative effects on the working environment. The results...... show that Lean can be applied and used to manage the production of meals in the kitchen....

  1. Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stopczynski, Arkadiusz; Sekara, Vedran; Sapiezynski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    , telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation......This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years-the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions...

  2. Quantum computation for large-scale image classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yue; Chen, Hanwu; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi

    2016-10-01

    Due to the lack of an effective quantum feature extraction method, there is currently no effective way to perform quantum image classification or recognition. In this paper, for the first time, a global quantum feature extraction method based on Schmidt decomposition is proposed. A revised quantum learning algorithm is also proposed that will classify images by computing the Hamming distance of these features. From the experimental results derived from the benchmark database Caltech 101, and an analysis of the algorithm, an effective approach to large-scale image classification is derived and proposed against the background of big data.

  3. Comparative analysis reveals conserved protein phosphorylation networks implicated in multiple diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tan, Chris Soon Heng; Bodenmiller, Bernd; Pasculescu, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    approximately 600 million years of evolution and hence are likely to be involved in fundamental cellular processes. This sequence-alignment analysis suggested that many phosphorylation sites evolve rapidly and therefore do not display strong evolutionary conservation in terms of sequence position in distantly...... related organisms. Thus, we devised a network-alignment approach to reconstruct conserved kinase-substrate networks, which identified 778 phosphorylation events in 698 human proteins. Both methods identified proteins tightly regulated by phosphorylation as well as signal integration hubs, and both types...... of phosphoproteins were enriched in proteins encoded by disease-associated genes. We analyzed the cellular functions and structural relationships for these conserved signaling events, noting the incomplete nature of current phosphoproteomes. Assessing phosphorylation conservation at both site and network levels...

  4. Simulating the Large-Scale Structure of HI Intensity Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Seehars, Sebastian; Witzemann, Amadeus; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Akeret, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen (HI) is a promising observational probe of cosmology and large-scale structure. We present wide field simulations of HI intensity maps based on N-body simulations, the halo model, and a phenomenological prescription for assigning HI mass to halos. The simulations span a redshift range of 0.35 < z < 0.9 in redshift bins of width $\\Delta z \\approx 0.05$ and cover a quarter of the sky at an angular resolution of about 7'. We use the simulated intensity maps to study the impact of non-linear effects on the angular clustering of HI. We apply and compare several estimators for the angular power spectrum and its covariance. We verify that they agree with analytic predictions on large scales and study the validity of approximations based on Gaussian random fields, particularly in the context of the covariance. We discuss how our results and the simulated maps can be useful for planning and interpreting future HI intensity mapping surveys.

  5. Simulating the large-scale structure of HI intensity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehars, Sebastian; Paranjape, Aseem; Witzemann, Amadeus; Refregier, Alexandre; Amara, Adam; Akeret, Joel

    2016-03-01

    Intensity mapping of neutral hydrogen (HI) is a promising observational probe of cosmology and large-scale structure. We present wide field simulations of HI intensity maps based on N-body simulations of a 2.6 Gpc / h box with 20483 particles (particle mass 1.6 × 1011 Msolar / h). Using a conditional mass function to populate the simulated dark matter density field with halos below the mass resolution of the simulation (108 Msolar / h assign HI to those halos according to a phenomenological halo to HI mass relation. The simulations span a redshift range of 0.35 lesssim z lesssim 0.9 in redshift bins of width Δ z ≈ 0.05 and cover a quarter of the sky at an angular resolution of about 7'. We use the simulated intensity maps to study the impact of non-linear effects and redshift space distortions on the angular clustering of HI. Focusing on the autocorrelations of the maps, we apply and compare several estimators for the angular power spectrum and its covariance. We verify that these estimators agree with analytic predictions on large scales and study the validity of approximations based on Gaussian random fields, particularly in the context of the covariance. We discuss how our results and the simulated maps can be useful for planning and interpreting future HI intensity mapping surveys.

  6. Large-scale stabilization control of input-constrained quadrotor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The quadrotor has been the most popular aircraft in the last decade due to its excellent dynamics and continues to attract ever-increasing research interest. Delivering a quadrotor from a large fixed-wing aircraft is a promising application of quadrotors. In such an application, the quadrotor needs to switch from a highly unstable status, featured as large initial states, to a safe and stable flight status. This is the so-called large-scale stability control problem. In such an extreme scenario, the quadrotor is at risk of actuator saturation. This can cause the controller to update incorrectly and lead the quadrotor to spiral and crash. In this article, to safely control the quadrotor in such scenarios, the control input constraint is analyzed. The key states of a quadrotor dynamic model are selected, and a two-dimensional dynamic model is extracted based on a symmetrical body configuration. A generalized point-wise min-norm nonlinear control method is proposed based on the Lyapunov function, and large-scale stability control is hence achieved. An enhanced point-wise, min-norm control is further provided to improve the attitude control performance, with altitude performance degenerating slightly. Simulation results showed that the proposed control methods can stabilize the input-constrained quadrotor and the enhanced method can improve the performance of the quadrotor in critical states.

  7. Maestro: an orchestration framework for large-scale WSN simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riliskis, Laurynas; Osipov, Evgeny

    2014-03-18

    Contemporary wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have evolved into large and complex systems and are one of the main technologies used in cyber-physical systems and the Internet of Things. Extensive research on WSNs has led to the development of diverse solutions at all levels of software architecture, including protocol stacks for communications. This multitude of solutions is due to the limited computational power and restrictions on energy consumption that must be accounted for when designing typical WSN systems. It is therefore challenging to develop, test and validate even small WSN applications, and this process can easily consume significant resources. Simulations are inexpensive tools for testing, verifying and generally experimenting with new technologies in a repeatable fashion. Consequently, as the size of the systems to be tested increases, so does the need for large-scale simulations. This article describes a tool called Maestro for the automation of large-scale simulation and investigates the feasibility of using cloud computing facilities for such task. Using tools that are built into Maestro, we demonstrate a feasible approach for benchmarking cloud infrastructure in order to identify cloud Virtual Machine (VM)instances that provide an optimal balance of performance and cost for a given simulation.

  8. Large-scale mapping of mutations affecting zebrafish development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhauss Stephan C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale mutagenesis screens in the zebrafish employing the mutagen ENU have isolated several hundred mutant loci that represent putative developmental control genes. In order to realize the potential of such screens, systematic genetic mapping of the mutations is necessary. Here we report on a large-scale effort to map the mutations generated in mutagenesis screening at the Max Planck Institute for Developmental Biology by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. Results We have selected a set of microsatellite markers and developed methods and scoring criteria suitable for efficient, high-throughput genome scanning. We have used these methods to successfully obtain a rough map position for 319 mutant loci from the Tübingen I mutagenesis screen and subsequent screening of the mutant collection. For 277 of these the corresponding gene is not yet identified. Mapping was successful for 80 % of the tested loci. By comparing 21 mutation and gene positions of cloned mutations we have validated the correctness of our linkage group assignments and estimated the standard error of our map positions to be approximately 6 cM. Conclusion By obtaining rough map positions for over 300 zebrafish loci with developmental phenotypes, we have generated a dataset that will be useful not only for cloning of the affected genes, but also to suggest allelism of mutations with similar phenotypes that will be identified in future screens. Furthermore this work validates the usefulness of our methodology for rapid, systematic and inexpensive microsatellite mapping of zebrafish mutations.

  9. The effective field theory of cosmological large scale structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrasco, John Joseph M. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); Hertzberg, Mark P. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Large scale structure surveys will likely become the next leading cosmological probe. In our universe, matter perturbations are large on short distances and small at long scales, i.e. strongly coupled in the UV and weakly coupled in the IR. To make precise analytical predictions on large scales, we develop an effective field theory formulated in terms of an IR effective fluid characterized by several parameters, such as speed of sound and viscosity. These parameters, determined by the UV physics described by the Boltzmann equation, are measured from N-body simulations. We find that the speed of sound of the effective fluid is c2s ≈ 10–6c2 and that the viscosity contributions are of the same order. The fluid describes all the relevant physics at long scales k and permits a manifestly convergent perturbative expansion in the size of the matter perturbations δ(k) for all the observables. As an example, we calculate the correction to the power spectrum at order δ(k)4. As a result, the predictions of the effective field theory are found to be in much better agreement with observation than standard cosmological perturbation theory, already reaching percent precision at this order up to a relatively short scale k ≃ 0.24h Mpc–1.

  10. Large Scale Land Acquisition as a driver of slope instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Chiarelli, Davide; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Davis, Kyle F.; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Forests play a key role in preventing shallow landslides and deforestation has been analyzed as one of the main causes of increased mass wasting in hillsplopes undergoing land cover change. In the last few years vast tracts of lands have been acquired by foreign investors to satisfy an increasing demand for agricultural products. Large Scale Land Acquisitions (LSLA) often entail the conversion of forested landscapes into agricultural fields. Mozambique has been a major target of LSLAs and there is evidence that many of the acquired land have recently undergone forest clearing. The Zambezia Province in Mozambique has lost more than 500000ha of forest from 2000 to 2014; 25.4% of them were in areas acquired by large scale land investors. According to Land Matrix, an open-source database of reported land deals, there are currently 123 intended and confirmed deals in Mozambique; collectively, they account for 2.34million ha, the majority of which are located in forested areas. This study analyses the relationship between deforestation taking place inside LSLA areas(usually for agricultural purpose) and the likelihood of landslides occurrence in the Zambezia province in Mozambique. To this aim we use a spatially distributed and physically based model that couples slope stability analysis with a hillslope scale hydrological model and we compare the change in slope stability associated the forest loss documented by satellite imagery.

  11. High Speed Networking and Large-scale Simulation in Geodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Weijia; Gary, Patrick; Seablom, Michael; Truszkowski, Walt; Odubiyi, Jide; Jiang, Weiyuan; Liu, Dong

    2004-01-01

    Large-scale numerical simulation has been one of the most important approaches for understanding global geodynamical processes. In this approach, peta-scale floating point operations (pflops) are often required to carry out a single physically-meaningful numerical experiment. For example, to model convective flow in the Earth's core and generation of the geomagnetic field (geodynamo), simulation for one magnetic free-decay time (approximately 15000 years) with a modest resolution of 150 in three spatial dimensions would require approximately 0.2 pflops. If such a numerical model is used to predict geomagnetic secular variation over decades and longer, with e.g. an ensemble Kalman filter assimilation approach, approximately 30 (and perhaps more) independent simulations of similar scales would be needed for one data assimilation analysis. Obviously, such a simulation would require an enormous computing resource that exceeds the capacity of a single facility currently available at our disposal. One solution is to utilize a very fast network (e.g. 10Gb optical networks) and available middleware (e.g. Globus Toolkit) to allocate available but often heterogeneous resources for such large-scale computing efforts. At NASA GSFC, we are experimenting with such an approach by networking several clusters for geomagnetic data assimilation research. We shall present our initial testing results in the meeting.

  12. Literature Review: Herbal Medicine Treatment after Large-Scale Disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Shin; Kaneko, Soichiro; Numata, Takehiro; Kamiya, Tetsuharu; Arita, Ryutaro; Saito, Natsumi; Kikuchi, Akiko; Ohsawa, Minoru; Kohayagawa, Yoshitaka; Ishii, Tadashi

    2017-09-27

    Large-scale natural disasters, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and typhoons, occur worldwide. After the Great East Japan earthquake and tsunami, our medical support operation's experiences suggested that traditional medicine might be useful for treating the various symptoms of the survivors. However, little information is available regarding herbal medicine treatment in such situations. Considering that further disasters will occur, we performed a literature review and summarized the traditional medicine approaches for treatment after large-scale disasters. We searched PubMed and Cochrane Library for articles written in English, and Ichushi for those written in Japanese. Articles published before 31 March 2016 were included. Keywords "disaster" and "herbal medicine" were used in our search. Among studies involving herbal medicine after a disaster, we found two randomized controlled trials investigating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), three retrospective investigations of trauma or common diseases, and seven case series or case reports of dizziness, pain, and psychosomatic symptoms. In conclusion, herbal medicine has been used to treat trauma, PTSD, and other symptoms after disasters. However, few articles have been published, likely due to the difficulty in designing high quality studies in such situations. Further study will be needed to clarify the usefulness of herbal medicine after disasters.

  13. The effect of large scale inhomogeneities on the luminosity distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Eleftheria

    2007-02-01

    We study the form of the luminosity distance as a function of redshift in the presence of large scale inhomogeneities, with sizes of order 10 Mpc or larger. We approximate the Universe through the Swiss-cheese model, with each spherical region described by the Lemaitre Tolman Bondi metric. We study the propagation of light beams in this background, assuming that the locations of the source and the observer are random. We derive the optical equations for the evolution of the beam area and shear. Through their integration we determine the configurations that can lead to an increase of the luminosity distance relative to the homogeneous cosmology. We find that this can be achieved if the Universe is composed of spherical void-like regions, with matter concentrated near their surface. For inhomogeneities consistent with the observed large scale structure, the relative increase of the luminosity distance is of the order of a few per cent at redshifts near 1, and falls short of explaining the substantial increase required by the supernova data. On the other hand, the effect we describe is important for the correct determination of the energy content of the Universe from observations.

  14. Large Scale and Performance tests of the ATLAS Online Software

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandrov; H.Wolters; 等

    2001-01-01

    One of the sub-systems of the Trigger/DAQ system of the future ATLAS experiment is the Online Software system.It encompasses the functionality needed to configure,control and monitor the DAQ.Its architecture is based on a component structure described in the ATLAS Trigger/DAQ technical proposal.Resular integration tests ensure its smooth operation in test beam setups during its evolutionary development towards the final ATLAS online system.Feedback is received and returned into the development process.Studies of the system.behavior have been performed on a set of up to 111 PCs on a configuration which is getting closer to the final size,Large scale and performance tests of the integrated system were performed on this setup with emphasis on investigating the aspects of the inter-dependence of the components and the performance of the communication software.Of particular interest were the run control state transitions in various configurations of the run control hierarchy.For the purpose of the tests,the software from other Trigger/DAQ sub-systems has been emulated.This paper presents a brief overview of the online system structure,its components and the large scale integration tests and their results.

  15. Modulation of energetic coherent motions by large-scale topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Wing; Hamed, Ali M.; Troolin, Dan; Chamorro, Leonardo P.

    2016-11-01

    The distinctive characteristics and dynamics of the large-scale coherent motions induced over 2D and 3D large-scale wavy walls were explored experimentally with time-resolved volumetric PIV, and selected wall-normal high-resolution stereo PIV in a refractive-index-matching channel. The 2D wall consists of a sinusoidal wave in the streamwise direction with amplitude to wavelength ratio a/ λx = 0.05, while the 3D wall has an additional wave in the spanwise direction with a/ λy = 0.1. The ?ow was characterized at Re 8000, based on the bulk velocity and the channel half height. The walls are such that the amplitude to boundary layer thickness ratio is a/ δ99 0.1, which resemble geophysical-like topography. Insight on the dynamics of the coherent motions, Reynolds stress and spatial interaction of sweep and ejection events will be discussed in terms of the wall topography modulation.

  16. Large Scale Organization of a Near Wall Turbulent Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislas, Michel; Dekou Tiomajou, Raoul Florent; Foucaut, Jean Marc

    2016-11-01

    This study lies in the context of large scale coherent structures investigation in a near wall turbulent boundary layer. An experimental database at high Reynolds numbers (Re θ = 9830 and Re θ = 19660) was obtained in the LML wind tunnel with stereo-PIV at 4 Hz and hot wire anemometry at 30 kHz. A Linear Stochastic Estimation procedure, is used to reconstruct a 3 component field resolved in space and time. Algorithms were developed to extract coherent structures from the reconstructed field. A sample of 3D view of the structures is depicted in Figure 1. Uniform momentum regions are characterized with their mean hydraulic diameter in the YZ plane, their life time and their contribution to Reynolds stresses. The vortical motions are characterized by their position, radius, circulation and vorticity in addition to their life time and their number computed at a fixed position from the wall. The spatial organization of the structures was investigated through a correlation of their respective indicative functions in the spanwise direction. The simplified large scale model that arise is compared to the ones available in the literature. Streamwise low (green) and high (yellow) uniform momentum regions with positive (red) and negative (blue) vortical motions. This work was supported by Campus International pour la Sécurité et l'Intermodalité des Transports.

  17. Large-scale direct shear testing of geocell reinforced soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The tests on the shear property of geocell reinforced soils were carried out by using large-scale direct shear equipment with shear-box-dimensions of 500 mm×500 mm×400 mm (length×width×height).Three types of specimens,silty gravel soil,geoceli reinforced silty gravel soil and geoceli reinforood cement stabilizing silty gravel soil were used to investigate the shear stress-displacement behavior,the shear strength and the strengthening mechanism of geocell reinforced soils.The comparisons of large-scale shear test with triaxial compression test for the same type of soil were conducted to evaluate the influences of testing method on the shear strength as well.The test results show that the unreinforced soil and geocell reinforced soil give similar nonlinear features on the behavior of shear stress and displacement.The geocell reinforced cement stabilizing soil has a quasi-elastic characteristic in the case of normal stress coming up to 1.0 GPa.The tests with the reinforcement of geocell result in an increase of 244% in cohesion,and the tests with the geocell and the cement stabilization result in an increase of 10 times in cohesion compared with the unreinforced soil.The friction angle does not change markedly.The geocell reinforcement develops a large amount of cohesion on the shear strength of soils.

  18. Brief Mental Training Reorganizes Large-Scale Brain Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Yan; Tang, Rongxiang; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training-mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training-integrative body-mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies. Whole brain rsfMRI was performed on an undergraduate group who received 2 weeks of IBMT with 30 min per session (5 h training in total). Classifiers were trained on measures of functional connectivity in this fMRI data, and they were able to reliably differentiate (with 72% accuracy) patterns of connectivity from before vs. after the IBMT training. After training, an increase in positive functional connections (60 connections) were detected, primarily involving bilateral superior/middle occipital gyrus, bilateral frontale operculum, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right superior temporal pole, bilateral insula, caudate and cerebellum. These results suggest that brief mental training alters the functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks at rest that may involve a portion of the neural circuitry supporting attention, cognitive and affective processing, awareness and sensory integration and reward processing.

  19. Large-scale Direct Targeting for Drug Repositioning and Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chunli; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Wu, Ziyin; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Fu, Yingxue; Ru, Jinlong; Ali Shar, Piar; Wang, Yuan; Wang, Yonghua

    2015-01-01

    A system-level identification of drug-target direct interactions is vital to drug repositioning and discovery. However, the biological means on a large scale remains challenging and expensive even nowadays. The available computational models mainly focus on predicting indirect interactions or direct interactions on a small scale. To address these problems, in this work, a novel algorithm termed weighted ensemble similarity (WES) has been developed to identify drug direct targets based on a large-scale of 98,327 drug-target relationships. WES includes: (1) identifying the key ligand structural features that are highly-related to the pharmacological properties in a framework of ensemble; (2) determining a drug’s affiliation of a target by evaluation of the overall similarity (ensemble) rather than a single ligand judgment; and (3) integrating the standardized ensemble similarities (Z score) by Bayesian network and multi-variate kernel approach to make predictions. All these lead WES to predict drug direct targets with external and experimental test accuracies of 70% and 71%, respectively. This shows that the WES method provides a potential in silico model for drug repositioning and discovery. PMID:26155766

  20. Large-scale magnetic fields in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2013-02-22

    High Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamic turbulence in the presence of zero-flux large-scale magnetic fields is investigated as a function of the magnetic field strength. For a variety of flow configurations, the energy dissipation rate [symbol: see text] follows the scaling [Symbol: see text] proportional U(rms)(3)/ℓ even when the large-scale magnetic field energy is twenty times larger than the kinetic energy. A further increase of the magnetic energy showed a transition to the [Symbol: see text] proportional U(rms)(2) B(rms)/ℓ scaling implying that magnetic shear becomes more efficient at this point at cascading the energy than the velocity fluctuations. Strongly helical configurations form nonturbulent helicity condensates that deviate from these scalings. Weak turbulence scaling was absent from the investigation. Finally, the magnetic energy spectra support the Kolmogorov spectrum k(-5/3) while kinetic energy spectra are closer to the Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectrum k(-3/2) as observed in the solar wind.

  1. Using Large Scale Structure to test Multifield Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Simone

    2014-01-01

    Primordial non-Gaussianity of local type is known to produce a scale-dependent contribution to the galaxy bias. Several classes of multi-field inflationary models predict non-Gaussian bias which is stochastic, in the sense that dark matter and halos don't trace each other perfectly on large scales. In this work, we forecast the ability of next-generation Large Scale Structure surveys to constrain common types of primordial non-Gaussianity like $f_{NL}$, $g_{NL}$ and $\\tau_{NL}$ using halo bias, including stochastic contributions. We provide fitting functions for statistical errors on these parameters which can be used for rapid forecasting or survey optimization. A next-generation survey with volume $V = 25 h^{-3}$Mpc$^3$, median redshift $z = 0.7$ and mean bias $b_g = 2.5$, can achieve $\\sigma(f_{NL}) = 6$, $\\sigma(g_{NL}) = 10^5$ and $\\sigma(\\tau_{NL}) = 10^3$ if no mass information is available. If halo masses are available, we show that optimally weighting the halo field in order to reduce sample variance...

  2. Large-scale magnetic topologies of mid-M dwarfs

    CERN Document Server

    Morin, J; Petit, P; Delfosse, X; Forveille, T; Albert, L; Aurière, M; Cabanac, R; Dintrans, B; Fares, R; Gastine, T; Jardine, M M; Lignières, F; Paletou, F; Velez, J C Ramirez; Théado, S

    2008-01-01

    We present in this paper the first results of a spectropolarimetric analysis of a small sample (~ 20) of active stars ranging from spectral type M0 to M8, which are either fully-convective or possess a very small radiative core. This study aims at providing new constraints on dynamo processes in fully-convective stars. The present paper focuses on 5 stars of spectral type ~M4, i.e. with masses close to the full convection threshold (~ 0.35 Msun), and with short rotational periods. Tomographic imaging techniques allow us to reconstruct the surface magnetic topologies from the rotationally modulated time-series of circularly polarised profiles. We fnd that all stars host mainly axisymmetric large-scale poloidal fields. Three stars were observed at two different epochs separated by ~1 yr; we find the magnetic topologies to be globally stable on this timescale. We also provide an accurate estimation of the rotational period of all stars, thus allowing us to start studying how rotation impacts the large-scale magn...

  3. Exploring Cloud Computing for Large-scale Scientific Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Guang; Han, Binh; Yin, Jian; Gorton, Ian

    2013-06-27

    This paper explores cloud computing for large-scale data-intensive scientific applications. Cloud computing is attractive because it provides hardware and software resources on-demand, which relieves the burden of acquiring and maintaining a huge amount of resources that may be used only once by a scientific application. However, unlike typical commercial applications that often just requires a moderate amount of ordinary resources, large-scale scientific applications often need to process enormous amount of data in the terabyte or even petabyte range and require special high performance hardware with low latency connections to complete computation in a reasonable amount of time. To address these challenges, we build an infrastructure that can dynamically select high performance computing hardware across institutions and dynamically adapt the computation to the selected resources to achieve high performance. We have also demonstrated the effectiveness of our infrastructure by building a system biology application and an uncertainty quantification application for carbon sequestration, which can efficiently utilize data and computation resources across several institutions.

  4. The Impact of Large Scale Environments on Cluster Entropy Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trierweiler, Isabella; Su, Yuanyuan

    2017-01-01

    We perform a systematic analysis of 21 clusters imaged by the Suzaku satellite to determine the relation between the richness of cluster environments and entropy at large radii. Entropy profiles for clusters are expected to follow a power-law, but Suzaku observations show that the entropy profiles of many clusters are significantly flattened beyond 0.3 Rvir. While the entropy at the outskirts of clusters is thought to be highly dependent on the large scale cluster environment, the exact nature of the environment/entropy relation is unclear. Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and 6dF Galaxy Survey, we study the 20 Mpc large scale environment for all clusters in our sample. We find no strong relation between the entropy deviations at the virial radius and the total luminosity of the cluster surroundings, indicating that accretion and mergers have a more complex and indirect influence on the properties of the gas at large radii. We see a possible anti-correlation between virial temperature and richness of the cluster environment and find that density excess appears to play a larger role in the entropy flattening than temperature, suggesting that clumps of gas can lower entropy.

  5. Solving Large Scale Structure in Ten Easy Steps with COLA

    CERN Document Server

    Tassev, Svetlin; Eisenstein, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    We present the COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration (COLA) method: an N-body method for solving for Large Scale Structure (LSS) in a frame that is comoving with observers following trajectories calculated in Lagrangian Perturbation Theory (LPT). Unlike standard N-body methods, the COLA method can straightforwardly trade accuracy at small-scales in order to gain computational speed without sacrificing accuracy at large scales. This is especially useful for cheaply generating large ensembles of accurate mock halo catalogs required to study galaxy clustering and weak lensing, as those catalogs are essential for performing detailed error analysis for ongoing and future surveys of LSS. As an illustration, we ran a COLA-based N-body code on a box of size 100Mpc/h with particles of mass ~5*10^9Msolar/h. Running the code with only 10 timesteps was sufficient to obtain an accurate description of halo statistics down to halo masses of at least 10^11Msolar/h. This is only at a modest speed penalty when compared to mocks obt...

  6. IP over optical multicasting for large-scale video delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng; Sun, Weiqiang; Guo, Wei

    2007-11-01

    In the IPTV systems, multicasting will play a crucial role in the delivery of high-quality video services, which can significantly improve bandwidth efficiency. However, the scalability and the signal quality of current IPTV can barely compete with the existing broadcast digital TV systems since it is difficult to implement large-scale multicasting with end-to-end guaranteed quality of service (QoS) in packet-switched IP network. China 3TNet project aimed to build a high performance broadband trial network to support large-scale concurrent streaming media and interactive multimedia services. The innovative idea of 3TNet is that an automatic switched optical networks (ASON) with the capability of dynamic point-to-multipoint (P2MP) connections replaces the conventional IP multicasting network in the transport core, while the edge remains an IP multicasting network. In this paper, we will introduce the network architecture and discuss challenges in such IP over Optical multicasting for video delivery.

  7. A Novel Approach Towards Large Scale Cross-Media Retrieval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Lu; Guo-Ren Wang; Ye Yuan

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of Internet and multimedia technology,cross-media retrieval is concerned to retrieve all the related media objects with multi-modality by submitting a query media object.Unfortunately,the complexity and the heterogeneity of multi-modality have posed the following two major challenges for cross-media retrieval:1) how to construct a unified and compact model for media objects with multi-modality,2) how to improve the performance of retrieval for large scale cross-media database.In this paper,we propose a novel method which is dedicate to solving these issues to achieve effective and accurate cross-media retrieval.Firstly,a multi-modality semantic relationship graph (MSRG) is constructed using the semantic correlation amongst the media objects with multi-modality.Secondly,all the media objects in MSRG are mapped onto an isomorphic semantic space.Further,an efficient indexing MK-tree based on heterogeneous data distribution is proposed to manage the media objects within the semantic space and improve the performance of cross-media retrieval.Extensive experiments on real large scale cross-media datasets indicate that our proposal dramatically improves the accuracy and efficiency of cross-media retrieval,outperforming the existing methods significantly.

  8. Large scale petroleum reservoir simulation and parallel preconditioning algorithms research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Jiachang; CAO Jianwen

    2004-01-01

    Solving large scale linear systems efficiently plays an important role in a petroleum reservoir simulator, and the key part is how to choose an effective parallel preconditioner. Properly choosing a good preconditioner has been beyond the pure algebraic field. An integrated preconditioner should include such components as physical background, characteristics of PDE mathematical model, nonlinear solving method, linear solving algorithm, domain decomposition and parallel computation. We first discuss some parallel preconditioning techniques, and then construct an integrated preconditioner, which is based on large scale distributed parallel processing, and reservoir simulation-oriented. The infrastructure of this preconditioner contains such famous preconditioning construction techniques as coarse grid correction, constraint residual correction and subspace projection correction. We essentially use multi-step means to integrate totally eight types of preconditioning components in order to give out the final preconditioner. Million-grid cell scale industrial reservoir data were tested on native high performance computers. Numerical statistics and analyses show that this preconditioner achieves satisfying parallel efficiency and acceleration effect.

  9. Evaluating Unmanned Aerial Platforms for Cultural Heritage Large Scale Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgopoulos, A.; Oikonomou, C.; Adamopoulos, E.; Stathopoulou, E. K.

    2016-06-01

    When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  10. Large Scale Cosmological Anomalies and Inhomogeneous Dark Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandros Perivolaropoulos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of large scale observations hint towards possible modifications on the standard cosmological model which is based on a homogeneous and isotropic universe with a small cosmological constant and matter. These observations, also known as “cosmic anomalies” include unexpected Cosmic Microwave Background perturbations on large angular scales, large dipolar peculiar velocity flows of galaxies (“bulk flows”, the measurement of inhomogenous values of the fine structure constant on cosmological scales (“alpha dipole” and other effects. The presence of the observational anomalies could either be a large statistical fluctuation in the context of ΛCDM or it could indicate a non-trivial departure from the cosmological principle on Hubble scales. Such a departure is very much constrained by cosmological observations for matter. For dark energy however there are no significant observational constraints for Hubble scale inhomogeneities. In this brief review I discuss some of the theoretical models that can naturally lead to inhomogeneous dark energy, their observational constraints and their potential to explain the large scale cosmic anomalies.

  11. Large-scale columnar vortices in rotating turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Naoto; Takaoka, Masanori

    2016-11-01

    In the rotating turbulence, flow structures are affected by the angular velocity of the system's rotation. When the angular velocity is small, three-dimensional statistically-isotropic flow, which has the Kolmogorov spectrum all over the inertial subrange, is formed. When the angular velocity increases, the flow becomes two-dimensional anisotropic, and the energy spectrum has a power law k-2 in the small wavenumbers in addition to the Kolmogorov spectrum in the large wavenumbers. When the angular velocity decreases, the flow returns to the isotropic one. It is numerically found that the transition between the isotropic and anisotropic flows is hysteretic; the critical angular velocity at which the flow transitions from the anisotropic one to the isotropic one, and that of the reverse transition are different. It is also observed that the large-scale columnar structures in the anisotropic flow depends on the external force which maintains a statistically-steady state. In some cases, small-scale anticyclonic structures are aligned in a columnar structure apart from the cyclonic Taylor column. The formation mechanism of the large-scale columnar structures will be discussed. This work was partially supported by JSPS KAKENHI.

  12. EVALUATING UNMANNED AERIAL PLATFORMS FOR CULTURAL HERITAGE LARGE SCALE MAPPING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Georgopoulos

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to large scale mapping of limited areas especially for cultural heritage sites, things become critical. Optical and non-optical sensors are developed to such sizes and weights that can be lifted by such platforms, like e.g. LiDAR units. At the same time there is an increase in emphasis on solutions that enable users to get access to 3D information faster and cheaper. Considering the multitude of platforms, cameras and the advancement of algorithms in conjunction with the increase of available computing power this challenge should and indeed is further investigated. In this paper a short review of the UAS technologies today is attempted. A discussion follows as to their applicability and advantages, depending on their specifications, which vary immensely. The on-board cameras available are also compared and evaluated for large scale mapping. Furthermore a thorough analysis, review and experimentation with different software implementations of Structure from Motion and Multiple View Stereo algorithms, able to process such dense and mostly unordered sequence of digital images is also conducted and presented. As test data set, we use a rich optical and thermal data set from both fixed wing and multi-rotor platforms over an archaeological excavation with adverse height variations and using different cameras. Dense 3D point clouds, digital terrain models and orthophotos have been produced and evaluated for their radiometric as well as metric qualities.

  13. Evaluating large scale orthophotos derived from high resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Maria Teresa; Georgopoulos, Andreas

    2013-08-01

    For the purposes of a research project, for the compilation of the archaeological and environmental digital map of the island of Antiparos, the production of updated large scale orthophotos was required. Hence suitable stereoscopic high resolution satellite imagery was acquired. Two Geoeye-1 stereopairs were enough to cover this small island of the Cyclades complex in the central Aegean. For the orientation of the two stereopairs numerous ground control points were determined using GPS observations. Some of them would also serve as check points. The images were processed using commercial stereophotogrammetric software suitable to process satellite stereoscopic imagery. The results of the orientations are evaluated and the digital terrain model was produced using automated and manual procedures. The DTM was checked both internally and externally with comparison to other available DTMs. In this paper the procedures for producing the desired orthophotography are critically presented and the final result is compared and evaluated for its accuracy, completeness and efficiency. The final product is also compared against the orthophotography produced by Ktimatologio S.A. using aerial images in 2007. The orthophotography produced has been evaluated metrically using the available check points, while qualitative evaluation has also been performed. The results are presented and a critical approach for the usability of satellite imagery for the production of large scale orthophotos is attempted.

  14. Brief Mental Training Reorganizes Large-Scale Brain Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yi-Yuan; Tang, Yan; Tang, Rongxiang; Lewis-Peacock, Jarrod A.

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidences have shown that one form of mental training—mindfulness meditation, can improve attention, emotion regulation and cognitive performance through changing brain activity and structural connectivity. However, whether and how the short-term mindfulness meditation alters large-scale brain networks are not well understood. Here, we applied a novel data-driven technique, the multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) to resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) data to identify changes in brain activity patterns and assess the neural mechanisms induced by a brief mindfulness training—integrative body–mind training (IBMT), which was previously reported in our series of randomized studies. Whole brain rsfMRI was performed on an undergraduate group who received 2 weeks of IBMT with 30 min per session (5 h training in total). Classifiers were trained on measures of functional connectivity in this fMRI data, and they were able to reliably differentiate (with 72% accuracy) patterns of connectivity from before vs. after the IBMT training. After training, an increase in positive functional connections (60 connections) were detected, primarily involving bilateral superior/middle occipital gyrus, bilateral frontale operculum, bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right superior temporal pole, bilateral insula, caudate and cerebellum. These results suggest that brief mental training alters the functional connectivity of large-scale brain networks at rest that may involve a portion of the neural circuitry supporting attention, cognitive and affective processing, awareness and sensory integration and reward processing.

  15. The large scale magnetic fields of thin accretion disks

    CERN Document Server

    Cao, Xinwu

    2013-01-01

    Large scale magnetic field threading an accretion disk is a key ingredient in the jet formation model. The most attractive scenario for the origin of such a large scale field is the advection of the field by the gas in the accretion disk from the interstellar medium or a companion star. However, it is realized that outward diffusion of the accreted field is fast compared to the inward accretion velocity in a geometrically thin accretion disk if the value of the Prandtl number Pm is around unity. In this work, we revisit this problem considering the angular momentum of the disk is removed predominantly by the magnetically driven outflows. The radial velocity of the disk is significantly increased due to the presence of the outflows. Using a simplified model for the vertical disk structure, we find that even moderately weak fields can cause sufficient angular momentum loss via a magnetic wind to balance outward diffusion. There are two equilibrium points, one at low field strengths corresponding to a plasma-bet...

  16. Summarizing Large-Scale Database Schema Using Community Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Wang; Xuan Zhou; Shan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Schema summarization on large-scale databases is a challenge.In a typical large database schema,a great proportion of the tables are closely connected through a few high degree tables.It is thus difficult to separate these tables into clusters that represent different topics.Moreover,as a schema can be very big,the schema summary needs to be structured into multiple levels,to further improve the usability.In this paper,we introduce a new schema summarization approach utilizing the techniques of community detection in social networks.Our approach contains three steps.First,we use a community detection algorithm to divide a database schema into subject groups,each representing a specific subject.Second,we cluster the subject groups into abstract domains to form a multi-level navigation structure.Third,we discover representative tables in each cluster to label the schema summary.We evaluate our approach on Freebase,a real world large-scale database.The results show that our approach can identify subject groups precisely.The generated abstract schema layers are very helpful for users to explore database.

  17. Modelling large-scale halo bias using the bispectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Jennifer E; Porciani, Cristiano

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation between the halo and matter density fields -- commonly termed bias -- in the LCDM framework. In particular, we examine the local model of biasing at quadratic order in matter density. This model is characterized by parameters b_1 and b_2. Using an ensemble of N-body simulations, we apply several statistical methods to estimate the parameters. We measure halo and matter fluctuations smoothed on various scales and find that the parameters vary with smoothing scale. We argue that, for real-space measurements, owing to the mixing of wavemodes, no scale can be found for which the parameters are independent of smoothing. However, this is not the case in Fourier space. We measure halo power spectra and construct estimates for an effective large-scale bias. We measure the configuration dependence of the halo bispectra B_hhh and reduced bispectra Q_hhh for very large-scale k-space triangles. From this we constrain b_1 and b_2. Using the lowest-order perturbation theory, we find that for B_hhh the...

  18. Large-Scale Mass Distribution in the Illustris-Simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Haider, Markus; Vogelsberger, Mark; Genel, Shy; Springel, Volker; Torrey, Paul; Hernquist, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Observations at low redshifts thus far fail to account for all of the baryons expected in the Universe according to cosmological constraints. A large fraction of the baryons presumably resides in a thin and warm-hot medium between the galaxies, where they are difficult to observe due to their low densities and high temperatures. Cosmological simulations of structure formation can be used to verify this picture and provide quantitative predictions for the distribution of mass in different large-scale structure components. Here we study the distribution of baryons and dark matter at different epochs using data from the Illustris Simulation. We identify regions of different dark matter density with the primary constituents of large-scale structure, allowing us to measure mass and volume of haloes, filaments and voids. At redshift zero, we find that 49 % of the dark matter and 23 % of the baryons are within haloes. The filaments of the cosmic web host a further 45 % of the dark matter and 46 % of the baryons. The...

  19. Halo detection via large-scale Bayesian inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Alexander I.; Jasche, Jens; Abdalla, Filipe B.; Lahav, Ofer; Wandelt, Benjamin; Jones, D. Heath; Colless, Matthew

    2016-08-01

    We present a proof-of-concept of a novel and fully Bayesian methodology designed to detect haloes of different masses in cosmological observations subject to noise and systematic uncertainties. Our methodology combines the previously published Bayesian large-scale structure inference algorithm, HAmiltonian Density Estimation and Sampling algorithm (HADES), and a Bayesian chain rule (the Blackwell-Rao estimator), which we use to connect the inferred density field to the properties of dark matter haloes. To demonstrate the capability of our approach, we construct a realistic galaxy mock catalogue emulating the wide-area 6-degree Field Galaxy Survey, which has a median redshift of approximately 0.05. Application of HADES to the catalogue provides us with accurately inferred three-dimensional density fields and corresponding quantification of uncertainties inherent to any cosmological observation. We then use a cosmological simulation to relate the amplitude of the density field to the probability of detecting a halo with mass above a specified threshold. With this information, we can sum over the HADES density field realisations to construct maps of detection probabilities and demonstrate the validity of this approach within our mock scenario. We find that the probability of successful detection of haloes in the mock catalogue increases as a function of the signal to noise of the local galaxy observations. Our proposed methodology can easily be extended to account for more complex scientific questions and is a promising novel tool to analyse the cosmic large-scale structure in observations.

  20. The combustion behavior of large scale lithium titanate battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peifeng; Wang, Qingsong; Li, Ke; Ping, Ping; Sun, Jinhua

    2015-01-01

    Safety problem is always a big obstacle for lithium battery marching to large scale application. However, the knowledge on the battery combustion behavior is limited. To investigate the combustion behavior of large scale lithium battery, three 50 Ah Li(NixCoyMnz)O2/Li4Ti5O12 batteries under different state of charge (SOC) were heated to fire. The flame size variation is depicted to analyze the combustion behavior directly. The mass loss rate, temperature and heat release rate are used to analyze the combustion behavior in reaction way deeply. Based on the phenomenon, the combustion process is divided into three basic stages, even more complicated at higher SOC with sudden smoke flow ejected. The reason is that a phase change occurs in Li(NixCoyMnz)O2 material from layer structure to spinel structure. The critical temperatures of ignition are at 112–121°C on anode tab and 139 to 147°C on upper surface for all cells. But the heating time and combustion time become shorter with the ascending of SOC. The results indicate that the battery fire hazard increases with the SOC. It is analyzed that the internal short and the Li+ distribution are the main causes that lead to the difference. PMID:25586064