WorldWideScience

Sample records for revealed word-of-mouth demand

  1. The Effect of Signal Quality and Contiguous Word of Mouth on Customer Acquisition for a Video-on-Demand Service

    OpenAIRE

    Sungjoon Nam; Puneet Manchanda; Pradeep K. Chintagunta

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the existence and magnitude of contiguous word-of-mouth effects of signal quality of a video-on-demand (VOD) service on customer acquisition. We operationalize contiguous word-of-mouth effect based on geographic proximity and use behavioral data to quantify the effect. The signal quality for this VOD service is exogenously determined, objectively measured, and spatially uncorrelated. Furthermore, it is unobserved to the potential subscriber and is revealed postadoption. F...

  2. Demand for online platforms for medical word-of-mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih Han; Lin, Tom M Y

    2018-05-01

    The choice of medical services affects an individual's treatment and health. However, few studies have focused on medical electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM), which has the greatest impact on such choices. This study was performed to explore the need for and general public's attitude toward medical eWOM and provide a reference for government, media, and medical practitioners. In this study, 84% of the respondents had experience using online evaluation platforms to search for eWOM, and those who were satisfied with the online evaluation platforms substantially outnumbered those who were dissatisfied. The respondents generally believed that there is a need for physician evaluation platforms, although a difference remained between respondents who needed the online evaluation platforms (72.0%) and were willing to reference them (72.0%) and those who trusted them (46.5%) and were willing to provide their opinions (55.0%). These results could signify that despite the public's need, the public remains doubtful of the information provided by these online evaluation platforms.

  3. Marketing-Stimulated Word-of-Mouth: A Channel for Growing Demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombeski, William R; Martin, Becky; Britt, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Marketing-stimulated word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing has been poorly understood in health care, leading to it being underappreciated and underutilized by marketers. A study of new patients to a new runner's clinic was conducted to understand how they chose the program. The importance of marketing-stimulated WOM, both individual and organizational, is documented. Marketing-stimulated WOM is an often overlooked and rarely measured channel for increasing the impact of marketing programs.

  4. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  5. Language Abstraction in Word of Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.C. Schellekens (Gaby)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn word of mouth, consumers talk about their experiences with products and services with other consumers. These conversations are important sources of information for consumers. While word of mouth has fascinated researchers and practitioners for many years, little attention has been

  6. WORD OF MOUTH ON SOCIAL MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Through the access to information, the Internet has transformed people lifestyle, their preference for products, how they relate to brands. Perceived as an open space, without limitation, social media has become the main channel for expression of word-of-mouth, with both positive and negative effects. Thus The Internet has allowed the development of WOM, making it contemporary in our technological world. This paper examines the motives for adopting WOM behavior, forms of WOM, the WOM model and principles, directions of WOM research. Brand engagement has made consumers more powerful in terms of requirements and evaluation of product/brand, more demanding and impatient in brand communication and market response.

  7. WORD OF MOUTH SEBAGAI KONSEKUENSI KEPUASAN PELANGGAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eny Purbandari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of price and service quality on customer satisfaction to increase words of mouth. Data were collected by distributes questionnaires to 110 patient of Bhayangkara Polda DIY Hospital. Then, data was analyzed using structural equation modeling. The result showed that service quality, price and image have positive effect on patient satisfaction and patient satisfaction has a positive effect on words of mouth. The results also shows that image have the highest effect in creating the satisfaction. Therefore, the models of words of mouth have acceptable.

  8. KAJIAN LITERATUR: MANAKAH YANG LEBIH EFEKTIF? TRADITIONAL WORD OF MOUTH ATAU ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putu Adriani Prayustika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Word of Mouth telah diakui sebagai salah satu strategi komunikasi yang paling efektif dalam transisi informasi perusahaan kepada konsumen. Perusahaan memanfaatkan komunikasi word of mouth untuk kepentingan pemasaran produk dan layanan. Namun, komunikasi WOM konvensional hanya efektif dalam batasan kontak sosial terbatas. Kemajuan teknologi informasi dan munculnya situs jaringan sosial online telah mengubah cara informasi ditransmisikan dan telah melampaui keterbatasan tradisional WOM. Komunikasi word of mouth dengan memanfaatkan teknologi ini sering disebut electronic word of mouth (eWOM, dimana komunikasi ini memanfaatkan media baru, seperti misalnya media sosial. Makalah ini akan membahas kajian literatur dari beberapa penelitian yang telah dilakukan sebelumnya dalam membandingkan efektivitas traditional word of mouth dan electronic word of mouth. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa secara umum dapat dikatakan dengan perkembangan teknologi seperti sekarang, eWOM jauh lebih efektif daripada traditional WOM.

  9. Understanding the power of word-of-mouth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Z. Gildin

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Word-of-mouth has been considered one of the most powerful forms of communication in the market today. Understanding what makes word-of-mouth such a persuasive and powerful communication tool is important to organizations that intend to build strong relationships with consumers. For this reason, organizations are concerned about promoting positive word-of-mouth and retarding negative word-of-mouth, which can be harmful to the image of the company or a brand. This work focuses on the major aspects involving word-of-mouth communication. Recommendations to generate positive word-of-mouth and retard negative word-of-mouth are also highlighted.

  10. Language abstraction in word of mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schellekens, G.A.C.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smidts, A.

    2010-01-01

    This research examines the language that consumers use in word of mouth. For both positive and negative product experiences, we demonstrate that consumers use more abstract terms when they describe experiences that are in line with the valence of their product attitude. This effect cannot be

  11. Social media: the word of mouth revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garven, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Many dental practices today find themselves uncertain about the new social media universe, and in particular with how to relate to younger patients. The power of social networking is its immediate access to the word of mouth exchange of information, and the word of mouth avenue itself is recognized as the single most effective form of advertising. To tap into that phenomenon, begin by investing a small amount of time and effort to understand the basics of social networking. Sign up for Facebook and Twitter. First-hand experience interacting in a social network is the vital first step. The bottom line is simply this: To begin to understand this new arena of communication, you first have to join the conversation.

  12. Networked Narratives: Understanding Word-of-Mouth Marketing in Online Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Kozinets , Robert; Wojnicki , Andrea C.; Wilner , Sarah J. S.; De Valck , Kristine

    2009-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing — the intentional influencing of consumer-to-consumer communications — is an increasingly important technique. The authors overview and synthesize extant word of mouth theory and present a study of a marketing campaign in which mobile phones were seeded with prominent bloggers. Eighty-three blogs were followed for six months. Findings reveal the complex cultural conditions through which marketing “hype” is transformed by consumers into the “honey” of relevant, shared c...

  13. Electronic word of mouth about medical services

    OpenAIRE

    Hinz, Vera; Drevs, Florian; Wehner, Jürgen

    2012-01-01

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) about medical services gains growing popularity from the part of health care users, accompanied with a high reluctance of health care providers towards existing platforms, fearing unqualified, negative reviews driven by motives of vengeance. Purpose of this research is to shed light on the characteristics, content, and motives of eWOM about medical services. Using primary and secondary data of 822 reviews, this study shows that reviews about medical services ar...

  14. A Personalized Word of Mouth Recommender Model

    OpenAIRE

    Chihli Hung

    2008-01-01

    Word of mouth (WOM) has a powerful effect on consumer behavior. Manually collecting WOM is very time-consuming in the era of the Internet. An automatic WOM recommender model is useful for both marketers and consumers. There are many different product features and thus many consumer choices. Each individual consumer has different preferences and these preferences may be changed deliberately or unwittingly. However, most existing WOM recommender models do not adapt to user preferences. This stu...

  15. WORD OF MOUTH ON SOCIAL MEDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-01-01

    Through the access to information, the Internet has transformed people lifestyle, their preference for products, how they relate to brands. Perceived as an open space, without limitation, social media has become the main channel for expression of word-of-mouth, with both positive and negative effects. Thus The Internet has allowed the development of WOM, making it contemporary in our technological world. This paper examines the motives for adopting WOM behavior, forms of WOM, the WOM model an...

  16. What Drives Word of Mouth: A Multi-Disciplinary Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlegh, Peeter W J; Moldovan, Sarit

    2008-01-01

    The article presents abstracts on word-of-mouth advertising-related topics which include the different roles of product originality and usefulness in generating word of mouth, understanding the way consumers deal with the tension between authenticity and commercialism in seeded word of mouth

  17. Word of mouth marketing applications on the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Gülmez, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    Word of mouth marketing, also called WOMM in English, is a marketing strategyform via oral or written in which consumers share&spread other people aboutproduct or firm. Word of mouth marketing is an extremely important factor in theconsumer’s final purchase decision in the conscious societies on the internet. Thispaper aims to evaluate word of mouth marketing applications on the internet.

  18. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contrib...

  19. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Huete-Alcocer

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM: electronic word of mouth (eWOM, considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.

  20. A Literature Review of Word of Mouth and Electronic Word of Mouth: Implications for Consumer Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete-Alcocer, Nuria

    2017-01-01

    The rise and spread of the Internet has led to the emergence of a new form of word of mouth (WOM): electronic word of mouth (eWOM), considered one of the most influential informal media among consumers, businesses, and the population at large. Drawing on these ideas, this paper reviews the relevant literature, analyzing the impact of traditional WOM and eWOM in the field of consumer behavior and highlighting the main differences between the two types of recommendations, with a view to contributing to a better understanding of the potential of both.

  1. Telling stories: opportunities for word-of-mouth communication.

    OpenAIRE

    Cownie, Fiona

    2017-01-01

    Word-of-mouth is an important aspect of marketing communications and can be conceived as the story-telling of everyday life. This working paper suggests that marketing communicators’ understanding of word-of-mouth might usefully be enhanced by the consideration of the tools of the screenwriter, in particular the premise and the active question. The jeopardy of the premise and unresolved nature of the active questions the premise generates may contribute to the potency of word-of-mouth message...

  2. Understanding the power of word-of-mouth.

    OpenAIRE

    Suzana Z. Gildin

    2003-01-01

    Word-of-mouth has been considered one of the most powerful forms of communication in the market today. Understanding what makes word-of-mouth such a persuasive and powerful communication tool is important to organizations that intend to build strong relationships with consumers. For this reason, organizations are concerned about promoting positive word-of-mouth and retarding negative word-of-mouth, which can be harmful to the image of the company or a brand. This work focuses on the major asp...

  3. Word of mouth and opinion leadership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The new, alternative thinking patterns in marketing highlight the fact that exchanges per se are not the focus of marketing analysis and researches; rather than that, they must surrender this position to relationships between different sides in the marketing setting - the company and consumers, internal relations within companies, and relations between consumers themselves. A new philosophy, relationship marketing, is taking over the position of the old transaction marketing philosophy. The greatest challenge for marketing professionals at the beginning of the 21st century is this third dimension of relationships - relations between consumers, their mutual impact on preferences and purchase decisions, and, most notably, the possibility of involving consumers in companies marketing mix programs. Opinion leaders - their identification, creation, their word-of-mouth communication, its emergence and impact are currently the focus of marketing theory and practice.

  4. Electronic Word-of-Mouth Communication and Consumer Behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Signe Tegtmeier; Razmerita, Liana; Colleoni, Elanor

    2014-01-01

    The rapid adoption of social media, along with the easy access to peer information and interactions, has resulted in massive online word-of-mouth communication. These interactions among consumers have an increasing power over the success or failure of companies and brands. Drawing upon word-of-mouth...... communication and consumer behaviour theories, this paper investigates the use of word-of-mouth communication through social media among a group of Danish consumers. The findings suggest that electronic word-of-mouth communication among friends and peers affect consumer behaviour. Additionally, peer...... communication is perceived as more objective and therefore found more reliable than companies’ brand communication. Furthermore, negative word-of-mouth is perceived as more trustworthy compared to positive messages, which are often believed to be too subjective. The research findings emphasise the importance...

  5. Linking relationship benefit and word of mouth engagement in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past decade, there is an increasing attention among marketing scholars and ... on the topic about word of mouth engagement in social media platform. ... within online brand community, this study provides guidance to brand marketers on ...

  6. Word-of-Mouth Communication and Social Learning

    OpenAIRE

    A. Banerjee; Drew Fudenberg

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the way that word-of-mouth communication aggregates the information of individual agents. We find that the structure of the communication process determines whether all agents end up making identical choices, with less communication making this conformity more likely. Despite the players' naive decision rules and the stochastic decision environment, word-of-mouth communication may lead all players to adopt the action that is on average superior. These socially efficient out...

  7. Optimal software pricing in the presence of piracy and word-of-mouth effect

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yipeng; Cheng, Hsing Kenneth; Tang, Qian Candy; Eryarsoy, Enes

    2011-01-01

    We develop an analytical model that embeds empirical findings on software diffusion to examine optimal pricing strategies for a spreadsheet software product under coalescing effects of piracy and word-of-mouth through its entire life cycle. We find that the demand of the innovators has the most significant impact on the firm’s pricing decision. Our research recommends market skimming pricing strategy if innovators’ demand is high and the market penetration pricing strategy is preferred otherw...

  8. ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ABĂLĂESEI

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the development of Web 2.0 (or social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Blogger, and various forums and communities, online users from all over the world have been exposed to a completely new means of information sharing: electronic word of mouth (e-WOM. Due to the fact that it is a recent research phenomenon, its definition is difficult to be phrased and similar to traditional word-of-mouth, the theoretical framework of e-WOM is not very clear. This complex concept is linked to viral marketing, user generated content, stealth marketing, opinion sharing, decision making and other aspects. Considering the multiple areas that e-WOM has an influence on, this article presents an overview of what has been researched with respect to this subject. Using the findings of this paper, it may be possible to set up the base of a conceptual model to measure electronic word of mouth.

  9. WORD OF MOUTH – FROM VERBALLY COMMUNICATION TO COMMUNICATION ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Raluca CHIOSA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has become essential in linking the brand with consumers. This enables them to share their opinions, preferences or experiences with others. The paper seeks to provide the concept of word-of-mouth, starting from the definition, characteristics, to manifestation in the online environment and the effects on consumer behavior, creating opportunities for word-of-mouth marketing. Social Media become important in building a brand, as consumer reactions can be decisive in enhancing or destroying it. For effective use of social media tools, brands need to identify the influential people among consumers, to capture the recommendations received from the users and measure their impact.

  10. ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH: HOW MUCH DO WE KNOW?

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela ABĂLĂESEI

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of Web 2.0 (or social media) sites such as Facebook, Twitter, Blogger, and various forums and communities, online users from all over the world have been exposed to a completely new means of information sharing: electronic word of mouth (e-WOM). Due to the fact that it is a recent research phenomenon, its definition is difficult to be phrased and similar to traditional word-of-mouth, the theoretical framework of e-WOM is not very clear. This complex concept is linked to ...

  11. Komunikasi Word Of Mouth dan Keputusan Pembelian Batik Bangkalan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raniawati Rachman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to examines the influence word of mouth communication, brand awareness, and community reception on buying decision of Batik Bangkalan using word of mouth communication, reception, and consumer behavior theory. This research has been done in Bangkalan Regency to 100 visitors of batik centers as respondents. Data were collected by questionnaires and analyzed by using multiple linear regression based on SPSS V21.0. The result shows that buying decision of Batik Bangkalan (Y is influenced simultaneously by word of mouth communication (X1, brand awareness (X2, and public receptions (X3. The influence of three variables on buying decision has been indicated by determinant coefficient (R² 60.7%. The most influential factors in buying decision of Batik Bangkalan Batik is brand awareness and public reception, while word of mouth communication did not influence on buying decision. It happens because X1 variable only to discuss, promote, and recommend. It does not reach level of persuading, inviting, and encouraging people to buy batik Bangkalan.

  12. Electronic word of mouth: Challenges for consumers and companies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, L.M.

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that, as a consumer decision aid, electronic word of mouth (eWOM) provides opportunities to both consumers and companies. By relying on eWOM, consumers believe that they are better able to make informed purchase decisions. By incorporating eWOM in their business strategies,

  13. Service quality effect on satisfaction and word of mouth in insurance industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Pourkiani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Quality tends to play an essential role in service industries such as banking and insurance services, as quality of service is crucial to count for the survival and profitability of the organization. Today, customer satisfaction and service quality is critical in most service industries. Taking into consideration the competitive issues from observing services quality, the subject also in the insurance industry is important based on administrative reform plan, which is required to provide quality services and meet customers' demands. This study aims to assess the factors influencing the positive words of mouth in the insurance services market. The population is Iran insurance company's customers in Guilan and 409 individuals were selected by simple random sampling. To collect data, a questionnaire was used and structural equation SEM and LISREL software was used to analyze the data. The findings indicate a significant positive relationship between all aspects of service quality and customer satisfaction. The results indicate that there was a significant positive relationship between customer satisfaction and customer words of mouth. Therefore, we can conclude that there were significant positive relationships between the dimensions of service quality with customer satisfaction and customer words of mouth in Iran insurance company in Guilan province.

  14. The effect of electronic word of mouth communication and brand image on purchase intention: A case of consumer electronics in Haripur, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anees Kazmi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to focus on the purchase intention of the consumer specifically the millennial age group with respect to the effect of Electronic word of mouth communication and brand image. The study is performed among the students of the University of Haripur. Study reveals that the effect of Electronic word of mouth and brand image for the purchase of consumer electronics products have positively correlated and the effect is significant, which means that the Word of mouth communication can positively respond to the purchase of the said products in case when the products are branded and have certain image in the mind of consumer.

  15. Investigating word-of-mouth (WOM factors influencing patients’ physician choice and satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Argan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aims to determine the word-of-mouth constructs related to physician choice and to investigate relationships between the constructs and satisfaction. Method: A questionnaire consisted of three parts was conducted on people (n=1193 living in the province of Eskisehir, Turkey. The first part contained sixteen statements related to word-of-mouth messages about choosing a physician. A traditional approach to scale development was utilized. Items in the second part were concerned with satisfaction as the dependent variable. The final part included demographic variables. Results: The results of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA revealed four valid WOM constructs (communication skill, expertise, reputation and success, and institutional facilities and structural equation model (SEM indicate that these constructs have both directly and indirectly effect on patient satisfaction. The results also showed that institutional facility mediated relationship between remaining factors and satisfaction. Conclusions: The relationships between physicians and patients have an indirect effect on potential patients. By understanding sources of patients’ satisfaction and dissatisfaction, physicians can develop appropriate relationship strategies to minimize the adverse effects of negative word-of-mouth on costs, quality and patient turnover. The results of the current study provide suggestions for better health care management and further insight into the challenges of improving patient satisfaction.

  16. Pengaruh Word of Mouth Communication Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Konsumen Pada Boardgame Lounge Smart Cafe Pekanbaru

    OpenAIRE

    Pratiwi, Yuly Rahmi; Lubis, Evawani Elysa

    2017-01-01

    Of mouth communication is a form of promotion in the form of recommendation by word of mouth about the goodness of a product. Word of mouth communication is very effective in supporting the purchasing decision. The customer in deciding the purchase of products is very influential with the word of mouth communication. This research starts on the stimulus-response theory. In this research Word of mouth communication is the stimulus given by the talkers (speaker/influence) to the recipient regar...

  17. Financial Stylized Facts in the Word of Mouth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Tadanobu; Watanabe, Kyoko; Shimokawa, Tetsuya

    Recently, we proposed an agent-based model called the word of mouth model to analyze the influence of an information transmission process to price formation in financial markets. Especially, the short-term predictability of asset return was focused on and an explanation in the view of information transmission was provided to the question why the predictability was much clearly observed in the small-sized stocks. This paper, to extend the previous study, demonstrates that the word of mouth model also has a consistency with other important financial stylized facts. This strengthens the possibility that the information transmission among investors plays a crucial role in price formation. Concretely, this paper addresses two famous statistical features of returns; the leptokurtic distribution of return and the autocorrelation of return volatility. The reasons why these statistical facts receive especial attentions of researchers among financial stylized facts are their statistical robustness and practical importance, such as the applications to the derivative pricing problems.

  18. Customer Protest: Exit, Voice or Negative Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solvang, B. K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Of the three forms of protest the propensity of word of mouth (WOM seems to be the most common, and the most exclusive form of protest seems to be exit. The propensity for voice lies in between. The costs linked to voice influence the propensity for WOM. The customers seem to do an evaluation between the three forms of protest, yet the rational picture of the customers should be moderated.Leaders should improve their treatment of the customers making complaints. The more they can treat customer complaints in an orderly and nice way the less informal negative word of mouth activity they will experience and they will reduce the exit propensity and lead the customers to the complain organisation. They should also ensure that their customers feel they get equal treatment by the staff.

  19. Word-of-Mouth in the e-Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mousakhani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Positive word-of-mouth (P-WOM has a strong influence on purchase decision of new customer. Today, firms try creating loyal customer with positive WOM and use from this competitive factor in increasing their market share. This research showed that website usability (WU has a positive effect on customer satisfaction (CS, and also this element have a positive effect on customer loyalty (CL. CS and CL have a direct positive effect on word-of mouth; also WU has an indirect positive effect on P-WOM. Present research is applicable in purpose, and research method is analytical description with corresponding examine. After collecting data through questionnaire, hypotheses are contrasted with structural equation modeling (SEM with Lisrel software. The study population included all branches customers of Bank Melli Iran of north Tehran.

  20. Susceptibility and influence in social media word-of-mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Claussen, Jörg; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Peer influence through word-of-mouth (WOM) plays an important role in many information systems but identification of causal effects is challenging. We identify causal WOM effects in the empirical setting of game adoption in a social network for gamers by exploiting differences in individuals’ networks. Friends of friends do not directly influence a focal user, so we use their characteristics to instrument for behavior of the focal user’s friends. We go beyond demonstrating a la...

  1. C-2-C market relations and word of mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grubor Aleksandar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Most market research focuses on business-to-business and business- to-consumer interactions to explain the structure and dynamics of the market. Meanwhile, negligible effort has been invested in researching consumer-to-consumer interaction and its impact on companies’ behaviour and purchase decision-making, which determines business performance. The greatest challenge for marketers at the beginning of the 21st century is this third relationship dimension, consumer-to-consumer interaction: how consumers influence each other’s attitudes, expectations, perceptions, preferences, satisfaction, loyalty, and purchasing decisions, and, importantly, the possibility of incorporating consumers into businesses’ marketing programmes. Despite the existence of a multitude of media and different forms of communication between businesses and the market, such as newspapers, periodicals, billboards, television etc., a considerable portion of information is communicated to consumers informally, mostly in the form of word-of-mouth. The information received by consumers through this communication form - from family and similar individuals -is very often accepted as more reliable and certain than information transmitted through formal communication channels. What is often neglected when studying the phenomenon of word-of-mouth communication is the fact that its efficiency and effect also depend on the type and character of the interaction between the consumers themselves. This paper aims to investigate the extent to which the nature of customer to-customer (C2C interaction influences the effect of word-of-mouth communication.

  2. Never Eat In That Restaurant, I Did!: Exploring why people engage in negative word-of-mouth communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetzer, I.M.; Zeelenberg, M.; Pieters, R.

    2007-01-01

    What do consumers want to achieve when they engage in negative word-of-mouth communication (N-WOM)? Two studies explore this question and reveal that consumers pursue specific goals when engaging in N-WOM and that these goals systematically differ between the specific negative emotions that are

  3. A WORD-OF-MOUSE APPROACH FOR WORD-OF-MOUTH MEASUREMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Andreia Gabriela ANDREI

    2012-01-01

    Despite of the fact that word-of-mouth phenomenon gained unseen dimensions, only few studies have focused on its measurement and only three of them developed a word-of-mouth construct. Our study develops a bi-dimensional scale which assigns usual word-of-mouth mechanisms available in online networking sites (eg: Recommend, Share, Like, Comment) into the WOM (+) - positive word-of-mouth valence dimension - respectively into the WOM (-) - negative word-of-mouth valence dimension. We adapted e-W...

  4. Word-of-mouth is more than recommendations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    ’s telling of what had happened to him/her, in terms of a story, is an additional part of WOM. We also found that customer satisfaction, generally considered a main determinant of WOM (when it is narrowly defined as recommendations), is a less potent predictor of WOM than the level of incongruence......Word-of-mouth (WOM) is often operationalized as recommendations, which is only one among several aspects of WOM. Therefore, a focus on recommendations is likely to misrepresent what customers say to other customers. Our empirical study found support for this argument: we found that the sender...

  5. Susceptibility and Influence in Social Media Word-of-Mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Claussen, Jörg; Engelstätter, Benjamin; Ward, Michael R.

    Peer influence through word-of-mouth (WOM) plays an important role in many information systems but identification of causal effects is challenging. We identify causal WOM effects in the empirical setting of game adoption in a social network for gamers by exploiting differences in individuals...... and receiver side. We find that users with the most influence on others tend to be better gamers, have larger social networks, but spend less time playing. Interestingly, these are also the users who are least susceptible to WOM effects....

  6. Electronic Word of Mouth (e-WOM Foursquare: The New Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Rita

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The development of communication technology and Internet-based information encourage the emergence of new changes in the marketing world. Customer-oriented makes it an effective medium for the activities of Word-of-Mouth (WOM. In this information era, Word-of-Mouth becomes credible resource in the community. To harness the power of electronic Word-of-Mouth (e-WOM, the company must first identify and understand effectively users of the web to spread their opinions. By using 60 respondents as a source of information and data collection, results of the study found various types of Foursquare users and various motivations that drive them. The first finding of this study revealed six types of Foursquare users, namely: The Gamers, The Existence, The Need Help, The Mayor, The Showoff, and the Angels. The second finding was the type of motivation that Foursquare users are distinguished by category Feature Involvement, Self Satisfaction, Seeking Advice, Economic Incentives, Self Enhancement, and Concern for Other Users. From this study, Self Satisfaction, Self Enhancement, and Concern for Other Users are the motivation type of Foursquare users that give positive contribution to the activities of e-WOM because the three types directly do some sort recommendations or promotions of the places they check-in. Furthermore, Feature Involvement, Seeking Advice, and Economic Incentives are the types that less provide positive contribution to the activities of e-WOM. Advice Seeking and Economic Incentives are the types that the most feel benefits of e-WOM activities through Foursquare. Feature Involvement is the type that does not contribute the most to the activities of e-WOM and do not feel the most benefits of e-WOM activities through Foursquare. This research is expected to help companies that use Foursquare to establish the right business strategy in encouraging e-WOM among Foursquare users.

  7. FACTORS INLFUENCING THE ADOPTION OF ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela ABĂLĂESEI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Web-based technologies have been in a continuous state of growth, especially in the last decade, which also brought better and higher Internet speed. This has led to an increased number of opportunities for people to get involved in electronic word of mouth (e-WOM communication. E-WOM is a new means of information sharing, allowing users to be inter-connected constantly, regardless of their time zone. Because of this unique quality, e-WOM has been identified as one of the key factors affecting online sales. However, there is little known about this phenomenon. Even if the literature has approached this topic from various angles, there is still a lot of uncertainty surrounding electronic word of mouth. One of the key research questions is targeted at factors which influence people in actively engaging in creating or receiving e-WOM. With this in mind, this article provides a general overview of the key factors analyzed in the literature, which determine adoption of e-WOM by online consumers.

  8. Advertising and quality-dependent word-of-mouth in a contagion sales model

    OpenAIRE

    El Ouardighi, Fouad; Feichtinger, Gustav; Grass, Dieter; Hartl, Richard F.; Kort, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: In the literature on marketing models, the assumption of mixed word-of-mouth has been limited to the Bass diffusion model. Yet explicit leveraging of the originating factors of such assumption is lacking. Apart from that example, mixed word-of-mouth has been disregarded in contagion sales models. This paper bridges the gap by suggesting a sales model, where both positive and negative word-of-mouth affect the attraction rate of new customers, along with advertising. The difference be...

  9. The Effect of Traditional and Electronic Word-of-mouth on Purchase Decision

    OpenAIRE

    Sanger, Chintya Amelia Nelly

    2013-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) Marketing is widely considered the most influential source of information for consumer purchase decisions, and the explosion of social media has stirred interest in the communication.The relation of Traditional Word-of-Mouth and electronic word-of-mouth ( e-wom ) on purchase decision are positively influential. Research to 100 respondents of student in International Business Administration program, Economic and Business faculty in SamRatulangi university. The most of stude...

  10. Proselytism and Word-of-Mouth in Constemporary Sport Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George dos Reis Alba

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The need for social interaction is one of the most basic units of fanship and communication is one of its important tool. When fans interact with people who do not cheer for your club, communication naturally occurs in two ways: positive (mouth to mouth, which is related to the suggestion and recommendation of the club and; negative (proselytism, which refers to ostensive defense, sometimes even in a malign way. The literature on the distinction between the two constructs is lacking and this study aims to analyze the relationship between word-of-mouth and proselytism, specifically in football fans. The results indicate that the constructs differ significantly and have different impacts on spending with the club and attending games.

  11. A Study of the Effect of Word of Mouth on Pregnant Women Decision-Making Behavior to Join the Royan Cord Blood Bank in Arak City, 2009-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Ahmari Nejad

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Today, the role of word of mouth (WOM in making decision particularly in service sector became important. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of word of mouth on pregnant woman decision-making behavior to join the Royan Cord Blood Bank. Materials and Methods: The research is operational and has a causal nature. The population of study was 790 pregnant women enrolled in Royan Cord Blood Bank in Arak city that 294 subjects were selected by available non-random sampling method. To collect data, questionnaire instrument was used. Data were analyzed according to Structural Equations Modeling (SEM by LISREL (version 8.54 software. Results: The results of the study revealed that the effect of communication medium on personal information source and word of mouth was significant and positive. In addition, opinion leaders had a significant and positive influence on personal information source and word of mouth and also, the significant and negative effect of opinion leaders on perceived risk was seen. Personal information source had a significant and positive effect on decision-making. However, social structure didn't have any effect on word of mouth. Likewise, word of mouth didn't influence decision-making. Conclusion: According to the findings of the research, it seems that paying attention to the prerequisites and conditions making a suitable bed for creating effective word of mouth and expanding it to making decision for joining the Royan Cord Blood Bank is very necessary.

  12. Advertising and quality-dependent word-of-mouth in a contagion sales model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Ouardighi, Fouad; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter M.

    In the literature on marketing models, the assumption of mixed word-of-mouth has been limited to the Bass diffusion model. Yet explicit leveraging of the originating factors of such assumption is lacking. Apart from that example, mixed word-of-mouth has been disregarded in contagion sales models.

  13. Is Friendship Silent When Money Talks? How People Respond to Word-of-Mouth Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Tuk (Mirjam)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractWord of mouth is a powerful source of consumer influence. Therefore, marketers nowadays are interested in managing word of mouth. An often implemented strategy is stimulating customers to talk about a product by providing a (financial) reward for successful recommendations (‘buzz’).

  14. Sales and Sincerity: The Role of Relational Framing in Word-of-Mouth Marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Tuk (Mirjam); P.W.J. Verlegh (Peter); A. Smidts (Ale); D.H.J. Wigboldus (Daniel)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractIn the current research, we study relationship norms in a word-of-mouth marketing context. The presence of a financial incentive for a recommendation implies that the word-of-mouth behavior may be driven by ulterior motives. This setting triggers both friendship (Equality Matching; EM)

  15. Word-of-Mouth amongst Students at a New Zealand Tertiary Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warring, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this case study was to investigate the extent of word-of-mouth influence amongst international students at a New Zealand tertiary institution and to review the literature for a valid and reliable conceptualisation and measurement of word-of-mouth. Design/methodology/approach: Literature suggests that opinion-leading and seeking…

  16. The Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on College Search and Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Whitney

    2017-01-01

    This study used an online questionnaire to survey first-time, non-transfer undergraduate freshmen students at the University of Miami to determine the perceived influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on their college search and choice compared to that of traditional word-of-mouth (WOM). In addition, eWOM's influence was examined during the…

  17. An Insight into Firm Perspective on the Use of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.C. Nevels; G. Duysters

    2014-01-01

    The Internet has dramatically changed the business landscape and the way word-of-mouth spreads. The possibilities for small, Internet-depending firms to compete have improved. This study addresses the question how such firms in the Netherlands, Sweden, and Finland deal with word-of-mouth through the

  18. Negative online word-of-mouth: Behavioral indicator or emotional release?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, T.; Nauta, A.; Feldberg, J.F.M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of negative online word-of-mouth on the behavior of those receiving it has been addressed extensively in the academic literature. Remarkably, the question whether negative online word-of-mouth should also be seen as a behavioral indicator of its sender remains unaddressed. Answering

  19. A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to Investigate Negative Word of Mouth Impact on Customer-Based Brand Equity: Does Attribution Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Yehia Ebeid

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a shortage in the research which addresses the relationship between negative word of mouth (WOM communication and customer-based brand equity dilution. This research utilizes attribution theory to demonstrate the negative word-of-mouth impact on the customer-based brand equity. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the proposed effect of negative WOM on brand equity. The study sample consists of 71 post-graduate students, the object of negative WOM was laptops which considered a highly involvement product. Experimental investigation results reveal that customer exposure to negative word-of-mouth increases the brand equity dilution. Results were discussed in the light of casual attribution theory, and practical implications were provided.

  20. Tapping the grapevine: a closer look at word-of-mouth as a recruitment source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lievens, Filip

    2009-03-01

    To advance knowledge of word-of-mouth as a company-independent recruitment source, this study draws on conceptualizations of word-of-mouth in the marketing literature. The sample consisted of 612 potential applicants targeted by the Belgian Defense. Consistent with the recipient-source framework, time spent receiving positive word-of-mouth was determined by the traits of the recipient (extraversion and conscientiousness), the characteristics of the source (perceived expertise), and their mutual relationship (tie strength). Only conscientiousness and source expertise were determinants of receiving negative word-of-mouth. In line with the accessibility-diagnosticity model, receiving positive employment information through word-of-mouth early in the recruitment process was positively associated with perceptual (organizational attractiveness) and behavioral outcomes (actual application decisions), beyond potential applicants' exposure to other recruitment sources. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  1. Word-of-mouth communications in health care marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacStravic, R S

    1985-10-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) advertising can be an important communications tool, since it addresses the right target--the decision maker, contains the needed information, and occurs at the right time. An effective WOM communications program will use a marketing survey to identify decision makers and measure their degree of preference for the provider to determine which decision makers can be influenced. A survey also should be used to discover the most significant information sources. To involve those sources in a WOM communications effort requires that they be satisfied with their provider and that they be convinced the provider is the best choice for the person who has requested the recommendation. To increase the likelihood that sources will be informed about a specific provider, pamphlets or other materials can be distributed to assist them. Other forms of encouragement include patient surveys and employee bonuses. An institution's WOM program should also be consistent with its other communications efforts. Messages must be compatible with the themes of advertising and publicity campaigns.

  2. Brand popularity, endogenous leadership, and product introduction in industries with word of mouth communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Christian Dahl

    This paper considers the impact of popularity on duopolists' entry strategies into an emerging industry, where each consumer holds a preference for one of two competing brands. Brand popularity is influenced by word of mouth communication, as early adopters recommend the brand they have bought...... to later buyers. Early introduction is, however, a costly strategy. The timing of product introduction is therefore of strategic importance to firms. I investigate the equilibria of the game when firms choose their time to market strategies sequentially, and observe how they relate to the popularity...... of the Stackelberg leader's brand. This analysis reveals firms' individual incentives for leader and follower roles, and the market structure that would result in this noncooperative game. As von Stackelberg showed a leader's commitment to a strategy can preempt the follower. The present model shows...

  3. Word-of-Mouth in the Context of Internet Mediated Services: the case of Skype

    OpenAIRE

    Gavronski, Maarja

    2007-01-01

    Skype is a contemporary innovative business providing Internet mediated services. More importantly Skype is a company, which because of the business model is highly dependent on its users and at the same time has made word-of-mouth integral to the service, as a way of extending the user base. Therefore, the effect of satisfaction on word-of-mouth was examined, as well as the mediating effect of loyalty on the relationship between satisfaction and word-of-mouth. The second part of the research...

  4. EFEK CUSTOMER CUSTOMER INTERACTION TERHADAP SATISFACTION DAN WORD OF MOUTH PADA HOTEL MANDARIN ORIENTAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putri Hijir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The background of this research was the effect of Customer to Customer Interaction affect satisfaction, word of mouth, in mandarin oriental hotel. The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Customer satisfaction, Service Atmosphere, Personal Interaction, Customer Customer Interaction, Word of Mouth. The design of this research applies primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 200 customer who are using Mandarin Oriental Hotel. Data analysis method used in this research is Structural Equation Model (SEM. The result of this research there is positive impact Personal Interaction Quality toward customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Service Atmosphere toward Customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Service atmosphere toward Customer Customer Interaction, there is positive impact Customer Customer Interaction toward Customer Satisfaction, there is positive impact Customer Customer Interaction toward Word of Mouth, there is positive impact Customer Satisfaction toward Word of Mouth.

  5. An investigation on the effects of personal characteristics on word of mouth advertisement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosseinali Aziziha

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study to measure the effect of personal characteristics including neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness and agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. The population of this survey includes all people who use mobile phone in city of Tehran, Iran. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scape and distributes it among 400 randomly selected people who use mobile devices. Using Spearman correlation test, the study confirms the positive of effects of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience on word of mouth advertisement and the negative impact of agreeableness on word of mouth advertisement. However, the study does not find any meaningful relationship between conscientiousness and word of mouth advertisement.

  6. The renaissance of word-of-mouth marketing: A new standard in twenty-first century marketing management?!

    OpenAIRE

    Meiners, Norbert H.; Schwarting, Ulf; Seeberger, Bernd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the importance of word of mouth for marketing management in the twenty-first century will be discussed. After a short introduction, there will be a focus on the demarcations and problems of traditional marketing. Then, in the third section, word of mouth (WOM) and word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) as a 'new' standard in modern marketing are described. The fourth section broaches the importance of word of mouth and word-of-mouth marketing from the point of view of business and consu...

  7. The Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Buying Decisions on the Internet

    OpenAIRE

    Baudis, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Word-of-mouth activities have long been a major influential factor in consumer purchasing decisions. (Hennig-Thurau, et al., 2004, p. 39) After the virtual landscape was significantly altered by the Web 2.0, new possibilities of spreading and receiving product-related information emerged. The ease and speed of distributing information via the internet led to an empowerment of the customer (Edelman & Singer, 2015, p. 90) and resulted in the formation of electronic word-of-mouth. (Kreis & Gotts...

  8. ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH AMONG HOTEL GUESTS: DEMOGRAPHIC AND TRIPOGRAPHIC FACTORS

    OpenAIRE

    CETIN, Gürel; DINCER, Füsun ISTANBULLU

    2015-01-01

    Positive word-of-mouth from customers is a sought after desire for any organization. Inter-consumer influence is directly related to company image, customer satisfaction, retention and acquisition, overall costs and profits. With the advancement of technology, the impact of recommendation (electronic word of mouth) as a reliable source of product information is ever increasing as the customers are able to interact in a very large scale through electronic mediums

  9. Introduction Strategy for New Products with Positive and Negative Word-of-Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Vijay Mahajan; Eitan Muller; Roger A. Kerin

    1984-01-01

    Existing innovation diffusion models assume that individual experience with the product is always communicated positively through word-of-mouth. For certain innovations, however, this assumption is tenuous since communicators of the product experience may transfer favorable, unfavorable, or indifferent messages through word-of-mouth. This paper examines a diffusion model for products in which negative information plays a dominant role, discusses its implications for optimal advertising timing...

  10. The relevance of netnography to the harness of Romanian health care electronic word-of-mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratucu, R; Gheorghe, I R; Radu, A; Purcarea, V L

    2014-09-15

    Nowadays, consumers use the computer mediated communication to make purchase decisions on a large variety of products and services. Since health care services are archetypal by nature, consumers in this field are one of the most encountered users of electronic word-of-mouth. The objective of this paper is to explain and support the necessity of adopting a different qualitative method when electronic word of mouth is harnessed on health care dedicated forums, that is, netnography.

  11. Efek Customer Customer Interaction Terhadap Satisfaction Dan Word of Mouth Pada Hotel Mandarin Oriental

    OpenAIRE

    Hijir, Putri

    2016-01-01

    The background of this research was the effect of Customer to Customer Interaction affect satisfaction, word of mouth, in mandarin oriental hotel. The objective of this research is to examine the impact of Customer satisfaction, Service Atmosphere, Personal Interaction, Customer Customer Interaction, Word of Mouth. The design of this research applies primary data obtained by distributing questionnaires to 200 customer who are using Mandarin Oriental Hotel. Data analysis method used in this re...

  12. AN EVALUATION OF ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH IN HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY FOR CONSUMERS AND HOTELS

    OpenAIRE

    Kutlu, Didem; Ayyıldız, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    In recent years with the development of information communication technologies and social media sites, word of mouth(WOM) takes place not just face to face but in the internet, social networking sites, blogs…etc. Due to the intangibility of the tourism product and difficulty in try it out before purchasing, consumers rely on word from an experienced source to reduce the uncertainty and perceived risks. Therefore electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has become more important in terms of hospitality...

  13. Influence of Word of Mouth Communication Towards Indonesian Online Shopper Purchase Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Purwanegara, Mustika Sufiati; Yuliana, Eka

    2010-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) gives the consumer perceptions to engage in retail online shopping can include both utilitarian and hedonic shopping dimensions. To cater to these consumers, online retailers can create a cognitively and esthetically rich shopping environment, through sophisticated levels of communication, as the personal influence, online community, and also by sharing they experienceSince the effect of word of mouth communications on marketing and has proven to stimulate onlin...

  14. The Institution Image and Trust and Their Effect on the Positive Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soni Harsono

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In marketing, it is important to see how competitive a university is. Among public universities (PTN and private universities (PTS, it shows a very competitive situation recently. To overcome this problem, it requires shaping up the institution image and trust for increasing the positive word of mouth among students. This study aims to determine the effect of the institution image, trust both partially and simultaneously on the positive word of mouth by the students of private universities in Surabaya with their accreditation levels of A, B and C. The sample consists of students from six colleges with accreditation ratings A, B, and C totaling 125 students. Accidental sampling technique was done using a sampling technique of multiple regression analysis with SPSS version 17. It shows, for the college with accreditation category C, the image of the institution both partially and simulta-neously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth. For the college accreditation category B, the image of the institution and trust simultaneously has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and, finally, trust in accreditation category A has significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth and the institution image and trust simultaneously have significant positive effect on the positive word of mouth.

  15. Information asymmetry, social networking site word of mouth, and mobility effects on social commerce in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In Jeong; Lee, Bong Gyou; Kim, Ki Youn

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the issues that affect customers' behavioral character and purchasing behavior. The study proposes a research hypothesis with independent variables that include social presence, trust, and information asymmetry, and the dependent variable purchase decision making, to explain differentiated customer decision making processes in social commerce (S-commerce). To prove the hypothesis, positive verification was performed by focusing on mediating effects through a customer uncertainty variable and moderating effects through mobility and social networking site word of mouth (SNS WOM) variables. The number of studies on customer trends has rapidly increased together with the market size of S-commerce. However, few studies have examined the negative variables that make customers hesitant to make decisions in S-commerce. This study investigates the causes of customer uncertainty and focuses on deducing the control variables that offset this negative relationship. The study finds that in customers' S-commerce purchasing actions, the SNS WOM and mobility variables show control effects between information asymmetry and uncertainty and between trust and uncertainty. Additionally, this research defines the variables related to customer uncertainty that are hidden in S-commerce, and statistically verifies their relationship. The research results can be used in Internet marketing practices to establish marketing mix strategies for customer demand or as research data to predict customer behavior. The results are scientifically meaningful as a precedent for research on customers in S-commerce.

  16. A Business Application of the System Dynamics Approach: Word-of-Mouth and Its Effect in an Online Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Ye Sheng

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we illustrate the use of system dynamics modeling approach to study a complex system: word-of-mouth. Word-of-mouth plays an important role in reducing risk and uncertainty in purchase and consumption. Most of the prior research on word-of-mouth focused on studying either the factors that trigger consumers’ participation (sending or receiving in word-of-mouth activities or the impact word-of-mouth information has on consumers’ buying decisions. The relationship between the two decision processes, however, is recursive and dynamic. Most prior studies have not focused on a recursive relationship. Our objective is to present a system dynamics model for the study of the relationship between the buying decision and the decision to participate in word-of-mouth communication. We also discuss how system dynamics modeling can be used in other complex problems in business such as the creation of a global business.

  17. Pengaruh Electronic Word of Mouth Pada Forum Online Female Daily Terhadap Minat Beli Produk Purbasari Di Kalangan Remaja Wanita

    OpenAIRE

    Wardani, Annisa Kesuma; ", Rumyeni

    2017-01-01

    Electronic Word of Mouth becomes a vanue or a place that is very important for consumers to give their opinions and is considered more effective than word of mouth because of the level of accessibility and wider range than traditional word of mouth offline. In communication theory using computer intermediaries or usually called Computer Mediated Communication theory examines how human behavior is maintained and changed by exchanging information through machines This study aims to find out how...

  18. Thinking about the service encounter enhances encounter-related word-of-mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    ) the memorability of the service encounter and (b) the extent to which what had happened had been subject to rehearsal with the purpose of telling others about it. These findings should be seen in relation to the literature’s view that customer satisfaction, not thinking, is a dominant predictor of word-of-mouth......This study examines the impact of thinking about a service encounter, after it has been completed, on telling others about it (i.e., word-of-mouth). The main finding was that encounter-related thinking boosted word-of-mouth. We also found that the think-talk association was mediated by (a....... Our results, however, indicate that satisfaction’s contribution to the variation in talking about the encounter was modest (and customer satisfaction played only a minor role in explaining why an encounter is thought about)....

  19. Word-of-mouth dynamics with information seeking: Information is not (only) epidemics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiriot, Samuel

    2018-02-01

    Word-of-mouth is known to determine the success or failure of innovations (Rogers, 2003) and facilitate the diffusion of products (Katz and Lazarsfeld, 1955). Word-of-mouth is made of both individuals seeking out information and/or pro-actively spreading information (Gilly et al., 1998; Rogers, 2003). Information seeking is considered as a step mandatory for individuals to retrieve the expert knowledge necessary for them to understand the benefits of an innovation or decide to buy a product (Arndt, 1967; Rogers, 2003). Yet the role of information seeking in the word-of-mouth dynamics was not investigated in computational models. Here we study in which conditions word-of-mouth enables the population to retrieve the initial expertise scattered in the population. We design a computational model in which awareness and expert knowledge are both represented, and study the joint dynamics of information seeking and proactive transmission of information. Simulation experiments highlight the apparition of cascades of awareness, cascades of expertise and chains of information retrieval. We find that different strategies should be used depending on the initial proportion of expertise (disruptive innovations, incremental innovations or products belonging to well-known categories). Surprisingly, when there is too much expertise in the population prior the advertisement campaign, word-of-mouth is less efficient in the retrieval of this expertise than when less expertise is initially present. Our results suggest that information seeking plays a key role in the dynamics of word-of-mouth, which can therefore not be reduced solely to the epidemic aspect.

  20. Are word-of-mouth communications contributing to a shortage of nephrology nurses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, William A

    2014-01-01

    Nephrology nurse shortages have historically been viewed as a subset of the overall nursing supply in the United States. Not-here-to-fore considered as a contributing factor are the effects of word-of-mouth and Internet-based word-of-mouth communications from nurses who have had disappointing work experiences in hemodialysis clinics. This article discusses the potential effects of word-of-mouse communications and posits that negative word-of-mouse communications may discourage new and experienced nurses from considering the specialty of nephrology nursing, thus contributing to a nephrology nursing shortage.

  1. Electronic word-of-mouth in consumer fashion blogs. A netnographic study

    OpenAIRE

    KULMALA, MARIANNE

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in consumer fashion blogs. The phenomenon of fashion blogs has become very popular among fashion consumers and companies within recent years. Fashion consumers buy clothes and shoes online, are active in social media pages, and produce electronic word-of-mouth in online communities. Fashion companies have noticed this change and want to be present in the Internet in different ways. In fashion blogs, there ar...

  2. Technical Note—A Pure Birth Model of Optimal Advertising with Word-of-Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Monahan

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic, dynamic model of advertising, which incorporates both advertising and word-of-mouth effects, is formulated. The time between the acquisition of new customers is assumed to be random. The distribution of the time until the firm obtains a new customer depends upon the rate of advertising expenditures and upon a word-of-mouth parameter. The problem of choosing the rate of advertising expenditures so as to maximize long-run expected profit is formulated as a continuous-time Markov d...

  3. The Study Of Properties Of The Word Of Mouth Marketing Using Cellular Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalska-Styczeń Agnieszka

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the possibility of using cellular automata, to study the properties of word of mouth (w-o-m marketing. Cellular automata allow to analyze the dynamics of changes in views and attitudes in social groups based on local interactions between people in small groups of friends, family members etc. The proposed paper shows the possibility of modelling the dynamics of word of mouth mechanism, if the basic assumptions of this process are: different size groups where this phenomenon occurs, and varied access to information. On the competing firms market, the dependence of the w-o-m mechanism dynamics on the model parameters is shown

  4. The Role of Social Ties in Word-of-Mouth Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne Duhr; Grønholdt, Lars

    2015-01-01

    This article develops consumer segmentation based on the strength of social ties in word-of-mouth (WOM) communication and examines the influence of WOM on behavioral attitude and intention in these segments. Data were collected through a survey among receivers of retail banking WOM. A cluster...

  5. Sales and sincerity: the role of relational framing in word-of-mouth marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, M.A.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smidts, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    In word-of-mouth marketing, marketers often provide financial rewards for referrals. These rewards introduce a financial motive into an interaction among friends or acquaintances, which may harm the perceived sincerity of the referring customer. We show that this negative effect can be mitigated by

  6. Automating "Word of Mouth" to Recommend Classes to Students: An Application of Social Information Filtering Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Queen Esther

    2009-01-01

    An approach used to tackle the problem of helping online students find the classes they want and need is a filtering technique called "social information filtering," a general approach to personalized information filtering. Social information filtering essentially automates the process of "word-of-mouth" recommendations: items are recommended to a…

  7. Internal Customer Satisfaction and Service Quality Toward Trust and Word of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Rahayu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study generally aims to analyze the influence of internal customer satisfaction and perceptions of service quality in creating trust and word of mouth in higher education service industry. In the process, this study aims to achieve a special purpose, which is to build constructs/ variables to measure internal customer satisfaction, so in the future it can be applied to universally in other institutions of higher education. The results of this study indicate that the internal customer satisfaction can be measured with three constructs, namely: service product, service delivery, and service environment. All of those variables have significant relationship with trust, which is significantly related to word of mouth. On the other side, communication, productivity and responsiveness are found to be significant in measuring the perceptions of service quality.The results also proved that the perception of service quality is significantly related to trust and word of mouth. This study is expected to contribute measurement tools of internal customer satisfaction in higher education. This research is also expected to enrich discussion on how to measure the internal customer satisfaction and service quality toward trust and word of mouth in higher education. Thus the higher education can continue to strive to provide educational service in accordance with the expectations of the customers.

  8. Sales and sincerity: The role of relational framing in word-of-mouth marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, M.A.; Verlegh, P.W.J.; Smidts, A.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.

    2009-01-01

    In word-of-mouth marketing, marketers often provide financial rewards for referrals. These rewards introduce a financial motive into an interaction among friends or acquaintances, which may harm the perceived sincerity of the referring customer. We show that this negative effect can be mitigated by

  9. Sales and sincerity : The role of relational framing in word-of-mouth marketing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuk, Mirjam A.; Verlegh, Peeter W. J.; Smidts, Ale; Wigboldus, Daniel H. J.

    2009-01-01

    In word-of-mouth marketing, marketers often provide financial rewards for referrals. These rewards introduce a financial motive into an interaction among friends or acquaintances, which may harm the perceived sincerity of the referring customer. We show that this negative effect can be mitigated by

  10. Walk Your Talk: An Experimental Investigation of the Relationship between Word of Mouth and Communicators’ Loyalty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garnefeld, I.J.; Helm, S.; Eggert, A

    2011-01-01

    Research provides ample evidence regarding the impact of word-of-mouth (WOM) communication on recipients. Service providers increasingly attempt to harness this power of WOM by introducing referral reward programs and other marketing instruments that aim to stimulate positive WOM. However, scholars

  11. The Investigation on Brand Image of University Education and Students' Word-of-Mouth Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Tsu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to find how the brand image and satisfaction of universities influence university students' word-of-mouth behavior, including the sharing of satisfying experiences and recommendations to others. This study conducted a questionnaire survey and distributed 400 questionnaires to students and graduates of universities in Taiwan; 336…

  12. Acquiring Customers via Word-of-Mouth Referrals : A Virtuous Strategy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Constant; Lemmens, Aurélie

    2015-01-01

    Managers are increasingly using word-of-mouth (WOM) acquisition strategies, such as seeded WOM or referral programs, to acquire new customers. These strategies have proven successful in recruiting customers with higher margin and lower churn probability compared to customers acquired otherwise.

  13. Marketing of Academic Library Services through Social Networking Sites: Implications of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddike, Md. Abul Kalam; Kiran, K.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to investigate the perceptions of academic librarians towards the marketing of library services through social networking sites (SNSs) and their understanding of using electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) as a marketing tool in academic libraries. This study follows a qualitative data-gathering approach of structured…

  14. How Brand Jealousy Influences the Relationship between Brand Attachment and Word of Mouth Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu İlter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between brand attachment and word of mouth communication (WOM, brand attachment and brand jealousy; brand jealousy and WOM; and the mediating role of brand jealousy on the relationship between brand attachment and word of mouth communication. The measurement model is analyzed via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA. Further, structural equation modeling was performed in order to test the construct relations in the theoretical framework of this study. Findings of the study show that even though as brand attachment increases positive word of mouth increases, however in the existence of jealousy even people that are attached to a brand they may not talk favorably about it, and in fact make negative word of mouth communication The present research is expected to extend the prior research contributing to the extant literature by investigating an emerging concept of brand jealousy and its possible antecedents (i.e. brand attachment and outcomes (i.e. negative and positive WOM.

  15. Autonomous and advertising-dependent 'word of mouth' under costly dynamic pricing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Ouardighi, Fouad; Feichtinger, G.; Grass, D.; Hartl, R.F.; Kort, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous 'word of mouth', as a channel of social influence that is out of firms' direct control, has acquired particular importance with the development of the Internet. Depending on whether a given product or service is a good or a bad deal, this can significantly contribute to commercial success

  16. Word of Mouth Marketing in Mouth and Dental Health Centers towards Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aykut Ekiyor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influencing the shopping style of others by passing on the experiences of goods purchased or services received is a way of behavior that has its roots in history. The main objective of th is research is to analyze the effects of demographic factors within the scope of word of mouth marketing on the choices of mouth and dental health services. Consumers receiving service from mouth and dental health centers of the Turkish Republic Ministry o f Health constitute the environment of the research. The research conducted in order to determine the mouth and dental health center selection of consumers within the scope of word of mouth marketing. The research has been conducted in Ankara through simpl e random sampling. The sample size has been determined as 400. In terms of word of mouth marketing which has been determined as the third hypothesis of the study, as a result of the analysis of the statistical relationship between mouth and dental health c enter preference and demographic factor groups, it has been determined that there is a meaningful difference in terms of age, level of education, level of income and some dimensions of marital status and that no meaningful difference has been found in term s of gender. It has been attempted to determine the importance of word of mouth marketing in healthcare services

  17. Antecedents to Intention to Engage in the Online Negative Word-of-Mouth Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dien Mardhiyah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Complaints delivered directly to a firm will not be a problem if they can be handled properly, while the ones that are not disclosed directly to the firm but to a third party or even warnings to others not to use particular products or services, will be negative word-of-mouth communication. It can damage the image of the firm and be very detrimental. The purpose of this study was to analyze the antecedents of intention to engage in negative online word-of-mouth communication that includes dissatisfaction, service importance, success of complaint, complaint benefit, self confidence, altruism, retaliatory intention, and complaint cost. Medical services were selected considering the impact caused by the negligence of the service provider possibly giving rise to negative word-of-mouth communication. The online environment has been considered because of the developments in technology which provide opportunities for consumers to communicate with ach other. In addition, the dissemination of information through online media can spread incredibly widely and rapidly. The samples in this study comprised consumers of medical services who had disappointing experiences in using those services either directly or indirectly. A total of 123 questionnaires were analyzed with multiple regression analysis to test the research hypothesis. The results showed that the factors influencing the intentions behind negative online word-of-mouth communication were success of complaint, altruism, retaliatory intention, and complaint cost.

  18. Toward an Understanding of Online Word-of-Mouth Message Content and the Booking Intentions of Lodging Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Loon, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influences the booking intentions of lodging consumers. The objectives were (1) determine what elements of the message structure of an online word-of-mouth referral influenced the booking intention of lodging consumers and (2)…

  19. The Mediation Role Of Brand Preference On The Relationship Between Consumer–Based Brand Equity And Word Of Mouth Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkan YILDIZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important asset needed to achieve the competitive advantage is having a strong brand equity. In this study, the relations between the dimensions of consumerbased brand equity and those of word of mouth marketing were analysed. In addition, the mediating role of the brand preference was checked. The sample consisted of 1000 people living in Istanbul, Ankara, and Izmir. The sampling method used was quota sampling. In the conclusions of this study, it was observed that: there are effects of brand awareness and brand association dimensions on the negative word of mouth marketing, perceived quality on the positive and negative word of mouth marketing, and brand loyalty on the positive word of mouth marketing. Brand preference has a partial mediation role in the relations between the perceived quality dimension of consumerbased brand equity and the dimensions of positive and negative word of mouth marketing

  20. EFEKTIFITAS WORD OF MOUTH TERHADAP MINAT BELI KONSUMEN PRODUK JIGAR FRUIT SALAD DI PLAZA SEMANGGI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhendra Suhendra

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There are many ways to convey the message to promote, so that the target market right on target. To promote the growing consumer interest in buying that nominal required no small amount of good to advertise in print media, TV, internet, radio. This probably would not have happened if it can maximize the promotion by using the Word Of Mouth. It is applied by Jigar Fruit Salad which is a culinary business. Varian products include Mayo Fruit Salad, Yogurt Fruit Salad, Pickled Fruit Salad, Fruit Salad Rojak Caramel, honey Dazzling Fruit Salad, Fruit Rojak Serut Salad, Fruit Salad and Mango Fruit Toast. Jigar Fruit Salad has a target market aged 19-40 years, male and female students and employees, SES B, a healthy lifestyle. Jigar Fruit Salad is located in Plaza Semanggi Mall foodcourt with minimal skills possessed to start the promotion, Fruit Salad Jigar select Word of Mouth as a way to intensify the promotion, establish a commercially viable product and consumption with positioning as a healthy food and fresh as the most basis for intensifying Word of Mouth to reach consumers to buy the product Jigar fruit salad.   Ada banyak cara untuk menyampaikan pesan untuk berpromosi, agar target market tepat sasaran. Untuk berpromosi sehingga minat beli konsumen tumbuh dibutuhkan nominal yang tidak sedikit untuk mengiklankan baik di media cetak, TV, internet, radio. Hal ini mungkin tidak akan terjadi jika dapat memaksimalkan promosi dengan menggunakan Word Of Mouth. Hal tersebut diaplikasikan oleh Jigar Fruit Salad yang merupakan satu bisnis kuline. Varian produknya antara lain Fruit Salad Mayo, Fruit Salad Yogurt, Fruit Salad Asinan, Fruit Salad Rujak Caramel, Fruit Salad honey Dazzling, Fruit Salad Rujak Serut, Fruit Manggo Salad dan Roti Panggang Buah.Jigar Fruit Salad mempunyai target market umur 19 – 40 tahun, laki- laki dan perempuan mahasiswa dan karyawan, SES B , bergaya hidup sehat. Jigar Fruit Salad terletak di Foodcourt Mall Plaza Semanggi

  1. Correlates of justice encounter in service recovery and word-of-mouth publicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart O. Awa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines word-of-mouth publicity as an outcome of consumer perception of equitable recovery programs. Survey data were drawn from 317 teachers of Federal Government Colleges and 79 executives of mobile telephone firms in the southeastern and south–south zones; this sample came from locations where Global Systems for Mobile Communications and Code Data Multiple Access networks have interface. Using the partial least square to analyze the data, the path coefficients with their respective t-values greater than 1.96 confirm that the justice dimensions have statistically significant relationship with word-of-mouth. Thus, the manipulation of justice dimensions in the events of service failure affects customers’ advocacy behavior. The study recommends proactive and relational approaches in dealing with customer issues as well as fair and equitable recovery and complaint handling programs to suit the needs of the complainants, get them satisfied, and to cause them to progress in the loyalty ladder.

  2. Consumers' use of HCAHPS ratings and word-of-mouth in hospital choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, John W; Carlson, Jay P

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the impact of the HCAHPS report of patient experiences and word-of-mouth narratives on consumers' hospital choice. Online consumer research panel of U.S. adults ages 18 and older. In an experiment, 309 consumers were randomly assigned to see positive or negative information about a hospital in two modalities: HCAHPS graphs and a relative's narrative e-mail. Then they indicated their intentions to choose the hospital for elective surgery. A simple, one-paragraph e-mail and 10 HCAHPS graphs had similar impacts on consumers' hospital choice. When information was inconsistent between the HCAHPS data and e-mail narrative, one modality attenuated the other's effect on hospital choice. The findings illustrate the power of anecdotal narratives, suggesting that policy makers should consider how HCAHPS data can be affected by word-of-mouth communication. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  3. Building trust in e-banking and its effect on positive word-of-mouth advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Shaemi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, new technologies have changed the way of serving customers in many service organizations including banking industry. The importance of websites and their exclusive characteristics in presenting various kinds of services to the bank customers has increased. This paper presents a compound model to investigate the effect of traditional and online elements on customers' trust in electronic banking and word of mouth advertisement. For this purpose, a standard questionnaire based on Likert segmentation has been used and 384 customers of Shiraz Mellat bank branches have been tested, randomly. Using structural equation modeling, the study shows that both traditional characteristics of bank and website characteristics rather have positive effects on customers’ trust in electronic banking, which increase word of mouth advertising, positively.

  4. Word of Mouth Intention toward Entrepreneurial Restaurant in Shopping Mall Center Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liza Agustina Maureen Nelloh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A shopping mall center as the strategic place to earn profits attracts young entrepreneurs to create new restaurants as their businesses in Surabaya nowadays. This research proposed to see the effectiveness of building a new venture in the shopping mall through a test of word of mouth intention with its antecedents (customer satisfaction, perceived price, service quality, and food quality. To test the hypothesis, the researchers used PLS (Partial Least Square. The result of this research indicated that only perceived price and service quality have significant and positive effect on customer satisfaction, thus food quality had no significant effect on customer satisfaction. Moreover, customer satisfaction had significant and positive effect on word of mouth intention toward the restaurant. Managerial implications of this study will encourage young entrepreneurs to increase the menu, the taste and the variation of the food to improve food quality of his or her new restaurants in a shopping mail center.

  5. WHO ARE FANS OF FACEBOOK FAN PAGES? AN ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given its great business value and popularity, Facebook fan pages have attracted more and more attention in both industry and academia. Fans of Facebook fan pages play an important role in electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM communication. This study focused on the population of fans on Facebook fan pages and examined the differences between fans and non-fans in terms of demographics, social network sites (SNS use, Internet use, and online shopping behaviors. The results indicated that fans used SNS more frequently than non-fans. Additionally, from the eWOM perspective, the researchers moderated product types in the model of people’s word-of-mouth (WOM preferences and found that people had different preferences for eWOM and traditional WOM for different products. Traditional WOM is still the most important source of information for people when shopping online.

  6. Model Komunikasi Word Of Mouth pada Konsumen Gudeg Pawon di Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Utama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini memfokuskan perhatiannya pada perumusan model komunikasi word of mouth (WOM dalam teori level mikro. Proses perumusan model dilakukan dengan cara mencari, menghubungkan dan menyimpulkan keterlibatan elemen-elemen yang ada dalam komunikasi WOM menggunakan logika S-R. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode eksploratif kualitatif dan memilih Gudeg Pawon sebagai obyek penelitian. Hasil temuan model dapat dipahami melalui dua perspektif analisis, yaitu: perspektif individual partisipan WOM dan perspektif interaksional WOM.

  7. Pengaruh Kepuasan dan Loyalitas Pelanggan terhadap Word Of Mouth pada Pelanggan Honda Motor di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmawati, Yuli; Suminar, Bagus

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine whether increased sales and increased production that occurs at the Honda motor company were due to customers satisfaction, loyalty, and word of mouth. The method of analysis was done by means of multiple linear regression analysis andpath analysis. The data were collected through a survey questionnaire. Questionnaires were distributed to Honda customers who were inadvertently encountered. They were the customers of Honda motorcycles with more than one year. The m...

  8. PENGARUH ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH PADA CITRA MEREK DAN NIAT BELI PADA WARUNK UPNORMAL

    OpenAIRE

    Siswanto, Mita

    2017-01-01

    Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menguji pengaruh electronic word of mouth pada citra merek dan niat beli pada Warunk Upnormal. Penelitian ini mengambil responden mahasiswa yang ada di Yogyakarta. Jumlah sampel yang valid dan dipakai dalam penelitian ini adalah 202 responden. Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah purposive random sampling, dengan pengumpulan data yang digunakan adalah kuesioner online. Data dianalisis menggunakan regresi linier sederhana, dan analisis regresi...

  9. Influence of electronic word-of-mouth on customers’ purchasing decisions of tourism services in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Chowdhury , Nasif

    2016-01-01

    For quite a long time, informal exchange has been an extremely successful instrument in showcasing tourism administrations. As of late, the data innovation advancement has given a considerably all the more capable edge for this instrument. This article reflects upon this new advancement of electronic informal exchange and surveys its impact on clients' obtaining choices of tourism administrations in Bangladesh. The discoveries have affirmed that electronic word of mouth definite affects clien...

  10. Pengaruh Website Quality, Electronic Word-of-mouth, dan Sales Promotion terhadap Impulse Buying pada Zalora

    OpenAIRE

    Ngurah Sugianto, Yonita Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of website quality, electronic word-of-mouth, and sales promotion against impulse buying at Zalora. This study uses a quantitative method by distributing questionnaires to 80 respondents who meet the requirements of the study. 80 respondents consisted of respondents who are browsing on the website Zalora encountered by researchers. Processing of research data using SPSS 24.0. the result of three independent variables: website quality, electroni...

  11. Pengaruh Word Of Mouth terhadap Keputusan Pembelian dan Kepuasan Konsumen (Studi pada Konsumen Kober Mie Setan Jalan Simpang Soekarno-hatta Nomor 1-2 Malang)

    OpenAIRE

    Ajie Nugraha, Finnan Aditya

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan tentang: pengaruh word of mouth terhadap keputusan pembelian, pengaruh keputusan pembelian terhadap kepuasan konsumen, pengaruh word of mouth terhadap kepuasan konsumen, dan pengaruh word of mouth terhadap kepuasan konsumen melalui keputusan pembelian. Jenis penelitian yang digunakan adalah penelitian penjelasan atau explanatory research dengan pendekatan kuantitatif. Populasi dari penelitian ini adalah konsumen kober mie setan yang membeli berdasark...

  12. Positive Word of Mouth Marketing: Explaining the Roles of Value Congruity and Brand Love

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirkhodaie Maisam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many companies have found that for their products to be successful in the market, they must first pay for word of mouth marketing and then utilize other types of ads. Previous studies have not paid enough attention to the value of target consumers. This study evaluates the roles of value congruity, brand love, and brand image in creating a consumer commitment that leads to positive word of mouth. The sample is comprised of makeup consumers in Rasht, Iran. At first, thirty stores were selected in the city center. Then, 384 questionnaires were distributed with sampling available in selected stores. Amos 22 was used to test the conceptual model. The results show that the value congruity of the brand consumer has a positive impact on the brand image and brand commitment. Moreover, brand love and brand commitment have a significant positive impact on positive word of mouth. But the impacts of brand image and brand love on brand commitment are rejected. Also, brand image has a significant positive impact on brand love.

  13. The use of online word of mouth opinion in online learning: a questionnaire survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandars, John; Walsh, Kieran

    2009-04-01

    There is increasing use of online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) systems for general services but its use in online learning has not been previously investigated. To understand why users of BMJ Learning provide and read word of mouth feedback, and whether this feedback influences uptake of modules by prospective users. Online questionnaire of users of BMJ Learning who had completed online user feedback. 109 questionnaires were completed (response rate 25%). The main motivation to contribute was to influence the authors of the module (66%), and 43% stated that they wanted to help other users to make an informed choice. 16% stated that they wanted to develop an online community of learners. The main motivation to read the user feedback was to see if they agreed with the comments (56%). Online word of mouth opinion (user feedback) appears to be useful for online learners. There are also system design considerations since the attempt to create an online community of learners that is desired by some users will not be appreciated by others. Further research with a larger number of users is recommended to confirm the findings.

  14. Pengaruh Electronic Word Of Mouth (eWOM Terhadap Minat Beli Followers Instagram Pada Warunk Upnormal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Ayu Laksmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of technology and information, Warunk Upnormal using social media Instagram as a place for promoting. From the results of the initial survey that researchers do indicate that the many comments that recommends Warunk Upnormal, causing people interested in being followers Instagram of Warunk Upnormal to get information and would like to visit Warunk Upnormal.This study aimed to analyze the effect of Electronic Word of Mouth towards purchase intention of followers instagram Warunk Upnormal. The type of research used is descriptive and causal research with the method used is quantitative. The population in this study is Warunk Upnormal’s Instagram followers. The sampling technique that being used is nonprobability sampling with the sampling incidental sampling. This study was involving 400 respondents of followers Instagram Warunk Upnormal. This study uses simple regression analysis technique. Based on the results, it can be concluded that Electronic Word of Mouth has significant effect on purchase intention of followers instagram Warunk Upnormal. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 calculation can be known the magnitude of the effect of electronic word of mouth (X variable on purchase intention (Y was 14.9%. While the remaining 85.1% is influenced by other factors.

  15. Pengaruh Word of Mouth Marketing dan Pameran terhadap Keputusan Orang Tua Memilih Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartiwi Prabowo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In decision-making of choosing schools, people recommendation is effected. WOM factor and exhibition twice in a year for ISMILE school is a considered efficient and effective promotional media. The research method is to identify the effect of word of mouth and exhibition towards perception of value proposition and effects of decision-making. Analysis method in this research is validity, reliability, normality test, simple correlation and path analysis. Data gathering technique is questionnaire. The repondents in the research are 100 people, including parents from students in ISMILE school. The expected result from this research is a relationship among variables, significant effects from word of mouth and exhibition at the same time of perception towards value position and significant effects from perception of value proposition towards decision- making. From this research, ISMILE school should hold exhibition and focus to things that will lead to positive word of mouth so it could gain more parents register their children in ISMILE school. 

  16. An experimental investigation of justice-based service recovery on customer satisfaction, loyalty, and word-of-mouth intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Terri; Nieman-Gonder, Jennifer M; Andreoli, Nicole A; Trimarco-Beta, Darlene

    2006-12-01

    Service recovery is related to many important organizational outcomes such as customer satisfaction, loyalty, and profitability. Within the theoretical framework of organizational justice, an experiment using a simulated "live" service failure was used to assess the effects of justice-based service-recovery strategies on customer satisfaction, loyalty, positive word-of-mouth intentions, and negative word-of-mouth intentions. Analysis indicated that strategies including interactional justice, distributive justice, and a combination of these were equally effective in maintaining customer satisfaction, loyalty, and positive word of mouth, and minimizing negative word of mouth after a service failure. No support for the service recovery paradox, that is, increased satisfaction following service failure and recovery compared to never having a problem, was found. Satisfaction and loyalty for those in the failure conditions were equal to, although not higher than, in the no-failure control condition. Practical implications for organizational practices are discussed.

  17. Analisis Pengaruh Internet Marketing Terhadap Pembentukan Word of Mouth and Brand Awareness Untuk Memunculkan Intention to Buy

    OpenAIRE

    Andriyanto, Richard Darmawan; Haryanto, Jony Oktavian

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to prove whether internet marketing does give positive influence to the formation of brand awareness and word of mouth, then whether if internet marketing is directly give positive influence to formation of intention to buy. Furthermore, the writer wants to analyze the relationship between brand awareness and word of mouth to create intention to buy. The data was analyzed using structural equation modeling with Amos software. Sample of this re...

  18. Pengaruh Kepuasan Konsumen Terhadap Loyalitas Merek Dengan Word Of Mouth Sebagai Variabel Mediasi (Studi Pada Klinik Kecantikan Di Kota Medan)

    OpenAIRE

    Nuraini

    2017-01-01

    This research is aim to investigate the influence of customer satisfaction and word of mouth as the mediating variable towards brand loyalty. The number of sample on this research was 105 respondents from consumer of certain beauty clinic with using purposive sampling. Data collected through customer satisfaction scale, word of mouth scale, and brand loyalty scale. The result showed there was influence of customer satisfaction towards brand loyalty, also customer satisfactio...

  19. The impact of personal connection on customer behaviours (word-of-mouth intention and retention) in service encounters

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ning; Zhao, Qi; Ardley, Barry

    2015-01-01

    In services marketing it is widely acknowledged that a relationship approach may facilitate in customer retention and enhance customer loyalty, and further influence customer post-purchase behaviours e.g. word-of-mouth. In this study, a specific relationship in service encounters, personal connections between customers and service employees, is explored in its indications on different outcomes from service encounters including three types of word-of-mouth behaviour intention and retention. Th...

  20. Electronic word-of-mouths påverkan på CRM : En fallstudie av en organisation inom kulturbranschen

    OpenAIRE

    Klasén, Sara; Swebilius, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Social media has increased the possibilities for consumers to gather and share consumption related experiences with other consumers through electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM). eWOM affects the relationship between customer and business, and therefore also affects customer relationship management (CRM). Therefore, the research question of this study is: “How does electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) affect customer relationship management (CRM) at an organization in the creative industry?”. The purpos...

  1. Pengaruh Celebrity Endorser Dan Word Of Mouth Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Produk Sweater Online Shop Alco Di Media Sosial Instagram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Amalina Fildzah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Alco is a small and medium businesses producing knit sweaters. Alco admitted about an increase in sales after endorsement to celebrity endorser. But, there is a decline in sales in the mid 2016 even Alco been using celebrity endorser. From the initial survey results that the researcher conducted to prove recognition of Alco, these survey results showed that respondents knew Alco online shop and make a purchase decision from celebrity endorser, word of mouth, and explore Instagram. Inside Instagram, in addition to celebrity endorser that can affect a person's buying decision contained in a photo caption in the social media Instagram. And from the caption can be said as a word of mouth expressed by consumers an online shop on Instagram. explore Instagram is a feature from Instagram Thus, this study uses independent variable celebrity endorser and word of mouth.This study was conducted to know the influence of celebrity endorser and word of mouth partially and simultaneously on the purchase decision of sweater in an online shop Alco in social media Instagram.The type of research used is descriptive and causal research with the method used is quantitative. This study was involving 100 respondents of Alco consumers in social media Instagram. The sampling technique was using a non-probability sampling type of incidental sampling. This study uses multiple regression analysis technique. The results showed that simultaneously celebrity endorser and word of mouth are significantly influencing purchase decisions. Partially celebrity endorser and word of mouth are significantly influencing purchase decisions.

  2. The impacts of electronic word of mouth in social media on consumers` purchase intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, C; Erkan, I

    2014-01-01

    The influence of Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) on consumers` purchase intentions has been known for a long time. However, eWOM has gained a new dimension with the advent of social media. Before this new phenomenon, people were able to talk with anonymous people on the Internet. Social media enable people to talk with friends and acquaintances, on the Internet. This new way of eWOM might be more powerful in terms of triggering purchase intention. This study discusses the electronic word of m...

  3. THE IMPACT OF EXPERIENTIAL MARKETING ON WORD OF MOUTH WITH CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AS A INTERVENING VARIABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Muhammad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available PT Maktour got a predicate from the Ministry of Religous Affairs as the best special hajj and umrah  organizer and was ranked as the Top Brand Index category travel agency in 2014. This study was to examine the impact of Experiential marketing on word of mouth (WOM with customer satisfaction as intervening variable. The research design used hypothesis testing with a purposive sampling techniques. The respondents in this study were 105 respondents. The data were analyzed using AMOS software 20. The result showed Experiential marketing has a significant on customer satisfaction and WOM.

  4. Word of Mouth : An Agent-based Approach to Predictability of Stock Prices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimokawa, Tetsuya; Misawa, Tadanobu; Watanabe, Kyoko

    This paper addresses how communication processes among investors affect stock prices formation, especially emerging predictability of stock prices, in financial markets. An agent based model, called the word of mouth model, is introduced for analyzing the problem. This model provides a simple, but sufficiently versatile, description of informational diffusion process and is successful in making lucidly explanation for the predictability of small sized stocks, which is a stylized fact in financial markets but difficult to resolve by traditional models. Our model also provides a rigorous examination of the under reaction hypothesis to informational shocks.

  5. A discount strategy in word-of-mouth marketing and its assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Tianrui; Yang, Xiaofan; Yang, Lu-Xing; Tang, Yuan Yan; Wu, Yingbo

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the discount pricing in word-of-mouth (WOM) marketing. A new discount strategy known as the Infection-Based Discount (IBD) strategy is proposed. The basic idea of the IBD strategy lies in that each customer enjoys a discount that is linearly proportional to his/her influence in the WOM network. To evaluate the performance of the IBD strategy, the WOM spreading process is modeled as a dynamic model known as the DPA model, and the performance of the IBD strategy is modeled ...

  6. Understanding the Influence of Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Outbound Tourists’ Visit Intention

    OpenAIRE

    Wang , Ping

    2014-01-01

    Part 1: Digital Services; International audience; The valence of online user-generated reviews is an increasing important antecedents affecting tourist’s decision with the pervasion of Web 2.0 and information and communication technology. The purpose of this study is to explore the influence of electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) on outbound tourists’ intention to visit a destination through a dual-process perspective. A research model was proposed based on the dual-route theory of elaboration li...

  7. Exploring emotional expressions in e-word-of-mouth from online communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Standing, Craig; Holzweber, Markus; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Electronic word-of-mouth communication (eWOM) is an important force in building a digital marketplace. The study of eWOM has implications for how to build an online community through social media design, web communication and knowledge exchange. Innovative use of eWOM has significant benefits......, especially for start-up firms. We focus on how users on the web communicate value related to online products. It is the premise of this paper that generating emotional value (E-value) in social media and networking sites (SMNS) is critical for the survival of new e-service ventures. Hence, by introducing...

  8. Investigating electronic word-of-mouth effects on online discussion forums: the role of perceived positive electronic word-of-mouth review credibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chih, Wen-Hai; Wang, Kai-Yu; Hsu, Li-Chun; Huang, Su-Chen

    2013-09-01

    Electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has been an important factor influencing consumer purchase decisions. Using the ABC model of attitude, this study proposes a model to explain how eWOM affects online discussion forums. Specifically, we propose that platform (Web site reputation and source credibility) and customer (obtaining buying-related information and social orientation through information) factors influence purchase intentions via perceived positive eWOM review credibility, as well as product and Web site attitudes in an online community context. A total of 353 online discussion forum users in an online community (Fashion Guide) in Taiwan were recruited, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test the research hypotheses. The results indicate that Web site reputation, source credibility, obtaining buying-related information, and social orientation through information positively influence perceived positive eWOM review credibility. In turn, perceived positive eWOM review credibility directly influences purchase intentions and also indirectly influences purchase intentions via product and Web site attitudes. Finally, we discuss the theoretical and managerial implications of the findings.

  9. An Effort to Increase Organ Donor Registration Through Intergroup Competition and Electronic Word of Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sandi W; Hitt, Rose; Park, Hee Sun; Walther, Joseph; Liang, Yuhua Jake; Hsieh, Gary

    2016-01-01

    The effort to increase Web organ donation registrations in Michigan by enhancing 2 types of university campaigns with social media strategies informed by social identity theory is the focus of this research. The two campaigns focused on either ingroup or rivalry outgroup social identification, and each was enhanced with individually focused social media in the first year of the campaign and with electronic word of mouth in Year 2 of the campaign. Results indicated that individually focused social media such as Facebook ads worked well in rivalry campaigns (in which registrations increased two times over baseline) but not in ingroup identification campaigns (in which registrations decreased significantly over baseline when ads were introduced in the first year of each type of campaign). Electronic word-of-mouth strategies worked well in both ingroup identification campaigns (in which registrations increased two times over baseline) and rivalry campaigns (in which registrations rose almost eight times over baseline, when strategies were introduced in the second year of each type of campaign).

  10. EFFECTS OF MEDICAL DISPUTES ON INTERNET COMMUNICATIONS OF NEGATIVE EMOTIONS AND NEGATIVE ONLINE WORD-OF-MOUTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi-Chih; Wu, Wei-Li

    2015-08-01

    Emotions play an important role in human behavior. Negative emotions resulting from medical disputes are problems for medical personnel to solve but also have a significant impact on a hospital's reputation and people's trust in the hospital. One medical dispute case was chosen from an Internet news source to assess the correlation between people's negative emotions and negative online word-of-mouth. Convenience sampling was used in school faculties and university students who had shared their medical treatment experiences online were the research participants. A total of 221 Taiwanese participants volunteered (158 women, 63 men; ages: 26.7% under 19, 22.6% 20-29, 30.8% 30-39,19.9% over 40). Four negative emotions were measured using rating scales: uncertainty, anger, disappointment, and sadness. Four negative online word-of-mouth measures were: venting, advice search, helping receiver, and revenge. A modeled relationship was assessed by partial least square method (PLS). Then, people's positive emotions were further analyzed to assess changes after spreading negative word-of-mouth. The results showed that uncertainty had a positive effect on venting and advice search. People who felt anger or regret spread word-of-mouth in order to help the receiver. Disappointment may trigger the revenge behavior of negative word-of-mouth. Negative emotions could be relieved after engaging in the behavior of helping the receiver.

  11. An Examination of the Effects of Electronic Word of Mouth on Consumers’ Purchase Decision: Through the Lens of Experience Good and Search Good

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zichen

    2013-01-01

    The prevailing of the Internet facilitates consumers to share information, opinions and experiences of products and services online. This new form of word of mouth communication is called electronic word of mouth (WOM). Nowadays, electronic word of mouth plays an important role in the consumers’ information search during the decision making process. A large number of managerial and academic attentions have been drawn to the effects of electronic WOM on consumer’s purchase decision. Factors wh...

  12. Pengaruh Pengalaman Menggunakan Produk dan Persepsi Konsumen Berdasarkan Kelompok Referensi terhadap Kesediaan Konsumen untuk Melakukan Word Of Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RM. Pradiptya Abikusno C.P.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Perilaku Word of Mouth terjadi karena adanya kebutuhan akan sumber informasi yang dapat dipercaya. Salah satu sumber informasi yang ada di masyarakat adalah kelompok referensi. orang-orang yang memakai produk Apple bukanlah orang-orang baru. Mereka sudah sangat self explanatif dan sudah sangat dekat dengan produk-produk Apple. Pengalaman kedekatan menggunakan produk ini bisa menjadi salah satu penyebab orang loyal terhadap merek dan berujung melakukan Word of Mouth. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kuantitatif yang menggambarkan atau menjelaskan suatu masalah yang hasilnya dapat digeneralisasikan. Pada akhirnya pengalaman menggunakan produk Apple bersama-sama persepsi konsumen berdasar kelompok referensi memiliki pengaruh yang lebih kuat terhadap tingkat kesediaan melakukan Word of Mouth.

  13. Information search in health care decision-making: a study of word-of-mouth and internet information users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snipes, Robin L; Ingram, Rhea; Jiang, Pingjun

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates how individual consumers may differ in their information search behavior in health care decision-making. Results indicate that most consumers still use word-of-mouth as a primary information source for health care decisions. However, usage of the Internet is increasing. The results of this study indicate that consumers who are most likely to use the Internet for health care information are single, younger, and less educated, whereas consumers who are most likely to use word-of-mouth are middle-aged, married, with higher income and higher education. Surprisingly, no significant gender difference was found in information search behavior for health care decision-making. The results also suggest that consumers with the highest tendency to use word-of-mouth are also the lowest users of the Internet in health care decision-making. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. A Developing Model Of Relationship Among Service Quality, Consumer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Word of Mouth In Islamic Banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Suryani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This  research  aims  to  develop  a  measurement  tool  of  service  quality  in  Islamic banking sector, and examine its relationship among satisfaction, word of mouth (WOM,  and  consumer  loyalty.  A  convenience  sampling  of  235  respondents collected  from  seven  locations  in  the  Lhokseumawe,  Aceh.  Partial  least  square -structural equation modeling- (PLS-SEM was used to test the research hypotheses. The results revealed that the quality of service has four dimensions, they are: service portfolio and assurance/SPA, tangibles/TAN, reliability of communication/COM, and Islamic values/IVA. The PLS-SEM results suggest that SPA and COM are dominant factors affecting satisfaction, and satisfaction were significantly related to WOM and loyalty. Loyalty also positively and significantly related to WOM.DOI:10.15408/aiq.v7i1.1357

  15. Can Better Outdoor Environments Lead to Cost Benefits in Assisted Living Facilities Through Increased Word-of-Mouth Referrals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodiek, Susan; Boggess, May M; Lee, Chanam; Booth, Geoffrey J; Morris, Alisan

    2013-01-01

    This study explores how better outdoor environments may produce cost benefits for assisted living providers by raising occupancy levels through increased resident satisfaction and word-of-mouth referrals. Older adults who spend even minimal time outdoors may reap substantial health benefits. However, many existing outdoor areas in assisted living facilities are reportedly underutilized, in part because of design issues. Providers may be more willing to improve outdoor areas if they produce cost benefits for provider organizations. This study used data from a recent assisted living survey to assess the relationship between satisfaction with outdoor spaces, time spent outdoors, and resulting improvements in mood. A financial analysis was developed to estimate potential benefits from improved outdoor areas attributable to increased occupancy and decreased marketing costs associated with increased word-of-mouth referrals. Increasing resident satisfaction with outdoor areas (from approximately 29% to 96%) results in residents spending more time outdoors (increase of 1½ hours per week per resident) and improved psychological well-being (12% increase in feeling better). This greater overall satisfaction leads to 8% more residents willing to refer potential residents to their community. Because word-of-mouth referrals by current residents are a major factor in resident recruitment, improving outdoors areas leads to an estimated 4% increase in new residents, resulting in over $170,000 of increased revenue per year for a community of 100 residents. Improved outdoor space can provide substantial cost benefits for assisted living providers. Increasing resident well-being and satisfaction, and thereby generating additional word-of-mouth referrals, can result in higher occupancy levels. Outdoor environments, assisted living, cost benefits, resident satisfaction, occupancy levels, seniors, rental income, word-of-mouth referralPreferred Citation: Rodiek, S., Boggess, M. M., Lee

  16. What are the key elements required for a successful and effective word of mouth tourism marketing campaign? – Case analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Piltonen, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to further study what are the key elements for successful and effective word of mouth marketing campaign in tourism. The objective was to identify the key elements by analysing a real life case provided for this thesis where a tourism board used word of mouth as part of their marketing campaign to increase awareness of the destination and drive tourism in the destination. The case was analysed with the support of secondary research conducted around the topics of...

  17. PENGARUH PROMOSI DI MEDIA SOSIAL DAN WORD OF MOUTH TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN (STUDI KASUS PADA KEDAI BONTACOS, JOMBANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagas Aji Pamungkas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPenelitian ini bertujuan mengetahui dan menjelaskan pengaruh promosi melalui media sosial dan word of mouth terhadap keputusan pembelian konsumen di kedai Bontacos baik secara parsial ataupun simultan. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kuantitatif. Sampel penelitian ini adalah 100 konsumen kedai Bontacos dengan menggunakan metode non probability sampling serta teknikaccidental sampling. Instrumen penelitian ini menggunakan kuesioner dan dianalisis menggunakananalisis regresi berganda.Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa promosi menggunakan media sosialdan word of mouthsecatraparsial dan simultan memiliki pengaruh terhadap keputusan pembelian.Penelitian ini memberikankonstribusi bagi Pemasar kedai Bontacos terkait strategi promosi di media sosial dan word of mouthyang efektif.Kata kunci : Promosi, media sosial, word of mouth, keputusan pembelian

  18. The Influence of Word of Mouth and Customer Motivations on Consumer Buying Behavior at Pondok Teterusan Restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    David, Ezara Daniella

    2014-01-01

    Consumer preferences and tastes constantly change. It is important for marketers to know what consumer needs and wants, how they spend their resources, how they decided to shop, visit, to eat, when to buy, and what to purchase. Experiences is one of the major factors of how customer make a decision. Good experiences means good viral marketing. Consumers value word of mouth twice as much as they value advertising. The objectives of this research are to analyze the influence of word of mouth to...

  19. Word-of-mouth marketing and enterprise strategies: a bottom-up diffusion model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco REMONDINO

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive simulation model is presented, aimed to show the dynamics of social diffusion based on the word of mouth (e.g.: viral marketing over a social network of interconnected individuals. The model is build following a bottom-up approach and the agent based paradigm; this means that the dynamics of the diffusion is simulated in real time and generated at the micro level, not calculated by using mathematical formulas. This allows both to follow – step by step – the emergent process and to be able – if needed – to add complex behavior for the agents and analyze how this impacts the phenomenon at the macro level.

  20. Role of word-of-mouth for programs of voluntary vaccination: A game-theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Samit; Bauch, Chris T; Breban, Romulus

    2015-11-01

    We propose a model describing the synergetic feedback between word-of-mouth (WoM) and epidemic dynamics controlled by voluntary vaccination. The key feature consists in combining a game-theoretic model for the spread of WoM and a compartmental model describing VSIR disease dynamics in the presence of a program of voluntary vaccination. We evaluate and compare two scenarios for determinants of behavior, depending on what WoM disseminates: (1) vaccine advertising, which may occur whether or not an epidemic is ongoing and (2) epidemic status, notably disease prevalence. Understanding the synergy between the two strategies could be particularly important for designing voluntary vaccination campaigns. We find that, in the initial phase of an epidemic, vaccination uptake is determined more by vaccine advertising than the epidemic status. As the epidemic progresses, epidemic status becomes increasingly important for vaccination uptake, considerably accelerating vaccination uptake toward a stable vaccination coverage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. How consumers evaluate eWOM (electronic word-of-mouth) messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doh, Sun-Jae; Hwang, Jang-Sun

    2009-04-01

    This experiment explored how consumers evaluate electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) messages about products. Each participant was exposed a 10-message set in a single board. Five groups were manipulated in terms of their ratios of positive and negative messages. The result showed significant differences across various sets of eWOM messages. Although more positive sets showed higher scores in many cases, this was not true in all situations, especially for the case of credibility. Involvement and prior knowledge partially moderated the relationship between the ratio of messages and the eWOM effect. The credibility of Web sites and eWOM messages can be damaged in the long run if all of the eWOM messages are positive.

  2. Merely asking the customer to recommend has an impact on word-of-mouth activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    impact on customers' WOM activity. In addition, we found that receiving the request was not negatively associated with the customers' overall evaluations, such as customer satisfaction, which indicates that the potential for negative consequences of making the request seems to be low.......This paper examines if a mere request to a customer – within the frame of a service encounter – to engage in word-of-mouth (WOM) would have an impact on the customer's subsequent WOM activity. Although previous studies have not examined this issue, theoretical arguments do exist. And they point...... in different directions; some suggest a positive impact, while others suggest a negative impact. To explore the issue empirically, we carried out two studies (one survey-based study and one experiment). Both generated the same result: they indicate that merely asking customers to engage in WOM has a positive...

  3. How Ad-talk and Word-of-Mouth Influence Consumers’ Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates: (a) if consumers talk about advertizing messages – ad-talk – is a new, distinct concept that differs from word-of-mouth (WOM) communication in definition and impact; (b) how ad-talk mobilizes WOM; (c) how WOM mediates the relationship between ad-talk and consumer responses....... A new model is developed that adapts the classic Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) framework by replacing the social norm with consumers’ ad-talk and WOM. Two large scale internet surveys are conducted to test and validate the model. Findings show that ad-talk and WOM are two different social processes....... Ad-talk only mobilizes PWOM. PWOM mediates and leverages ad-talk’s influence on consumer responses, because PWOM adds personal experiences, preferences and social acceptance to the brand promise seen in the firm’s advertizing. This changes the value of the brand and makes the firm’s offer better than...

  4. Word-Of-Mouth in Social Media. The Case of Polish Tourist Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deszczyński Bartosz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The core objective of this paper is to determine the level of online dialogue in social media between the tourist industry leaders and their customers. This study applies sequential explanatory industry-representative comparison with statistical and qualitative analysis of online word-of-mouth communication. Its main finding is that even if online marketing is a hot topic, online channels seem to be neglected by the companies failing to provide real-time dialogue services. This results in the loss of customer attention and engagement and can be linked with overall corporate relationship management immaturity. In addition, the article offers vital insight into customer value creation chain of hotel and tour operators.

  5. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Li-Chun

    2018-01-13

    This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM) intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%), and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  6. Investigating Effect of Service Encounter, Value, and Satisfaction on Word of Mouth: An Outpatient Service Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Chun Hsu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relationships among service encounter, service value, patient satisfaction, and word-of-mouth (WOM intention from the viewpoint of interactive marketing. Data were collected using a questionnaire survey. A total of 372 questionnaires were obtained and 350 of these questionnaires were valid (94.09%, and a structural equation model was used to analyze the data. This study proposed seven hypotheses, and five of the seven hypotheses were supported. Service encounters indirectly affect their patient WOM through service value and satisfaction. Therefore, service value and satisfaction play a crucial mediating role in linking service encounters and WOM. This study determined WOM intentions in an outpatient service context and provides crucial business implications for teaching hospitals to enable them to improve their service quality and achieve a sustainable operation.

  7. Emotions as Proximal Causes of Word of Mouth: A Nonlinear Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rita Rueff; Navarro, José; Silva, Ana Junca

    2018-01-01

    Service research tends to operationalize word of mouth (WOM) behavior as one of the many responses to service satisfaction. In this sense, little is known about its antecedents or moderators. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of customers' emotions during service experiences on WOM, applying nonlinear techniques and exploring the moderating role of customers' propensity for emotional contagion. Using the critical incidents technique, 122 customers recalled significant service experiences and the emotions they aroused, and reported if they shared said experiences with other individuals. We found that, whereas linear methods presented non-significant results in the emotions-WOM relationship, nonlinear ones (artificial neural networks) explained 46% of variance. Negative emotions were stronger predictors of WOM and the importance of emotions for WOM was significantly higher for individuals with high propensity for emotional contagion (R^2 = .79) than for those with lower levels (R^2 = .48). Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

  8. The Effect of Word-Of-Mouth on Consumer Emotions and Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Grønholdt, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine how received word-of-mouth (WOM) influences consumer emotions and, in turn, behavioral attitude and intention. Design/methodology/approach: A conceptual model is developed by extending the theory of reasoned action framework to include WOM...... has an asymmetric influence on emotions, behavioral attitude and intention, i.e. that consumers respond differently to positive and negative WOM. The paper also finds that positive WOM has a larger impact than the social norm on behavioral attitude and intention and that negative WOM has an impact...... and emotions. The conceptual model is operationalized through a structural equation model, and the model is estimated and tested by using the partial least squares method. A survey among 509 consumers in Denmark forms the empirical basis for the study. Findings: The paper finds that positive and negative WOM...

  9. Tweet Berbayar: Bagaimana Word-Of-Mouth Bekerja dalam Media Baru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosidah Syaukat

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New media, like Twitter, has changed many possibilities, including marketing strategy in Indonesia. One of the extraordinary phenomena is paid-to-tweet, as being used by celebrity or ordinary users. The purpose of the article is to identify how Twitter roles in marketing: what the unique characteristic of Twitter so that Word-of-Mouth (WOM could work effectively and efficiently? How viral marketing, buzz marketing and recommendation could move simultaneously to increase awareness to consumers about specific goods and services? How to choose the endorsers, as buzzers and key opinion leader in social media like Twitter? And why is hard-sale highly forbidden in new marketing practical style? Generally, the article will analyze about what and how regarding phenomena of paid-to-tweet happening in Indonesia. 

  10. Dynamic Impact of Online Word-of-Mouth and Advertising on Supply Chain Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian

    2018-01-01

    Cooperative (co-op) advertising investments benefit brand goodwill and further improve supply chain performance. Meanwhile, online word-of-mouth (OWOM) can also play an important role in supply chain performance. On the basis of co-op advertising, this paper considers a single supply chain structure led by a manufacturer and examines a fundamental issue concerning the impact of OWOM on supply chain performance. Firstly, by the method of differential game, this paper analyzes the dynamic impact of OWOM and advertising on supply chain performance (i.e., brand goodwill, sales, and profits) under three different supply chain decisions (i.e., only advertising, and manufacturers with and without sharing cost of OWOM with retailers). We compare and analyze the optimal strategies of advertising and OWOM under the above different supply chain decisions. Secondly, the system dynamics model is established to reflect the dynamic impact of OWOM and advertising on supply chain performance. Finally, three supply chain decisions under two scenarios, strong brand and weak brand, are analyzed through the system dynamics simulation. The results show that the input of OWOM can enhance brand goodwill and improve earnings. It further promotes the OWOM reputation and improves the supply chain performance if manufacturers share the cost of OWOM with retailers. Then, in order to eliminate the retailers from word-of-mouth fraud and establish a fair competition mechanism, the third parties (i.e., regulators or e-commerce platforms) should take appropriate punitive measures against retailers. Furthermore, the effect of OWOM on supply chain performance under a strong brand differed from those under a weak brand. Last but not least, if OWOM is improved, there would be more remarkable performance for the weak brand than that for the strong brand in the supply chain. PMID:29300361

  11. Dynamic Impact of Online Word-of-Mouth and Advertising on Supply Chain Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jian; Liu, Bin

    2018-01-04

    Cooperative (co-op) advertising investments benefit brand goodwill and further improve supply chain performance. Meanwhile, online word-of-mouth (OWOM) can also play an important role in supply chain performance. On the basis of co-op advertising, this paper considers a single supply chain structure led by a manufacturer and examines a fundamental issue concerning the impact of OWOM on supply chain performance. Firstly, by the method of differential game, this paper analyzes the dynamic impact of OWOM and advertising on supply chain performance (i.e., brand goodwill, sales, and profits) under three different supply chain decisions (i.e., only advertising, and manufacturers with and without sharing cost of OWOM with retailers). We compare and analyze the optimal strategies of advertising and OWOM under the above different supply chain decisions. Secondly, the system dynamics model is established to reflect the dynamic impact of OWOM and advertising on supply chain performance. Finally, three supply chain decisions under two scenarios, strong brand and weak brand, are analyzed through the system dynamics simulation. The results show that the input of OWOM can enhance brand goodwill and improve earnings. It further promotes the OWOM reputation and improves the supply chain performance if manufacturers share the cost of OWOM with retailers. Then, in order to eliminate the retailers from word-of-mouth fraud and establish a fair competition mechanism, the third parties (i.e., regulators or e-commerce platforms) should take appropriate punitive measures against retailers. Furthermore, the effect of OWOM on supply chain performance under a strong brand differed from those under a weak brand. Last but not least, if OWOM is improved, there would be more remarkable performance for the weak brand than that for the strong brand in the supply chain.

  12. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF QUALITY COMPONENTS OF WEB 2.0 ENABLED E-COMMERCE WEBSITES ON ELECTRONIC WORD-OF-MOUTH MARKETING (EWOM AND ON CUSTOMER LOYALTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARUN GUMUS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Word-of-Mouth Marketing (eWOM has begun to play a more important role in customers’ purchasing decisions (Cheung and Thadani, 2012, Jones and Taylor, 2007. Previous studies reveal that eWOM increases the purchasing behavior of customers (Chevalier and Mayzlin, 2006. Nevertheless, despite its increasing importance, having limited literature on eWOM makes this subject attractive. Businesses want to bring customer behaviors under control by trying to give the meaning of eWOM messages. In this regard, businesses should observe the eWOM relationship by developing factors such as; aesthetics, content, orientability, system quality, information and content quality and service quality of websites. The aim of this study is to offer a model analyzing the relationship among the quality aspects of website, website loyalty and electronic word-of-mouth communication (eWOM and to test this model

  13. How Service Values Influence the Processing of Word-of-Mouth in the Evaluation of Credence Beliefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Kristiina; Sipilä, Jenni; Tarkiainen, Anssi; Sundqvist, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to assess the effect of service values on the processing of word-of-mouth (WOM) information, and their impact on a complex belief in a high-involvement service context. Hypotheses are tested on survey data collected from 378 respondents facing a high-involvement service choice. The results suggest that two distinct…

  14. PENGARUH KOMUNIKASI PEMASARAN MELALUI WORD OF MOUTH TERHADAP KEPUTUSAN NASABAH DALAM MENGAMBIL KREDIT PADA AL-GIFFARI FINANCE

    OpenAIRE

    GIFFARI, ABIZAR

    2016-01-01

    2015 Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh komunikasi pemasaran melalui word of mouth terhadap keputusan nasabah dalam mengambil kredit pada Al-Giffari Finance. Penelitian ini menggunakan sampel sebanyak 70 Responden yang merupakan sebagian dari populasi penelitian karena menggunakan teknik sampling Slovin. Metode pengumpulan data adalah dengan menyebarkan kuisioner yang kemudian diolah dengan menggunakan analisis regeresi berganda. Uji yang digunakan untuk me...

  15. How the Source of Word-of-Mouth Influences Information Processing in the Formation of Brand Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, Kristiina; Tarkiainen, Anssi; Sundqvist, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) can be a powerful, persuasive source of information, but relatively little is understood about how consumers utilize information in service evaluations and how the source of WOM (e.g. friends, family) affects attitudes. The importance of WOM is acknowledged in the services context; however, the research field of higher…

  16. Humanizing online brand communications in response to negative word of mouth: the effects of proactive and reactive webcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Willemsen, L.M.; Eisend, M.; Langner, T.

    2011-01-01

    By means of an experiment, we study the most effective means for companies to counter complaints as expressed in negative electronic word of mouth (NWOM). The results show that negative brand evaluations engendered by NWOM, can be attenuated by webcare interventions dependent on type of strategy

  17. When Empathy Hurts: Modelling University Students' Word of Mouth Behaviour in Public vs. Private Universities in Syria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ali Bassam; Grigoriou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    This study examines and compares word of mouth (WOM) behaviour among university students in Syria. To date, little is known about this important phenomenon which is surprising given the deregulated education market in Syria that allows for private universities to compete for students alongside public universities. Using a mixed methods research…

  18. Computer-Mediated Word-of-Mouth Communication: The Influence of Mixed Reviews on Student Perceptions of Instructors and Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Autumn; Edwards, Chad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to test the influence of mixed reviews appearing as computer-mediated word-of-mouth communication (WOM) on student perceptions of instructors (attractiveness and credibility) and attitudes toward learning course content (affective learning and state motivation). Using the heuristic-systematic processing model, it…

  19. Destination branding by residents : The role of perceived responsibility in positive and negative word-of-mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeuring, Jelmer; Haartsen, Tialda

    2017-01-01

    The importance of residents’ communication about their home region as tourist destination is increasingly acknowledged in the place branding process. However, the extent to which residents feel responsible for communicating Destination Images (DIs), and how these attributions affect word-of-mouth

  20. Webcare as customer relationship and reputation management? Motives for negative electronic word of mouth and their effect on webcare receptiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemsen, L.; Neijens, P.C.; Bronner, F.A.; Rosengren, S.; Dahlén, M.; Okazaki, S.

    2013-01-01

    Social media enable consumers to easily share satisfying or unsatisfying consumption experiences with a multitude of other consumers. The result is a wealth of electronic word of mouth (eWOM), varying in tone from very positive to very negative. For companies, the circulation of negative eWOM is a

  1. The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales: A Meta-Analytic Review of Platform, Product, and Metric Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babic, A.; Sotgiu, Francesca; de Valck, K.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing amount of electronic word of mouth (eWOM) has significantly affected the way consumers make purchase decisions. Empirical studies have established an effect of eWOM on sales but disagree on which online platforms, products, and eWOM metrics moderate this effect. The authors conduct a

  2. Electronic word of mouth on twitter about physical activity in the United States: exploratory infodemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Campo, Shelly; Janz, Kathleen F; Eckler, Petya; Yang, Jingzhen; Snetselaar, Linda G; Signorini, Alessio

    2013-11-20

    Twitter is a widely used social medium. However, its application in promoting health behaviors is understudied. In order to provide insights into designing health marketing interventions to promote physical activity on Twitter, this exploratory infodemiology study applied both social cognitive theory and the path model of online word of mouth to examine the distribution of different electronic word of mouth (eWOM) characteristics among personal tweets about physical activity in the United States. This study used 113 keywords to retrieve 1 million public tweets about physical activity in the United States posted between January 1 and March 31, 2011. A total of 30,000 tweets were randomly selected and sorted based on numbers generated by a random number generator. Two coders scanned the first 16,100 tweets and yielded 4672 (29.02%) tweets that they both agreed to be about physical activity and were from personal accounts. Finally, 1500 tweets were randomly selected from the 4672 tweets (32.11%) for further coding. After intercoder reliability scores reached satisfactory levels in the pilot coding (100 tweets separate from the final 1500 tweets), 2 coders coded 750 tweets each. Descriptive analyses, Mann-Whitney U tests, and Fisher exact tests were performed. Tweets about physical activity were dominated by neutral sentiments (1270/1500, 84.67%). Providing opinions or information regarding physical activity (1464/1500, 97.60%) and chatting about physical activity (1354/1500, 90.27%) were found to be popular on Twitter. Approximately 60% (905/1500, 60.33%) of the tweets demonstrated users' past or current participation in physical activity or intentions to participate in physical activity. However, social support about physical activity was provided in less than 10% of the tweets (135/1500, 9.00%). Users with fewer people following their tweets (followers) (P=.02) and with fewer accounts that they followed (followings) (P=.04) were more likely to talk positively about

  3. PENGARUH ELECTRONIC WORD OF MOUTH (eWOM TWITTER @batikair TERHADAP BRAND IMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Kartika

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the influence of the Electronic Word of Mouth twitter @batikair in terms of the following dimensions are intensity dimension to the brand image, valence of opinion dimension to the brand image, and content dimension to the brand image.The sampling technique in this study using purposive sampling technique with criteria from Batik Air passengers in period of June 2015. The data in this study are primary data that collected through questionnaires. Data were analyzed using multiple regression analysis with the classical assumptions.Based on the results of data analysis and discussion, it can be concluded as follows: (1 There is eWOM twitter @batikair influence in terms of intensity dimension to the brand image. (2 There is a eWOM twitter @batikair influence in terms of valence of opinion dimension to the brand image. @batikair. (3 There is a positive eWOM twitter @batikair influence in terms of content dimension to the brand image, it means that the better available information from social network sites relating to products and services will be a positive influence on @batikairbrand image enhancement.   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM twitter @batikair ditinjau dari dimensi-dimensi berikut yaitu dimensi intensity terhadap brand image, dimensi valence of opinion terhadap brand image, dan dimensi content terhadap brand image.Teknik pengambilan sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan teknik purposive sampling dengan kriteria tertentu yaitu para penumpang Batik Air. Data pada penelitian ini adalah data primer yang dikumpulkan melalui kuesioner. Teknik analisis data menggunakan analisis regresi berganda dengan asumsi klasik.Berdasarkan pada hasil analisis data dan pembahasan maka dapat disimpulkan sebagai berikut: (1 Terdapat pengaruh eWOM twitter @batikair ditinjau dari dimensi intensity terhadap brand imag.e. (2 Terdapat pengaruh eWOM twitter @batikair ditinjau dari dimensi

  4. Effectiveness of online word of mouth on exposure to an Internet-delivered intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutzen, Rik; de Nooijer, Jascha; Brouwer, Wendy; Oenema, Anke; Brug, Johannes; de Vries, Nanne

    2009-07-01

    The use of online word of mouth (WOM) seems a promising strategy to motivate young people to visit Internet-delivered interventions. An Internet-delivered intervention aimed at changing implicit attitudes related to alcohol was used in two experiments to test effectiveness of e-mail invitations on a first visit to the intervention. The results of the first experiment (N = 196) showed that an invitation by e-mail from a friend was more effective to attract young adults (aged 18-24 years) to the intervention website than an invitation from an institution. A 2 x 2 design was used in the second experiment (N = 236) to test manipulations of argument strength and the use of peripheral cues in invitations. Results showed that weak arguments were more effective to attract young adults to the intervention website when an incentive was withheld. These results need to be taken into account when using online WOM as a strategy to improve exposure to Internet-delivered interventions.

  5. Antecedents of Online Word-of-Mouth and Memorable Experience Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iivi Riivits-Arkonsuo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to examine the antecedents of brand-related online word-of-mouth (WOM communication from the memorable experience concept perspective. This paper considers the factors that are behind the willingness to participate in brand-consumer interaction when passing on messages, generating content, and sharing online communication. The study is built on complementary sources of information, employing a mixed methods approach. The results show that sharing and generating positive online communication involves reciprocal patterns, while a memorable experience, good brand experience, and interaction in value co-creation drive willingness to help the brand. The gratitude-related reciprocal online behaviour is a “virtual praise”. The findings provide insight into how meaningful experience, interaction in value co-creation, and reciprocity, which are the key concepts of experience marketing, cause and have an impact on sharing online communication. From a theoretical viewpoint, this study offers insights into the links between constructs of meaningful experience concepts and brand-related online communication. Understanding the experiential aspects of consumers' online behaviour, such as willingness to co-create value together with brands, offers an implication for marketing management.

  6. Factors affecting use of word-of-mouth by dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yun-Sook; Yang, Hae-Young; Choi, Youn-Hee; Kim, Eun-Kyong; Jeong, Seong-Hwa; Cho, Min-Jeong; Nam, Soon-Hyeun; Song, Keun-Bae

    2018-03-23

    Word-of-mouth (WOM) refers to communication among consumers, which greatly influences the marketing strategies of dental clinics. This study aimed to explore factors that affect use of WOM by dental patients and to analyse their pathways. The participants were 520 outpatients from four private dental clinics. Data were obtained from a survey using self-reported questionnaires, which included questions regarding seven latent variables: five exogenous variables, including medical service quality (physical environment, customer service, patient relationship quality) and individual characteristic variables (opinion leader tendency, social hub tendency); and two endogenous variables (intention to recommend, WOM experience). Statistical analysis was performed using structural equation modelling. Significant associations were found in the pathways between relationship quality and intention to recommend, intention to recommend and WOM, and opinion leader tendency and WOM (P < 0.001). Higher patient relationship quality and higher intention to recommend were related to positive WOM, as was higher opinion leader tendency. Improving patient relationship quality can promote positive WOM for dental clinics. Strategies are needed to promote a positive perception of dental clinics by effectively responding to the views of patients with strong opinion leader tendencies. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. Word of mouth and physician referrals still drive health care provider choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Ha T; Lauer, Johanna R

    2008-12-01

    Sponsors of health care price and quality transparency initiatives often identify all consumers as their target audiences, but the true audiences for these programs are much more limited. In 2007, only 11 percent of American adults looked for a new primary care physician, 28 percent needed a new specialist physician and 16 percent underwent a medical procedure at a new facility, according to a new national study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Among consumers who found a new provider, few engaged in active shopping or considered price or quality information--especially when choosing specialists or facilities for medical procedures. When selecting new primary care physicians, half of all consumers relied on word-of-mouth recommendations from friends and relatives, but many also used doctor recommendations (38%) and health plan information (35%), and nearly two in five used multiple information sources when choosing a primary care physician. However, when choosing specialists and facilities for medical procedures, most consumers relied exclusively on physician referrals. Use of online provider information was low, ranging from 3 percent for consumers undergoing procedures to 7 percent for consumers choosing new specialists to 11 percent for consumers choosing new primary care physicians

  8. Evaluation Method for Service Branding Using Word-of-Mouth Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahada, Kunio; Kosaka, Michitaka

    Development and spread of internet technology contributes service firms to obtaining the high capability of brand information transmission as well as relative customer feedback data collection. In this paper, we propose a new evaluation method for service branding using firms and consumers data on the internet. Based on service marketing 7Ps (Product, Price, Place, Promotion, People, Physical evidence, Process) which are the key viewpoints for branding, we develop a brand evaluation system including coding methods for Word-of-Mouth (WoM) and corporate introductory information on the internet to identify both customer's service value recognition vector and firm's service value proposition vector. Our system quantitatively clarify both customer's service value recognition of the firm and firm's strength in service value proposition, thereby analyzing service brand communication gaps between firm and consumers. We applied this system to Japanese Ryokan hotel industry. Using six ryokan-hotels' data on Jyaran-net and Rakuten travel, we made totally 983 codes from WoM information and analyzed their service brand value according to three price based categories. As a result, we found that the characteristics of customers' service value recognition vector differ according to the price categories. In addition, the system clarified that there is a firm that has a different service value proposition vector from customers' recognition vector. This helps to analyze corporate service brand strategy and has a significance as a system technology supporting service management.

  9. The modeling and analysis of the word-of-mouth marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengdeng; Yang, Xiaofan; Yang, Lu-Xing; Xiong, Qingyu; Wu, Yingbo; Tang, Yuan Yan

    2018-03-01

    As compared to the traditional advertising, word-of-mouth (WOM) communications have striking advantages such as significantly lower cost and much faster propagation, and this is especially the case with the popularity of online social networks. This paper focuses on the modeling and analysis of the WOM marketing. A dynamic model, known as the SIPNS model, capturing the WOM marketing processes with both positive and negative comments is established. On this basis, a measure of the overall profit of a WOM marketing campaign is proposed. The SIPNS model is shown to admit a unique equilibrium, and the equilibrium is determined. The impact of different factors on the equilibrium of the SIPNS model is illuminated through theoretical analysis. Extensive experimental results suggest that the equilibrium is much likely to be globally attracting. Finally, the influence of different factors on the expected overall profit of a WOM marketing campaign is ascertained both theoretically and experimentally. Thereby, some promotion strategies are recommended. To our knowledge, this is the first time the WOM marketing is treated in this way.

  10. Word-of-Mouth of Cultural Products through Institutional Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Ea Lee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, a number of cultural institutions such as museums, galleries, art auctions, events, and performance centers have been utilizing social network sites (SNS for promoting and marketing their culture, art content, and events. The online social space is appropriate for cultural products to be viral, since users of SNS mainly share personal interest and spread hedonic consumption with close friends and acquaintances. If viral content drives strong emotions such as joy, arousal, pleasure, sorrow, or horror, it will be transmitted to more people, and rapidly. This study investigates how a certain type of motivation for using a social network service such as Facebook influences trust in art and culture exhibition information providers and the content of the information itself. Results show that people who have an informational motivation for using social media expressed a higher degree of trust in exhibition information provided by institutions such as museums. On the contrary, those who have relational motivation for using social media credited acquaintances such as friends, families, and colleagues more. Trust in the information provider resulted in trust in the content itself, and hence, increased the possibility of word-of-mouth for the corresponding information. An empirical survey was implemented, using followers of the Facebook page of a national museum and users who clicked “Like” on postings of exhibitions. Finally, the potential applications of the result for promotion and marketing of exhibitions of art and culture for public will be discussed.

  11. Effects of Perceived Risks, Reputation and Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM) on Collaborative Consumption of Uber Car Sharing Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wati Hawapi, Mega; Sulaiman, Zuraidah; Kohar, Umar Haiyat Abdul; Abu Talib, Noraini

    2017-06-01

    Current transition from traditional economic model of selling and buying to sharing economic business creates a huge impact on consumers’ preferences to participate in collaborative consumption. The market entrance of sharing economic business is relatively new, thus it builds scepticism among consumers. Consumers’ trust becomes the most crucial aspect in determining their willingness to participate in collaborative consumption. This study will reveal the effects of perceived risks (performance and social), reputation and Electronic Word-of Mouth (E-WOM) on Malaysian consumers’ intention of collaborative consumption, especially for Uber car sharing service. This study inspires to enrich the literature for collaborative consumption and perceived risk theory. From the practical perspective, this study may provide insights in assisting the collaborative consumption service providers especially Uber car users on factors influencing the intention to engage in such service.

  12. Electronic Word-of-mouth (E-wom) Dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Di Restoran Dan Kafe Di Surabaya

    OpenAIRE

    Ivana, Vina; Sari, Adelia; Thio, Sienny

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui Electronic Word-of-Mouth (e-WOM) dan Pengaruhnya terhadap Keputusan Pembelian di Restoran dan Kafe di Surabaya. e-WOM telah menjadi fenomena yang sedang berkembang seturut dengan meningkatnya penggunaan situs jejaring sosial. Elemen-elemen yang terdapat pada e-WOM turut berperan dalam keputusan pembelian yang dilakukan oleh konsumen di restoran dan kafe di Surabaya.Teknik analisa yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif kausal dengan me...

  13. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON INFLUENCE OF EXTRAVERSION ON CONSUMER PASSION AND BRAND EVANGELISM WITH WORD-OF-MOUTH COMMUNICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Pradeep KAUTISH

    2010-01-01

    Word-of-Mouth (WOM) is recognized as a powerful marketing instrument. Its importance as a communication mechanism has widely explored and established in influencing purchase decision in the consumer behaviour domain (e.g., Gilly et al. 1998; Herr et al. 1991; Wilson 1991). WOM was recognized as an important determinant of consumer’s buying behaviour early in marketing literature (Butler 1923), its influence reported as greater than personal selling and advertising (Engel et al. 1969; Feldman ...

  14. The effects of perceived value, satisfaction, and advertising on share of wallet and word of mouth in a retailing context

    OpenAIRE

    Häkkinen, Juho

    2016-01-01

    Customer loyalty as a topic has been of interest to managers and researchers for several decades. There are a few antecedents for explaining customer loyalty in marketing literature, and researchers have discussed the consequences of loyalty. The reason for interest toward loyalty is the wide assumption that loyal customers have higher retention rates, they buy more, and are more willing to share by word of mouth (WOM) and electronic WOM (eWOM). This is why loyalty is linked to companies' fin...

  15. The Effect of Service Quality on Customer Satisfaction, Loyalty and Word of Mouth; Evidence from Tourists in Antalya, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Shaham, Samra

    2016-01-01

    Referring to social exchange theory and expectancy theory, the present study attempts to investigate a conceptual model using deductive approach. The model examines the impact of the service quality on customer satisfaction and the effect of customer satisfaction on customer loyalty and positive word of mouth. The result of this study is based on the sample gathered from 205 customers in a hotel in Antalya. Based on the results, this study suggests that the quality of service in hotels and...

  16. Pengaruh Produk, Faktor Sosial, Harga, Iklan, Dan Word Of Mouth Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Sony Xperia Pada Mahasiswa Universitas Sumatera Utara

    OpenAIRE

    Hidayatullah, Rahmat

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to know and analyze the influence of product, social factors, price, advertising, and word of mouth on purchasing decision sony xperia on student of north sumatera university. This research includes explanatory research. The data used in this study are primary and secondary data. Population in this research is student of north sumatera university. Hypothesis testing done by using path analysis, the independent variable is product as X_1, social factors as X_2, price as ...

  17. Pengaruh Atribut Produk Wisata Dan Electronic Word of Mouth (Ewom) Terhadap Keputusan Berkunjung Pada Obyek Wisata Umbul Sidomukti Kabupaten Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Hapsari, Nurul Retno; Lubis, Nawazirul; Widiartanto, Widiartanto

    2014-01-01

    Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries today. Consequently, people think that travelling is a lifestyle nowadays. This phenomenon led to increase tourist numbers. It also experienced by Umbul Sidomukti, a holiday destination with REAL concepts in Mount Ungaran. But the tourist numbers continued to declined from 2009 to 2013.Tourist will looking information before making decisions. Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) has been one of the resources that are used frequently. Furthermore, to...

  18. Analysis on online word-of-mouth of customer satisfaction in cultural and creative industries of Taiwan: using cultural heritage application and performance facilities as examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Fen; Shaw, Jing-Chi; Wang, Pei-Wen; Shih, Meng-Long; Su, Yi-Jing

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to probe into customers' online word-of-mouth regarding cultural heritage applications and performance facilities in Cultural and Creative Industries. Findings demonstrate that, regarding online word-of-mouth for art museums, museums, and art villages, items valued by customers are design aesthetics of displays and collections, educational functions, and environments and landscapes. The percentages are 10.102%, 11.208% and 11.44%, respectively. In addition, cultural heritage applications and performance facility industries in Taiwan are highly valued in online word-of-mouth.

  19. Efektifitas Electronic Word of Mouth (e-wom melalui Media Sosial pada Ekowisata Bahari di Sumatera Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuthia Meuthia

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menginvestigasi efektifitas electronic word of mouth (e-wom melalui media sosial dan kepuasan pengunjung pada destinasi wisata terhadap keinginan untuk peduli terhadap lingkungan (pro-environmental behavioral intention. Pro-environmental behavioral intention wisatawan yang dipengaruhi oleh e-wom dan kepuasan destinasi diidentifikasi dalam penelitian ini melalui teknik analisa kuantitatif dengan pengujian hipotesis. Teknik pengambilan sampel dalam penelitian ini yaitu purposive sampling dengan menetapkan kriteria responden yaitu wisatawan lokal dan nasional yang pernah mengunjungi destinasi wisata bahari di Sumatera Barat. 146 orang responden terkumpul sebagai sampel dalam penelitian ini. Kuisioner online melalui googledocs digunakan sebagai media untuk mengumpulkan data. Penelitian ini menggunakan software smartPLS 2.0 M3 untuk menguji pengaruh antar variabel yang dianalisa pada level first-order construct.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kepuasan pengunjung terhadap destinasi dan electronic word of mouth (e-wom menjadi variabel determinan konstruk pro-environmental behavioral intention. Kepusan pengunjung telah menjadi anteseden munculnya perilaku berbagi informasi dari mulut ke mulut di media sosial melalui minat kesediaan pengunjung untuk menampilkan keindahan objek ekowisata bahari melalui gambar maupun teks. Kata kunci: Electronic Word of Mouth (e-wom, kepuasan destinasi, Pro-environmental behavioral intention, smartPLS 2.0 M3, first-order construct.

  20. Analysis on online word-of-mouth of customer satisfaction in cultural and creative industries of Taiwan: using crafts as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Li-Fen; Shaw, Jing-Chi; Wang, Pei-Wen; Shih, Meng-Long; Yang, Min-Chieh

    2011-10-01

    This study aims to analyze customers' online word-of-mouth for crafts in Cultural and Creative Industries of Taiwan, and extracts articles from Yahoo and Wretch Blogs by the online writing mining technique. The research scope is from Jan. 1, 2008 to Dec. 31, 2010. The subjects include 2457 valid articles on customers' online word-of-mouth regarding the craft industry of Taiwan. Findings demonstrate that, regarding online word-of-mouth, the most important word-of-mouth items of ceramics, stone craft, wood craft manufacturing, and metal craft is decoration and display of surroundings; while brand is valued in glass craft; and the most important item for consumers of paper craft is cultural characteristics of handicrafts.

  1. Chi-Square Test of Word of Mouth Marketing with Impact on the Evaluation of Patients' Hospital and Services: An Application in Teaching and Research Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yelda ŞENER

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study, using data provided from 223 inpatients in a teaching and research hospital, hospital’s preference is to explain the effect of word of mouth marketing. For this purpose, word of mouth marketing process is evaluated in terms of providing information about the hospital and the patient’s level of intimacy, both of patients and information provider’s level of expertise with related to hospital and services, the patient’s perceived level of risk for hospitals and services and providing information’s level of impact on patient being treated in hospital. The obtain data, after evaluation by frequency distributions these factors impact on word of mouth marketing is demonstrated by descriptive statistics, chi-square analysis and pearson’s correlation analysis. As a result of this study is concluded word of mouth marketing on the training and research hospital is preferred by the patints to have a significant impact.

  2. Word Of Mouth sebagai Efek Respon Positif dari Kepuasan Konsumen dan Dampaknya pada Pembelian Kembali: Studi Kasus Mahasiswa sebagai Konsumen Yoghurt Activia

    OpenAIRE

    Sriwardiningsih, Enggal

    2011-01-01

    This research want to know word of mouth as respond positive effect from consumen satisfaction and impact to repurchase. Methodology used provement of statistical test, like scala, and a path analysis. The data came from primer sources by cross section with questioner amount one hundred participants. Result of this riset significanly word of mouth as efek respon positif from consumen satisfaction and impact to repurchase, but interesting found that no signifikan relation between consumen sati...

  3. Pengaruh Social Media Advertising Terhadap Word of Mouth Dan Dampaknya Pada Keputusan Pembelian (Survei Pada Konsumen Cafe Mochimaco Malang Yang Menggunakan Instagram)

    OpenAIRE

    Prakoso, Ario; Arifin, Zainul; Sunarti, Sunarti

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to (1) identify and analyze the influence of social media advertising on word of mouth, (2) identify and analyze the influence of social media advertising on consumer purchasing decisions, (3) identify and analyze the information influence of word of mout on consumer purchasing decisions. This type of research is explanatory research with quantitative approach. Variables examined included social media advertising, word of mouth, and purchasing decisions. The population of this...

  4. What makes one spread the word online - A study on electronic word of mouth motivations on social networking sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sridharan, Santhya

    2016-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management The main focus of the study is to understand what motivates a person to give electronic word of mouth (eWOM) on social networking sites. With the increasing popularity of social networking sites, lots of consumers check these sites for reviews of products and services. Based on the literature review, a scale of motives that lead to giving eWOM by means of writing comments on social networking sites was developed. The study used ...

  5. Who chooses, who uses, who rates: the impact of agency on electronic word-of-mouth about hospitals stays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drevs, Florian; Hinz, Vera

    2014-01-01

    Patients' agents rather than patients themselves often choose hospitals and rehabilitation centers and evaluate inpatient stays. Thus, online reviews of a hospital may reflect a service experience the patient is not responsible for in two ways. First, a patient may evaluate a hospital that a physician as agent has selected, although he still received the service and is qualified to evaluate it. Second, relatives who may not be directly involved in the inpatient stay may write online reviews, which reflect their own experiences and evaluations. The study analyzes patient satisfaction data in online hospitals reviews and patients' underlying motives for electronic word-of-mouth according to the type of hospital admission and the perspective of the reviewer. The study uses a sample of 822 reviews from an online platform for hospital reviews and primary data generated by an online survey distributed to the writers of these reviews. Patients who choose a hospital themselves write more positive online reviews than those with an other-directed choice. Relatives' online reviews more often deal with negative hospital experiences and are more likely to reflect a desire for retaliation. The study results imply that medical care centers (hospitals and rehabilitation facilities) should pay more attention to agency by focusing on the needs and perceptions of relatives who often act as the critical voice of patients in electronic word-of-mouth behavior.

  6. A study on the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention: Verification of mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ill-Gwang

    2016-05-18

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the protein supplements intake satisfaction level and repurchase intention of university students majoring in physical education and verify the mediation effects of word-of-mouth intention. To achieve the purpose of this study, 700 university students majoring in physical education from 10 universities in Korea were selected from October 2013 to December 2013 as the target of this study through the cluster random sampling and data of 228 university students who had experience in the intake of protein supplements among them was analyzed. The composite reliability of each factor was in between 0.869 and 0.958, and the convergent validity and discriminant validity were verified. SPSS 18.0 and Amos 22.0 were utilized as data processing methods and the verification of significance on the medication effects and indirect effects of word-of-mouth intention was carried out using the frequency analysis, correlation analysis, CFA, SEM, and Amos bootstrapping. The result is as follows. The protein supplements intake satisfaction level had a positive effect on the word-of-mouth intention and the word-of-mouth intention had a positive effect on the repurchase intention. Also, it was shown that the word-of-mouth intention played a full mediation role between the intake satisfaction level and the repurchase intention.

  7. Pengaruh Electronic Word of Mouth Terhadap Citra Destinasi Serta Dampaknya Pada Minat Dan Keputusan Berkunjung (Survei Pada Followers Aktif Akun Instagram Indtravel Yang Telah Mengunjungi Destinasi Wisata Di Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Suwarduki, Puspa Ratnaningrum; Yulianto, Edy; Mawardi, M. Kholid

    2016-01-01

    The development of information and communication technology growing rapidly can be used to introduce Indonesian tourism brand. One way to introduce these brands is through electronic word of mouth on travelers using instagram. Electronic word of mouth communication is recognized can attach destination image on tourists minds so that can provoke the tourist interest and decision to visit tourism destination. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of electronic word of mouth on ...

  8. Pengaruh Word Of Mouth Terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen Baraya Travel Pool Buah Batu (Studi Pada Mahasiswa Administrasi Bisnis Universitas Telkom Angkatan 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revina Anisa Agnelia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to analyze the effect of Word of Mouth towards Buah Batu Baraya Travel Consumer Purchase Intention. The method that being used is descriptive - causal. The sampling technique that being used is nonprobability sampling with the sampling method incidental sampling. The data collection is done by distributing questionnaires to 100 Students of Business Administration Student 2013 of Telkom University that know Baraya Travel pool Buah Batu. Data analysis technique that being used is simple linear regression analysis. Based on the results, it can be concluded that the Word of Mouth has positive effect on Baraya Travel consumer purchase intention. Based on the coefficient of determination (R2 calculation can be known the magnitude of the effect of word of mouth (X variable on purchase intention (Y was 32.9%. While the remaining 67.1% is influenced by other factors that not be examined in this study.

  9. Word of mouth muntligt och via sociala medier : - På vilket sätt påverkar det turisters reseplanering?

    OpenAIRE

    Hugosson, Jennie; Ahlberg, Madeleine

    2017-01-01

    Vår studie belyser hur informationsspridning både muntligt och via internet kan påverka turisters reseplaneringsprocess. Studien undersöker vilka känslomässiga attityder individer upplever genom word of mouth och electronic word of mouth och hur vida dessa attityder påverkar valet av ett nytt resmål. Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur word of mouth kan påverka turisters val av nya resmål. För att möjliggöra detta har vi genomfört intervjuer med respondenter utifrån förutbestämda kriterie...

  10. The Influence of Consumers€™ Tie Strength, Homophily and Source Credibility Toward Electronic Word-of-mouth (Ewom) Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Oroh, Winda Lely

    2014-01-01

    Electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) in the form of online product reviews can influence the sales of a product and/or service, and that informational€based determinants are very important to consumers when evaluating reviews. The purpose of this research is to analyze the influence of consumers€™ tie strength, homophily, and source credibility toward electronic word-of-mouth behavior (eWOM). This research used quantitative analyze. The method used to analyze the data is the Multiple Regression A...

  11. The influence of electronic-word-of-mouth on consumer decision-making for beauty products in a Kuwaiti Women's online community

    OpenAIRE

    Alhaidari, N; Coughlan, J

    2014-01-01

    Online communities are an important source of electronic-word-of-mouth (eWOM), however few studies have examined these types of messages within the Middle Eastern context. This study focuses on Kuwaiti women as members of an online beauty forum; previous work has suggested a mediating effect of gender with women being more likely to trust and follow-up word-of-mouth with a purchase. A conceptual model, based on existing theoretical contributions, provides the basis of a coding framework for t...

  12. Investigating the effect of Electronic Word Of Mouth on customer’s purchase intention of digital products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Khosravani Zangeneh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to examine the effect of electronic word of mouth (eWOM on purchasing intention. The study also considers the effects of quality of eWOM, quantity of eWOM as well as reviewers’ expertise on purchasing intention. The study has accomplished among 384 people who have some experiences on buying digital devices from an Iranian well-known providers of electronic devices in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study confirms the effects of eWOM on purchase intention. In addition, the study confirms the effects of quality of eWOM as well as reviewer’s expertise on purchase intention. Moreover, the study examines the effects of two moderator variables, brand image and product complexity, on purchase intention and while the effect of brand image on purchase intention is confirmed but the impact of complexity on purchase intention is not confirmed.

  13. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ONLINE AND OFF LINE WORD OF MOUTH MESSAGES ON TRADITIONAL COURSE CHOICE AT TERTIARY LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Serdar SEVER

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explain how bachelor of communications students who are enrolled to various courses at Anadolu University value word-of-mouth messages in making a course decision. Use of WOM as a marketing tool in tertiary teaching is not a common practice. As elective course numbers increase, students look for alternative avenues and types of information to be sure of making the best possible course selection. The findings of this study indicate that instructors’ previous experiences are not as important as their in-class performances. Another interesting finding of the study is although participants are prone to use internet resources as sources of information; they value the use of computer-mediated and enhanced technologies in teaching. Perhaps the most peculiar finding of the study is senior students are perceived as the most common source of information, and their experiences often seen as a point of reference in choosing a course.

  14. Does a mere request to recommend have an impact on the customer’s word-of-mouth activity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Jan; Söderlund, Magnus

    Both researchers and practitioners believe that word-of-mouth (WOM) is producing beneficial effects for the firm, and therefore it is no surprise that copious studies have examined factors assumed to boost the customer’s WOM activity. Many such factors have been identified, particularly global...... encounters) to provide WOM would have a positive impact on WOM activity. We base this assumption on the question-behavior effect identified with regard to questions in questionnaires, on reciprocity theory, and on arguments related to customer benefits that may be evoked by a request for WOM. This purpose....... In addition, we found that receiving WOM requests was not negatively associated with overall evaluations, such as customer satisfaction, which indicates that the potential for negative effects of making the request seems to be low....

  15. The Influence of Computer-Mediated Word-of-Mouth Communication on Student Perceptions of Instructors and Attitudes toward Learning Course Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Chad; Edwards, Autumn; Qing, Qingmei; Wahl, Shawn T.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to experimentally test the influence of computer-mediated word-of-mouth communication (WOM) on student perceptions of instructors (attractiveness and credibility) and on student attitudes toward learning course content (affective learning and state motivation). It was hypothesized that students who receive positive…

  16. How do teaser advertisements boost word of mouth about new products? For consumers, the future is more exciting than the present

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorbjornsen, H.; Ketelaar, P.E.; Riet, J.P. van 't; Dahlén, M.

    2015-01-01

    Future-framed marketing is highly effective in generating positive product-related word of mouth (WOM) for new products. This was demonstrated in two studies: Study 1 reported a novel online field experiment on WOM behavior; Study 2 tested the proposed WOM effects in a more controlled laboratory

  17. The differential impact of brand loyalty on traditional and online word of mouth : The moderating roles of self-brand connection and the desire to help the brand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelen, Jiska; Özturan, Peren; Verlegh, Peeter W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Marketers increasingly seek to build brand advocacy not only via traditional word of mouth (in-person WOM) but also by engaging their (loyal) customers via online media (eWOM). In a survey and three follow-up experiments, however, we show that brand loyalty is less positively related to spreading

  18. Exploring the impact of word-of-mouth about Physicians' service quality on patient choice based on online health communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Naiji; Wu, Hong

    2016-11-26

    Health care service is a high-credence service and patients may face difficulties ascertaining service quality in order to make choices about their available treatment options. Online health communities (OHCs) provide a convenient channel for patients to search for physicians' information, such as Word-of-Mouth (WOM), particularly on physicians' service quality evaluated by other patients. Existing studies from other service domains have proved that WOM impacts consumer choice. However, how patients make a choice based on physicians' WOM has not been studied, particularly with reference to different patient characteristics and by using real data. One thousand eight hundred fifty three physicians' real data were collected from a Chinese online health community. The data were analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS) method. The study found that functional quality negatively moderated the relationship between technical quality and patient choice, and disease risk moderated the relationship between physicians' service quality and patient choice. Our study recommends that hospital managers need to consider the roles of both technical quality and functional quality seriously. Physicians should improve their medical skills and bedside manners based on the severity and type of disease to provide better service.

  19. The Impacts of Attitudes and Engagement on Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) of Mobile Sensor Computing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Yide; Lai, Ivan K. W.; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    As one of the latest revolutions in networking technology, social networks allow users to keep connected and exchange information. Driven by the rapid wireless technology development and diffusion of mobile devices, social networks experienced a tremendous change based on mobile sensor computing. More and more mobile sensor network applications have appeared with the emergence of a huge amount of users. Therefore, an in-depth discussion on the human–computer interaction (HCI) issues of mobile sensor computing is required. The target of this study is to extend the discussions on HCI by examining the relationships of users’ compound attitudes (i.e., affective attitudes, cognitive attitude), engagement and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) behaviors in the context of mobile sensor computing. A conceptual model is developed, based on which, 313 valid questionnaires are collected. The research discusses the level of impact on the eWOM of mobile sensor computing by considering user-technology issues, including the compound attitude and engagement, which can bring valuable discussions on the HCI of mobile sensor computing in further study. Besides, we find that user engagement plays a mediating role between the user’s compound attitudes and eWOM. The research result can also help the mobile sensor computing industry to develop effective strategies and build strong consumer user—product (brand) relationships. PMID:26999155

  20. Using the Power of Word-Of-Mouth to Leverage the Effect of Marketing Activities on Consumer Responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martensen, Anne; Mouritsen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    and that this effect is leveraged when WOM mediates the relationship. The 4Ps primarily mobilise positive WOM (PWOM), making PWOM the strongest mediator. This has implications for marketing and communication strategies, as the 4Ps have to mobilise WOM and influence consumer responses directly. This challenges......Research has studied Word-Of-Mouth (WOM) and the 4P marketing activities separately with no attention to how these two processes simultaneously influence consumer responses. This is unfortunate as a firm’s marketing activities may also mobilise WOM, which then can leverage the activities’ effect...... the composition of the 4Ps and how to design the marketing message so it is appealing for consumers to bring into their social milieu so WOM can take place. It also underlines the necessity to add PWOM as a fifth P, so the different marketing activities’ effect can be amplified by the power of WOM and brands can...

  1. The Impacts of Attitudes and Engagement on Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM of Mobile Sensor Computing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As one of the latest revolutions in networking technology, social networks allow users to keep connected and exchange information. Driven by the rapid wireless technology development and diffusion of mobile devices, social networks experienced a tremendous change based on mobile sensor computing. More and more mobile sensor network applications have appeared with the emergence of a huge amount of users. Therefore, an in-depth discussion on the human–computer interaction (HCI issues of mobile sensor computing is required. The target of this study is to extend the discussions on HCI by examining the relationships of users’ compound attitudes (i.e., affective attitudes, cognitive attitude, engagement and electronic word of mouth (eWOM behaviors in the context of mobile sensor computing. A conceptual model is developed, based on which, 313 valid questionnaires are collected. The research discusses the level of impact on the eWOM of mobile sensor computing by considering user-technology issues, including the compound attitude and engagement, which can bring valuable discussions on the HCI of mobile sensor computing in further study. Besides, we find that user engagement plays a mediating role between the user’s compound attitudes and eWOM. The research result can also help the mobile sensor computing industry to develop effective strategies and build strong consumer user—product (brand relationships.

  2. The Impacts of Attitudes and Engagement on Electronic Word of Mouth (eWOM) of Mobile Sensor Computing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yu; Liu, Yide; Lai, Ivan K W; Zhang, Hongfeng; Zhang, Yi

    2016-03-18

    As one of the latest revolutions in networking technology, social networks allow users to keep connected and exchange information. Driven by the rapid wireless technology development and diffusion of mobile devices, social networks experienced a tremendous change based on mobile sensor computing. More and more mobile sensor network applications have appeared with the emergence of a huge amount of users. Therefore, an in-depth discussion on the human-computer interaction (HCI) issues of mobile sensor computing is required. The target of this study is to extend the discussions on HCI by examining the relationships of users' compound attitudes (i.e., affective attitudes, cognitive attitude), engagement and electronic word of mouth (eWOM) behaviors in the context of mobile sensor computing. A conceptual model is developed, based on which, 313 valid questionnaires are collected. The research discusses the level of impact on the eWOM of mobile sensor computing by considering user-technology issues, including the compound attitude and engagement, which can bring valuable discussions on the HCI of mobile sensor computing in further study. Besides, we find that user engagement plays a mediating role between the user's compound attitudes and eWOM. The research result can also help the mobile sensor computing industry to develop effective strategies and build strong consumer user-product (brand) relationships.

  3. The Implementation Word Of Mouth As Part Of Integrated Marketing Communication At Beauty Clinic Giva Skin Care Medan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murlizar

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though it is a new comer in facial beauty parlors Klinik Kecantikan Giva Skin Care located on Jalan Sei Batanghari Medan is able to compete with the other beauty parlors. The tight competitiveness in beauty parlors has caused it to think hard to creatively attract and increase consumers from time to time. In carrying out its marketing strategy it applies Integrated Marketing Communication IMC and Transmedia Branding through varied new media which contribute ideally to develop the brand of Klinik Kecantikan Giva Skin Care to its consumers and its prospective consumers. The objective of the research was to find out and identify Word Of Mouth WOM as part of IMC and Transmedia Branding which have been consistently done by this beauty parlos in the last two years. The research used descriptive qualitativemethod and constructive paradigm the data were analyzed by conducting case study. Constructivism considered that the subject in this case Nanda as the marketing manager of Klinik Kecantikan Giva Skin Care was the central factor in the communicativeactivity and in the social relations and was functioned as the social control. The data were gathered by conducting observation in-depth interviews with the marketing manager and library study. The result of the research showed that Klinik Kecantikan Giva Skin Care applied Transmedia Brand and IMC in the form of Advertising Direct Marketing Interactive Media and Internet Selling Promotion Publicity and Personal Selling in order to maintain its survival in the midst tight competitiveness in beauty parlor business in Medan.

  4. Establishing bacterial communities by 'word of mouth': LuxS and autoinducer 2 in biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardie, Kim Rachael; Heurlier, Karin

    2008-08-01

    Multicellular bacterial communities (biofilms) abound in nature, and their successful formation and survival is likely to require cell-cell communication--including quorum sensing--to co-ordinate appropriate gene expression. The only mode of quorum sensing that is shared by both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria involves the production of the signalling molecule autoinducer 2 by LuxS. A survey of the current literature reveals that luxS contributes to biofilm development in some bacteria. However, inconsistencies prevent biofilm development being attributed to the production of AI2 in all cases.

  5. ANALISIS FAKTOR BAURAN PEMASARAN YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEPUASAN NASABAH SEHINGGA TERCIPTA WORD OF MOUTH POSITIF DI PT. BANK MUAMALAT INDONESIA, TBK CABANG MEDAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryani Suryani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to determine the effect of customer satisfaction in the context of the marketing mixof positive word of mouth customers of PT. Bank Muamalat Indonesia, Tbk Medan Branch. Number of questionnaires was collected as many as 50 questionnaires respondent. Analysis technique used was factor analysis followed by discriminant analysis with program of SPSS version 17.0. Based on factor analysis, it is known that one factor called location was proved to be inaccurate (correlation value <0.5 so that it is excluded from the model. Canonical correlation is obtained for 0.593 with a significance of 0.003. It can be concluded that 35.20% of the variation of positive word of mouth can be explained by the variable of discriminant Product, Promotion, Price, People, Physics and Process.

  6. A study on the effects of different factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naser Azad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of various factors influencing on customer loyalty, profitability and word of mouth advertisement for gaining competitive advantage in tourism industry. The study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale and distributes it among a random sample of 500 people who purchased some tours from travel agencies. Using structural equation modeling, the study has determined a positive and meaningful impact of pricing strategy, amenity, tourism services, content of trip, marketing mix elements, brand equity, competitive advantage and being exclusive on gaining competitive advantage. In addition, being exclusive and value creation influence positively on word of mouth advertisement. Finally, value creation influences on profitability, positively.

  7. How Word-of-mouth Moderates Room Price and Hotel Stars for Online Hotel Booking an Empirical Investigation with Expedia Data

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M.; Lu, Q.; Chi, R. T.; Shi, W.

    2015-01-01

    Information cues about products influence consumer purchase decisions. Online review can enhance communication among consumers while affecting consumer perception by increasing awareness and reducing uncertainty. However, little is known on how Word-of-Mouth (WOM) and information cues interact, especially on experience goods like hotel rooms. To bridge this gap, we analyze data collected from Expeida.com and use actual booking numbers to measure sales performance instead of proxy approaches e...

  8. EFFECTS OF PERCEIVED VALUE AND ITS DIMENSIONS ON WORD OF MOUTH ADVERTISING AMONG CUSTOMERS OF SPORTS CLUBS OF THE CITY OF SANANDAJ, IRAN

    OpenAIRE

    Forut Amjadi; Mozafar Yektayar; Mojgan Khodamorad Pour

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigates the effects of perceived value on word of mouth advertising among customers of sports clubs of the city of Sanandaj. The applied research method is descriptive-correlative and the population of research is consisted of the entire customers of sports clubs of Sanandaj. As a result of enormousness of the population, through the Cochran’s formula, a sample size was determined and samples were respectively selected through a simple random sampling. In addition, data...

  9. Not all digital word of mouth is created equal: Understanding the respective impact of consumer reviews and microblogs on new product success

    OpenAIRE

    Marchand, A.; Hennig-Thurau, T.; Wiertz, C.

    2017-01-01

    The expansion of the Internet and social media have triggered a differentiation of the word-of-mouth (WOM) concept, with consumer communication about brands and products now taking place in various settings and forms. Two important digital WOM types are microblogs and consumer reviews. To clarify their differential roles for product success, this study offers a theoretical framework of the influence of these two types of WOM, drawing from consumer information search theory and diffusion theor...

  10. #wheretoeat : The impact of electronic word-of-mouth in social network media on millennials’ purchase intention in the restaurant setting

    OpenAIRE

    Tersén, Vendela; Wecken, Katharina

    2017-01-01

    Social media has been growing constantly during the past years and social networking is one of the most popular online activities. This development has changed how individuals communicate with each other as it enabled valuable improvements for electronic word-of-mouth. Individuals share experiences, evaluations or opinions regarding products or services within their network, which has driven marketers’ attention towards this tool. Here, millennials are active users of social media, they have ...

  11. Pengaruh Faktor-faktor Marketing Mix (Product, Place, Promotion, Price) Terhadap Keputusan Untuk Masuk STIE Semarang Yang Dimediasi Word of Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Azez, Siti Rochmah Diah Yuliana

    2017-01-01

    Perkembangan Perguruan Tinggi semakin pesat, mendorong Instansi harus semakin aktif dalam merealisasikan strategi marketing yang efektif dan efisien. strategi pemasaran dari mulut ke mulut (WOM) sering disebut dengan strategi word of mouth. Rumusan masalah adalah bagaimana pengaruh faktor faktor marketing mix (place, product, promotion, price) terhadap Keputusan Masuk STIE Semarang yang dimediasi Word of Mouth”, Hipotesis : ada pengaruh faktor marketing mix (product, place, promotion, price) ...

  12. Pengaruh Produk Wisatadan Kualitas Pelayanan Terhadap Keputusan Berkunjung Melalui Electronic Word of Mouth Sebagai Variabel Intervening (Studi Pada Pengunjung Objek Wisata Goa Pindul YOGYAKARTA)

    OpenAIRE

    Putranegara, Rizka Iqbal; Pradhanawati, Ari

    2016-01-01

    The tourism industry in a number of areas is increasing, its specialty in Yogyakarta Province. Goa Pindul attractions in Yogyakarta has a unique tourism potential with beautiful stalactites and stalagmites cave tubing rides. The number of tourist arrivals from 2010 to 2015 the number fluctuates. This study aims to determine the influence of the tourism product and service quality to the decision been through word of mouth on the electronic attractions Pindul Goa. This type of research is expl...

  13. A study on the influence of electronic word of mouth and the image of gastronomy tourism on the intentions of tourists visiting Macau

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study focuses on the extent to which electronic word-of- mouth (eWOM) and the image of Macanese gastronomy tourism influences tourists' intentions, based on samples of those who use the Internet, to search for information about Macanese gastronomy. This study was conducted from April to June 2013. A quantitative research method was adopted and online questionnaires were distributed to those participants who were members of online communities or travel groups. An incentive ...

  14. Consumer–brand identification revisited: An integrative framework of brand identification, customer satisfaction, and price image and their role for brand loyalty and word of mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Popp, B; Woratschek, H

    2017-01-01

    Consumer–brand identification has received considerable attraction among scholars and practitioners in recent years. We contribute to previous research by proposing an integrative model that includes consumer–brand identification, customer satisfaction, and price image to investigate the interrelationships among these constructs as well as their effects on brand loyalty and positive word of mouth. To provide general results, we empirically test the model using a sample of 1443 respondents fro...

  15. The Influence Word of Mouth (Wom) on Revisit Intention: the Mediating Role of Destination Image (Case Study on Domestic Tourists Visiting Mount Bromo)

    OpenAIRE

    Ayuningtiyas, Galuh Ajeng; Nimran, Umar; Hamid, Djamhur

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the influence of Word of Mouth (WOM), on Revisit Intention with the intervening effect of Destination Image. 100 questionnaires were distributed to tourists who come to Mount Bromo through convenience sampling approach. The scales of measurement used in this study is Likert scale. Validity and Reliability of the measurement scale were established with the formula analysis correlation Product Moment Pearson and Cronbach's Alpha. The technique of data an...

  16. Investigating the Role of Word of Mouth on Consumer Based Brand Equity Creation in Iran’s Cell-Phone Market

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mehdi SAMADZADEH; Seyed Hamid Khodadad HOSEINI; Mehran REZVANI

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of Word of Mouth (WOM) on Consumer Based Brand Equity (CBBE) creation. WOM characteristics such as, volume, valence, and source quality are studied to find how intensely they each affect brand awareness, perceived quality, and brand association. This investigation has been conducted in Tehran-Iran, on the cell-phone market. The methodology selected for this study was structural equation and all the calculations were done using Lisrel 8.54. The results sugges...

  17. Comparative influence of e-word of mouth and professional reviews of restaurants on perceived quality: Focus on TripAdvisor and the Michelin guide

    OpenAIRE

    Landré, Morgane

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis in International hotel and tourism management: Culinary leadership and innovation The following experiment will explain in detail how a causal exploratory research can be conducted to assess matters related to the food and beverage industry. This research will try to show the impact of recommendation from both e-word of mouth and professional reviews on restaurant’s perceived quality. The case study will focus on the two leader of their category: Tripadvisor and the Micheli...

  18. Electronic Word Of Mouth (E-WOM), Kepuasan Konsumen dan Pengaruh Langsung dan Tak Langsung terhadap Minat Beli Konsumen (Studi pada Mahasiswa FEB Untag di Semarang)

    OpenAIRE

    FX. Denny Pradana, Ratnawati Dwi Putranti

    2015-01-01

    The present of internet in our lives today make the communication easier and discloser. Communication through social networks that can gather many people makes the internet as a medium that is loved by many people. Students and business man like this medium because its efficiently and effectively. Sharing experiences through social networks will speed up information and promotion. This study analyzed the influence of electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) and customer satisfaction with social media...

  19. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty, and Brand Commitment on Word of Mouth of Wall€™s Ice Cream in Manado

    OpenAIRE

    Pandowo, Merinda Pandowo; Kindangen, Citra Pingkan

    2014-01-01

    Food and beverage products and the followed improvement in industry are familiar for common people in every part of this world. The aim of this research is to analyze the effect of customer satisfaction, customer loyalty, and brand commitment on word of mouth. To achieve the objectives, the research method used is causal research by using multiple regression analysis as the analytical tool. The population of this research is the consumers in Manado who ever taste wall€™s Ice cream with sample...

  20. The Influence of Social Media Towards Emotions, Brand Relationship Quality, and Word of Mouth (WOM on Concert’s Attendees in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmadini Yulia

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Social media has been developing significantly from year to year. In Indonesia, 72% of the internet users use the internet to access social media. This indicates that social media are effective brand communication and promotion tools. Music industry is one of the business industries which utilizes social media as communication and promotion tools, especially related to music concerts. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact and relationship of social media towards emotional attachment and brand relationship quality, in which both will be then compare towards word of mouth (WOM on concert’s attendees. This research uses descriptive design research conducted in one period (cross sectional design. Respondents of this study are 160 persons who attended concerts last year. The five-hypotheses research model in this study is tested using the Structural Equation Modelling (SEM. This research shows that social media interaction may result in emotional attachment. Emotional attachment felt by concert attendees may influence positively and significantly to brand relationship quality and creates word of mouth among the concert attendees.

  1. The Impact of Internet Word-of-Mouth on Consumer's Product Attitude%网络口碑对消费者产品态度的影响机理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋晓兵; 丛竹; 董大海

    2011-01-01

    针对网络口碑区别于传统口碑的主要特点,提出了网络口碑对消费者产品态度的影响机理,并以网络电影评论社区为研究背景,利用实验法对这一机理进行了实证检验.研究结果表明,网络口碑的论据质量和网络社区可靠性都会对消费者的产品态度产生正向影响,而且卷入度与网络口碑论据质量、网络社区可靠性分别具有显著的交互作用.%Aiming at the characters of Internet word-of-mouth compared with traditional word-of mouth, this research proposes the hypotheses about the impact of Internet word-of-mouth on Consumer's product attitude,. The author tests the hypotheses by conducting an experiment in the context of virtual community about movies. The result indicates that argument quality of Internet word-of-mouth and community credibility has positive effect on consumer's product attitude. And involvement has interaction effect with argument quality of Internet word-of-mouth and community credibility respectively.

  2. Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilal FG

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Faheem Gul Gilal,1 Jian Zhang,1 Naeem Gul Gilal,2 Rukhsana Gul Gilal3 1Donlinks School of Economics and Management, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Management, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Business Administration, Sukkur IBA University, Sindh, Pakistan Background: The present study integrates self-determined needs satisfaction into a relationship between product design (eg, aesthetic, functional, and symbolic design and consumer behavior (eg, willingness-to-pay [WTP] a premium and negative word-of-mouth [WOM] and to explore whether gender can differentiate the effects of aesthetic, functional, and symbolic product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction. Methods: To this end, participants from Pakistan and China were recruited, and the hypotheses for this study were tested using structural equation modeling and SPSS-PROCESS. Results: The effects of three product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction were significantly positive across samples. The results further show that self-determined needs satisfaction had the strongest positive effect on WTP a premium and the strongest negative effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistanis. Self-determined needs frustration had the strongest negative effect on the WTP a premium for Chinese participants and an equivalent magnitude effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistani and Chinese participants. The cross-cultural gender-specific findings revealed that Pakistani men are more aesthetic and hedonic than women in Pakistan. Surprisingly, Chinese women resemble Pakistani men in the sense that they prefer aesthetically pleasing products. Chinese men resemble Pakistani women in terms of little interest in symbolic products, whereas Chinese women and Pakistani men respond similarly regarding their decisions to choose symbolic products. Conclusion: To the best of the

  3. Word of Mouth sebagai Efek Respon Positif dari Kepuasan Konsumen dan Dampaknya pada Pembelian Kembali: Studi Kasus Mahasiswa sebagai Konsumen Yoghurt Activia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enggal Sriwardiningsih

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This research want to know word of mouth as respon positive effect from consumen satisfaction and impact to repurchase. Methodology used provement of statistical test, liket scala, and a path analysis. The data came from primer sources by cross section with quesioner amount one hundred participan. Result of this riset significanly word of mouth as efek respon positif from consumen satisfaction and impact to repurchase, but interesting found that no signifikan relation between consumen satisfaction with repurchase, for his product may be another kind of consumer behavior work.

  4. Authenticity in Obesity Public Service Announcements: Influence of Spokesperson Type, Viewer Weight, and Source Credibility on Diet, Exercise, Information Seeking, and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Joe; Tinkham, Spencer

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the joint influence of spokesperson type in obesity public service announcements (PSAs) and viewer weight on diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and electronic word-of-mouth (eWoM) intention. Results of a 2 (spokesperson type: real person vs. actor) × 2 (viewer weight: overweight vs. non-overweight) between-subjects experiment indicated that overweight viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person had the highest diet intention, exercise intention, information seeking, and eWoM intention. Parasocial interaction was also found to mediate the relationships between spokesperson type/viewer weight and two of the dependent variables: diet intention and exercise intention. In addition, viewers who saw the PSA featuring the real person rated the spokesperson as significantly higher on source credibility (trustworthiness, competence, and goodwill) than those who saw the PSA featuring the actor.

  5. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taegu; Hong, Jungsik; Kang, Pilsung

    2017-01-01

    Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM) effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS) are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA), based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  6. The Effects of Traditional and Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Destination Image: A Case of Vacation Tourists Visiting Branson, Missouri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Ishida

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of integrated word-of-mouth (WOM, both traditional and electronic, on tourism products are yet to be fully investigated. The current study aims to assess the effects of and differences between traditional WOM and electronic WOM, between personal WOM and commercial WOM, and between positive and negative WOM on a destination image. Results of the study indicate that traditional WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to electronic WOM. Personal traditional WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to electronic personal WOM and commercial WOM. However, negative WOM exerted less influence on the destination’s image compared to positive WOM while negative electronic WOM had a greater influence on destination image compared to negative traditional WOM.

  7. Box Office Forecasting considering Competitive Environment and Word-of-Mouth in Social Networks: A Case Study of Korean Film Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taegu Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate box office forecasting models are developed by considering competition and word-of-mouth (WOM effects in addition to screening-related information. Nationality, genre, ratings, and distributors of motion pictures running concurrently with the target motion picture are used to describe the competition, whereas the numbers of informative, positive, and negative mentions posted on social network services (SNS are used to gauge the atmosphere spread by WOM. Among these candidate variables, only significant variables are selected by genetic algorithm (GA, based on which machine learning algorithms are trained to build forecasting models. The forecasts are combined to improve forecasting performance. Experimental results on the Korean film market show that the forecasting accuracy in early screening periods can be significantly improved by considering competition. In addition, WOM has a stronger influence on total box office forecasting. Considering both competition and WOM improves forecasting performance to a larger extent than when only one of them is considered.

  8. The Effect of Word of Mouth Marketıng on the Purchase Behavıor Vıa Brand Image and Perceıved Qualıty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhrem Yaman

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In terms of businesses in today's world, the most important way of sustainability is through a good sense of quality and a brand image. Especially when the uncertainties about the service to be offered in the service sector are excessive, people can postpone the decision stage as long as they are not confident. For a service that they do not already have experience, the customers choose the way to prefer perceived quality perception and businesses with high brand image with the help of word of mouth marketing. In this study, it is aimed to determine whether word of mouth marketing has effect on the purchasing behavior via brand image and perceived quality. In order to collect the data in the study, scales which consists of 23 items, 89 for Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient word of mouth marketing, 80 for brand image, 92 for perceived quality, developed by Goyette vd (2010, Ural and Perk (2012 and Pappu, Quester ve Cooksey (2006 was used. As a result of the analyzes made, it has been found out that word of mouth marketing activities develop faster on the institutions which had high percieved quality and brand image before, and on the purchasing behaviors of the individuals.

  9. Integrating self-determined needs into the relationship among product design, willingness-to-pay a premium, and word-of-mouth: a cross-cultural gender-specific study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilal, Faheem Gul; Zhang, Jian; Gilal, Naeem Gul; Gilal, Rukhsana Gul

    2018-01-01

    The present study integrates self-determined needs satisfaction into a relationship between product design (eg, aesthetic, functional, and symbolic design) and consumer behavior (eg, willingness-to-pay [WTP] a premium and negative word-of-mouth [WOM]) and to explore whether gender can differentiate the effects of aesthetic, functional, and symbolic product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction. To this end, participants from Pakistan and China were recruited, and the hypotheses for this study were tested using structural equation modeling and SPSS-PROCESS. The effects of three product designs on self-determined needs satisfaction were significantly positive across samples. The results further show that self-determined needs satisfaction had the strongest positive effect on WTP a premium and the strongest negative effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistanis. Self-determined needs frustration had the strongest negative effect on the WTP a premium for Chinese participants and an equivalent magnitude effect on vindictive WOM for Pakistani and Chinese participants. The cross-cultural gender-specific findings revealed that Pakistani men are more aesthetic and hedonic than women in Pakistan. Surprisingly, Chinese women resemble Pakistani men in the sense that they prefer aesthetically pleasing products. Chinese men resemble Pakistani women in terms of little interest in symbolic products, whereas Chinese women and Pakistani men respond similarly regarding their decisions to choose symbolic products. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present study is one of the initial attempts to integrate self-determined needs into the relationship between product design and consumer WTP a premium and WOM, and further explore cross-cultural gender-specific differences across Pakistan and China. The findings of the present study may help international marketers in terms of segmenting, targeting, and positioning their markets.

  10. Effects of word-of-mouth on the behavior of Austrian blood donors: a case study of the Red Cross Blood Donation Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sebastian; Greiling, Dorothea; Leibetseder, Nina

    2017-12-13

    The procurement of blood is an essential challenge of today's health care. Current studies emphasize the influence of word-of-mouth (WOM) on health care behavior, including blood donation. Still, there exists no study which systematically investigates how WOM affects the behavior of blood donors. Therefore, this paper aims to contribute to this lack of research by focusing on Austrian blood donors as possible receivers and senders of WOM. A survey was distributed to 300 donors of the Austrian Red Cross with a return of 245 surveys. The results highlight the strong influence of WOM on the awareness of the blood service and the willingness to donate blood. Further, structured and organized procedures, friendly employees and respectful interaction were found to be important factors determining willingness to recommend blood donation. Family members as well as friends are the preferred WOM-receivers and the personal face-to-face contact is the favored channel of communication. The results also show that WOM-behavior is strongly influenced by factors such as age, gender and donation frequency. By helping blood bank managers to better understand how WOM affects donation intention and behavior, this study provides a new approach to attract blood donors. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Loyalty and positive word-of-mouth: patients and hospital personnel as advocates of a customer-centric health care organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Ronald J; Paulin, Michele; Leiriao, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    The ability to attract and retain loyal customers depends on the successful implementation of a customer-centric strategy. Customer loyalty is an attitude about an organization and its' services that is manifested by intentions and behaviors of re-patronization and recommendation. In the context of many medical services, loyalty through repeat patronization is not pertinent, whereas loyalty through positive word-of mouth (WOM) recommendation can be a powerful marketing tool. The Shouldice Hospital, a well-known institution for the surgical correction of hernias, instituted a marketing plan to develop a stable base of patients by creating positive WOM advocacy. This study focused on the consequences of both hernia patient overall satisfaction (and overall service quality) and hospital personnel satisfaction on the level of positive WOM advocacy. Using a commitment ladder of positive WOM advocacy, respondents were divided into three categories described as passive supporters, active advocates and ambassador advocates. Patient assessments of overall satisfaction and service quality were significantly related to these progressive levels of WOM for recommending the hospital to potential patients. Similarly, the satisfaction of the hospital employees was also significantly related to these progressive levels of positive WOM about recommending the hospital to potential patients and to potential employees. High levels of satisfaction are required to create true ambassadors of a service organization.

  12. Pengaruh Persepsi Harga, Kualitas Pelayanan dan Citra Terhadap Niat Konsumen untuk Word of Mouth dengan Kepuasan sebagai Variabel Mediasi (Survei pada BPJS di Kabupaten Ponorogo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhika Amalia Kurniawan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization impact on business competition intensifies, resulting in the exchange of goods and services flow freely in various areas, one of which is the health services. Health care services is one of the important needs for the community. Specifically in this case is the organizer of the Health Insurance Agency (BPJS. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect the perception of price, quality of service and the image of the consumers intention to word of mouth with satisfaction as mediating variables. Data were collected by questionnaire instrument. This model was developed and tested with structural equation model using data collected from 200 patients in Ponorogo. The results showed that before individuals distinguished by the level of information obtained none of the variables that influence satisfaction, better perception of price, quality of service and the image. However, on the one hand satisfaction are variables influential in shaping consumer intentions to WOM. Furthermore, when individuals are distinguished by low and high-level information was obtained that the low level of information, none of the variables that affect the satisfaction of both the perception of price, quality of service and the image. However, on the one hand satisfaction are variables influential in shaping consumer intentions to WOM. Then, based on high-level information indicates that the variable perception of price, quality of service and image effect on satisfaction, while satisfaction are variables influential in shaping consumer intentions to WOM against BPJS services.

  13. Demand effects of consumers’ stated and revealed preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Engström, Per; Forsell, Eskil

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of how consumers react to different quality signals is fundamental for understanding how markets work. We study the online market- place for Android apps where we compare the causal effects on demand from two quality related signals; other consumers' stated and revealed preferences toward an app. Our main result is that consumers are much more responsive to other consumers' revealed preferences, compared to others' stated preferences. A 10 percentile increase in displayed average ra...

  14. Peran Mediasi Citra Merek dan Persepsi Risiko pada Hubungan antara Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM) dan Minat Beli (Studi pada Konsumen Kosmetik E-Commerce di Solo Raya)

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Noor Eriza

    2017-01-01

    Abstrak Electronic word of mouth (E-WOM) banyak dimanfaatkan konsumen untuk menggali informasi mengenai suatu produk. Informasi yang diperoleh dari berbagai sumber di internet akan mempengaruhi persepsi konsumen terhadap citra merek, risiko dan mendorong minat beli konsumen. Penelitian ini menganalisis peran mediasi citra merek dan persepsi risiko pada hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 149 konsumen di Solo Raya yang telah melakukan pembelian kosmetik melalui...

  15. Investigating the Effect of Consumer’s Risk Aversion and Product Involvement on their Brand Loyalty and Word of Mouth Behavior: The Mediating Role of Brand Attachment and Brand Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Manijeh Bahrainizadeh; Alireza Ziaei Bide

    2013-01-01

    In today’s highly competitive markets, brand loyalty is a central element of marketing strategies and tactics. Therefore, the sources of loyalty and the processes through which it is established is becoming central concern of marketers. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between the consumer’s risk aversion and product involvement with their brand loyalty and positive word of mouth behaviors and also to test empirically whether this relationship is mediated by brand trus...

  16. We'll Be Honest, This Won't Be the Best Article You'll Ever Read: The Use of Dispreferred Markers in Word-of-Mouth Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan Hamilton; Kathleen D. Vohs; Ann L. McGill

    2014-01-01

    Consumers value word-of-mouth communications in large part because customer reviews are more likely to include negative information about a product or service than are communications originating from the marketer. Despite the fact that negative information is frequently valued by those receiving it, baldly declaring negative information may come with social costs to both communicator and receiver. For this reason, communicators sometimes soften pronouncements of bad news by couching them in d...

  17. Nuevo comportamiento del consumidor: la influencia del eWOM (electronic Word-of-Mouth) en relación a la lealtad de los clientes en el sector hotelero

    OpenAIRE

    Salvi, Fabiana

    2015-01-01

    Ante el avance de las tecnologías de la información y la introducción de nuevas formas de comunicación, las empresas deben adaptarse a los nuevos comportamientos y procesos de decisión de los consumidores. Uno de los factores que está afectando este proceso es el electronic Word-of-Mouth (eWOM), que consiste en los comentarios online realizados por los consumidores respecto a su valoración y/o recomendación de los productos y servicios que han utilizado y que, a su vez, afectan la reputación ...

  18. Peran Mediasi Citra Merek dan Persepsi Risiko pada Hubungan antara Electronic Word of Mouth (E-WOM dan Minat Beli (Studi pada Konsumen Kosmetik E-Commerce di Solo Raya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Noor Eriza

    2017-06-01

    Electronic word of mouth (E-WOM banyak dimanfaatkan konsumen untuk menggali informasi mengenai suatu produk. Informasi yang diperoleh dari berbagai sumber di internet akan mempengaruhi persepsi konsumen terhadap citra merek, risiko dan mendorong minat beli konsumen. Penelitian ini menganalisis peran mediasi citra merek dan persepsi risiko pada hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari 149 konsumen di Solo Raya yang telah melakukan pembelian kosmetik melalui e-commerce. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa E-WOM berpengaruh positif terhadap minat beli dan citra merek. Pengujian regresi mediasi menyimpulkan bahwa citra merek memediasi secara parsial hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli. Hasil tersebut mengartikan bahwa aktivitas membaca ulasan produk di internet akan memberikan informasi mengenai manfaat dan keunggulan produk sehingga konsumen akan merasa yakin bahwa mereka memilih produk yang tepat dan mendorong minat beli konsumen. Sedangkan E-WOM berpengaruh negatif terhadap persepsi risiko namun tidak memediasi hubungan E-WOM dan minat beli.   Kata kunci : E-WOM, Minat Beli, Citra Merek, Persepsi Risiko.

  19. SAĞLIK KURUMLARINDA AĞIZDAN AĞIZA PAZARLAMA VE BİR PİLOT ÇALIŞMA - WORD OF MOUTH MARKETING IN HEALTH CARE ORGANIZATIONS AND A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyza UZUNAL

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Özet:Sağlık hizmetleri kişilerin sağlığının korunması, teşhis,tedavi ve bakım için kişisel ve kurumsal olarak kamu veya özelşahısların vermiş olduğu hizmetler olarak tanımlanabilir.Sağlık hizmeti sunan kuruluşlarda pazarlamanın amacı;işletme amaçlarına uygun olarak hedef pazarın tatmindüzeyini geliştirerek, tüketicilerin beklentilerini karşılayandaha nitelikli hizmetleri sunmaktır.Günümüzde sağlık hizmetleri, profesyonel işletmecilikanlayışıyla şekillenmektedir. Artık sağlık yöneticilerininhedefleri arasında, daha çok hastayı çekerek gelen hastalarımemnun etmek ve hastanın tekrar aynı hastaneyi tercihetmesini sağlamak yer almaktadır.Ağızdan ağıza pazarlama ise güvene dayanan, tüketicilerinçevrelerindeki sosyal bağlantılarıyla ve diğer tüketicilerleürünler / hizmetler / markalar hakkındaki bilgi alışverişidir.Günümüzde tüketicilerin kendi aralarında bilgi vedeneyimlerini paylaşımı, geleneksel reklam ve pazarlamafaaliyetleriyle birlikte giderek artan bir öneme sahip olmayabaşlamıştır.Bu çalışmada genel anlamda ağızdan ağıza pazarlamanıntemel kavramları hakkında bilgi verilerek, sağlık sektöründeağızdan ağza pazarlamanın etkinliği anlaşılmaya çalışılmıştır.Abstract:Health care can be described as service personallyand institutionally by public or private operations in order todiagnosis, treatment and care the health of individuals. Aim ofmarketing in institutions offering health care to improve thelevel target market’s satisfaction and the institutions is toreach by presenting more qualified service to meet theexpectancy of consumersNowadays health care services are shaped by a professionalbusiness approach. Among the objectives of health caremanagers who take more satisfied patients by pulling them andthe patients prefer to allow a repetition of the same hospital islocated.Word of mouth marketing is basically sharing

  20. How valuable is word of mouth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Petersen, J Andrew; Leone, Robert P

    2007-10-01

    The customers who buy the most from you are probably not your best marketers. What's more, your best marketers may be worth far more to your company than your most enthusiastic consumers. Those are the conclusions of professors Kumar and Petersen at the University of Connecticut and professor Leone at Ohio State University, who analyzed thousands of customers in research focused on a telecommunications company and a financial services firm. In this article, the authors present a straightforward tool that can be used to calculate both customer lifetime value (CLV), the worth of your customers' purchases, and customer referral value (CRV), the value of their referrals. Knowing both enables you to segment your customers into four constituent parts: those that buy a lot but are poor marketers (which they term Affluents); those that don't buy much but are very strong salespeople for your firm (Advocates); those that do both well (Champions); and those that do neither well (Misers). In a series of one-year experiments, the authors demonstrated the effectiveness of this segmentation approach. Offering purchasing incentives to Advocates, referral incentives to Affluents, and both to Misers, they were able to move significant proportions of all three into the Champions category. Both companies reaped returns on their marketing investments greater than 12-fold--more than double the normal marketing ROI for their industries. The power of this tool is its ability to help marketers decide where to focus their efforts. Rather than waste funds encouraging big spenders to spend slightly more while overlooking the power of customer evangelists who don't buy enough to seem important, you can reap much higher rewards by nudging big spenders to make referrals and urging enthusiastic proponents of your wares to buy a bit more.

  1. Effects of Electronic Word - of - Mouth Messages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choong Hoon Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increased usage of online technologies, there has been an escalation of Electronic Word - of –Mouth (eWOM messages related to sport products and services offered and consumed. Therefore, in this original investigation by applying eWOM to the sport industry, this study examined how the combination of the quality of the eWOM message and the provider of the eWOM message affects purchaseintentions depending on the expertise level of the consumer. This study – which involved the collection of data from 134 students at a large university situated in the Midwest of the United States – utilized repeated measures of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA with tripartite groups of expertise and experimental conditions as independent variables. Purchase intention was the dependent variables. The results indicated that the quality of the eWOM message moderated the effect of the provider of the eWOM message. The subject’s level of expertise also had a moderating role on purchase intention.

  2. Word of mouth and opinion leadership

    OpenAIRE

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica; Marić Dražen; Grubor Aleksandar; Salai Suzana

    2008-01-01

    The new, alternative thinking patterns in marketing highlight the fact that exchanges per se are not the focus of marketing analysis and researches; rather than that, they must surrender this position to relationships between different sides in the marketing setting - the company and consumers, internal relations within companies, and relations between consumers themselves. A new philosophy, relationship marketing, is taking over the position of the old transaction marketing philosophy. The g...

  3. Determinan Permintaan Pariwisata di ASEAN (Analisis Data Panel Dinamis 2000-2015 [Tourism Demand Determinants in ASEAN (Dynamic Panel Data Analysis 2000-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Ruth Elisabeth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the determinants of tourism demands in ASEAN during the period of 2000-2015. This study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to measure the impact of tourism price, infrastructure, health, openness, government spending on education, risk of tourism and word of mouth effect to the number of tourist arrivals in ASEAN. The result shows that the significant determinants are physical investment, health, openness, risk of tourism and word of mouth effect. Meanwhile, tourism price and government expenditure on education do not significantly affect the number of tourist arrivals. This study recommends the need for ASEAN member countries to enhance cooperation in developing infrastructure, training on safety and health, trade negotiations and tourism promotion. Bahasa Indonesia Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui deteminan dari permintaan turis masuk di ASEAN, sepanjang periode 2000-2015. Studi ini menggunakan model Generalized Method of Moments (GMM untuk mengukur dampak dari harga pariwisata, infrastruktur, tingkat kesehatan, keterbukaan, pengeluaran pemerintah untuk pendidikan, resiko pariwisata dan efek word of mouth terhadap jumlah turis masuk ke ASEAN. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa faktor yang signifikan mempengaruhi adalah investasi infrastruktur, tingkat kesehatan, keterbukaan, resiko pariwisata dan efek word of mouth. Sementara, harga pariwisata dan pengeluaran pemerintah untuk pendidikan tidak signifikan mempengaruhi jumlah turis masuk. Studi ini merekomendasikan pentingnya negara ASEAN untuk meningkatkan kerjasama dalam pengembangan infrastruktur, training keamanan dan kesehatan, meningkatkan negosiasi perdagangan dan promosi pariwisata.

  4. Ağızdan Ağıza Çevrimiçi İletişimin Otellerdeki Oda Satışlarına Etkisi Üzerine bir Araştırma = The Impact of Online Word-of-Mouth Communication on Hotels’ Room Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olgun KİTAPÇI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Customers have used many components as data source in the purchase decision process. The motivation of being a social existence and the technological progress have featured word-of-mouth communication and have led to realization of this communication online. From this point of view, the present study focuses on hospitality industry and aims to investigate the influence of online consumer-generated reviews on holiday buying behaviour. For the data collecting process of the study, tatilsepeti.com, one of the oldest and mostly used holiday web sites is used. The semi-logarithmic model is used to assess the impact of online reviews. The results underline the significant effects of online reviews on consumer buying decision process.

  5. Word of mouth, word of mouse : la campagne des Travaillistes à l'heure des « premières élections numériques » en Grande-Bretagne

    OpenAIRE

    Avril , Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Les élections de 2010 ont été décrites comme « les premières élections numériques en Grande-Bretagne ». L’évolution des nouvelles technologies et de leur usage par les partis politiques depuis les élections de 2005 est frappante. Il est donc très important de se demander quel a été le poids véritable des nouveaux médias dans la campagne et dans quelle mesure les nouvelles technologies ont pu susciter un renouvellement des pratiques de campagne. Le parti travailliste, c...

  6. Bias versus bias: harnessing hindsight to reveal paranormal belief change beyond demand characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael J; Core, Tammy J; Hunt, R Reed

    2010-04-01

    Psychological change is difficult to assess, in part because self-reported beliefs and attitudes may be biased or distorted. The present study probed belief change, in an educational context, by using the hindsight bias to counter another bias that generally plagues assessment of subjective change. Although research has indicated that skepticism courses reduce paranormal beliefs, those findings may reflect demand characteristics (biases toward desired, skeptical responses). Our hindsight-bias procedure circumvented demand by asking students, following semester-long skepticism (and control) courses, to recall their precourse levels of paranormal belief. People typically remember themselves as previously thinking, believing, and acting as they do now, so current skepticism should provoke false recollections of previous skepticism. Given true belief change, therefore, skepticism students should have remembered themselves as having been more skeptical than they were. They did, at least about paranormal topics that were covered most extensively in the course. Our findings thus show hindsight to be useful in evaluating cognitive change beyond demand characteristics.

  7. The Effect of Customer Satisfaction on Word of Mouth Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Houshang Taghizadeh; Mohammad Javad Taghipourian; Amir Khazaei

    2013-01-01

    Today, customer satisfaction is an important issue for organizations. Being a winner or loser is based on the percentage of customers that they have retained. This is why many scholars and researchers have continually stressed the importance of customer satisfaction. On the other hand, customer is one of the most important stakeholders in any organization because, without the customer, the organization probably will not succeed. So a customer behavioral intentions and responses, is one of the...

  8. ANTECEDENTS TO WEBSITE SATISFACTION, LOYALTY, AND WORD-OF-MOUTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent Lynn Selby Coker

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Satisfaction, loyalty, and likelihood of referral are regarded by marketers and the Big Three diagnostics leading to retail profitability. However, as yet no-one has developed a model to capture all three of these constructs in the context of the internet. Moreover, although several attempts have been made to develop models to measure quality of website experience, no-one has sought to develop an instrument short enough to be of practical use as a quick customer satisfaction feedback form. In this research we sought to fill this void by developing and psychometrically testing a parsimonious model to capture the Big Three diagnostics, brief enough to be used in a commercial environment as a modal popup feedback form.

  9. Value, Satisfaction and Word of Mouth for a Retail Brand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Frederico

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the antecedents of value, satisfaction and worth of mouth (WOM for franchise and flagship store shoppers. The literature review and a in-depth interview with the flasgship store manager indicated that brand and product aspects, as well the store environment and services aspects influence value, satisfaction and WOM. Then, a structural model was adjusted and tested with data collected from a survey with 275 consumers. Findings indicate that WOM and satisfaction are mediated by hedonism and utilitarism. Brand and store aspects are determinants of hedonic value and store aspects are associated with utilitarism. In addiction, flagship shoppers are more satisfied and tend to recommend the brand more than franchise shoppers. 

  10. Antecedents to website satisfaction, loyalty, and word-of-mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Coker, Brent

    2013-01-01

    Satisfaction, loyalty, and likelihood of referral are regarded by marketers and the Big Three diagnostics leading to retail profitability. However, as yet no-one has developed a model to capture all three of these constructs in the context of the internet. Moreover, although several attempts have been made to develop models to measure quality of website experience, no-one has sought to develop an instrument short enough to be of practical use as a quick customer satisfaction feedback form. In...

  11. Electronic word of mouth influence on consumer purchase intention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This type of e-marketing affects consumer on its purchase intention of product or service. ... influence and how these factors influence the buying decisions of consumers. ... This paper is expedient for marketers in creating effective promotional ...

  12. Word-of Mouth Marketing Vs Marketing Viral

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Orzan; Gheorghe Orzan

    2007-01-01

    Noi forme de marketing si publicitate online se impun si transforma cu din ce in ce mai mare viteza marketingul traditional, instrumentele mass-media la indemana marketer-ilor, ca si perceptiile consumatorilor. Factorul interactiv reprezinta un element din ce in ce mai frecvent in marketingul modern, marketer-ii si clientii redefinind in permanenta forma si continutul mesajelor promotionale, instrumente precum blog-urile, podcast-urile, recenziile online, forum-urile sau chat-urile reprezenta...

  13. Sex differences in functional activation patterns revealed by increased emotion processing demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Geoffrey B C; Witelson, Sandra F; Szechtman, Henry; Nahmias, Claude

    2004-02-09

    Two [O(15)] PET studies assessed sex differences regional brain activation in the recognition of emotional stimuli. Study I revealed that the recognition of emotion in visual faces resulted in bilateral frontal activation in women, and unilateral right-sided activation in men. In study II, the complexity of the emotional face task was increased through tje addition of associated auditory emotional stimuli. Men again showed unilateral frontal activation, in this case to the left; whereas women did not show bilateral frontal activation, but showed greater limbic activity. These results suggest that when processing broader cross-modal emotional stimuli, men engage more in associative cognitive strategies while women draw more on primary emotional references.

  14. The Roles of Teachers' Science Talk in Revealing Language Demands within Diverse Elementary School Classrooms: A Study of Teaching Heat and Temperature in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Yore, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    This study of three science teachers' lessons on heat and temperature seeks to characterise classroom talk that highlighted the ways language is used and to examine the nature of the language demands revealed in constructing, negotiating, arguing and communicating science ideas. The transcripts from the entire instructional units for these…

  15. The roles of teachers' science talk in revealing language demands within diverse elementary school classrooms: a study of teaching heat and temperature in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Lay Hoon; Yore, Larry D.

    2017-01-01

    This study of three science teachers' lessons on heat and temperature seeks to characterise classroom talk that highlighted the ways language is used and to examine the nature of the language demands revealed in constructing, negotiating, arguing and communicating science ideas. The transcripts from the entire instructional units for these teachers' four culturally and linguistically diverse Grade 4 classes (10 years old) with English as the language of instruction constitute the data for this investigation. Analysis of these transcripts focused on teachers' talk that made explicit reference to the form or function of the language of science and led to the inductive development of the 'Attending to Language Demands in Science' analytical framework. This framework in turn revealed that the major foregrounding purposes of teachers' talk include labelling, explaining, differentiating, selecting and constructing. Further classification of the instances within these categories revealed the extensive and contextualised nature of the language demands. The results challenge the conventional assumption that basic literacy skills dominate over disciplinary literacy skills in primary school science. Potential uses of the analytical framework that could further expand our understanding of the forms, functions and demands of language used in elementary school science are also discussed.

  16. Metabolomics reveals differences in postprandial responses to breads and fasting metabolic characteristics associated with postprandial insulin demand in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzami, Ali A; Shrestha, Aahana; Morrison, David A; Poutanen, Kaisa; Mykkänen, Hannu

    2014-06-01

    Changes in serum metabolic profile after the intake of different food products (e.g., bread) can provide insight into their interaction with human metabolism. Postprandial metabolic responses were compared after the intake of refined wheat (RWB), whole-meal rye (WRB), and refined rye (RRB) breads. In addition, associations between the metabolic profile in fasting serum and the postprandial concentration of insulin in response to different breads were investigated. Nineteen postmenopausal women with normal fasting glucose and normal glucose tolerance participated in a randomized, controlled, crossover meal study. The test breads, RWB (control), RRB, and WRB, providing 50 g of available carbohydrate, were each served as a single meal. The postprandial metabolic profile was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance and targeted LC-mass spectrometry and was compared between different breads using ANOVA and multivariate models. Eight amino acids had a significant treatment effect (P insulin. Women with higher fasting concentrations of leucine and isoleucine and lower fasting concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines had higher insulin responses despite similar glucose concentration after all kinds of bread (cross-validated ANOVA, P = 0.048). High blood concentration of branched-chain amino acids, i.e., leucine and isoleucine, has been associated with the increased risk of diabetes, which suggests that additional consideration should be given to bread proteins in understanding the beneficial health effects of different kinds of breads. The present study suggests that the fasting metabolic profile can be used to characterize the postprandial insulin demand in individuals with normal glucose metabolism that can be used for establishing strategies for the stratification of individuals in personalized nutrition. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Examine The Effect of Word-of-Mouth and Electronic Word-of-Mouth on Consumers' Perceived Risk in Taiwan: A Case Study on Online Shopping

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Hung-Miao

    2011-01-01

    Online shopping has become one of the most popular activities on the Internet in recent years. Due to the emergence of electronic commerce and the wide spread of the Internet, there is a new shopping channel for consumers to purchase products or services they need, that is, online shopping. In the past, researchers found that consumers had different online purchase behavior in terms of their demographics. However, the results of this thesis show that as time goes by, consumers become more ...

  18. Demand and supply of emergency help: an economic analysis of Red Cross services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Franz; Pruckner, Gerald Josef

    2006-08-01

    This paper analyzes supply and demand side characteristics of (voluntary) Red Cross services in Austria. The demand side analysis is based on a contingent valuation study on people's willingness to pay for emergency treatment, transportation services and disaster relief activities. The supply side is identified by a high percentage of volunteers in the Red Cross organization which makes the provision of emergency help at low cost possible. We find that aggregate benefits of Red Cross services exceed their cost of production. Policy conclusions are drawn with respect to future recruitment and funding: whereas intrinsic motivation is important for the decision to volunteer, and financial incentives play a minor role in general, the young Red Cross activists work voluntarily for self-realization reasons and to continue their education. Age-specific recruitment strategies accompanied by word-of-mouth advertising are recommended to address potential volunteers. As long as the volunteering character of Red Cross services will be maintained and cost of production will not go up an increase of funds does not seem necessary in the future. Moreover, a radical change in the structure of funding may crowd out both donations and voluntary labor supply.

  19. A Influência do Valor Percebido e da Satisfação do Cliente sobre o Comportamento de Boca a Boca: uma análise em academias de ginásticaThe Influence of Perceived Value and Customer Satisfaction on the Word of Mouth Behavior: an analysis in academies of gymnasticsLa Influencia del Valor Percibido y de la Satisfacción del Cliente en la Conducta Boca a Boca: un análisis en los gimnasios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTA, Francisco José da

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available RESUMOO propósito central deste artigo foi analisar a relação entre os construtos valor percebido (e seus antecedentes de qualidade e sacrifício, satisfação dos clientes de serviços, e comportamento de boca a boca (nas dimensões de intensidade e favorabilidade. A partir da revisão da literatura sobre os temas, foram enunciadas treze hipóteses de pesquisa, que foram aplicadas, tomando como contexto empírico o setor de academias de ginástica da cidade de Fortaleza (Ceará. Foi pesquisada uma amostra de 108 respondentes, com coleta de dados feita por meio de questionário estruturado, aplicado em quatro diferentes academias. Os construtos foram avaliados em separado, por meio de estatísticas descritivas e a análise das hipóteses foi feita com o apoio da técnica estatística Análise de Regressão Múltipla, realizada em cinco modelos distintos. Os resultados encontrados mostraram a consistência de nove das treze hipóteses, indicando, especialmente, que a satisfação e o valor percebido são antecedentes consistentes da favorabilidade e da intensidade das ações de boca a boca dos clientes. Os resultados apontaram elementos para uma melhor compreensão das relações definidas, e, também dá indicações para futuras pesquisas envolvendo os temas tratados.ABSTRACTThe main purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between the constructs perceived value (and its antecedents of quality and sacrifice, satisfaction of services customers, and word of mouth behavior (in its dimensions of activity and praise. From the literature review, 13 hypotheses were announced, and these hypotheses were submitted to test taking as empirical context the sector of fitness gyms from the city of Fortaleza (Ceará. A sample of 108 respondents was searched, with data collection done with a structured questionnaire, administered in four different fitness gyms. The constructs were evaluated separately, by using descriptive statistics, and the

  20. Firm-Created Word-of-Mouth Recommendation: Is it also worthwhile?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maise Soares Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the fastest-growing marketing tactics used to persuade and win customers is management of recommendations through incentives to participants. However, these initiatives can raise questions, including ethical problems about credibility of the recommendation. With the aim of measuring the factors that influence acceptance of a wordof-mouth (WOM recommendation, we propose a model able to relate and measure the impact of elements on acceptance of recommendations and the effect of participation in an organized WOM marketing program. We conducted a survey among 350 participants, using an instrument with a retrospective approach and presenting a hypothetical scenario. As results of the model, we highlight the expertise of the recommender and the similarity of this person with the receivers of the elements related with the recommendation message and their consequent willingness to accept it. We also identified that the existence of an incentive does not prevent acceptance of the recommendation, but it does reduce it, suggesting caution in use of this marketing tactic.

  1. Is Bigger Better? Customer Base Expansion through Word-of-Mouth Reputation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rob, Rafael; Fishman, Arthur

    2005-01-01

    A model of gradual reputation formation through a process of continuous investment in product quality is developed. We assume that the ability to produce high-quality products requires continuous investment and that as a consequence of informational frictions, such as search costs, information about firms' past performance diffuses only gradually…

  2. A modified Galam’s model for word-of-mouth information exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellero, Andrea; Fasano, Giovanni; Sorato, Annamaria

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we analyze the stochastic model proposed by Galam in [S. Galam, Modelling rumors: The no plane Pentagon French hoax case, Physica A 320 (2003), 571-580], for information spreading in a ‘word-of-mouth’ process among agents, based on a majority rule. Using the communications rules among agents defined in the above reference, we first perform simulations of the ‘word-of-mouth’ process and compare the results with the theoretical values predicted by Galam’s model. Some dissimilarities arise in particular when a small number of agents is considered. We find motivations for these dissimilarities and suggest some enhancements by introducing a new parameter dependent model. We propose a modified Galam’s scheme which is asymptotically coincident with the original model in the above reference. Furthermore, for relatively small values of the parameter, we provide a numerical experience proving that the modified model often outperforms the original one.

  3. Comparing the diversity of information by word-of-mouth vs. web spread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sela, Alon; Shekhtman, Louis; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Gal, Irad

    2016-06-01

    Many studies have explored spreading and diffusion through complex networks. The following study examines a specific case of spreading of opinions in modern society through two spreading schemes —defined as being either through “word of mouth” (WOM), or through online search engines (WEB). We apply both modelling and real experimental results and compare the opinions people adopt through an exposure to their friend's opinions, as opposed to the opinions they adopt when using a search engine based on the PageRank algorithm. A simulated study shows that when members in a population adopt decisions through the use of the WEB scheme, the population ends up with a few dominant views, while other views are barely expressed. In contrast, when members adopt decisions based on the WOM scheme, there is a far more diverse distribution of opinions in that population. The simulative results are further supported by an online experiment which finds that people searching information through a search engine end up with far more homogenous opinions as compared to those asking their friends.

  4. The impact of online brand community on electronic word-of-mouth communications

    OpenAIRE

    Beirão, Bernardo de Figueiredo Mateus

    2010-01-01

    A Work Project, presented as part of the requirements for the Award of a Masters Degree in Management from the NOVA – School of Business and Economics Through brand communities, people share essential resources that may be cognitive, emotional and material in nature. They have been cited for their potential not only to enhance the loyalty of members but also to engender a sense of oppositional loyalty towards competing brands. This project explored how brand consumers belonging versus not ...

  5. PENGARUH PERCEIVED JUSTICE TERHADAP WORD OF MOUTH, TRUST DAN REVISIT INTENTION YANG DIMEDIASI OLEH RECOVERY SATISFACTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sembodo Herry C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose: of this study is to assess the relative influences of distributive (DJ), procedural (PJ), and interactional (Li) justice on customer satisfaction on service recovery and to examine the relationship between recovery satisfaction and subsequent customer relationships: trust, word-of-riwuth (WOM), and revisit intention. Methodology: On-site surveys were administered to collect data from insurance customer who bought, and experienced a service failure. Findings: The effect of D...

  6. Social influence model and electronic word of mouth: PC versus mobile internet

    OpenAIRE

    Okazaki, Shintaro

    2009-01-01

    Compared with laptop or desktop computers, mobile devices offer greater flexibility in time and space, thus enabling consumers to be connected online more continually. In addition, their small size, portability and ease of use with location-based capabilities facilitate sending and receiving timely information in the right place. Drawing upon a social influence model proposed by Dholakia et al. (2004), this paper proposes a causal model for consumer participation in electronic ...

  7. Three Essays on the Economic Impact of Online Word-of-Mouth in Online Software Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wenqi

    2013-01-01

    The advances in information technologies and the Internet significantly promote the prosperous growth of electronic commerce in recent years. Simply surfing the Internet allows consumers to conveniently explore endless product choices and a flood of related product information. As one of the most important sources of product information,…

  8. Exploring the Impact of Electronic Word of Mouth and Property Characteristics on Customers’ Online Booking Decision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aeshah A. Alabdullatif

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of the internet has helped many businesses to attract potential customers from traditional to the online channel. The customers’ decision making on the online channel is affected by various factors such as other customer reviews, website quality, and property characteristics as well as customers personal profile. In this context, this study investigates the role of online customer reviews and key elements of the reviews page, particularly the elements that are poorly investigated in previous, as well as property characteristics in customers’ online hotel booking decision. A conceptual model has been proposed to measure the impact of these factors on customers decision making. The model is empirically tested with a data obtained from customers of booking.com having various backgrounds and nationalities. Structural Equation Modelling using SmartPLS 3.2 has been used to test the relationships in the suggested model. The results show a significant impact of online review factors such as filters, quality, quantity, recency, valence along with property characteristics on customers booking decision. The study also confirms the moderating effects of Gender and Travel Purpose on some of the proposed relationships in the conceptual model. The paper concludes by mentioning the limitations and recommendations for future work as well as implications for the academicians and managers.

  9. A Viral Branching Model for Predicting the Spread of Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J.A. van der Lans (Ralf); G.H. van Bruggen (Gerrit); J. Eliashberg (Jehoshua); B. Wierenga (Berend)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIn a viral marketing campaign an organization develops a marketing message, and stimulates customers to forward this message to their contacts. Despite its increasing popularity, there are no models yet that help marketers to predict how many customers a viral marketing campaign will

  10. Curation-Based Network Marketing: Strategies for Network Growth and Electronic Word-of-Mouth Diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Earnie Mitchell, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    In the last couple of years, a new aspect of online social networking has emerged, in which the strength of social network connections is based not on social ties but mutually shared interests. This dissertation studies these "curation-based" online social networks (CBN) and their suitability for the diffusion of electronic word-of-mouth…

  11. ADVERTING MESSAGE AND NEGATIVE SWITCHING BARRIER: EFFECTS ON REPURCHASE INTENTION AND WORD-OF-MOUTH

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Hua, Chang; Tho, Nguyen Xuan

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Even though previous literature has drawn the attention toexplore influential factors on repurchase intention and positive wordof-mouthof customers (PWOM), however, this study instead is the first one to considerthe simultaneous impacts of advertising messages and negative switchingbarriers. In order to clarify the focus for the above purpose, this study willnot take into consideration the major factor - service quality - which impactson the main dimensions of attitudinal loyalty had...

  12. The Effect of Word of Mouth on Sales: Online Book Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Dina Mayzlin; Judith A. Chevalier

    2003-01-01

    The creation of online consumer communities to provide product reviews and advice has been touted as an important, albeit somewhat expensive component of Internet retail strategies. In this paper, we characterize reviewer behavior at two popular Internet sites and examine the effect of consumer reviews on firms' sales. We use publicly available data from the two leading online booksellers, Amazon.com and BarnesandNoble.com, to construct measures of each firm's sales of individual books. We al...

  13. Creative vs. traditional media choice: effects on word-of-mouth and purchase intention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wottrich, V.M.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Verlegh, P.; Voorveld, H.; Eisend, M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, consumers are daily confronted with dozens of advertising messages due to an explosive media and advertising growth during the past decades. Compared to the 1970’s, where consumers where daily exposed to about 500 ads, today they are faced with approximately 5,000 ads a day (Johnson,

  14. Business application of viral marketing and Electronic Word-of-mouth. Firm opinions.

    OpenAIRE

    Virginia Aguilar Arcos; Sonia San Martín Gutiérrez; René Payo Hernanz

    2013-01-01

    [ES] La práctica tradicional del boca-oreja, natural desde hace años como modo de publicidad efectiva sin recurrir a grandes inversiones ni contrataciones en medios masivos se ha convertido en una nueva posibilidad de marketing con la llegada de las nuevas tecnologías e Internet. Así ha aparecido una nueva estrategia de marketing que consiste en explotar las redes sociales preexistentes para producir incrementos exponenciales en conocimiento de marca, denominada marketing viral. El efecto "bo...

  15. Determinants of Positive Word of Mouth in the Tunisian Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moez LTIFI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Our study aims to support a critical view on a large literature on relational fidelity. It seeks to demonstrate that, to understand the loyalty in the context of an experiential consumption, the analytical framework must be changed. It is beyond the simplistic view considering consumption as an instantaneous act and positions themselves within a more holistic approach with consumption as an experience for the consumer. We try to investigate to what extent the novelty, control and commitment help explain the strength of the relationship that could bind a consumer to the provider. We discuss and test the validity of a complex network of relationships breaking with the theoretical approaches. Then, we test, through an empirical study, the validity of the relationships identified in the literature in the context of a consumption experience of hotel services in North West Tunisia.

  16. Selling the Drama: Army Marketing Strategies and the Future of Word-of-Mouth Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-16

    the number of applicants is an issue; by focusing on quantity over quality, the opportunity to properly communicate the Army ethic to applicants is...in order to increase media exposure, the Army instituted the “Meet your Army” campaign. As a means of fostering communication between the civilian...Values and Ethic . The “Army strong” message was better, but the campaign did not resonate well, either, and was replaced after it was found that

  17. Investigating the Impact of Gender Differences on Alleviating Distrust via Electronic Word-of-Mouth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Albert Fei; Xiao, Bo Sophia; Lim, Eric T. K.

    2017-01-01

    in the former’s adoption of the latter. The authors also endeavor to uncover the role gender plays in moderating the aforementioned relationship between e-WOM and distrust. Design/methodology/approach The research model was validated via a field survey administered on 115 college students and faculty members......, who had been exposed to a custom-developed online restaurant review website. SmartPLS 2.0.M3 was employed to verify both the measurement and structural properties of the research model. Findings Distrust reduces male consumers’ perceptions of usefulness and ease of use toward an online service...... males and females react to these two distinct forms of e-WOM. Consistent with the cognitive dissonance theory, the distinction between numerical rating and opinionated review enables further exploration of the impact of cognitive dissonance between these two forms of e-WOM on male and female consumers...

  18. Word of mouth marketing in the digital age: a case study analysis of viral marketing campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Filippo

    2013-01-01

    A era digital viu a ascensão da empresa focada no consumidor. Todos os dias, marcas e produtos são objeto de milhões de conversas em que os consumidores trocam pontos de vista, opiniões e informações antes de tomar a decisão de compra. Os profissionais de marketing entenderam a importância do boca a boca como um novo canal de comunicação estratégica e começaram a ancorar técnicas de boca a boca à estratégia de marketing global. A propaganda tornou-se um negócio de conversa: o novo desafio ...

  19. Product Seeding: Word-of-Mouth Effects For and Beyond the Focal Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart Yakov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In a classic seeded WOM marketing campaign, a company sends product samples to a selected group of influencers, and encourages them share the product information and their own opinions with other consumers. Positive effects include more WOM for the focal product in the target segment, but also in additional segments. But there are additional spillover effects on the brand and the product category level and they are negative. More conversations about the focal product reduced the “off-topic” conversations about other brands in the same category as well as other products of the same brand. These negative brand and category spillover effects are stronger when the focal product is of a more functional nature. Marketers tend to consider only positive spillovers to be beneficial for a company, but negative spillovers should not be immediately classified as “bad news.” There are upsides to this effect that managers can use in their favor.

  20. The Medium Shapes the Message: The Surprising Negative Spin of Close Friends’ Word-of-Mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubois David

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many social media handbooks recommend targeting customers’ close connections and encouraging consumers to spread the word about their products and services among friends. But according to the findings of this research this strategy might not be the most effective way to build positive momentum. In fact, it might just do the opposite. The feelings of closeness that WOM senders experience toward their recipients determine what they share. Being close instills the desire to protect a recipient from having a bad experience. Therefore, communicating negative information, which highlights potential negative outcomes or attributes of a product, becomes more likely to be shared among close friends. In relations with loose acquaintances the motive to impress is more prevalent. Therefore, communicating positive information, which is more likely to shed a positive light on the WOM sender, is more likely to be shared in such instances. To encourage positive WOM for seeding campaigns, marketers should select the right platform and monitor closeness. Further, by framing the context of the campaign in the right way, they can also insure more positive WOM for a brand.

  1. Customer-to-customer interactions : Broadening the scope of word of mouth research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Libai, B.; Bolton, R.; Bügel, M.S.; de Ruyter, K.; Götz, O.; Risselada, H.; Stephen, A.T.

    The increasing emphasis on understanding the antecedents and consequences of customer-to-customer (C2C) interactions is one of the essential developments of customer management in recent years. This interest is driven much by new online environments that enable customers to be connected in numerous

  2. Investigating Word of Mouth as Advertising Tool for Mobile devices in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Louise van Scheers; Carly Prinsloo

    2014-01-01

    Samsung Electronics entered the mobile device market on the back of their successes in other markets for electronic devices. The mobile device space in South Africa was dominated by Nokia and Blackberry and in a short space of time Samsung stormed into a tie for the top spot alongside Blackberry with a market share of 23%. In 2013 Samsung’s market share dropped 5%, moving down to 18%, placing them second to Blackberry as they entered 2014. Samsung’s IMC strategy for their mobile devices has b...

  3. Activation-Strain Analysis Reveals Unexpected Origin of Fast Reactivity in Heteroaromatic Azadiene Inverse-Electron-Demand Diels-Alder Cycloadditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talbot, Austin; Devarajan, Deepa; Gustafson, Samantha J.; Fernandez, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F. Matthias; Ess, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Heteroaromatic azadienes, especially 1,2,4,5-tetrazines, are extremely reactive partners with alkenes in inverse-electron-demand Diels–Alder reactions. Azadiene cycloaddition reactions are used to construct heterocycles in synthesis and are popular as bioorthogonal reactions. The origin of fast

  4. Demand Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of uncertainty resolution found in productivity heterogeneity models....... This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands to forecast unknown demands...... in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit. This prediction reconciles...

  5. Tree ring δ18O reveals no long-term change of atmospheric water demand since 1800 in the northern Great Hinggan Mountains, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Xuanwen; Zhao, Liangju; Xu, Guobao; Wang, Lixin; Sun, Weizhen; Zhang, Qiuliang; Wang, Wenzhi; Zeng, Xiaomin; Wu, Guoju

    2017-07-01

    Global warming will significantly increase transpirational water demand, which could dramatically affect plant physiology and carbon and water budgets. Tree ring δ18O is a potential index of the leaf-to-air vapor-pressure deficit (VPD) and therefore has great potential for long-term climatic reconstruction. Here we developed δ18O chronologies of two dominant native trees, Dahurian larch (Larix gmelinii Rupr.) and Mongolian pine (Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica), from a permafrost region in the Great Hinggan Mountains of northeastern China. We found that the July-August VPD and relative humidity were the dominant factors that controlled tree ring δ18O in the study region, indicating strong regulation of stomatal conductance. Based on the larch and pine tree ring δ18O chronologies, we developed a reliable summer (July-August) VPD reconstruction since 1800. Warming growing season temperatures increase transpiration and enrich cellulose 18O, but precipitation seemed to be the most important influence on VPD changes in this cold region. Periods with stronger transpirational demand occurred around the 1850s, from 1914 to 1925, and from 2005 to 2010. However, we found no overall long-term increasing or decreasing trends for VPD since 1800, suggesting that despite the increasing temperatures and thawing permafrost throughout the region, forest transpirational demand has not increased significantly during the past two centuries. Under current climatic conditions, VPD did not limit growth of larch and pine, even during extremely drought years. Our findings will support more realistic evaluations and reliable predictions of the potential influences of ongoing climatic change on carbon and water cycles and on forest dynamics in permafrost regions.

  6. HİZMET SATIN ALMA SÜRECİNDE KULAKTAN KULAĞA İLETİŞİMİN ETKİSİ

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Leyla; ANTEPLİOĞLU, Pınar

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the impacts of word of mouth as a source of information during the process of service purchasing. Moreover, it is aimed to study the inclination of negative or positive word of mouth formation of customers, depending on the satisfaction level that emerges at the process of customers’ assessment of their service purchasing. For this purpose, the data were collected throughout the questionnaire. The results reveal that the word of mouth as an input in...

  7. In demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, B. [Bridgestone Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2005-11-01

    The paper explains how good relationships can help alleviate potential tyre shortages. Demand for large dump truck tyres (largely for China) has increased by 50% within 12 months. Bridgestone's manufacturing plants are operating at maximum capacity. The company supplies tyres to all vehicles at Scottish Coal's opencast coal mines. Its Tyre Management System (TMS) supplied free of charge to customers helps maximise tyre life and minimise downtime from data on pressure, tread and general conditions fed into the hand-held TMS computer. 3 photos.

  8. Examining the Variety of Contexts for Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandgaard, Jesper; Bévort, Frans; Bille, Trine

    indicators can be either objective facts (such as the manuscript (title and author), thedirector or the actors) or subjective quality indicators such as professional review (e.g. innewspapers) or friends and relatives evaluations (word-of-mouth mechanisms). The paper willanswer the research questions based......) compared to word-of mouth mechanismon demand for theatre performances....

  9. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  10. The Impact of the Internet Word-of-mouth on Consumers and the Shaping of the Internet Word-of-mouth%网络口碑对消费者的影响与网络口碑的塑造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董琰

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of growing number of open consumer platforms makes consumers enjoy the convenience of shopping and the Internet word‐of‐mouth increasingly important in the position .With the popularization of the Internet consumption patterns ,Internet word‐of‐mouth is becoming a guiding force in consumers’ decision‐making as well as the key factor which determines the success of the In‐ternet platform marketing .More attention should be paid to the Internet word‐of‐mouth ,the full use of the network channels ,the positive guide to the Internet public opinions and Internet events to ef‐fectively promote the development of national consumption .Innovative thinking should be used for self -recommendation of fine products .Besides ,leaders’ opinions and hot topic creation can be em‐ployed to expand the impact and draw attention respectively .All these can play a leading role in at‐tracting consumers .%越来越多开放式消费平台的兴起,让我们享受了购物的便利,同时也让网络口碑居于越来越重要的地位。随着互联网消费模式的普及,网络口碑成为影响消费者决策的重要导向性力量,也成为决定互联网平台营销成败的关键因素之一。重视网络口碑,善用网络渠道,对网络舆论和网络事件做正向引导,才能更有效的促进国民消费的良性发展。运用创新思维对优良品质自发推荐,利用意见领袖扩大影响和适时的制造话题引发关注,起到引领消费意向的作用。

  11. Motives behind positive electronic Word-of-Mouth on social networking sites : So, why do you "like" that?

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Christine; Zakharkina, Polina

    2013-01-01

    Consumers are increasingly engaging with brands on social networking sites (SNS) through activities such as sharing, commenting, liking and recommending products or brands to other consumers. These types of recommendations are referred to as electronic word‐of‐mouth (eWOM) and are proven to have a significant influence on consumers’ purchasing decisions. Previous research has investigated motives for traditional WOM and motives for eWOM on opinion platforms. This study proposes that eWOM on S...

  12. Determining Influential Users in Social Networks (The Case of: Word of Mouth on Digikala Company Instagram Page

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad reza karimi alavijeh

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of social networks is one of the most influential phenomena of the 21st century. Social networking cyberspace creates a broad area of information and a variety of semantic representations. Social networks connect different people with different interests and ideas together. Due to the huge amount of intellectual potential and human thought in social networks, a great number of businessmen or retailors and commerce managers are attracted to such networks. The main objective of this study is to identify the most effective members in the cycle of content propagation on social networks and to propose solutions to improve the propagation of advertising and marketing on social networks to help business owners and managers. The case study of this research is "DigiKala" Instagram social network. At first, using the NodeXL software, the general content of DigiKala Instagram pages were collected. In the next step, applying clustering methods we found effective people using AlSuwaidan framework. Then, the collected data were processed using Matlab software. Finally, the obtained results were evaluated and based on the tests, 9 of the most influential people in accordance with the highest coefficient in publishing content on the social network were introduced.

  13. Pengaruh Perceived Value dan Brand Image terhadap Repurchase Intention melalui Word Of Mouth sebagai Variabel Intervening Smartphone Samsung Galaxy Series

    OpenAIRE

    Anggaeni, Maya; Farida, Naili; Listyorini, Sari

    2015-01-01

    This research is motivated their smartphone trends in society as well as themore famous brand Samsung in the community. In addition to improvements in thebrand image of Samsung, Samsung also increased sales both at the global level as wellas in Indonesia, however, the increased sales of Samsung have not made the Samsungranked number one in the Top Brand Index from 2012 to 2014. The sample are 100person of smartphone Samsung Galaxy consumers. The results showed that the effect ofpartially or s...

  14. Electronic Word of Mouth (E-Wom of Transportation Application Consumers in Indonesia: Which Factors That Are Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Leonnard

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation applications are now becoming a popular means of transportation in major cities of developing countries. This is because high levels of community mobility are faced with high levels of congestion. This study was constructed to test the effect of service quality to e-WOM through consumer satisfaction by using PLS SEM-path modeling. Empirical findings indicated that all hypotheses tested are proven. Service quality had a significant positive effect directly on satisfaction and indirectly against e-WOM. Subsequently, from the service quality indicator, the most influential indicator was the driver interaction with the consumer. These findings were different from public transportation, which did not employ online application where indicator tangibles had the highest effect that create consumer perception of service quality. Discussion and managerial implications are provided.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v8i1.6708 

  15. Brand community or electronic word-of-mouth: what’s the goal of company presence in social media?

    OpenAIRE

    Seller, Michel Lens; Laurindo, Fernando José Barbin

    2018-01-01

    Resumo O uso crescente de mídias sociais vem alterando o relacionamento entre empresas e clientes. As mídias sociais abrem um canal de comunicação bidirecional entre a organização e seus consumidores, assim como promove a interação entre estes. De acordo com a literatura, são dois os objetivos perseguidos pelas empresas neste ambiente: aumento de confiança e lealdade à marca por meio de comunidades de marca; e influência na decisão de compra do cliente pela promoção de comunicação boca a boca...

  16. The Signaling Effect of Critics: Do Professionals outweigh Word-of-Mouth? Evidence from the Video Game Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kaimann; Joe Cox

    2014-01-01

    Experience goods are characterized by information asymmetry and a lack of ex ante knowledge of product quality, such that reliable external signals of product quality are likely to be highly valued. Two potentially credible sources of such information are reviews from professional critics with expert reputations, as well as ‘word-of-mouth’ reviews from other consumers. This paper makes a direct comparison between the relative influence of both critic and user reviews on the sales of video gam...

  17. Word of Mouth or Word of Mouse: An Analysis of Social and Conventional Media on Consumer Behavior in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Ali Khadim; Bilal Zafar; Muhammad Younis

    2015-01-01

    The recent development in telecommunication and information technology has transformed world into a global village. There has been a drastic and dramatic change in communication in the business world. The social media is replacing the conventional and traditional ways of doing business. Social media has emerged as an influential communication tool for business organizations. The current study examines the role of social and conventional media on consumer behavior in Pakistan. The study use qu...

  18. Pengaruh Kualitas Produk, Citra Merek Dan Word of Mouth Terhadap Keputusan Pembelian Pada Toko Getuk Eco Magelang

    OpenAIRE

    Panggayuh, Hallein Ridho; Pradhanawati, Ari

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly is the food industry currently the culinary business in Indonesia has rapidly increased. Inaddition, Indonesia has a variety of food and traditional cuisine that must be developed and preserved.Getuk Eco as one of the food gifts manufacturer in Magelang City, is a trusted brand, but more numbersof food gifts producers in the City of Magelang causing Getuk Eco decreased their sales in 2014.The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of product quality, brand image andword o...

  19. Destination Marketing and Customer Experiences: Their Impact on Customer Delight, Place Attachment and Positive Word of Mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yangyang

    2018-01-01

    This consumer-based study in marketing addresses several gaps in the scholarly research on the customer experience and consumer journey. It developed and empirically tested a model of tourism consumption centred on fun and authentic experiences covering all three stages in the consumer journey: pre-consumption, consumption and post-consumption. This study is the researcher’s response to academic calls for exploring creative new constructs and identifying important relative and interactive eff...

  20. Word-of-mouth marketing: low-cost technique proves an effective way to promote teen clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    From the outset, the team at the Longmont (CO) Teen Clinic faced a two-fold marketing dilemma. The first problem was a small budget. As a nonprofit with limited funds, the staff knew that they would have to get creative to effectively reach their target audience and fulfill the clinic's mission of battling unwanted teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases (STD) among area women aged 19 and younger.

  1. Exploring the Destination Image of Mainland China Tourists to Taiwan by Word-of-Mouth on Web

    OpenAIRE

    Y. R. Li; Y. Y. Wang

    2013-01-01

    After allowing direct flights from Mainland China to Taiwan, Chinese tourists increased according to Tourism Bureaustatistics. There are from 0.19 to 2 million tourists from 2008 to 2011. Mainland China has become the main source of Taiwan developing tourism industry. Taiwanese government should know more about comments from Chinese tourists to Taiwan in order toproperly market Taiwan tourism and enhance the overall quality of tourism. In order to understand Chinese visit...

  2. Modelling the Demand for Money in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Qayyum, Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The study estimates the dynamic demand for money (M2) function in Pakistan by employing cointegration analysis and error correction mechanism. The parameters of preferred model are found to be super-exogenous for the relevant class of interventions. It is found that the rate of inflation is an important determinant of money demand in Pakistan. The analysis reveals that the rates of interest, market rate, and bond yield are important for the long-run money demand behaviour. Since the preferred...

  3. On-Demand Telemetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — AFRC has previously investigated the use of Network Based Telemetry. We will be building on that research to enable On-Demand Telemetry. On-Demand Telemetry is a way...

  4. Money Demand in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivars Tillers

    2004-01-01

    The econometric analysis of the demand for broad money in Latvia suggests a stable relationship of money demand. The analysis of parameter exogeneity indicates that the equilibrium adjustment is driven solely by the changes in the amount of money. The demand for money in Latvia is characterised by relatively high income elasticity typical for the economy in a monetary expansion phase. Due to stability, close fit of the money demand function and rapid equilibrium adjustment, broad money aggreg...

  5. Electricity demand forecasting techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gnanalingam, K.

    1994-01-01

    Electricity demand forecasting plays an important role in power generation. The two areas of data that have to be forecasted in a power system are peak demand which determines the capacity (MW) of the plant required and annual energy demand (GWH). Methods used in electricity demand forecasting include time trend analysis and econometric methods. In forecasting, identification of manpower demand, identification of key planning factors, decision on planning horizon, differentiation between prediction and projection (i.e. development of different scenarios) and choosing from different forecasting techniques are important

  6. Electricity demand in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atakhanova, Zauresh; Howie, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Properties of electricity demand in transition economies have not been sufficiently well researched mostly due to data limitations. However, information on the properties of electricity demand is necessary for policy makers to evaluate effects of price changes on different consumers and obtain demand forecasts for capacity planning. This study estimates Kazakhstan's aggregate demand for electricity as well as electricity demand in the industrial, service, and residential sectors using regional data. Firstly, our results show that price elasticity of demand in all sectors is low. This fact suggests that there is considerable room for price increases necessary to finance generation and distribution system upgrading. Secondly, we find that income elasticity of demand in the aggregate and all sectoral models is less than unity. Of the three sectors, electricity demand in the residential sector has the lowest income elasticity. This result indicates that policy initiatives to secure affordability of electricity consumption to lower income residential consumers may be required. Finally, our forecast shows that electricity demand may grow at either 3% or 5% per year depending on rates of economic growth and government policy regarding price increases and promotion of efficiency. We find that planned supply increases would be sufficient to cover growing demand only if real electricity prices start to increase toward long-run cost-recovery levels and policy measures are implemented to maintain the current high growth of electricity efficiency

  7. Innovation and Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Esben Sloth

    2007-01-01

    the demand-side of markets in the simplest possible way. This strategy has allowed a gradual increase in the sophistication of supply-side aspects of economic evolution, but the one-sided focus on supply is facing diminishing returns. Therefore, demand-side aspects of economic evolution have in recent years...... received increased attention. The present paper argues that the new emphasis on demand-side factors is quite crucial for a deepened understanding of economic evolution. The major reasons are the following: First, demand represents the core force of selection that gives direction to the evolutionary process....... Second, firms' innovative activities relate, directly or indirectly, to the structure of expected and actual demand. Third, the demand side represents the most obvious way of turning to the much-needed analysis of macro-evolutionary change of the economic system....

  8. PERFECT DEMAND ILLUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Yu. Sulimov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to technique «Perfect demand illusion», which allows to strengthen the competitive advantageof retailers. Also in the paper spells out the golden rules of visual merchandising.The definition of the method «Demand illusion», formulated the conditions of its functioning, and is determined by the mainhypothesis of the existence of this method.Furthermore, given the definition of the «Perfect demand illusion», and describes its additional conditions. Also spells out the advantages of the «Perfect demandillusion», before the «Demand illusion».

  9. Divers of Passenger Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    -Overview drivers of passenger demand -Driver 1: Economic growth in developing countries -Driver 2: International business travel in developed countries -Driver 3: International leisure travel in developed countries

  10. Uranium supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spriggs, M J

    1976-01-01

    Papers were presented on the pattern of uranium production in South Africa; Australian uranium--will it ever become available; North American uranium resources, policies, prospects, and pricing; economic and political environment of the uranium mining industry; alternative sources of uranium supply; whither North American demand for uranium; and uranium demand and security of supply--a consumer's point of view. (LK)

  11. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  12. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fesharaki, F.

    2005-01-01

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  13. Uranium supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-05-01

    This report covers the period 1983 to 1995. It draws together the industry's latest views on future trends in supply and demand, and sets them in their historical context. It devotes less discussion than its predecessors to the technical influences underpinning the Institute's supply and demand forecasts, and more to the factors which influence the market behaviour of the industry's various participants. As the last decade has clearly shown, these latter influences can easily be overlooked when undue attention is given to physical imbalances between supply and demand. (author)

  14. On energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haefele, W.

    1977-01-01

    Since the energy crisis, a number of energy plans have been proposed, and almost all of these envisage some kind of energy demand adaptations or conservation measures, hoping thus to escape the anticipated problems of energy supply. However, there seems to be no clear explanation of the basis on which our foreseeable future energy problems could be eased. And in fact, a first attempt at a more exact definition of energy demand and its interaction with other objectives, such as economic ones, shows that it is a highly complex concept which we still hardly understand. The article explains in some detail why it is so difficult to understand energy demand

  15. What Ratemyprofessors.com Reveals about How and Why Students Evaluate Their Professors: A Glimpse into the Student Mind-Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Katherine B.; Hunt, James B.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines RateMyProfessors.com ratings and comments as a form of electronic word-of-mouth communications. The data represent 2,371 user ratings and comments for 442 marketing professors from 51 U. S. colleges and universities. Qualitative comments were analyzed using updated thematic content analyses. The results indicate significant…

  16. Sizewell: UK power demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The Sizewell Inquiry was about whether the next power stations to be built in the UK should be nuclear or coal and, if nuclear, PWRs or AGRs. During the period of the Inquiry forecasts of demand for electricity were low. Now, however, it seems that the forecast demand is much increased. This uncertainty in demand and the wide regional variations are examined in some detail. Facts and figures on electricity sales (area by area) are presented. Also the minutes of supply lost per consumer per year. These show that security of supply is also a problem. It is also shown that the way electricity is used has changed. Whilst electricity generation has been changing to large-scale, centralised power stations the demand patterns may make smaller scale, quickly-constructed units more sensible. The questions considered at the Sizewell Inquiry may, indeed, no longer be the right ones. (UK)

  17. A demanding market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.

    1997-01-01

    The article relates to the oil and natural gas market, and it gives a survey of proved reserves at the end of 1996 worldwide. The long term trend of increasing world energy demand has seen a major rise during 1996 when global consumption grew by 3%. But worldwide demand, excluding the Former Soviet Union, shows this figure increasing further to 3.7% for the whole of last year according to statistics. 3 figs

  18. Maximum power demand cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biondi, L.

    1998-01-01

    The charging for a service is a supplier's remuneration for the expenses incurred in providing it. There are currently two charges for electricity: consumption and maximum demand. While no problem arises about the former, the issue is more complicated for the latter and the analysis in this article tends to show that the annual charge for maximum demand arbitrarily discriminates among consumer groups, to the disadvantage of some [it

  19. Cognitive task demands, self-control demands and the mental well-being of office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridger, Robert S; Brasher, Kate

    2011-09-01

    The cognitive task demands of office workers and the self-control demands of their work roles were measured in a sample of 196 employees in two different office layouts using a self-report questionnaire, which was circulated electronically. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that both factors were associated with mental well-being, but not with physical well-being, while controlling for exposure to psychosocial stressors. The interaction between cognitive task demands and self-control demands had the strongest association with mental well-being, suggesting that the deleterious effect of one was greater when the other was present. An exploratory analysis revealed that the association was stronger for employees working in a large open-plan office than for those working in smaller offices with more privacy. Frustration of work goals was the cognitive task demand having the strongest negative impact on mental well-being. Methodological limitations and scale psychometrics (particularly the use of the NASA Task Load Index) are discussed. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Modern office work has high mental demands and low physical demands and there is a need to design offices to prevent adverse psychological reactions. It is shown that cognitive task demands interact with self-control demands to degrade mental well-being. The association was stronger in an open-plan office.

  20. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de; Kaneko, Shinji

    2011-01-01

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: → Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. → It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. → Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. → Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  1. Ethanol demand in Brazil: Regional approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, Luciano Charlita de, E-mail: lucianofreitas@hiroshima-u.ac.j [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan); Kaneko, Shinji [Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Development Policy, Hiroshima University 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8529 (Japan)

    2011-05-15

    Successive studies attempting to clarify national aspects of ethanol demand have assisted policy makers and producers in defining strategies, but little information is available on the dynamic of regional ethanol markets. This study aims to analyze the characteristics of ethanol demand at the regional level taking into account the peculiarities of the developed center-south and the developing north-northeast regions. Regional ethanol demand is evaluated based on a set of market variables that include ethanol price, consumer's income, vehicle stock and prices of substitute fuels; i.e., gasoline and natural gas. A panel cointegration analysis with monthly observations from January 2003 to April 2010 is employed to estimate the long-run demand elasticity. The results reveal that the demand for ethanol in Brazil differs between regions. While in the center-south region the price elasticity for both ethanol and alternative fuels is high, consumption in the north-northeast is more sensitive to changes in the stock of the ethanol-powered fleet and income. These, among other evidences, suggest that the pattern of ethanol demand in the center-south region most closely resembles that in developed nations, while the pattern of demand in the north-northeast most closely resembles that in developing nations. - Research highlights: {yields} Article consists of a first insight on regional demand for ethanol in Brazil. {yields} It proposes a model with multiple fuels, i.e., hydrous ethanol, gasohol and natural gas. {yields} Results evidence that figures for regional demand for ethanol differ amongst regions and with values reported for national demand. {yields} Elasticities for the center-south keep similarities to patterns for fuel demand in developed nations while coefficients for the north-northeast are aligned to patterns on developing countries.

  2. UK Nuclear Workforce Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, John

    2017-01-01

    UK Nuclear Sites: DECOMMISSIONING - 26 Magnox Reactors, 2 Fast Reactors; OPERATIONAL - 14 AGRs, 1 PWR; 9.6 GWe Total Capacity. Nuclear Workforce Demand • Total workforce demand is expected to grow from ~88,000 in 2017 to ~101,000 in 2021 • Average “inflow” is ~7,000 FTEs per annum • 22% of the workforce is female (28% in civil, 12% in defence) • 81% generic skills, 18% nuclear skills, 1% subject matter experts • 3300 trainees total in SLCs and Defence Enterprise (16% graduate trainees) • At peak demand on Civils Construction, over 4,000 workers will be required on each nuclear new build site • Manufacturing workforce is expected to rise from around 4,000 in 2014 to 8,500 at the peak of onsite activity in 2025

  3. Demand Modelling in Telecommunications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Chvalina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the existing possibilities for using Standard Statistical Methods and Artificial Intelligence Methods for a short-term forecast and simulation of demand in the field of telecommunications. The most widespread methods are based on Time Series Analysis. Nowadays, approaches based on Artificial Intelligence Methods, including Neural Networks, are booming. Separate approaches will be used in the study of Demand Modelling in Telecommunications, and the results of these models will be compared with actual guaranteed values. Then we will examine the quality of Neural Network models. 

  4. DemandStat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    DemandStat is an accurate and up-to-date international statistics database dedicated to energy demand, with an unrivaled level of details for powerful market analysis. It provides detailed consumption statistics (30 sectors) on all energies, detailed 2003 data and historical annual data since 1970, frequent data revision and update (2 updates options), 150 data sources gathered and expertized, all data on a single database Consistent and homogeneous statistics, in line with all major data providers (IEA, Eurostat, ADB, OLADE, etc), no ruptures in time-series with easy request building and data analysis and reactive support from data experts. (A.L.B.)

  5. Education on Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boysen, Lis; Hende, Merete

    2015-01-01

    Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de to temat......Dette notat beskriver nogle af resultaterne fra programmet "Education on Demand' i projektet Det erhvervsrettede Uddannelseslaboratorium. Programmet har haft fokus på udfordringer og forandringsbehov i uddannelsesinstitutioner og -systemet. Herunder har det beskæftiget sig særligt med de...

  6. Simulating demand for electric vehicles using revealed preference data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, Áine; Lyons, Seán; Mariuzzo, Franco; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2013-01-01

    We have modelled the market for new cars in Ireland with the aim of quantifying the values placed on a range of observable car characteristics. Mid-sized petrol cars with a manual transmission sell best. Price and perhaps fuel cost are negatively associated with sales, and acceleration and perhaps range are positively associated. Hybrid cars are popular. The values of car characteristics are then used to simulate the likely market shares of three new electric vehicles. Electric vehicles tend to be more expensive even after tax breaks and subsidies are applied, but we assume their market shares would benefit from an “environmental” premium similar to those of hybrid cars. The “environmental” premium and the level of subsidies would need to be raised to incredible levels to reach the government target of 10% market penetration of all-electric vehicles. -- Highlights: •Market values placed on a range of observable car characteristics are quantified. •We simulate market shares of electrical vehicles from values of car characteristics. •We assume electric vehicles will benefit from an “environmental” premium. •Large premium not enough to reach government targets for market penetration. •Very high subsidies required to reach government targets for market penetration

  7. Causality in demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Max; Jensen, Frank; Setälä, Jari

    2011-01-01

    to fish demand. On the German market for farmed trout and substitutes, it is found that supply sources, i.e. aquaculture and fishery, are not the only determinant of causality. Storing, tightness of management and aggregation level of integrated markets might also be important. The methodological...

  8. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babusiaux, D

    2004-07-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  9. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2006-07-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  10. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2006-01-01

    The year 2004 saw a change in the oil market paradigm that was confirmed in 2005. Despite a calmer geopolitical context, prices continued to rise vigorously. Driven by world demand, they remain high as a result of the saturation of production and refining capacity. The market is still seeking its new equilibrium. (author)

  11. The demand for euros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, I.J.M.; Roelands, S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the demand for euros using panel data for 10 euro area countries covering the period from 1999 to 2008. Monetary aggregates are constructed to ensure that money is a national concept by excluding deposits owned by non-residents and including external deposits owned by

  12. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.

    2004-01-01

    Following the military intervention in Iraq, it is taking longer than expected for Iraqi exports to make a comeback on the market. Demand is sustained by economic growth in China and in the United States. OPEC is modulating production to prevent inventory build-up. Prices have stayed high despite increased production by non-OPEC countries, especially Russia. (author)

  13. Oil supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rech, O.

    2004-01-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  14. Textbook Factor Demand Curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe C.

    1994-01-01

    Maintains that teachers and textbook graphics follow the same basic pattern in illustrating changes in demand curves when product prices increase. Asserts that the use of computer graphics will enable teachers to be more precise in their graphic presentation of price elasticity. (CFR)

  15. Oil supply and demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rech, O

    2004-07-01

    World oil demand, driven by economic development in China, posted the highest growth rate in 20 years. In a context of geopolitical uncertainty, prices are soaring, encouraged by low inventory and the low availability of residual production capacity. Will 2004 bring a change in the oil market paradigm? (author)

  16. Aggregated Demand Modelling Including Distributed Generation, Storage and Demand Response

    OpenAIRE

    Marzooghi, Hesamoddin; Hill, David J.; Verbic, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    It is anticipated that penetration of renewable energy sources (RESs) in power systems will increase further in the next decades mainly due to environmental issues. In the long term of several decades, which we refer to in terms of the future grid (FG), balancing between supply and demand will become dependent on demand actions including demand response (DR) and energy storage. So far, FG feasibility studies have not considered these new demand-side developments for modelling future demand. I...

  17. Tertiary-care facility's seniors association attracts its highest number of referrals through word-of-mouth. University Hospital, Denver, CO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G

    1999-01-01

    University Hospital, Denver, has started its University Seniors Assn. to promote health and wellness to people 50 and older. Within four months the organization had 500 members. Now the association is 3,500 members strong.

  18. Determining the Effect of Electronic Services Quality on Electronic Satisfaction and Positive Word of Mouth (Case Study: Different Branches of Shiraz Mellat Bank Customers

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Sanayei; Afsaneh Jokar

    2013-01-01

    Electronic satisfaction and electronic services quality are regarded among main issues in globalizing electronic trade. Upon enterprising banking industry and products similarity, services quality is declared as competitive advantage and has a direct impact on customers' satisfaction. Services quality has a approximate connection with satisfaction in banking industry and product improvement increases customers' satisfaction probability which leads to behavioral result such as commitment, rema...

  19. Analisis Pengaruh Kualitas Produk, Harga, dan Lingkungan Fisik Perusahaan Kue Lapis Legit XYZ terhadap Kepuasan Konsumen dalam Membangun Word Of Mouth Positif

    OpenAIRE

    Lonardo, Lonardo; Soelasih, Yasintha

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to analyze the effect of Product Quality, Price, and The Physical Environment on Customer Satisfaction and Positive World of Mouth. The sampling technique used in this study is convenience sampling, and the questionnaire was administered to consumers who have purchased the product. By analyzing the result of this research, it can be concluded that there are influences of Product Quality and Price on Consumer Satisfaction but there is no infleunce of the Physical Environment...

  20. Getting the word out on Twitter: the role of influentials, information brokers and strong ties in building word-of-mouth for brands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Araujo, T.; Neijens, P.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2017-01-01

    Using a sample of over 5300 tweets from top global brands, this study investigated how different types of users can influence brand content diffusion via retweets. Twitter users who influenced followers to retweet brand content were categorized as (1) influentials, because of their above average

  1. The impact of webshop familiarity and online customer review valence on customers’ trust and purchase, word-of-mouth, and information seeking intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beldad, Ardion Daroca; Karreman, Joyce; Behrens, Joske; Kim, Kacy K.

    2016-01-01

    In most online commercial transactions, customers’ feeling of uncertainty about the success of an exchange can be attributed to its faceless and intangible character (Beldad et al. 2010). Uncertainty eventually may lead people to search for certain cues to minimize uncertainty’s discomforting effect

  2. The Infl uence of Electronic-Word-of-Mouth on Travel Intentionamong Foreign Students in Malaysia: Does Gender ReallyMatter?

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnapillai, Gengeswari; Ying, Kwok See

    2017-01-01

    As an attractive educational hub within this region, Malaysia currently accommodates an enormous number of foreign students. These students are known for their inclination towards tour and travel activities during their spare time. In view of the potential contribution of foreign students’ travel activities towards the nation, this study attempts to examine the tour behaviour among foreign students in Malaysia. This study specifically focuses on the foreign students’ travel intention and poss...

  3. The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Intention to Book Accommodation via Online Peer-to-Peer Platform: Investigation of Theory of Planned Behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    See-Kwong Goh

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose for conducting the research is to investigate whether positive eWOM received by consumers would influence their intention to book accommodation via a peer-to-peer website or mobile phone apps (such as Airbnb). The research was conducted by utilizing the Theory of Planned Behaviour which integrates the eWOM, attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and behavioural intention. A total of 226 responses had been recorded. The main findings from this research are r...

  4. Should they stay or should they go? Reactivation and termination of low-tier customers : Effects on satisfaction, word-of-mouth, and purchases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blömeke, E.; Clement, M.; Bijmolt, T.H.A.

    2010-01-01

    Many companies face the problem of having a substantial number of low-tier customers – clients at the bottom of the customer pyramid. For this segment, it is necessary to either reactivate or terminate the customer relationships to increase profitability. Managers seek to learn more about marketing

  5. Consumer Moments of Truth in the Digital Context : How "Search" and "E-Word of Mouth" Can Fuel Consumer Decision-Making

    OpenAIRE

    Moran, Gillian; Muzellec, Laurent; Nolan, Eoghan

    2014-01-01

    The consumer purchasing journey has evolved. New models need to capture the advancing digital behaviours of tech-savvy consumers. The current paper revisits the practitioner-led 'Moments of Truth' model used by a number of successful multinationals (initially Procter & Gamble and subsequently Google). 'Moments of Truth' (MOT) describe key instances of contact between a potential customer and a brand. The model now needs to be extended to integrate variables such as shared brand experience and...

  6. “This Post Is Sponsored” : Effects of Sponsorship Disclosure on Persuasion Knowledge and Electronic Word of Mouth in the Context of Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boerman, S.C.; Willemsen, L.M.; Van Der Aa, E.P.

    Social media, such as Facebook, offer brands the opportunity to reach their target audience in a less obtrusive way than traditional media, through sponsored posts. Regulations require marketers to explicitly inform consumers about the commercial nature of these posts. This study addresses the

  7. Sulphur demand growing. [Alberta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-20

    Sulfur markets look better going into 1975 than they have for several years, as North American demand growth is being filled largely by elemental sulfur producers and overseas. Demand is rising as fast as the capacity of Canadian transportation and handling facilities. It will take a long time to make much of a dent in the total Alberta stockpile of 14 million long tons at the end of 1974, with involuntary production from sour gas plants exceeding sales volume since 1972. However, there is some encouragement in the approaching peakout of production combined with a substantial increase in price since the low point of the cycle at the beginning of 1973, and a predicted rise of at least 20% in domestic (North American) sales this year over 1974.

  8. Ontario demand response scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, I.H.

    2005-09-01

    Strategies for demand management in Ontario were examined via 2 scenarios for a commercial/institutional building with a normal summertime peak load of 300 kW between 14:00 and 18:00 during a period of high electricity demand and high electricity prices. The first scenario involved the deployment of a 150 kW on-site generator fuelled by either diesel or natural gas. The second scenario involved curtailing load by 60 kW during the same periods. Costs and benefits of both scenarios were evaluated for 3 groups: consumers, system operators and society. Benefits included electricity cost savings, deferred transmission capacity development, lower system prices for electricity, as well as environmental changes, economic development, and a greater sense of corporate social responsibility. It was noted that while significant benefits were observed for all 3 groups, they were not substantial enough to encourage action, as the savings arising from deferred generation capacity development do not accrue to individual players. The largest potential benefit was identified as lower prices, spread across all users of electricity in Ontario. It was recommended that representative bodies cooperate so that the system-wide benefits can be reaped. It was noted that if 10 municipal utilities were able to have 250 commercial or institutional customers engaged in distributed response, then a total peak demand reduction of 375 MW could be achieved, representing more than 25 per cent of Ontario's target for energy conservation. It was concluded that demand response often involves the investment of capital and new on-site procedures, which may affect reactions to various incentives. 78 refs., 10 tabs., 5 figs

  9. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  10. Energy demand patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, L; Schipper, L; Meyers, S; Sathaye, J; Hara, Y

    1984-05-01

    This report brings together three papers on energy demand presented at the Energy Research Priorities Seminar held in Ottawa on 8-10 August 1983. The first paper suggests a framework in which energy demand studies may be organized if they are to be useful in policy-making. Disaggregation and the analysis of the chain of energy transformations are possible paths toward more stable and reliable parameters. The second paper points to another factor that leads to instability in sectoral parameters, namely a changeover from one technology to another; insofar as technologies producing a product (or service) vary in their energy intensity, a technological shift will also change the energy intensity of the product. Rapid technological change is characteristic of some sectors in developing countries, and may well account for the high aggregate GDP-elasticities of energy consumption observed. The third paper begins with estimates of these elasticities, which were greater than one for all the member countries of the Asian Development Bank in 1961-78. The high elasticities, together with extreme oil dependence, made them vulnerable to the drastic rise in the oil price after 1973. The author distinguishes three diverging patterns of national experience. The oil-surplus countries naturally gained from the rise in the oil price. Among oil-deficit countries, the newly industrialized countries expanded their exports so rapidly that the oil crisis no longer worried them. For the rest, balance of payments adjustments became a prime concern of policy. Whether they dealt with the oil bill by borrowing, by import substitution, or by demand restraint, the impact of energy on their growth was unmistakable. The paper also shows why energy-demand studies, and energy studies in general, deserve to be taken seriously. 16 refs., 4 figs., 18 tabs.

  11. Migration and Tourism Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study considers the relationship between immigration and Portuguese tourism demand for the period 1995-2008, using a dynamic panel data approach. The findings indicate that Portuguese tourism increased significantly during the period in accordance with the values expected for a developed country. The regression results show that income, shock of immigration, population, and geographical distance between Portugal and countries of origin are the main determinants of Portuguese tourism.

  12. Demand scenarios, worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, A [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Center for Technology, Policy and Industrial Development and the MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Existing methods are inadequate for developing aggregate (regional and global) and long-term (several decades) passenger transport demand scenarios, since they are mainly based on simple extensions of current patterns rather than causal relationships that account for the competition among transport modes (aircraft, automobiles, buses and trains) to provide transport services. The demand scenario presented in this paper is based on two empirically proven invariances of human behavior. First, transport accounts for 10 to 15 percent of household total expenditures for those owning an automobile, and around 5 percent for non-motorized households on average (travel money budget). Second, the mean time spent traveling is approximately one hour per capita per day (travel time budget). These two budgets constraints determine the dynamics of the scenario: rising income increases per capita expenditure on travel which, in turn, increase demand for mobility. Limited travel time constraints travelers to shift to faster transport systems. The scenario is initiated with the first integrated historical data set on traffic volume in 11 world regions and the globe from 1960 to 1990 for all major modes of motorized transport. World average per capita traffic volume, which was 1,800 kilometers in 1960 and 4,2090 in 1990, is estimated to rise to 7,900 kilometers in 2020 - given a modest average increase in Gross World Product of 1.9% per year. Higher economic growth rates in Asian regions result in an increase in regional per capita traffic volume up to a factor of 5.3 from 1990 levels. Modal splits continue shifting to more flexible and faster modes of transport. At one point, passenger cars can no longer satisfy the increasing demand for speed (i.e. rising mobility within a fixed time budget). In North America it is estimated that the absolute traffic volume of automobiles will gradually decline starting in the 2010s. (author) 13 figs., 6 tabs., 35 refs.

  13. Supply and demand perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trienekens, Pieter

    1999-01-01

    The outlook for the European gas market is one of steady growth. This growth will manifest itself in all regions and in all sectors of the market, but most strongly in the power generating sector. To meet future demand, it is necessary to bring gas to Western Europe from remote sources in Russia, North Africa and Norway. These new gas supplies require heavy investments in production and transportation, which can only be undertaken on the basis of long-term take-or-pay contracts. Famous examples of such contracts are the development of the Troll field, the Yamal-Europe pipeline connection, and the bringing on stream of Nigerian LNG for Europe. Tensions are likely to arise between the nature of these long-term gas contracts and the dynamic nature of demand in the gas market, and more specifically in the main growth market, the power sector. The presentation further elaborates on the tensions underlying supply and demand in the years to come

  14. Estimating demand for alternatives to cigarettes with online purchase tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Richard J; June, Kristie M; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Rousu, Matthew C; Thrasher, James F; Hyland, Andrew; Cummings, K Michael

    2014-01-01

    To explore how advertising affects demand for cigarettes and potential substitutes, including snus, dissolvable tobacco, and medicinal nicotine. A Web-based experiment randomized 1062 smokers to see advertisements for alternative nicotine products or soft drinks, then complete a series of purchase tasks, which were used to estimate demand elasticity, peak consumption, and cross-price elasticity (CPE) for tobacco products. Lower demand elasticity and greater peak consumption were seen for cigarettes compared to all alternative products (p demand. These findings suggest significantly lower demand for alternative nicotine sources among smokers than previously revealed.

  15. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wadud, Zia; Dey, Himadri S.; Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I.

    2011-01-01

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: → Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. → Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. → Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. → Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. → Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  16. Modeling and forecasting natural gas demand in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia, E-mail: ziawadud@yahoo.com [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh); Dey, Himadri S. [University of Notre Dame (United States); Kabir, Md. Ashfanoor; Khan, Shahidul I. [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology (Bangladesh)

    2011-11-15

    Natural gas is the major indigenous source of energy in Bangladesh and accounts for almost one-half of all primary energy used in the country. Per capita and total energy use in Bangladesh is still very small, and it is important to understand how energy, and natural gas demand will evolve in the future. We develop a dynamic econometric model to understand the natural gas demand in Bangladesh, both in the national level, and also for a few sub-sectors. Our demand model shows large long run income elasticity - around 1.5 - for aggregate demand for natural gas. Forecasts into the future also show a larger demand in the future than predicted by various national and multilateral organizations. Even then, it is possible that our forecasts could still be at the lower end of the future energy demand. Price response was statistically not different from zero, indicating that prices are possibly too low and that there is a large suppressed demand for natural gas in the country. - Highlights: > Natural gas demand is modeled using dynamic econometric methods, first of its kind in Bangladesh. > Income elasticity for aggregate natural gas demand in Bangladesh is large-around 1.5. > Demand is price insensitive, indicating too low prices and/or presence of large suppressed demand. > Demand forecasts reveal large divergence from previous estimates, which is important for planning. > Attempts to model demand for end-use sectors were successful only for the industrial sector.

  17. Meeting increased demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Andrew

    2004-07-01

    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  18. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethane supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamerson, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    Estimates are given for ethane production, chiefly from the Gulf Coast area. Increase in interregional transfers are predicted. Comparisons from 1992 through 1995 are made. The author concludes the following: ethane will be supply limited over the decade of the 90's; values will be over competing feedstocks; minimum practical demands will be close to available supply; regional relationships will reflect pipeline tariffs; purity ethane/EP spreads may narrow with new Mt. Belvieu fractionation capacity; new domestic supplies will back out imports; and Ethane's share of ethylene production may drop over the period

  20. Road infrastructure and demand induction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Lahrmann, Harry

    2006-01-01

    a long screenline is used to measure the development in aggregate demand in selected corridors. The paper analyses demand induction by establishing time series of aggregate demand that is compared with the national traffic index. Significant trend breaks in the association between aggregate demand...... in the corridors and the national index, following the opening of motorways or bridges, indicates demand induction by infrastructure expansion in a number of instances. Lack of significant trend breaks following opening year is found in peripheral areas where major population centres are missing. This indicates...... the necessity of some latent demand within suitable travel range for new infrastructure elements to produce significant amounts of induced demand. Estimates of demand induction as a percentage of the realised demand five years after opening are between 10% and 67% for new motorway sections depending...

  1. Demand response in energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skytte, K.; Birk Mortensen, J.

    2004-11-01

    Improving the ability of energy demand to respond to wholesale prices during critical periods of the spot market can reduce the total costs of reliably meeting demand, and the level and volatility of the prices. This fact has lead to a growing interest in the short-run demand response. There has especially been a growing interest in the electricity market where peak-load periods with high spot prices and occasional local blackouts have recently been seen. Market concentration at the supply side can result in even higher peak-load prices. Demand response by shifting demand from peak to base-load periods can counteract the market power in the peak-load. However, demand response has so far been modest since the current short-term price elasticity seems to be small. This is also the case for related markets, for example, green certificates where the demand is determined as a percentage of the power demand, or for heat and natural gas markets. This raises a number of interesting research issues: 1) Demand response in different energy markets, 2) Estimation of price elasticity and flexibility, 3) Stimulation of demand response, 4) Regulation, policy and modelling aspects, 5) Demand response and market power at the supply side, 6) Energy security of supply, 7) Demand response in forward, spot, ancillary service, balance and capacity markets, 8) Demand response in deviated markets, e.g., emission, futures, and green certificate markets, 9) Value of increased demand response, 10) Flexible households. (BA)

  2. Demand for electrical energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergougnoux, J.; Fouquet, D.

    1983-01-01

    The different utilizations of electric energy are reviewed in the residential and tertiary sectors, in the industry. The competitive position of electricity in regard to other fuels has been strengthned by the sudden rise in the price of oil in 1973-1974 and 1979-1980. The evolution of electricity prices depended on the steps taken to adjust the electricity generation system. The substitution of electricity applications for hydro-carbons is an essential point of energy policy. The adjustment at all times, at least cost and most reliability, of the supply of electricity to the demand for it is a major problem in the design and operation of electric systems. National demand for power at a given moment is extremely diversified. Electricity consumption presents daily and seasonal variations, and variations according to the different sectors. Forecasting power requirements is for any decision on operation or investment relating to an electrical system. Load management is desirable (prices according to the customers, optional tariffs for ''peak-day withdrawal''). To conclude, prospects for increased electricity consumption are discussed [fr

  3. Demand for male contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Emily; Bishai, David

    2012-10-01

    The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.

  4. Animating the Ethical Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter; Jensen, Thessa; Poulsen, Søren Bolvig

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the challenge of attaining ethical user stances during the design process of products and services and proposes animation-based sketching as a design method, which supports elaborating and examining different ethical stances towards the user. The discussion is qualified...... by an empirical study of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) in a Triple Helix constellation. Using a three-week long innovation workshop, U- CrAc, involving 16 Danish companies and organisations and 142 students as empirical data, we discuss how animation-based sketching can explore not yet existing user...... dispositions, as well as create an incentive for ethical conduct in development and innovation processes. The ethical fulcrum evolves around Løgstrup’s Ethical Demand and his notion of spontaneous life manifestations. From this, three ethical stances are developed; apathy, sympathy and empathy. By exploring...

  5. Rewarding yet demanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkedal, S T B; Torsting, A M B; Møller, T

    2016-01-01

    in a logbook. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measure was used to initiate and guide the intervention and the Canadian Model of Client-Centred Enablement for the client-therapist relationship. RESULTS: Participants described the intervention, which presupposed a certain level of patient readiness...... design comprising an eight-week client-centred occupational therapy intervention with semi-structured interviews with five of the six clients out of 10 who completed the intervention. Braun and Clark's thematic analysis was applied to the transcripts. Adherence rate and dropouts were recorded......, as demanding. Participants valued engaging in real-life occupations while anchoring new strategies but also the occupational therapist's role in dealing with failure. Participants felt the intervention assisted in their recovery process and enabled them to engage in meaningful occupations. CONCLUSION...

  6. PROOF on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malzacher, Peter; Manafov, Anar

    2010-01-01

    PROOF on Demand (PoD) is a set of utilities, which allows starting a PROOF cluster at user request, on any resource management system. It provides a plug-in based system, which allows to use different job submission frontends, such as LSF or gLite WMS. Main components of PoD are the PROOFAgent and the PAConsole. PROOFAgent provides the communication layer between the PROOF master on the local machine and the PROOF workers on the remote resources, possibly behind a firewall. PAConsole provides a user-friendly GUI, which is used to setup, manage, and shutdown the dynamic PROOF cluster. Installation is simple and doesn't require administrator privileges, and all the processes run in user space. PoD gives users, who don't have a centrally-administrated static PROOF cluster at their institute, the possibility to enjoy the full power of interactive analysis with PROOF.

  7. Econometric Modeling: An Application to the Demand for Electricity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical results show an inverse relationship between real appliance purchase price, the real per capita income and the demand for electricity. Also the rate of population growth rate as a proxy for electricity consumers appears to be insignificant. This reveals the clear fact that the demand for electricity is greater than ...

  8. Analysis of Fish Demand in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto, Nigeria M ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acer

    It was also revealed that disposable income, price of substitutes, level of education and household size positively influenced fish demand while price of fish influenced fish demand negatively. ..... held at the Gateway hotel, Abeokuta Nigeria. 17th-23rd October ... handbook published by the Budget and. Economic Planning ...

  9. Why Should We Demand Equality of Educational Opportunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    This paper reveals how equal educational opportunities, equal job opportunities and equality of opportunity for welfare are related to each other, and how they are related to other demands for justice. There are several important objections to the emphasis on equal educational opportunities. Nevertheless, this paper shows that demanding equal…

  10. Environment-quality demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delfini, M.G.; Leenhouts, H.P.

    1988-12-01

    In the framework of the Environment Quality Requirements (MKE) project a model has been designed in which environment-quality demands have been defined and quantified, and a measuring strategy has been developed. In the model it is required for the quality of the environment that the radionuclide concentration in the various environment compartiments remains limited in order to keep the effective dose equivalence for the 'reference man' under a certain reference level. In order to be able to determine the maximum nuclide concentration it is necessary to quantify the relation between the concentration in the environment and the dose for the people. The quantitative relation between concentration and dose has been established on the base of parameters (Derived Activity Limits (DAL's) which have to be calculated for each environment compartiment, each nuclide and each exposure pathway. This model has been described and, as example, the DAL's have been calculated for the compartiment air (for which the two exposure pathways inhalation and direct radiation were considered). For the other environment compartiments a similar elaboration is needed. The feasibility of application of the MKE-model in the actual practice of measurements in the environment and examination of dose for the population depends upon the possibility for performing nuclide specific measurements in all environment compartiments, the level of the dose resulting from the contamination of the environment and the related accurateness of the measurements

  11. Modelling Commodity Demands and Labour Supply with m-Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Martin

    1999-01-01

    In the empirical modelling of demands and labour supply we often lack data on a full set of goods. The usual response is to invoke separability assumptions. Here we present an alternative based on modelling demands as a function of prices and the quantity of a reference good rather than total expenditure. We term such demands m-demands. The advantage of this approach is that we make maximum use of the data to hand without invoking implausible separability assumptions. In the theory section qu...

  12. Global energy demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatcher, S.R.

    1999-01-01

    Perhaps the most compelling issue the world will face in the next century is the quality of life of the increasing populations of the poorer regions of the world. Energy is the key to generating wealth and protecting the environment. Today, most of the energy generated comes from fossil fuels and there should be enough for an increase in consumption over the next half century. However, this is likely to be impacted by the Kyoto Protocol on carbon dioxide emissions. Various authoritative studies lead to a global energy demand projection of between 850 to 1070 EJ per year in the mid-21 st century, which is nearly three times as much as the world uses today. The studies further indicate that, unless there is a major thrust by governments to create incentives and/or to levy heavy taxes, the use of fossil fuels will continue to increase and there will be a major increase in carbon dioxide emissions globally. Most of the increase will come from the newly industrializing countries which do not have the technology or financial resources to install non-carbon energy sources such as nuclear power, and the new renewable energy technologies. The real issue for the nuclear industry is investment cost. Developing countries, in particular will have difficulty in raising capital for energy projects with a high installed cost and will have difficulties in raising large blocks of capital. A reduction in investment costs of the order of 50% with a short construction schedule is in order if nuclear power is to compete and contribute significantly to energy supply and the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. Current nuclear power plants and methods are simply not suited to the production of plants that will compete in this situation. Mass production designs are needed to get the benefits of cost reduction. Water cooled reactors are well demonstrated and positioned to achieve the cost reduction necessary but only via some radical thinking on the part of the designers. The reactors of

  13. Promotion and Fast Food Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy J. Richards; Luis Padilla

    2009-01-01

    Many believe that fast food promotion is a significant cause of the obesity epidemic in North America. Industry members argue that promotion only reallocates brand shares and does not increase overall demand. We study the effect of fast food promotion on market share and total demand by estimating a discrete / continuous model of fast food restaurant choice and food expenditure that explicitly accounts for both spatial and temporal determinants of demand. Estimates are obtained using a unique...

  14. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    OpenAIRE

    Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...

  15. Job demands-resources model

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Arnold; Demerouti, Eva

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker & Demerouti, 2007; Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001) and is inspired by job design and job stress theories. JD-R theory explains how job demands and resources have unique and multiplicative e...

  16. Women demand development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, I

    2000-07-01

    This study was conducted by a research team in Dar es Salaam to identify which policy changes might strengthen rural food security in Tanzania. The participatory research revealed much about the impact of gender and culture on food security. In both districts of Ngorongoro and Shinyanga, control of resources favored men. They managed the income from high-value resources like cattle, cotton, and maize, while women managed low-value resources like milk, hides, and goats. Also, it was evident that in both districts, violence against women had an impact on women's confidence and levels of control, and was felt to exacerbate food insecurity. In view of this, the research recommends support to groups of women and youths to organize themselves and lobby for change, as well as support to government and other officials to help them listen to those voices and respond more effectively.

  17. North American oil demand outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.B.

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of the relationship of economic growth and potential petroleum product demand is needed to forecast the potential for North American oil demand growth as well as knowledge of world supply and price. The bullish expectations for economic growth in the US and Canada auger well for North American refiners and marketeers. The growth in world economic output forecast, however, means a larger oil demand and an increase in OPEC's pricing power. Such price increases could depress North American oil demand growth. (author)

  18. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  19. Harnessing the power of demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheffrin, Anjali; Yoshimura, Henry; LaPlante, David; Neenan, Bernard

    2008-03-15

    Demand response can provide a series of economic services to the market and also provide ''insurance value'' under low-likelihood, but high-impact circumstances in which grid reliablity is enhanced. Here is how ISOs and RTOs are fostering demand response within wholesale electricity markets. (author)

  20. Guidelines for forecasting energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonino, T.

    1976-11-01

    Four methodologies for forecasting energy demand are reviewed here after considering the role of energy in the economy and the analysis of energy use in different economic sectors. The special case of Israel is considered throughout, and some forecasts for energy demands in the year 2000 are presented. An energy supply mix that may be considered feasible is proposed. (author)

  1. Coal background paper. Coal demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Statistical data are presented on coal demands in IEA and OECD member countries and in other countries. Coal coaking and coaking coal consumption data are tabulated, and IEA secretariat's coal demand projections are summarized. Coal supply and production data by countries are given. Finally, coal trade data are presented, broken down for hard coal, steam coal, coking coal (imports and export). (R.P.)

  2. Uranium resources, demand and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stipanicic, P.N.

    1985-05-01

    Estimations of the demand and production of principal uranium resource categories are presented. The estimations based on data analysis made by a joint 'NEA/IAEA Working Party on Uranium Resources' and the corresponding results are published by the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) in the 'Uranium Resources, Production and Demand' Known as 'Red Book'. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. Demand differentiation in inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijn, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    This book deals with inventory systems where customer demand is categorised into different classes. Most inventory systems do not take into account individual customer preferences for a given product, and therefore handle all demand in a similar way. Nowadays, market segmentation has become a

  4. Demand Response in Smart Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jacob; Knudsen, Jesper Viese; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, moves toward higher integration of Renewable Energy Resources have called for fundamental changes in both the planning and operation of the overall power grid. One such change is the incorporation of Demand Response (DR), the process by which consumers can adjust their demand...

  5. Credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byiers, Bruce; Rand, John; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    This paper uses two industrial firm surveys to identify the key determinants of credit demand in Mozambican manufacturing. We construct five different measures of being credit constrained and estimate desired debt demand. Besides firm size and ownership structure, we find evidence that general...

  6. Job demands-resources model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Bakker (Arnold); E. Demerouti (Eva)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract* The question of what causes job stress and what motivates people has received a lot of research attention during the past five decades. In this paper, we discuss Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) theory, which represents an extension of the Job Demands-Resources model (Bakker &

  7. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  8. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Togeby, Mikael; Østergaard, Jacob

    This report summaries the research outcomes of the project ‘Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve (DFR)’, which has received the support from Energinet.dk’s PSO program, Grant no. 2005-2-6380. The objective of this project is to investigate the technology of using electricity demands for providing...

  9. Are demand forecasting techniques applicable to libraries?

    OpenAIRE

    Sridhar, M. S.

    1984-01-01

    Examines the nature and limitations of demand forecasting, discuses plausible methods of forecasting demand for information, suggests some useful hints for demand forecasting and concludes by emphasizing unified approach to demand forecasting.

  10. Electricity demand savings from distributed solar photovoltaics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glassmire, John; Komor, Paul; Lilienthal, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Due largely to recent dramatic cost reductions, photovoltaics (PVs) are poised to make a significant contribution to electricity supply. In particular, distributed applications of PV on rooftops, brownfields, and other similar applications – hold great technical potential. In order for this potential to be realized, however, PV must be “cost-effective”—that is, it must be sufficiently financially appealing to attract large amounts of investment capital. Electricity costs for most commercial and industrial end-users come in two forms: consumption (kWh) and demand (kW). Although rates vary, for a typical larger commercial or industrial user, demand charges account for about ∼40% of total electricity costs. This paper uses a case study of PV on a large university campus to reveal that even very large PV installations will often provide very small demand reductions. As a result, it will be very difficult for PV to demonstrate cost-effectiveness for large commercial customers, even if PV costs continue to drop. If policymakers would like PV to play a significant role in electricity generation – for economic development, carbon reduction, or other reasons – then rate structures will need significant adjustment, or improved distributed storage technologies will be needed. - Highlights: ► Demand charges typically account for ∼40% of total electricity costs for larger electricity users. ► Distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems provide minimal demand charge reductions. ► As a result, PVs are not a financially viable alternative to centralized electricity. ► Electricity rate structures will need changes for PV to be a major electricity source.

  11. Demand curves for hypothetical cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, Natalie R; Johnson, Matthew W

    2014-03-01

    Drug purchasing tasks have been successfully used to examine demand for hypothetical consumption of abused drugs including heroin, nicotine, and alcohol. In these tasks, drug users make hypothetical choices whether to buy drugs, and if so, at what quantity, at various potential prices. These tasks allow for behavioral economic assessment of that drug's intensity of demand (preferred level of consumption at extremely low prices) and demand elasticity (sensitivity of consumption to price), among other metrics. However, a purchasing task for cocaine in cocaine-dependent individuals has not been investigated. This study examined a novel Cocaine Purchasing Task and the relation between resulting demand metrics and self-reported cocaine use data. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing hypothetical purchases of cocaine units at prices ranging from $0.01 to $1,000. Demand curves were generated from responses on the Cocaine Purchasing Task. Correlations compared metrics from the demand curve to measures of real-world cocaine use. Group and individual data were well modeled by a demand curve function. The validity of the Cocaine Purchasing Task was supported by a significant correlation between the demand curve metrics of demand intensity and O max (determined from Cocaine Purchasing Task data) and self-reported measures of cocaine use. Partial correlations revealed that after controlling for demand intensity, demand elasticity and the related measure, P max, were significantly correlated with real-world cocaine use. Results indicate that the Cocaine Purchasing Task produces orderly demand curve data, and that these data relate to real-world measures of cocaine use.

  12. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  13. Energy demand: Facts and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chateau, B; Lapillonne, B

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between economic development and energy demand is investigated in this book. It gives a detailed analysis of the energy demand dynamics in industrialized countries and compares the past evolution of the driving factors behind energy demand by sector and by end-uses for the main OECD countries: residential sector (space heating, water heating, cooking...), tertiary sector, passenger and goods transport by mode, and industry (with particular emphasis on the steel and cement industry). This analysis leads to a more precise understanding of the long-term trends of energy demand; highlighting the influence on these trends of energy prices, especially after the oil price shocks, and of the type of economic development pattern.

  14. Temperature Effect on Energy Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Duk [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea)

    1999-03-01

    We provide various estimates of temperature effect for accommodating seasonality in energy demand, particularly natural gas demand. We exploit temperature response and monthly temperature distribution to estimate the temperature effect on natural gas demand. Both local and global smoothed temperature responses are estimated from empirical relationship between hourly temperature and hourly energy consumption data during the sample period (1990 - 1996). Monthly temperature distribution estimates are obtained by kernel density estimation from temperature dispersion within a month. We integrate temperature response and monthly temperature density over all the temperatures in the sample period to estimate temperature effect on energy demand. Then, estimates of temperature effect are compared between global and local smoothing methods. (author). 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  16. Demand Response Spinning Reserve Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Nelson-Hoffman, Janine; Torres, Carlos; Hirth,Scott; Yinger, Bob; Kueck, John; Kirby, Brendan; Bernier, Clark; Wright,Roger; Barat, A.; Watson, David S.

    2007-05-01

    The Demand Response Spinning Reserve project is a pioneeringdemonstration of how existing utility load-management assets can providean important electricity system reliability resource known as spinningreserve. Using aggregated demand-side resources to provide spinningreserve will give grid operators at the California Independent SystemOperator (CAISO) and Southern California Edison (SCE) a powerful, newtool to improve system reliability, prevent rolling blackouts, and lowersystem operating costs.

  17. Television Advertising and Soda Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Rigoberto A.; Liu, Yizao; Zhu, Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of television advertising on consumer demand for carbonated soft drinks using a random coefficients logit model (BLP) with household and advertising data from seven U.S. cities over a three year period. We find that advertising decreases the price elasticity of demand, indicating that advertising plays predominantly a persuasive, therefore anti-competitive role in this market. Further results show that brand spillover effects are significant and that measuring ...

  18. Balancing supply and demand resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, J.; Saleeby, R.G.

    1990-01-01

    This article deals with using demand-side management (DSM) resources as an effective means of balancing supply and demand as a part of least-cost planning. The authors present a more sophisticated application of the load forecast adjustment method that reduces the number of DSM programs that need to be evaluated and provides blocks large enough to eliminate resolution problems in production costing models

  19. A semiparametric model of household gasoline demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadud, Zia [Department of Civil Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Noland, Robert B. [Alan M. Voorhees Transportation Center, Edward J. Bloustein School of Planning and Public Policy, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ 08901 (United States); Graham, Daniel J. [Centre for Transport Studies, Dept of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2010-01-15

    Gasoline demand studies typically generate a single price and income elasticity for a country. It is however possible that these elasticities may differ among various socio-economic groups. At the same time, parametric gasoline demand models may not be flexible enough to capture the changes in price elasticities with different levels of income. This paper models US gasoline demand using more flexible semiparametric techniques, accommodating the possibility of differences in responses among households. The econometric model employs a non-parametric bivariate smoothing for price and income and a parametric representation of other explanatory variables. Possible heterogeneity in price and income elasticities is modelled through interacting price and income with demographic variables. Results show that price responses do vary with demographic variables such as income, multiple vehicle holding, presence of multiple wage earners or rural or urban residential locations. Households' responses to a price change decrease with higher income. Multiple vehicle and multiple earner households also show higher sensitivity to a price change. Households located in urban areas reduce consumption more than those in rural areas in response to an increase in price. Comparison of the flexible semiparametric model with a parametric translog model, however, reveals no significant differences between results, and the parametric models have the advantage of lower computational requirements and better interpretability. (author)

  20. Stochastic model of forecasting spare parts demand

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan S. Milojević; Rade V. Guberinić

    2012-01-01

    If demand is known for the whole planning period (complete information), then this type of demand or a supply system is deterministic. In the simplest cases, the demand per time unit is constant. If demand levels change over time following a precisely determined and pre-known principle, this type of demand is also classified as deterministic. This quality of demand is very rare. In most cases demand is the product of a process, for example TMS maintenance, whose progression cannot be predicte...

  1. Interaction effects among multiple job demands: an examination of healthcare workers across different contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmieson, Nerina L; Tucker, Michelle K; Walsh, Alexandra J

    2017-05-01

    Simultaneous exposure to time, cognitive, and emotional demands is a feature of the work environment for healthcare workers, yet effects of these common stressors in combination are not well established. Survey data were collected from 125 hospital employees (Sample 1, Study 1), 93 ambulance service employees (Sample 2, Study 1), and 380 aged care/disability workers (Study 2). Hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted. In Sample 1, high cognitive demand exacerbated high emotional demand on psychological strain and job burnout, whereas the negative effect of high emotional demand was not present at low cognitive demand. In Sample 2, a similar pattern between emotional demand and time demand on stress-remedial intentions was observed. In Study 2, emotional demand × time demand and time demand × cognitive demand interactions again revealed that high levels of two demands were stress-exacerbating and low levels of one demand neutralized the other. A three-way interaction on job satisfaction showed the negative impact of emotional demand was exacerbated when both time and cognitive demands were high, creating a "triple disadvantage" of job demands. The results demonstrate that reducing some job demands helps attenuate the stressful effects of other job demands on different employee outcomes.

  2. Pattern of Demand For Money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Berlian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the activity of the modern economy, the availability of money as a means of transaction is very important, because with the money as a means to pay consumers can easily to get the basic material needs are required, the manufacturer can provide the raw materials of labor for production, and distributors can obtain a variety of merchandise to be delivered at the end consumer. The pattern of use of money is influenced by the attitude of the public in the transaction. Researchers assume, that there are differences among communities, either by group differences in income, educational differences, ethnic differences, differences in profession, and perhaps even religious differences embraced. So as to provide information to the monetary authorities, to enrich the theory of demand for money based economic agents in Indonesia, and for the application of the theory of demand for money, the researchers felt the need to study patterns of use of money. Qualitative research, in addition to knowing whether the variables that affect the demand for money as the above theory is still relevant for economic actors in Indonesia at this time, or even are new variables, as well as the motive of money demand. Keywords: Demand for money, Keynes Theory, qualitative method

  3. Demand Forecasting: An Evaluation of DODs Accuracy Metric and Navys Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    dataset ci = unit cost for item i fi = demand forecast for item i 28 ai = actual demand for item i A close look at fCIMIP metric reveals a...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT DEMAND FORECASTING : AN EVALUATION OF DOD’S ACCURACY...June 2016 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DEMAND FORECASTING : AN EVALUATION OF DOD’S ACCURACY

  4. Energy supply and demand in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, E. D.

    1978-01-01

    The author expresses his views on future energy demand on the west coast of the United States and how that energy demand translates into demand for major fuels. He identifies the major uncertainties in determining what future demands may be. The major supply options that are available to meet projected demands and the policy implications that flow from these options are discussed.

  5. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  6. Fundamental Travel Demand Model Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, Joel

    2010-01-01

    Instances of transportation models are abundant and detailed "how to" instruction is available in the form of transportation software help documentation. The purpose of this paper is to look at the fundamental inputs required to build a transportation model by developing an example passenger travel demand model. The example model reduces the scale to a manageable size for the purpose of illustrating the data collection and analysis required before the first step of the model begins. This aspect of the model development would not reasonably be discussed in software help documentation (it is assumed the model developer comes prepared). Recommendations are derived from the example passenger travel demand model to suggest future work regarding the data collection and analysis required for a freight travel demand model.

  7. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--90 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  8. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence

  9. Consumer demand and quality assurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Wognum, Nel; Trienekens, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Consumers differ in their demands, and this mau have implications for the type of supply chain governance that is most suitable for serving them. We present a segmentation of pork consumers in the EU based on their food-related lifestyles and demand for different pork products. We then present...... an inventory of pork chain governance and quality management systems, also resulting from a pan-European study, and attempt to match types of chains to consumer segments, arguing that the type of quality demanded by the consumers has implications especially for the quality management system governing the chain......, and that these implications are different for fresh meat and processed meat. The paper closes with a call for more collaboration between chain researchers and consumer researchers....

  10. International Oil Supplies and Demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    The eleventh Energy Modeling Forum (EMF) working group met four times over the 1989--1990 period to compare alternative perspectives on international oil supplies and demands through 2010 and to discuss how alternative supply and demand trends influence the world's dependence upon Middle Eastern oil. Proprietors of eleven economic models of the world oil market used their respective models to simulate a dozen scenarios using standardized assumptions. From its inception, the study was not designed to focus on the short-run impacts of disruptions on oil markets. Nor did the working group attempt to provide a forecast or just a single view of the likely future path for oil prices. The model results guided the group's thinking about many important longer-run market relationships and helped to identify differences of opinion about future oil supplies, demands, and dependence.

  11. North American supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocino, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    The projected supply and demand for natural gas in five major regions of North America for the year 2000 was presented. In most regions, supply is expected to be greater than demand. A summary of how California dealt with an increase in natural gas demand in 1990 was presented. The California strategy included a readjustment of pipeline capacity, storage capacity and transportation. Whereas in the 1980s, when capacity was inadequate, the focus was on competition with alternate fuels, maximized capacity use, primary concern about reliability and only secondary concern about price, in the the 1990s, with excess capacity, the emphasis is on 'gas on gas' competition, efforts to satisfy the customer, primary concern about price, and only marginal concern about reliability. tabs., figs

  12. Climate change and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hengeveld, H.G.

    1991-01-01

    Climate and weather events affect energy demand in most economic sectors. Linear relationships exist between consumption and heating degree days, and peak electricity demand increases significantly during heat waves. The relative magnitudes of demand changes for a two times carbon dioxide concentration scenario are tabulated, illustrating heating degree days and cooling degree days for 5 Prairie locations. Irrigation, water management, crop seeding and harvesting and weed control are examples of climate-dependent agricultural activities involving significant energy use. The variability of summer season liquid fuel use in the agricultural sector in the Prairie provinces from 1984-1989 shows a relationship between agricultural energy use and regional climate fluctuations. 4 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  13. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  14. Pay for load demand - electricity pricing with load demand component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrko, Jurek; Sernhed, Kerstin; Abaravicius, Juozas

    2003-01-01

    This publication is part of a project called Direct and Indirect Load Control in Buildings. Peak load problems have attracted considerable attention in Sweden during last three winters, caused by a significant decrease in available reserve power, which is a consequence of political decisions and liberalisation of the electricity market. A possible way to lower peak loads, avoiding electricity shortages and reducing electricity costs both for users and utilities, is to make customers experience the price difference during peak load periods and, in this way, become more aware of their energy consumption pattern and load demand. As of January 1st 2001, one of the Swedish energy utilities - Sollentuna Energi - operating in the Stockholm area, introduced a new electricity tariff with differentiated grid fees based on a mean value of the peak load every month. This tariff was introduced for all residential customers in the service area. The objective of this study is to investigate the extent to which a Load Demand Component, included in electricity pricing, can influence energy use and load demand in residential buildings. What are the benefits and disadvantages for customers and utilities? This paper investigates the impact of the new tariff on the utility and different types of typical residential customers, making comparisons with previous tariff. Keywords Load demand, electricity pricing, tariff, residential customers, energy behaviour

  15. Demand as Frequency Controlled Reserve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Zhao; Østergaard, Jacob; Togeby, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Relying on generation side alone is deemed insufficient to fulfill the system balancing needs for future Danish power system, where a 50% wind penetration is outlined by the government for year 2025. This paper investigates using the electricity demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) as a new...... balancing measure, which has a high potential and can provide many advantages. Firstly, the background of the research is reviewed, including conventional power system reserves and the electricity demand side potentials. Subsequently, the control logics and corresponding design considerations for the DFR...

  16. Collusion and the elasticity of demand

    OpenAIRE

    David Collie

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of collusion in infinitely repeated Cournot oligopoly games has generally assumed that demand is linear, but this note uses constant-elasticity demand functions to investigate how the elasticity of demand affects the sustainability of collusion.

  17. EIA projections of coal supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    Contents of this report include: EIA projections of coal supply and demand which covers forecasted coal supply and transportation, forecasted coal demand by consuming sector, and forecasted coal demand by the electric utility sector; and policy discussion

  18. Consumer Demand for Major Foods in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Basem Fayaad; Stanley R. Johnson; Mohamed El-Khishin

    1995-01-01

    This study provides information on the structure of the consumer demand for major foods in Egypt. The information is in the form of key parameters for consumer demand systems. The modern theory of consumer behavior is the basis for estimating systems of demand equations. These systems yield estimates of own- and cross-price elasticities. The Linear Almost Ideal Demand System (LAIDS) model is applied in estimating a system of demand equations for food commodities. A full demand matrix results ...

  19. Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.

  20. Uranium. Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The events characterising the world uranium market in the last several years illustrate the persistent uncertainly faced by uranium producers and consumers worldwide. With world nuclear capacity expanding and uranium production satisfying only about 60 per cent of demand, uranium stockpiles continue to be depleted at a high rate. The uncertainty related to the remaining levels of world uranium stockpiles and to the amount of surplus defence material that will be entering the market makes it difficult to determine when a closer balance between uranium supply and demand will be reached. Information in this report provides insights into changes expected in uranium supply and demand until well into the next century. The 'Red Book', jointly prepared by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency and the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the foremost reference on uranium. This world report is based on official information from 59 countries and includes compilations of statistics on resources, exploration, production and demand as of 1 January 1997. It provides substantial new information from all of the major uranium producing centres in Africa, Australia, Eastern Europe, North America and the New Independent States, including the first-ever official reports on uranium production in Estonia, Mongolia, the Russian Federation and Uzbekistan. It also contains an international expert analysis of industry statistics and worldwide projections of nuclear energy growth, uranium requirements and uranium supply

  1. Criteria for demand response systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Kling, W.L.; Bosch, van den P.P.J.; Ribeiro, P.F.; Berg, van den J.

    2013-01-01

    The topic of demand side management is currently becoming more important than ever, in parallel with the further deregulation of the electricity sector, and the increasing integration of renewable energy sources. A historical review of automation integration in power system control assists in

  2. The moral demands of affluence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderholm, Jørn

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, Garrett Cullity made a significant contribution to the literature on what the world’s relatively affluent owe to the world’s relatively poor through the publishing of The Moral Demands of Affluence. In this discussion note, I draw attention to a logical problem in Cullity’s master argument...

  3. Future butanes supply/demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitley, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This paper graphically depicts, through in-depth supply/demand analysis, how environmental regulations can be both bad and good for an industry. In the case of n-butane, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) summertime gasoline volatility regulations are a culprit - threatening to ultimately destroy refinery demand for the product as a gasoline blendstock. Waiting in the wings are environmental regulations that should eventually prove to be n-butane's savior. The regulations referred to here are the Clean Air Act (CAA) of 1990's mandate for motor fuel oxygenates. The negative impact of gasoline volatility regulations on U.S. n-butane demand and the positive impact that should come from the use of n-butane as a MTBE precursor are covered. Many variables exist which make studying the effects of these environmental regulations very difficult. Over the past three years RPC Group has conducted numerous studies on n-butane supply/demand, as impacted by both EPA gasoline volatility and fuel oxygenate regulations

  4. Smart Buildings and Demand Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Ghatikar, Girish

    2011-11-01

    Advances in communications and control technology, the strengthening of the Internet, and the growing appreciation of the urgency to reduce demand side energy use are motivating the development of improvements in both energy efficiency and demand response (DR) systems in buildings. This paper provides a framework linking continuous energy management and continuous communications for automated demand response (Auto-DR) in various times scales. We provide a set of concepts for monitoring and controls linked to standards and procedures such as Open Automation Demand Response Communication Standards (OpenADR). Basic building energy science and control issues in this approach begin with key building components, systems, end-uses and whole building energy performance metrics. The paper presents a framework about when energy is used, levels of services by energy using systems, granularity of control, and speed of telemetry. DR, when defined as a discrete event, requires a different set of building service levels than daily operations. We provide examples of lessons from DR case studies and links to energy efficiency.

  5. Consumer surplus and CES demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the consumer surplus formula for constant elasticity of substitution (CES) demands. The formula is used to compare the monopoly and optimum provisions of product variety. It is shown that a monopolist under-provides variety. This result is contrasted with Lambertini’s analysis

  6. Projecting Electricity Demand in 2050

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostick, Donna J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Belzer, David B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hadley, Stanton W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Markel, Tony [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marnay, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of end-use electricity projections and load curves that were developed for the Renewable Electricity (RE) Futures Study (hereafter RE Futures), which explored the prospect of higher percentages (30% - 90%) of total electricity generation that could be supplied by renewable sources in the United States. As input to RE Futures, two projections of electricity demand were produced representing reasonable upper and lower bounds of electricity demand out to 2050. The electric sector models used in RE Futures required underlying load profiles, so RE Futures also produced load profile data in two formats: 8760 hourly data for the year 2050 for the GridView model, and in 2-year increments for 17 time slices as input to the Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) model. The process for developing demand projections and load profiles involved three steps: discussion regarding the scenario approach and general assumptions, literature reviews to determine readily available data, and development of the demand curves and load profiles.

  7. The Cognitive Demands of Writing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torrance, Mark; Jeffery, Gaynor

    1999-01-01

    Writing is a complex activity that places demands on cognitive resources. This volume presents original theory and research exploring the ways in which the sub-components of the writing process (generating and organizing content, producing grammatical sentences, etc.) differ in their cognitive

  8. Demand Controlled Ventilation and Classroom Ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  9. Demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mendell, Mark J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davies, Molly [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Eliseeva, Ekaterina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Faulkner, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hong, Tienzen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sullivan, Douglas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-06

    This document summarizes a research effort on demand controlled ventilation and classroom ventilation. The research on demand controlled ventilation included field studies and building energy modeling.

  10. Demand as frequency controlled reserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Z.; Togeby, M.; OEstergaard, J.

    2008-09-15

    Using demand as frequency controlled reserve (DFR) is an emerging technology which allow demand to participate actively in maintaining the system operation without reducing the energy service delivered to the customer and without need of user interaction. The basic premise is that traditional frequency controlled reserves from power plants and interconnections with neighbouring systems can be costly, slow and not fulfil the need for future power grids with a high share of wind power and fewer central power plants, and an intention to perform flexible operation such as is landing. Electricity demands, on the other hand, have advantages as frequency reserve including fast activation speed, smooth linear activation, low expected costs, and well-dispersed in the distribution grid. The main challenge of DFR is new methods for monitoring the available capacity. This project has investigated the technology of using electricity demands for providing frequency reserve to power systems. Within the project the potential and economy of DFR compatible loads in Denmark has been investigated, control logic has been designed, power system impact has been investigated, potential business models has been evaluated and an implementation strategy has been suggested. The tasks and goals of the project have been successfully accomplished based on which the conclusion and future recommendation are made. This project has developed the DFR technology that enables electricity demands to autonomously disconnect or reconnect to the grid in response to system frequency variations. The developed DFR technology is proved to be a promising technology from several perspectives. Technically, using DFR is feasible to provide reserves and enhance power system frequency control, while fulfilling technical requirements such as linear activation (or reconnection) according to frequency (or time). Environmentally, the DFR technology is pollution free in contrast to traditional reserves from generation

  11. OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development) oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huntington, H.G.

    1993-01-01

    Econometric response surfaces for nine different world oil models are estimated for aggregate oil demand with in the developed countries of the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). The estimates are based upon scenario results reported for the 1989-2010 period in a recent model comparison study. The response surface approach provides a parsimonious summary of model responses. It enables one to estimate long-run price elasticities directly rather than to infer such responses from 20-year cross-scenario results. It also shows more directly the significant effect of initial demand conditions (in 1988) on future oil demand growth. Due to the dynamic nature of the oil demand response, past prices exert a strongly positive effect on future oil demands in some models, but little or even negative effect in other models. On the basis of this finding, we urge demand modellers to be much more explicit about what their systems reveal about the extent of disequilibrium embedded in their model's starting oil demand conditions. (author)

  12. Exploring ethical justification for self-demand amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasini, Floris

    2006-01-01

    Self-demand amputees are persons who need to have one or more healthy limbs or digits amputated to fit the way they see themselves. They want to rid themselves of a limb that they believe does not belong to their body-identity. The obsessive desire to have appendages surgically removed to fit an alternative body-image is medically and ethically controversial. My purpose in this paper is to provide a number of normative and professional ethical perspectives on whether or not it is possible to justify surgery for self-demand amputees. In doing so I proceed dialogically, moving between empirical context and normative theory, revealing the taken for granted normative assumptions (what I call the natural attitude--a technical term borrowed from phenomenology) that provide ethical limits to justifying the treatment of self-demand amputees. While I critically examine both Kantian responses against as well as Utilitarian responses for amputation on demand, I conclude that neither normative tradition can fully incorporate an understanding of what it is like to be a self-demand amputee. Since neither theory can justify the apparent non-rational desire of amputation on demand, ethical justification, I argue, falls short of the recognition that there may be a problem. To end, I introduce a meta-ethical idea, "the struggle for recognition," opening up the theoretical possibility of a hermeneutics of recognition before ethical justification that may be more sensitive to the problem of radical embodied difference exemplified by self-demand amputees.

  13. Addressing Energy Demand through Demand Response. International Experiences and Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ghatikar, Girish [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Dudley, Junqiao [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Martin, Phil [Enernoc, Inc., Boston, MA (United States); Wikler, Greg

    2012-06-01

    Demand response (DR) is a load management tool which provides a cost-effective alternative to traditional supply-side solutions to address the growing demand during times of peak electrical load. According to the US Department of Energy (DOE), demand response reflects “changes in electric usage by end-use customers from their normal consumption patterns in response to changes in the price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments designed to induce lower electricity use at times of high wholesale market prices or when system reliability is jeopardized.” 1 The California Energy Commission (CEC) defines DR as “a reduction in customers’ electricity consumption over a given time interval relative to what would otherwise occur in response to a price signal, other financial incentives, or a reliability signal.” 2 This latter definition is perhaps most reflective of how DR is understood and implemented today in countries such as the US, Canada, and Australia where DR is primarily a dispatchable resource responding to signals from utilities, grid operators, and/or load aggregators (or DR providers).

  14. Demand chain management - The evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Ericsson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of Supply Chain Management (SCM and Demand Chain Management (DCM are among the new and debated topics concerning logistics in the literature. The question considered in this paper is: “Are these concepts needed or will they just add to the confusion?” Lasting business concepts have always evolved in close interaction between business and academia. Different approaches start out in business and they are then, more or less si- multaneously, aligned, integrated, systemised and structured in academia. In this way a terminology (or language is provided that helps in further diffusion of the concepts. There is a lack of consensus on the definition of the concept of SCM. This may be one of the major reasons for the difficulty in advancing the science and measuring the results of implementation in business. Relationships in SCM span from rather loose coalitions to highly structured virtual network integrations. DCM is a highly organised chain in which the key is mutual interdependence and partnership. The purpose is to create a distinctive competence for the chain as a whole that helps to identify and satisfy customer needs and wishes. The classical research concerning vertical marketing systems is very helpful in systemising the rather unstructured discussions in current SCM research. The trend lies in increasing competition between channels rather than between companies, which in turn leads to the creation of channels with a high degree of partnership and mutual interdependence between members. These types of channels are known as organised vertical marketing systems in the classic marketing channel research. The behaviour in these types of channels, as well as the formal and informal structures, roles in the network, power and dependence relations, etc. are well covered topics in the literature. The concept of vertical marketing systems lies behind the definition of demand chains and demand chain management proposed in this paper. A

  15. LNG demand, shipping will expand through 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    True, W.R.

    1998-01-01

    The 1990s, especially the middle years, have witnessed a dramatic turnaround in the growth of liquefied-natural-gas demand which has tracked equally strong natural-gas demand growth. This trend was underscored late last year by several annual studies of world LNG demand and shipping. As 1998 began, however, economic turmoil in Asian financial markets has clouded near-term prospects for LNG in particular and all energy in general. But the extent of damage to energy markets is so far unclear. A study by US-based Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL, reveals that LNG imports worldwide have climbed nearly 8%/year since 1980 and account for 25% of all natural gas traded internationally. In the mid-1970s, the share was only 5%. In 1996, the most recent year for which complete data are available, world LNG trade rose 7.7% to a record 92 billion cu m, outpacing the overall consumption for natural gas which increased 4.7% in 1996. By 2015, says the IGT study, natural-gas use would surpass coal as the world''s second most widely used fuel, after petroleum. Much of this growth will occur in the developing countries of Asia where gas use, before the current economic crisis began, was projected to grow 8%/year through 2015. Similar trends are reflected in another study of LNG trade released at year end 1997, this from Ocean Shipping Consultants Ltd., Surrey, U.K. The study was done too early, however, to consider the effects of the financial problems roiling Asia

  16. DataBase on Demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aparicio, R Gaspar; Gomez, D; Wojcik, D; Coz, I Coterillo

    2012-01-01

    At CERN a number of key database applications are running on user-managed MySQL database services. The database on demand project was born out of an idea to provide the CERN user community with an environment to develop and run database services outside of the actual centralised Oracle based database services. The Database on Demand (DBoD) empowers the user to perform certain actions that had been traditionally done by database administrators, DBA's, providing an enterprise platform for database applications. It also allows the CERN user community to run different database engines, e.g. presently open community version of MySQL and single instance Oracle database server. This article describes a technology approach to face this challenge, a service level agreement, the SLA that the project provides, and an evolution of possible scenarios.

  17. Advertising media and cigarette demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Rajeev K

    2011-01-01

    Using state-level panel data for the USA spanning three decades, this research estimates the demand for cigarettes. The main contribution lies in studying the effects of cigarette advertising disaggregated across five qualitatively different groups. Results show cigarette demand to be near unit elastic, the income effects to be generally insignificant and border price effects and habit effects to be significant. Regarding advertising effects, aggregate cigarette advertising has a negative effect on smoking. Important differences across advertising media emerge when cigarette advertising is disaggregated. The effects of public entertainment and Internet cigarette advertising are stronger than those of other media. Anti-smoking messages accompanying print cigarette advertising seem relatively more effective. Implications for smoking control policy are discussed.

  18. Uranium Resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply and demand have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report URANIUM RESOURCES, PRODUCTION AND DEMAND, commonly referred to as the RED BOOK, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest Red Book, published in 1988, was based on data collected mainly in early 1987. Most of the data for 1987 were therefore provisional. The STATISTICAL UPDATE 1988 provides updated 1987 data collected in 1988 and provisional data for 1988. The publication, which covers OECD Countries and gives Secretariat estimates for the rest of the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies (WOCA), is being issued every second year, between publications of more complete Red Books

  19. Enrichment demand boosts SWU prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The enrichment market is picking up significantly on very brisk demand. US utilities, which normally purchase material nine months to a year ahead of time, are already hitting the market to fill their 1996 requirements. In June, two non-US utilities, one European entity and a US utility bought SWUs, the entity in an off-market deal. But that doesn't tell the whole story. Three other US utilities entered the market during the month. Meanwhile, we count 13 more utilities getting ready to hit the market for more than 4 million SWUs. Why the surge in demand? Utilities, uncertain of the role to be played by the new US Enrichment Corp. and seeking to take advantage of low interest rates, are implementing buy and hold strategies. As a result, the upper end of NUKEM's SWU price range inched up to $78. The lower end dipped to $67 based on the European deal

  20. Demand controlled ventilation; Behovsstyrt ventilasjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Henning Holm

    2006-07-01

    The terms CAV and VAV have been known terms for many years in the ventilation business. The terms are also included in building regulations, but the time is now right to focus on demand controlled ventilation (DCV). The new building regulations and the accompanying energy framework underline the need for a more nuanced thinking when it comes to controlling ventilation systems. Descriptions and further details of the ventilation systems are provided (ml)

  1. Strong demand for natural uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Deutsches Atomforum and the task group 'fuel elements' of the Kerntechnische Gesellschaft had organized an international two-day symposium in Mainz on natural uranium supply which was attended by 250 experts from 20 countries. The four main themes were: Demand for natural uranium, uranium deposits and uranium production, attitude of the uranium producing countries, and energy policy of the industrial nations. (orig./AK) [de

  2. Alcohol demand and risk preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dave, Dhaval; Saffer, Henry

    2008-12-01

    Both economists and psychologists have studied the concept of risk preference. Economists categorize individuals as more or less risk-tolerant based on the marginal utility of income. Psychologists categorize individuals' propensity towards risk based on harm avoidance, novelty seeking and reward dependence traits. The two concepts of risk are related, although the instruments used for empirical measurement are quite different. Psychologists have found risk preference to be an important determinant of alcohol consumption; however economists have not included risk preference in studies of alcohol demand. This is the first study to examine the effect of risk preference on alcohol consumption in the context of a demand function. The specifications employ multiple waves from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) and the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), which permit the estimation of age-specific models based on nationally representative samples. Both of these data sets include a unique and consistent survey instrument designed to directly measure risk preference in accordance with the economist's definition. This study estimates the direct impact of risk preference on alcohol demand and also explores how risk preference affects the price elasticity of demand. The empirical results indicate that risk preference has a significant negative effect on alcohol consumption, with the prevalence and consumption among risk-tolerant individuals being 6-8% higher. Furthermore, the tax elasticity is similar across both risk-averse and risk-tolerant individuals. This suggests that tax policies are as equally effective in deterring alcohol consumption among those who have a higher versus a lower propensity for alcohol use.

  3. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  4. Demand for healthcare in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh C. Purohit

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In a developing country like India, allocation of scarce fiscal resources has to be based on a clear understanding of how investments in the heath sector are going to affect demand. Three aspects like overall healthcare demand, consumer decisions to use public and/or private care and role of price/quality influencing poor/rich consumer’s decisions are critical to assessing the equity implications of alternative policies. Our paper addresses these aspects through examining the pattern of healthcare demand in India. Data from the National Family Health Survey are used to model the healthcare choices that individuals make. We consider what these behavioral characteristics imply for public policy. This analysis aims to study disparities between rural and urban areas from all throughout India to five Indian states representing three levels of per capita incomes (all-India average, rich and poor. Results evidence that healthcare demand both in rural and urban areas is a commodity emerging as an essential need. Choices between public or private provider are guided by income and quality variables mainly with regard to public healthcare denoting thus a situation of very limited alternatives in terms of availing private providers. These results emphasize that existing public healthcare facilities do not serve the objective of providing care to the poor in a satisfactory manner in rural areas. Thus, any financing strategy to improve health system and reduce disparities across rich-poor states and rural-urban areas should also take into account not only overcoming inadequacy but also inefficiency in allocation and utilization of healthcare inputs.

  5. Uranium resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear power-generating capacity will continue to expand, albeit at a slower pace than during the past fifteen years. This expansion must be matched by an adequately increasing supply of uranium. This report compares uranium supply and demand data in free market countries with the nuclear industry's natural uranium requirements up to the year 2000. It also reviews the status of uranium exploration, resources and production in 46 countries

  6. The economics of uranium demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    The major characteristics of the demand for uranium are identified, and a number of factors which determine the actual level of uranium requirements of the nuclear power industry are discussed. Since the role of inventories is central to the process of short-term price formation, by comparing projections of uranium production and apparent consumption, the relative level of total inventories is calculated and an assessment is made of its likely impact on the uranium market during the 1980s. (author)

  7. Forecasting Croatian inbound tourism demand

    OpenAIRE

    Tica, Josip; Kožić, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a forecasting model for the overnight stays of foreign tourists in Croatia. Tourism is one of the most important parts of the Croatian economy. It is particularly important in the context of the services sector. Regular and significant surpluses and the consumption of foreign guests are an important element of budget revenues, especially VAT. The ability to forecast the development of inbound tourism demand in a timely manner is crucial for both business...

  8. Optimal Advertising with Stochastic Demand

    OpenAIRE

    George E. Monahan

    1983-01-01

    A stochastic, sequential model is developed to determine optimal advertising expenditures as a function of product maturity and past advertising. Random demand for the product depends upon an aggregate measure of current and past advertising called "goodwill," and the position of the product in its life cycle measured by sales-to-date. Conditions on the parameters of the model are established that insure that it is optimal to advertise less as the product matures. Additional characteristics o...

  9. Demand, Energy, and Power Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    POWER FACTOR DEFINITION I Basically , power factor (pf) is a measure of how effectively the plant uses the electricity it purchases from the utility. It...not be made available by the plant. U 24 This video is relatively short, less than fifteen-minutes, and covers the basics on demand, block extenders... ratemaking methodology and test period as used in determining the NC-RS rates. Pending final decision by the FERC, the Federal Government would pay a rate as

  10. World gas supply-demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushby, I.L.

    1996-01-01

    The rapid growth in demand for natural gas from a global perspective is documented in this paper. Low prices compared to other fuels and a return to normal winter temperatures is argued to be the cause of this increase in consumption. Natural gas production and prices for 1995 are discussed and forecasts made for future years, in particular the prospects for LNG in Asia. Data on energy growth and gas specific information in world markets are included. (UK)

  11. Automation of energy demand forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Sanzad

    Automation of energy demand forecasting saves time and effort by searching automatically for an appropriate model in a candidate model space without manual intervention. This thesis introduces a search-based approach that improves the performance of the model searching process for econometrics models. Further improvements in the accuracy of the energy demand forecasting are achieved by integrating nonlinear transformations within the models. This thesis introduces machine learning techniques that are capable of modeling such nonlinearity. Algorithms for learning domain knowledge from time series data using the machine learning methods are also presented. The novel search based approach and the machine learning models are tested with synthetic data as well as with natural gas and electricity demand signals. Experimental results show that the model searching technique is capable of finding an appropriate forecasting model. Further experimental results demonstrate an improved forecasting accuracy achieved by using the novel machine learning techniques introduced in this thesis. This thesis presents an analysis of how the machine learning techniques learn domain knowledge. The learned domain knowledge is used to improve the forecast accuracy.

  12. Energy demand and population change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, E L; Edmonds, J A

    1981-09-01

    During the post World War 2 years energy consumption has grown 136% while population grew about 51%; per capita consumption of energy expanded, therefore, about 60%. For a given population size, demographic changes mean an increase in energy needs; for instance the larger the group of retirement age people, the smaller their energy needs than are those for a younger group. Estimates indicate that by the year 2000 the energy impact will be toward higher per capita consumption with 60% of the population in the 19-61 age group of workers. Rising female labor force participation will increase the working group even more; it has also been found that income and energy grow at a proportional rate. The authors predict that gasoline consumption within the US will continue to rise with availability considering the larger number of female drivers and higher per capita incomes. The flow of illegal aliens (750,000/year) will have a major impact on income and will use greater amounts of energy than can be expected. A demographic change which will lower energy demands will be the slowdown of the rate of household formation caused by the falling number of young adults. The response of energy demand to price changes is small and slow but incomes play a larger role as does the number of personal automobiles and social changes affecting household formation. Households, commercial space, transportation, and industry are part of every demand analysis and population projections play a major role in determining these factors.

  13. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  14. Demands from the school inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selma Norberto Matos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available From the implementation of public policies on school inclusion, mainly those directed to the target audience of special education, the number of students with special educational needs in common classes has increased. This fact has helped to compose the picture in schools where the limitations and contradictions of the Brazilian educational system have appeared. Educational actors and authors are challenged to build knowledge able of responding to demands of daily school, concerning living and learning in diversity. Whereas this inclusive process is new in the schools, the study aimed to analyze the demands of teachers from the school inclusion. The research was qualitative and exploratory, and six teachers, their students with special educational needs and three professionals in the Nucleus of Inclusive Education from the Municipal Department of Education took in it. Technique of participant observation, field diary, semi-structured interview and questionnaire were used for data collection, while analysis of content was used for discussion of the data. The results indicate that there are achievements and contradictions in the reality of schools that themselves propose inclusive; advances and limitations resulting from the municipal politics; that the model of performance of the group of special education, in the context analyzed, may be revised or expanded; and that the teachers has demands with regard to public policy, training, and the psychologist.

  15. PREDICTING DEMAND FOR COTTON YARNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SALAS-MOLINA Francisco

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Predicting demand for fashion products is crucial for textile manufacturers. In an attempt to both avoid out-of-stocks and minimize holding costs, different forecasting techniques are used by production managers. Both linear and non-linear time-series analysis techniques are suitable options for forecasting purposes. However, demand for fashion products presents a number of particular characteristics such as short life-cycles, short selling seasons, high impulse purchasing, high volatility, low predictability, tremendous product variety and a high number of stock-keeping-units. In this paper, we focus on predicting demand for cotton yarns using a non-linear forecasting technique that has been fruitfully used in many areas, namely, random forests. To this end, we first identify a number of explanatory variables to be used as a key input to forecasting using random forests. We consider explanatory variables usually labeled either as causal variables, when some correlation is expected between them and the forecasted variable, or as time-series features, when extracted from time-related attributes such as seasonality. Next, we evaluate the predictive power of each variable by means of out-of-sample accuracy measurement. We experiment on a real data set from a textile company in Spain. The numerical results show that simple time-series features present more predictive ability than other more sophisticated explanatory variables.

  16. Future demand of petroleum products in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Sajal

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the long-run equilibrium relationship between total petroleum products consumption and economic growth in India for the period 1970-1971 to 2001-2002 using cointegration and error-correction modeling approach. Augmented Dickey-Fuller tests reveal that both the series, after logarithmic transformation, are non-stationary and individually integrated of order one. The empirical results suggest that the series are cointegrated. The 'long-term demand elasticity for petroleum products' has been estimated. Furthermore, as a special case, similar sort of exercise between the consumption of middle-distillates and economic growth in India using annual data for the time span 1974-1975 to 2001-2002 has been carried out, which also confirms the existence of cointegration. In-sample forecasts fitted well against actual numbers. Finally, the paper forecasts total petroleum products and middle-distillates demands till 2011-2012 and provide an idea about the investment required in refinery sector in India till 2011-2012

  17. 46 CFR 169.689 - Demand loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Demand loads. 169.689 Section 169.689 Shipping COAST... Electrical Electrical Installations on Vessels of 100 Gross Tons and Over § 169.689 Demand loads. Demand loads must meet § 111.60-7 of this chapter except that smaller demand loads for motor feeders are...

  18. Demand for food products in Finland: A demand system approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkka P. Laurila

    1994-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was concerned with the estimation of food-demand parameters in a system context. The patterns of food consumption in Finland were presented over the period 1950-1991, and a complete demand system of food expenditures was estimated. Price and expenditure elasticities of demand were derived, and the results were used to obtain projections on future consumption. While the real expenditure on food has increased, the budget share of food has decreased. In the early 19505, combined Food-at-Home and Food-away-from-Home corresponded to about 40% of consumers’ total expenditure. In 1991 the share was 28%. There was a shift to meals eaten outside the home. While the budget share of Food-away-from-Home increased from 3% to 7% over the observation period, Food-at-Home fell from 37% to 21%, and Food-at-Home excluding Alcoholic Drinks fell from 34% to 16%. Within Food-at-Home, the budget shares of the broad aggregate groups, Animalia (food from animal sources, Beverages, and Vegetablia (food from vegetable sources, remained about the same over the four decades, while structural change took place within the aggregates. Within Animalia, consumption shifted from Dairy Products (other than Fresh Milk to Meat and Fish. Within Beverages, consumption shifted from Fresh Milk and Hot Drinks to Alcoholic Drinks and Soft Drinks. Within Vegetablia, consumption shifted from Flour to Fruits, while the shares of Bread and Cake and Vegetables remained about the same. As the complete demand system, the Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS was employed. The conventional AIDS was extended by developing a dynamic generalisation of the model and allowing for systematic shifts in structural relationships over time. A four-stage budgeting system was specified, consisting of seven sub-systems (groups, and covering 18 food categories. Tests on parameter restrictions and misspecification tests were used to choose the most preferred model specification for each group. Generally

  19. Market demands to Danish pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone

    2001-01-01

    position on its markets. It is expected that results of the analysis will be part of superior strategic decisions for the Danish pork sector as regards future Danish pork export markets. The market demands to be identified will therefore be evaluated in relation to resources and competences within the line...... of business. The study takes its starting point in a value chain perspective. The value chain covers the product- and distribution stages a product passes through before reaching the consumers. The value chain perspective presumes that added value is accumulated when a product passes through the stages...

  20. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The thirteenth edition of the report looks at recent developments and their impact on the short term (i.e. to the year 2005) and presents a longer term (to 2030) analysis of supply possibilities in the context of a range of requirement scenarios. It presents results of a 1989 review of uranium supply and demand in the World Outside Centrally Planned Economies Areas. It contains updated information on uranium exploration activities, resources and production for over 40 countries including a few CPEs, covering the period 1987 and 1988

  1. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  2. LPG world supply and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Over the course of this decade, the global LPG market has moved from being tight, where supply barely exceeded non-price sensitive demand, to the current market situation where supply growth has outstripped demand growth to such an extent that current fundamentals suggest that considerable length will prevail in the market over the near term. As is the case for many other energy commodity markets, the LPG industry has experienced a considerable transformation over the last five years with many new LPG supply projects coming on-stream and demand growth in many developing markets slowing in response to higher energy prices. The near term challenge for LPG producers will be securing outlets for output as the market becomes increasingly oversupplied. With expanding LPG supply and a worldwide tightness in the naphtha market, it is expected that petrochemical consumers will favor relatively low priced LPG over naphtha and the resulting increase in LPG cracking rates will go some way to reducing the expected supply surplus. However, the timing of several new LPG supply projects and the start-up of LPG-based petrochemical plants in the Middle-East are expected to impact global LPG trade and pricing over the next few years. Thus, at this point in time, the global LPG market has a high degree of uncertainty with questions remaining over the impact of high energy (and LPG) prices on traditional and developing market demand, the timing of new supply projects and the combined effect of these two factors on international LPG prices. World LPG production has been rising in nearly every region of the world over the last few years and totaled about 229 million tons in 2007, which is some 30 million tons per year higher than in 2000. The exception is North America which accounts for the largest share of global LPG supply at about 24% but production there has remained relatively flat in recent years. Strong LPG production growth in the Middle-East which contributed to about 19% of

  3. World oil supply and demand'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    Apart from a collapse of oil and gas consumption in the CIS, a strong increase in demand in the newly industrialized countries and an upward trend in the OECD countries are observed. Non-Opec supply continued to grow, with a production decline in Usa and Russia but a record production level in the North Sea and a remarkable revival in South America (Colombia, Argentina) and Africa (Congo, Angola). In Opec countries, the trend goes from supply control to development of production capacity. Situations in Saudi Arabia, Iran and Iraq are detailed

  4. Market architecture and power demand management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rious, Vincent; Roques, Fabien

    2014-12-01

    Demand response is a cornerstone problem in electricity markets considering climate change constraint. Most liberalized electricity markets have a poor track record at developing demand response. In Europe, different models are considered for demand response, from a development under a regulated regime to a development under competitive perspectives. In this paper, focusing on demand response for mid-size and small consumers, we investigate which types of market signals should be sent to demand response aggregators to see demand response emerge as a competitive activity. Using data from the French power system over eight years, we compare the possible market design options to allow demand response to develop. Our simulations demonstrate that with the current market rules, demand response is not a profitable activity in the French electricity industry. Introducing a capacity remuneration could bring additional revenues to demand response aggregators if the power system has no over-capacity

  5. The estimate of world demand for Pangasius catfish (Pangasiusianodon hypopthalmus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tien Thong, Nguyen; Nielsen, Max; Roth, Eva

    2017-01-01

    in all markets except Latin America evaluate Pangasius as a necessary good, indicating that the Pangasius industry is relatively little affected by recessions and booms in the world economy. The major markets are substitutes for each other; therefore, if demand at one market region is reduced......-linear Inverse Almost Ideal Demand System of the seven market regions. Prices in all markets are found very inflexible, with own-price flexibilities on −0.200 to −0.917, or −0.419 on average, revealing the option of expanding global production and export without inducing a substantial price reduction. Consumers...

  6. Demand Response Valuation Frameworks Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heffner, Grayson

    2009-02-01

    While there is general agreement that demand response (DR) is a valued component in a utility resource plan, there is a lack of consensus regarding how to value DR. Establishing the value of DR is a prerequisite to determining how much and what types of DR should be implemented, to which customers DR should be targeted, and a key determinant that drives the development of economically viable DR consumer technology. Most approaches for quantifying the value of DR focus on changes in utility system revenue requirements based on resource plans with and without DR. This ''utility centric'' approach does not assign any value to DR impacts that lower energy and capacity prices, improve reliability, lower system and network operating costs, produce better air quality, and provide improved customer choice and control. Proper valuation of these benefits requires a different basis for monetization. The review concludes that no single methodology today adequately captures the wide range of benefits and value potentially attributed to DR. To provide a more comprehensive valuation approach, current methods such as the Standard Practice Method (SPM) will most likely have to be supplemented with one or more alternative benefit-valuation approaches. This report provides an updated perspective on the DR valuation framework. It includes an introduction and four chapters that address the key elements of demand response valuation, a comprehensive literature review, and specific research recommendations.

  7. Economic demand and essential value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  8. Controlling energy demand. What history?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beers, Marloes; Bonhomme, Noel; Bouvier, Yves; Pautard, Eric; Fevrier, Patrick; Lanthier, Pierre; Goyens, Valerie; Desama, Claude; Beltran, Alain

    2012-01-01

    this special dossier of the historical annals of electricity collection takes stock of the post 1970's history of energy demand control in industrialized countries: Abatement of energy dependence, the European Communities program of rational use of energy in the 1970's (Marloes Beers); The G7 and the energy cost: the limits of dialogue between industrialized countries - 1975-1985 (Noel Bonhomme); Saving more to consume more. The ambiguity of EDF's communication during the 'energy saving' era (Yves Bouvier); From rationing to energy saving certificates, 4 decades of electricity demand control in France and in the UK (eric Pautard); The French agency of environment and energy mastery (ADEME): between energy control and sustainable development (Patrick Fevrier); Hydro-Quebec and efficiency in household energy consumption, from 1990 to the present day (Pierre Lanthier); Control of energy consumption since the 1970's, the policy of rational use of energy in Walloon region - Belgium (Valerie Goyens); Electricity distribution in the new energy paradigm (Claude Desama); Conclusion (Alain Beltran)

  9. The impact of e-WOM on destination image, attitude toward destination and travel intention

    OpenAIRE

    RAMDAN MUHAMAD RIZKY; RAHARDJO KUSDI; ABDILLAH YUSRI

    2017-01-01

    Electronic word of mouth (e-WOM) is a new development of word of mouth by using social media platform to interact in the internet. Current studies only examine the model on its own basis by using theory planned behavior (TPB). Based on this idea, this research is trying to examine the model of e-WOM, Destination Image, Attitude Toward Destination together to reveal which factor that give the greater effects against travel intention both direct effect, indirect effects and total effects. The s...

  10. 3S’ Tourism Image and its Determining Factors: Evidence from North Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Maleki, Pegah

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study aims to investigate the effect of cognitive image of 3S tourism on attitude of tourist to 3S tourism activities. This research also examines the impact of attitude to 3S tourism of visit intention and word of mouth as two behavioral outcomes. Data were collected from tourists who travelled to North Cyprus in the summer 2015. The results revealed that image of 3S tourism had a positive relevance to tourist attitude. Visit intention and word of mouth are enhanced by improvi...

  11. Domestic and outbound tourism demand in Australia: a System-of-Equations Approach

    OpenAIRE

    George Athanasopoulos; Minfeng Deng; Gang Li; Haiyan Song

    2013-01-01

    This study uses a system-of-equations approach to model the substitution relationship between Australian domestic and outbound tourism demand. A new price variable based on relative ratios of purchasing power parity index is developed for the substitution analysis. Short-run demand elasticities are calculated based on the estimated dynamic almost ideal demand system. The empirical results reveal significant substitution relationships between Australian domestic tourism and outbound travel to ...

  12. Demand Moderation in Military Communication Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blackmore, Perry

    2002-01-01

    .... Demand moderation is the term used to encompass the array of mechanisms aimed at achieving this end. Integrated Defence networks of the future should benefit enormously from demand moderation mechanisms.

  13. Demand sensing in e-business

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Accurate assessment of demand and market shares is critical for many businesses and public ... allowing them to reap much higher benefits from demand sensing. .... entiation in service policies that offers a cost-effective compromise between ...

  14. Mobility on Demand Operational Concept Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-10

    This operational concept report provides an overview of the Mobility on Demand (MOD) concept and its evolution, description of the MOD ecosystem in a supply and demand framework, and its stakeholders and enablers. Leveraging the MOD ecosystem framewo...

  15. Driving demand for broadband networks and services

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Raul L

    2014-01-01

    This book examines the reasons why various groups around the world choose not to adopt broadband services and evaluates strategies to stimulate the demand that will lead to increased broadband use. It introduces readers to the benefits of higher adoption rates while examining the progress that developed and emerging countries have made in stimulating broadband demand. By relying on concepts such as a supply and demand gap, broadband price elasticity, and demand promotion, this book explains differences between the fixed and mobile broadband demand gap, introducing the notions of substitution and complementarity between both platforms. Building on these concepts, ‘Driving Demand for Broadband Networks and Services’ offers a set of best practices and recommendations aimed at promoting broadband demand.  The broadband demand gap is defined as individuals and households that could buy a broadband subscription because they live in areas served by telecommunications carriers but do not do so because of either ...

  16. Demands Set Upon Modern Cartographic Visualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Frangeš

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scientific cartography has the task to develop and research new methods of cartographic visualization. General demands are set upon modern cartographic visualization, which encompasses digital cartography and computer graphics: legibility, clearness, accuracy, plainness and aesthetics. In this paper, it is explained in detail what demands should be met in order to satisfy the general demands set. In order to satisfy the demand of legibility, one should respect conditions of minimal sizes, appropriate graphical density and better differentiation of known features. Demand of clearness needs to be met by fulfilling conditions of simplicity, contrasting quality and layer arrangement of cartographic representation. Accuracy, as the demand on cartographic visualization, can be divided into positioning accuracy and accuracy signs. For fulfilling the demand of plainness, the conditions of symbolism, traditionalism and hierarchic organization should be met. Demand of aesthetics will be met if the conditions of beauty and harmony are fulfilled.

  17. Cut Electric Bills by Controlling Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grumman, David L.

    1974-01-01

    Electric bills can be reduced by lowering electric consumption and by controlling demand -- the amount of electricity used at a certain point in time. Gives tips to help reduce electric demand at peak power periods. (Author/DN)

  18. Prices dip on slow demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The Restricted Uranium Spot Market Price Range slipped to $9.90-$10.35, mostly due to lackluster demand. Only three transactions took place during the month. Two of the purchases, accounting for 98% of the month's volume, were by European utilities; the other was made by a US utility. One of the European purchases was made in the unrestricted market, but since it included a host of fuel cycle services, the U3O8 price could not be determined. Hence, NUKEM's Unrestricted Uranium Spot Market Price Range stays the same, at $7.90-$8.00. The other European deal, concluded in the restricted market, represents the low end of the restricted market price range. The US deal was based on bids that were made at the beginning of November and therefore does not reflect market conditions in December. Looking ahead, we see four utilities ready to enter the market for nearly 1 million lbs U3O8 equivalent

  19. Residential electricity demand in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, T.N.; Liu, X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    Residential electricity consumption in Singapore increased at a rate of 8.8% per year between 1972 and 1990. Estimates of the long-run income and price elasticities are 1.0 and -0.35, respectively. The energy-conservation campaigns that have been launched are found to have marginal effects on consumption. A statistical analysis shows that the consumption is sensitive to small changes in climatic variables, particularly the temperature, which is closely linked to the growing diffusion of electric appliances for environmental controls. There has been a temporal increase in the ownership levels of appliances associated with increasing household incomes. However, other factors were involved since the ownership levels would also increase over time after the elimination of the income effect. A large part of the future growth in electricity demand will arise from the growing need for air-conditioning, which will lead to increasingly large seasonal variations in electricity use. (author)

  20. Uranium, resources, production and demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Periodic assessments of world uranium supply have been conducted by the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) since the mid 1960s. Published every two years, the report Uranium resources, production and demand, commonly referred to as the red book, has become an essential reference document for nuclear planners and policy makers in the international nuclear community. The latest red book, published in 1986, was based on data collected mainly in early 1985. Most of the data for 1985 were therefore provisional. The statistical update 1986 provides updated 1985 data collected in 1986 and provisional data for 1986. This is the first time such an annual update of key Red Book statistical data has been prepared. This year it covers only OECD countries with a secretariat estimate for the rest of Woca

  1. Transport gasoline demand in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eltony, M.N.

    1993-01-01

    This paper provides an estimate of household gasoline demand in Canada by applying a detailed model to pool time-series (1969-1988) and cross-sectional provincial data. The model recognises three major behavioural changes that households can make in response to gasoline price changes: drive fewer miles, purchase fewer cars, and buy more fuel-efficient vehicles. In the model, fuel economy is treated in considerable detail. The two components of the fuel economy of new cars sold-the technical fuel efficiency of various classes of cars and the distribution of new car sales according to their interior volume rather than their weight - are estimated as functions of economic variables. Car manufacturers are assumed to improve the technical fuel economy according to their expectation of consumer's response to future changes in gasoline prices and general economic conditions. (author)

  2. Matching energy sources to demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendry, A.

    1979-01-01

    Diagrams show the current pattern of energy usage in Scotland; primary energy inputs; the various classes of user; the disposition of input energy in terms of useful and waste energy; an energy flow diagram showing the proportions of primary fuels taken by the various user groups and the proportions of useful energy derived by each. Within the S.S.E.B. area, installed capacity and maximum demand are shown for the present and projected future to the year 2000. A possible energy flow diagram for Scotland in 1996 is shown. The more efficient use of energy is discussed, with particular reference to the use of electricity. The primary energy inputs considered are oil, coal, nuclear, hydro and gas. (U.K.)

  3. Crude oil prices: Robust demands strengthens outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the growth in the global demand for oil products by showing the historical trends in production and demand in developing countries. It shows world incremental production growth from 1985 to 1995 and developing countries's demands from 1971 to 1989. The paper goes on to make predictions as to whether the demand growth rate can be sustained. It provides information on the status of the world offshore drilling and production facilities to determine the capacity of this resource

  4. Price elasticity of demand: An overlooked concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    An all-too-common mistake in analyzing the uranium market is to assume that demand for uranium is driven only by the design and operational parameters of nuclear power plants. Because it is generally accepted that demand for uranium is inelastic, not much attention has been given to how prices can indirectly affect demand. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the factors that are most sensitive to uranium prices, and to show how they alter uranium demand

  5. Endogenous Money Supply and Money Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Woon Gyu Choi; Seonghwan Oh

    2000-01-01

    This paper explores the behavior of money demand by explicitly accounting for the money supply endogeneity arising from endogenous monetary policy and financial innovations. Our theoretical analysis indicates that money supply factors matter in the money demand function when the money supply partially responds to money demand. Our empirical results with U.S. data provide strong evidence for the relevance of the policy stance to the demand for MI under a regime in which monetary policy is subs...

  6. Water demand management in Mediterranean regions

    OpenAIRE

    Giulio Querini; Salvo Creaco

    2005-01-01

    Water sustainability needs a balance between demand and availability: 1) Water demand management: demand may be managed by suppliers and regulations responsible persons, using measures like invoicing, consumptions measurement and users education in water conservation measures; 2) Augmentation of water supply: availibility may be augmented by infrastructural measures, waste water reuse, non-conventional resources and losses reduction. Water Demand Management is about achieving a reduction in t...

  7. 7 CFR 987.11 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 987.11 Section 987.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... RIVERSIDE COUNTY, CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 987.11 Trade demand. Trade demand means...

  8. 31 CFR 29.511 - Demand letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Demand letters. 29.511 Section 29.511... Overpayments § 29.511 Demand letters. Except as provided in § 29.516(e), before starting collection action to recover an overpayment, the Benefits Administrator must send a demand letter that informs the debtor in...

  9. 7 CFR 981.21 - Trade demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trade demand. 981.21 Section 981.21 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulating Handling Definitions § 981.21 Trade demand. Trade demand means the quantity of almonds...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.709 - Demand letter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Demand letter. 3560.709 Section 3560.709 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Unauthorized Assistance § 3560.709 Demand letter. (a) If a... repayment schedule, the Agency will send the borrower a demand letter specifying: (1) The amount of...

  11. Oil prices: demand and supply. Lesson plan

    OpenAIRE

    anonymous

    2005-01-01

    Upon completion of this lesson, students will be able to list the determinants of demand and supply, recognize which factors will cause demand curves or supply curves to shift, determine equilibrium using a demand/supply graph, and show the effects on price and quantity when equilibrium changes.

  12. Detecting pipe bursts by monitoring water demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.; Van der Roer, M.; Sperber, V.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm which compares measured and predicted water demands to detect pipe bursts was developed and tested on three data sets of water demand and reported pipe bursts of three years. The algorithm proved to be able to detect bursts where the water loss exceeds 30% of the average water demand in

  13. How changes in job demands and resources predict burnout, work engagement, and sickness absenteeism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaufeli, W.B.; Bakker, A.B.; Rhenen, van W.

    2009-01-01

    The present longitudinal survey among 201 telecom managers supports the Job Demands-Resources (JD-R) model that postulates a health impairment process and a motivational process. As hypothesized, results of structural equation modeling analyses revealed that: (1) increases in job demands (i.e.,

  14. The Dynamics of Supply and Demand Chain of English-Medium Schools in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousumi, Manjuma Akhtar; Kusakabe, Tatsuya

    2017-01-01

    This research concerns English-medium schools (EMSs), which are emerging as a popular new educational sector in Bangladesh. Because these schools have gained immense popularity, we seek to identify how these schools respond to parental demand and retain their clientele. In addition to English language demand, our findings reveal a symmetrical…

  15. Modelling transport energy demand: A socio-technical approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anable, Jillian; Brand, Christian; Tran, Martino; Eyre, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Despite an emerging consensus that societal energy consumption and related emissions are not only influenced by technical efficiency but also by lifestyles and socio-cultural factors, few attempts have been made to operationalise these insights in models of energy demand. This paper addresses that gap by presenting a scenario exercise using an integrated suite of sectoral and whole systems models to explore potential energy pathways in the UK transport sector. Techno-economic driven scenarios are contrasted with one in which social change is strongly influenced by concerns about energy use, the environment and well-being. The ‘what if’ Lifestyle scenario reveals a future in which distance travelled by car is reduced by 74% by 2050 and final energy demand from transport is halved compared to the reference case. Despite the more rapid uptake of electric vehicles and the larger share of electricity in final energy demand, it shows a future where electricity decarbonisation could be delayed. The paper illustrates the key trade-off between the more aggressive pursuit of purely technological fixes and demand reduction in the transport sector and concludes there are strong arguments for pursuing both demand and supply side solutions in the pursuit of emissions reduction and energy security.

  16. Exploring Demand Charge Savings from Commercial Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-31

    Commercial retail electricity rates commonly include a demand charge component, based on some measure of the customer’s peak demand. Customer-sited solar PV can potentially reduce demand charges, but the magnitude of these savings can be difficult to predict, given variations in demand charge designs, customer loads, and PV generation profiles. Moreover, depending on the circumstances, demand charges from solar may or may not align well with associated utility cost savings. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are collaborating in a series of studies to understand how solar PV can reduce demand charge levels for a variety of customer types and demand charges designs. Previous work focused on residential customs with solar. This study, instead, focuses on commercial customers and seeks to understand the extent and conditions under which rooftop can solar reduce commercial demand charges. To answer these questions, we simulate demand charge savings for a broad range of commercial customer types, demand charge designs, locations, and PV system characteristics. This particular analysis does not include storage, but a subsequent analysis in this series will evaluate demand charge savings for commercial customers with solar and storage.

  17. Crucial market demands and company competencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjarne; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    More and more, it is acknowledged that a company's success depends on it being capable of complying with the market's demands and wishes. It is, however, not always obvious, how the individual company will be able to meet the market's demands. A recent MAPP study has investigated this topic...... and identified a number of central market demands, which Danish food companies are faced with. Moreover, the study has identified which competencies are required to meet these demands and have also looked at howsuccessful companies structure some of these competencies. The study takes its point of departure...... in a literature review of MAPP's research. Results show that there are 27 central market demands, retail and consumer demands that Danish companies ought to be able to live up to. The study has also identified which competencies food companies must possess to be able to meet market's demands. Results from three...

  18. Demand Uncertainty: Exporting Delays and Exporting Failures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Daniel Xuyen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a model of trade that explains why firms wait to export and why many exporters fail. Firms face uncertain demands that are only realized after the firm enters the destination. The model retools the timing of the resolution of uncertainty found in models with heterogeneity...... of firm productivity. This retooling addresses several shortcomings. First, the imperfect correlation of demands reconciles the sales variation observed in and across destinations. Second, since demands for the firm's output are correlated across destinations, a firm can use previously realized demands...... to forecast unknown demands in untested destinations. The option to forecast demands causes firms to delay exporting in order to gather more information about foreign demand. Third, since uncertainty is resolved after entry, many firms enter a destination and then exit after learning that they cannot profit...

  19. Food safety information and food demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smed, Sinne; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2005-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyze how news about food-related health risks affects consumers’ demands for safe food products. Design/methodology/approach – By identifying structural breaks in an econometrically estimated demand model, news with permanent impact on demand...... induces a permanent increase in the demand for pasteurized eggs, while more moderate negative news influences demand temporarily and to a lesser extent. There is, however, considerable variation in the response to food safety news across socio-demographic groups of consumers. Research limitations...... is distinguished from news with temporary impact. The Danish demand for pasteurized versus shell eggs is used as an illustrative case. Findings – Negative safety news about one product variety can provide significant stimulation to the demand for safe varieties. Severe negative news about the safety of shell eggs...

  20. Stability of Money Demand Function in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon Sarwar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The role, which money demand function plays in monetary policy formulation has attracted a lot of research studies to analyze this macroeconomic phenomenon. In the wake of current global and local economic and political upheavals, it is imperative to revisit the stability of money demand function. The study used the time series data and applied latest econometric techniques to find out the long run and short run money demand relationship. Moreover, all the three official monetary aggregates were used for finding out the most stable monetary demand relationship, which could provide correct signals for monetary policy formulation. The study found that broader monetary aggregate (M2 was the proper aggregate, which provided stable money demand function for Pakistan. The real GDP was positively related to the demand for real balances, while opportunity cost of money was negatively related. The study found that the role of financial innovation, in explaining the demand for money warrants attention in formulating monetary policy.