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  1. The Production of Emotional Prosody in Varying Degrees of Severity of Apraxia of Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Putten, Steffany M.; Walker, Judy P.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined the abilities of three adults with varying degrees of apraxia of speech (AOS) to produce emotional prosody. Acoustic analyses of the subjects' productions revealed that unlike the control subject, the subjects with AOS did not produce differences in duration and amplitude cues to convey different emotions. (Contains references.)…

  2. Modelling suction instabilities in soils at varying degrees of saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscarnera Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wetting paths imparted by the natural environment and/or human activities affect the state of soils in the near-surface, promoting transitions across different regimes of saturation. This paper discusses a set of techniques aimed at quantifying the role of hydrologic processes on the hydro-mechanical stability of soil specimens subjected to saturation events. Emphasis is given to the mechanical conditions leading to coupled flow/deformation instabilities. For this purpose, energy balance arguments for three-phase systems are used to derive second-order work expressions applicable to various regimes of saturation. Controllability analyses are then performed to relate such work input with constitutive singularities that reflect the loss of strength under coupled and/or uncoupled hydro-mechanical forcing. A suction-dependent plastic model is finally used to track the evolution of stability conditions in samples subjected to wetting, thus quantifying the growth of the potential for coupled failure modes upon increasing degree of saturation. These findings are eventually linked with the properties of the field equations that govern pore pressure transients, thus disclosing a conceptual link between the onset of coupled hydro-mechanical failures and the evolution of suction with time. Such results point out that mathematical instabilities caused by a non-linear suction dependent behaviour play an important role in the advanced constitutive and/or numerical tools that are commonly used for the analysis of geomechanical problems in the unsaturated zone, and further stress that the relation between suction transients and soil deformations is a key factor for the interpretation of runaway failures caused by intense saturation events.

  3. Aquatic macrophyte community varies in urban reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication

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    Suelen Cristina Alves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Investigate spatial and temporal variation in the aquatic macrophyte community in four urban reservoirs located in Curitiba metropolitan region, Brazil. We tested the hypothesis that aquatic macrophyte community differ among reservoirs with different degrees of eutrophication. METHODS: The reservoirs selected ranged from oligotrophic/mesotrophic to eutrophic. Sampling occurred in October 2011, January 2012 and June 2012. Twelve aquatic macrophytes stands were sampled at each reservoir. Species were identified and the relative abundance of aquatic macrophytes was estimated. Differences among reservoirs and over sampling periods were analyzed: i through two‑way ANOVAs considering the stand extent (m and the stand biodiversity - species richness, evenness, Shannon-Wiener index and beta diversity (species variation along the aquatic macrophyte stand; and ii through PERMANOVA considering species composition. Indicator species that were characteristic for each reservoir were also identified. RESULTS: The aquatic macrophyte stand extent varied among reservoirs and over sampling periods. Species richness showed only temporal variation. On the other hand, evenness and Shannon-Wiener index varied only among reservoirs. The beta diversity of macrophyte stands did not vary among reservoirs or over time, meaning that species variability among aquatic macrophyte stands was independent of the stand extent and reservoir eutrophication. Community composition depended on the reservoir and sampling period. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our initial expectation that reservoirs of different degrees of eutrophication have different aquatic macrophyte communities. As a consequence, each reservoir had particular indicator species. Therefore, monitoring and management efforts must be offered for each reservoir individually.

  4. Environmental determinants of participation in tourism and recreation of people with varying degrees of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergier, Barbara; Bergier, Józef; Kubińska, Zofia

    2010-01-01

    Environmental determinants for participation of disabled subjects in tourism and recreation comprise an important social problem. The amount and use of free time for individuals with disabilities in daily life, holidays, and vacation leave and the location for tourism and recreation were examined. Seven hundred and fifty individuals, aged 16-75 yr, with varying degrees of disability, from three eastern provinces of Poland: Podlaskie, Lubelskie and Podkarpackie were investigated. In these studies, a diagnostic survey method with the use of questionnaire, interviews, and analysis of data was carried out. It was found that individuals with disabilities have a significant amount of free time, which is usually spent with family and friends. Among the specific benefits of participation in physical activities are well-being, health improvement, and making new acquaintances. The main factors determining participation in tourism and recreation were price, a friendly group, and doctor recommendations.

  5. Estimation of genomic prediction accuracy from reference populations with varying degrees of relationship.

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    S Hong Lee

    Full Text Available Genomic prediction is emerging in a wide range of fields including animal and plant breeding, risk prediction in human precision medicine and forensic. It is desirable to establish a theoretical framework for genomic prediction accuracy when the reference data consists of information sources with varying degrees of relationship to the target individuals. A reference set can contain both close and distant relatives as well as 'unrelated' individuals from the wider population in the genomic prediction. The various sources of information were modeled as different populations with different effective population sizes (Ne. Both the effective number of chromosome segments (Me and Ne are considered to be a function of the data used for prediction. We validate our theory with analyses of simulated as well as real data, and illustrate that the variation in genomic relationships with the target is a predictor of the information content of the reference set. With a similar amount of data available for each source, we show that close relatives can have a substantially larger effect on genomic prediction accuracy than lesser related individuals. We also illustrate that when prediction relies on closer relatives, there is less improvement in prediction accuracy with an increase in training data or marker panel density. We release software that can estimate the expected prediction accuracy and power when combining different reference sources with various degrees of relationship to the target, which is useful when planning genomic prediction (before or after collecting data in animal, plant and human genetics.

  6. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Qian; Shen, Hua-Wei; Cheng, Xue-Qi; Wang, Zhao-Yang

    2012-01-01

    Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  7. Degree-strength correlation reveals anomalous trading behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Qian Sun

    Full Text Available Manipulation is an important issue for both developed and emerging stock markets. Many efforts have been made to detect manipulation in stock markets. However, it is still an open problem to identify the fraudulent traders, especially when they collude with each other. In this paper, we focus on the problem of identifying the anomalous traders using the transaction data of eight manipulated stocks and forty-four non-manipulated stocks during a one-year period. By analyzing the trading networks of stocks, we find that the trading networks of manipulated stocks exhibit significantly higher degree-strength correlation than the trading networks of non-manipulated stocks and the randomized trading networks. We further propose a method to detect anomalous traders of manipulated stocks based on statistical significance analysis of degree-strength correlation. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective at distinguishing the manipulated stocks from non-manipulated ones. Our method outperforms the traditional weight-threshold method at identifying the anomalous traders in manipulated stocks. More importantly, our method is difficult to be fooled by colluded traders.

  8. Endogenous phosphorylation of basic protein in myelin of varying degrees of compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, P.; Moscarello, M.A.; Cruz, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    Fractions containing myelin of varying degrees of compaction were prepared from human white matter. Protein kinase activity in these fractions was measured by using both endogenous and exogenous myelin basic protein (MBP) as substrates. In both cases, less compact myelin fractions possessed higher levels of protein kinase activity than the compact myelin fraction. In addition, the specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein was greater in the loosely compacted fractions than in compact multilamellar myelin. When basic protein in compact myelin or the myelin fractions was phosphorylated by the endogenous kinase, approximately 70% of the [ 32 P]phosphate was incorporated at a single site, identified as Ser-102. The remaining 30% was found in three other minor sites. Electron microscopy of less compact myelin showed it was composed of fewer lamellae which correlated with a relative decrease in the proportion of cationic charge isomers (microheteromers) when MBP was subjected to gel electrophoresis at alkaline pH. The shift in charge microheterogeneity of basic protein to the less cationic isomers in the less compact myelin fractions correlated with an increase in protein kinase activity and a greater specific activity of phosphorylated basic protein

  9. Performance equations of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with feeds of varying degrees of humidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsuen, Hsiao-Kuo; Yin, Ken-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Performance equations that describe the dependence of cell potential on current density for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) with feeds of varying degrees of humidification have been formulated in algebraic form. The equations are developed by the reduction of a one-dimensional multi-domain model that takes into account, in details, the transport limitations of gas species, proton migration and electron conduction, electrochemical kinetics, as well as liquid water flow within the cathode, anode, and membrane. The model equations for the anode and membrane were integrated with those of the cathode developed in the previous studies to form a complete set of equations for one-dimensional single cell model. Because the transport equations for the anode diffuser can be solved analytically, calculations of integrals are only needed in the membrane and the two-phase region of cathode diffuser. The proposed approach greatly reduces the complexity of the model equations, and only iterations of a single algebraic equation are required to obtain final solutions. Since the performance equations are originated from a mechanistic one-dimensional model, all the parameters appearing in the equations are endowed with a precise physical significance.

  10. Assessment of metal contamination in the biota of four rivers experiencing varying degrees of human impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielmyer-Fraser, Gretchen K; Waters, Matthew Neal; Duckworth, Christina G; Patel, Pratik P; Webster, Benjamin Cole; Blocker, Amber; Crummey, Cliff Hunter; Duncan, Aundrea Nicole; Nwokike, Somuayiro Nadia; Picariello, Codie Richard; Ragan, James T; Schumacher, Erika L; Tucker, Rebecca Lea; Tuttle, Elizabeth Ann; Wiggins, Charlie Rufus

    2017-01-01

    Urbanization, agriculture, and other land transformations can affect water quality, decrease species biodiversity, and increase metal and nutrient concentrations in aquatic systems. Metal pollution, in particular, is a reported consequence of elevated anthropogenic inputs, especially from urbanized areas. The objectives of this study were to quantify metal (Cu, Al, Cd, Ni, and Pb) concentrations in the waters and biota of four streams in South Georgia, USA, and relate metal concentrations to land use and abiotic and biotic stream processes. Additionally, macrophytes, invertebrates, and fish were identified to assess biodiversity at each site. Metal concentrations in the three trophic levels differed among sites and species, correlating to differences in land use surrounding the rivers. The highest metal concentrations (except Al) were found in the streams most impacted by urbanization and development. Al concentrations were highest in streams surrounded by land dominated by forested areas. Metal content in macrophytes reflected metal concentrations in the water and was at least three orders of magnitude higher than any other trophic level. Despite metal concentration differences, all four streams contained similar water quality and were healthy based on macroinvertebrate community structure. This study provides insight into the impact of urbanization and the fate and effects of metals in river ecosystems with varying degrees of anthropogenic impact.

  11. Vaginal Changes Due to Varying Degrees of Rectocele Prolapse: A Computational Study.

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    Chanda, Arnab; Meyer, Isuzu; Richter, Holly E; Lockhart, Mark E; Moraes, Fabia R D; Unnikrishnan, Vinu

    2017-10-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP), downward descent of the pelvic organs resulting in a protrusion of the vagina, is a highly prevalent condition, responsible for 300,000 surgeries in the U.S. annually. Rectocele, a posterior vaginal wall (PVW) prolapse of the rectum, is the second most common type of POP after cystocele. A rectocele usually manifests itself along with other types of prolapse with multicompartment pelvic floor defects. To date, the specific mechanics of rectocele formation are poorly understood, which does not allow its early stage detection and progression prediction over time. Recently, with the advancement of imaging and computational modeling techniques, a plethora of finite element (FE) models have been developed to study vaginal prolapse from different perspectives and allow a better understanding of dynamic interactions of pelvic organs and their supporting structures. So far, most studies have focused on anterior vaginal prolapse (AVP) (or cystocele) and limited data exist on the role of pelvic muscles and ligaments on the development and progression of rectocele. In this work, a full-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) based three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the female pelvic anatomy, comprising the vaginal canal, uterus, and rectum, was developed to study the effect of varying degrees (or sizes) of rectocele prolapse on the vaginal canal for the first time. Vaginal wall displacements and stresses generated due to the varying rectocele size and average abdominal pressures were estimated. Considering the direction pointing from anterior to posterior side of the pelvic system as the positive Y-direction, it was found that rectocele leads to negative Y-direction displacements, causing the vaginal cross section to shrink significantly at the lower half of the vaginal canal. Besides the negative Y displacements, the rectocele bulging was observed to push the PVW downward toward the vaginal hiatus, exhibiting the well-known "kneeling

  12. VARYING DEGREE OF GRAFTING COMPATIBILITY BETWEEN CV. CHARDONNAY, MERLOT AND DIFFERENT GRAPEVINE ROOTSTOCKS

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    Slavica TODIĆ

    2006-02-01

    matter content in mature shoots is showing good maturity of shoots in cv. Chardonnay in all experiment combinations and varies from 53% up to 54%. Clones of Merlot, in this investigation, showed the highest level of compatibility with rootstock Kober 5BB. Percentage of I class grafted rootlings on this rootstock for clone R18 was 66%, and for clone MCL 519 was 62%. In the same experiment combination the highest root weight was established as well. The low degree of grafting compatibility was obtained by grafting Merlot clones on rootstock SO4, that is shown by signifi cantly lower percentage of produced I class grafted rootlings in relation to obtained values by grafting on other examined grapevine rootstocks (clone R18/SO4 – 51%; clone MCL519/SO4 – 50%.

  13. Response of selected binomial coefficients to varying degrees of matrix sparseness and to matrices with known data interrelationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, A.W.; Maples, C.G.

    1989-01-01

    Numerous departures from ideal relationships are revealed by Monte Carlo simulations of widely accepted binomial coefficients. For example, simulations incorporating varying levels of matrix sparseness (presence of zeros indicating lack of data) and computation of expected values reveal that not only are all common coefficients influenced by zero data, but also that some coefficients do not discriminate between sparse or dense matrices (few zero data). Such coefficients computationally merge mutually shared and mutually absent information and do not exploit all the information incorporated within the standard 2 ?? 2 contingency table; therefore, the commonly used formulae for such coefficients are more complicated than the actual range of values produced. Other coefficients do differentiate between mutual presences and absences; however, a number of these coefficients do not demonstrate a linear relationship to matrix sparseness. Finally, simulations using nonrandom matrices with known degrees of row-by-row similarities signify that several coefficients either do not display a reasonable range of values or are nonlinear with respect to known relationships within the data. Analyses with nonrandom matrices yield clues as to the utility of certain coefficients for specific applications. For example, coefficients such as Jaccard, Dice, and Baroni-Urbani and Buser are useful if correction of sparseness is desired, whereas the Russell-Rao coefficient is useful when sparseness correction is not desired. ?? 1989 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  14. Central recirculation zone analysis in an unconfined tangential swirl burner with varying degrees of premixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valera-Medina, A. [CIATEQ, Parque Industrial Bernardo Quintana, Turbomachinery Department, Queretaro (Mexico); Syred, N.; Kay, P.; Griffiths, A. [Cardiff University, School of Engineering, Cardiff, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Swirl-stabilised combustion is one of the most widely used techniques for flame stabilisation, uses ranging from gas turbine combustors to pulverised coal-fired power stations. In gas turbines, lean premixed systems are of especial importance, giving the ability to produce low NOx systems coupled with wide stability limits. The common element is the swirl burner, which depends on the generation of an aerodynamically formed central recirculation zone (CRZ) and which serves to recycle heat and active chemical species to the root of the flame as well as providing low-velocity regions where the flame speed can match the local flow velocity. Enhanced mixing in and around the CRZ is another beneficial feature. The structure of the CRZ and hence that of the associated flames, stabilisation and mixing processes have shown to be extremely complex, three-dimensional and time dependent. The characteristics of the CRZ depend very strongly on the level of swirl (swirl number), burner configuration, type of flow expansion, Reynolds number (i.e. flowrate) and equivalence ratio. Although numerical methods have had some success when compared to experimental results, the models still have difficulties at medium to high swirl levels, with complex geometries and varied equivalence ratios. This study thus focuses on experimental results obtained to characterise the CRZ formed under varied combustion conditions with different geometries and some variation of swirl number in a generic swirl burner. CRZ behaviour has similarities to the equivalent isothermal state, but is strongly dependent on equivalence ratio, with interesting effects occurring with a high-velocity fuel injector. Partial premixing and combustion cause more substantive changes to the CRZ than pure diffusive combustion. (orig.)

  15. Bioglass implant-coating interactions in synthetic physiological fluids with varying degrees of biomimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, A C; Stan, G E; Husanu, M A; Mercioniu, I; Santos, L F; Fernandes, H R; Ferreira, Jmf

    2017-01-01

    Synthetic physiological fluids are currently used as a first in vitro bioactivity assessment for bone grafts. Our understanding about the interactions taking place at the fluid-implant interface has evolved remarkably during the last decade, and does not comply with the traditional International Organization for Standardization/final draft International Standard 23317 protocol in purely inorganic simulated body fluid. The advances in our knowledge point to the need of a true paradigm shift toward testing physiological fluids with enhanced biomimicry and a better understanding of the materials' structure-dissolution behavior. This will contribute to "upgrade" our vision of entire cascades of events taking place at the implant surfaces upon immersion in the testing media or after implantation. Starting from an osteoinductive bioglass composition with the ability to alleviate the oxidative stress, thin bioglass films with different degrees of polymerization were deposited onto titanium substrates. Their biomineralization activity in simulated body fluid and in a series of new inorganic-organic media with increasing biomimicry that more closely simulated the human intercellular environment was compared. A comprehensive range of advanced characterization tools (scanning electron microscopy; grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction; Fourier-transform infrared, micro-Raman, energy-dispersive, X-ray photoelectron, and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopies; and cytocompatibility assays using mesenchymal stem cells) were used. The information gathered is very useful to biologists, biophysicists, clinicians, and material scientists with special interest in teaching and research. By combining all the analyses, we propose herein a step forward toward establishing an improved unified protocol for testing the bioactivity of implant materials.

  16. Bioglass implant-coating interactions in synthetic physiological fluids with varying degrees of biomimicry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popa AC

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available AC Popa,1,2 GE Stan,1 MA Husanu,1 I Mercioniu,1 LF Santos,3 HR Fernandes,4 JMF Ferreira4 1National Institute of Materials Physics, Măgurele, 2Army Centre for Medical Research, Bucharest, Romania; 3Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior Técnico (CQE-IST, University of Lisbon, Lisbon, 4Department of Materials and Ceramics Engineering, Centre for Research in Ceramics and Composite Materials (CICECO, University of Aveiro, Aveiro, Portugal Abstract: Synthetic physiological fluids are currently used as a first in vitro bioactivity assessment for bone grafts. Our understanding about the interactions taking place at the fluid–implant interface has evolved remarkably during the last decade, and does not comply with the traditional International Organization for Standardization/final draft International Standard 23317 protocol in purely inorganic simulated body fluid. The advances in our knowledge point to the need of a true paradigm shift toward testing physiological fluids with enhanced biomimicry and a better understanding of the materials’ structure-dissolution behavior. This will contribute to “upgrade” our vision of entire cascades of events taking place at the implant surfaces upon immersion in the testing media or after implantation. Starting from an osteoinductive bioglass composition with the ability to alleviate the oxidative stress, thin bioglass films with different degrees of polymerization were deposited onto titanium substrates. Their bio­mineralization activity in simulated body fluid and in a series of new inorganic–organic media with increasing biomimicry that more closely simulated the human intercellular environment was compared. A comprehensive range of advanced characterization tools (scanning electron microscopy; grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction; Fourier-transform infrared, micro-Raman, energy-dispersive, X-ray photoelectron, and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass

  17. Time-Varying Networks of Inter-Ictal Discharging Reveal Epileptogenic Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luyan; Liang, Yi; Li, Fali; Sun, Hongbin; Peng, Wenjing; Du, Peishan; Si, Yajing; Song, Limeng; Yu, Liang; Xu, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The neuronal synchronous discharging may cause an epileptic seizure. Currently, most of the studies conducted to investigate the mechanism of epilepsy are based on EEGs or functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) recorded during the ictal discharging or the resting-state, and few studies have probed into the dynamic patterns during the inter-ictal discharging that are much easier to record in clinical applications. Here, we propose a time-varying network analysis based on adaptive directed transfer function to uncover the dynamic brain network patterns during the inter-ictal discharging. In addition, an algorithm based on the time-varying outflow of information derived from the network analysis is developed to detect the epileptogenic zone. The analysis performed revealed the time-varying network patterns during different stages of inter-ictal discharging; the epileptogenic zone was activated prior to the discharge onset then worked as the source to propagate the activity to other brain regions. Consistence between the epileptogenic zones detected by our proposed approach and the actual epileptogenic zones proved that time-varying network analysis could not only reveal the underlying neural mechanism of epilepsy, but also function as a useful tool in detecting the epileptogenic zone based on the EEGs in the inter-ictal discharging.

  18. Varying acoustic-phonemic ambiguity reveals that talker normalization is obligatory in speech processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Young; Hu, Elly R; Perrachione, Tyler K

    2018-04-01

    The nondeterministic relationship between speech acoustics and abstract phonemic representations imposes a challenge for listeners to maintain perceptual constancy despite the highly variable acoustic realization of speech. Talker normalization facilitates speech processing by reducing the degrees of freedom for mapping between encountered speech and phonemic representations. While this process has been proposed to facilitate the perception of ambiguous speech sounds, it is currently unknown whether talker normalization is affected by the degree of potential ambiguity in acoustic-phonemic mapping. We explored the effects of talker normalization on speech processing in a series of speeded classification paradigms, parametrically manipulating the potential for inconsistent acoustic-phonemic relationships across talkers for both consonants and vowels. Listeners identified words with varying potential acoustic-phonemic ambiguity across talkers (e.g., beet/boat vs. boot/boat) spoken by single or mixed talkers. Auditory categorization of words was always slower when listening to mixed talkers compared to a single talker, even when there was no potential acoustic ambiguity between target sounds. Moreover, the processing cost imposed by mixed talkers was greatest when words had the most potential acoustic-phonemic overlap across talkers. Models of acoustic dissimilarity between target speech sounds did not account for the pattern of results. These results suggest (a) that talker normalization incurs the greatest processing cost when disambiguating highly confusable sounds and (b) that talker normalization appears to be an obligatory component of speech perception, taking place even when the acoustic-phonemic relationships across sounds are unambiguous.

  19. Degrees of Cooperation in Household Consumption Models : A Revealed Preference Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cherchye, L.J.H.; Demuynck, T.; de Rock, B.

    2009-01-01

    We develop a revealed preference approach to analyze non-unitary con- sumption models with intrahousehold allocations deviating from the cooper- ative (or Pareto e¢ cient) solution. At a theoretical level, we establish re- vealed preference conditions of household consumption models with varying

  20. Participation of steroid hormones in providing physical activity in young people with varying degrees of physical fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Levchenko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to investigate the dynamics of cortisol and testosterone in saliva of young people with varying degrees of physical fitness at an altitude stress test. Material and Methods: in a study involved 44 students – 29 girls and 15 boys, 17–20 years old. There was used immunosorbent assay to determine the level of cortisol and testosterone during tredmil-test, estimated on maximal aerobic power. Results: the relationship between the imbalance between cortisol and testosterone at an altitude under stress test in young people with low tolerance to physical activity in favor of cortisol. Conclusions: reduced tolerance to exercise, accompanied by high cortisol and testosterone index, decreased maximal aerobic power and tolerance.

  1. The effect of varying degrees of stenosis on the characteristics of turbulent pulsatile flow through heart valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluestein, D; Einav, S

    1995-08-01

    Many problems and complications associated with heart valves are related to the dynamic behavior of the valve and the resultant unsteady flow patterns. An accurate depiction of the spatial and temporal velocity and rms distributions imparts better understanding of flow related valve complications, and may be used as a guideline in valve design. While the generalized correlation between increased turbulence level and the severity of the stenosis is well established, few studies addressed the issue of the intermittent nature of turbulence and its timing in the cardiac cycle, and almost none assessed the effect of a progressive stenosis on the flow characteristics through heart valves. In this experimental work we simulated the type of flow which is present in normal and stenosed valves and conducted a comprehensive investigation of valve hemodynamics, valvular turbulence and morphology under varying degrees of stenosis. The characteristics of valves and stenoses were simulated closely, to achieve the flow conditions that initiate turbulent flow conditions. Laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) measurements were carried out in a pulse duplicator system distal to trileaflet polyurethane prosthetic heart valves, installed at mitral and aortic positions. The effect of the degree of the stenosis was comparatively studied through the structure of the turbulent jets emerging from normal and stenotic heart valves. Maximum turbulence level was achieved during the decelerating phase and correlated to the severity of the stenosis, followed by relaminarization of the flow during the acceleration phase. The intermittent nature of the turbulence emphasized the importance of realizing the timing of the turbulence production and its spatial location for optimizing current valve designs. The plug flow through the normal aortic valve prosthesis was replaced by jet like behavior for a 65% stenosis, with the jet becoming narrower and stronger for a 90% stenosis. The morphology of the velocity

  2. Health-related quality of life deficits associated with varying degrees of disease severity in type 2 diabetes

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    Majumdar Sumit R

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is a chronic medical condition accompanied by a considerable health-related quality of life (HRQL burden. The purpose of this analysis was to use generic measures of HRQL to describe HRQL deficits associated with varying degrees of severity of type 2 diabetes. Methods The RAND-12 physical and mental health composites (PHC and MHC, respectively and Health Utilities Index Mark 3 (HUI3 were self-completed by 372 subjects enrolled in a prospective, controlled study of an intervention to improve care for individuals with type 2 diabetes in rural communities. Analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in HRQL according to disease severity and control of blood glucose. Disease severity was defined in terms of treatment intensity, emergency room visits and absenteeism from work specifically attributable to diabetes. To control for potential confounding, the analysis was adjusted for important sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results The PHC and MHC were significantly lower for individuals treated with insulin as compared to diet alone (PHC: 41.01 vs 45.11, MHC: 43.23 vs 47.00, p Conclusions We concluded that generic measures of HRQL captured deficits associated with more severe disease in type 2 diabetes.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of a Single Oral Dose of Mirogabalin in Japanese Subjects With Varying Degrees of Renal Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Tajima, Naoyuki; Shimizu, Takako; Sugihara, Masahiro; Furihata, Kenichi; Harada, Kazuhiro; Ishizuka, Hitoshi

    2018-01-01

    Mirogabalin (DS-5565) is a novel preferentially selective α 2 δ-1 ligand being developed for the treatment of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain and postherpetic neuralgia. The current multicenter open-label study determined the effect of varying degrees of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of mirogabalin 5 mg in Japanese subjects. A total of 30 subjects (6 subjects per renal function category [normal, mild, moderate, or severe impairment; and end-stage renal disease (ESRD)]) were enrolled and completed the study. The AUC last increased with severity of renal impairment; the geometric least-squares mean ratios of AUC last compared with subjects with normal renal function were 1.3, 1.9, 3.6, and 5.3 for patients with mild, moderate, and severe impairment and ESRD, respectively. In accordance with this AUC last increase, apparent total body clearance (CL/F), renal clearance (CLr), and the cumulative percentage of mirogabalin dose excreted into urine all decreased with severity of renal impairment. There were no deaths and no severe treatment-related adverse events (TEAEs), serious TEAEs, or TEAEs resulting in study discontinuation. Mirogabalin was well tolerated in Japanese subjects with normal renal function and those with mild to severe renal impairment. It was also tolerated in subjects with ESRD but with a higher incidence of TEAEs. The most frequently reported TEAEs were dizziness (ESRD, n = 3), somnolence (ESRD, n = 2), and vomiting (ESRD, n = 2). Based on these data, a mirogabalin dose adjustment will be considered in Japanese subjects with moderate to severe renal impairment and those with ESRD. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Heterocyclic amine content in beef cooked by different methods to varying degrees of doneness and gravy made from meat drippings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, R; Rothman, N; Salmon, C P; Knize, M G; Brown, E D; Swanson, C A; Rhodes, D; Rossi, S; Felton, J S; Levander, O A

    1998-04-01

    Meats cooked at high temperatures sometimes contain heterocyclic amines (HCAs) that are known mutagens and animal carcinogens, but their carcinogenic potential in humans has not been established. To investigate the association between HCAs and cancer, sources of exposure to these compounds need to be determined. Beef is the most frequently consumed meat in the United States and for this study we determined HCA values in beef samples cooked in ways to represent US cooking practices, the results of which can be used in epidemiological studies to estimate HCA exposure from dietary questionnaires. We measured five HCAs [2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ), 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)] in different types of cooked beef using solid-phase extraction and HPLC. Steak and hamburger patties were pan-fried, oven-broiled, and grilled/barbecued to four levels of doneness (rare, medium, well done or very well done), while beef roasts were oven cooked to three levels of doneness (rare, medium or well done). The measured values of the specific HCAs varied with the cut of beef, cooking method, and doneness level. In general, MeIQx content increased with doneness under each cooking condition for steak and hamburger patties, up to 8.2 ng/g. PhIP was the predominant HCA produced in steak (1.9 to 30 ng/g), but was formed only in very well done fried or grilled hamburger. DiMeIQx was found in trace levels in pan-fried steaks only, while IQ and MeIQ were not detectable in any of the samples. Roast beef did not contain any of the HCAs, but the gravy made from the drippings from well done roasts had 2 ng/g of PhIP and 7 ng/g of MeIQx. Epidemiological studies need to consider the type of meat, cooking method and degree of doneness/surface browning in survey questions to adequately assess

  5. Biochemical parameters in the blood of grass snakes (Natrix natrix in ecosystems under varying degrees of anthropogenic influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Y. Gasso

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The grass snake Natrix natrix (Linnaeus, 1758 is a partly hygrophilous species, distributed throughoutUkraine. This snake may be considered as a test object for environmental biomonitoring. Modern biochemical methods make it possible to obtain new scientific data on the effects of anthropogenic pressure on reptiles. Blood is a sensitive and informative indicator of the condition of an organism as it responds quickly to most changes in exogenous and endogenous factors, and reflects negative influences on both individual and, indirectly, populations. Changes in biochemical parameters may be used as biomarkers of the state of health of reptiles in ecosystems under varying degrees of anthropogenic pressure. Due the increase in anthropogenic influence the development and introduction of new methods of perceptual research, collection of up-to-date information and development of a database of reptile biochemical parameters have become an urgent priority. We collected mature individuals of the grass snake in floodplain ecosystems on the right bank of the Dnieper River in Dnipropetrovsk city. Grass snakes from floodplain habitats on the left bank of theSamaraRiver (O.L. Belgard Prysamarskii International Biosphere Station, Novomoskovsk district, Dnipropetrovsk province were studied as the control specimens. Our study demonstrated statistically significant differences between snakes from the study sites in the amount of albumin, urea and urea nitrogen, and inorganic phosphorus, as well as in alanine aminotransferase (ALT and alkaline phosphatise (AP activity. The amount of albumin in the blood serum of specimens from the anthropogenically transformed areas was significantly lower (by 25% than in that of the snakes caught in the control habitats. Decrease of the albumin concentration usually indicates abnormal processes in the kidneys and liver. According to the changes observed in the concentration of albumin, a corresponding increase in the albumin to

  6. Annelid Distal-less/Dlx duplications reveal varied post-duplication fates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korchagina Natalia

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dlx (Distal-less genes have various developmental roles and are widespread throughout the animal kingdom, usually occurring as single copy genes in non-chordates and as multiple copies in most chordate genomes. While the genomic arrangement and function of these genes is well known in vertebrates and arthropods, information about Dlx genes in other organisms is scarce. We investigate the presence of Dlx genes in several annelid species and examine Dlx gene expression in the polychaete Pomatoceros lamarckii. Results Two Dlx genes are present in P. lamarckii, Capitella teleta and Helobdella robusta. The C. teleta Dlx genes are closely linked in an inverted tail-to-tail orientation, reminiscent of the arrangement of vertebrate Dlx pairs, and gene conversion appears to have had a role in their evolution. The H. robusta Dlx genes, however, are not on the same genomic scaffold and display divergent sequences, while, if the P. lamarckii genes are linked in a tail-to-tail orientation they are a minimum of 41 kilobases apart and show no sign of gene conversion. No expression in P. lamarckii appendage development has been observed, which conflicts with the supposed conserved role of these genes in animal appendage development. These Dlx duplications do not appear to be annelid-wide, as the polychaete Platynereis dumerilii likely possesses only one Dlx gene. Conclusions On the basis of the currently accepted annelid phylogeny, we hypothesise that one Dlx duplication occurred in the annelid lineage after the divergence of P. dumerilii from the other lineages and these duplicates then had varied evolutionary fates in different species. We also propose that the ancestral role of Dlx genes is not related to appendage development.

  7. Comprehensive RNA Polymerase II Interactomes Reveal Distinct and Varied Roles for Each Phospho-CTD Residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin M. Harlen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcription controls splicing and other gene regulatory processes, yet mechanisms remain obscure due to our fragmented knowledge of the molecular connections between the dynamically phosphorylated RNA polymerase II (Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD and regulatory factors. By systematically isolating phosphorylation states of the CTD heptapeptide repeat (Y1S2P3T4S5P6S7, we identify hundreds of protein factors that are differentially enriched, revealing unappreciated connections between the Pol II CTD and co-transcriptional processes. These data uncover a role for threonine-4 in 3′ end processing through control of the transition between cleavage and termination. Furthermore, serine-5 phosphorylation seeds spliceosomal assembly immediately downstream of 3′ splice sites through a direct interaction with spliceosomal subcomplex U1. Strikingly, threonine-4 phosphorylation also impacts splicing by serving as a mark of co-transcriptional spliceosome release and ensuring efficient post-transcriptional splicing genome-wide. Thus, comprehensive Pol II interactomes identify the complex and functional connections between transcription machinery and other gene regulatory complexes.

  8. Removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes affected by varying degrees of fouling on anaerobic microfiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was retrofitted with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane units, each of which was fouled to a different extent. The membranes with different degrees of fouling were evaluated for their efficiencies in removing three antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), namely, blaNDM-1-positive Escherichia coli PI-7, blaCTX-M-15-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae L7, and blaOXA-48-positive E. coli UPEC-RIY-4, as well as their associated plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that the log removal values (LRVs) of ARGs correlated positively with the extent of membrane fouling and ranged from 1.9 to 3.9. New membranes with a minimal foulant layer could remove more than 5 log units of ARB. However, as the membranes progressed to subcritical fouling, the LRVs of ARB decreased at increasing operating transmembrane pressures (TMPs). The LRV recovered back to 5 when the membrane was critically fouled, and the achieved LRV remained stable at different operating TMPs. Furthermore, characterization of the surface attributed the removal of both the ARB and ARGs to adsorption, which was facilitated by an increasing hydrophobicity and a decreasing surface ζ potential as the membranes fouled. Our results indicate that both the TMP and the foulant layer synergistically affected ARB removal, but the foulant layer was the main factor that contributed to ARG removal.

  9. Removal of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes affected by varying degrees of fouling on anaerobic microfiltration membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Hong

    2017-09-28

    An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was retrofitted with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane units, each of which was fouled to a different extent. The membranes with different degrees of fouling were evaluated for their efficiencies in removing three antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), namely, blaNDM-1-positive Escherichia coli PI-7, blaCTX-M-15-positive Klebsiella pneumoniae L7, and blaOXA-48-positive E. coli UPEC-RIY-4, as well as their associated plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that the log removal values (LRVs) of ARGs correlated positively with the extent of membrane fouling and ranged from 1.9 to 3.9. New membranes with a minimal foulant layer could remove more than 5 log units of ARB. However, as the membranes progressed to subcritical fouling, the LRVs of ARB decreased at increasing operating transmembrane pressures (TMPs). The LRV recovered back to 5 when the membrane was critically fouled, and the achieved LRV remained stable at different operating TMPs. Furthermore, characterization of the surface attributed the removal of both the ARB and ARGs to adsorption, which was facilitated by an increasing hydrophobicity and a decreasing surface ζ potential as the membranes fouled. Our results indicate that both the TMP and the foulant layer synergistically affected ARB removal, but the foulant layer was the main factor that contributed to ARG removal.

  10. Removal of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes Affected by Varying Degrees of Fouling on Anaerobic Microfiltration Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hong; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-11-07

    An anaerobic membrane bioreactor was retrofitted with polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) microfiltration membrane units, each of which was fouled to a different extent. The membranes with different degrees of fouling were evaluated for their efficiencies in removing three antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB), namely, bla NDM-1 -positive Escherichia coli PI-7, bla CTX-M-15 -positive Klebsiella pneumoniae L7, and bla OXA-48 -positive E. coli UPEC-RIY-4, as well as their associated plasmid-borne antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). The results showed that the log removal values (LRVs) of ARGs correlated positively with the extent of membrane fouling and ranged from 1.9 to 3.9. New membranes with a minimal foulant layer could remove more than 5 log units of ARB. However, as the membranes progressed to subcritical fouling, the LRVs of ARB decreased at increasing operating transmembrane pressures (TMPs). The LRV recovered back to 5 when the membrane was critically fouled, and the achieved LRV remained stable at different operating TMPs. Furthermore, characterization of the surface attributed the removal of both the ARB and ARGs to adsorption, which was facilitated by an increasing hydrophobicity and a decreasing surface ζ potential as the membranes fouled. Our results indicate that both the TMP and the foulant layer synergistically affected ARB removal, but the foulant layer was the main factor that contributed to ARG removal.

  11. Degree of Suppression of Mouse Myoblast Cell Line C₂C12 Differentiation Varies According to Chondroitin Sulfate Subtype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warita, Katsuhiko; Oshima, Nana; Takeda-Okuda, Naoko; Tamura, Jun-Ichi; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z

    2016-10-21

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS), a type of glycosaminoglycan (GAG), is a factor involved in the suppression of myogenic differentiation. CS comprises two repeating sugars and has different subtypes depending on the position and number of bonded sulfate groups. However, the effect of each subtype on myogenic differentiation remains unclear. In this study, we spiked cultures of C₂C 12 myoblasts, cells which are capable of undergoing skeletal muscle differentiation, with one of five types of CS (CS-A, -B, -C, -D, or -E) and induced differentiation over a fixed time. After immunostaining of the formed myotubes with an anti-MHC antibody, we counted the number of nuclei in the myotubes and then calculated the fusion index (FI) as a measure of myotube differentiation. The FI values of all the CS-treated groups were lower than the FI value of the control group, especially the group treated with CS-E, which displayed notable suppression of myotube formation. To confirm that the sugar chain in CS-E is important in the suppression of differentiation, chondroitinase ABC (ChABC), which catabolizes CS, was added to the media. The addition of ChABC led to the degradation of CS-E, and neutralized the suppression of myotube formation by CS-E. Collectively, it can be concluded that the degree of suppression of differentiation depends on the subtype of CS and that CS-E strongly suppresses myogenic differentiation. We conclude that the CS sugar chain has inhibitory action against myoblast cell fusion.

  12. State adaptation reserves cardiorespiratory system first-year students with varying degrees of physical fitness in terms of treadmill test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Levchenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to examine the state of the cardiorespiratory system in terms of the stress test in first-year students with different levels of fitness. Material : the study involved 43 students, of which 18 boys and 25devushek basic medical group. The study used a treadmill, a pulse oximeter, spirometer. Results : more adjustment disorders were detected in students that are not involved in physical education at school. Decreased ability of the cardiorespiratory system to maintain proper oxygen supply of the organism in the stress test. This is not observed in students who were attending school in addition sports clubs. Found that students with low tolerance to physical exercise need a separate program of physical training, the dynamic control of the teachers and the need for additional medical examination. Conclusions : the treadmill test is an ideal way of revealing hidden maladjustment cardiorespiratory system in adolescence.

  13. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobsen, H.K.; Fristrup, P.; Munksgaard, J.

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  14. Integrated energy markets and varying degrees of liberalisation: Price links, bundled sales and CHP production exemplified by Northern European experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Fristrup, Peter; Munksgaard, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    Liberalisation of energy markets has during the last 20 years been gradually introduced in many countries. The liberalisation has led to concerns regarding the markets' state of competition and fears that market power existence can result in less efficiency gains than what is expected from liberalisation. Concerns have also been raised as to whether specific consumer groups will be affected by limited competition in markets. Much of the concern has been concentrated on the electricity markets, but the development of energy sectors with integration of activities within natural gas, electricity and the oil sector creates the need to examine market power aspects across these markets. This paper examines the concentration trends in the Northern European markets for electricity and natural gas, combined with regional district heating aspects, especially with respect to the situation in Denmark. The situation with natural gas companies supplying to both small-scale CHP and to retail heat customers is discussed, for instance, which changes of regulatory regime for domestic heating customers should be considered when the natural gas market is being liberalised? The interlinked nature of the energy markets is described and examples of impacts from one market with limited competition to other markets with seemingly well-functioning competition are given. The specific case of large CHP production facilities with output on the regulated district heating market and the competitive Nordic electricity market is examined. How much of the fluctuations in price experienced in electricity markets should be reflected in the price of heating supplies? To which degree do the heating customers have to bear the burden of low-electricity market prices? Regulation of liberalised markets is discussed focusing on the interaction between one regulated market and the related energy markets that are liberalised. Existing regulation on the markets are compared to a situation where liberalisation

  15. DNA from radiation resistant human tumor cells transfers resistance to NIH/3T3 cells with varying degrees of penetrance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasid, U.; Dritschilo, A.; Weichselbaum, R.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that clinical radiation resistance may correlate with in vitro radiation survival parameters. Specifically, they isolated several cell lines from radioresistant head and neck carcinomas with D/sub 0/ values greater than 2 Gy. The authors co-transfected DNA from cell line SQ2OB (D/sub 0/ = 2.4 Gy) with the rhoSVNeO plasmid into NIH/3T3 cells (D/sub 0/ = 1.7 Gy). Antibiotic G418 resistant, transformed clones were isolated and confirmed by Southern blotting to contain human alu, as well as rhoSVNeO sequences. Screening for radiation resistance with 8Gy (Cs-137) revealed that 3 of 4 tested hybrid clones show a radiation survival intermediate between NIH/3T3 and SQ2OB. This suggests that radiation resistance is a dominant, transfectable phenotype of mammalian cells and can be expressed in more sensitive cells. Karyotyping of resistant hybrid clones shows the presence of double minute chromosomes. Secondary transfection results and experiments to clone the genetic factors responsible for radiation resistance are in progress and results will be reported

  16. Genome-wide analysis in Brazilian Xavante Indians reveals low degree of admixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Patricia C; Horimoto, Andréa R V Russo; Sanches, José Maurício; Vieira Filho, João Paulo B; Franco, Luciana; Fabbro, Amaury Dal; Franco, Laercio Joel; Pereira, Alexandre C; Moises, Regina S

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of population genetic variation and structure can be used as tools for research in human genetics and population isolates are of great interest. The aim of the present study was to characterize the genetic structure of Xavante Indians and compare it with other populations. The Xavante, an indigenous population living in Brazilian Central Plateau, is one of the largest native groups in Brazil. A subset of 53 unrelated subjects was selected from the initial sample of 300 Xavante Indians. Using 86,197 markers, Xavante were compared with all populations of HapMap Phase III and HGDP-CEPH projects and with a Southeast Brazilian population sample to establish its population structure. Principal Components Analysis showed that the Xavante Indians are concentrated in the Amerindian axis near other populations of known Amerindian ancestry such as Karitiana, Pima, Surui and Maya and a low degree of genetic admixture was observed. This is consistent with the historical records of bottlenecks experience and cultural isolation. By calculating pair-wise F(st) statistics we characterized the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and representative populations of the HapMap and from HGDP-CEPH project. We found that the genetic differentiation between Xavante Indians and populations of Ameridian, Asian, European, and African ancestry increased progressively. Our results indicate that the Xavante is a population that remained genetically isolated over the past decades and can offer advantages for genome-wide mapping studies of inherited disorders.

  17. Curing potential of experimental resin composites with systematically varying amount of bioactive glass: Degree of conversion, light transmittance and depth of cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Par, Matej; Spanovic, Nika; Bjelovucic, Ruza; Skenderovic, Hrvoje; Gamulin, Ozren; Tarle, Zrinka

    2018-06-17

    The aim of this work was to investigate the curing potential of an experimental resin composite series with the systematically varying amount of bioactive glass 45S5 by evaluating the degree of conversion, light transmittance and depth of cure. Resin composites based on a Bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin with a total filler load of 70 wt% and a variable amount of bioactive glass (0-40 wt%) were prepared. The photoinitiator system was camphorquinone and ethyl-4-(dimethylamino) benzoate. The degree of conversion and light transmittance were measured by Raman spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy, respectively. The depth of cure was evaluated according to the classical ISO 4049 test. The initial introduction of bioactive glass into the experimental series diminished the light transmittance while the further increase in the bioactive glass amount up to 40 wt% caused minor variations with no clear trend. The curing potential of the experimental composites was similar to or better than that of commercial resin composites. However, unsilanized bioactive glass fillers demonstrated the tendency to diminish both the maximum attainable conversion and the curing efficiency at depth. Experimental composite materials containing bioactive glass showed a clinically acceptable degree of conversion and depth of cure. The degree of conversion and depth of cure were diminished by bioactive glass fillers in a dose-dependent manner, although light transmittance was similar among all of the experimental composites containing 5-40 wt% of bioactive glass. Reduced curing potential caused by the bioactive glass has possible consequences on mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Morphological characteristics of kidneys connective tissue of mature fetuses and newborns from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia of varying degrees of severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokina, Iryna V; Myroshnychenko, Mykhailo S; Kapustnyk, Nataliia V; Khramova, Tetyana O; Dehtiarova, Oksana V; Danylchenko, Svitlana I

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: The kidneys connective tissue condition in the antenatal period affects the formation of tissues and it changes with the development of various general pathological processes in this organ. The aim of the study was to identify the morphological features of kidneys connective tissue of fetuses and newborns from mothers whose pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia of varying degrees of severity. Materials and methods: The material of the study was the tissue of kidneys of mature fetuses and newborns from mothers with physiological pregnancy (28 cases), as well as from mothers whose pregnancy was complicated by preeclampsia of varying degrees of severity (78 cases). Immunohistochemical study was performed by an indirect Coons method according to M. Brosman's technique using monoclonal antibodies to collagen type I, III and IV. Results: The kidneys connective tissue of fetuses and newborns developing under the maternal preeclampsia conditions is characterized by the qualitative and quantitative changes that indicate the development of sclerotic processes in this organ, the severity of which increase with the age and with the increase of the maternal preeclampsia severity. Qualitative changes are characterized by an increase of the fibrous component, thickening of the bundles of connective tissue fibers, and a decrease in the distance between them. Quantitative changes are characterized by a pronounced predominance of collagen fibers over elastic fibers, almost total absence in some field of view elastic fibers and the violation of the content of collagen type I, III and IV. Conclusion: Maternal preeclampsia underlies the development of qualitative and quantitative changes in kidneys connective tissue of fetuses and newborns, which as a result will lead to disruption of the functions of these organs in such children.

  19. A dosing algorithm for metformin based on the relationships between exposure and renal clearance of metformin in patients with varying degrees of kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Janna K; Kroonen, M Y A M; Kumar, S S; Heerspink, H L; Kirkpatrick, C M; Graham, G G; Williams, K M; Day, R O

    2017-08-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between metformin exposure, renal clearance (CL R ), and apparent non-renal clearance of metformin (CL NR /F) in patients with varying degrees of kidney function and to develop dosing recommendations. Plasma and urine samples were collected from three studies consisting of patients with varying degrees of kidney function (creatinine clearance, CL CR ; range, 14-112 mL/min). A population pharmacokinetic model was built (NONMEM) in which the oral availability (F) was fixed to 0.55 with an estimated inter-individual variability (IIV). Simulations were performed to estimate AUC 0-τ , CL R , and CL NR /F. The data (66 patients, 327 observations) were best described by a two-compartment model, and CL CR was a covariate for CL R . Mean CL R was 17 L/h (CV 22%) and mean CL NR /F was 1.6 L/h (69%).The median recovery of metformin in urine was 49% (range 19-75%) over a dosage interval. When CL R increased due to improved renal function, AUC 0-τ decreased proportionally, while CL NR /F did not change with kidney function. Target doses (mg/day) of metformin can be reached using CL CR /3 × 100 to obtain median AUC 0-12 of 18-26 mg/L/h for metformin IR and AUC 0-24 of 38-51 mg/L/h for metformin XR, with C max  kidney function to maintain consistent drug exposure. However, there is still marked IIV and therapeutic drug monitoring of metformin plasma concentrations is recommended.

  20. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Margery A; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P F

    2017-05-01

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the extent to which the association of BCAA with insulin resistance is attributable to altered leptin and adiponectin levels in individuals with varying degrees of glucose tolerance. BCAA were measured by nuclear magnetic resonance, whereas leptin and adiponectin were measured by immunoassay, in subjects with normal fasting glucose (n = 30), impaired fasting glucose (n = 25), and T2DM (n = 15). Insulin resistance was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMAir). BCAA were higher in men than in women (P BCAA were correlated with HOMAir (r = 0.46; P  0.05). Multivariable linear regression analysis, adjusting for age, sex, T2DM, and body mass index (BMI), demonstrated that BCAA were positively associated with HOMAir (β = 0.242, P = 0.023). When BCAA, leptin, and adiponectin were included together, the positive relationship of HOMAir with BCAA (β = 0.275, P = 0.012) remained significant. Insulin resistance was associated with BCAA. This association remained after adjusting for age, sex, T2DM, BMI, as well as leptin and adiponectin. It is unlikely that the relationship of insulin resistance with BCAA is to a major extent attributable to effects of leptin and adiponectin.

  1. Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Bortezomib in Patients with Advanced Malignancies and Varying Degrees of Liver Dysfunction: Phase 1 NCI Organ Dysfunction Working Group Study NCI-6432

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoRusso, Patricia M; Venkatakrishnan, Karthik; Ramanathan, Ramesh K; Sarantopoulos, John; Mulkerin, Daniel; Shibata, Stephen I; Hamilton, Anne; Dowlati, Afshin; Mani, Sridhar; Rudek, Michelle A; Takimoto, Chris H; Neuwirth, Rachel; Esseltine, Dixie-Lee; Ivy, Percy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib undergoes oxidative hepatic metabolism. This study (NCI-6432; NCT00091117) was conducted to evaluate bortezomib pharmacokinetics and safety in patients with varying degrees of hepatic impairment, to inform dosing recommendations in these special populations. Methods Patients received bortezomib on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 of 21-day cycles. Patients were assigned to four hepatic function groups based on the National Cancer Institute Organ Dysfunction Working Group classification. Those with normal function received bortezomib at the 1.3 mg/m2 standard dose. Patients with severe, moderate, and mild impairment received escalating doses from 0.5, 0.7, and 1.0 mg/m2, respectively, up to a 1.3 mg/m2 maximum. Serial blood samples were collected for 24 hours post-dose on days 1 and 8, cycle 1, for bortezomib plasma concentration measurements. Results Sixty-one patients were treated, including 14 with normal hepatic function and 17, 12, and 18 with mild, moderate, and severe impairment, respectively. Mild hepatic impairment did not alter dose-normalized bortezomib exposure (AUC0-tlast) or Cmax compared with patients with normal function. Mean dose-normalized AUC0-tlast was increased by approximately 60% on day 8 in patients with moderate or severe impairment. Conclusions Patients with mild hepatic impairment do not require a starting dose adjustment of bortezomib. Patients with moderate or severe hepatic impairment should be started at a reduced dose of 0.7 mg/m2. PMID:22394984

  2. Theileria parva antigens recognized by CD8+ T cells show varying degrees of diversity in buffalo-derived infected cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitt, Tatjana; Pelle, Roger; Chepkwony, Maurine; Morrison, W Ivan; Toye, Philip

    2018-05-06

    The extent of sequence diversity among the genes encoding 10 antigens (Tp1-10) known to be recognized by CD8+ T lymphocytes from cattle immune to Theileria parva was analysed. The sequences were derived from parasites in 23 buffalo-derived cell lines, three cattle-derived isolates and one cloned cell line obtained from a buffalo-derived stabilate. The results revealed substantial variation among the antigens through sequence diversity. The greatest nucleotide and amino acid diversity were observed in Tp1, Tp2 and Tp9. Tp5 and Tp7 showed the least amount of allelic diversity, and Tp5, Tp6 and Tp7 had the lowest levels of protein diversity. Tp6 was the most conserved protein; only a single non-synonymous substitution was found in all obtained sequences. The ratio of non-synonymous: synonymous substitutions varied from 0.84 (Tp1) to 0.04 (Tp6). Apart from Tp2 and Tp9, we observed no variation in the other defined CD8+ T cell epitopes (Tp4, 5, 7 and 8), indicating that epitope variation is not a universal feature of T. parva antigens. In addition to providing markers that can be used to examine the diversity in T. parva populations, the results highlight the potential for using conserved antigens to develop vaccines that provide broad protection against T. parva.

  3. Long-term acoustical observations of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri reveal novel and varied vertical migration patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Staby, A; Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein

    2011-01-01

    . The data revealed known patterns as normal diel vertical migration (DVM), midnight sinking between dusk and dawn, and periods without migrations, as well as novel behaviours consisting of early morning ascents, reverse diel vertical migrations

  4. Validation and genotyping of multiple human polymorphic inversions mediated by inverted repeats reveals a high degree of recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Aguado

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years different types of structural variants (SVs have been discovered in the human genome and their functional impact has become increasingly clear. Inversions, however, are poorly characterized and more difficult to study, especially those mediated by inverted repeats or segmental duplications. Here, we describe the results of a simple and fast inverse PCR (iPCR protocol for high-throughput genotyping of a wide variety of inversions using a small amount of DNA. In particular, we analyzed 22 inversions predicted in humans ranging from 5.1 kb to 226 kb and mediated by inverted repeat sequences of 1.6-24 kb. First, we validated 17 of the 22 inversions in a panel of nine HapMap individuals from different populations, and we genotyped them in 68 additional individuals of European origin, with correct genetic transmission in ∼ 12 mother-father-child trios. Global inversion minor allele frequency varied between 1% and 49% and inversion genotypes were consistent with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. By analyzing the nucleotide variation and the haplotypes in these regions, we found that only four inversions have linked tag-SNPs and that in many cases there are multiple shared SNPs between standard and inverted chromosomes, suggesting an unexpected high degree of inversion recurrence during human evolution. iPCR was also used to check 16 of these inversions in four chimpanzees and two gorillas, and 10 showed both orientations either within or between species, providing additional support for their multiple origin. Finally, we have identified several inversions that include genes in the inverted or breakpoint regions, and at least one disrupts a potential coding gene. Thus, these results represent a significant advance in our understanding of inversion polymorphism in human populations and challenge the common view of a single origin of inversions, with important implications for inversion analysis in SNP-based studies.

  5. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüer, Karin; Technau, Gerhard M

    2009-08-03

    The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS) develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in the embryo. However, presumptive neuroblasts, once

  6. Single cell cultures of Drosophila neuroectodermal and mesectodermal central nervous system progenitors reveal different degrees of developmental autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Technau Gerhard M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS develops from two sets of progenitor cells, neuroblasts and ventral midline progenitors, which behave differently in many respects. Neuroblasts derive from the neurogenic region of the ectoderm and form the lateral parts of the CNS. Ventral midline precursors are formed by two rows of mesectodermal cells and build the CNS midline. There is plenty of evidence that individual identities are conferred to precursor cells by positional information in the ectoderm. It is unclear, however, how far the precursors can maintain their identities and developmental properties in the absence of normal external signals. Results To separate the respective contributions of autonomous properties versus extrinsic signals during their further development, we isolated individual midline precursors and neuroectodermal precursors at the pre-mitotic gastrula stage, traced their development in vitro, and analyzed the characteristics of their lineages in comparison with those described for the embryo. Although individually cultured mesectodermal cells exhibit basic characteristics of CNS midline progenitors, the clones produced by these progenitors differ from their in situ counterparts with regard to cell numbers, expression of molecular markers, and the separation of neuronal and glial fate. In contrast, clones derived from individually cultured precursors taken from specific dorsoventral zones of the neuroectoderm develop striking similarities to the lineages of neuroblasts that normally delaminate from these zones and develop in situ. Conclusion This in vitro analysis allows for the first time a comparison of the developmental capacities in situ and in vitro of individual neural precursors of defined spatial and temporal origin. The data reveal that cells isolated at the pre-mitotic and pre-delamination stage express characteristics of the progenitor type appropriate to their site of origin in

  7. Comparative analyses of six solanaceous transcriptomes reveal a high degree of sequence conservation and species-specific transcripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouyang Shu

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Solanaceae is a family of closely related species with diverse phenotypes that have been exploited for agronomic purposes. Previous studies involving a small number of genes suggested sequence conservation across the Solanaceae. The availability of large collections of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs for the Solanaceae now provides the opportunity to assess sequence conservation and divergence on a genomic scale. Results All available ESTs and Expressed Transcripts (ETs, 449,224 sequences for six Solanaceae species (potato, tomato, pepper, petunia, tobacco and Nicotiana benthamiana, were clustered and assembled into gene indices. Examination of gene ontologies revealed that the transcripts within the gene indices encode a similar suite of biological processes. Although the ESTs and ETs were derived from a variety of tissues, 55–81% of the sequences had significant similarity at the nucleotide level with sequences among the six species. Putative orthologs could be identified for 28–58% of the sequences. This high degree of sequence conservation was supported by expression profiling using heterologous hybridizations to potato cDNA arrays that showed similar expression patterns in mature leaves for all six solanaceous species. 16–19% of the transcripts within the six Solanaceae gene indices did not have matches among Solanaceae, Arabidopsis, rice or 21 other plant gene indices. Conclusion Results from this genome scale analysis confirmed a high level of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level of the coding sequence among Solanaceae. Additionally, the results indicated that part of the Solanaceae transcriptome is likely to be unique for each species.

  8. Time-varying spectral analysis revealing differential effects of sevoflurane anaesthesia: non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y-T; Wu, H-T; Tsao, J; Yien, H-W; Hseu, S-S

    2014-02-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect various physiological dynamics. In particular, variation of R-R peak interval (RRI) of electrocardiography appears regularly oscillatory in deeper levels of anaesthesia and less regular in lighter levels of anaesthesia. We proposed a new index, non-rhythmic-to-rhythmic ratio (NRR), to quantify this feature and investigated its potential to estimate depth of anaesthesia. Thirty-one female patients were enrolled in this prospective study. The oscillatory pattern transition of RRI was visualised by the time-varying power spectrum and quantified by NRR. The prediction of anaesthetic events, including skin incision, first reaction of motor movement during emergence period, loss of consciousness (LOC) and return of consciousness (ROC) by NRR were evaluated by serial prediction probability (PK ) analysis; the ability to predict the decrease of effect-site sevoflurane concentration was also evaluated. The results were compared with Bispectral Index (BIS). NRR well-predicted first reaction (PK  > 0.90) 30 s ahead, earlier than BIS and significantly better than HRV indices. NRR well-correlated with sevoflurane concentration, although its correlation was inferior to BIS, while HRV indices had no such correlation. BIS indicated LOC and ROC best. Our findings suggest that NRR provides complementary information to BIS regarding the differential effects of anaesthetics on the brain, especially the subcortical motor activity. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Psychometric Functioning of the MMPI-2-RF VRIN-r and TRIN-r Scales with Varying Degrees of Randomness, Acquiescence, and Counter-Acquiescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, Richard W.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Tellegen, Auke; Archer, Robert P.

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, the authors evaluated the effects of increasing degrees of simulated non-content-based (random or fixed) responding on scores on the newly developed Variable Response Inconsistency-Revised (VRIN-r) and True Response Inconsistency-Revised (TRIN-r) scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 Restructured Form…

  10. Long-term acoustical observations of the mesopelagic fish Maurolicus muelleri reveal novel and varied vertical migration patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Staby, A

    2011-11-15

    We studied the temporal dynamics in the vertical distribution of Maurolicus muelleri scattering layers (SL) by examining continuous acoustic recordings over a 15 mo period in Masfjorden, Norway, complemented by intermittent sampling campaigns. The data revealed known patterns as normal diel vertical migration (DVM), midnight sinking between dusk and dawn, and periods without migrations, as well as novel behaviours consisting of early morning ascents, reverse diel vertical migrations, and interrupted ascents in the evening. During the first autumn of the study, adult fish modified their normal DVM behaviour by suspending their migration in the evening, yet ascending toward the surface in the later part of the night to reach upper layers during dawn. This behaviour was not observed during the second autumn of the study. By mid- to end of November (1st autumn), adult fish had suspended the nocturnal ascent entirely, and in the subsequent period until the end of January, a fraction of the population rather performed limited reverse migrations, slightly shifting their vertical distribution upwards during the first part of the day. From January to March 2008, fish interrupted their evening ascent at apparently random intervals and returned to deeper waters, instead of completing a full ascent to the surface. Our study underlines the value of long-term recordings, with the results suggesting that M. muelleri has the capability of changing its behaviour in response to ontogeny and internal state (satiation and hunger) as well as to external stimuli.

  11. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Rebecca J; Halsall, Crispin J; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin C; Shore, Richard F; Martin, Francis L

    2016-06-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles collected from ponds with differing water quality. Small differences in spectral signatures were revealed between a rural agricultural pond and an urban pond receiving wastewater and landfill run-off; these were limited to the liver and heart, although large differences in body size were apparent, surprisingly with tadpoles from the urban site larger than those from the rural site. Large differences in liver spectra were found between tadpoles from the pesticide and nutrient impacted pond compared to the rural agricultural pond, particularly in regions associated with lipids. Liver mass and hepatosomatic indices were found to be significantly increased in tadpoles from the site impacted by pesticides and trace organic chemicals, suggestive of exposure to environmental contamination. Significant alterations were also found in muscle tissue between tadpoles from these two ponds in regions associated with glycogen, potentially indicative of a stress response. This study highlights the use of IR spectroscopy, a low-cost, rapid and reagent-free technique in the biomonitoring of a class of organisms susceptible to environmental degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Decision Making on Allocating Urban Green Spaces Based upon Spatially-Varying Relationships between Urban Green Spaces and Urban Compaction Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Sheng Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is becoming a prevailing paradigm in the world to control urban sprawl and achieve a pattern of sustainable urban development. However, discussions of the area's overcrowded neighborhoods, its health problems, and the destruction of its green areas have inspired self-examination with respect to the compact city paradigm. High population density attracts even more residents and frequently renders the existing urban green space (UGS insufficient for use as part of a living environment. Due to the unique benefits that these qualities confer, UGS allocation is now considered a significant contributing factor to urban livability. In addition, the UGS allocation may be different due to the presence of many spatial non-stationarity processes. Therefore, this study employs geographically-weighted regression (GWR to explore the unique and spatially-explicit relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS within the Taipei metropolitan area. Maps summarizing the GWR results demonstrate that there is significantly insufficient UGS allocation in the central area, which consists mainly of Taipei City. Townships with higher parameters contain UGS levels that better meet the needs of their residents. Overall, the exploration of conceptualizing spatial heterogeneity of relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS can provide insightful analyses for decision-making on allocating UGS.

  13. Cadmium-109 uptake by tumors derived from Balb C/3T3 cell lines with varying degrees of the transformed phenotype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, K.; Alazraki, N.; Winge, D.; Lynch, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    To determine if tumors are rich in metallothionein, the authors measured the vivo uptake of subcutaneously-injected carrier-free cadmium-109 in tumors and in normal tissues of Balb/C mice. The tumors were grown in the mice from cultured Balb/3T3 cells transformed by the Moloney murine sarcoma virus. Uptake of cadmium-109 per gram of tissue was greatest for liver, kidney, and spleen. However, tumor uptake of cadmium-109 was markedly greater than that in blood, skeletal muscle, bones, intestine or adipose tissue. B Sephadex G-75 chromatography, the radioactivity in tumor and in liver lysates eluted with cytochrome-C, a molecule similar in molecular weight to metal-lothionein. To determine if metallothionein levels are related to the degree of malignancy of tumors, cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors from the virally-transformed cells was compared to that in tumors from non-transformed Balb/3T3 cells and two derivative chemically transformed cell lines. There was strong correlation between the substrate-independent growth in soft agarose of the four cell lines, the rate of growth of the corresponding tumors, and the amount of cadmium-109 uptake in the tumors. The authors conclude that metallothionein levels may be elevated in tumors as a function of the degree of expression of the transformed phenotype

  14. Whole-genome sequencing of Campylobacter jejuni isolated from Danish routine human stool samples reveals surprising degree of clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, K G; Kuhn, K G; Müller, L

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Outbreaks of Campylobacter are traditionally considered to be rare, however rather than being the true nature of the disease, this may reflect our present inability to detect them. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic and epidemiological degree of clustering among Campyl...... of the most important cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the industrialized world....

  15. Effect of packaging type during postmortem aging and degree of doneness on pork chop sensory traits of loins selected to vary in color and marbling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klehm, B J; King, D A; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2018-05-04

    The objective was to determine the interactions between packaging type and degree of doneness on sensory traits of pork loins classified based on the newly proposed USDA quality grades. A total of 144 loins were selected from 2 groups of pigs (lean growth or meat quality production focus) to represent as much variation in visual color and marbling as possible. Selection was achieved with a VQG grading camera. The ventral surface of the loins was evaluated for loin quality traits at 1 d postmortem. At 2 d postmortem loins were sliced into 28-mm-thick chops. Chop within each loin was randomly assigned to either individual vacuum packages or to individual Styrofoam trays and overwrapped in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) oxygen permeable film. Overwrapped PVC packages were then placed in bulk packages and flushed with a gas mixture that contained approximately 0.4% carbon monoxide, 30% carbon dioxide, and 80% nitrogen. Vacuum-packaged chops were aged until 14 d postmortem. Chops packaged in PVC overwrap were aged until 9 d postmortem in the bulk packages, then placed on simulated retail display until 14 d postmortem. Chops from each packaging type were cooked to an internal temperature of either 63 °C or 71 °C for the evaluation of slice shear force (SSF) or for evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, and flavor by a trained panel. Data were analyzed as split-split plot design with production focus of the pigs, proposed USDA quality grade, packaging type, and degree of doneness as fixed effects. While there were main effect differences between production focuses, there were no interactions with production focus. There were also no 3-way (P ≥ 0.19) interactions and only one 2-way interaction among quality grade, packaging type, or degree of doneness. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0.30), juiciness (P = 0.49), flavor (P = 0.89), SSF (P = 0.13), or cook loss (P = 0.06) among USDA quality grades. There were no differences in sensory tenderness (P = 0

  16. Belowground Plant–Herbivore Interactions Vary among Climate-Driven Range-Expanding Plant Species with Different Degrees of Novel Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutger A. Wilschut

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An increasing number of studies report plant range expansions to higher latitudes and altitudes in response to global warming. However, consequences for interactions with other species in the novel ranges are poorly understood. Here, we examine how range-expanding plant species interact with root-feeding nematodes from the new range. Root-feeding nematodes are ubiquitous belowground herbivores that may impact the structure and composition of natural vegetation. Because of their ecological novelty, we hypothesized that range-expanding plant species will be less suitable hosts for root-feeding nematodes than native congeneric plant species. In greenhouse and lab trials we compared nematode preference and performance of two root-feeding nematode species between range-expanding plant species and their congeneric natives. In order to understand differences in nematode preferences, we compared root volatile profiles of all range-expanders and congeneric natives. Nematode preferences and performances differed substantially among the pairs of range-expanders and natives. The range-expander that had the most unique volatile profile compared to its related native was unattractive and a poor host for nematodes. Other range-expanding plant species that differed less in root chemistry from native congeners, also differed less in nematode attraction and performance. We conclude that the three climate-driven range-expanding plant species studied varied considerably in their chemical novelty compared to their congeneric natives, and therefore affected native root-feeding nematodes in species-specific ways. Our data suggest that through variation in chemical novelty, range-expanding plant species may vary in their impacts on belowground herbivores in the new range.

  17. Consumer and trained panel evaluation of beef strip steaks of varying marbling and enhancement levels cooked to three degrees of doneness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucherk, L W; O'Quinn, T G; Legako, J F; Rathmann, R J; Brooks, J C; Miller, M F

    2016-12-01

    The palatability of USDA graded beef strip loins of seven treatments [High Enhanced (HE: 112% of raw weight) Select, Low Enhanced (LE: 107% of raw weight) Select, Prime, upper 2/3 Choice (Top Choice), lower 1/3 Choice (Low Choice), Select, and Standard] cooked to three degrees of doneness [DOD; rare (60°C), medium (71°C), or well-done (77°C)] was evaluated by consumer and trained sensory panelists. For consumers, Select HE steaks rated higher (P0.05) were observed between Select LE and Prime samples for most traits evaluated. The effect of USDA grade and enhancement on trained panel palatability scores was independent of DOD for all traits other than juiciness, with the role of marbling in juiciness increasing as DOD increased from rare to well-done. These results indicate enhancement as an effective method to improve the palatability of lower grading beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Batch and column adsorption of herbicide fluroxypyr on different types of activated carbons from water with varied degrees of hardness and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana-Martínez, L M; López-Ramón, M V; Fontecha-Cámara, M A; Moreno-Castilla, C

    2010-02-01

    There has been little research into the effects of the water hardness and alkalinity of surface waters on the adsorption of herbicides on activated carbons. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of these water characteristics on fluroxypyr adsorption on different activated carbons. At low fluroxypyr surface concentrations, the amount adsorbed from distilled water was related to the surface hydrophobicity. Surface area of carbons covered by fluroxypyr molecules ranged from 60 to 65%. Variations in fluroxypyr solubility with water hardness and alkalinity showed a salting-in effect. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate ions were adsorbed to a varied extent on the activated carbons. The presence of fluroxypyr in solution decreased their adsorption due to a competition effect. K(F) from the Freundlich equation linearly increased with water hardness due to salt-screened electrostatic repulsions between charged fluroxypyr molecules. The amount adsorbed from distilled water was largest at high fluroxypyr solution concentrations, because there was no competition between inorganic ions and fluroxypyr molecules. The column breakthrough volume and the amount adsorbed at breakthrough were smaller in tap versus distilled water. Carbon consumption was lower with activated carbon cloth than with the use of granular activated carbon. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Factors affecting the effects of EDU on growth and yield of field-grown bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), with varying degrees of sensitivity to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elagoez, Vahram [Plant Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)]. E-mail: velagoz@nsm.umass.edu; Manning, William J. [Department of Plant, Soil and Insect Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States)

    2005-08-15

    The effects of foliar applications of ethylenediurea (EDU) on responses to ozone by field-grown bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) lines 'S156' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'R123' (O{sub 3}-tolerant), and cultivars 'BBL 290' (O{sub 3}-sensitive) and 'BBL 274' (O{sub 3}-tolerant) were investigated during the 2001 and 2002 growing seasons. EDU was applied weekly to designated plants between primary leaf expansion and pod senescence. Results were compared with control plants at harvests made at pod maturation and pod senescence. In 2001, average hourly ambient O{sub 3} concentrations ranged between 41 and 59 ppb for a total of 303 h; in 2002, for 355 h. EDU applications prior to pod maturation significantly increased the number of marketable pods in 'R123', but not for the other cultivars. Harvests at pod senescence showed significant improvements in crop yield production in EDU-treated 'S156' plants, whereas for EDU-treated 'R123' plants significant reductions were determined in above-ground biomass and seed production. In contrast, results from 'BBL 290' and 'BBL 274' at both harvest points were inconclusive. Growth and reproductive responses of O{sub 3}-sensitive and O{sub 3}-tolerant bush bean plants to EDU applications varied, depending on developmental stages, duration of EDU applications, and fluctuations in ambient O{sub 3}. - Plant sensitivity to ozone, stage of plant development, number of applications of EDU and ambient ozone affect bean plant responses to EDU.

  20. Assessment and characterization of degradation effect for the varied degrees of ultra-violet radiation onto the collagen-bonded polypropylene non-woven fabric surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyan, Yu-Chang; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Klauser, Ruth; Wu, Ie-Der; Weng, Chih-Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Exposure to ultra-violet (UV)-C radiation is a frequently used method to prevent bacteria from invasion of blood-contact biomedical products. Potential damage induced by UV radiation to collagen is of concern due to the decay of bioactivity, considerably correlated with structural alterations. Our current investigation studies the collagen-bonded non-woven polypropylene (PP) fabric surface. In this experiment, antenna-coupling microwave plasma is utilized to activate PP fabric and then the sample is grafted with acrylic acid (AAc). Type III collagen is immobilized by using water soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as coupling agent. The collagen-bonded samples with sample temperature ca. 4 degrees C are then exposed to UV-254nm radiation for different time intervals. By using fourier-transformed infrared with attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), we examine the chemical structures of samples with different treatments. Coomassie brilliant blue G250 method is utilized to quantify the immobilized collagen on the PP fabric surfaces. Blood-clotting effects are evaluated by activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, and fibrinogen concentration tests. By means of cell counter and scanning electron microscopy we count red blood cells and platelets adhesion in the modified porous matrix. Our experimental results have demonstrated that with pAAc-grafting of ca. 173 microg cm(-2) and immobilized collagen of 80.5+/-4.7 microg cm(-2), for human plasma incubated samples of various intervals of UV-254 nm radiation, fibrinogen concentration decreases in human plasma, while platelets and red blood cells adhesions increase before UV radiation. However, the required time for thrombination shows significant change for UV radiation exposure of less than 20 h (alpha = 0.05). The decay of bioactivity for the UV-irradiated, collagen-bonded surfaces is thus evaluated. Surface analyses indicate that the decrease of

  1. Grass-specific CD4+ T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, LD; DeLong, JH; Wambre, E; James, EA; Robinson, DM; Kwok, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity amongst grass pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. Objectives We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4+ T cell level amongst DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass pollen T-cell epitopes. Methods After In vitro culture of blood mononucleated cells from Grass-pollen allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labeled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labeled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity amongst allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in 6 subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. Results T-cells with various degree of cross reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116, Lol p 1 221-240, Lol p 5a 199-218, and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally-cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally-cross reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen allergic subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells, suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono allergen system. PMID:24708411

  2. Grass-specific CD4(+) T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, L D; DeLong, J H; Wambre, E; James, E A; Robinson, D M; Kwok, W W

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity among grass-pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell level among DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass-pollen T-cell epitopes. After in vitro culture of blood mono-nucleated cells from grass-pollen-allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labelled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labelled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity among allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in six subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass-pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. T-cells with various degrees of cross-reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116 , Lol p 1 221-240 , Lol p 5a 199-218 , and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross-reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen-allergic subjects. Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross-reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono-allergen system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Comparative transcriptome and gene co-expression network analysis reveal genes and signaling pathways adaptively responsive to varied adverse stresses in the insect fungal pathogen, Beauveria bassiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhangjiang; Zhao, Xin; Lu, Zhuoyue; Wang, Huifang; Liu, Pengfei; Zeng, Fanqin; Zhang, Yongjun

    2018-01-01

    Sensing, responding, and adapting to the surrounding environment are crucial for all living organisms to survive, proliferate, and differentiate in their biological niches. Beauveria bassiana is an economically important insect-pathogenic fungus which is widely used as a biocontrol agent to control a variety of insect pests. The fungal pathogen unavoidably encounters a variety of adverse environmental stresses and defense response from the host insects during application of the fungal agents. However, few are known about the transcription response of the fungus to respond or adapt varied adverse stresses. Here, we comparatively analyzed the transcriptome of B. bassiana in globe genome under the varied stationary-phase stresses including osmotic agent (0.8 M NaCl), high temperature (32 °C), cell wall-perturbing agent (Congo red), and oxidative agents (H 2 O 2 or menadione). Total of 12,412 reads were obtained, and mapped to the 6767 genes of the B. bassiana. All of these stresses caused transcription responses involved in basal metabolism, cell wall construction, stress response or cell rescue/detoxification, signaling transduction and gene transcription regulation, and likely other cellular processes. An array of genes displayed similar transcription patterns in response to at least two of the five stresses, suggesting a shared transcription response to varied adverse stresses. Gene co-expression network analysis revealed that mTOR signaling pathway, but not HOG1 MAP kinase pathway, played a central role in regulation the varied adverse stress responses, which was verified by RNAi-mediated knockdown of TOR1. Our findings provided an insight of transcription response and gene co-expression network of B. bassiana in adaptation to varied environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The contribution of phonological awareness and receptive and expressive english to the reading ability of deaf students with varying degrees of exposure to accurate english.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara; Nielsen, Diane Corcoran

    2003-01-01

    This study was planned with the knowledge that the tasks of reading require the same acquisition of skills, whether a child is hearing or deaf, monolingual, or bilingual. Reading and language research literature was reviewed. Subjects were 31 deaf students (7.9-17.9 years of age) who attended one of three U.S. programs. Performance on 15 language and literacy measures was analyzed. Results were that students who scored highest on a passage-comprehension measure also were more able (a) to provide synonyms, antonyms, and analogies of read words and phrases, (b) to read more listed words, and (c) to substitute one phoneme more correctly for another to create new words than were readers with lower scores. Two groups of students also were compared: a Longer Exposure to English Group (n = 22) who used Signing Exact English (SEE) for 5 years or more and a Shorter Exposure Group (n = 8) exposed to SEE for less than 2 years. A correlational analysis revealed that there were no significant relationships among 14 background variables with the exception of "age of identification of hearing loss," a variable then covaried in subsequent analysis of covariance. Students in the Longer Exposure Group scored higher on all measures. Significant differences were found between groups for short-term memory, receptive and expressive English, and five phonological subtests. Mini-case studies and the performance of eight students in the Longer Exposure Group who scored lowest on the comprehension measure also are discussed.

  5. Stress Levels, Mortality, Intestinal Morphometry and Histomorphology of Chabro Broiler Birds Subjected to Varying Degrees of Post Hatch Delay in Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakeel, Irfan; Khan, Azmat Alam; Qureshi, Saim; Adil, S; Wani, B M; Din, Mir Mehraj; Amin, Umer

    Kashmir is a part of Jammu and Kashmir State of India where a large chunk of day old chicks are procured from outside the state and these chicks are transported across a distance of hundreds of kilometers over a period of several days. The long distance transport without any access to feed not only subjects the birds to early life stress but also affects their gut morphological development. Therefore, a study was conducted to evaluate the effect of delayed feeding on stress levels, mortality, intestinal morphometry and histomorphology of chabro broiler chicken. A total of 400 day old chabro chicks were randomly divided into 5 groups, each group comprising of four replicates of 20 birds. Chicks allotted to group-1 (G 1) were offered feed at hatchery itself whereas feeding in groups G 2, G 3, G 4 and G 5 were initiated at the farm after the delay of 12, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. The results revealed that the heterophil count showed a steady increase from G 1-G 5 and significantly (p0.05) lower in G 4 and G 5 compared to G 1. The duration of post hatch feeding delay gradually increased the stress level and mortality of birds and also decreased the length of different segments of small intestine in birds. No adverse effect on histomorphology was observed at the end of trial. Feeding at hatchery itself or feeding during transportation of birds would be a viable strategy to overcome the negative effects of delayed feeding in chicken.

  6. A high degree of genetic diversity is revealed in Isatis spp. (dyer's woad) by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert (nee Stoker), G.; Garton, S.; Karam, A.; Arnold, M.; Karp, A.; Edwards, J.; Cooke, T.; Barker, A.

    2002-05-01

    Genetic diversity in 38 genotypes, representing 28 individual genotypes from five landraces of Isatis tinctoria (three German: Tubingen, Potsdam and Erfurt, one Swiss and one English), five genotypes of Isatis indigotica (Chinese woad) and five genotypes of Isatis glauca, were investigated using AFLP analysis. Five primer combinations detected a total of 502 fragments of which 436 (86.9%) were polymorphic. The level of polymorphism recorded within each species was 29.8, 86.9 and 35.8% for I. indigotica, I. tinctoria and I. glauca, respectively. Clearly, genetic diversity within I. tinctoria was greater than that observed in I. indigotica or I. glauca. Cluster analyses of the AFLP data using UPGMA and PCO revealed the complete separation of the genotypes of each species into distinct groups. I. indigotica separated as an entirely independent group, whereas I. glauca formed a separate cluster within the I. tinctoria group. Indeed, I. tinctoria and I. glauca are more closely related to each other than either is to I. indigotica. In addition, the genotypes of each landrace, apart from one from the English group, were clearly discriminated. However, the anomalous genotype did associate with the rest of its group when it was linked with the Erfurt group. These results provide new and useful information about the make-up of the Isatis genome, which has not previously been evaluated. They will be useful in the selection of plant material for variety development and conservation of the gene-pool.

  7. Degree of multicollinearity and variables involved in linear dependence in additive-dominant models Grau de multicolinearidade e variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Petrini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the degree of multicollinearity and to identify the variables involved in linear dependence relations in additive-dominant models. Data of birth weight (n=141,567, yearling weight (n=58,124, and scrotal circumference (n=20,371 of Montana Tropical composite cattle were used. Diagnosis of multicollinearity was based on the variance inflation factor (VIF and on the evaluation of the condition indexes and eigenvalues from the correlation matrix among explanatory variables. The first model studied (RM included the fixed effect of dam age class at calving and the covariates associated to the direct and maternal additive and non-additive effects. The second model (R included all the effects of the RM model except the maternal additive effects. Multicollinearity was detected in both models for all traits considered, with VIF values of 1.03 - 70.20 for RM and 1.03 - 60.70 for R. Collinearity increased with the increase of variables in the model and the decrease in the number of observations, and it was classified as weak, with condition index values between 10.00 and 26.77. In general, the variables associated with additive and non-additive effects were involved in multicollinearity, partially due to the natural connection between these covariables as fractions of the biological types in breed composition.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o grau de multicolinearidade e identificar as variáveis envolvidas na dependência linear em modelos aditivo-dominantes. Foram utilizados dados de peso ao nascimento (n=141.567, peso ao ano (n=58.124 e perímetro escrotal (n=20.371 de bovinos de corte compostos Montana Tropical. O diagnóstico de multicolinearidade foi baseado no fator de inflação de variância (VIF e no exame dos índices de condição e dos autovalores da matriz de correlações entre as variáveis explanatórias. O primeiro modelo estudado (RM incluiu o efeito fixo de classe de idade da mãe ao parto e

  8. HRD Degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geber, Beverly

    1987-01-01

    The author describes the growing movement toward accreditation for human resources development professionals. She covers the issue of diversity, undergraduate versus graduate degrees, and future trends. (CH)

  9. Molecular diversity of bacterial endosymbionts associated with dagger nematodes of the genus Xiphinema (Nematoda: Longidoridae) reveals a high degree of phylogenetic congruence with their host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E; Archidona-Yuste, Antonio; Cantalapiedra-Navarrete, Carolina; Prieto, Pilar; Castillo, Pablo

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial endosymbionts have been detected in some groups of plant-parasitic nematodes, but few cases have been reported compared to other groups in the phylum Nematoda, such as animal-parasitic or free-living nematodes. This study was performed on a wide variety of plant-parasitic nematode families and species from different host plants and nematode populations. A total of 124 nematode populations (previously identified morphologically and molecularly) were screened for the presence of potential bacterial endosymbionts using the partial 16S rRNA gene and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal microscopy. Potential bacterial endosymbionts were only detected in nematode species belonging to the genus Xiphinema and specifically in the X. americanum group. Fifty-seven partial 16S rRNA sequences were obtained from bacterial endosymbionts in this study. One group of sequences was closely related to the genus 'Candidatus Xiphinematobacter' (19 bacterial endosymbiont sequences were associated with seven nematode host species, including two that have already been described and three unknown bacterial endosymbionts). The second bacterial endosymbiont group (38 bacterial endosymbiont sequences associated with six nematode species) was related to the family Burkholderiaceae, which includes fungal and soil-plant bacterial endosymbionts. These endosymbionts were reported for the first time in the phylum Nematoda. Our findings suggest that there is a highly specific symbiotic relationship between nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts. Overall, these results were corroborated by a phylogeny of nematode host and bacterial endosymbionts that suggested that there was a high degree of phylogenetic congruence and long-term evolutionary persistence between hosts and endosymbionts. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Time-varying BRDFs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Sunkavalli, Kalyan; Ramamoorthi, Ravi; Belhumeur, Peter N; Nayar, Shree K

    2007-01-01

    The properties of virtually all real-world materials change with time, causing their bidirectional reflectance distribution functions (BRDFs) to be time varying. However, none of the existing BRDF models and databases take time variation into consideration; they represent the appearance of a material at a single time instance. In this paper, we address the acquisition, analysis, modeling, and rendering of a wide range of time-varying BRDFs (TVBRDFs). We have developed an acquisition system that is capable of sampling a material's BRDF at multiple time instances, with each time sample acquired within 36 sec. We have used this acquisition system to measure the BRDFs of a wide range of time-varying phenomena, which include the drying of various types of paints (watercolor, spray, and oil), the drying of wet rough surfaces (cement, plaster, and fabrics), the accumulation of dusts (household and joint compound) on surfaces, and the melting of materials (chocolate). Analytic BRDF functions are fit to these measurements and the model parameters' variations with time are analyzed. Each category exhibits interesting and sometimes nonintuitive parameter trends. These parameter trends are then used to develop analytic TVBRDF models. The analytic TVBRDF models enable us to apply effects such as paint drying and dust accumulation to arbitrary surfaces and novel materials.

  11. The Degree Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wood, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    , empirical data relevant to the development of the degree adverb function is presented and possible relevant constructions identified. It is argued that the degree adverb function of that possibly occurs later than the historical dictionaries indicate. The degree adverb function of this is challenging...

  12. How fields vary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Monika

    2018-03-01

    Field theorists have long insisted that research needs to pay attention to the particular properties of each field studied. But while much field-theoretical research is comparative, either explicitly or implicitly, scholars have only begun to develop the language for describing the dimensions along which fields can be similar to and different from each other. In this context, this paper articulates an agenda for the analysis of variable properties of fields. It discusses variation in the degree but also in the kind of field autonomy. It discusses different dimensions of variation in field structure: fields can be more or less contested, and more or less hierarchical. The structure of symbolic oppositions in a field may take different forms. Lastly, it analyses the dimensions of variation highlighted by research on fields on the sub- and transnational scale. Post-national analysis allows us to ask how fields relate to fields of the same kind on different scales, and how fields relate to fields on the same scale in other national contexts. It allows us to ask about the role resources from other scales play in structuring symbolic oppositions within fields. A more fine-tuned vocabulary for field variation can help us better describe particular fields and it is a precondition for generating hypotheses about the conditions under which we can expect to observe fields with specified characteristics. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  13. varying elastic parameters distributions

    KAUST Repository

    Moussawi, Ali

    2014-12-01

    The experimental identication of mechanical properties is crucial in mechanics for understanding material behavior and for the development of numerical models. Classical identi cation procedures employ standard shaped specimens, assume that the mechanical elds in the object are homogeneous, and recover global properties. Thus, multiple tests are required for full characterization of a heterogeneous object, leading to a time consuming and costly process. The development of non-contact, full- eld measurement techniques from which complex kinematic elds can be recorded has opened the door to a new way of thinking. From the identi cation point of view, suitable methods can be used to process these complex kinematic elds in order to recover multiple spatially varying parameters through one test or a few tests. The requirement is the development of identi cation techniques that can process these complex experimental data. This thesis introduces a novel identi cation technique called the constitutive compatibility method. The key idea is to de ne stresses as compatible with the observed kinematic eld through the chosen class of constitutive equation, making possible the uncoupling of the identi cation of stress from the identi cation of the material parameters. This uncoupling leads to parametrized solutions in cases where 5 the solution is non-unique (due to unknown traction boundary conditions) as demonstrated on 2D numerical examples. First the theory is outlined and the method is demonstrated in 2D applications. Second, the method is implemented within a domain decomposition framework in order to reduce the cost for processing very large problems. Finally, it is extended to 3D numerical examples. Promising results are shown for 2D and 3D problems.

  14. Análise de algumas variáveis fisiológicas para avaliação do grau de adaptação de ovinos submetidos ao estresse por calor Analysis of some physiological variables for the evaluation of the degree of adaptation in sheep submitted to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Maria Cardoso Starling

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigaram-se a temperatura retal, a freqüência respiratória e a taxa de evaporação total de ovinos Corriedale sob três temperaturas ambientes, visando uma melhor compreensão dos mecanismos de termorregulação desses animais. Inicialmente, 21 animais adultos foram alojados em câmara climática à temperatura de 45ºC, e pressão parcial de vapor (PV variável, registrando-se a freqüência respiratória (FR e a temperatura retal (TR. Baseando-se na FR e TR, foram selecionados 10 animais, cinco com os valores mais baixos, assumindo-os como mais adaptados ao calor (grupo 1 e cinco com valores mais altos, assumindo-os como menos adaptados (grupo 2. Os animais selecionados foram mantidos em câmara climática, onde mediram-se novamente TR, FR e taxa de evaporacão total (TET, sob 20, 30 e 40ºC de temperatura do ar e PV variável. Não houve diferença estatística entre os grupos classificados, para todas as variáveis medidas. Concluiu-se que a utilização das variáveis fisiológicas TR e FR como parâmetros únicos para a seleção destes animais não é suficiente para avaliar o grau de adaptação a temperaturas elevadas.It was investigated the rectal temperature, respiratory frequency and total evaporative heat loss rate in Corriedale sheep under three air temperatures, aiming a better comprehension of thermoregulation mechanisms of these animals. Initially, 21 adult animals were housed in climatic chamber under 45ºC and variable air humidity (PV, recording the respiratory frequency (FR and rectal temperature (TR. Basing on the FR and TR, it was selected 10 animals, five of the lowest values, assuming as being the best heat adapted (group 1 and five of the highest values, assuming as the worst heat adapted (group 2. The selected animals were maintained in climatic chamber, where it was measured again TR, FR and total evaporation rate (TET, under 20, 30 and 40ºC of air temperature and variable PV. There was no statistical

  15. ALICE Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    De Marco, N

    2013-01-01

    Two identical sets of calorimeters are located on both sides with respect to the beam Interaction Point (IP), 112.5 m away from it. Each set of detectors consists of a neutron (ZN) and a proton (ZP) Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC), positioned on remotely controlled platforms. The ZN is placed at zero degree with respect to the LHC beam axis, between the two beam pipes, while the ZP is positioned externally to the outgoing beam pipe. The spectator protons are separated from the ion beams by means of the dipole magnet D1.

  16. Physics to a degree

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, EG

    2014-01-01

    Physics to a Degree provides an extensive collection of problems suitable for self-study or tutorial and group work at the level of an undergraduate physics course. This novel set of exercises draws together the core elements of an undergraduate physics degree and provides students with the problem solving skills needed for general physics' examinations and for real-life situations encountered by the professional physicist. Topics include force, momentum, gravitation, Bernoulli's Theorem, magnetic fields, blackbody radiation, relativistic travel, mechanics near the speed of light, radioactive

  17. Epilogue: degrees of transparency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengeveld, K.

    2011-01-01

    In this epilogue the results of the analyses of four different languages in the preceding papers are compared. It is shown that the degrees of transparency of these languages can be represented on an implicational scale, and that the features themselves can be ranked on a transparency scale as well.

  18. Registered Nurse (Associate Degree).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This document, which is designed for use in developing a tech prep competency profile for the occupation of registered nurse (with an associate degree), lists technical competencies and competency builders for 19 units pertinent to the health technologies cluster in general and 5 units specific to the occupation of registered nurse. The following…

  19. Degree distribution in discrete case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Li-Na; Chen, Bin; Yan, Zai-Zai

    2011-01-01

    Vertex degree of many network models and real-life networks is limited to non-negative integer. By means of measure and integral, the relation of the degree distribution and the cumulative degree distribution in discrete case is analyzed. The degree distribution, obtained by the differential of its cumulative, is only suitable for continuous case or discrete case with constant degree change. When degree change is not a constant but proportional to degree itself, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent and the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1. -- Highlights: → Degree change is the crux for using the cumulative degree distribution method. → It suits for discrete case with constant degree change. → If degree change is proportional to degree, power-law degree distribution and its cumulative have the same exponent. → In addition, the mean value is finite for power-law exponent greater than 1.

  20. When Graduate Degrees Prostitute the Educational Process: Degrees Gone Wild

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    Graduate degrees prostitute the educational process when they are sold to consumers by unaccredited degree/diploma mills as being equivalent to legitimate, bona-fide degrees awarded by accredited graduate schools. This article carefully analyzes the serious problems of bogus degrees and their association with the religious higher education…

  1. Scholarship in nursing: Degree-prepared nurses versus diploma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All but one (n = 18) nursing educators who obtained a degree as first qualification are educators in the private sector that include both universities as well as nursing colleges of private hospital groups. Data further revealed that most nurse educators and those in managerial positions were degree prepared. More degree ...

  2. Degrees of democraticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Bergström

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available People have tended to load their different conceptions of democracy with their own political ideals; in this paper it is argued that normative and definitional questions should rather be separated, so that political philosophers and political scientists may adopt the same concept of democracy, even if they disagree normatively or politically. Moreover, it is argued that we should replace an absolute notion of democracy by a relativized notion, which allows for different degrees of democraticity. This facilitates the separation of normative and conceptual issues and it is convenient in contexts in which “democratic deficits” are discussed – as e.g. when democracy is to be implemented on a supranational level. Moreover, it has the consequence that democratic deficits are not necessarily bad. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1837342

  3. Subnucleon freedom degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frois, B.

    1985-03-01

    The nucleon is nothing but the fundamental state of a complex object, the Baryon. It has a great number of excited states which are significative of its quark structure. The aim of nuclear physics today is to understand the interaction dynamics in nuclei of particles whose existence is known by high energy physics. This lecture aims at defining the frontier of current comprehension in this field by some examples. First quarks and gluons are presented. Proofs of existence of pinpoint particles inside the nucleus are given. Then a direct proof of the concept validity of the nucleon orbit in the nucleus is given. Mesonic freedom degrees are also studied. Some experience examples in which meson exchange exist clearly are shown. At last, the role of subnucleonic effects in the nuclear reactions is shown [fr

  4. Performance and microbial community composition dynamics of aerobic granular sludge from sequencing batch bubble column reactors operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Gabus, Sébastien; Rohrbach-Brandt, Emmanuelle; Hosseini, Maryam; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Two bubble column sequencing batch reactors fed with an artificial wastewater were operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. In a first stage, stable granules were obtained at 20 degrees C, whereas fluffy structures were observed at 30 degrees C. Molecular analysis revealed high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit 208 (OTU 208) affiliating with filamentous bacteria Leptothrix spp. at 30 degrees C, an OTU much less abundant at 20 degrees C. The granular sludge obtained at 20 degrees C was used for the second stage during which one reactor was maintained at 20 degrees C and the second operated at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C after prior gradual increase of temperature. Aerobic granular sludge with similar physical properties developed in both reactors but it had different nutrient elimination performances and microbial communities. At 20 degrees C, acetate was consumed during anaerobic feeding, and biological phosphorous removal was observed when Rhodocyclaceae-affiliating OTU 214 was present. At 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C, acetate was mainly consumed during aeration and phosphorous removal was insignificant. OTU 214 was almost absent but the Gammaproteobacteria-affiliating OTU 239 was more abundant than at 20 degrees C. Aerobic granular sludge at all temperatures contained abundantly the OTUs 224 and 289 affiliating with Sphingomonadaceae indicating that this bacterial family played an important role in maintaining stable granular structures.

  5. In-situ burning of emulsions: The effects of varying water content and degree of evaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bech, C.; Sveum, P.; Buist, I.

    1992-01-01

    In-situ burning of oil is considered to be one of the most promising techniques for rapid removal of large quantities of oil at sea, particularly in ice-infested waters. A series of field experiments was conducted in Spitsbergen, circular basins cut in sea ice, to study the effect of water content, evaporation, thickness of the emulsion layer, and environmental factors on the burn efficiency of Statfjord crude oil and emulsions. Results from the experiments are presented along with preliminary results concerning the dynamics of burning emulsions and the efficiency of conventional and novel igniters. Water-in-oil emulsions with 40% water content could be burned. However, for oils evaporated more than 18% and with a water content of over 20%, conventional gelled gasoline was not a very effective igniter. Ignition success was improved when gelled crude oil was used as the igniter. The results imply that for practical in-situ burning, the igniter technology needs to be improved. 5 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Ultrasound evaluation of fluid in knee recesses at varying degrees of flexion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandl, P; Brossard, M; Aegerter, P

    2012-01-01

    Various methods are utilized in daily practice to obtain optimal information on effusion in the knee. Our aim is to investigate which scanning position provides the best information about synovial fluid in the knee by using ultrasound and to evaluate the magnitude of difference for measuring syno...

  7. Differential Effects of Dapagliflozin on Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Varying Degrees of Renal Function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrykiv, Sergei; Sjostrom, C. David; Greasley, Peter J.; Xu, John; Persson, Frederik; Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with dapagliflozin decreases hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, BP, and albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio). Dapagliflozin also modestly increases hematocrit, likely related to osmotic diuresis/natriuresis. Prior

  8. Differential Effects of Dapagliflozin on Cardiovascular Risk Factors at Varying Degrees of Renal Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrykiv, Sergei I.; Sjöström, C David; Greasley, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with dapagliflozin decreases hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body weight, BP, and albuminuria (urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio). Dapagliflozin also modestly increases hematocrit, likely related to osmotic diuresis/natriuresis. Prior...... changes in HbA1c, body weight, BP, hematocrit, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio with placebo (n=2178) or dapagliflozin 10 mg (n=2226) over 24 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes according to baseline eGFR (eGFR≥45 to .../min per 1.73 m(2)). RESULTS: Compared with placebo, reductions in HbA1c with dapagliflozin were 0.6%, 0.5%, and 0.3%, respectively, for each consecutive lower eGFR subgroup (P value interaction hematocrit, body weight, and BP were similar regardless of baseline e...

  9. Degree-degree correlations in random graphs with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofstad, van der R.W.; Litvak, N.

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  10. Degree-Degree Dependencies in Random Graphs with Heavy-Tailed Degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hofstad, Remco; Litvak, Nelly

    2014-01-01

    Mixing patterns in large self-organizing networks, such as the Internet, the World Wide Web, social, and biological networks are often characterized by degree-degree dependencies between neighboring nodes. In assortative networks, the degree-degree dependencies are positive (nodes with similar

  11. Time-varying Crash Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    We estimate a continuous-time model with stochastic volatility and dynamic crash probability for the S&P 500 index and find that market illiquidity dominates other factors in explaining the stock market crash risk. While the crash probability is time-varying, its dynamic depends only weakly on re...

  12. Eestlased Karlovy Varys / J. R.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    J. R.

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  13. Esmaklassiline Karlovy Vary / Jaanus Noormets

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Noormets, Jaanus

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" võitis 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivalil kaks auhinda - ametliku kõrvalvõistlusprogrammi "East of the West" eripreemia "Special mention" ja Euroopa väärtfilmikinode keti Europa Cinemas preemia. Ka Asko Kase lühifilmi "Zen läbi prügi linastumisest ning teistest auhinnasaajatest ning osalejatest

  14. Optimistlik Karlovy Vary / Jaan Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Jaan, 1938-2017

    2007-01-01

    42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali auhinnatud filmidest (žürii esimees Peter Bart). Kristallgloobuse sai Islandi-Saksamaa "Katseklaasilinn" (režii Baltasar Kormakur), parimaks režissööriks tunnistati norralane Bard Breien ("Negatiivse mõtlemise kunst"). Austraallase Michael James Rowlandi "Hea õnne teekond" sai žürii eripreemia

  15. The co-movement of monetary policy and its time-varying nature: A DCCA approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohit, Abhishek; Mitra, Subrata Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Employing a novel methodology of DCCA cross-correlation coefficient (ρDCCA), this study attempts to provide fresh evidences for the co-movement of monetary policies of the advanced (AEs) as well as the emerging economies (EMEs) vis-à-vis the United States. A higher degree of monetary co-movement as measured by ρDCCA values, is identified for the AEs as compared to the EMEs. Lower co-movement of monetary policy is especially noticeable in the short run for EMEs. We further investigate the time-varying nature of such co-movements for the AEs by splitting the period (1980-2014) into four sub periods and also by performing a rolling window estimation for the entire period to reveal smoother dynamics. Significant evidence of higher monetary coordination is revealed for sub-periods with stronger trade and financial linkages.

  16. Emergence of epidemics in rapidly varying networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohar, Vivek; Sinha, Sudeshna

    2013-01-01

    We describe a simple model mimicking disease spreading on a network with dynamically varying connections, and investigate the dynamical consequences of switching links in the network. Our central observation is that the disease cycles get more synchronized, indicating the onset of epidemics, as the underlying network changes more rapidly. This behavior is found for periodically switched links, as well as links that switch randomly in time. We find that the influence of changing links is more pronounced in networks where the nodes have lower degree, and the disease cycle has a longer infective stage. Further, when the switching of links is periodic we observe finer dynamical features, such as beating patterns in the emergent oscillations and resonant enhancement of synchronization, arising from the interplay between the time-scales of the connectivity changes and that of the epidemic outbreaks

  17. Genetic polymorphisms in varied environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, J R

    1971-12-03

    Thirteen experimenital populationis of Drosophila willistoni were maintained in cages, in some of which the environments were relatively constant and in others varied. After 45 weeks, the populations were assayed by gel electrophoresis for polymorphisms at 22 protein loci. The average heterozygosity per individual and the average unmber of alleles per locus were higher in populations maintained in heterogeneous environments than in populations in more constant enviroments.

  18. 7 CFR 29.6081 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., but the actual value of each degree varies with type and group. Elements Degrees Body Heavy Medium Thin. Maturity Immature Mature Ripe. Leaf structure Close Firm Open. Elasticity Inelastic Semielastic...

  19. 7 CFR 29.3586 - Elements of quality and degrees of each element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... value, but the actual value of each degree varies with type, group, and grade. Elements Degrees Maturity.... Elasticity Inelastic Semielastic Elastic. Width Narrow Normal Spready. Uniformity (1) (1) (1). Injury...

  20. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  1. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents.

  2. Varying Constants, Gravitation and Cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Philippe Uzan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental constants are a cornerstone of our physical laws. Any constant varying in space and/or time would reflect the existence of an almost massless field that couples to matter. This will induce a violation of the universality of free fall. Thus, it is of utmost importance for our understanding of gravity and of the domain of validity of general relativity to test for their constancy. We detail the relations between the constants, the tests of the local position invariance and of the universality of free fall. We then review the main experimental and observational constraints that have been obtained from atomic clocks, the Oklo phenomenon, solar system observations, meteorite dating, quasar absorption spectra, stellar physics, pulsar timing, the cosmic microwave background and big bang nucleosynthesis. At each step we describe the basics of each system, its dependence with respect to the constants, the known systematic effects and the most recent constraints that have been obtained. We then describe the main theoretical frameworks in which the low-energy constants may actually be varying and we focus on the unification mechanisms and the relations between the variation of different constants. To finish, we discuss the more speculative possibility of understanding their numerical values and the apparent fine-tuning that they confront us with.

  3. Degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lian-Ming; Wu Xiang-Sheng; Deng Xiao-Heng; Yu Jian-Ping

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically and empirically studies the degree and connectivity of the Internet's scale-free topology at an autonomous system (AS) level. The basic features of scale-free networks influence the normalization constant of degree distribution p(k). It develops a new mathematic model for describing the power-law relationships of Internet topology. From this model we theoretically obtain formulas to calculate the average degree, the ratios of the k min -degree (minimum degree) nodes and the k max -degree (maximum degree) nodes, and the fraction of the degrees (or links) in the hands of the richer (top best-connected) nodes. It finds that the average degree is larger for a smaller power-law exponent λ and a larger minimum or maximum degree. The ratio of the k min -degree nodes is larger for larger λ and smaller k min or k max . The ratio of the k max -degree ones is larger for smaller λ and k max or larger k min . The richer nodes hold most of the total degrees of Internet AS-level topology. In addition, it is revealed that the increased rate of the average degree or the ratio of the k min -degree nodes has power-law decay with the increase of k min . The ratio of the k max -degree nodes has a power-law decay with the increase of k max , and the fraction of the degrees in the hands of the richer 27% nodes is about 73% (the ‘73/27 rule’). Finally, empirically calculations are made, based on the empirical data extracted from the Border Gateway Protocol, of the average degree, ratio and fraction using this method and other methods, and find that this method is rigorous and effective for Internet AS-level topology. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  4. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  5. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W. D.; ŚwiaŢecki, W. J.

    1998-12-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Süssmann width b.

  6. Nuclear diffuseness as a degree of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.D.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1998-01-01

    The response of the nuclear energy to changes in neutron and proton surface diffusenesses is investigated using the Thomas-Fermi model. Algebraic expressions are provided for the energy cost of changing the two diffusenesses away from their equilibrium values. This will make it possible to generalize the macroscopic-microscopic calculations of nuclear masses and deformation energies by the inclusion of the neutron and proton diffusenesses as degrees of freedom (to be varied along with the shape degrees of freedom). One result, which is suggested by the relatively low cost in macroscopic energy of increasing the diffuseness of a heavy nucleus by 10% (about 4 MeV), is that superheavy nuclei near Z=126, N=184 may have a fair chance of becoming stabilized by shell effects. An appendix introduces an improved measure of surface diffuseness, with certain advantages over the conventional Suessmann width b. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  7. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  8. Weighted approximation with varying weight

    CERN Document Server

    Totik, Vilmos

    1994-01-01

    A new construction is given for approximating a logarithmic potential by a discrete one. This yields a new approach to approximation with weighted polynomials of the form w"n"(" "= uppercase)P"n"(" "= uppercase). The new technique settles several open problems, and it leads to a simple proof for the strong asymptotics on some L p(uppercase) extremal problems on the real line with exponential weights, which, for the case p=2, are equivalent to power- type asymptotics for the leading coefficients of the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. The method is also modified toyield (in a sense) uniformly good approximation on the whole support. This allows one to deduce strong asymptotics in some L p(uppercase) extremal problems with varying weights. Applications are given, relating to fast decreasing polynomials, asymptotic behavior of orthogonal polynomials and multipoint Pade approximation. The approach is potential-theoretic, but the text is self-contained.

  9. Estrelas variáveis

    OpenAIRE

    Viana, Sérgio Manuel de Oliveira

    2001-01-01

    A observação do céu nocturno é uma prática que vem da Antiguidade. Desde então e durante muito tempo pensou-se que as estrelas mantinham o brilho constante. Assim foi até ao século XVI, quando David Fabricius observou uma estrela cujo brilho variava periodicamente. Dois séculos mais tarde, Jonh Goodricke descobriu uma segunda estrela e com o desenvolvimento de instrumentos de observação este conjunto foi muito alargado e hoje inclui o Sol.A variação do brilho das estrelas variáveis permite d...

  10. The Kilo-Degree Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. T. A.; Kuijken, K.; Applegate, D.; Begeman, K.; Belikov, A.; Blake, C.; Bout, J.; Boxhoorn, D.; Buddelmeijer, H.; Buddendiek, A.; Cacciato, M.; Capaccioli, M.; Choi, A.; Cordes, O.; Covone, G.; Dall'Ora, M.; Edge, A.; Erben, T.; Franse, J.; Getman, F.; Grado, A.; Harnois-Deraps, J.; Helmich, E.; Herbonnet, R.; Heymans, C.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Huang, Z.; Irisarri, N.; Joachimi, B.; Köhlinger, F.; Kitching, T.; La Barbera, F.; Lacerda, P.; McFarland, J.; Miller, L.; Nakajima, R.; Napolitano, N. R.; Paolillo, M.; Peacock, J.; Pila-Diez, B.; Puddu, E.; Radovich, M.; Rifatto, A.; Schneider, P.; Schrabback, T.; Sifon, C.; Sikkema, G.; Simon, P.; Sutherland, W.; Tudorica, A.; Valentijn, E.; van der Burg, R.; van Uitert, E.; van Waerbeke, L.; Velander, M.; Kleijn, G. V.; Viola, M.; Vriend, W.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The Kilo-Degree Survey (KiDS), a 1500-square-degree optical imaging survey with the recently commissioned OmegaCAM wide-field imager on the VLT Survey Telescope (VST), is described. KiDS will image two fields in u-,g-,r- and i-bands and, together with the VIKING survey, produce nine-band (u- to

  11. Research Degrees as Professional Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnacle, Robyn; Dall'Alba, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing trend within higher education and, more specifically, in higher degrees by research, to treat a professional skills set as a desirable graduate outcome. The increasing value that is being placed on a professional skills set in large part reflects growing interest around the world in the role of research degrees in labour…

  12. Heat treatment of the common furniture beetle Anobium punctatum (Coleoptera: Anobiidae), at temperature between 45 degrees and 54 degrees C. under dry and humid conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lise Stengaard; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn

    1998-01-01

    The combinations of exposure times and temperatures (45 degrees to 54 degrees C.) without addition of moisture necessary to obtain 100 per cent mortality were determined on all stages of commn furniture beetle, Anobium punctatum. Lethal combinations vary from minutes at 46 degrees to 5 minutes...

  13. Set our Master's degrees free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padman, Rachael

    2010-04-01

    Making UK undergraduate physics degrees longer must have seemed like a good idea at the time. Back in the early 1990s the standard three-year Bachelor's physics degree (four years in Scotland) was under pressure at both ends. The A-level curriculum - one of the requirements for entry onto a degree course - was being increasingly modularized, and dumbed down. Physics students were arriving at university less well prepared than in the past and there was an increasing awareness that graduates of five-year continental degree courses were better equipped for a professional scientific career than those in the UK. At the same time, local education authorities in the UK were required to provide full funding for a first degree, whether for three or four years.

  14. HadISST (1-degree)/HadISST (1-degree)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly version of HadISST sea surface temperature component (1-degree). See Rayner, N. A., Parker, D. E., Horton, E. B., Folland, C. K., Alexander, L. V., Rowell,...

  15. Brown Dwarf Variability: What's Varying and Why?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Mark Scott

    2014-01-01

    Surveys by ground based telescopes, HST, and Spitzer have revealed that brown dwarfs of most spectral classes exhibit variability. The spectral and temporal signatures of the variability are complex and apparently defy simplistic classification which complicates efforts to model the changes. Important questions include understanding if clearings are forming in an otherwise uniform cloud deck or if thermal perturbations, perhaps associated with breaking gravity waves, are responsible. If clouds are responsible how long does it take for the atmospheric thermal profile to relax from a hot cloudy to a cooler cloudless state? If thermal perturbations are responsible then what atmospheric layers are varying? How do the observed variability timescales compare to atmospheric radiative, chemical, and dynamical timescales? I will address such questions by presenting modeling results for time-varying partly cloudy atmospheres and explore the importance of various atmospheric processes over the relevant timescales for brown dwarfs of a range of effective temperatures. Regardless of the origin of the observed variability, the complexity seen in the atmospheres of the field dwarfs hints at the variability that we may encounter in the next few years in directly imaged young Jupiters. Thus understanding the nature of variability in the field dwarfs, including sensitivity to gravity and metallicity, is of particular importance for exoplanet characterization.

  16. Degree-degree correlations in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelli

    2013-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson's correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  17. Degree-degree dependencies in directed networks with heavy-tailed degrees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoorn, W.L.F.; Litvak, Nelly

    2015-01-01

    In network theory, Pearson’s correlation coefficients are most commonly used to measure the degree assortativity of a network. We investigate the behavior of these coefficients in the setting of directed networks with heavy-tailed degree sequences. We prove that for graphs where the in- and

  18. Importance of small-degree nodes in assortative networks with degree-weight correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sijuan; Feng, Ling; Monterola, Christopher Pineda; Lai, Choy Heng

    2017-10-01

    It has been known that assortative network structure plays an important role in spreading dynamics for unweighted networks. Yet its influence on weighted networks is not clear, in particular when weight is strongly correlated with the degrees of the nodes as we empirically observed in Twitter. Here we use the self-consistent probability method and revised nonperturbative heterogenous mean-field theory method to investigate this influence on both susceptible-infective-recovered (SIR) and susceptible-infective-susceptible (SIS) spreading dynamics. Both our simulation and theoretical results show that while the critical threshold is not significantly influenced by the assortativity, the prevalence in the supercritical regime shows a crossover under different degree-weight correlations. In particular, unlike the case of random mixing networks, in assortative networks, the negative degree-weight correlation leads to higher prevalence in their spreading beyond the critical transmissivity than that of the positively correlated. In addition, the previously observed inhibition effect on spreading velocity by assortative structure is not apparent in negatively degree-weight correlated networks, while it is enhanced for that of the positively correlated. Detailed investigation into the degree distribution of the infected nodes reveals that small-degree nodes play essential roles in the supercritical phase of both SIR and SIS spreadings. Our results have direct implications in understanding viral information spreading over online social networks and epidemic spreading over contact networks.

  19. The system Cu-Rh-S at 900 degrees, 700 degrees, 540 degrees and 500 degrees C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup-Møller, Sven; Makovicky, E.

    2007-01-01

    Phase relations in the dry condensed system Cu-Rh-S were determined at 900, 700, 540 and 500 degrees C. At 900 degrees C, the system contains digenite, four rhodium sulfides (Rh17S15, Rh3S4, Rh2S3 and RhS similar to 3), three ternary sulfides (CuRh2S4, CuxRhS3+x and a fibrous sulfide in the range...

  20. Families of Smooth Rational Curves of Small Degree on the Fano Variety of Degree 5 of Main Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Omelkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider some families of smooth rational curves of degree 2, 3 and 4 on a smooth Fano threefold X which is a linear section of the Grassmanian G(1, 4 under the Pl¨ucker embedding. We prove that these families are irreducible. The proof of the irreducibility of the families of curves of degree d is based on the study of degeneration of a rational curve of degree d into a curve which decomposes into an irreducible rational curve of degree d−1 and a projective line intersecting transversally at a point. We prove that the Hilbert scheme of curves of degree d on X is smooth at the point corresponding to such a reducible curve. Then calculations in the framework of deformation theory show that such a curve varies into a smooth rational curve of degree d. Thus, the set of reducible curves of degree d of the above type lies in the closure of a unique component of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on X. From this fact and the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on the Grassmannian G(1, 4 one deduces the irreducibility of the Hilbert scheme of smooth rational curves of degree d on a general Fano threefold X.

  1. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  2. Positive Almost Periodic Solutions for a Time-Varying Fishing Model with Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a time-varying fishing model with delay. By means of the continuation theorem of coincidence degree theory, we prove that it has at least one positive almost periodic solution.

  3. Training, Degrees, and Credentials in the Hiring of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'donnell, Patrick S.; Dunlap, Linda L.

    2014-01-01

    A national sample of 246 Directors of Pupil Personnel Services and Directors of Special Education were surveyed to assess the importance they place on training, degrees, and credentials in the hiring of school psychologists. High, but varying, levels of importance were found for the content knowledge and skill areas in the National Association of…

  4. Physical properties of peats as related to degree of decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    D.H. Boelter

    1969-01-01

    Important physical characteristics, such as water retention, water yield coefficient, and hydraulic conductivity, vary greatly for representative northern Minnesota peat materials. The differences are related to the degree of decomposition, which largely determines the porosity and pore size distribution. Fiber content (> 0.1 mm) and bulk density are properties...

  5. Life after a Humanities Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masola, Athambile

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the experiences of a humanities graduate after leaving the academy. The author considers her own education in light of the historical changes in South Africa's education system. The article is a personal account of the questions and challenges encountered in choosing a humanities degree in a context where a tertiary education…

  6. Special Degree Programs for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuing Education for Adults, 1970

    1970-01-01

    Briefly describes Bachelor of Liberal Studies programs at six colleges and universities, the Master of Liberal Studies program at Boston University, and the Master of Engineering degree at the University of California at Los Angeles, as well as programs being conducted on a graduate level by Arthur D. Little, Inc. for government and industrial…

  7. Astronautics Degrees for Space Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R.; Erwin, D.; Kunc, J.

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science degree program in Astronautics combines basic science and engineering classes with specialized astronautics classes. The Master of Science degree program in Astronautics offers classes in various areas of space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. We show how the transformation of distance learning and particularly the introduction of webcasting transform organization of the program and class delivery. We will describe in detail the academic focus of the program, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  8. Degree sequence in message transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamuna, M.

    2017-11-01

    Message encryption is always an issue in current communication scenario. Methods are being devised using various domains. Graphs satisfy numerous unique properties which can be used for message transfer. In this paper, I propose a message encryption method based on degree sequence of graphs.

  9. Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree)

    OpenAIRE

    Tiseira Izaguirre, Andrés Omar; Blanco Rodríguez, David; Carreres Talens, Marcos; FAJARDO PEÑA, PABLO

    2013-01-01

    Apuntes de la asignatura Tecnología Aeroespacial Tiseira Izaguirre, AO.; Blanco Rodríguez, D.; Carreres Talens, M.; Fajardo Peña, P. (2013). Aerospace Technology (Aerospace Engineering Degree). Editorial Universitat Politècnica de València. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/35263

  10. A varying-α brane world cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-08-01

    We study the brane world cosmology in the RS2 model where the electric charge varies with time in the manner described by the varying fine-structure constant theory of Bekenstein. We map such varying electric charge cosmology to the dual variable-speed-of-light cosmology by changing system of units. We comment on cosmological implications for such cosmological models. (author)

  11. g-boson degree of freedom in vibrational regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Yaomin

    1991-01-01

    The g-boson degree of freedom in the vibrational regions is discussed in term of the energies and the electromagnetic transitions. Several closed expressions for the rates of M1, E2 transitions and the E2, M1 mixing ratios are obtained. Some survey is made and it reveals it is meaningful to investigate the g-boson degree of freedom in those regions

  12. Degree-based graph construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyunju; Toroczkai, Zoltan; Erdos, Peter L; Miklos, Istvan; Szekely, Laszlo A

    2009-01-01

    Degree-based graph construction is a ubiquitous problem in network modelling (Newman et al 2006 The Structure and Dynamics of Networks (Princeton Studies in Complexity) (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press), Boccaletti et al 2006 Phys. Rep. 424 175), ranging from social sciences to chemical compounds and biochemical reaction networks in the cell. This problem includes existence, enumeration, exhaustive construction and sampling questions with aspects that are still open today. Here we give necessary and sufficient conditions for a sequence of nonnegative integers to be realized as a simple graph's degree sequence, such that a given (but otherwise arbitrary) set of connections from an arbitrarily given node is avoided. We then use this result to present a swap-free algorithm that builds all simple graphs realizing a given degree sequence. In a wider context, we show that our result provides a greedy construction method to build all the f-factor subgraphs (Tutte 1952 Can. J. Math. 4 314) embedded within K n setmn S k , where K n is the complete graph and S k is a star graph centred on one of the nodes. (fast track communication)

  13. Physics Doctorates One Year after Degree: Data from the Follow-up Survey of Degree Recipients from the Classes of 2013 and 2014. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pold, Jack; Mulvey, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This report presents trend data on the status of physics PhDs one year after receiving their degree. For the last decade postdoctoral fellowships were the most commonly reported positions taken by physics PhDs in the year after receiving their degree. The type of initial employment for of physics PhDs varied depending on the subfield of their…

  14. Constructive Dimension and Turing Degrees

    OpenAIRE

    Bienvenu, Laurent; Doty, David; Stephan, Frank

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the constructive Hausdorff and packing dimensions of Turing degrees. The main result is that every infinite sequence S with constructive Hausdorff dimension dim_H(S) and constructive packing dimension dim_P(S) is Turing equivalent to a sequence R with dim_H(R) 0. Furthermore, if dim_P(S) > 0, then dim_P(R) >= 1 - epsilon. The reduction thus serves as a *randomness extractor* that increases the algorithmic randomness of S, as measured by constructive dimension. A number of...

  15. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darenskaya, N.G.; Kuznetsova, S.S.; Lebengarts, Ya.Z.

    1975-01-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs

  16. Influence of varying diets on radiosensitivity of quinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darenskaya, N G; Kuznetsova, S S; Lebengarts, Ya Z

    1975-07-01

    Seven groups of 25-day-old Guinea pig males given different diets during the entire observation period. Six groups received full-ration granulated mixed food varying in the contents of protein and cellulose, while the seventh group ate natural food. Experiments with irradiation failed to reveal any essential differences in radiosensitivity of animals grown on natural and mixed food, which enabled us to propose full-ration granulated mixed food for feeding laboratory guinea pigs.

  17. Spacetime-varying couplings and Lorentz violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelecky, V. Alan; Lehnert, Ralf; Perry, Malcolm J.

    2003-01-01

    Spacetime-varying coupling constants can be associated with violations of local Lorentz invariance and CPT symmetry. An analytical supergravity cosmology with a time-varying fine-structure constant provides an explicit example. Estimates are made for some experimental constraints

  18. Detection of dynamically varying interaural time differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlrausch, Armin; Le Goff, Nicolas; Breebaart, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    of fringes surrounding the probe is equal to the addition of the effects of the individual fringes. In this contribution, we present behavioral data for the same experimental condition, called dynamically varying ITD detection, but for a wider range of probe and fringe durations. Probe durations varied...

  19. Providing Homeless Adults with Advantage: A Sustainable University Degree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinatra, Richard; Lanctot, Melissa Kim

    2016-01-01

    A university partnered with the New York City Department of Homeless Services (NYC DHS) to provide cohorts of adults a 60-credit Associate Degree Program in Business Administration over a 2-year period. Results of two cohorts of 30 Advantage Academy Program graduates revealed significant improvement in College Board AccuPlacer (ACPL) Arithmetic…

  20. Why Do English Universities "Really" Franchise Degrees to Overseas Providers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healey, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    Franchising degrees to overseas providers, normally for-profit private companies, has become big business for English universities. The latest data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency reveal that there are now more international students registered for the awards of English higher education institutions that are studying wholly offshore…

  1. Constraining the roughness degree of slip heterogeneity

    KAUST Repository

    Causse, Mathieu

    2010-05-07

    This article investigates different approaches for assessing the degree of roughness of the slip distribution of future earthquakes. First, we analyze a database of slip images extracted from a suite of 152 finite-source rupture models from 80 events (Mw = 4.1–8.9). This results in an empirical model defining the distribution of the slip spectrum corner wave numbers (kc) as a function of moment magnitude. To reduce the “epistemic” uncertainty, we select a single slip model per event and screen out poorly resolved models. The number of remaining models (30) is thus rather small. In addition, the robustness of the empirical model rests on a reliable estimation of kc by kinematic inversion methods. We address this issue by performing tests on synthetic data with a frequency domain inversion method. These tests reveal that due to smoothing constraints used to stabilize the inversion process, kc tends to be underestimated. We then develop an alternative approach: (1) we establish a proportionality relationship between kc and the peak ground acceleration (PGA), using a k−2 kinematic source model, and (2) we analyze the PGA distribution, which is believed to be better constrained than slip images. These two methods reveal that kc follows a lognormal distribution, with similar standard deviations for both methods.

  2. Surface Wave Detection and Measurement Using a One Degree Global Dispersion Grid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stevens, Jeffry L

    2006-01-01

    .... The models consist of approximately 550 distinct crust and upper mantle structures, with surface layering and/or ocean depths that vary on a one-degree grid to create a total of 64,800 earth models...

  3. Magnetic field control of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain wall resistance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majidi, Roya, E-mail: royamajidi@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University, Lavizan, 16788-15811 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, we have compared the resistance of the 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign domain walls in the presence of external magnetic field. The calculations are based on the Boltzmann transport equation within the relaxation time approximation. One-dimensional Neel-type domain walls between two domains whose magnetization differs by angle of 90 Degree-Sign , 180 Degree-Sign , and 360 Degree-Sign are considered. The results indicate that the resistance of the 360 Degree-Sign DW is more considerable than that of the 90 Degree-Sign and 180 Degree-Sign DWs. It is also found that the domain wall resistance can be controlled by applying transverse magnetic field. Increasing the strength of the external magnetic field enhances the domain wall resistance. In providing spintronic devices based on magnetic nanomaterials, considering and controlling the effect of domain wall on resistivity are essential.

  4. Opposite Degree Algorithm and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Guang Yue

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The opposite (Opposite Degree, referred to as OD algorithm is an intelligent algorithm proposed by Yue Xiaoguang et al. Opposite degree algorithm is mainly based on the concept of opposite degree, combined with the idea of design of neural network and genetic algorithm and clustering analysis algorithm. The OD algorithm is divided into two sub algorithms, namely: opposite degree - numerical computation (OD-NC algorithm and opposite degree - Classification computation (OD-CC algorithm.

  5. Raman spectroscopy of single extracellular vesicles reveals subpopulations with varying membrane content (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Lee, Changwon; Rojalin, Tatu; Carney, Randy P.; Hazari, Sidhartha; Knudson, Alisha; Lam, Kit S.; Saari, Heikki; Lazaro Ibañez, Elisa; Viitala, Tapani; Laaksonen, Timo; Yliperttula, Marjo; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Exosomes are small (~100nm) membrane bound vesicles excreted by cells as part of their normal biological processes. These extracellular vesicles are currently an area of intense research, since they were recently found to carry functional mRNA that allows transfer of proteins and other cellular instructions between cells. Exosomes have been implicated in a wide range of diseases, including cancer. Cancer cells are known to have increased exosome production, and may use those exosomes to prepare remote environments for metastasis. Therefore, there is a strong need to develop characterization methods to help understand the structure and function of these vesicles. However, current techniques, such as proteomics and genomics technologies, rely on aggregating a large amount of exosome material and reporting on chemical content that is averaged over many millions of exosomes. Here we report on the use of laser-tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) to probe individual vesicles, discovering distinct heterogeneity among exosomes both within a cell line, as well as between different cell lines. Through principal components analysis followed by hierarchical clustering, we have identified four "subpopulations" of exosomes shared across seven cell lines. The key chemical differences between these subpopulations, as determined by spectral analysis of the principal component loadings, are primarily related to membrane composition. Specifically, the differences can be ascribed to cholesterol content, cholesterol to phospholipid ratio, and surface protein expression. Thus, we have shown LTRS to be a powerful method to probe the chemical content of single extracellular vesicles.

  6. Specific heats of lunar surface materials from 90 to 350 degrees Kelvin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.; Hemingway, B.S.; Wilson, W.H.

    1970-01-01

    The specific heats of lunar samples 10057 and 10084 returned by the Apollo 11 mission have been measured between 90 and 350 degrees Kelvin by use of an adiabatic calorimeter. The samples are representative of type A vesicular basalt-like rocks and of finely divided lunar soil. The specific heat of these materials changes smoothly from about 0.06 calorie per gram per degree at 90 degrees Kelvin to about 0.2 calorie per gram per degree at 350 degrees Kelvin. The thermal parameter ??=(k??C)-1/2 for the lunar surface will accordingly vary by a factor of about 2 between lunar noon and midnight.

  7. Measurement of the oxidation of spent fuel between 140/degree/ and 225/degree/C by thermogravimetric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodley, R.E.; Einziger, R.E.; Buchanan, H.C.

    1988-09-01

    A series of PWR spent fuel samples from Turkey Point Unit 3 have been oxidized at temperatures between 140/degree/ and 225/degree/C in air atmospheres with dew points between 14.5/degree/ and /minus/70/degree/C, using a thermogravimetric analysis system (TGA). Tests lasted between 400 and 2100 hours. At the conclusion of a test, the atmosphere was sampled to determine the release of fission gas during testing, and the fuel samples were analyzed for microstructural changes. It appears that the mechanism for oxidation of spent fuel to U/sub 3/O/sub 7/ takes place in two steps that occur somewhat simultaneously. Oxygen migrates along the grain boundaries, which are oxidized and enlarged. The grains oxidize by the inward progression of a layer of U/sub 4/O/sub 9/ saturated with oxygen. A simplified model of the mechanism, which considers oxygen diffusion through the product layer as the rate-controlling step, yields an activation energy of 27 /plus minus/ 4 kcal/mol. Moisture, between dew points of /minus/70/degree/ to +14.5/degree/C, i.e., water vapor partial pressures varying over four orders of magnitude, had no significant effect on the oxidation rate. 34 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Eesti film võistleb Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastub Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  9. Matching Value Propositions with Varied Customer Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikka, Eija-Liisa; Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    2018-01-01

    Organizations seek to manage varied customer segments using varied value propositions. The ability of a knowledge-intensive business service (KIBS) provider to formulate value propositions into attractive offerings to varied customers becomes a competitive advantage. In this specific business based...... on often highly abstract service offerings, this requires the provider to have a clear overview of its knowledge and resources and how these can be configured to obtain the desired customization of services. Hence, the purpose of this paper is to investigate how a KIBS provider can match value propositions...... with varied customer needs utilizing service modularity. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative multiple case study is organized around 5 projects allowing within-case and cross-case comparisons. Our findings describe how through the configuration of knowledge and resources a sustainable competitive...

  10. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part III: B-Shaped Architecture with Vertical Well in the Upper Layer.

  11. Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Compilation of Instantaneous Source Functions for Varying Architecture of a Layered Reservoir with Mixed Boundaries and Horizontal Well Completion Part IV: Normal and Inverted Letter 'h' and 'H' Architecture.

  12. Effect of thermal processing on silver thin films of varying thickness deposited on zinc oxide and indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaramakrishnan, K.; Ngo, A. T.; Alford, T. L.; Iyer, S.

    2009-01-01

    Silver films of varying thicknesses (25, 45, and 60 nm) were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) on silicon and zinc oxide (ZnO) on silicon. The films were annealed in vacuum for 1 h at different temperatures (300-650 deg. C). Four-point-probe measurements were used to determine the resistivity of the films. All films showed an abrupt change in resistivity beyond an onset temperature that varied with thickness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry measurements revealed agglomeration of the Ag films upon annealing as being responsible for the resistivity change. X-ray pole figure analysis determined that the annealed films took on a preferential texturing; however, the degree of texturing was significantly higher in Ag/ZnO/Si than in Ag/ITO/Si samples. This observation was accounted for by interface energy minimization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed an increasing surface roughness of the annealed films with temperature. The resistivity behavior was explained by the counterbalancing effects of increasing crystallinity and surface roughness. Average surface roughness obtained from the AFM measurements were also used to model the agglomeration of Ag based on Ostwald ripening theory

  13. Willingness to Pay for Environmental Health Risk Reductions When There are Varying Degrees of Life Expectancy: A White Paper (2006)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of existing value of statistical life (VSL) estimates in benefit-cost analysis relates to relatively short changes in life expectancy. The authors' strategy for addressing this question is to briefly survey the existing economics literature.

  14. A neurocognitive comparison of cognitive flexibility and response inhibition in gamblers with varying degrees of clinical severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlaug, B L; Chamberlain, S R; Kim, S W; Schreiber, L R N; Grant, J E

    2011-10-01

    As a behavioral addiction with clinical and phenomenological similarities to substance addiction, recreational and pathological gambling represent models for studying the neurobiology of addiction, without the confounding deleterious brain effects which may occur from chronic substance abuse. A community sample of individuals aged 18-65 years who gamble was solicited through newspaper advertising. Subjects were grouped a priori into three groups (no-risk, at-risk, and pathological gamblers) based on a diagnostic interview. All subjects underwent a psychiatric clinical interview and neurocognitive tests assessing motor impulsivity and cognitive flexibility. Subjects with a current axis I disorder, history of brain injury/trauma, or implementation or dose changes of psychoactive medication within 6 weeks of study enrollment were excluded. A total of 135 no-risk, 69 at-risk and 46 pathological gambling subjects were assessed. Pathological gamblers were significantly older, and exhibited significant deficiencies in motor impulse control (stop-signal reaction times), response speed (median 'go' trial response latency) and cognitive flexibility [total intra-dimensional/extra-dimensional (IDED) errors] versus controls. The finding of impaired impulse control and cognitive flexibility was robust in an age-matched subgroup analysis of pathological gamblers. The no-risk and at-risk gambling groups did not significantly differ from each other on task performance. Impaired response inhibition and cognitive flexibility exist in people with pathological gambling compared with no-risk and at-risk gamblers. The early identification of such illness in adolescence or young adulthood may aid in the prevention of addiction onset of such disabling disorders.

  15. Does calcium channel blockade and beta-adrenergic blockade affect platelet function and fibrinolysis to a varying degree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Mehlsen, J; Winther, K

    1995-01-01

    as the fast-acting inhibitor against tissue plasminogen activator usually termed PAI-1. During atenolol and isradipine therapy, blood pressure (BP) was equally reduced (p ... tended to improve fibrinolysis, as shown by a decrease in PAI, 1 h after exercise. Reducing BP with isradipine or atenolol results in a similar decrease in platelet activity and PAI-level, tested at rest and 1 h after rest, respectively. During exercise, platelet activity increased during atenolol...

  16. Learning and memory in the forced swimming test: effects of antidepressants having varying degrees of anticholinergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enginar, Nurhan; Yamantürk-Çelik, Pınar; Nurten, Asiye; Güney, Dilvin Berrak

    2016-07-01

    The antidepressant-induced reduction in immobility time in the forced swimming test may depend on memory impairment due to the drug's anticholinergic efficacy. Therefore, the present study evaluated learning and memory of the immobility response in rats after the pretest and test administrations of antidepressants having potent, comparatively lower, and no anticholinergic activities. Immobility was measured in the test session performed 24 h after the pretest session. Scopolamine and MK-801, which are agents that have memory impairing effects, were used as reference drugs for a better evaluation of the memory processes in the test. The pretest administrations of imipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (7.5 and 15 mg/kg), trazodone (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), and moclobemide (10 and 20 mg/kg) were ineffective, whereas the pretest administrations of scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time suggesting impaired "learning to be immobile" in the animals. The test administrations of imipramine (30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (15 mg/kg), moclobemide (10 mg/kg), scopolamine (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), and MK-801 (0.1 mg/kg) decreased immobility time, which suggested that the drugs exerted antidepressant activity or the animals did not recall that attempting to escape was futile. The test administrations of trazodone (10 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg) produced no effect on immobility time. Even though the false-negative and positive responses made it somewhat difficult to interpret the findings, this study demonstrated that when given before the pretest antidepressants with or without anticholinergic activity seemed to be devoid of impairing the learning process in the test.

  17. Effects of varying degrees of doneness on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines in chicken and beef satay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jinap, S; Mohd-Mokhtar, M S; Farhadian, A; Hasnol, N D S; Jaafar, S N; Hajeb, P

    2013-06-01

    The study was carried out to determine the effect of cooking method on Heterocyclic Aromatic Amines (HAs) concentration in grilled chicken and beef (satay). Six common HAs were investigated: 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinolone (IQ), 2amino 3,4dimethylimidazo [4,5f]quinoline (MeIQ), 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), 2-amino-3,4,8 trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (4,8-DiMeIQx), 2-amino-3,7,8trimethylimidazo [4,5-f]quinoxaline (7,8-DiMeIQx), and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Chicken and beef satay samples were grilled to medium and well done level of doneness. Charcoal grilled (treatment A), microwave pre-treatment prior to grilling (treatment B), and microwave-deep fried (treatment C) were applied to beef and chicken satay samples. The satay samples which were microwaved prior to grilling (B) showed significantly (pcooked beef and chicken satay samples that were microwaved and deep fried (C) as an alternative method to grilling were proven to produce significantly lesser HAs as compared to charcoal-grilled (A) and microwaved prior to grilling (B). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in children’s recreation areas with varying degrees of access for animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Błaszkowska

    2015-02-01

    The number of Toxocara eggs recovered decreased following fence construction around the examined children’s play areas, but it did not sufficiently prevent the contamination by eggs. These data indicate the necessity for educational programmes which should be implemented for the protection of the local child population from zoonotic infection.

  19. Hydrologic characterization of desert soils with varying degrees of pedogenesis: 1. field experiments evaluating plant-relevant soil water behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, J.R.; Perkins, K.S.; Schmidt, K.M.; Miller, D.M.; Stock, J.D.; Singha, K.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the eff ect of pedogenesis on the soil moisture dynamics infl uencing the character and quality of ecological habitat, we conducted infi ltration and redistribution experiments on three alluvial deposits in the Mojave National Preserve: (i) recently deposited active wash sediments, (ii) a soil of early Holocene age, and (iii) a highly developed soil of late Pleistocene age. At each, we ponded water in a 1-m-diameter infi ltration ring for 2.3 h and monitored soil water content and matric pressure during and atier infi ltration, using probes and electrical resistivity imaging (ERI). Infi ltration and downward fl ow rates were greater in younger material, favoring deep-rooted species. Deep-rooted species tend to colonize the margins of washes, where they are unaff ected by sediment transport that inhibits colonization. The ERI results support important generalizations, for example that shallower than 0.5 m, infi ltrated water persists longer in highly developed soil, favoring shallow-rooted species. Soil moisture data for the two youngest soils suggested that saturation overshoot, which may have signifi cant but unexplored hydroecologic and pedogenic eff ects, occurred at the horizontally advancing weting front. Spatial heterogeneity of soil properties generally increased with pedogenic development. Evidence suggested that some early-stage developmental processes may promote uniformity; the intermediate- age soil appeared to have the least heterogeneity in terms of textural variation with depth, and also the least anisotropy. Lateral heterogeneity was pronounced in older soil, having a multitude of eff ects on the distribution and retention of soil water, and may facilitate certain water-conserving strategies of plants over what would be possible in a laterally homogeneous soil. ?? Soil Science Society of America.

  20. Inland Sea Spray Aerosol Transport and Incomplete Chloride Depletion: Varying Degrees of Reactive Processing Observed during SOAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondy, Amy L. [Department; Wang, Bingbing [Environmental; Laskin, Alexander [Environmental; Craig, Rebecca L. [Department; Nhliziyo, Manelisi V. [Department; Bertman, Steven B. [Department; Pratt, Kerri A. [Department; Shepson, Paul B. [Departments; Ault, Andrew P. [Department; Department

    2017-08-08

    Multiphase reactions involving sea spray aerosol (SSA) impact trace gases budgets in coastal regions by acting as a reservoir for oxidized nitrogen and sulfur species, as well as a source of halogen gases (HCl, ClNO2, etc.). While most studies of multiphase reactions on SSA have focused on marine environments, far less is known about SSA transported inland. Herein, single particle measurements of SSA are reported at a site > 320 km from the Gulf of Mexico, with transport times of 7-68 h. Samples were collected during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) in June-July 2013 near Centreville, Alabama. SSA was observed in 93% of 42 time periods analyzed. During two marine air mass periods, SSA represented significant number fractions of particles in the accumulation (0.2-1.0 μm, 11%) and coarse (1.0-10.0 μm, 35%) modes. Chloride content of SSA particles ranged from full to partial depletion, with 24% of SSA particles containing chloride (mole fraction of Cl/Na > 0.1, 90% chloride depletion). Both the frequent observation of SSA at an inland site and the range of chloride depletion observed, suggest that SSA may represent an underappreciated inland sink for NOx/SO2 and source of halogen gases.

  1. Regenerative response in the pig liver remnant varies with the degree of resection and rise in portal pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kim Erlend; Conley, Lene Nagsrrup; Hedegaard, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    After parenchymal loss, the liver regenerates restoring normal mass and metabolic function. Prevailing theories on triggering events leading to regeneration include humoral, metabolic, and flow-mediated mechanisms, the latter emphasizing the importance of shear stress mediated nitric oxide...... in the high portal pressure resection group to have functions related primarily to apoptosis, nitric oxide metabolism and oxidative stress, whereas differentially expressed genes in the low portal pressure resection group potentially regulate the cell cycle. Common to both groups was the upregulation of genes...... regulating inflammation, transport, cell proliferation, development, and protein metabolism. Also common to both groups was both up- and downregulation of genes regulating cell-cell signaling, signal transduction, cell adhesion, and translation. Genes regulating the metabolism of lipids, hormones, amines...

  2. Second-order statistics of colour codes modulate transformations that effectuate varying degrees of scene invariance and illumination invariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausfeld, Rainer; Andres, Johannes

    2002-01-01

    We argue, from an ethology-inspired perspective, that the internal concepts 'surface colours' and 'illumination colours' are part of the data format of two different representational primitives. Thus, the internal concept of 'colour' is not a unitary one but rather refers to two different types of 'data structure', each with its own proprietary types of parameters and relations. The relation of these representational structures is modulated by a class of parameterised transformations whose effects are mirrored in the idealised computational achievements of illumination invariance of colour codes, on the one hand, and scene invariance, on the other hand. Because the same characteristics of a light array reaching the eye can be physically produced in many different ways, the visual system, then, has to make an 'inference' whether a chromatic deviation of the space-averaged colour codes from the neutral point is due to a 'non-normal', ie chromatic, illumination or due to an imbalanced spectral reflectance composition. We provide evidence that the visual system uses second-order statistics of chromatic codes of a single view of a scene in order to modulate corresponding transformations. In our experiments we used centre surround configurations with inhomogeneous surrounds given by a random structure of overlapping circles, referred to as Seurat configurations. Each family of surrounds has a fixed space-average of colour codes, but differs with respect to the covariance matrix of colour codes of pixels that defines the chromatic variance along some chromatic axis and the covariance between luminance and chromatic channels. We found that dominant wavelengths of red-green equilibrium settings of the infield exhibited a stable and strong dependence on the chromatic variance of the surround. High variances resulted in a tendency towards 'scene invariance', low variances in a tendency towards 'illumination invariance' of the infield.

  3. The Degree of Financial Liberalization and Aggregated Stock-return Volatility in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umutlu, M.; Akdeniz, L.; Salih, A.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we address whether the degree of financial liberalization affects the aggregated total volatility of stock returns by considering the time-varying nature of financial liberalization. We also explore channels through which the degree of financial liberalization impacts aggregated total

  4. The master degree: A critical transition in STEM doctoral education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Sheila Edwards

    The need to broaden participation in the nation's science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) undergraduate and graduate programs is currently a matter of national urgency. The small number of women and underrepresented minorities (URM) earning doctoral degrees in STEM is particularly troubling given significant increases in the number of students earning master's degrees since 1990. In the decade between 1990 and 2000, the total number of master's recipients increased by 42%. During this same time period, the number of women earning master's degrees increased by 56%, African Americans increased by 132%, American Indians by 101%, Hispanics by 146%, and Asian Americans by 117% (Syverson, 2003). Growth in underrepresented group education at the master's level raises questions about the relationship between master's and doctoral education. Secondary data analysis of the Survey of Earned Doctorates (SED) was used to examine institutional pathways to the doctorate in STEM disciplines and transitions from master's to doctoral programs by race and gender. While the study revealed no significant gender differences in pathways, compared to White and Asian American students, URM students take significantly different pathways to the doctorate. URM students are significantly more likely to earn the bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees at three different institutions. Their path is significantly more likely to include earning a master's degree en route to the doctorate. Further, URM students are more likely to experience transition between the master's and doctoral degrees, and the transitions are not limited to those who earn master's degrees at master's-only institutions. These findings suggest that earning a master's degree is more often a stepping stone to the doctorate for URM students. Master's degree programs, therefore, have the potential to be a valuable resource for policymakers and graduate programs seeking to increase the diversity of URM students

  5. Reflux and Belching After 270 Degree Versus 360 Degree Laparoscopic Posterior Fundoplication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Joris A.; Bredenoord, Albert J.; Hazebroek, Eric J.; Broeders, Ivo A.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Smout, André J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate differences in effects of 270 degrees (270 degrees LPF) and 360 degrees laparoscopic posterior fundoplication (360 degrees LPF) on reflux characteristics and belching. Background: Three hundred sixty degrees LPF greatly reduces the ability of the stomach to vent ingested

  6. 45 CFR 2400.41 - Degree programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... degree in history or political science (including government or politics), the degree of Master of Arts in Teaching in history or political science (including government or politics), or a related master's degree in education that permits a concentration in American history, American government, social studies...

  7. How Adult Online Graduates Portray Their Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagan, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative case study investigated how adult graduates of online Bachelor's degree programs describe the online aspect of their degree. Online education is promoted as a method for adult students to access the benefits of a college degree. Therefore, it is important for prospective online students, higher education institutions and…

  8. Lens positioner with five degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobierecki, M.W.; Rienecker, F. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A device for positioning lenses precisely with five degrees of freedom (three translations and two angular rotations). The unique features of the device are its compact design, large clear aperture, and high degree of positioning accuracy combined with five degrees of freedom in axis motion. Thus, the device provides precision and flexibility in positioning of optical components

  9. Presbycusis phenotypes form a heterogeneous continuum when ordered by degree and configuration of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Paul D; Eddins, David A

    2010-06-01

    Many reports have documented age-by-frequency increases in average auditory thresholds in various human populations. Despite this, the prevalence of different patterns of hearing loss in presbycusis remains uncertain. We examined 'presbycusis phenotypes' in a database of 960 subjects (552 female, 408 male, 18-92 years) that each had 30 measures of peripheral hearing sensitivity: pure tone audiograms for left and right ears from 0.25 to 8 kHz and DPOAE for each ear with F(mean)=1-6.4 kHz. Surprisingly, the hearing phenotypes did not naturally separate into discrete classes of presbycusis. Principal component (PC) analysis revealed that two principal components account for 74% of the variance among the 30 measures of hearing. The two components represent the overall degree (PC1) and configuration of loss (Flat vs. Sloping; PC2) and the phenotypes form a continuum when plotted against them. A heuristic partitioning of this continuum produced classes of presbycusis that vary in their degree of Sloping or Flat hearing loss, suggesting that the previously reported sub-types of presbycusis arise from the categorical segregation of a continuous and heterogeneous distribution. Further, most phenotypes lie intermediate to the extremes of either Flat or Sloping loss, indicating that if audiometric configuration does predict presbycusis etiology, then a mixed origin is the most prevalent. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Varying constants, black holes, and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlip, S.

    2003-01-01

    Tentative observations and theoretical considerations have recently led to renewed interest in models of fundamental physics in which certain 'constants' vary in time. Assuming fixed black hole mass and the standard form of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, Davies, Davis and Lineweaver have argued that the laws of black hole thermodynamics disfavor models in which the fundamental electric charge e changes. I show that with these assumptions, similar considerations severely constrain 'varying speed of light' models, unless we are prepared to abandon cherished assumptions about quantum gravity. Relaxation of these assumptions permits sensible theories of quantum gravity with ''varying constants,'' but also eliminates the thermodynamic constraints, though the black hole mass spectrum may still provide some restrictions on the range of allowable models

  11. Microstructure, mechanical, and in vitro properties of mica glass-ceramics with varying fluorine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, Atiar Rahaman; Basu, Bikramjit

    2009-04-01

    The design and development of glass ceramic materials provide us the unique opportunity to study the microstructure development with changes in either base glass composition or heat treatment conditions as well as to understand processing-microstructure-property (mechanical/biological) relationship. In the present work, it is demonstrated how various crystal morphology can develop when F(-) content in base glass (K(2)O-B(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-MgO-F) is varied in the range of 1.08-3.85% and when all are heat treated at varying temperatures of 1000-1120 degrees C. For some selected heat treatment temperature, the heat treatment time is also varied over 4-24 h. It was established that with increase in fluoride content in the glass composition, the crystal volume fraction of the glass-ceramic decreases. Using 1.08% fluoride, more than 80% crystal volume fraction could be achieved in the K(2)O-B(2)O(3)-Al(2)O(3)-SiO(2)-MgO-F system. It was observed that with lower fluoride content glass-ceramic, if heated at 1040 degrees C for 12 h, an oriented microstructure with 'envelop like' crystals can develop. For glass ceramics with higher fluorine content (2.83% or 3.85%), hexagonal-shaped crystals are formed. Importantly, high hardness of around 8 GPa has been measured in glass ceramics with maximum amount of crystals. The three-point flexural strength and elastic modulus of the glass-ceramic (heat treated at 1040 degrees C for 24 h) was 80 MPa and 69 GPa of the sample containing 3.85% fluorine, whereas, similar properties obtained for the sample containing 1.08% F(-) was 94 MPa and 57 GPa, respectively. Further, in vitro dissolution study of the all three glass-ceramic composition in artificial saliva (AS) revealed that leached fluoride ion concentration was 0.44 ppm, when the samples were immersed in AS for 8 weeks. This was much lower than the WHO recommended safety limits of 1.5 ppm. Among all the investigated glass-ceramic samples, the glass ceramic with 3.85% F

  12. "Mina olin siin" esilinastub Karlovy Varys

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil esilinastub Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest", stsenaariumi kirjutas Ilmar Raag. Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West". Esitlema sõidavad R. Vilbre, R. Sildos, R. Kaljujärv, T. Tuisk

  13. Tracking time-varying coefficient-functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Nielsen, Torben Skov; Joensen, Alfred K.

    2000-01-01

    is a combination of recursive least squares with exponential forgetting and local polynomial regression. It is argued, that it is appropriate to let the forgetting factor vary with the value of the external signal which is the argument of the coefficient functions. Some of the key properties of the modified method...... are studied by simulation...

  14. Filmihullu eluvesi voolab Karlovy Varys / Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tõnson, Margit, 1978-

    2010-01-01

    Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelisest filmifestivalist. Filmidest "Mr. Nobody" (rež. Jaco Van Dormaeli), "Kasside ema Teresa" (rež. Pawel Sala) ja "The Arbor" (rež. Clio Barnardi). Nimekiri võitnud töödest ja viimastel aastatel festivalil näidatud Eesti mängufilmidest

  15. Ellipsometry with randomly varying polarization states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, F.; Lee, C. J.; Chen, J. Q.; E. Louis,; van der Slot, P. J. M.; Boller, K. J.; F. Bijkerk,

    2012-01-01

    We show that, under the right conditions, one can make highly accurate polarization-based measurements without knowing the absolute polarization state of the probing light field. It is shown that light, passed through a randomly varying birefringent material has a well-defined orbit on the Poincar

  16. Õunpuu Karlovy Varys edukas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    45. Karlovy Vary filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" märgiti ära Veiko Õunpuu film "Püha Tõnu kiusamine". Peaauhind läks rumeenlase Cristi Puiu filmile "Aurora". Grand prix´sai Augustĺ Vila film "La mosquitera". Teisi preemiasaajaid

  17. Persistence of Women in Online Degree-Completion Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Müller

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Although online courses at postsecondary institutions promise adults access, flexibility, and convenience, many barriers to online learning remain. This article presents findings from a qualitative case study, which explored the phenomenon of undergraduate and graduate women learners’ persistence in online degree-completion programs at a college in the Northeast of the United States. Research questions asked why women learners persisted or failed to persist, and how factors supporting or hindering persistence influenced learners. Interviews with a purposeful sample of 20 participants revealed the complexity of variables affecting learners’ persistence to graduation. Findings suggested that multiple responsibilities, insufficient interaction with faculty, technology, and coursework ranked highest as barriers to women’s persistence. Strong motivation to complete degrees, engagement in the learning community, and appreciation for the convenience of an online degree-completion option facilitated persistence.

  18. Superheated emulsions in neutron spectrometry by varying ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Mala; Sawamura, Teruko

    2005-01-01

    The principle of present work lies on the dependence of the threshold neutron energy on the dimensionless quantity ''degree of metastability (ss)'' of superheated liquids. The response of the superheated emulsions consists of the drops of superheated liquid (C 2 Cl 2 F 4 , b.p. 3.77 deg. C) has been measured at different 'ss' by varying ambient pressure at different temperatures, in the presence of neutrons generated in Pb by a (γ,n) reaction from 45 MeV electron LINAC of Hokkaido University. To unfold the neutron energy spectrum, a relationship has been developed between the 'ss' of superheated liquids and the threshold neutron energy. The spectrum at the detector position has been calculated by the MCNP code and a comparison has been made with the experimental spectrum. The utilisation of 'ss' is more flexible as this relation can be applied to both positive and negative ambient pressures as well as at different ambient temperatures

  19. Bacterial Sulfate Reduction Above 100-Degrees-C in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JØRGENSEN, BB; ISAKSEN, MF; JANNASCH, HW

    1992-01-01

    -reducing bacteria was done in hot deep-sea sediments at the hydrothermal vents of the Guaymas Basin tectonic spreading center in the Gulf of California. Radiotracer studies revealed that sulfate reduction can occur at temperatures up to 110-degrees-C, with an optimum rate at 103-degrees to 106-degrees......-C. This observation expands the upper temperature limit of this process in deep-ocean sediments by 20-degrees-C and indicates the existence of an unknown groUp of hyperthermophilic bacteria with a potential importance for the biogeochemistry of sulfur above 100-degrees-C....

  20. Diploma to degree 1976 to 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The debate on degree education for radiographers began in earnest in the mid-1970s. Initially the debate hinged around whether a degree education was necessary for radiographers. One argument was that it was felt that a degree would separate academic and clinical training but eventually when degrees were introduced practical skills were assessed formally for the first time; something that had not been achieved with the Diploma of the College of Radiographers (DCR). The DCR itself became a barrier to degree education as the College of Radiographers (CoR) insisted that it was the only qualification recognised for state registration and as such would have to remain embedded as a distinct qualification within a degree. A major breakthrough came when the Council for National Academic Awards (CNAA) recognised the DCR at the same level as an ordinary degree. Around the same time the CoR published its Degree Rationale which announced a change in policy by not insisting that the DCR was sacrosanct. Developments followed rapidly and the first honours degree in radiography was validated in 1989 despite opposition from scientific officers at the Department of Health. Degrees were approved for state registration and radiography became a graduate profession by 1993 following years of debate and after overcoming opposition from both within and external to the profession.

  1. Estimation of thermal sensation during varied air temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuura, T; Tabuchi, R; Iwanaga, K; Harada, H; Kikuchi, Y

    1998-03-01

    Seven male students were exposed to four varied air temperature environments: hot (37 degrees C) to neutral (27 degrees C) (HN), neutral to hot (NH), cool (17 degrees C) to neutral (CN), and neutral to cool (NC). The air temperature was maintained at the first condition for 20 min, then was changed to the second condition after 15 min and was held there for 20 min. Each subject wore a T-shirt, briefs, trunks, and socks. Each sat on a chair and was continuously evaluated for thermal sensation, thermal comfort, and air velocity sensation. Some physiological and thermal parameters were also measured every 5 s during the experiment. The correlation between thermal sensation and skin temperature at 15 sites was found to be poor. The subjects felt much warmer during the rising phase of the air temperature (CN, NH) than during the descending phase (HN, NC) at a given mean skin temperature. However, thermal sensation at the same heat flux or at the same value of the difference between skin and air temperature (delta(Tsk - Ta)) was not so different among the four experimental conditions, and the correlation between thermal sensation and heat flux or delta(Tsk - Ta) was fairly good. The multiple regression equation of the thermal sensation (TS) on 15 sites of skin temperature (Tsk; degrees C) was calculated and the coefficient of determination (R*2) was found to be 0.656. Higher coefficients of determination were found in the equations of thermal sensation for the heat flux (H; kcal.m-2.h-1) at the right and left thighs of the subjects and on delta(Tsk - Ta) (degrees C) at 4 sites. They were as follows: TS = 2.04 - 0.016 Hright - 0.036 Hleft; R*2 = 0.717, TS = 1.649 + 0.013 delta(Tsk - Ta)UpperArm - 0.036 delta(Tsk - Ta)Chest - 0.223 delta(Tsk - Ta)Thigh-0.083 delta(Tsk - Ta)LowerLeg; R*2 = 0.752, respectively.

  2. Exponential stability of fuzzy cellular neural networks with constant and time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yanqing; Tang Wansheng

    2004-01-01

    In this Letter, the global stability of delayed fuzzy cellular neural networks (FCNN) with either constant delays or time varying delays is proposed. Firstly, we give the existence and uniqueness of the equilibrium point by using the theory of topological degree and the properties of nonsingular M-matrix and the sufficient conditions for ascertaining the global exponential stability by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional. Secondly, the criteria for guaranteeing the global exponential stability of FCNN with time varying delays are given and the estimation of exponential convergence rate with regard to speed of vary of delays is presented by constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional

  3. Varied line-space gratings and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a straightforward analytical and numerical method for the design of a specific type of varied line-space grating system. The mathematical development will assume plane or nearly-plane spherical gratings which are illuminated by convergent light, which covers many interesting cases for synchrotron radiation. The gratings discussed will have straight grooves whose spacing varies across the principal plane of the grating. Focal relationships and formulae for the optical grating-pole-to-exist-slit distance and grating radius previously presented by other authors will be derived with a symbolic algebra system. It is intended to provide the optical designer with the tools necessary to design such a system properly. Finally, some possible advantages and disadvantages for application to synchrotron to synchrotron radiation beamlines will be discussed

  4. The Thermal Collector With Varied Glass Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luminosu, I.; Pop, N.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal collector with varied glass covers represents an innovation realized in order to build a collector able to reach the desired temperature by collecting the solar radiation from the smallest surface, with the highest efficiency. In the case of the thermal collector with variable cover glasses, the number of the glass plates covering the absorber increases together with the length of the circulation pipe for the working fluid. The thermal collector with varied glass covers compared to the conventional collector better meet user requirements because: for the same temperature increase, has the collecting area smaller; for the same collection area, realizes the highest temperature increase and has the highest efficiency. This works is addressed to researchers in the solar energy and to engineers responsible with air-conditioning systems design or industrial and agricultural products drying.

  5. Development of a medical academic degree system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Youxin; Peng, Xiaoxia; Song, Manshu; Guo, Xiuhua; Nelson, Hugh; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese government launched a comprehensive healthcare reform to tackle challenges to health equities. Medical education will become the key for successful healthcare reform. We describe the current status of the Chinese medical degree system and its evolution over the last 80 years. Progress has been uneven, historically punctuated most dramatically by the Cultural Revolution. There is a great regional disparity. Doctors with limited tertiary education may be licensed to practice, whereas medical graduates with advanced doctorates may have limited clinical skills. There are undefined relationships between competing tertiary training streams, the academic professional degree, and the clinical residency training programme (RTP). The perceived quality of training in both streams varies widely across China. As the degrees of master or doctor of academic medicine is seen as instrumental in career advancement, including employability in urban hospitals, attainment of this degree is sought after, yet is often unrelated to a role in health care, or is seen as superior to clinical experience. Meanwhile, the practical experience gained in some prestigious academic institutions is deprecated by the RTP and must be repeated before accreditation for clinical practice. This complexity is confusing both for students seeking the most appropriate training, and also for clinics, hospitals and universities seeking to recruit the most appropriate applicants. The future education reforms might include: 1) a domestic system of 'credits' that gives weight to quality clinical experience vs. academic publications in career advancement, enhanced harmonisation between the competing streams of the professional degree and the RTP, and promotion of mobility of staff between areas of excellence and areas of need; 2) International - a mutual professional and academic recognition between China and other countries by reference to the Bologna Accord, setting up a system of easily comparable and

  6. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  7. New varying speed of light theories

    CERN Document Server

    Magueijo, J

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying $c$, dispelling the myth that the constancy of $c$ is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a color dependent speed of light; varying $c$ induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how ``doubly special'' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space...

  8. Anistropically varying conductivity in irreversible electroporation simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarbera, Nicholas; Drapaca, Corina

    2017-11-01

    One recent area of cancer research is irreversible electroporation (IRE). Irreversible electroporation is a minimally invasive procedure where needle electrodes are inserted into the body to ablate tumor cells with electricity. The aim of this paper is to propose a mathematical model that incorporates a tissue's conductivity increasing more in the direction of the electrical field as this has been shown to occur in experiments. It was necessary to mathematically derive a valid form of the conductivity tensor such that it is dependent on the electrical field direction and can be easily implemented into numerical software. The derivation of a conductivity tensor that can take arbitrary functions for the conductivity in the directions tangent and normal to the electrical field is the main contribution of this paper. Numerical simulations were performed for isotropic-varying and anisotropic-varying conductivities to evaluate the importance of including the electrical field's direction in the formulation for conductivity. By starting from previously published experimental results, this paper derived a general formulation for an anistropic-varying tensor for implementation into irreversible electroporation modeling software. The anistropic-varying tensor formulation allows the conductivity to take into consideration both electrical field direction and magnitude, as opposed to previous published works that only took into account electrical field magnitude. The anisotropic formulation predicts roughly a five percent decrease in ablation size for the monopolar simulation and approximately a ten percent decrease in ablation size for the bipolar simulations. This is a positive result as previously reported results found the isotropic formulation to overpredict ablation size for both monopolar and bipolar simulations. Furthermore, it was also reported that the isotropic formulation overpredicts the ablation size more for the bipolar case than the monopolar case. Thus, our

  9. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  10. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  11. Wave scattering by an axisymmetric ice floe of varying thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Luke G.; Biggs, Nicholas R. T.; Porter, David

    2009-04-01

    The problem of water wave scattering by a circular ice floe, floating in fluid of finite depth, is formulated and solved numerically. Unlike previous investigations of such situations, here we allow the thickness of the floe (and the fluid depth) to vary axisymmetrically and also incorporate a realistic non-zero draught. A numerical approximation to the solution of this problem is obtained to an arbitrary degree of accuracy by combining a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation of the vertical motion with an appropriate variational principle. This numerical solution procedure builds upon the work of Bennets et al. (2007, J. Fluid Mech., 579, 413-443). As part of the numerical formulation, we utilize a Fourier cosine expansion of the azimuthal motion, resulting in a system of ordinary differential equations to solve in the radial coordinate for each azimuthal mode. The displayed results concentrate on the response of the floe rather than the scattered wave field and show that the effects of introducing the new features of varying floe thickness and a realistic draught are significant.

  12. Lichen Persistence and Recovery in Response to Varied Volcanic Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, P.; Wheeler, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions produce many ecological disturbances that structure vegetation. While lichens are sensitive to disturbances, little is known about their responses to volcanic disturbances, except for colonization of lava. We examined lichen community responses through time to different disturbances produced by the May 1, 2008 eruption of Volcan Chaiten in south-central Chile. Pre-eruption vegetation near the volcano was old-growth Valdivian temperate rainforest dominated by closed-canopy Nothofagus sp... In 2012, we installed thirteen 1-acre plots across volcanic disturbance zones on which a time-constrained search was done for all macrolichen species, each of which was assigned an approximate log10 categorical abundance. We also installed a 0.2 m2 quadrat on two representative trees per plot for repeat photography of lichen cover. We remeasured at least one plot per disturbance zone in 2014 and re-photographed tree quadrats in 2013 and 2014. We then analyzed species composition and abundance differences among disturbance zones. In 2012, the blast (pyroclastic density flow), scorch (standing scorched forest at the edge of the blast) and deep tephra (>10 cm) zones had the lowest lichen species richness (5-13 species), followed by reference (unimpacted) and shallow (lichen species since 2012 while the light tephra and reference were essentially unchanged. Gravel rain, gravel rain + pumice and flooded forest plots all had about the same number of species in 2014 as 2012. Lichen colonization and growth in tree quadrats varied widely, from very little colonization in the blast to prolific colonization in the gravel rain + pumice zone. Lichen's varied responses to different volcanic disturbances were attributable to varying degrees of mortality and subsequent availability of substrate, quantity of light and removal of competitors. While sensitive to disturbance, lichens are apparently resilient to and can quickly recolonize after a variety of large, violent volcanic

  13. The Degree of Court's Control on Arbitration under the Ethiopian Law

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Degree of Court's Control on Arbitration under the Ethiopian Law: Is It to the ... C)) reveals that courts in Ethiopia control arbitration by such avenues as appeal, ... all overlook the avenue of refusal, particularly in terms of domestic awards.

  14. Progress on MEVVA source VARIS at GSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adonin, A.; Hollinger, R.

    2018-05-01

    For the last few years, the development of the VARIS (vacuum arc ion source) was concentrated on several aspects. One of them was the production of high current ion beams of heavy metals such as Au, Pb, and Bi. The requested ion charge state for these ion species is 4+. This is quite challenging to produce in vacuum arc driven sources for reasonable beam pulse length (>120 µs) due to the physical properties of these elements. However, the situation can be dramatically improved by using the composite materials or alloys with enhanced physical properties of the cathodes. Another aspect is an increase of the beam brilliance for intense U4+ beams by the optimization of the geometry of the extraction system. A new 7-hole triode extraction system allows an increase of the extraction voltage from 30 kV to 40 kV and also reduces the outer aperture of the extracted ion beam. Thus, a record beam brilliance for the U4+ beam in front of the RFQ (Radio-Frequency Quadrupole) has been achieved, exceeding the RFQ space charge limit for an ion current of 15 mA. Several new projectiles in the middle-heavy region have been successfully developed from VARIS to fulfill the requirements of the future FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research) programs. An influence of an auxiliary gas on the production performance of certain ion charge states as well as on operation stability has been investigated. The optimization of the ion source parameters for a maximum production efficiency and highest particle current in front of the RFQ has been performed. The next important aspect of the development will be the increase of the operation repetition rate of VARIS for all elements especially for uranium to 2.7 Hz in order to provide the maximum availability of high current ion beams for future FAIR experiments.

  15. New varying speed of light theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magueijo, Joao

    2003-01-01

    We review recent work on the possibility of a varying speed of light (VSL). We start by discussing the physical meaning of a varying-c, dispelling the myth that the constancy of c is a matter of logical consistency. We then summarize the main VSL mechanisms proposed so far: hard breaking of Lorentz invariance; bimetric theories (where the speeds of gravity and light are not the same); locally Lorentz invariant VSL theories; theories exhibiting a colour-dependent speed of light; varying-c induced by extra dimensions (e.g. in the brane-world scenario); and field theories where VSL results from vacuum polarization or CPT violation. We show how VSL scenarios may solve the cosmological problems usually tackled by inflation, and also how they may produce a scale-invariant spectrum of Gaussian fluctuations, capable of explaining the WMAP data. We then review the connection between VSL and theories of quantum gravity, showing how 'doubly special' relativity has emerged as a VSL effective model of quantum space-time, with observational implications for ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) and gamma ray bursts. Some recent work on the physics of 'black' holes and other compact objects in VSL theories is also described, highlighting phenomena associated with spatial (as opposed to temporal) variations in c. Finally, we describe the observational status of the theory. The evidence is currently slim-redshift dependence in the atomic fine structure, anomalies with UHECRs, and (to a much lesser extent) the acceleration of the universe and the WMAP data. The constraints (e.g. those arising from nucleosynthesis or geological bounds) are tight but not insurmountable. We conclude with the observational predictions of the theory and the prospects for its refutation or vindication

  16. Conceptual Modeling of Time-Varying Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Heidi; Jensen, Christian S.

    2004-01-01

    A wide range of database applications manage information that varies over time. Many of the underlying database schemas of these were designed using the Entity-Relationship (ER) model. In the research community as well as in industry, it is common knowledge that the temporal aspects of the mini......-world are important, but difficult to capture using the ER model. Several enhancements to the ER model have been proposed in an attempt to support the modeling of temporal aspects of information. Common to the existing temporally extended ER models, few or no specific requirements to the models were given...

  17. A time-varying magnetic flux concentrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibret, B; Premaratne, M; Lewis, P M; Thomson, R; Fitzgerald, P B

    2016-01-01

    It is known that diverse technological applications require the use of focused magnetic fields. This has driven the quest for controlling the magnetic field. Recently, the principles in transformation optics and metamaterials have allowed the realization of practical static magnetic flux concentrators. Extending such progress, here, we propose a time-varying magnetic flux concentrator cylindrical shell that uses electric conductors and ferromagnetic materials to guide magnetic flux to its center. Its performance is discussed based on finite-element simulation results. Our proposed design has potential applications in magnetic sensors, medical devices, wireless power transfer, and near-field wireless communications. (paper)

  18. Linear Parameter Varying Control of Induction Motors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangbæk, Klaus

    The subject of this thesis is the development of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers and observers for control of induction motors. The induction motor is one of the most common machines in industrial applications. Being a highly nonlinear system, it poses challenging control problems...... for high performance applications. This thesis demonstrates how LPV control theory provides a systematic way to achieve good performance for these problems. The main contributions of this thesis are the application of the LPV control theory to induction motor control as well as various contributions...

  19. Current Trends in Communication Graduate Degrees: Survey of Communications, Advertising, PR, and IMC Graduate Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesenberry, Keith A.; Coolsen, Michael K.; Wilkerson, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    A survey of 61 master's degree advertising programs reveals significant trends in program titles, curriculum design, course delivery, and students served. The results provide insight for current and planned master's degree programs as research predicts a continued increase in demand for master's education over the next decade. Survey results are…

  20. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  1. Educational Attainment and Financial Satisfaction: The Changing Economic Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Lauren Ann

    2014-01-01

    Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…

  2. Case Study: Creation of a Degree Program in Computer Security. White Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, Barbara; Wright, Marie

    This paper reports on research into the field of computer security, and undergraduate degrees offered in that field. Research described in the paper reveals only one computer security program at the associate's degree level in the entire country. That program, at Texas State Technical College in Waco, is a 71-credit-hour program leading to an…

  3. Degrees of polarization for a quantum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Soto, L L; Soederholm, J; Yustas, E C; Klimov, A B; Bjoerk, G

    2006-01-01

    Unpolarized light is invariant with respect to any SU(2) polarization transformation. Since this fully characterizes the set of density matrices representing unpolarized states, we introduce the degree of polarization of a quantum state as its distance to the set of unpolarized states. We discuss different candidates of distance, and show that they induce fundamentally different degrees of polarization

  4. Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.

    1997-01-01

    Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a

  5. Current Trends in Associate Degree Nursing Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstone, Elaine Grant

    This study was designed to ascertain current trends in associate degree nursing programs and to discover innovative ideas and techniques which could be applied to the existing program at Miami-Dade Community College (Florida). Data was compiled from interviews with representatives of ten associate degree nursing programs in six states. Information…

  6. Competency-Based Business Degree. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2014

    2014-01-01

    In January 2015, thirteen Washington community colleges launched an online, competency-based business transfer degree--the first in the state's community and technical college system. This issue brief provides answers to commonly asked questions about the new competency-based degree.

  7. Meson degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, J.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented of the successes and shortcomings of the theory of meson degrees of freedom in nuclei with special emphasis on recent progress and on the necessity to bridge the gap with the degrees of freedom of QCD theory. (orig.)

  8. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  9. Varying prior information in Bayesian inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, Matthew; Curtis, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Bayes' rule is used to combine likelihood and prior probability distributions. The former represents knowledge derived from new data, the latter represents pre-existing knowledge; the Bayesian combination is the so-called posterior distribution, representing the resultant new state of knowledge. While varying the likelihood due to differing data observations is common, there are also situations where the prior distribution must be changed or replaced repeatedly. For example, in mixture density neural network (MDN) inversion, using current methods the neural network employed for inversion needs to be retrained every time prior information changes. We develop a method of prior replacement to vary the prior without re-training the network. Thus the efficiency of MDN inversions can be increased, typically by orders of magnitude when applied to geophysical problems. We demonstrate this for the inversion of seismic attributes in a synthetic subsurface geological reservoir model. We also present results which suggest that prior replacement can be used to control the statistical properties (such as variance) of the final estimate of the posterior in more general (e.g., Monte Carlo based) inverse problem solutions. (paper)

  10. Nonextensive dust acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, Mustapha; Tribeche, Mouloud

    2012-01-01

    Our recent analysis on nonlinear nonextensive dust-acoustic waves (DA) [Amour and Tribeche in Phys. Plasmas 17:063702, 2010] is extended to include self-consistent nonadiabatic grain charge fluctuation. The appropriate nonextensive electron charging current is rederived based on the orbit-limited motion theory. Our results reveal that the amplitude, strength and nature of the nonlinear DA waves (solitons and shocks) are extremely sensitive to the degree of ion nonextensivity. Stronger is the electron correlation, more important is the charge variation induced nonlinear wave damping. The anomalous dissipation effects may prevail over that dispersion as the electrons evolve far away from their Maxwellian equilibrium. Our investigation may be of wide relevance to astronomers and space scientists working on interstellar dusty plasmas where nonthermal distributions are turning out to be a very common and characteristic feature.

  11. Time-Varying Periodicity in Intraday Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben Gustav; Thyrsgaard, Martin; Todorov, Viktor

    We develop a nonparametric test for deciding whether return volatility exhibits time-varying intraday periodicity using a long time-series of high-frequency data. Our null hypothesis, commonly adopted in work on volatility modeling, is that volatility follows a stationary process combined...... with a constant time-of-day periodic component. We first construct time-of-day volatility estimates and studentize the high-frequency returns with these periodic components. If the intraday volatility periodicity is invariant over time, then the distribution of the studentized returns should be identical across...... with estimating volatility moments through their sample counterparts. Critical values are computed via easy-to-implement simulation. In an empirical application to S&P 500 index returns, we find strong evidence for variation in the intraday volatility pattern driven in part by the current level of volatility...

  12. Flexible time-varying filter banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuncer, Temel E.; Nguyen, Truong Q.

    1993-09-01

    Linear phase maximally flat FIR Butterworth filter approximations are discussed and a new filter design method is introduced. This variable cutoff filter design method uses the cosine modulated versions of a prototype filter. The design procedure is simple and different variants of this procedure can be used to obtain close to optimum linear phase filters. Using this method, flexible time-varying filter banks with good reconstruction error are introduced. These types of oversampled filter banks have small magnitude error which can be easily controlled by the appropriate choice of modulation frequency. This error can be further decreased by magnitude equalization without increasing the computational complexity considerably. Two dimensional design examples are also given.

  13. Behavior of varying-alpha cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, John D.; Sandvik, Haavard Bunes; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behavior of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' α(t) during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing α(t), radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which α increases, α remains constant in universes such as our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by a negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then α tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive α to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of α from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes

  14. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, James P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Fout, Nathaniel [UC DAVIS; Ma, Kwan - Liu [UC DAVIS

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the

  15. Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Herbert F

    2011-01-01

    The future challenges to medical and biological engineering, sometimes referred to as biomedical engineering or simply bioengineering, are many. Some of these are identifiable now and others will emerge from time to time as new technologies are introduced and harnessed. There is a fundamental issue regarding "Branding the bio/biomedical engineering degree" that requires a common understanding of what is meant by a B.S. degree in Biomedical Engineering, Bioengineering, or Biological Engineering. In this paper we address some of the issues involved in branding the Bio/Biomedical Engineering degree, with the aim of clarifying the Bio/Biomedical Engineering brand.

  16. Career Paths for Physics Degree Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick

    Physics degree holders have a diverse set of career opportunities open to them. So what are these opportunities? Where are they employed? How much do they earn? What skills will they need? Physics degrees make up a small proportion of the degrees conferred in the US but they play an important role in meeting workforce needs at many levels. This talk will give an overview of the employment outcomes of physics bachelors, masters and PhDs. It will discuss the diverse set fields they work in and the skills they use.

  17. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, J.R.; Shirley, D.L.

    1982-05-01

    This report presents data on the number of students enrolled and the degrees awarded in academic year 1980-81 from 73 US institutions offering degree programs in nuclear engineering or nuclear options within other engineering fields. Presented here are historical data for the last decade, which provide information such as trends by degree level, foreign national student participation, female and minority student participation, and placement of graduates. Also included is a listing of the universities by type of program and number of students

  18. Negative Impact of Employment on Engineering Student Time Management, Time to Degree, and Retention: Faculty, Administrator, and Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyson, Will

    2012-01-01

    Interviews with faculty, administrators, staff, and students at four engineering programs reveal the role of undergraduate student employment on retention and timely degree completion among engineering students. Dueling narratives reveal how student approaches to earning an engineering degree differ greatly from faculty, administrator, and staff…

  19. Psychology Degrees: Employment, Wage, and Career Trajectory Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajecki, D W; Borden, Victor M H

    2011-07-01

    Psychology is a very popular undergraduate major. Examining wage data from a range of degree holders reveals much about the expected career trajectories of those with psychology degrees. First, regarding baccalaureates, psychology and other liberal arts graduates-compared with those from certain preprofessional and technical undergraduate programs-generally fall in relatively low tiers of salary levels at both starting and later career points. Salary levels among baccalaureate alumni groups correlate with averaged measures of salary satisfaction, repeated job seeking, and perceptions of underemployment. These patterns seem to stem from the specific occupational categories (job titles) entered by graduates in psychology compared with other graduates, calling into question the employability advantage of so-called generic liberal arts skills. Second, psychology master's degree holders also generally fall in a low tier of salary among their science, engineering, and health counterparts. Third, psychology college faculty (including instructors) fall in low tiers of salary compared with their colleagues from other academic fields. Such broadly based indications of the relative economic disadvantages of psychology degrees have implications for career counseling in the field. © The Author(s) 2011.

  20. Outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Zul; Sunell, Susanne; Boschma, Geertje; Imai, Pauline; Craig, Bonnie J

    2011-03-01

    There is little published literature about the outcomes of dental hygiene baccalaureate degree education, particularly in Canada. Since there are various dental hygiene entry-to-practice educational models in Canada, exploring baccalaureate dental hygiene education is becoming an increasingly important subject. The purpose of this study was to explore the personal outcomes and dental hygiene practice outcomes of dental hygiene degree-completion education in Canada from the perspectives of diploma dental hygienists who have continued their education to the bachelor's degree level. This study employed a qualitative phenomenological design, using a maximum variation purposeful sampling strategy. Data generation occurred with sixteen dental hygienists across Canada through individual semistructured interviews. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for data analysis, involving pattern recognition and thematic development. Themes that emerged included changes in self-perception, values, and knowledge base. Changes in self-perception were reflected in a reported increase in self-confidence and perceived credibility. Changes in values included a greater appreciation for lifelong learning. Advancements in knowledge strengthened the development of specific abilities that ultimately influenced participants' dental hygiene practice. These abilities included an increased ability to think critically, to make evidence-based decisions, and to provide more comprehensive care. Participants also commented on having more career opportunities available to them outside of the private clinical practice setting. These results reveal important insights into the impact of earning a dental hygiene baccalaureate degree on oneself and one's dental hygiene practice.

  1. k-Degree Anonymity Model for Social Network Data Publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACWAN, K. R.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Publicly accessible platform for social networking has gained special attraction because of its easy data sharing. Data generated on such social network is analyzed for various activities like marketing, social psychology, etc. This requires preservation of sensitive attributes before it becomes easily accessible. Simply removing the personal identities of the users before publishing data is not enough to maintain the privacy of the individuals. The structure of the social network data itself reveals much information regarding its users and their connections. To resolve this problem, k-degree anonymous method is adopted. It emphasizes on the modification of the graph to provide at least k number of nodes that contain the same degree. However, this approach is not efficient on a huge amount of social data and the modification of the original data fails to maintain data usefulness. In addition to this, the current anonymization approaches focus on a degree sequence-based graph model which leads to major modification of the graph topological properties. In this paper, we have proposed an improved k-degree anonymity model that retain the social network structural properties and also to provide privacy to the individuals. Utility measurement approach for community based graph model is used to verify the performance of the proposed technique.

  2. Subnuclear degrees of freedom in the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krewald, S.

    1985-03-01

    The aim of the present thesis is to study the possible influence of subnuclear degrees of freedom as the Δ 33 -resonance and relativistic effects on the structure of nuclear excited states. (orig./HSI) [de

  3. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadasz, L.

    1994-01-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author)

  4. String description of quarks degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Inst. of Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1994-10-01

    This work presents a simple way of incorporating quark degrees of freedom (spin, charge and colour) into the classical string model. We introduce the model and derive from it the classical equations of motion. (author). 7 refs.

  5. Diffractometric method for determining the degree of crystallinity of materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chukhchin, D. G., E-mail: dimatsch@mail.ru; Malkov, A. V.; Tyshkunova, I. V.; Mayer, L. V.; Novozhilov, E. V. [Lomonosov Northen (Arctic) Federal University (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    A new method for determining the degree of crystallinity of a material from X-ray diffraction data has been developed. The method is based on estimating the rate of change in function I = f(2θ) in the entire range of scattering angles. A calculation is performed using the ratio of the integral modulus of the first derivative of intensity with respect to angle 2θ to the integral area under the diffraction pattern curve. The method was tested on two substances with known amorphous and crystalline components. A linear relationship is revealed between the specified ratio of crystalline and amorphous parts and the calculated crystallinity index. The proposed method allows one to estimate impartially and compare the degree of crystallinity for samples of different nature.

  6. Scattering of particles with internal degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slipushenko, S. V.; Tur, A. V.; Yanovsky, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    The scattering of particles with a small number of internal degrees of freedom is considered. Billiard formalism is used to study the scattering of two such structurally complex particles. The main scattering characteristics are found. Various types of scattering modes are revealed. In particular, a mode is detected when the velocity of motion of such particles away from each other is higher than their approach velocity before the collision. The scattering of such particles is shown to occur after a finite number of collisions. A generalized Newton law is proposed for the collision of particles with a small number of degrees of freedom, and the form of the effective coefficient of restitution is found

  7. Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Denis, E-mail: horvath.denis@gmail.com [Centre of Interdisciplinary Biosciences, Institute of Physics, Faculty of Science, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia); Brutovsky, Branislav, E-mail: branislav.brutovsky@upjs.sk [Department of Biophysics, Institute of Physics, P.J. Šafárik University in Košice, Jesenná 5, 040 01 Košice (Slovakia)

    2016-03-22

    Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.

  8. Study of selected phenotype switching strategies in time varying environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Denis; Brutovsky, Branislav

    2016-01-01

    Population heterogeneity plays an important role across many research, as well as the real-world, problems. The population heterogeneity relates to the ability of a population to cope with an environment change (or uncertainty) preventing its extinction. However, this ability is not always desirable as can be exemplified by an intratumor heterogeneity which positively correlates with the development of resistance to therapy. Causation of population heterogeneity is therefore in biology and medicine an intensively studied topic. In this paper the evolution of a specific strategy of population diversification, the phenotype switching, is studied at a conceptual level. The presented simulation model studies evolution of a large population of asexual organisms in a time-varying environment represented by a stochastic Markov process. Each organism disposes with a stochastic or nonlinear deterministic switching strategy realized by discrete-time models with evolvable parameters. We demonstrate that under rapidly varying exogenous conditions organisms operate in the vicinity of the bet-hedging strategy, while the deterministic patterns become relevant as the environmental variations are less frequent. Statistical characterization of the steady state regimes of the populations is done using the Hellinger and Kullback–Leibler functional distances and the Hamming distance. - Highlights: • Relation between phenotype switching and environment is studied. • The Markov chain Monte Carlo based model is developed. • Stochastic and deterministic strategies of phenotype switching are utilized. • Statistical measures of the dynamic heterogeneity reveal universal properties. • The results extend to higher lattice dimensions.

  9. Modelling tourists arrival using time varying parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suciptawati, P.; Sukarsa, K. G.; Kencana, Eka N.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of tourism and its related sectors to support economic development and poverty reduction in many countries increase researchers’ attentions to study and model tourists’ arrival. This work is aimed to demonstrate time varying parameter (TVP) technique to model the arrival of Korean’s tourists to Bali. The number of Korean tourists whom visiting Bali for period January 2010 to December 2015 were used to model the number of Korean’s tourists to Bali (KOR) as dependent variable. The predictors are the exchange rate of Won to IDR (WON), the inflation rate in Korea (INFKR), and the inflation rate in Indonesia (INFID). Observing tourists visit to Bali tend to fluctuate by their nationality, then the model was built by applying TVP and its parameters were approximated using Kalman Filter algorithm. The results showed all of predictor variables (WON, INFKR, INFID) significantly affect KOR. For in-sample and out-of-sample forecast with ARIMA’s forecasted values for the predictors, TVP model gave mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) as much as 11.24 percent and 12.86 percent, respectively.

  10. Microsatellites in varied arenas of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Remya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites known as simple-sequence repeats (SSRs or short-tandem repeats (STRs, represent specific sequences of DNA consisting of tandemly repeated units of one to six nucleotides. The repetitive nature of microsatellites makes them particularly prone to grow or shrink in length and these changes can have both good and bad consequences for the organisms that possess them. They are responsible for various neurological diseases and hence the same cause is now utilized for the early detection of various diseases, such as, Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder, Congenital generalized Hypertrichosis, Asthma, and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness. These agents are widely used for forensic identification and relatedness testing, and are predominant genetic markers in this area of application. The application of microsatellites is an extending web and covers the varied scenarios of science, such as, conservation biology, plant genetics, and population studies. At present, researches are progressing round the globe to extend the use of these genetic repeaters to unmask the hidden genetic secrets behind the creation of the world.

  11. Varying coefficients model with measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Greene, Tom

    2008-06-01

    We propose a semiparametric partially varying coefficient model to study the relationship between serum creatinine concentration and the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) among kidney donors and patients with chronic kidney disease. A regression model is used to relate serum creatinine to GFR and demographic factors in which coefficient of GFR is expressed as a function of age to allow its effect to be age dependent. GFR measurements obtained from the clearance of a radioactively labeled isotope are assumed to be a surrogate for the true GFR, with the relationship between measured and true GFR expressed using an additive error model. We use locally corrected score equations to estimate parameters and coefficient functions, and propose an expected generalized cross-validation (EGCV) method to select the kernel bandwidth. The performance of the proposed methods, which avoid distributional assumptions on the true GFR and residuals, is investigated by simulation. Accounting for measurement error using the proposed model reduced apparent inconsistencies in the relationship between serum creatinine and GFR among different clinical data sets derived from kidney donor and chronic kidney disease source populations.

  12. Stratospheric Impact of Varying Sea Surface Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Paul A.; Nash, Eric R.; Nielsen, Jon E.; Waugh, Darryn; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The Finite-Volume General Circulation Model (FVGCM) has been run in 50 year simulations with the: 1) 1949-1999 Hadley Centre sea surface temperatures (SST), and 2) a fixed annual cycle of SSTs. In this presentation we first show that the 1949-1999 FVGCM simulation produces a very credible stratosphere in comparison to an NCEP/NCAR reanalysis climatology. In particular, the northern hemisphere has numerous major and minor stratospheric warming, while the southern hemisphere has only a few over the 50-year simulation. During the northern hemisphere winter, temperatures are both warmer in the lower stratosphere and the polar vortex is weaker than is found in the mid-winter southern hemisphere. Mean temperature differences in the lower stratosphere are shown to be small (less than 2 K), and planetary wave forcing is found to be very consistent with the climatology. We then will show the differences between our varying SST simulation and the fixed SST simulation in both the dynamics and in two parameterized trace gases (ozone and methane). In general, differences are found to be small, with subtle changes in planetary wave forcing that lead to reduced temperatures in the SH and increased temperatures in the NH.

  13. TIME-VARYING DYNAMICAL STAR FORMATION RATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chang, Philip; Murray, Norman, E-mail: evelee@berkeley.edu [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, 60 St. George Street, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)

    2015-02-10

    We present numerical evidence of dynamic star formation in which the accreted stellar mass grows superlinearly with time, roughly as t {sup 2}. We perform simulations of star formation in self-gravitating hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence that is continuously driven. By turning the self-gravity of the gas in the simulations on or off, we demonstrate that self-gravity is the dominant physical effect setting the mass accretion rate at early times before feedback effects take over, contrary to theories of turbulence-regulated star formation. We find that gravitational collapse steepens the density profile around stars, generating the power-law tail on what is otherwise a lognormal density probability distribution function. Furthermore, we find turbulent velocity profiles to flatten inside collapsing regions, altering the size-line width relation. This local flattening reflects enhancements of turbulent velocity on small scales, as verified by changes to the velocity power spectra. Our results indicate that gas self-gravity dynamically alters both density and velocity structures in clouds, giving rise to a time-varying star formation rate. We find that a substantial fraction of the gas that forms stars arrives via low-density flows, as opposed to accreting through high-density filaments.

  14. Hydroquinone–pyrrole dyads with varied linkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of pyrroles functionalized in the 3-position with p-dimethoxybenzene via various linkers (CH2, CH2CH2, CH=CH, C≡C has been synthesized. Their electronic properties have been deduced from 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and UV–vis spectra to detect possible interactions between the two aromatic subunits. The extent of conjugation between the subunits is largely controlled by the nature of the linker, with the largest conjugation found with the trans-ethene linker and the weakest with the aliphatic linkers. DFT calculations revealed substantial changes in the HOMO–LUMO gap that correlated with the extent of conjugation found experimentally. The results of this work are expected to open up for use of the investigated compounds as components of redox-active materials in sustainable, organic electrical energy storage devices.

  15. Kinetics of swelling of polyelectrolyte gels: Fixed degree of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Swati; Kundagrami, Arindam

    2015-12-01

    The swelling kinetics of uncharged and charged polymer (polyelectrolyte) gels in salt-free conditions is studied in one dimension by solving the constitutive equation of motion (Newton's law for the elementary gel volume) of the displacement variable by two theoretical methods: one in which the classical definition of stress is used with the bulk modulus taken as a parameter, and the other in which a phenomenological expression of the osmotic stress as a function of polymer density and degree of ionization is taken as an input to the dynamics. The time-evolution profiles for spatially varying polymer density and stress, along with the location of the gel-solvent interface, are obtained from the two methods. We show that both the polymer density (volume fraction) and stress inside the gel follow expected behaviours of being maximum for the uniformly shrunken gel, and relaxing slowly to the lowest values as the gel approaches equilibrium. We further show that, by comparing the temporal profiles of the gel-solvent interface and other variables between the two methods, one may attempt to assign an effective bulk modulus to the polyelectrolyte gel as a function of the degree of ionization and other parameters of the gel such as hydrophobicity, cross-link density, and the temperature. The major result we get is that the effective bulk modulus of a polyelectrolyte gel increases monotonically with its degree of ionization. In the process of identifying the parameters for a monotonic swelling, we calculated using a well-known expression of the free energy the equilibrium results of two-phase co-existence and the critical point of a polyelectrolyte gel with a fixed degree of ionization.

  16. Temporal-varying failures of nodes in networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Georgie; Cristadoro, Giampaolo; Altmann, Eduardo G.

    2015-08-01

    We consider networks in which random walkers are removed because of the failure of specific nodes. We interpret the rate of loss as a measure of the importance of nodes, a notion we denote as failure centrality. We show that the degree of the node is not sufficient to determine this measure and that, in a first approximation, the shortest loops through the node have to be taken into account. We propose approximations of the failure centrality which are valid for temporal-varying failures, and we dwell on the possibility of externally changing the relative importance of nodes in a given network by exploiting the interference between the loops of a node and the cycles of the temporal pattern of failures. In the limit of long failure cycles we show analytically that the escape in a node is larger than the one estimated from a stochastic failure with the same failure probability. We test our general formalism in two real-world networks (air-transportation and e-mail users) and show how communities lead to deviations from predictions for failures in hubs.

  17. Time-varying long term memory in the European Union stock markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensoy, Ahmet; Tabak, Benjamin M.

    2015-10-01

    This paper proposes a new efficiency index to model time-varying inefficiency in stock markets. We focus on European stock markets and show that they have different degrees of time-varying efficiency. We observe that the 2008 global financial crisis has an adverse effect on almost all EU stock markets. However, the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has a significant adverse effect only on the markets in France, Spain and Greece. For the late members, joining EU does not have a uniform effect on stock market efficiency. Our results have important implications for policy makers, investors, risk managers and academics.

  18. Cognitive alexithymia is associated with the degree of risk for psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorien van der Velde

    Full Text Available Alexithymia is a personality construct denoting emotion processing problems. It has been suggested to encompass two dimensions: a cognitive and affective dimension. The cognitive dimension is characterized by difficulties in identifying, verbalizing and analyzing emotions, while the affective dimension reflects the level of emotional arousal and imagination. Alexithymia has been previously proposed as a risk factor for developing psychosis. More specifically, the two alexithymia dimensions might be differentially related to the vulnerability for psychosis. Therefore, we examined the two dimensions of alexithymia, measured with the BVAQ in 94 siblings of patients with schizophrenia, 52 subjects at ultra-high risk (UHR for developing psychosis, 38 patients with schizophrenia and 109 healthy controls. The results revealed that siblings and patients had higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to controls. In addition, subjects at UHR for psychosis had even higher levels of cognitive alexithymia compared to the siblings. The levels of affective alexithymia in siblings and patients were equal to controls. However, UHR individuals had significantly lower levels of affective alexithymia (i.e. higher levels of emotional arousal and fantasizing compared to controls. Alexithymia was further related to subclinical levels of negative and depressive symptoms. These findings indicate that alexithymia varies parametrically with the degree of risk for psychosis. More specifically, a type-II alexithymia pattern, with high levels of cognitive alexithymia and normal or low levels of affective alexithymia, might be a vulnerability factor for psychosis.

  19. Phase-dependent dynamic potential of magnetically coupled two-degree-of-freedom bistable energy harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilkee; Nguyen, Minh Sang; Kwon, Ojin; Kim, Young-Jin; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2016-09-28

    A system of magnetically coupled oscillators has been recently considered as a promising compact structure to integrate multiple bistable energy harvesters (BEHs), but its design is not straightforward owing to its varying potential energy pattern, which has not been understood completely yet. This study introduces the concept of phase-dependent dynamic potential in a magnetically coupled BEH system with two degrees of freedom (DOFs) to explain the underlying principle of the complicated dynamics of the system. Through theoretical simulations and analyses, two distinct dynamic regimes, called the out-of-phase and in-phase mode regimes in this report, are found to exist in the frequency regions of the 1 st and 2 nd primary intrawell resonances. For the out-of-phase mode regime, the frequency displacement (and output power) responses of the 2-DOF BEH system exhibit typical double-well dynamics, whereas for the in-phase mode regime, only single-well dynamics is observed though the system is statically bistable. These dynamic regimes are also revealed to be caused by the difference in the dynamic potential energy trajectories propagating on a high-dimensional potential energy surface. The present approach to the dynamics of the 2-DOF BEH system can be extended and applied to higher-DOF systems, which sheds light on compact and efficient designs of magnetically coupled BEH chain structures.

  20. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anya eSkatova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Different people choose which undergraduate degree to study at the university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive the undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career, intrinsic interest (Interest in the subject, an opportunity to help others (Helping and because they are looking for an easy option into higher education (Loafing. We investigated whether these motivation apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1 undergraduate (N = 989 and (2 prospective (N = 896 students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low interest in the degree. The choice of art and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples and Interest (only in undergraduate sample motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in undergraduate sample and Loafing (both samples. The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as help to improve degree programmes at universities and provide better career advice.

  1. Why do different people choose different university degrees? Motivation and the choice of degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skatova, Anya; Ferguson, Eamonn

    2014-01-01

    Different people choose undergraduate degrees to study at university for different reasons. To date, there have been limited attempts to identify individual differences in motivation that drive undergraduate degree choice. We identified that people choose university degrees for four reasons: career concerns (Career), intrinsic interest in the subject (Interest), an opportunity to help others (Helping) and because they are looking for an easy option to get into higher education (Loafing). We investigated whether these motivations apply to the choice of undergraduate degree in two samples: (1) undergraduate (N = 989) and (2) prospective (N = 896) students. We developed the Motivations Influencing Course Choice (MICC) questionnaire to measure these motivations. Scales of Helping, Career, Loafing, and Interest showed good psychometric properties, showed validity with respect to general life goals and personality traits, and predicted actual and prospective degree choices. We demonstrated that medical degrees were chosen due to a mixture of Helping and Career, while engineering degrees were associated with Career and low Interest in the degree. The choice of arts and humanities degrees was driven by Interest and low concern about future career, accompanied with high Loafing. We also demonstrated gender differences: females were high in Helping (both samples) and Interest (only in the undergraduate sample) motivation, while males scored higher in Career (only in the undergraduate sample) and Loafing (both samples). The findings can feed into both theoretical accounts of proximal motivation as well as provide help to improve degree programmes at universities and support better career advice.

  2. Timely Post-Graduate Degree Completion: A Case Study of Jamshoro Education City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagul Huma Lashari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study identifies the status of postgraduate students at the master degree level regarding their degree completion in the three public sector universities at Jamshoro Education City. The status is identified by analyzing enrolment of the postgraduate and comparing it with rate of their degree completion. In addition, the paper also discusses their characteristics which lead them towards the degree completion. For this paper, enrolment of the postgraduate students at the master level is compared with the degree completion rate of 2008 academic session only. The result shows the obvious difference between enrolment and rate of the degree completion. In total 417 postgraduate students were enrolled in 2008 session, however, only 60 (14% of students have completed their postgraduate degrees. Those who have completed their degrees, with respect to universities 6% students belong to US (University of Sindh, 22% belong to MUET (Mehran University of Engineering & Technology and 8% students belong to LUMHS (Liaquat University of Medical & Health Sciences. The demographical data of the postgraduate students has also shown some variations like gender, age, employment, and financial resources. In addition, the research requirements also vary for different postgraduate students. The research requirements include lab based, field based and library based resources. The characteristics of the postgraduate students of three public sector universities including financial resources, employment status, and working organization also show differences with each-other in terms of the degree completion.

  3. An integrative time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method for dynamic plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Yao, Bo; Zhao, Lei; Liu, Xiaotong; Yang, Min; Liu, Yanming

    2018-01-01

    The plasma sheath-surrounded hypersonic vehicle is a dynamic and time-varying medium and it is almost impossible to calculate time-varying physical parameters directly. The in-fight detection of the time-varying degree is important to understand the dynamic nature of the physical parameters and their effect on re-entry communication. In this paper, a constant envelope zero autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequence based on time-varying frequency detection and channel sounding method is proposed to detect the plasma sheath electronic density time-varying property and wireless channel characteristic. The proposed method utilizes the CAZAC sequence, which has excellent autocorrelation and spread gain characteristics, to realize dynamic time-varying detection/channel sounding under low signal-to-noise ratio in the plasma sheath environment. Theoretical simulation under a typical time-varying radio channel shows that the proposed method is capable of detecting time-variation frequency up to 200 kHz and can trace the channel amplitude and phase in the time domain well under -10 dB. Experimental results conducted in the RF modulation discharge plasma device verified the time variation detection ability in practical dynamic plasma sheath. Meanwhile, nonlinear phenomenon of dynamic plasma sheath on communication signal is observed thorough channel sounding result.

  4. Experimental effects of climate messages vary geographically

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Baobao; van der Linden, Sander; Mildenberger, Matto; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Howe, Peter D.; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2018-05-01

    Social science scholars routinely evaluate the efficacy of diverse climate frames using local convenience or nationally representative samples1-5. For example, previous research has focused on communicating the scientific consensus on climate change, which has been identified as a `gateway' cognition to other key beliefs about the issue6-9. Importantly, although these efforts reveal average public responsiveness to particular climate frames, they do not describe variation in message effectiveness at the spatial and political scales relevant for climate policymaking. Here we use a small-area estimation method to map geographical variation in public responsiveness to information about the scientific consensus as part of a large-scale randomized national experiment (n = 6,301). Our survey experiment finds that, on average, public perception of the consensus increases by 16 percentage points after message exposure. However, substantial spatial variation exists across the United States at state and local scales. Crucially, responsiveness is highest in more conservative parts of the country, leading to national convergence in perceptions of the climate science consensus across diverse political geographies. These findings not only advance a geographical understanding of how the public engages with information about scientific agreement, but will also prove useful for policymakers, practitioners and scientists engaged in climate change mitigation and adaptation.

  5. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H.

    2003-12-01

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust

  6. Developing 360 degree feedback system for KINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, In Soo; Cheon, B. M.; Kim, T. H.; Ryu, J. H. [Chungman National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    This project aims to investigate the feasibility of a 360 degree feedback systems for KINS and to design guiding rules and structures in implementing that systems. Literature survey, environmental analysis and questionnaire survey were made to ensure that 360 degree feedback is the right tool to improve performance in KINS. That review leads to conclusion that more readiness and careful feasibility review are needed before implementation of 360 degree feedback in KINS. Further the project suggests some guiding rules that can be helpful for successful implementation of that system in KINS. Those include : start with development, experiment with one department, tie it to a clear organization's goal, train everyone involve, make sure to try that system in an atmosphere of trust.

  7. Physics & Astronomy Master's Initial Employment: Data from the Degree Recipient Follow-Up Survey for the Classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Shindel, Brandon

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the characteristics and initial outcomes of exiting master's degree recipients in physics and astronomy. The report covers the degree classes of 2006, 2007 and 2008. The status of exiting physics master's varied greatly by the citizenship of the degree recipient. The majority of US citizens entered or remained in the workforce…

  8. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  9. Einstein equations and Fermion degrees of freedom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luetz, E.F.; Vasconcellos, C.A.Z. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2001-07-01

    When Dirac derived the special relativistic quantum equation which brings his name, it became evident that the spin is a consequence of the space-time geometry. However, taking gravity into account (as for, instance, in the study of neutron stars), most authors do not take into account the relation between hyperbolic geometry and spin and derive an Einstein equation which implicitly takes into account only boson degrees of freedom. In this work we introduce a consistent quantum general relativistic formalism which allows us to study the effects of the existence of fermion degrees of freedom. (author)

  10. High degree modes and instrumental effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Rabello-Soares, M C; Schou, J [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    Full-disk observations taken with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft, or the upgraded Global Oscillations Network Group (GONG) instruments, have enough spatial resolution to resolve modes up to {iota} = 1000 if not {iota} = 1500. The inclusion of such high-degree modes (i.e., {iota} {<=} 1000) improves dramatically inferences near the surface. Unfortunately, observational and instrumental effects cause the characterization of high degree modes to be quite complicated. Indeed, the characteristics of the solar acoustic spectrum are such that, for a given order, mode lifetimes get shorter and spatial leaks get closer in frequency as the degree of a mode increases. A direct consequence of this property is that individual modes are resolved only at low and intermediate degrees. At high degrees the individual modes blend into ridges and the power distribution of the ridge defines the ridge central frequency, masking the underlying mode frequency. An accurate model of the amplitude of the peaks that contribute to the ridge power distribution is needed to recover the underlying mode frequency from fitting the ridge. We present a detailed discussion of the modeling of the ridge power distribution, and the contribution of the various observational and instrumental effects on the spatial leakage, in the context of the MDI instrument. We have constructed a physically motivated model (rather than an ad hoc correction scheme) that results in a methodology that can produce unbiased estimates of high-degree modes. This requires that the instrumental characteristics are well understood, a task that has turned out to pose a major challenge. We also present our latest results, where most of the known instrumental and observational effects that affect specifically high-degree modes were removed. These new results allow us to focus our attention on changes with solar activity. Finally, we present variations of mode

  11. Independence, Odd Girth, and Average Degree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löwenstein, Christian; Pedersen, Anders Sune; Rautenbach, Dieter

    2011-01-01

      We prove several tight lower bounds in terms of the order and the average degree for the independence number of graphs that are connected and/or satisfy some odd girth condition. Our main result is the extension of a lower bound for the independence number of triangle-free graphs of maximum...... degree at most three due to Heckman and Thomas [Discrete Math 233 (2001), 233–237] to arbitrary triangle-free graphs. For connected triangle-free graphs of order n and size m, our result implies the existence of an independent set of order at least (4n−m−1) / 7.  ...

  12. Degree of Acetylization Chitosan Gonggong Snail Shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiza, H.; Iskandar, I.; Aldo, N.

    2018-04-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide obtained from the deacetylation of chitin, which is generally derived from crustacean animal waste and animal skins other sea. One marine animals that have compounds that can be processed chitin chitosan is derived from the snail Gonggong marine waters of Riau Islands province. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of chitosan from the shells of snails asetilisasi Gonggong. This research is an experimental research laboratory. The results of this study indicate that the degree of chitosan shell snail deasetilisasi Gonggong is 70.27%.

  13. Georgia Power Company's college degree program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coggin, C.L.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe Georgia Power Company's on-site college degree program for nuclear power plant personnel. In February 1986, the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission issued a policy statement concerning engineering expertise on shift (Generic Letter 86-04), which appeared in Volume 50, Number 208 of the October 28, 1985 Federal Register. One of the options available to nuclear power plant personnel to meet the requirement was the combined senior reactor operator/shift technical adviser position. One of the methods for meeting the option included a bachelor's degree in engineering technology for an accredited institution, including course work in the physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences

  14. Asymmetric vibrations of shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature and thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Miura, Kazuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    An exact method using power series expansions is presented for solving asymmetric free vibration problems for shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature and thickness. The gaverning equations of motion and the boundary conditions are derived from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian of the shells of revolution. The method is demonstrated for shells of revolution having elliptical, cycloidal, parabolical, catenary and hyperbolical meridional curvature. The natural frequencies are numerically calculated for these shells having second degree thickness variation. (author)

  15. Second-degree discrete Painleve equations conceal first-degree ones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramani, A; Grammaticos, B; Joshi, N

    2010-01-01

    We examine various second-degree difference equations which have been proposed over the years and according to their authors' claims should be integrable. This study is motivated by the fact that we consider that second-degree discrete systems cannot be integrable due to the proliferation of the images (and pre-images) of the initial point. We show that in the present cases no contradiction exists. In all cases examined, we show that there exists an underlying integrable first-degree mapping which allows us to obtain an appropriate solution of the second-degree one.

  16. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  17. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  18. Interpretability degrees of finitely axiomatized sequential theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory-like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB-have suprema. This partially answers a question posed

  19. Interpretability Degrees of Finitely Axiomatized Sequential Theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we show that the degrees of interpretability of finitely axiomatized extensions-in-the-same-language of a finitely axiomatized sequential theory —like Elementary Arithmetic EA, IΣ1, or the Gödel-Bernays theory of sets and classes GB— have suprema. This partially answers a question

  20. Purchases of Degrees from Diploma Mills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.

    In response to a request from the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs, the General Accounting Office (GAO) investigated issues concerning the proliferation of "diploma mills," which sell bogus academic degrees based on "life experience" or substandard or negligible work.…

  1. Quark degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovas, I.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental facts which can not be interpreted in terms of nucleonic degrees of freedom are reviewed. Attempts to explain these observations by the help of the notions of quark physics are indicated. Some predicted exotic states are enumerated. The most promising models of the nucleon-nucleon interactions in terms of quarks are briefly discussed. (author)

  2. PER PhDs & Bachelor's Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Susan C.

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the editor remarked to me that physics departments that offered a PhD with a specialization in Physics Education Research (PER) seemed to graduate more bachelor's degree recipients than those physics PhD departments that did not have the specialization. I was not convinced. That led to quite a bit of discussion between us. He compiled a…

  3. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  4. Euclidean distance degrees of real algebraic groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baaijens, J.A.; Draisma, J.

    2014-01-01

    We study the problem of finding, in a real algebraic matrix group, the matrix closest to a given data matrix. We do so from the algebro-geometric perspective of Euclidean distance degrees. We recover several classical results; and among the new results that we prove is a formula for the Euclidean

  5. Degree Compass: The Preferred Choice Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, Leah S.; Sanders, Anthony R.; Stewart, J. Gary

    2013-01-01

    While engaged in academic reading, a college provost converged on an idea to use a preferential approach to students' selection of college courses, similar to the recommendation ideas based on Netflix and Amazon. The result of this idea came to be known as Degree Compass and was implemented on the campus of Austin Peay State University in 2011.…

  6. Astronautics degrees for the space industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruntman, M.; Brodsky, R. F.; Erwin, D. A.; Kunc, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    The Astronautics Program (http://astronautics.usc.edu) of the University of Southern California (USC) offers a full set of undergraduate and graduate degree programs in Aerospace Engineering with emphasis in Astronautics. The Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degree programs in Astronautics combine basic science and engineering classes with specialized classes in space technology. The Certificate in Astronautics targets practicing engineers and scientists who enter space-related fields and/or who want to obtain training in specific space-related areas. Many specialized graduate classes are taught by adjunct faculty working at the leading space companies. The Master of Science degree and Certificate are available entirely through the USC Distance Education Network (DEN). Today, the Internet allows us to reach students anywhere in the world through webcasting. The majority of our graduate students, as well as those pursuing the Certificate, work full time as engineers in the space industry and government research and development centers while earning their degrees. The new world of distance learning presents new challenges and opens new opportunities. Distance learning, and particularly the introduction of webcasting, transform the organization of the graduate program and class delivery. We describe in detail the program's academic focus, student reach, and structure of program components. Program development is illustrated by the student enrollment dynamics and related industrial trends; the lessons learned emphasize the importance of feedback from the students and from the space industry.

  7. Degree Audit Systems: Are They Worth It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Virginia

    2006-01-01

    A lot of various degree audit systems are available on the market and most often they have similar features such as the functionality they each provide, the technical platforms upon which they operate, their requirements for interfacing with the local SIS, the ease of use, and the level of effort required to implement and operate. However, the…

  8. Toward the Ideal Professional Master's Degree Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Maria P.

    1999-01-01

    Outlines work accomplished at the 1998 National Communication Association Summer Conference, presenting a model for a professional master's-degree program in public relations that integrates outcomes, assessment, curriculum, and pedagogy. Outlines program outcomes, curriculum, essential curriculum-content areas, pedagogical approaches, and…

  9. Joint Supervision of Research Degrees: Second Thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourner, Tom; Hughes, Mark

    1991-01-01

    A discussion of Britain's regulation that master's and doctoral degree candidates must have two or three program supervisors identifies four potential problems: fragmentation of supervisory responsibilities; conflicting advice; unproductive games; and absence of overall perspective on the thesis. Experience with an improved, team approach is…

  10. Master Degree Modules in Nanotechnologies for Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavka Tzanova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an European project focusing on closer cooperation in the university sector and transparency of qualifications and recognition methods. It is aimed at common MSc degree level courses development for the new skills for new jobs in the multidisciplinary nanoelectronics and a new job organisation.

  11. Managing "Academic Value": The 360-Degree Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Margaret R.; Corr, Philip J.

    2018-01-01

    The "raison d'etre" of all universities is to create and deliver "academic value", which we define as the sum total of the contributions from the 360-degree "angles" of the academic community, including all categories of staff, as well as external stakeholders (e.g. regulatory, commercial, professional and community…

  12. Strategies for Pursuing a Master's Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cynthia M; McIntosh, Constance E; Mensik, Jennifer S

    2016-01-01

    Health care has become very complex and is in a constant state of change. As a result of the evolving change and increasing complexity, a more educated nursing workforce is needed (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010). It is now becoming necessary for registered nurses to earn an advanced degree to work at the highest level of their practice authority (Dracup K. Master's nursing programs. American Association of Colleges of Nursing. 2015; Institute of Medicine. The Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health. 2010.). Preparing to reenter college may be an overwhelming prospect for some registered nurses seeking an advanced degree. However, there are some simple strategies that may help sort out the many degree options, financial obligations, decisions about brick and mortar versus online learning, commitment to degree completion, and changing career paths. This article will provide the registered nurse valuable information that will assist in the exciting process of returning to college.

  13. Contribution to reconstruction of third degree rectovestibular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-02-05

    Feb 5, 2015 ... Abstract. The study was conducted on ten mares suffering from third degree rectovestibular laceration. Four uterine washes were performed in all cases by using diluted betadine (mixing 5ml of betadine antiseptic solution in 1 liter of sterile saline) to control vaginal and uterine infections before surgery.

  14. A six degrees of freedom mems manipulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, B.R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis reports about a six degrees of freedom (DOF) precision manipulator in MEMS, concerning concept generation for the manipulator followed by design and fabrication (of parts) of the proposed manipulation concept in MEMS. Researching the abilities of 6 DOF precision manipulation in MEMS is

  15. Perceived Benefits of an Undergraduate Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Cole; Martini, Tanya

    2017-01-01

    Canadian university students tend to endorse employment-related reasons for attending university ahead of other reasons such as personal satisfaction or intellectual growth. In the present study, first- and fourth-year students from a mid-sized Canadian university reported on the benefits they expected to receive from their degree and rated their…

  16. The Top 100: Graduate Degrees Conferred

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, Victor M. H.

    2011-01-01

    Recently, some critics and policymakers have started to question the value of a college education given the increasing costs of attending and the commensurate high debt levels of college graduates. Past and present studies also demonstrate that the average value masks important variation by degree level and field of study. This paper focuses on…

  17. The Value of a College Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Although parents, high school students, and most civic leaders in this country and around the world see a college degree as important, this perspective has been attacked over the last five years. Once the Great Recession began in December 2007, there were far fewer good jobs available for new college graduates. The soaring price of college had…

  18. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst

    2014-01-01

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  19. Spall behavior of cast iron with varying microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plume, Gifford; Rousseau, Carl-Ernst, E-mail: rousseau@uri.edu [Mechanical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 92 Upper College Rd., Kingston, Rhode Island 02881 (United States)

    2014-07-21

    The spall strength of cast iron with varying microstructures has been investigated using plate impact at moderate speed. Stress history measurements were made with manganin stress gauges embedded between the back face of the specimen and a low impedance polycarbonate backing. Five separate cast irons were tested. Four of these consisted of gray cast iron with graphite in flake form, with three classified as Type VII A2 and the fourth containing a bimodal distribution of Types VII A4 and VII D8. The fifth casting consisted of ductile cast iron with graphite in nodular form, classified as Type I, size class 5. The spall strength for the Type VII A2 gray cast irons varied between 40 and 370 MPa, and that of the additional gray cast iron, between 410 and 490 MPa. The spall strength of the ductile cast iron fell within the range of 0.94–1.2 GPa. It is shown that the spall strength is linked to the damage level at the spall plane, where an increased level of tensile stress is required to generate higher levels of damage. Post mortem analysis was performed on the recovered samples, revealing the graphite phase to be the primary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons, where crack nucleation is directly correlated to the debonding of graphite from the metal matrix. The average length of graphite found within a casting is linked to the material's strength, where strength increases as a function of decreasing length. The morphology and mean free path of graphite precipitates further govern the subsequent coalescence of initiated cracks to form a complete fracture plane. In cases where graphite spacing is large, increased energy level is required to complete the fracture process. A secondary factor governing the spall fracture of cast irons has also been linked to the microstructure of the metal matrix, with pearlite yielding higher spall strengths than free ferrite.

  20. Titan Casts Revealing Shadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-05-01

    A rare celestial event was captured by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory as Titan -- Saturn's largest moon and the only moon in the Solar System with a thick atmosphere -- crossed in front of the X-ray bright Crab Nebula. The X-ray shadow cast by Titan allowed astronomers to make the first X-ray measurement of the extent of its atmosphere. On January 5, 2003, Titan transited the Crab Nebula, the remnant of a supernova explosion that was observed to occur in the year 1054. Although Saturn and Titan pass within a few degrees of the Crab Nebula every 30 years, they rarely pass directly in front of it. "This may have been the first transit of the Crab Nebula by Titan since the birth of the Crab Nebula," said Koji Mori of Pennsylvania State University in University Park, and lead author on an Astrophysical Journal paper describing these results. "The next similar conjunction will take place in the year 2267, so this was truly a once in a lifetime event." Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Animation of Titan's Shadow on Crab Nebula Chandra's observation revealed that the diameter of the X-ray shadow cast by Titan was larger than the diameter of its solid surface. The difference in diameters gives a measurement of about 550 miles (880 kilometers) for the height of the X-ray absorbing region of Titan's atmosphere. The extent of the upper atmosphere is consistent with, or slightly (10-15%) larger, than that implied by Voyager I observations made at radio, infrared, and ultraviolet wavelengths in 1980. "Saturn was about 5% closer to the Sun in 2003, so increased solar heating of Titan may account for some of this atmospheric expansion," said Hiroshi Tsunemi of Osaka University in Japan, one of the coauthors on the paper. The X-ray brightness and extent of the Crab Nebula made it possible to study the tiny X-ray shadow cast by Titan during its transit. By using Chandra to precisely track Titan's position, astronomers were able to measure a shadow one arcsecond in

  1. Pathways to a Four-Year Degree: Determinants of Degree Completion among Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Alberto F.; Burkum, Kurt R.; La Nasa, Steven M.

    The High School Sophomore Cohort of 1980 followed nine different pathways to a 4-year college degree. These paths were formed by a combination of different levels of academic preparation secured in high school and the first type of postsecondary institution attended. The pathway most likely to lead to a 4-year degree is one defined by acquiring…

  2. On the relationship between degree of hand-preference and degree of language lateralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Somers, Metten; Ophoff, Roel A; Boks, Marco P; Fleer, Willemien; de Visser, Kees C L; Kahn, René S; Sommer, Iris E; Aukes, M.F.

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization and hand-preference show inter-individual variation in the degree of lateralization to the left- or right, but their relation is not fully understood. Disentangling this relation could aid elucidating the mechanisms underlying these traits. The relation between degree of

  3. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2012 Survey of Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvey, Patrick; Nicholson, Starr

    2014-01-01

    Interest in astronomy degrees in the U.S. remains strong, with astronomy enrollments at or near all-time highs for the 2012-13 academic year. The total number of students taking an introductory astronomy course at a degree-granting physics or astronomy department is approaching 200,000. Enrollments in introductory astronomy courses have been…

  4. Lessons Learned: Creating an Online Business Degree from a Successful On-Campus Business Degree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordeiro, William P.; Muraoka, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    The horse has left the barn. Distance education is here to stay and the number of degree programs offered online is growing rapidly. California State University Channel Islands (CI) admitted its first students in 2002, and the undergraduate and graduate degrees in business were among its first program offerings. From its inception, the…

  5. Jamming in complex networks with degree correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pastore y Piontti, Ana L.; Braunstein, Lidia A.; Macri, Pablo A.

    2010-01-01

    We study the effects of the degree-degree correlations on the pressure congestion J when we apply a dynamical process on scale free complex networks using the gradient network approach. We find that the pressure congestion for disassortative (assortative) networks is lower (bigger) than the one for uncorrelated networks which allow us to affirm that disassortative networks enhance transport through them. This result agree with the fact that many real world transportation networks naturally evolve to this kind of correlation. We explain our results showing that for the disassortative case the clusters in the gradient network turn out to be as much elongated as possible, reducing the pressure congestion J and observing the opposite behavior for the assortative case. Finally we apply our model to real world networks, and the results agree with our theoretical model.

  6. Effective hadron degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulders, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses several topics. The first one is the importance of a consistent treatment of extended nucleons and the subsequent requirement of accounting for quark antisymmetrization. It will probably be possible to account for these effects through quark exchange currents in much of the same way as meson exchange currents at lower values of Q 2 . In order to obtain more definite answers on intrinsic properties of nucleons and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei it is important to establish to which extent hadronic degrees of freedom behaving like quasi-free nuclear constituents can be used to describe the nuclear response in inclusive and semi-inclusive electron scattering at intermediate energies

  7. Isobar degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muether, H.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given on some recent investigations of the influence of isobar degrees of freedom on the ground state properties of finite nuclei like e.g. 16 O. The nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction is constructed in the freamework of an extended one-boson-exchange (OBE) model using non-covariant, time-dependent perturbation theory. The explicit consideration of fourth-order iterative diagrams involving NΔ and ΔΔ intermediate states gives an effective NN interaction in the nuclear many-body system which is less attractive than those which are obtained treating these terms phenomenologically. Therefore the binding energy calculated in the Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approximation is smaller if these effects of isobar degrees of freedom are taken into account. This repulsive effect of isobar configurations is partly counterbalanced by the attraction obtained for three-nucleon terms with intermediate NNΔ states. (Auth.)

  8. The physical gravitational degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E; Barbour, J; Foster, B Z; Kelleher, B; Murchadha, N O

    2005-01-01

    When constructing general relativity (GR), Einstein required 4D general covariance. In contrast, we derive GR (in the compact, without boundary case) as a theory of evolving three-dimensional conformal Riemannian geometries obtained by imposing two general principles: (1) time is derived from change; (2) motion and size are relative. We write down an explicit action based on them. We obtain not only GR in the CMC gauge, in its Hamiltonian 3 + 1 reformulation, but also all the equations used in York's conformal technique for solving the initial-value problem. This shows that the independent gravitational degrees of freedom obtained by York do not arise from a gauge fixing but from hitherto unrecognized fundamental symmetry principles. They can therefore be identified as the long-sought Hamiltonian physical gravitational degrees of freedom

  9. Law Schools Customize Degrees to Students' Taste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Going to law school to get a law degree has become a little like going to an ice-cream parlor for a scoop of vanilla. Plenty of people still do it, but many schools' brochures--like the elaborate flavor-and-topping menus on ice-cream parlor walls--now tempt them with something different, something more. Law students can have their "juris doctor"…

  10. Nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees, 1994: Appendixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-05-01

    This survey is designed to include those programs sponsored by the Department of Energy. The survey is designed to include those programs offering a major in nuclear engineering or course work equivalent to a major in other engineering disciplines that prepare the graduates to perform as nuclear engineers. This survey provides data on nuclear engineering enrollments and degrees for use in labor market analyses, information on education programs for students, and information on new graduates to employers, government agencies, academia and professional societies

  11. Minimum degree and density of binary sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.

    2010-01-01

    For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...

  12. Adolescent Obesity and Future College Degree Attainment

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G.; Ngo, Long H.; Phillips, Russell S.; Wee, Christina C.

    2009-01-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14–18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also a...

  13. Chemometric, physicomechanical and rheological analysis of the sol-gel dynamics and degree of crosslinking of glycosidic polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choonara, Y E; Pillay, V; Singh, N; Ndesendo, V M K; Khan, R A

    2008-01-01

    The influence of calcium (Ca 2+ ), zinc (Zn 2+ ) and barium (Ba 2+ ) ions on the sol-gel interconversion dynamics, degree of crosslinking and the matrix resilience of crosslinked alginate gelispheres was determined. The dependent compositional and operational variables of crosslinking make it a challenging task to optimize the degree of crosslinking and the physicomechanical properties of alginate gelispheres. The combinatory approach of textural profiling, assessing pertinent rheological descriptors and chemometric model analysis of the sol-gel interconversion mechanisms and energy paradigms involved during crosslinking, hydration and erosion of gelispheres was explored. Molecular structural modelling of the gelispheres provided a mechanistic understanding of the sol-gel interconversion phenomena and their influence on the degree of crosslinking, the hydrational dynamics and gelisphere formation. Rheological analysis revealed offset yield point values of 6.1 mg ml -1 and 8.0 mg ml -1 were computed from fitted regression curves for determining the crosslinker concentration required for combinatory crosslinkers such as Ca/Zn/Ba ions and Ba/Zn, respectively. The influence of hydration on the erosion was a direct function of the gelispheres physicomechanical strength. Textural profiling characterized the gelisphere matrices for their resilience. The various crosslinkers interacted with monomeric units at varying intensities. Ba-crosslinked gelispheres were brittle with dense polymeric networks. Zn-crosslinked gelispheres produced permeable resilient matrices when hydrated and Ca-crosslinked gelispheres demonstrated intermediate resilience with greater G/M ratio alginate grades. Chemometrical analysis explicated a potential link between several phenomena such as the type of crosslinkers employed, the static shear-rate viscosity attained, the matrix resilience and the associated sol-gel mechanisms and energy paradigms of crosslinked gelispheres

  14. Depth and degree of melting of komatiites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Claude

    1992-04-01

    High pressure melting experiments have permitted new constraints to be placed on the depth and degree of partial melting of komatiites. Komatiites from Gorgona Island were formed by relatively low degrees of pseudoinvariant melting involving L + Ol + Opx + Cpx + Gt on the solidus at 40 kbar, about 130 km depth. Munro-type komatiites were separated from a harzburgite residue (L + Ol + Opx) at pressures that were poorly constrained, but were probably around 50 kbar, about 165 km depth; the degree of partial melting was less than 40 percent. Secular variations in the geochemistry of komatiites could have formed in response to a reduction in the temperature and pressure of melting with time. The 3.5 Ga Barberton komatiites and the 2.7 Ga Munro-type komatiities could have formed in plumes that were hotter than the present-day mantle by 500 deg and 300 deg, respectively. When excess temperatures are this size, melting is deeper and volcanism changes from basaltic to momatiitic. The komatiities from Gorgona Island, which are Mesozoic in age, may be representative of komatiities that are predicted to occur in oceanic plateaus of Cretaceous age throughout the Pacific (Storey et al., 1991).

  15. Fourier decomposition of spatial localization errors reveals an idiotropic dominance of an internal model of gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre

    2014-12-01

    Given its conspicuous nature, gravity has been acknowledged by several research lines as a prime factor in structuring the spatial perception of one's environment. One such line of enquiry has focused on errors in spatial localization aimed at the vanishing location of moving objects - it has been systematically reported that humans mislocalize spatial positions forward, in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, spatial localization errors were found to evolve dynamically with time in a pattern congruent with an anticipated trajectory (representational trajectory). The present study attempts to ascertain the degree to which vestibular information plays a role in these phenomena. Human observers performed a spatial localization task while tilted to varying degrees and referring to the vanishing locations of targets moving along several directions. A Fourier decomposition of the obtained spatial localization errors revealed that although spatial errors were increased "downward" mainly along the body's longitudinal axis (idiotropic dominance), the degree of misalignment between the latter and physical gravity modulated the time course of the localization responses. This pattern is surmised to reflect increased uncertainty about the internal model when faced with conflicting cues regarding the perceived "downward" direction.

  16. Joint Degree Program: the Perspective of Employers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Bilevičienė

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — the purpose of this article is to extend discussion towards the need and importance of joint degree programs in modern universities, introducing the perspective of the employers toward this question. Design/methodology/approach — the research was conducted to analyze the demand of joint degree programs from the perspective of employers, identify weak and strong aspects, opinion and demand for graduates of such programs. To achieve this purpose, a combination of theoretical and empirical methods was chosen: document analysis (previous studies, statistics was conducted and an online qualitative survey was organized. Findings — The analysis of articles, studies and statistics points out the challenges and threats faced by universities nowadays, forcing higher education institutions to find new ways to raise the quality of studies and raise the interest of employers to choose graduates from MRU, as well as the satisfaction of employers with their choice of employees. Theoretical analysis pointed out these challenges and requirements for the modern employee, summarised the challenges in preparation of IT field specialists. The conducted research results showed that the diploma of joint degree programs would not be treated as an advantage of possible employee from the perspective of employers in case some important aspects will not be taken into consideration by program creators. On the other hand, undeniably there are strong sides, such as knowledge in the fields of foreign language, international experience, innovativeness and creativeness of employees that would be treated as an advantage in the process of selection for positions of any technical support related positions. Research limitations/implications — employers, whose business activities are closely related to information technology, have been invited as experts. In addition, these experts have a good understanding of the specifics of joint degree programs. The received

  17. On the Anonymity Risk of Time-Varying User Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Puglisi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Websites and applications use personalisation services to profile their users, collect their patterns and activities and eventually use this data to provide tailored suggestions. User preferences and social interactions are therefore aggregated and analysed. Every time a user publishes a new post or creates a link with another entity, either another user, or some online resource, new information is added to the user profile. Exposing private data does not only reveal information about single users’ preferences, increasing their privacy risk, but can expose more about their network that single actors intended. This mechanism is self-evident in social networks where users receive suggestions based on their friends’ activities. We propose an information-theoretic approach to measure the differential update of the anonymity risk of time-varying user profiles. This expresses how privacy is affected when new content is posted and how much third-party services get to know about the users when a new activity is shared. We use actual Facebook data to show how our model can be applied to a real-world scenario.

  18. Time-varying multiplex network: Intralayer and interlayer synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Majhi, Soumen; Bera, Bidesh K.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-12-01

    A large class of engineered and natural systems, ranging from transportation networks to neuronal networks, are best represented by multiplex network architectures, namely a network composed of two or more different layers where the mutual interaction in each layer may differ from other layers. Here we consider a multiplex network where the intralayer coupling interactions are switched stochastically with a characteristic frequency. We explore the intralayer and interlayer synchronization of such a time-varying multiplex network. We find that the analytically derived necessary condition for intralayer and interlayer synchronization, obtained by the master stability function approach, is in excellent agreement with our numerical results. Interestingly, we clearly find that the higher frequency of switching links in the layers enhances both intralayer and interlayer synchrony, yielding larger windows of synchronization. Further, we quantify the resilience of synchronous states against random perturbations, using a global stability measure based on the concept of basin stability, and this reveals that intralayer coupling strength is most crucial for determining both intralayer and interlayer synchrony. Lastly, we investigate the robustness of interlayer synchronization against a progressive demultiplexing of the multiplex structure, and we find that for rapid switching of intralayer links, the interlayer synchronization persists even when a large number of interlayer nodes are disconnected.

  19. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab; Huang, Jianhua Z.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric

  20. Effect of Crystallisation Degree on Hardness of Basaltic Glass-Ceramics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin; Smedskjær, Morten Mattrup; Yue, Yuanzheng

    The dependence of hardness of basaltic glass-ceramics on their crystallisation degree has been explored by means of differential scanning calorimetry, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Vickers indentation. Different degrees of crystallisation in the basaltic glasses have been obtained...... by varying the temperature of heat treatment. The change of the relative degree of crystallisation with the heat treatment temperature can be described by an empirical model established in this work. The predominant crystalline phase in the glass has been identified as the pyroxene augite. The hardness...... principle calculations. It is found that the hardness of the glass phase decreases slightly with an increase in the degree of crystallisation, while that of the augite phase drastically decreases....

  1. Musculoskeletal networks reveal topological disparity in mammalian neck evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Patrick; Esteve-Altava, Borja; Fischer, Martin S

    2017-12-13

    The increase in locomotor and metabolic performance during mammalian evolution was accompanied by the limitation of the number of cervical vertebrae to only seven. In turn, nuchal muscles underwent a reorganization while forelimb muscles expanded into the neck region. As variation in the cervical spine is low, the variation in the arrangement of the neck muscles and their attachment sites (i.e., the variability of the neck's musculoskeletal organization) is thus proposed to be an important source of neck disparity across mammals. Anatomical network analysis provides a novel framework to study the organization of the anatomical arrangement, or connectivity pattern, of the bones and muscles that constitute the mammalian neck in an evolutionary context. Neck organization in mammals is characterized by a combination of conserved and highly variable network properties. We uncovered a conserved regionalization of the musculoskeletal organization of the neck into upper, mid and lower cervical modules. In contrast, there is a varying degree of complexity or specialization and of the integration of the pectoral elements. The musculoskeletal organization of the monotreme neck is distinctively different from that of therian mammals. Our findings reveal that the limited number of vertebrae in the mammalian neck does not result in a low musculoskeletal disparity when examined in an evolutionary context. However, this disparity evolved late in mammalian history in parallel with the radiation of certain lineages (e.g., cetartiodactyls, xenarthrans). Disparity is further facilitated by the enhanced incorporation of forelimb muscles into the neck and their variability in attachment sites.

  2. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  3. Comparison of linear microinstability calculations of varying input realism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.; Kinsey, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of varying 'input realism' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results

  4. Developing Your 360-Degree Leadership Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Nupur; Mohammed, Tan-Lucien; Bhargava, Puneet

    2017-09-01

    Radiologists serve in leadership roles throughout their career, making leadership education an integral part of their development. A maxim of leadership style is summarized by 360-Degree Leadership, which highlights the ability of a leader to lead from any position within the organization while relying on core characteristics to build confidence from within their team. The qualities of leadership discussed can be learned and applied by radiologists at any level. These traits can form a foundation for the leader when faced with unfavorable events, which themselves allow the leader an opportunity to build trust. Copyright © 2017 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infinite-degree-corrected stochastic block model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herlau, Tue; Schmidt, Mikkel Nørgaard; Mørup, Morten

    2014-01-01

    In stochastic block models, which are among the most prominent statistical models for cluster analysis of complex networks, clusters are defined as groups of nodes with statistically similar link probabilities within and between groups. A recent extension by Karrer and Newman [Karrer and Newman...... corrected stochastic block model as a nonparametric Bayesian model, incorporating a parameter to control the amount of degree correction that can then be inferred from data. Additionally, our formulation yields principled ways of inferring the number of groups as well as predicting missing links...

  6. Pions and other hadronic degrees of freedom in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockmann, B.; Weise, W.

    1985-01-01

    As ≥E and or ≥q is increased up to several hundreds of MeV, the explicit mesonic degrees of freedom become directly visible. The pion, in particular, is of fundamental importance. With its small mass of m/sub π/ = 140 MeV it is by far the lightest of all mesons. It is the generator of the long range nucleon-nucleon interaction. The pion Compton wavelength psi/sub π/ = Κm/sub π/c = 1.4 fm, defines the length scale of nuclear physics. As mesons become important, nucleons begin to reveal their intrinsic structure. Inseparably connected with pionic degrees of freedom is the role of the Δ(1232), the spin 3/2-isopin 3/2 isobar reached from the nucleon by a strong spin-isopin transition at an excitation energy ΔE = M/sub Δ/ - M ≅ 300 MeV, the Δ-nucleon mass difference. This paper, the position is taken that the nucleus consists of nucleons and their excited states (primarily the ≥ (1232)) which communicate by exchange of mesons (in particular: the pion). Such a description has turned out to be quite successful in correlating various phenomena and data at intermediate energies, remarkably though without the need, so far, for explicit reference to underlying quark degrees of freedom. This progress has gone parallel with the similarly successful meson exchange phenomenology of nucleon-nucleon forces at long and intermediate distances (r ≥ 0.8 fm)

  7. Holographic cinematography of time-varying reflecting and time-varying phase objects using a Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a Nd:YAG laser to record holographic motion pictures of time-varying reflecting objects and time-varying phase objects is discussed. Sample frames from both types of holographic motion pictures are presented. The holographic system discussed is intended for three-dimensional flow visualization of the time-varying flows that occur in jet-engine components.

  8. The Influence of Slowly Varying Mass on Severity of Dynamics Nonlinearity of Bearing-Rotor Systems with Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian Jiang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinearity measure is proposed to investigate the influence of slowly varying mass on severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems with pedestal looseness. A nonlinear mathematical model including the effect of slowly varying disk mass is developed for a bearing-rotor system with pedestal looseness. The varying of equivalent disk mass is described by a cosine function, and the amplitude coefficient is used as a control parameter. Then, nonlinearity measure is employed to quantify the severity of dynamics nonlinearity of bearing-rotor systems. With the increasing of looseness clearances, the curves that denote the trend of nonlinearity degree are plotted for each amplitude coefficient of mass varying. It can be concluded that larger amplitude coefficients of the disk mass varying will have more influence on the severity of dynamics nonlinearity and generation of chaotic behaviors in rotor systems with pedestal looseness.

  9. Sampling networks with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Genio, Charo; Bassler, Kevin; Erdos, Péter; Miklos, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2014-03-01

    A feature of a network known to affect its structural and dynamical properties is the presence of correlations amongst the node degrees. Degree correlations are a measure of how much the connectivity of a node influences the connectivity of its neighbours, and they are fundamental in the study of processes such as the spreading of information or epidemics, the cascading failures of damaged systems and the evolution of social relations. We introduce a method, based on novel mathematical results, that allows the exact sampling of networks where the number of connections between nodes of any given connectivity is specified. Our algorithm provides a weight associated to each sample, thereby allowing network observables to be measured according to any desired distribution, and it is guaranteed to always terminate successfully in polynomial time. Thus, our new approach provides a preferred tool for scientists to model complex systems of current relevance, and enables researchers to precisely study correlated networks with broad societal importance. CIDG acknowledges support by the European Commission's FP7 through grant No. 288021. KEB acknowledges support from the NSF through grant DMR?1206839. KEB, PE, IM and ZT acknowledge support from AFSOR and DARPA through grant FA?9550-12-1-0405.

  10. High degree-of-freedom dynamic manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Michael P.; Stephens, Benjamin; Abe, Yeuhi; Rizzi, Alfred A.

    2012-06-01

    The creation of high degree of freedom dynamic mobile manipulation techniques and behaviors will allow robots to accomplish difficult tasks in the field. We are investigating the use of the body and legs of legged robots to improve the strength, velocity, and workspace of an integrated manipulator to accomplish dynamic manipulation. This is an especially challenging task, as all of the degrees of freedom are active at all times, the dynamic forces generated are high, and the legged system must maintain robust balance throughout the duration of the tasks. To accomplish this goal, we are utilizing trajectory optimization techniques to generate feasible open-loop behaviors for our 28 dof quadruped robot (BigDog) by planning the trajectories in a 13 dimensional space. Covariance Matrix Adaptation techniques are utilized to optimize for several criteria such as payload capability and task completion speed while also obeying constraints such as torque and velocity limits, kinematic limits, and center of pressure location. These open-loop behaviors are then used to generate feed-forward terms, which are subsequently used online to improve tracking and maintain low controller gains. Some initial results on one of our existing balancing quadruped robots with an additional human-arm-like manipulator are demonstrated on robot hardware, including dynamic lifting and throwing of heavy objects 16.5kg cinder blocks, using motions that resemble a human athlete more than typical robotic motions. Increased payload capacity is accomplished through coordinated body motion.

  11. The True Gravitational Degrees Of Freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murchadha, N. o

    2011-01-01

    More than 50 years ago it was realized that General Relativity could be expressed in Hamiltonian form. Unfortunately, just like electromagnetism and Yang-Mills theory, the Einstein equations split into evolution equations and constraints which complicates matters. The 4 constraints are expressions of the gauge freedom of the theory, general covariance. One can cleanly pose initial data for the gravitational field, but this data has to satisfy the constraints. To find the independent degrees of freedom, one needs to factor the initial data by the constraints. There are many ways of doing this. I can do so in such a way as to implement the model suggested by Poincare for a well-posed dynamical system: Pick a configuration space and give the free initial data as a point of the configuration space and a tangent vector at the same point. Now, the evolution equations should give a unique curve in the same configuration space. This gives a natural definition of what I call the true gravitational degrees of freedom. (author)

  12. Neighbor Rupture Degree of Some Middle Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökşen BACAK-TURAN

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Networks have an important place in our daily lives. Internet networks, electricity networks, water networks, transportation networks, social networks and biological networks are some of the networks we run into every aspects of our lives. A network consists of centers connected by links. A network is represented when centers and connections modelled by vertices and edges, respectively. In consequence of the failure of some centers or connection lines, measurement of the resistance of the network until the communication interrupted is called vulnerability of the network. In this study, neighbor rupture degree which is a parameter that explores the vulnerability values of the resulting graphs due to the failure of some centers of a communication network and its neighboring centers becoming nonfunctional were applied to some middle graphs and neighbor rupture degree of the $M(C_{n},$ $M(P_{n},$ $M(K_{1,n},$ $M(W_{n},$ $M(P_{n}\\times K_{2}$ and $M(C_{n}\\times K_{2}$ have been found.

  13. Gauge invariance and degree of freedom count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henneaux, M.; Universite Libre de Bruxelles; Teitelboim, C.; Texas Univ., Austin; Zanelli, J.; Chile Univ., Santiago. Dept. de Fisica)

    1990-01-01

    The precise relation between the gauge transformations in lagrangian and hamiltonian form is derived for any gauge theory. It is found that in order to define a lagrangian gauge symmetry, the coefficients of the first class constraints in the hamiltonian generator of gauge transformations must obey a set of differential equations. Those equations involve, in general, the Lagrange multipliers. Their solution contains as many arbitrary functions of time as there are primary first class constraints. If n is the number of generations of constraints (primary, secondary, tertiary...), the arbitrary functions appear in the general solution together with their successive time derivatives up to order n-1. The analysis yields as by-products: (i) a systematic way to derive all the gauge symmetries of a given lagrangian; (ii) a precise criterion for counting the physical degrees of freedom of a gauge theory directly from the form of gauge transformations in lagrangian form. This last part is illustrated by means of examples. The BRST analog of the counting of physical degrees of freedom is also discussed. (orig.)

  14. Device for measuring a burnup degree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Toshiaki; Goto, Seiichiro

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To measure the burnup degree at high efficiency and accuracy. Constitution: The outer metal wall of fuel assemblies is heated under gamma radiation with long half life gamma rays in inverse proportion to the burnup degree and issues infrared radiation in proportion to the intensity of the gamma rays. An image pick-up tube is opposed to one surface of the fuel assemblies to detect the radiated infrared rays. Since the output signal from the pick-up tube is subjected to the absorptive damping by the distance between the pick-up tube and the fuel assembly, as well as water filled in the gap therebetween, it is corrected through a main amplifier comprising a signal correction circuit composed of a characteristic section inverse to the absorption property and a characteristic section inverse to the square of the distance. The corrected output signal is displayed on a display unit such as CRT or recorded in a film or a magnetic tape. (Furukawa, Y.)

  15. Epidemic spreading on preferred degree adaptive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolad, Shivakumar; Liu, Wenjia; Schmittmann, B; Zia, R K P

    2012-01-01

    We study the standard SIS model of epidemic spreading on networks where individuals have a fluctuating number of connections around a preferred degree κ. Using very simple rules for forming such preferred degree networks, we find some unusual statistical properties not found in familiar Erdös-Rényi or scale free networks. By letting κ depend on the fraction of infected individuals, we model the behavioral changes in response to how the extent of the epidemic is perceived. In our models, the behavioral adaptations can be either 'blind' or 'selective'--depending on whether a node adapts by cutting or adding links to randomly chosen partners or selectively, based on the state of the partner. For a frozen preferred network, we find that the infection threshold follows the heterogeneous mean field result λ(c)/μ = / and the phase diagram matches the predictions of the annealed adjacency matrix (AAM) approach. With 'blind' adaptations, although the epidemic threshold remains unchanged, the infection level is substantially affected, depending on the details of the adaptation. The 'selective' adaptive SIS models are most interesting. Both the threshold and the level of infection changes, controlled not only by how the adaptations are implemented but also how often the nodes cut/add links (compared to the time scales of the epidemic spreading). A simple mean field theory is presented for the selective adaptations which capture the qualitative and some of the quantitative features of the infection phase diagram.

  16. Vector-field statistics for the analysis of time varying clinical gait data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, C J; Alexander, C; Pataky, T C; Stannage, K; Reid, S; Robinson, M A

    2017-01-01

    In clinical settings, the time varying analysis of gait data relies heavily on the experience of the individual(s) assessing these biological signals. Though three dimensional kinematics are recognised as time varying waveforms (1D), exploratory statistical analysis of these data are commonly carried out with multiple discrete or 0D dependent variables. In the absence of an a priori 0D hypothesis, clinicians are at risk of making type I and II errors in their analyis of time varying gait signatures in the event statistics are used in concert with prefered subjective clinical assesment methods. The aim of this communication was to determine if vector field waveform statistics were capable of providing quantitative corroboration to practically significant differences in time varying gait signatures as determined by two clinically trained gait experts. The case study was a left hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS I) gait patient following a botulinum toxin (BoNT-A) injection to their left gastrocnemius muscle. When comparing subjective clinical gait assessments between two testers, they were in agreement with each other for 61% of the joint degrees of freedom and phases of motion analysed. For tester 1 and tester 2, they were in agreement with the vector-field analysis for 78% and 53% of the kinematic variables analysed. When the subjective analyses of tester 1 and tester 2 were pooled together and then compared to the vector-field analysis, they were in agreement for 83% of the time varying kinematic variables analysed. These outcomes demonstrate that in principle, vector-field statistics corroborates with what a team of clinical gait experts would classify as practically meaningful pre- versus post time varying kinematic differences. The potential for vector-field statistics to be used as a useful clinical tool for the objective analysis of time varying clinical gait data is established. Future research is recommended to assess the usefulness of vector-field analyses

  17. Primary and extracellular production during Austral summer at 70 degrees S, 12 degrees E, Antarctica

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pant, A

    exudation showed a significant decline with greater depth within the euphotic column. The quality of material exuded also varied. In some cases, a greater amount of aminoacids was released whereas in other cases organic acids formed the greater fraction...

  18. Biospectroscopy reveals the effect of varying water quality on tadpole tissues of the common frog (Rana temporaria)

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Becky; Halsall, Crispin James; Ferenčík, Martin; Jones, Kevin Christopher; Shore, Richard Francis; Martin, Francis Luke

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing large population declines in many regions around the world. As environmental pollution from both agricultural and urban sources has been implicated in such declines, there is a need for a biomonitoring approach to study potential impacts on this vulnerable class of organism. This study assessed the use of infrared (IR) spectroscopy as a tool to detect changes in several tissues (liver, muscle, kidney, heart and skin) of late-stage common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpol...

  19. A comparative antibody analysis of Pannexin1 expression in four rat brain regions reveals varying subcellular localizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela C Cone

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pannexin1 (Panx1 channels release cytosolic ATP in response to signaling pathways. Panx1 is highly expressed in the central nervous system. We used four antibodies with different Panx1 anti-peptide epitopes to analyze four regions of rat brain. These antibodies labeled the same bands in Western blots and had highly similar patterns of immunofluorescence in tissue culture cells expressing Panx1, but Western blots of brain lysates from Panx1 knockout and control mice showed different banding patterns. Localizations of Panx1 in brain slices were generated using automated wide-field mosaic confocal microscopy for imaging large regions of interest while retaining maximum resolution for examining cell populations and compartments. We compared Panx1 expression over the cerebellum, hippocampus with adjacent cortex, thalamus and olfactory bulb. While Panx1 localizes to the same neuronal cell types, subcellular localizations differ. Two antibodies with epitopes against the intracellular loop and one against the carboxy terminus preferentially labeled cell bodies, while an antibody raised against an N-terminal peptide highlighted neuronal processes more than cell bodies. These labeling patterns may be a reflection of different cellular and subcellular localizations of full-length and/or modified Panx1 channels where each antibody is highlighting unique or differentially accessible Panx1 populations. However, we cannot rule out that one or more of these antibodies have specificity issues. All data associated with experiments from these four antibodies are presented in a manner that allows them to be compared and our claims thoroughly evaluated, rather than eliminating results that were questionable. Each antibody is given a unique identifier through the NIF Antibody Registry that can be used to track usage of individual antibodies across papers and all image and metadata are made available in the public repository, the Cell Centered Database, for on-line viewing and download.

  20. Dynamics of soil CO2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dohyoung; Oren, Ram; Clark, James S; Palmroth, Sari; Oishi, A Christopher; McCarthy, Heather R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt

    2017-09-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO 2 efflux (F CO 2 ) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO 2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) ranging 1.0-1.8 times ambient did not affect F CO 2 . F CO 2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO 2 treatment, longer than the 10 days observed for decrease of F CO 2 after experimental blocking of C flow to belowground, but shorter than the ~13 months it took for increase of F CO 2 following the initiation of eCO 2 . The reduction of F CO 2 upon termination of enrichment (~35%) cannot be explained by the reduction of leaf area (~15%) and associated carbohydrate production and allocation, suggesting a disproportionate contraction of the belowground ecosystem components; this was consistent with the reductions in base respiration and F CO 2 -temperature sensitivity. These asymmetric responses pose a tractable challenge to process-based models attempting to isolate the effect of individual processes on F CO2 . © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dynamics of soil CO 2 efflux under varying atmospheric CO 2 concentrations reveal dominance of slow processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohyoung Kim; Ram Oren; James S. Clark; Sari Palmroth; A. Christopher Oishi; Heather R. McCarthy; Chris A. Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the effect on soil CO2 efflux (FCO2) of sudden changes in photosynthetic rates by altering CO2 concentration in plots subjected to +200 ppmv for 15 years. Five-day intervals of exposure to elevated CO2 (eCO2) ranging 1.0–1.8 times ambient did not affect FCO2. FCO2 did not decrease until 4 months after termination of the long-term eCO2 treatment, longer...

  2. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD in chitooligosaccharides (COS. This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country.

  3. Determination of the Deacetylation Degree of Chitooligosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Chuhan; Wu, Sihui; Liu, Guihua; Guo, Jiao; Su, Zhengquan

    2017-01-01

    The methods for determination of chitosan content recommended in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and the European Pharmacopoeia are not applicable for evaluation of the extent of deacetylation (deacetylation degree, DD) in chitooligosaccharides (COS). This study explores two different methods for assessment of DD in COS having relatively high and low molecular weights: an acid-base titration with bromocresol green indicator and a first order derivative UV spectrophotometric method for assessment of DD in COS. The accuracy of both methods as a function of molecular weight was also investigated and compared to results obtained using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Our study demonstrates two simple, fast, widely adaptable, highly precise, accurate, and inexpensive methods for the effective determination of DD in COS, which have the potential for widespread commercial applications in developing country. PMID:29068401

  4. Degree of mapping for general relativistic kinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harriot, Tina A.; Williams, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    The Finkelstein-Misner metrical kinks of general relativity are homo topically nontrivial light cone configurations that can occur on space-time hypersurfaces. The number of kinks corresponds to the winding number of a timelike vector field that that is determined from the metric. This paper uses the usual Euclidean integral formula for degree of mapping as a starting point and so produces a covariant formula that can be applied to counting general relativistic kinks in any dimension. The kink number is calculated for some simple-to-visualize examples in 2 + 1 dimensions. These include hypersurfaces of differing topologies and so have relevance to mechanisms of topology change in semi-classical theories of quantum gravity

  5. Happiness, Psychology, and Degrees of Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavazza, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The recent emphasis on a realist ontology that cannot be overshadowed by subjectivist or relativist perspectives seems to have a number of consequences for psychology as well. My attempt here is to analyse the relationship between happiness as a state of the individual and the states of the external world and the brain events related to (or, in some hypotheses, causally responsible for) its occurrence. It can be maintained that different degrees of realism are suitable to describe the states of happiness and this fact might have relevant psychological implications, namely for the so-called positive psychology. This is especially true now that there are methods available to induce subjective states of happiness unrelated to the external conditions usually taken to be linked to such states.

  6. Performance of the ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Leite, M; The ATLAS collaboration

    2013-01-01

    The ATLAS Zero Degree Calorimeter (ZDC) at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is a set of two sampling calorimeters modules symmetrically located at 140m from the ATLAS interaction point. The ZDC covers a pseudorapidity range of |eta| > 8.3 and it is both longitudinally and transversely segmented, thus providing energy and position information of the incident particles. The ZDC is installed between the two LHC beam pipes, in a configuration such that only the neutral particles produced at the interaction region can reach this calorimeter. The ZDC uses Tungsten plates as absorber material and rods made of quartz interspersed in the absorber as active media. The energetic charged particles crossing the quartz rods produces Cherenkov light which is then detected by photomultipliers and sent to the front end electronics for processing, in a total of 120 individual electronic channels. The Tungsten plates and quartz rods are arranged in a way to segment the calorimeters in 4 longitudinal sections. The first section (...

  7. Bounded-Degree Approximations of Stochastic Networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Christopher J.; Pinar, Ali; Kiyavash, Negar

    2017-06-01

    We propose algorithms to approximate directed information graphs. Directed information graphs are probabilistic graphical models that depict causal dependencies between stochastic processes in a network. The proposed algorithms identify optimal and near-optimal approximations in terms of Kullback-Leibler divergence. The user-chosen sparsity trades off the quality of the approximation against visual conciseness and computational tractability. One class of approximations contains graphs with speci ed in-degrees. Another class additionally requires that the graph is connected. For both classes, we propose algorithms to identify the optimal approximations and also near-optimal approximations, using a novel relaxation of submodularity. We also propose algorithms to identify the r-best approximations among these classes, enabling robust decision making.

  8. Revealing the programming process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Jens; Caspersen, Michael Edelgaard

    2005-01-01

    One of the most important goals of an introductory programming course is that the students learn a systematic approach to the development of computer programs. Revealing the programming process is an important part of this; however, textbooks do not address the issue -- probably because...... the textbook medium is static and therefore ill-suited to expose the process of programming. We have found that process recordings in the form of captured narrated programming sessions are a simple, cheap, and efficient way of providing the revelation.We identify seven different elements of the programming...

  9. TypeScript revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Maharry, Dan

    2013-01-01

    TypeScript Revealed is a quick 100-page guide to Anders Hejlsberg's new take on JavaScript. With this brief, fast-paced introduction to TypeScript, .NET, Web and Windows 8 application developers who are already familiar with JavaScript will easily get up to speed with TypeScript and decide whether or not to start incorporating it into their own development. TypeScript is 'JavaScript for Application-scale development'; a superset of JavaScript that brings to it an additional object-oriented-like syntax familiar to .NET programmers that compiles down into simple, clean JavaScript that any browse

  10. Psychological factors affecting public acceptance of nuclear energy. Comparative analysis focusing on regional characteristics and degree of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Atsuyuki; Furuta, Kazuo

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to clarify how psychological factors' impact on public acceptance of nuclear energy varies with where they live and their degree of knowledge. For this purpose, we carried out questionnaire survey about nuclear energy at three urban areas and two nuclear power plant siting areas. After collecting data, we applied factor analysis to the data, and found four factors which construct cognitive structure of nuclear energy. Using multiple regression analysis, we evaluated the impact of the four factors on two issues: the decision for or against nuclear policy and the reaction to nuclear power plant siting, and compared changes of the impact by where respondents live and their degree of knowledge. Consequently, we found that the impact of all four factors on the two issues varies with where respondents live. We also found that the impact of respondents' degree of knowledge to four factors varies with where they live. (author)

  11. Chitosan as a Biomaterial: Influence of Degree of Deacetylation on Its Physiochemical, Material and Biological Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie John Ray Foster

    Full Text Available Chitosan is a biomaterial with a range of current and potential biomedical applications. Manipulation of chitosan degree of deacetylation (DDA to achieve specific properties appears feasible, but studies investigating its influence on properties are often contradictory. With a view to the potential of chitosan in the regeneration of nerve tissue, the influence of DDA on the growth and health of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs was investigated. There was a linear increase in OEC proliferation as the DDA increased from 72 to 85%. This correlated with linear increases in average surface roughness (0.62 to 0.78 μm and crystallinity (4.3 to 10.1% of the chitosan films. Mitochondrial activity and membrane integrity of OECs was significantly different for OECs cultivated on chitosan with DDAs below 75%, while those on films with DDAs up to 85% were similar to cells in asynchronous growth. Apoptotic indices and cell cycle analysis also suggested that chitosan films with DDAs below 75% were cytocompatible but induced cellular stress, while OECs grown on films fabricated from chitosan with DDAs above 75% showed no significant differences compared to those in asynchronous growth. Tensile strength and elongation to break varied with DDA from 32.3 to 45.3 MPa and 3.6 to 7.1% respectively. DDA had no significant influence on abiotic and biotic degradation profiles of the chitosan films which showed approximately 8 and 20% weight loss respectively. Finally, perceived patterns in property changes are subject to change based on potential variations in DDA analysis. NMR examination of the chitosan samples here revealed significant differences depending upon which peaks were selected for integration; 6 to 13% in DDA values within individual samples. Furthermore, differences between DDA values determined here and those reported by the commercial suppliers were significant and this may also be a source of concern when selecting commercial chitosans for

  12. The 360 Degree Fulldome Production "Clockwork Ocean"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschek, B.; Heinsohn, R.; Opitz, D.; Fischer, T.; Baschek, T.

    2016-02-01

    The investigation of submesoscale eddies and fronts is one of the leading oceanographic topics at the Ocean Sciences Meeting 2016. In order to observe these small and short-lived phenomena, planes equipped with high-resolution cameras and fast vessels were deployed during the Submesoscale Experiments (SubEx) leading to some of the first high-resolution observations of these eddies. In a future experiment, a zeppelin will be used the first time in marine sciences. The relevance of submesoscale processes for the oceans and the work of the eddy hunters is described in the fascinating 9-minute long 360 degree fulldome production Clockwork Ocean. The fully animated movie is introduced in this presentation taking the observer from the bioluminescence in the deep ocean to a view of our blue planet from space. The immersive media is used to combine fascination for a yet unknown environment with scientific education of a broad audience. Detailed background information is available at the parallax website www.clockwork-ocean.com. The Film is also available for Virtual Reality glasses and smartphones to reach a broader distribution. A unique Mobile Dome with an area of 70 m² and seats for 40 people is used for science education at events, festivals, for politicians and school classes. The spectators are also invited to participate in the experiments by presenting 360 degree footage of the measurements. The premiere of Clockwork Ocean was in July 2015 in Hamburg, Germany and will be worldwide available in English and German as of fall 2015. Clockwork Ocean is a film of the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht produced by Daniel Opitz and Ralph Heinsohn.

  13. Multiple Paths to Success: Degree Completion of 4-Year Starters Taking Various Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dai

    2016-01-01

    With the use of data from the institutional research office at a comprehensive public 4-year university, this chapter describes an in-depth analysis of the institutional attendance, transfer, and graduation of three first-time student cohorts, revealing that not all types of multi-institutional attendance hurt degree completion, and strategic…

  14. Students' Views on Thesis Supervision in International Master's Degree Programmes in Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippou, Kalypso; Kallo, Johanna; Mikkilä-Erdmann, Mirjamaija

    2017-01-01

    This paper employs an intercultural perspective to examine students' views on master's thesis supervision and the roles and responsibilities of supervisors and students. The 302 respondents who answered the online questionnaire were enrolled in international master's degree programmes in four Finnish universities. The study revealed asymmetric…

  15. Variation in meroplankton along 78 degrees E Meridian

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, T.; Peter, K.J.

    Variations along the meridian 78 degrees E between 8 degrees N and 25 degrees S, based on 43 zooplankton samples were studied. Fish larvae exhibited fluctuations in abundance (26 to 57 specimens/IOSN haul) in the three zones studied (8 degrees N-5...

  16. Outcomes of torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification performed by 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helvacioglu, Firat; Yeter, Celal; Tunc, Zeki; Sencan, Sadik

    2013-08-01

    To compare the safety and efficacy of Ozil Intelligent Phaco torsional microcoaxial phacoemulsification surgeries performed with 12-degree and 22-degree bent tips using the Infiniti Vision System. Maltepe University School of Medicine Department of Ophthalmology, Istanbul, Turkey. Comparative case series. Eyes were assigned to 2.2 mm microcoaxial phacoemulsification using the torsional mode with a 22-degree bent tip (Group 1) or a 12-degree bent tip (Group 2). The primary outcome measures were ultrasound time (UST), cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), longitudinal and torsional ultrasound (US) amplitudes, mean surgical time, mean volume of balanced salt solution used, and surgical complications. Both groups included 45 eyes. The mean UST, CDE, longitudinal US amplitude, and torsional US amplitude were 65 seconds ± 27.23 (SD), 11.53 ± 6.99, 0.22 ± 0.26, and 42.86 ± 15.64, respectively, in Group 1 and 84 ± 45.04 seconds, 16.68 ± 10.66, 0.48 ± 0.68, and 46.27 ± 14.74, respectively, in Group 2. The mean UST, CDE, and longitudinal amplitudes were significantly lower in Group 1 (P=.003, P=.008, and P=.022, respectively). The mean volume of balanced salt solution was 73.33 ± 28.58 cc in Group 1 and 82.08 ± 26.21 cc in Group 2 (P=.134). Torsional phacoemulsification performed with 22-degree bent tips provided more effective lens removal than 12-degree bent tips, with a lower UST and CDE. Copyright © 2013 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase transition of the susceptible-infected-susceptible dynamics on time-varying configuration model networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Guillaume; Young, Jean-Gabriel; Laurence, Edward; Murphy, Charles; Dubé, Louis J.

    2018-02-01

    We present a degree-based theoretical framework to study the susceptible-infected-susceptible (SIS) dynamics on time-varying (rewired) configuration model networks. Using this framework on a given degree distribution, we provide a detailed analysis of the stationary state using the rewiring rate to explore the whole range of the time variation of the structure relative to that of the SIS process. This analysis is suitable for the characterization of the phase transition and leads to three main contributions: (1) We obtain a self-consistent expression for the absorbing-state threshold, able to capture both collective and hub activation. (2) We recover the predictions of a number of existing approaches as limiting cases of our analysis, providing thereby a unifying point of view for the SIS dynamics on random networks. (3) We obtain bounds for the critical exponents of a number of quantities in the stationary state. This allows us to reinterpret the concept of hub-dominated phase transition. Within our framework, it appears as a heterogeneous critical phenomenon: observables for different degree classes have a different scaling with the infection rate. This phenomenon is followed by the successive activation of the degree classes beyond the epidemic threshold.

  18. Estimating varying coefficients for partial differential equation models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinyu; Cao, Jiguo; Carroll, Raymond J

    2017-09-01

    Partial differential equations (PDEs) are used to model complex dynamical systems in multiple dimensions, and their parameters often have important scientific interpretations. In some applications, PDE parameters are not constant but can change depending on the values of covariates, a feature that we call varying coefficients. We propose a parameter cascading method to estimate varying coefficients in PDE models from noisy data. Our estimates of the varying coefficients are shown to be consistent and asymptotically normally distributed. The performance of our method is evaluated by a simulation study and by an empirical study estimating three varying coefficients in a PDE model arising from LIDAR data. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  19. Endothelial dysfunction in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junxia; Xiang, Lin; Zhang, Bilin; Cheng, Yangyang

    2017-03-01

    To reveal the effect of hyperuricaemia on endothelial function in normoglycaemic first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In all, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with hyperuricaemia, 40 first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetes mellitus with normouricaemia and 35 healthy subjects without diabetic family history were recruited in this study. Anthropometric parameters as well as blood pressure, blood lipids, fasting blood glucose, fasting insulin, C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed with homoeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance index. To assess endothelial function, high-resolution ultrasonography was used for measuring flow- and nitroglycerine-mediated brachial artery vasodilation. When compared with control, flow-mediated dilation was lower in first-degree relatives with or without hyperuricaemia (both p type 2 diabetes mellitus (β = -0.677, p type 2 diabetes mellitus complicated with hyperuricaemia.

  20. The propagation of varied timescale perturbations in landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, N.; Johnson, K. N.; Bookhagen, B.; Chadwick, O.

    2016-12-01

    The classic assumption of steady-state landscapes greatly simplifies models of earth-surface processes. Theoretically, steady-state denotes time independence, but in real landscapes steady-state requires a timescale over which to assume (or document) no change. In the past, poor spatiotemporal resolution of eroding landscapes necessitated that shorter timescale perturbations be ignored in favor of regional formulations of rock uplift = erosion, 105, 6 years. Now, novel techniques and technologies provide an opportunity to define local landscape response to various timescales of perturbations; thus, allowing us to consider multiple steady-states on adjacent watersheds or even along a single watershed. This study seeks to identify the physical propagation of varied timescale perturbations in landscapes in order to provide an updated geomorphic context for interpreting critical zone processes. At our study site - Santa Cruz Island (SCI), CA - perturbations include sea level and climate fluctuations over 105 years coupled with pulses of overgrazing and extreme storm events during the last 200 years. Comprehensive knickpoint location maps and dated marine and fill terraces tighten the spatiotemporal constraints on erosion for SCI. In addition, the island hosts a wide range of lithologies, allowing us to compare lithologic effects on landscape response to perturbations. Our study uses lidar point clouds and high resolution (0.25 and 1 m) digital elevation model analysis to segment landscapes by the degree of their response to perturbations. Landscape response is measured by increases in topographic roughness. We ascertain roughness by analyzing the changes in different terrain attributes on multiple spatial scales: catchment, sub-catchments and individual hillslopes. Terrain attributes utilized include slope, curvature, local relief, flowpath length and contributing catchment area. Statistical analysis of these properties indicates narrower ranges in values for regions

  1. Gas metal arc welding of butt joint with varying gap width based on neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kim Hardam; Sørensen, Torben

    2005-01-01

    penetration, when the gap width is varying during the welding process. The process modeling to facilitate the mapping from joint geometry and reference weld quality to significant welding parameters, has been based on a multi-layer feed-forward network. The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm for non-linear least......This paper describes the application of the neural network technology for gas metal arc welding (GMAW) control. A system has been developed for modeling and online adjustment of welding parameters, appropriate to guarantee a certain degree of quality in the field of butt joint welding with full...

  2. Globally exponential stability condition of a class of neural networks with time-varying delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, T.-L.; Yan, J.-J.; Cheng, C.-J.; Hwang, C.-C.

    2005-01-01

    In this Letter, the globally exponential stability for a class of neural networks including Hopfield neural networks and cellular neural networks with time-varying delays is investigated. Based on the Lyapunov stability method, a novel and less conservative exponential stability condition is derived. The condition is delay-dependent and easily applied only by checking the Hamiltonian matrix with no eigenvalues on the imaginary axis instead of directly solving an algebraic Riccati equation. Furthermore, the exponential stability degree is more easily assigned than those reported in the literature. Some examples are given to demonstrate validity and excellence of the presented stability condition herein

  3. An estimation of U.S. gasoline demand. A smooth time-varying cointegration approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Y.; Zhao, Guochang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the U.S. gasoline demand from 1976 to 2008 is estimated using a time-varying cointegrating regression. We find that price elasticity increased rapidly during the late 1970s and then decreased until 1987. After a relatively small-scaled 'increase-decrease' cycle from 1987 to 2000, the price elasticity rose again after 2000. The time-varying change of the elasticities may be explained by the proportion of gasoline consumption to income and fluctuation of the degree of necessity. The result of the error correction model shows that a deviation from a long-run equilibrium is corrected quickly, and the welfare analysis illustrates there may be a gain by shifting the tax scheme from income tax to gasoline tax. (author)

  4. An estimation of U.S. gasoline demand. A smooth time-varying cointegration approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sung Y. [Department of Economics, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); The Wang Yanan Institute for Studies in Economics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhao, Guochang [Research School of Economics, College of Business and Economics, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia)

    2010-01-15

    In this paper the U.S. gasoline demand from 1976 to 2008 is estimated using a time-varying cointegrating regression. We find that price elasticity increased rapidly during the late 1970s and then decreased until 1987. After a relatively small-scaled 'increase-decrease' cycle from 1987 to 2000, the price elasticity rose again after 2000. The time-varying change of the elasticities may be explained by the proportion of gasoline consumption to income and fluctuation of the degree of necessity. The result of the error correction model shows that a deviation from a long-run equilibrium is corrected quickly, and the welfare analysis illustrates there may be a gain by shifting the tax scheme from income tax to gasoline tax. (author)

  5. LMI-based gain scheduled controller synthesis for a class of linear parameter varying systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Anderson, Brian; Lanzon, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a novel method for constructing controllers for a class of single-input multiple-output (SIMO) linear parameter varying (LPV) systems. This class of systems encompasses many physical systems, in particular systems where individual components vary with time, and is therefore...... of significant practical relevance to control designers. The control design presented in this paper has the properties that the system matrix of the closed loop is multi-affine in the various scalar parameters, and that the resulting controller ensures a certain degree of stability for the closed loop even when...... as a standard linear time-invariant (LTI) design combined with a set of linear matrix inequalities, which can be solved efficiently with software tools. The design procedure is illustrated by a numerical example....

  6. Estimation of Time-Varying Coherence and Its Application in Understanding Brain Functional Connectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Time-varying coherence is a powerful tool for revealing functional dynamics between different regions in the brain. In this paper, we address ways of estimating evolutionary spectrum and coherence using the general Cohen's class distributions. We show that the intimate connection between the Cohen's class-based spectra and the evolutionary spectra defined on the locally stationary time series can be linked by the kernel functions of the Cohen's class distributions. The time-varying spectra and coherence are further generalized with the Stockwell transform, a multiscale time-frequency representation. The Stockwell measures can be studied in the framework of the Cohen's class distributions with a generalized frequency-dependent kernel function. A magnetoencephalography study using the Stockwell coherence reveals an interesting temporal interaction between contralateral and ipsilateral motor cortices under the multisource interference task.

  7. Chemistry of plutonium revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    In 1941 one goal of the Manhattan Project was to unravel the chemistry of the synthetic element plutonium as rapidly as possible. In this paper the work carried out at Berkeley from the spring of 1942 to the summer of 1945 is described briefly. The aqueous chemistry of plutonium is quite remarkable. Important insights were obtained from tracer experiments, but the full complexity was not revealed until macroscopic amounts (milligrams) became available. Because processes for separation from fission products were based on aqueous solutions, such solution chemistry was emphasized, particularly precipitation and oxidation-reduction behavior. The latter turned out to be unusually intricate when it was discovered that two more oxidation states existed in aqueous solution than had previously been suspected. Further, an equilibrium was rapidly established among the four aqueous oxidation states, while at the same time any three were not in equilibrium. These and other observations made while doing a crash study of a previously unknown element are reported

  8. Android Emotions Revealed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlachos, Evgenios; Schärfe, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a method for designing facial interfaces for sociable android robots with respect to the fundamental rules of human affect expression. Extending the work of Paul Ekman towards a robotic direction, we follow the judgment-based approach for evaluating facial expressions to test...... findings are based on the results derived from a number of judgments, and suggest that before programming the facial expressions of a Geminoid, the Original should pass through the proposed procedure. According to our recommendations, the facial expressions of an android should be tested by judges, even...... in which case an android robot like the Geminoid|DK –a duplicate of an Original person- reveals emotions convincingly; when following an empirical perspective, or when following a theoretical one. The methodology includes the processes of acquiring the empirical data, and gathering feedback on them. Our...

  9. Hybrid Strategies for Link Adaptation Exploiting Several Degrees of Freedom in OFDM Based Broadband Wireless Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Suvra S.; Rahman, Muhammad Imadur; Wang, Yuanye

    2007-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems, there are several degrees of freedom in time and frequency domain, such as, sub-band size, forward error control coding (FEC) rate, modulation order, power level, modulation adaptation interval, coding rate adaptation interval and powe...... of the link parameters based on the channel conditions would lead to highly complex systems with high overhead. Hybrid strategies to vary the adaptation rates to tradeoff achievable efficiency and complexity are presented in this work....

  10. Macroscopic damping model for zero degree energy distribution in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Chongshou; Wang Chengshing

    1993-01-01

    A macroscopic damping model is proposed to calculate the zero degree energy distribution in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The main features of the measured distributions are reproduced, good agreement is obtained in the middle energy region while overestimation results on the high energy side. The average energy loss coefficient of incident nucleons, varying in the reasonable region 0.2-0.6, depends on beam energy and target size

  11. Hubble Images Reveal Jupiter's Auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    These images, taken by the Hubble Space Telescope, reveal changes in Jupiter's auroral emissions and how small auroral spots just outside the emission rings are linked to the planet's volcanic moon, Io. The images represent the most sensitive and sharply-detailed views ever taken of Jovian auroras.The top panel pinpoints the effects of emissions from Io, which is about the size of Earth's moon. The black-and-white image on the left, taken in visible light, shows how Io and Jupiter are linked by an invisible electrical current of charged particles called a 'flux tube.' The particles - ejected from Io (the bright spot on Jupiter's right) by volcanic eruptions - flow along Jupiter's magnetic field lines, which thread through Io, to the planet's north and south magnetic poles. This image also shows the belts of clouds surrounding Jupiter as well as the Great Red Spot.The black-and-white image on the right, taken in ultraviolet light about 15 minutes later, shows Jupiter's auroral emissions at the north and south poles. Just outside these emissions are the auroral spots. Called 'footprints,' the spots are created when the particles in Io's 'flux tube' reach Jupiter's upper atmosphere and interact with hydrogen gas, making it fluoresce. In this image, Io is not observable because it is faint in the ultraviolet.The two ultraviolet images at the bottom of the picture show how the auroral emissions change in brightness and structure as Jupiter rotates. These false-color images also reveal how the magnetic field is offset from Jupiter's spin axis by 10 to 15 degrees. In the right image, the north auroral emission is rising over the left limb; the south auroral oval is beginning to set. The image on the left, obtained on a different date, shows a full view of the north aurora, with a strong emission inside the main auroral oval.The images were taken by the telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 between May 1994 and September 1995.This image and other images and data

  12. Increasingly Global: Combining an International Business Degree with a Post-Degree Designation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel; Terry, Andy; Vibhakar, Ashvin

    2006-01-01

    In the increasingly complex and competitive global marketplace, many students seek to gain multiple skills and credentials that can aid them in their career goals. One such career strategy weds a general overarching comprehensive degree with a specific and targeted skill set. This paper provides a viable curriculum path for students who seek…

  13. Astronomy Enrollments and Degrees: Results from the 2007 Survey of Enrollments and Degrees. Focus On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Starr; Mulvey, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    The Statistical Research Center of the American Institute of Physics conducts an annual census from October through February of all 75 departments that offer degrees in astronomy in the United States. For the class of 2007, the authors received responses from 73 (97%) of these departments. Estimates were derived and included in the totals for…

  14. Making Sense of the Combined Degree Experience: The Example of Criminology Double Degrees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimshurst, Kerry; Manning, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken on student experiences of combined degrees. The few studies report that a considerable number of students experienced difficulty with the contrasting epistemic/disciplinary demands of the component programmes. A mixed-methods approach was employed to explore the experiences of graduates from four double degrees…

  15. Degree of Success? A Review of Delivering BSc Honours Degrees in an FE College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Colin; Lloyd, Mary Golding

    2009-01-01

    Widening participation initiatives led by the government encourage non-traditional students to enrol in higher education courses usually offered through a franchising arrangement between a Higher Education Institution (HEI) and a local Further Education Institution (FEI). The focus has been on the development of foundation degrees with most…

  16. Unbiasedness and time varying risk premia in the crude oil futures market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moosa, I.A.; Al-Loughani, N.E.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents some empirical evidence on market efficiency and unbiasedness in the crude oil futures market and some related issues. On the basis of monthly observations on spot and futures prices of the West Texas Intermediate (WTI) crude oil, several tests are carried out on the relevant hypotheses. The evidence suggests that futures prices are neither unbiased nor efficient forecasters of spot prices. Furthermore, a GARCH-M(1,1) model reveals the existence of a time varying risk premium. (author)

  17. Powered exoskeleton with palm degrees of freedom for hand rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Daniel S; Georgilas, Ioannis; Dagnino, Giulio; Dogramadzi, Sanja

    2015-08-01

    Robotic rehabilitation is a currently underutilised field with the potential to allow huge cost savings within healthcare. Existing rehabilitation exoskeletons oversimplify the importance of movement of the hand while undertaking everyday tasks. Within this study, an investigation was undertaken to establish the extent to which the degrees of freedom within the palm affect ability to undertake everyday tasks. Using a 5DT data glove, bend sensing resistors and restrictors of palm movement, 20 participants were recruited to complete tasks that required various hand shapes. Collected data was processed and palm arching trends were identified for each grasping task. It was found that the extent of utilizing arches in the palm varied with each exercise, but was extensively employed throughout. An exoskeleton was subsequently designed with consideration of the identified palm shapes. This design included a number of key features that accommodated for a variety of hand sizes, a novel thumb joint and a series of dorsally mounted servos. Initial exoskeleton testing was undertaken by having a participant complete the same exercises while wearing the exoskeleton. The angles formed by the user during this process were then compared to those recorded by 2 other participants who had completed the same tasks without exoskeleton. It was found that the exoskeleton was capable of forming the required arches for completing the tasks, with differences between participants attributed to individual ergonomic differences.

  18. Emotions in freely varying and mono-pitched vowels, acoustic and EGG analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaramaa, Teija; Palo, Pertti; Kankare, Elina

    2015-12-01

    Vocal emotions are expressed either by speech or singing. The difference is that in singing the pitch is predetermined while in speech it may vary freely. It was of interest to study whether there were voice quality differences between freely varying and mono-pitched vowels expressed by professional actors. Given their profession, actors have to be able to express emotions both by speech and singing. Electroglottogram and acoustic analyses of emotional utterances embedded in expressions of freely varying vowels [a:], [i:], [u:] (96 samples) and mono-pitched protracted vowels (96 samples) were studied. Contact quotient (CQEGG) was calculated using 35%, 55%, and 80% threshold levels. Three different threshold levels were used in order to evaluate their effects on emotions. Genders were studied separately. The results suggested significant gender differences for CQEGG 80% threshold level. SPL, CQEGG, and F4 were used to convey emotions, but to a lesser degree, when F0 was predetermined. Moreover, females showed fewer significant variations than males. Both genders used more hypofunctional phonation type in mono-pitched utterances than in the expressions with freely varying pitch. The present material warrants further study of the interplay between CQEGG threshold levels and formant frequencies, and listening tests to investigate the perceptual value of the mono-pitched vowels in the communication of emotions.

  19. European master degree in nuclear engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghitescu, Petre; Prisecaru, Ilie

    2003-01-01

    In order to preserve and to improve the quality of nuclear engineering education and training in Europe, as well to ensure the safe and economic operation of nuclear power plants, the European Nuclear Engineering Network Program (ENEN) started in 2002. It is a program aiming to establish and maintain a set of criteria for specific curricula of nuclear engineering education, in particular, for an European Master Degree in Nuclear Engineering (EMNE). The ENEN program is financed by the FP5 and has the wide support of IAEA, OECD and EU Commission departments dealing with the nuclear engineering knowledge management. The promising results up to now determined the creation of the Asian Nuclear Engineering Network (ANEN) in July 2003 and of the World Nuclear University (WNU) starting in September 2003. The paper presents the future structure of EMNE which will allow the harmonization of the curricula of the universities of Europe until the Bologna Convention will be fully accepted and operational in all European countries. The ENEN program has taken into consideration the curricula of 22 universities and research centres from 15 different European countries and proposed a feasible scheme which allows the undergraduates with a weak to strong nuclear background to continue their graduate education in the nuclear engineering field towards EMNE. As one of the contractors of this program, University 'Politehnica' of Bucharest brings its contribution and actively takes part in all activities establishing the EMNE. (author)

  20. Double degree master program: Optical Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Alexey; Kujawinska, Malgorzata; Livshits, Irina; Styk, Adam; Voznesenskaya, Anna; Ezhova, Kseniia; Ermolayeva, Elena; Ivanova, Tatiana; Romanova, Galina; Tolstoba, Nadezhda

    2015-10-01

    Modern tendencies of higher education require development of master programs providing achievement of learning outcomes corresponding to quickly variable job market needs. ITMO University represented by Applied and Computer Optics Department and Optical Design and Testing Laboratory jointly with Warsaw University of Technology represented by the Institute of Micromechanics and Photonics at The Faculty of Mechatronics have developed a novel international master double-degree program "Optical Design" accumulating the expertise of both universities including experienced teaching staff, educational technologies, and experimental resources. The program presents studies targeting research and professional activities in high-tech fields connected with optical and optoelectronics devices, optical engineering, numerical methods and computer technologies. This master program deals with the design of optical systems of various types, assemblies and layouts using computer modeling means; investigation of light distribution phenomena; image modeling and formation; development of optical methods for image analysis and optical metrology including optical testing, materials characterization, NDT and industrial control and monitoring. The goal of this program is training a graduate capable to solve a wide range of research and engineering tasks in optical design and metrology leading to modern manufacturing and innovation. Variability of the program structure provides its flexibility and adoption according to current job market demands and personal learning paths for each student. In addition considerable proportion of internship and research expands practical skills. Some special features of the "Optical Design" program which implements the best practices of both Universities, the challenges and lessons learnt during its realization are presented in the paper.

  1. Neural mechanisms mediating degrees of strategic uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Rosemarie; Brovelli, Andrea; Heinemann, Frank; Coricelli, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of functional magnetic resonance imaging with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i.e. strategic thinking). Participants were confronted with risky lotteries and two types of coordination games requiring different degrees of strategic thinking of the kind 'I think that you think that I think etc.' We found that the brain network mediating risk during lotteries (anterior insula, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex) is also engaged in the processing of strategic uncertainty in games. In social settings, activity in this network is modulated by the level of strategic thinking that is reflected in the activity of the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. These results suggest that strategic uncertainty is resolved by the interplay between the neural circuits mediating risk and higher order beliefs (i.e. beliefs about others' beliefs). © The Author(s) (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  2. Burnup degree measuring device for spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doi, Hideo; Imaizumi, Hideki; Endo, Yasumi; Itahara, Kuniyuki.

    1994-01-01

    The present invention provides a small-sized and convenient device for measuring a burnup degree of spent fuels, which can be installed without remodelling an existent fuel storage pool. Namely, a gamma-ray detecting portion incorporates a Cd-Te detector for measuring intensity ratio of gamma-rays. A neutron detecting portion incorporates a fission counter tube. The Cd-Te detector comprises a neutron shielding member for reducing radiation damages and a background controlling plate for reducing low energy gamma-rays entering from a collimator. Since the Cd-Td detector for use in a gamma-ray spectroscopy can be used at a normal temperature and can measure even a relatively strong radiation field, it can measure the intensity of gamma-rays from Cs-137 and Cs-134 in spent fuels accurately at a resolving power of less than 10 keV. Further, in a case where a cooling period is less than one year, gamma-rays from Rh-106 and Nb-95 can also be measured. (I.S.)

  3. How Do Parenting Concepts Vary within and between the Families?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roskam, Isabelle; Meunier, Jean Christophe

    2009-01-01

    How do parenting concepts vary within and between the families? The present study regards parenting as a complex family process by considering three concepts of parenting: styles, differential treatment and coparenting consistency. A main question was addressed: whether and how these parenting concepts vary within the families towards siblings or…

  4. Specimen loading list for the varying temperature experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qualls, A.L.; Sitterson, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The varying temperature experiment HFIR-RB-13J has been assembled and inserted in the reactor. Approximately 5300 specimens were cleaned, inspected, matched, and loaded into four specimen holders. A listing of each specimen loaded into the steady temperature holder, its position in the capsule, and the identification of the corresponding specimen loaded into the varying temperature holder is presented in this report

  5. Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Response of rabbits to varying levels of cassava and Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal diets. ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... An experiment was carried out to determine the performance, haematology, carcass characteristics and sensory evaluation of meat from rabbits (n = 30) fed varying levels of ...

  6. Analysis of time-varying psoriasis lesion image patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2004-01-01

    The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed.......The multivariate alteration detection transform is applied to pairs of within and between time varying registered psoriasis image patterns. Color band contribution to the variates explaining maximal change is analyzed....

  7. Multivariate time-varying volatility modeling using probabilistic fuzzy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Basturk, N.; Almeida, R.J.; Golan, R.; Kaymak, U.

    2016-01-01

    Methods to accurately analyze financial risk have drawn considerable attention in financial institutions. One difficulty in financial risk analysis is the fact that banks and other financial institutions invest in several assets which show time-varying volatilities and hence time-varying financial

  8. Relationship between lignin structure and delignification degree in Pinus pinaster kraft pulps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, C; Robert, D; Duarte, A P

    2008-05-01

    This study examines the structure of residual and dissolved lignins from Pinus pinaster pulps obtained at different degrees of delignification by laboratory conventional kraft pulping. The cooking H factor was varied from 85 to 8049. The residual and dissolved lignin samples were characterised by elemental analysis, residual carbohydrate content, permanganate oxidation and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The reflectance factor of the pulps was also determined in order to tentatively correlate the delignification degree and residual lignin structure with the pulp colour. The obtained results confirmed that the delignification degree increases the condensation of the lignin structure, which might have an influence upon the observed increased pulp colour. The lack of selectivity of kraft pulping process in the case of more delignified pulps was also shown.

  9. Evaluation of the degree of dispersion of organoclay on nanocomposites with PP/EPDM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, F.C.F.; Oliveira, M.G.

    2010-01-01

    Nanocomposites of thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) composed by PP/EPDM 1/1 blend and organoclay were obtained by the melt intercalation in an internal chamber mix. Initially, a masterbatch of maleinized polypropylene (PP-MA) and clay modified with alkyl ammonium salt in the ratio 3:1 was prepared, and then, added to TPE matrix to obtain loads of 2,5; 5 and 7 wt% of clay in the nanocomposite. The dispersion degree of clay in TPE matrix was evaluated by X-ray diffraction and parallel plate rheometry. The intercalation/exfoliate degree or the degree of dispersion varied with clay content, as observed by X-ray diffraction. This behavior was confirmed by the profile of the curves of elastic modulus versus frequency, which presented different slopes in the region of low frequency, due to the presence of clay and PP-MA. (author)

  10. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorpening, Benjamin T [Morgantown, WV; Thornton, Jimmy D [Morgantown, WV; Huckaby, E David [Morgantown, WV; Fincham, William [Fairmont, WV

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  11. Effects of Varying Entry Points and Trendelenburg Positioning ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... ... made in superior and inferior entry points at supine position at 0° .... Trendelenburg degree, taking all risks into consideration. As a result of our .... patient's position influences the incidence of dysrhythmias during pulmonary.

  12. Comparison of two-stage thermophilic (68 degrees C/55 degrees C) anaerobic digestion with one-stage thermophilic (55 degrees C) digestion of cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, H B; Mladenovska, Z; Westermann, P; Ahring, B K

    2004-05-05

    A two-stage 68 degrees C/55 degrees C anaerobic degradation process for treatment of cattle manure was studied. In batch experiments, an increase of the specific methane yield, ranging from 24% to 56%, was obtained when cattle manure and its fractions (fibers and liquid) were pretreated at 68 degrees C for periods of 36, 108, and 168 h, and subsequently digested at 55 degrees C. In a lab-scale experiment, the performance of a two-stage reactor system, consisting of a digester operating at 68 degrees C with a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, connected to a 55 degrees C reactor with 12-day HRT, was compared with a conventional single-stage reactor running at 55 degrees C with 15-days HRT. When an organic loading of 3 g volatile solids (VS) per liter per day was applied, the two-stage setup had a 6% to 8% higher specific methane yield and a 9% more effective VS-removal than the conventional single-stage reactor. The 68 degrees C reactor generated 7% to 9% of the total amount of methane of the two-stage system and maintained a volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration of 4.0 to 4.4 g acetate per liter. Population size and activity of aceticlastic methanogens, syntrophic bacteria, and hydrolytic/fermentative bacteria were significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. The density levels of methanogens utilizing H2/CO2 or formate were, however, in the same range for all reactors, although the degradation of these substrates was significantly lower in the 68 degrees C reactor than in the 55 degrees C reactors. Temporal temperature gradient electrophoresis profiles (TTGE) of the 68 degrees C reactor demonstrated a stable bacterial community along with a less divergent community of archaeal species. Copyright 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Multi-pulse chaotic motions of a rotor-active magnetic bearing system with time-varying stiffness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Yao, M.H.; Zhan, X.P.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the Shilnikov type multi-pulse chaotic dynamics for a rotor-active magnetic bearings (AMB) system with 8-pole legs and the time-varying stiffness. The stiffness in the AMB is considered as the time-varying in a periodic form. The dimensionless equation of motion for the rotor-AMB system with the time-varying stiffness in the horizontal and vertical directions is a two-degree-of-freedom nonlinear system with quadratic and cubic nonlinearities and parametric excitation. The asymptotic perturbation method is used to obtain the averaged equations in the case of primary parametric resonance and 1/2 subharmonic resonance. It is found from the numerical results that there are the phenomena of the Shilnikov type multi-pulse chaotic motions for the rotor-AMB system. A new jumping phenomenon is discovered in the rotor-AMB system with the time-varying stiffness

  14. Nuclear forces and quark degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R.; Demetriou, P.; Pantis, C.

    1999-01-01

    Attempts to derive the NN forces from the quark and gluon degrees of freedom have been made so far in the framework of the nonrelativistic quark-cluster model (QCM). The justification of such a model is based on the remarkable success in describing the static properties of single hadrons. In the earlier calculations, the NN s-wave phase shifts obtained with the QCM show that the model produces repulsive NN forces at short distances, which constitutes a success for the model, but fails to provide the intermediate range attraction indispensable for binding nucleons in nuclei. This drawback is amended within the context of these models, at the expense of introducing by hand intermediate-range attraction through meson-exchange potentials between quarks or/and between nucleons (quark clusters). This procedure improves the results for the phase shifts and it is often concluded that the QCM provides a good description of the short-range (SR) part of the NN potential. In our opinion, the above procedure does not provide a rigorous test of the validity of the quark-cluster model. In order to get a clear-cut conclusion one should consider the QCM in association with an accurate and well founded model for the long-medium-range (LR+MR) forces. For these reason we study a NN interaction model which satisfies this requirement. In this model, the LR+MR parts are given by the Paris NN potential and the SR part by the QCM. The quality of the model is then tested by confronting directly its predictions with data on observables rather then, as it is usually done, with phase shifts. We compute all the observables for pp and np scattering at energies below the pion production threshold for different QCM versions corresponding to different qq interactions. The results are then compared with the existing world set data. Preliminary results show that the agreement with experiment is not good. (authors)

  15. A degree of success? Messages from the new social work degree in England for nurse education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moriarty, Jo; Manthorpe, Jill; Stevens, Martin; Hussein, Shereen; Macintyre, Gillian; Orme, Joan; Green Lister, Pam; Sharpe, Endellion; Crisp, Beth

    2010-07-01

    In September 2008 the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC) approved plans to change pre-registration nursing education in England to an all-graduate qualification in 2015. In 2001 the Department of Health announced a similar decision for social work qualifying education and the first graduate-only qualifying programmes began in 2003-2004. This article presents findings from a national in-depth evaluation of the social work degree in England and describes ways in which efforts have been made to improve the quality of social workers, raise the status of the profession and link practice and theory as part of the transformation to a degree level qualification. Messages for nurse educators are drawn in the light of the professions' commonalities. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Robust Stabilization of Nonlinear Systems with Uncertain Varying Control Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiyue Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the stabilization problem for a class of nonlinear systems, whose control coefficient is uncertain and varies continuously in value and sign. The study emphasizes the development of a robust control that consists of a modified Nussbaum function to tackle the uncertain varying control coefficient. By such a method, the finite-time escape phenomenon has been prevented when the control coefficient is crossing zero and varying its sign. The proposed control guarantees the asymptotic stabilization of the system and boundedness of all closed-loop signals. The control performance is illustrated by a numerical simulation.

  17. Degrees of Truthfulness in Accepted Scientific Claims.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Hassan Mabrouk

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: Sciences adopt different methodologies in deriving claims and establishing theories. As a result, two accepted claims or theories belonging to two different sciences may not necessarily carry the same degree of truthfulness. Examining the different methodologies of deriving claims in the sciences of ʿaqīdah (Islamic Creed, fiqh (Islamic Jurisprudence and physics, the study shows that ʿaqīdah provides a holistic understanding of the universe. Physics falls short of interpreting physical phenomena unless these phenomena are looked at through the ʿaqīdah holistic view. Left to itself, error may creep into laws of physics due to the methodology of conducting the physical experiments, misinterpreting the experimental results, or accepting invalid assumptions. As for fiqh, it is found that apart from apparent errors, fiqh views cannot be falsified. It is, therefore, useful to consider ʿaqīdah as a master science which would permit all other sciences to live in harmony.

  18. Clinically relevant morphological structures in breast cancer represent transcriptionally distinct tumor cell populations with varied degrees of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44+CD24- stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denisov, Evgeny V; Skryabin, Nikolay A; Gerashchenko, Tatiana S; Tashireva, Lubov A; Wilhelm, Jochen; Buldakov, Mikhail A; Sleptcov, Aleksei A; Lebedev, Igor N; Vtorushin, Sergey V; Zavyalova, Marina V; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda V; Perelmuter, Vladimir M

    2017-09-22

    Intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer is represented by different morphological structures (tubular, alveolar, solid, trabecular, and discrete) and contributes to poor prognosis; however, the mechanisms involved remain unclear. In this study, we performed 3D imaging, laser microdissection-assisted array comparative genomic hybridization and gene expression microarray analysis of different morphological structures and examined their association with the standard immunohistochemistry scorings and CD44 + CD24 - cancer stem cells. We found that the intratumor morphological heterogeneity is not associated with chromosomal aberrations. By contrast, morphological structures were characterized by specific gene expression profiles and signaling pathways and significantly differed in progesterone receptor and Ki-67 expression. Most importantly, we observed significant differences between structures in the number of expressed genes of the epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes and the association with cancer invasion pathways. Tubular (tube-shaped) and alveolar (spheroid-shaped) structures were transcriptionally similar and demonstrated co-expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Solid (large shapeless) structures retained epithelial features but demonstrated an increase in mesenchymal traits and collective cell migration hallmarks. Mesenchymal genes and cancer invasion pathways, as well as Ki-67 expression, were enriched in trabecular (one/two rows of tumor cells) and discrete groups (single cells and/or arrangements of 2-5 cells). Surprisingly, the number of CD44 + CD24 - cells was found to be the lowest in discrete groups and the highest in alveolar and solid structures. Overall, our findings indicate the association of intratumor morphological heterogeneity in breast cancer with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and CD44 + CD24 - stemness and the appeal of this heterogeneity as a model for the study of cancer invasion.

  19. Effects of torsional degree of freedom, geometric nonlinearity, and gravity on aeroelastic behavior of large-scale horizontal axis wind turbine blades under varying wind speed conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Min-Soo; Cha, Myung-Chan; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Modern horizontal axis wind turbine blades are long, slender, and flexible structures that can undergo considerable deformation, leading to blade failures (e.g., blade-tower collision). For this reason, it is important to estimate blade behaviors accurately when designing large-scale wind turbine...

  20. Branched Chain Amino Acids Are Associated with Insulin Resistance Independent of Leptin and Adiponectin in Subjects with Varying Degrees of Glucose Tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connelly, Margery A.; Wolak-Dinsmore, Justyna; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Background: Branched chain amino acids (BCAA) may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and are associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) development. Adipokines such as leptin and adiponectin influence insulin resistance and reflect adipocyte dysfunction. We examined the

  1. Evaluating Controlled Human Malaria Infection in Kenyan Adults with Varying Degrees of Prior Exposure to Plasmodium falciparum using sporozoites administered by intramuscular injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Helena Hodgson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI studies are a vital tool to accelerate vaccine and drug development. As CHMI trials are performed in a controlled environment, they allow unprecedented, detailed evaluation of parasite growth dynamics (PGD and immunological responses. However, CHMI studies have not been routinely performed in malaria-endemic countries or used to investigate mechanisms of naturally-acquired immunity (NAI to Plasmodium falciparum. Methods: We conducted an open-label, randomized CHMI pilot-study using aseptic, cryopreserved P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ Challenge to evaluate safety, infectivity and PGD in Kenyan adults with low to moderate prior exposure to P. falciparum (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272. Results: All participants developed blood-stage infection confirmed by qPCR. However one volunteer (110 remained asymptomatic and blood-film negative until day 21 post-injection of PfSPZ Challenge. This volunteer had a reduced parasite multiplication rate (PMR (1.3 in comparison to the other 27 volunteers (median 11.1. A significant correlation was seen between PMR and screening anti-schizont ELISA OD (p=0.044, R=-0.384 but not when volunteer 110 was excluded from the analysis (p=0.112, R=-0.313. Conclusions: PfSPZ Challenge is safe and infectious in malaria-endemic populations and could be used to assess the efficacy of malaria vaccines and drugs in African populations. Whilst our findings are limited by sample size, our pilot study has demonstrated for the first time that NAI may impact on PMR post-CHMI in a detectable fashion, an important finding that should be evaluated in further CHMI studies.

  2. Effects of varying degrees of intermittent hypoxia on proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines in rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Intermittent hypoxia (IH, resulted from recurring episodes of upper airway obstruction, is the hallmark feature and the most important pathophysiologic pathway of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. IH is believed to be the most important factor causing systemic inflammation. Studies suggest that insulin resistance (IR is positively associated with OSA. In this study, we hypothesized that the recurrence of IH might result in cellular and systemic inflammation, which was manifested through the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and adipokines after IH exposure, and because IR is linked with inflammation tightly, this inflammatory situation may implicate an IR status. METHODS: We developed an IH 3T3-L1 adipocyte and rat model respectively, recapitulating the nocturnal oxygen profile in OSA. In IH cells, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB DNA binding reactions, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α, glucose transporter-1 (Glut-1, necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL -6, leptin, adiponectin mRNA transcriptional activities and protein expressions were measured. In IH rats, blood glucose, insulin, TNF-α, IL-6, leptin and adiponectin levels were analyzed. RESULTS: The insulin and blood glucose levels in rats and NF-κB DNA binding activities in cells had significantly statistical results described as severe IH>moderate IH>mild IH>sustained hypoxia>control. The mRNA and protein levels of HIF-1α and Glut-1 in severe IH group were the highest. In cellular and animal models, both the mRNA and protein levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and leptin were the highest in severe IH group, when the lowest in severe IH group for adiponectin. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress and the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines, which are the systemic inflammatory markers, are associated with IH closely and are proportional to the severity of IH. Because IR and glucose intolerance are linked with inflammation tightly, our results may implicate the clinical relationships between OSA and IR.

  3. Presence of [i]Toxocara[/i] spp. eggs in children’s recreation areas with varying degrees of access for animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Błaszkowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. The contamination, seasonal and vertical distributions of [i]Toxocara[/i] eggs in children’s recreation areas were estimated with respect to their accessibility to domestic and stray animals. [b]Materials and methods[/b]. During autumn 2011 and spring 2012, a total 88 composite samples of soil/sand (300g each were taken twice, from 2 depths, from 11 sandpits and 11 play areas situated in the city of Łódź, Poland. From the collected material, 528 samples (20g were tested using the flotation method. Half the sample sites were secured from access to dogs and cats, while the other half were not. [b]Results[/b]. The difference in the numbers of positive samples from sandpits and playing areas was significant (c 2 = 13.72, p = 0.0002. The highest rate of contamination was observed in poorly-secured play areas (15.8% of positive samples and 1.2 eggs/100 g of soil/sand. The average density of [i]Toxocara[/i] eggs in secured play areas was 6 times less than that found in unsecured areas, while secured sandpits were 3 times less contaminated than those unsecured. The contamination rate was similar in autumn 2011 and spring 2012 (6.4% and 6.8%, respectively. An inverse relationship between the sand/soil depth and number of recovered [i]Toxocara[/i] eggs was observed. Additionally, other intestinal helminth eggs (Ancylostomidae, Ascaris spp., and Trichuris spp. and oocysts of [i]Isospora[/i] spp. were also detected from soil samples collected from playing fields. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The number of [i]Toxocara[/i] eggs recovered decreased following fence construction around the examined children’s play areas, but it did not sufficiently prevent the contamination by eggs. These data indicate the necessity for educational programmes which should be implemented for the protection of the local child population from zoonotic infection.

  4. Response of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tepritidae) to white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugar solutions with varying degrees of fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    We measured the EAG response of Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), the Caribbean fruit fly to six different sugars (white and brown cane, coconut, date, date jaggery and panela sugars). Wild and lab female flies of different physiological states (immature and mature) were tested in dry crystals and 10% su...

  5. A Lakatosian Conceptual Change Teaching Strategy Based on Student Ability to Build Models with Varying Degrees of Conceptual Understanding of Chemical Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaz, M.

    The main objective of this study is to construct a Lakatosian teaching strategy that can facilitate conceptual change in students'' understanding of chemical equilibrium. The strategy is based on the premise that cognitive conflicts must have been engendered by the students themselves in trying to cope with different problem solving strategies. Results obtained (based on Venezuelan freshman students) show that the performance of the experimental group of students was generally better (especially on the immediate post tests) than that of the control group. It is concluded that a conceptual change teaching strategy must take into consideration the following aspects: a) core beliefs of the students in the topic (cf. ''hard core'', Lakatos 1970); b) exploration of the relationship between core beliefs and student alternative conceptions (misconceptions); c) cognitive complexity of the core belief can be broken down into a series of related and probing questions; d) students resist changes in their core beliefs by postulating ''auxiliary hypotheses'' in order to resolve their contradictions; e) students'' responses based on their alternative conceptions must be considered not as wrong, but rather as models, perhaps in the same sense as used by scientists to break the complexity of a problem; and f) students'' misconceptions be considered as alternative conceptions (theories) that compete with the present scientific theories and at times recapitulate theories scientists held in the past.

  6. An alternative method to specify the degree of resonator stability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    *School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500 134, India. E-mail: ... Degree of optical stability; S parameter; misalignment tolerance. ... maximum value of the degree of stability corresponding to S = 100%, automatically.

  7. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2006 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2007-01-01

    This annual survey collects 2006 data on the number of health physics degrees awarded as well as the number of students enrolled in health physics academic programs. Thirty universities offer health physics degrees; all responded to the survey

  8. Annealing properties of potato starches with different degrees of phosphorylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhrbeck, Per; Svensson, E

    1996-01-01

    Changes in the gelatinization temperature interval and gelatinization enthalpy with annealing time at 50 degrees C were followed for a number of potato starch samples, with different degrees of phosphorylation, using differential scanning calorimetry. The gelatinization temperature increased...

  9. Most probable degree distribution at fixed structural entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Here we derive the most probable degree distribution emerging ... the structural entropy of power-law networks is an increasing function of the expo- .... tition function Z of the network as the sum over all degree distributions, with given energy.

  10. Uus Eesti film pandi eile Karlovy Varys projektorisse / Kristiina Davidjants

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Davidjants, Kristiina, 1974-

    2008-01-01

    8. juulil esilinastus Karlovy Vary filmifestivalil Rene Vilbre noortefilm "Mina olin siin", mille aluseks on Sass Henno romaan "Mina olin siin. Esimene arest". Film võistleb võistlusprogrammis "East of the West"

  11. Enhancement of heat transfer using varying width twisted tape inserts

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology ... experimental investigations of the augmentation of turbulent flow heat transfer in a horizontal tube by means of varying width twisted tape inserts with air as the working fluid.

  12. Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of feeding varying crude protein and digestible energy levels on the development of individual muscles, rate of lean and fat deposition in pigs reared from 9 to 60kg liveweight in a humid tropical environment.

  13. Characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Han Jia

    2006-01-01

    The basic characteristic of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar was studied. The experimental result indicates the longevity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is about 2 h under 30 degree C. The thermoluminescence peak moves to the high temperature when the heating speed increasing. The intensity of 120 degree C thermoluminescence peak of iceland spar is directly proportional to radiation dose under 15 Gy. (authors)

  14. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D.; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  15. Design of 2D time-varying vector fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guoning; Kwatra, Vivek; Wei, Li-Yi; Hansen, Charles D; Zhang, Eugene

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects.

  16. Design of 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Guoning

    2012-10-01

    Design of time-varying vector fields, i.e., vector fields that can change over time, has a wide variety of important applications in computer graphics. Existing vector field design techniques do not address time-varying vector fields. In this paper, we present a framework for the design of time-varying vector fields, both for planar domains as well as manifold surfaces. Our system supports the creation and modification of various time-varying vector fields with desired spatial and temporal characteristics through several design metaphors, including streamlines, pathlines, singularity paths, and bifurcations. These design metaphors are integrated into an element-based design to generate the time-varying vector fields via a sequence of basis field summations or spatial constrained optimizations at the sampled times. The key-frame design and field deformation are also introduced to support other user design scenarios. Accordingly, a spatial-temporal constrained optimization and the time-varying transformation are employed to generate the desired fields for these two design scenarios, respectively. We apply the time-varying vector fields generated using our design system to a number of important computer graphics applications that require controllable dynamic effects, such as evolving surface appearance, dynamic scene design, steerable crowd movement, and painterly animation. Many of these are difficult or impossible to achieve via prior simulation-based methods. In these applications, the time-varying vector fields have been applied as either orientation fields or advection fields to control the instantaneous appearance or evolving trajectories of the dynamic effects. © 1995-2012 IEEE.

  17. Do Time-Varying Covariances, Volatility Comovement and Spillover Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmi Balasubramanyan

    2005-01-01

    Financial markets and their respective assets are so intertwined; analyzing any single market in isolation ignores important information. We investigate whether time varying volatility comovement and spillover impact the true variance-covariance matrix under a time-varying correlation set up. Statistically significant volatility spillover and comovement between US, UK and Japan is found. To demonstrate the importance of modelling volatility comovement and spillover, we look at a simple portfo...

  18. Performance of a solar chimney by varying design parameters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumirai, T

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available the design of solar chimneys to ensure optimal performance. The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the performance of an example solar chimney by varying the design parameters and examining their effects on the interior ventilation performance... chimney by varying design parameters Tichaona Kumirai, Researcher, Built Environment CSIR Jan-Hendrik Grobler, DPSS CSIR Dr D.C.U. Conradie, Senior researcher, Built Environment CSIR 1 Introduction Trombe walls and solar chimneys are not widely...

  19. Perturbation methods and the Melnikov functions for slowly varying oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakrad, Faouzi; Charafi, Moulay Mustapha

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to obtaining the Melnikov function for homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators is proposed. The present method applies the Lindstedt-Poincare method to determine an approximation of homoclinic solutions. It is shown that the resultant Melnikov condition is the same as that obtained in the usual way involving distance functions in three dimensions by Wiggins and Holmes [Homoclinic orbits in slowly varying oscillators. SIAM J Math Anal 1987;18(3):612

  20. Marketingový mix HC Enegie Karlovy Vary

    OpenAIRE

    Štrobl, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Title: Marketing mix of HC Energie Karlovy Vary Objectives: This thesis is based on a questionnaire responses obtained from HC Energie Karlovy Vary fans. Its objective is focused on evaluation of their opinions on the marketing mix, their subsequent interpretation, and finally even development of recommendations for improvement based on previous analysis. Methods: Two methods are used to analyse the marketing mix. The first method is qualitative participant observation. The second method is a...

  1. Testing for time-varying loadings in dynamic factor models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Jakob Guldbæk

    Abstract: In this paper we develop a test for time-varying factor loadings in factor models. The test is simple to compute and is constructed from estimated factors and residuals using the principal components estimator. The hypothesis is tested by regressing the squared residuals on the squared...... there is evidence of time-varying loadings on the risk factors underlying portfolio returns for around 80% of the portfolios....

  2. Bounds and asymptotics for orthogonal polynomials for varying weights

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Eli

    2018-01-01

    This book establishes bounds and asymptotics under almost minimal conditions on the varying weights, and applies them to universality limits and entropy integrals.  Orthogonal polynomials associated with varying weights play a key role in analyzing random matrices and other topics.  This book will be of use to a wide community of mathematicians, physicists, and statisticians dealing with techniques of potential theory, orthogonal polynomials, approximation theory, as well as random matrices. .

  3. Pemodelan Markov Switching Dengan Time-varying Transition Probability

    OpenAIRE

    Savitri, Anggita Puri; Warsito, Budi; Rahmawati, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Exchange rate or currency is an economic variable which reflects country's state of economy. It fluctuates over time because of its ability to switch the condition or regime caused by economic and political factors. The changes in the exchange rate are depreciation and appreciation. Therefore, it could be modeled using Markov Switching with Time-Varying Transition Probability which observe the conditional changes and use information variable. From this model, time-varying transition probabili...

  4. Quantum capacity under adversarial quantum noise: arbitrarily varying quantum channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlswede, Rudolf; Bjelakovic, Igor; Boche, Holger; Noetzel, Janis

    2010-01-01

    We investigate entanglement transmission over an unknown channel in the presence of a third party (called the adversary), which is enabled to choose the channel from a given set of memoryless but non-stationary channels without informing the legitimate sender and receiver about the particular choice that he made. This channel model is called arbitrarily varying quantum channel (AVQC). We derive a quantum version of Ahlswede's dichotomy for classical arbitrarily varying channels. This includes...

  5. Monitoring of 7Be in surface air of varying PM10 concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, J.H.; Liu, C.C.; Cho, I.C.; Niu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, beryllium-7 ( 7 Be) concentrations of surface air were monitored throughout a span of 23 years (1992–2012) in the Taiwanese cities Yilan, Taipei, Taichung, and Kaohsiung. During this period, particulate matter (PM) concentrations, in terms of PM 10 , were collected monthly from the nearest air-quality pollutant monitoring stations and compared against 7 Be concentrations. Seasonal monsoons influenced 7 Be concentrations in all cities, resulting in high winter and low summer concentrations. In addition, the meteorological conditions caused seasonal PM 10 variations, yielding distinct patterns among the cities. There was no correlation between 7 Be and PM 10 in the case cities. The average annual 7 Be concentrations varied little among the cities, ranging from 2.9 to 3.5 mBq/m 3 , while the PM 10 concentrations varied significantly from 38 μg/m 3 in Yilan to 92 μg/m 3 in Kaohsiung depending on the degree of air pollution and meteorological conditions. The correlation between the 7 Be concentration and gross-beta activities (A β ) in air implied that the 7 Be was mainly attached to crustal PM and its concentration varied little among the cities, regardless of the increase in anthropogenic PM in air-polluted areas. - Highlights: • Both 7 Be and PM 10 concentrations were monitored in four Taiwanese cities from 1992 to 2012. • Seasonal variations of 7 Be and PM 10 were explained based on on meteorological and pollution conditions. • The annual concentrations of 7 Be varied little among the four cities even in high PM environment. • 7 Be is believed to mainly attach to natural PM in the cities that exhibited varying PM 10 concentrations

  6. Tensions related to implementation of postgraduate degree projects in specialist nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German Millberg, Lena; Berg, Linda; Lindström, Irma; Petzäll, Kerstin; Öhlén, Joakim

    2011-04-01

    In conjunction with the introduction of the Bologna process in Sweden, specialist nursing education programmes were moved up to the second cycle of higher education with the opportunity to take a one-year master's degree, which also meant that students would undertake a degree project carrying 15 ECTS. The purpose of this study was to examine the introduction of postgraduate degree projects on the second-cycle level into Swedish specialist nursing programmes in accordance with the Bologna process. Five universities were involved and the study design took the form of action research. Problem formulation, planning, evaluation and follow-up with reflection led to new actions over a period of 2 1/2 years. Through a review of local curriculum documents, the implementation of a postgraduate degree project was monitored and these reviews, together with field notes, were analysed by means of constant comparative analysis. The results revealed a variety of tensions that arose when postgraduate degree projects were introduced, taking the form of differing views on the relationship between research, clinical development, specific professional objectives and academic objectives. These tensions were reflected in six areas of change. In summary, it can be noted that implementation of the postgraduate degree projects highlighted tensions related to basic views of learning. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of degree truncation on the spread of a contagious process on networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harling, Guy; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2018-03-01

    Understanding how person-to-person contagious processes spread through a population requires accurate information on connections between population members. However, such connectivity data, when collected via interview, is often incomplete due to partial recall, respondent fatigue or study design, e.g., fixed choice designs (FCD) truncate out-degree by limiting the number of contacts each respondent can report. Past research has shown how FCD truncation affects network properties, but its implications for predicted speed and size of spreading processes remain largely unexplored. To study the impact of degree truncation on predictions of spreading process outcomes, we generated collections of synthetic networks containing specific properties (degree distribution, degree-assortativity, clustering), and also used empirical social network data from 75 villages in Karnataka, India. We simulated FCD using various truncation thresholds and ran a susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) process on each network. We found that spreading processes propagated on truncated networks resulted in slower and smaller epidemics, with a sudden decrease in prediction accuracy at a level of truncation that varied by network type. Our results have implications beyond FCD to truncation due to any limited sampling from a larger network. We conclude that knowledge of network structure is important for understanding the accuracy of predictions of process spread on degree truncated networks.

  8. GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.

  9. An Evaluation of Quantitative Methods of Determining the Degree of Melting Experienced by a Chondrule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J. W.; Lofgren, G. E.; Carlson, W. D.; McSween, H. Y., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Many workers have considered the degree to which partial melting occurred in chondrules they have studied, and this has led to attempts to find reliable methods of determining the degree of melting. At least two quantitative methods have been used in the literature: a convolution index (CVI), which is a ratio of the perimeter of the chondrule as seen in thin section divided by the perimeter of a circle with the same area as the chondrule, and nominal grain size (NGS), which is the inverse square root of the number density of olivines and pyroxenes in a chondrule (again, as seen in thin section). We have evaluated both nominal grain size and convolution index as melting indicators. Nominal grain size was measured on the results of a set of dynamic crystallization experiments previously described, where aliquots of LEW97008(L3.4) were heated to peak temperatures of 1250, 1350, 1370, and 1450 C, representing varying degrees of partial melting of the starting material. Nominal grain size numbers should correlate with peak temperature (and therefore degree of partial melting) if it is a good melting indicator. The convolution index is not directly testable with these experiments because the experiments do not actually create chondrules (and therefore they have no outline on which to measure a CVI). Thus we had no means to directly test how well the CVI predicted different degrees of melting. Therefore, we discuss the use of the CVI measurement and support the discussion with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) data.

  10. The degree of irreversibility in deterministic finite automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsen, Holger Bock; Holzer, Markus; Kutrib, Martin

    2016-01-01

    the language, and show that the degree induces a strict infinite hierarchy of languages. We examine how the degree of irreversibility behaves under the usual language operations union, intersection, complement, concatenation, and Kleene star, showing tight bounds (some asymptotically) on the degree....

  11. Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of nuclear engineering bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. it also looks at nuclear engineering degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in nuclear engineering degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  12. Structure and origin of the 85 degrees E ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Desa, M.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, C

    The submerged 85 degrees E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal trends approximately N-S between 19 degrees N and 6 degrees N latitudes. Off the southeast coast of Sri Lanka it takes an arcuate shape and seems to terminate with the northweard extension...

  13. Degree-regular triangulations of torus and Klein bottle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 115; Issue 3 ... A triangulation of a connected closed surface is called degree-regular if each of its vertices have the same degree. ... In [5], Datta and Nilakantan have classified all the degree-regular triangulations of closed surfaces on at most 11 vertices.

  14. Actuator with Multi Degrees of Freedom(Actuator)

    OpenAIRE

    矢野, 智昭; Tomoaki, YANO; 産業技術総合研究所

    2006-01-01

    The advantages, problems and the recent developments of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are presented. At first, the advantages of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are described. Next, the problems needed to solve for practical use are presented. The recent applications of the actuator with multi degrees of freedom are also reviewed.

  15. The Striking Progress of African Americans in Degree Attainments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    While the number of blacks earning bachelor's and master's degrees has risen significantly since 1985, and the number of black doctoral degrees rose 110 percent, the percentage of all degrees awarded to blacks at all levels is far lower than the black percentage of the U.S. population. Black women earn 65.7 percent of all doctorates awarded to…

  16. College Teaching as a Profession: The Doctor of Arts Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressel, Paul L.

    The history of the Doctor of Arts (D.A.) degree and issues related to its development are briefly traced, and D.A. programs presently available and the success of degree recipients are addressed. Attention is also directed to other types of degree programs that are available, including their advantages and disadvantages, factors involved in…

  17. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2005 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2006-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and postdoctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2005. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 30 U.S. universities in 2005

  18. Health Physics Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2004 Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education

    2005-01-01

    This annual report details the number of health physics bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees awarded at a sampling of academic programs from 1998-2004. It also looks at health physics degrees by curriculum and the number of students enrolled in health physics degree programs at 28 U.S. universities in 2004

  19. Development of a Competency Mapping Tool for Undergraduate Professional Degree Programmes, Using Mechanical Engineering as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, David W.; Sheehan, Madoc; Birks, Melanie; Smithson, John

    2018-01-01

    Mapping the curriculum of a professional degree to the associated competency standard ensures graduates have the competence to perform as professionals. Existing approaches to competence mapping vary greatly in depth, complexity, and effectiveness, and a standardised approach remains elusive. This paper describes a new mapping software tool that…

  20. Dependence of balance energy on isospin degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gautam, S.; Sood, Aman D.; Puri, Rajeev K.; Hartnack, Ch.; Aichelin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Collective transverse in-plane flow in heavy ion collisions has been a subject of intensive theoretical and experimental studies, as it can provide information about the nuclear matter equation of state (EOS) as well as in medium nucleon-nucleon (nn) cross section. The study of dependence of collective transverse flow on various entrance channel parameters as beam energy and impact parameter has revealed much interesting physics about the origin and properties of the collective flow. From these studies, it has been found that the transverse in plane flow disappears at an incident energy termed as balance energy (E bal ), where attractive part of the nuclear interactions balances the repulsive part. Presently, due to availability of the radioactive beams, role of isospin degrees of freedom in EOS can be studied. The collective transverse in-plane flow has been found to depend on isospin of the colliding system. Here, we aim to study the dependence of E bal on N/Z ratio of the colliding system using IQMD model

  1. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colleen T O'Rourke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33° and wide blind areas (∼82°, but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°, which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°, small blind areas (∼60°, and high degree of eye movement (∼8°, which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1° may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that: (a there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats; (c variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence

  2. Hawk eyes I: diurnal raptors differ in visual fields and degree of eye movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Rourke, Colleen T; Hall, Margaret I; Pitlik, Todd; Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    2010-09-22

    Different strategies to search and detect prey may place specific demands on sensory modalities. We studied visual field configuration, degree of eye movement, and orbit orientation in three diurnal raptors belonging to the Accipitridae and Falconidae families. We used an ophthalmoscopic reflex technique and an integrated 3D digitizer system. We found inter-specific variation in visual field configuration and degree of eye movement, but not in orbit orientation. Red-tailed Hawks have relatively small binocular areas (∼33°) and wide blind areas (∼82°), but intermediate degree of eye movement (∼5°), which underscores the importance of lateral vision rather than binocular vision to scan for distant prey in open areas. Cooper's Hawks' have relatively wide binocular fields (∼36°), small blind areas (∼60°), and high degree of eye movement (∼8°), which may increase visual coverage and enhance prey detection in closed habitats. Additionally, we found that Cooper's Hawks can visually inspect the items held in the tip of the bill, which may facilitate food handling. American Kestrels have intermediate-sized binocular and lateral areas that may be used in prey detection at different distances through stereopsis and motion parallax; whereas the low degree eye movement (∼1°) may help stabilize the image when hovering above prey before an attack. We conclude that: (a) there are between-species differences in visual field configuration in these diurnal raptors; (b) these differences are consistent with prey searching strategies and degree of visual obstruction in the environment (e.g., open and closed habitats); (c) variations in the degree of eye movement between species appear associated with foraging strategies; and (d) the size of the binocular and blind areas in hawks can vary substantially due to eye movements. Inter-specific variation in visual fields and eye movements can influence behavioral strategies to visually search for and track prey while

  3. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koboroff

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development. We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  4. Clever strategists: Australian Magpies vary mobbing strategies, not intensity, relative to different species of predator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koboroff, A; Kaplan, G; Rogers, Lj

    2013-01-01

    Anti-predator behaviour of magpies was investigated, using five species of model predators, at times of raising offspring. We predicted differences in mobbing strategies for each predator presented and also that raising juveniles would affect intensity of the mobbing event. Fourteen permanent resident family groups were tested using 5 different types of predator (avian and reptilian) known to be of varying degrees of risk to magpies and common in their habitat. In all, 210 trials were conducted (across three different stages of juvenile development). We found that the stage of juvenile development did not alter mobbing behaviour significantly, but predator type did. Aerial strategies (such as swooping) were elicited by taxidermic models of raptors, whereas a taxidermic model of a monitor lizard was approached on the ground and a model snake was rarely approached. Swooping patterns also changed according to which of the three raptors was presented. Our results show that, in contrast to findings in other species, magpies vary mobbing strategy depending on the predator rather than varying mobbing intensity.

  5. A microscopic study of the action of uranyl acetate on the erythrocyte at varying molarity and toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, J.H.

    1977-03-01

    Phase contrast and dark field microphotographs were made to record variation of the shape and size changes seen when human erythrocytes are exposed in a number of ways to uranyl acetate in vitro. The degree of hemolysis produced by varying the toxicity of the uranyl acetate solutions was measured, and the results are discussed with particular reference to the possible influence of pH. (author)

  6. Measuring Direct Teaching Costs: Does an Undergraduate Business Degree Cost More to Produce than a Nonbusiness Degree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Michael M.; Karagiannidis, Iordanis

    2016-01-01

    Many universities have implemented tuition differentials for certain undergraduate degree programs, citing higher degree costs or higher demand. However, most college accounting systems are unsuited for measuring cost differentials by degree program. This research outlines a method that can convert commonly available financial data to a more…

  7. How Much Does It Cost Institutions to Produce Stem Degrees? Data Brief. The Price and Cost of Science Degrees Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delta Cost Project at American Institutes for Research, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This AIR Data Brief breaks down the "cost per degree" estimates for 28 disciplines, including those in the STEM fields, which among the most expensive degrees to produce. The brief points to ways colleges can change their tuition structure to finance STEM degrees more affordably. This data brief is the fourth of four in the series. (See…

  8. A novel DFNB31 mutation associated with Usher type 2 syndrome showing variable degrees of auditory loss in a consanguineous Portuguese family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audo, Isabelle; Bujakowska, Kinga; Mohand-Saïd, Saddek; Tronche, Sophie; Lancelot, Marie-Elise; Antonio, Aline; Germain, Aurore; Lonjou, Christine; Carpentier, Wassila; Sahel, José-Alain; Bhattacharya, Shomi; Zeitz, Christina

    2011-01-01

    To identify the genetic defect of a consanguineous Portuguese family with rod-cone dystrophy and varying degrees of decreased audition. A detailed ophthalmic and auditory examination was performed on a Portuguese patient with severe autosomal recessive rod-cone dystrophy. Known genetic defects were excluded by performing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP) genotyping microarray analysis and by Sanger sequencing of the coding exons and flanking intronic regions of eyes shut homolog-drosophila (EYS) and chromosome 2 open reading frame 71 (C2orf71). Subsequently, genome-wide homozygosity mapping was performed in DNA samples from available family members using a 700K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) microarray. Candidate genes present in the significantly large homozygous regions were screened for mutations using Sanger sequencing. The largest homozygous region (~11 Mb) in the affected family members was mapped to chromosome 9, which harbors deafness, autosomal recessive 31 (DFNB31; a gene previously associated with Usher syndrome). Mutation analysis of DFNB31 in the index patient identified a novel one-base-pair deletion (c.737delC), which is predicted to lead to a truncated protein (p.Pro246HisfsX13) and co-segregated with the disease in the family. Ophthalmic examination of the index patient and the affected siblings showed severe rod-cone dystrophy. Pure tone audiometry revealed a moderate hearing loss in the index patient, whereas the affected siblings were reported with more profound and early onset hearing impairment. We report a novel truncating mutation in DFNB31 associated with severe rod-cone dystrophy and varying degrees of hearing impairment in a consanguineous family of Portuguese origin. This is the second report of DFNB31 implication in Usher type 2.

  9. Exact sampling of graphs with prescribed degree correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassler, Kevin E.; Del Genio, Charo I.; Erdős, Péter L.; Miklós, István; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2015-08-01

    Many real-world networks exhibit correlations between the node degrees. For instance, in social networks nodes tend to connect to nodes of similar degree and conversely, in biological and technological networks, high-degree nodes tend to be linked with low-degree nodes. Degree correlations also affect the dynamics of processes supported by a network structure, such as the spread of opinions or epidemics. The proper modelling of these systems, i.e., without uncontrolled biases, requires the sampling of networks with a specified set of constraints. We present a solution to the sampling problem when the constraints imposed are the degree correlations. In particular, we develop an exact method to construct and sample graphs with a specified joint-degree matrix, which is a matrix providing the number of edges between all the sets of nodes of a given degree, for all degrees, thus completely specifying all pairwise degree correlations, and additionally, the degree sequence itself. Our algorithm always produces independent samples without backtracking. The complexity of the graph construction algorithm is {O}({NM}) where N is the number of nodes and M is the number of edges.

  10. Mediation analysis with time varying exposures and mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we consider causal mediation analysis when exposures and mediators vary over time. We give non-parametric identification results, discuss parametric implementation, and also provide a weighting approach to direct and indirect effects based on combining the results of two marginal structural models. We also discuss how our results give rise to a causal interpretation of the effect estimates produced from longitudinal structural equation models. When there are time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator, natural direct and indirect effects are not identified. However, we define a randomized interventional analogue of natural direct and indirect effects that are identified in this setting. The formula that identifies these effects we refer to as the "mediational g-formula." When there is no mediation, the mediational g-formula reduces to Robins' regular g-formula for longitudinal data. When there are no time-varying confounders affected by prior exposure and mediator values, then the mediational g-formula reduces to a longitudinal version of Pearl's mediation formula. However, the mediational g-formula itself can accommodate both mediation and time-varying confounders and constitutes a general approach to mediation analysis with time-varying exposures and mediators.

  11. Varying ultrasound power level to distinguish surgical instruments and tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongliang; Anuraj, Banani; Dupont, Pierre E

    2018-03-01

    We investigate a new framework of surgical instrument detection based on power-varying ultrasound images with simple and efficient pixel-wise intensity processing. Without using complicated feature extraction methods, we identified the instrument with an estimated optimal power level and by comparing pixel values of varying transducer power level images. The proposed framework exploits the physics of ultrasound imaging system by varying the transducer power level to effectively distinguish metallic surgical instruments from tissue. This power-varying image-guidance is motivated from our observations that ultrasound imaging at different power levels exhibit different contrast enhancement capabilities between tissue and instruments in ultrasound-guided robotic beating-heart surgery. Using lower transducer power levels (ranging from 40 to 75% of the rated lowest ultrasound power levels of the two tested ultrasound scanners) can effectively suppress the strong imaging artifacts from metallic instruments and thus, can be utilized together with the images from normal transducer power levels to enhance the separability between instrument and tissue, improving intraoperative instrument tracking accuracy from the acquired noisy ultrasound volumetric images. We performed experiments in phantoms and ex vivo hearts in water tank environments. The proposed multi-level power-varying ultrasound imaging approach can identify robotic instruments of high acoustic impedance from low-signal-to-noise-ratio ultrasound images by power adjustments.

  12. Cluster analysis as a tool of guests segmentation by the degree of their demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damijan Mumel

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors demonstrate the use of cluster analysis in finding out (ascertaining the homogenity/heterogenity of guests as to the degree of their demand. The degree of guests’ demand is defined according to the importance of perceived service quality components measured by SERVQUAL, which was adopted and adapted, according to the specifics of health spa industry in Slovenia. Goals of the article are: (a the identification of the profile of importance of general health spa service quality components, and (b the identification of groups of guests (segments according to the degree of their demand in the research in 1991 compared with 1999. Cluster analysis serves as useful tool for guest segmentation since it reveals the existence of important differences in the structure of guests in the year 1991 compared with the year 1999. The results serve as a useful database for management in health spas.

  13. Coherence degree of the fundamental Bessel-Gaussian beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P.

    2017-11-01

    In this article the coherence of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam in turbulent atmosphere is analyzed. The problem analysis is based on the solution of the equation for the transverse second-order mutual coherence function of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam of optical radiation. The behavior of a coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam depending on parameters of an optical beam and characteristics of turbulent atmosphere is examined. It was revealed that at low levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam has the characteristic oscillating appearance. At high levels of fluctuations in turbulent atmosphere the coherence degree of a fundamental Bessel-Gaussian optical beam is described by an one-scale decreasing curve which in process of increase of level of fluctuations on a line of formation of a laser beam becomes closer to the same characteristic of a spherical optical wave.

  14. Degree of synchronization modulated by inhibitory neurons in clustered excitatory-inhibitory recurrent networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huiyan; Sun, Xiaojuan; Xiao, Jinghua

    2018-01-01

    An excitatory-inhibitory recurrent neuronal network is established to numerically study the effect of inhibitory neurons on the synchronization degree of neuronal systems. The obtained results show that, with the number of inhibitory neurons and the coupling strength from an inhibitory neuron to an excitatory neuron increasing, inhibitory neurons can not only reduce the synchronization degree when the synchronization degree of the excitatory population is initially higher, but also enhance it when it is initially lower. Meanwhile, inhibitory neurons could also help the neuronal networks to maintain moderate synchronized states. In this paper, we call this effect as modulation effect of inhibitory neurons. With the obtained results, it is further revealed that the ratio of excitatory neurons to inhibitory neurons being nearly 4 : 1 is an economic and affordable choice for inhibitory neurons to realize this modulation effect.

  15. Pursuit of STEM: Factors shaping degree completion for African American females in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.

    The primary purpose of the study was to examine secondary data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) Freshman and College Senior Surveys to investigate factors shaping degree aspirations for African American female undergraduates partaking in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to analyze the data and identify relationships between independent variables in relation to the dependent variable. The findings of the study reveal four key variables that were predictive of degree completion for African American females in STEM. Father's education, SAT composite, highest degree planned, and self-perception were positive predictors for females; while independent variable overall sense of community among students remained a negative predictor. Lastly implications for education and recommendations for future research were discussed.

  16. [The importance of master's degree and doctorate degree in general surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Javé, Eduardo Esteban; Mendoza-Barrera, Germán Eduardo; Valderrama-Treviño, Alan Isaac; Alcántara-Medina, Stefany; Macías-Huerta, Nain Abraham; Tapia-Jurado, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The Doctor of Philosophy is the highest academic degree that can be obtained in universities. Graduate Education Program in Medicine in Mexico is divided into 2 major categories: Medical Specialty and Master studies/Doctor of Philosophy. The objective of this study was to demonstrate the importance of master's degrees and Doctor of Philosophy in general surgery. A literature search in PubMed and Medline among others, from 1970 to 2015 with subsequent analysis of the literature reviews found. The physicians who conducted doctoral studies stand out as leaders in research, teaching and academic activities. Dual training with a doctorate medical specialty is a significant predictor for active participation in research projects within the best educational institutions. It is important to study a PhD in the education of doctors specialising in surgery, who show more training in teaching, research and development of academic activities. Currently, although there is a little proportion of students who do not finish the doctoral program, the ones who do are expected to play an important role in the future of medical scientific staff. It has been shown that most doctors with Doctor of Philosophy have wide range of career options. The importance of doctoral studies in the formation of general surgery is due to various reasons; the main one being comprehensively training physician scientists who can develop in clinical, teaching and research. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. A unique degree program for pre-pharmacy education: An undergraduate degree in pharmaceutical sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Mahtab

    2018-02-01

    Within the coming decade, the demand for well-trained pharmacists is expected to only increase, especially with the aging of the United States (US) population. To help fill this growing demand, the University of California, Irvine (UCI) aims to offer a unique pre-pharmacy degree program and has developed a Bachelor of Science (BS) degree in Pharmaceutical Sciences to help achieve this goal. In this commentary, we share our experience with our curriculum and highlight its features in an effort to encourage other institutions to enhance the learning experience of their pre-pharmacy students. The efforts of the UCI Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences has resulted in UCI being consistently ranked as one of the top feeder institutions by the Pharmacy College Application Service (PharmCAS) in recent years. The UCI Pharmaceutical Sciences Bachelor of Science offers a unique pre-pharmacy educational experience in an effort to better prepare undergraduates for the rigors of the doctorate of pharmacy curriculum. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Tissue Doppler echocardiography reveals distinct patterns of impaired myocardial velocities in different degrees of coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Soren; Mogelvang, Rasmus; Olsen, Niels Thue

    2010-01-01

    Aim To determine how the left ventricular wall motion assessed by echocardiographic Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) is affected by increasing severity of coronary artery disease (CAD) among patients with stable angina pectoris and preserved ejection fraction. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study comprise...

  19. Analysis of clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori in Pakistan reveals high degrees of pathogenicity and high frequencies of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Faisal; Campbell, Barry James; Alfizah, Hanafiah; Varro, Andrea; Zahra, Rabaab; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Pritchard, David Mark

    2014-10-01

    Antibiotic resistance in Helicobacter pylori contributes to failure in eradicating the infection and is most often due to point and missense mutations in a few key genes. The antibiotic susceptibility profiles of H. pylori isolates from 46 Pakistani patients were determined by Etest. Resistance and pathogenicity genes were amplified, and sequences were analyzed to determine the presence of mutations. A high percentage of isolates (73.9%) were resistant to metronidazole (MTZ), with considerable resistance to clarithromycin (CLR; 47.8%) and amoxicillin (AML; 54.3%) also observed. Relatively few isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TET; 4.3%) or to ciprofloxacin (CIP; 13%). However, most isolates (n = 43) exhibited resistance to one or more antibiotics. MTZ-resistant isolates contained missense mutations in oxygen-independent NADPH nitroreductase (RdxA; 8 mutations found) and NADH flavin oxidoreductase (FrxA; 4 mutations found). In the 23S rRNA gene, responsible for CLR resistance, a new point mutation (A2181G) and 4 previously reported mutations were identified. Pathogenicity genes cagA, dupA, and vacA s1a/m1 were detected frequently in isolates which were also found to be resistant to MTZ, CLR, and AML. A high percentage of CagA and VacA seropositivity was also observed in these patients. Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences showed uniform distribution of the 3' region of cagA throughout the tree. We have identified H. pylori isolates in Pakistan which harbor pathogenicity genes and worrying antibiotic resistance profiles as a result of having acquired multiple point and missense mutations. H. pylori eradication regimens should therefore be reevaluated in this setting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The medaka novel immune-type receptor (NITR gene clusters reveal an extraordinary degree of divergence in variable domains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litman Gary W

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Novel immune-type receptor (NITR genes are members of diversified multigene families that are found in bony fish and encode type I transmembrane proteins containing one or two extracellular immunoglobulin (Ig domains. The majority of NITRs can be classified as inhibitory receptors that possess cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs. A much smaller number of NITRs can be classified as activating receptors by the lack of cytoplasmic ITIMs and presence of a positively charged residue within their transmembrane domain, which permits partnering with an activating adaptor protein. Results Forty-four NITR genes in medaka (Oryzias latipes are located in three gene clusters on chromosomes 10, 18 and 21 and can be organized into 24 families including inhibitory and activating forms. The particularly large dataset acquired in medaka makes direct comparison possible to another complete dataset acquired in zebrafish in which NITRs are localized in two clusters on different chromosomes. The two largest medaka NITR gene clusters share conserved synteny with the two zebrafish NITR gene clusters. Shared synteny between NITRs and CD8A/CD8B is limited but consistent with a potential common ancestry. Conclusion Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses between the complete datasets of NITRs from medaka and zebrafish indicate multiple species-specific expansions of different families of NITRs. The patterns of sequence variation among gene family members are consistent with recent birth-and-death events. Similar effects have been observed with mammalian immunoglobulin (Ig, T cell antigen receptor (TCR and killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR genes. NITRs likely diverged along an independent pathway from that of the somatically rearranging antigen binding receptors but have undergone parallel evolution of V family diversity.

  1. [Dynamics of change of ureaplasma laboratory strain titers and quantity of their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamova, N A; Ivanova, T A

    2013-01-01

    Study of preservation dynamics of ureaplasma laboratory strain live cultures and their DNA in transport medium at varying temperature. The study was carried out in laboratory strains Ureaplasma urealyticum serotype 8 and Ureaplasma parvum serotype 1. The quantity of live ureaplasmas was determined by method of tenfold dilutions in liquid medium. The growth of ureaplasmas was registered by changes in the color of the cultivation medium due to its alkalization by metabolism products and expressed in CCU/ml. DNA quantity in samples was determined by real time PCR performed by using Florocenosis-micoplasmas-FL test system produced by ILS. Live ureaplasmas wer shown to be preserved in transport medium at 4 degrees C for 12 - 29 days, at 18 - 22 degrees C--for 9 - 20 days and at 37 degrees C--for only 2 days. In samples incubated at 37 degrees C the quantity of live ureaplasmas increased and then sharply decreased to 0, at lower temperature titers of the cells decreased smoothly. The quantity of ureaplasma DNA in the process of their incubation did not change significantly. Fundamental differences in the duration of survival of U. urealyticum strain and U. parvum strain in transport medium at varying temperature were not detected. Based on the studies performed a practical conclusion can be drawn that in cases of emergency when clinical material transportation is necessary its storage in transport medium for several days is acceptable.

  2. Newtonian cosmology with a time-varying constant of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McVittie, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    Newtonian cosmology is based on the Eulerian equations of fluid mechanics combined with Poisson's equation modified by the introduction of a time-varying G. Spherically symmetric model universes are worked out with instantaneously uniform densities. They are indeterminate unless instantaneous uniformity of the pressure is imposed. When G varies as an inverse power of the time, the models can in some cases be shown to depend on the solution of a second-order differential equation which also occurs in the Friedmann models of general relativity. In Section 3, a method for 'passing through' a singularity of this equation is proposed which entails making four arbitrary mathematical assumptions. When G varies as (time) -1 , models with initially cycloidal motion are possible, each cycle becoming longer as time progresses. Finally, gravitation becomes so weak that the model expands to infinity. Kinetic and potential energies for the whole model are derived from the basic equations; their sum is not constant. (author)

  3. Brane world cosmologies with varying speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youm, Donam

    2001-02-01

    We study cosmologies in the Randall-Sundrum models, incorporating the possibility of time-varying speed of light and Newton's constant. The cosmologies with varying speed of light (VSL) were proposed by Moffat and by Albrecht and Magueijo as an alternative to inflation for solving the cosmological problems. We consider the case in which the speed of light varies with time after the radion or the scale of the extra dimension has been stabilized. We elaborate on the conditions under which the flatness problem and the cosmological constant problem can be resolved. Particularly, the VSL cosmologies may provide a possible mechanism for bringing the quantum corrections to the fine-tuned brane tensions after the SUSY breaking under control. (author)

  4. Partially linear varying coefficient models stratified by a functional covariate

    KAUST Repository

    Maity, Arnab

    2012-10-01

    We consider the problem of estimation in semiparametric varying coefficient models where the covariate modifying the varying coefficients is functional and is modeled nonparametrically. We develop a kernel-based estimator of the nonparametric component and a profiling estimator of the parametric component of the model and derive their asymptotic properties. Specifically, we show the consistency of the nonparametric functional estimates and derive the asymptotic expansion of the estimates of the parametric component. We illustrate the performance of our methodology using a simulation study and a real data application.

  5. Varied appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sider, L.; Weiss, A.

    1988-01-01

    Lymphoma is frequently present in patients with acquired immunodeficiency (AIDS). But unlike in the general population, the appearance of lymphoma in patients with AIDS is extremely varied. The computed tomographic scans, chest radiographs, and subsequent hospital courses of 15 patients with AIDS-related lymphoma are presented. The patients presented with isolated pleural effusion (six patients), pleural and pericardial effusion (one patient), pulmonary infiltrates (five patients), and mediastinal adenopathy (three patients). This varied manner of presentation of lymphoma in AIDS patients should be recognized if diagnosis is to be made in the earlier stages of presentation

  6. Entropy Rate of Time-Varying Wireless Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cika, Arta; Badiu, Mihai Alin; Coon, Justin P.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a detailed framework to analyze the evolution of the random topology of a time-varying wireless network via the information theoretic notion of entropy rate. We consider a propagation channel varying over time with random node positions in a closed space and Rayleigh...... fading affecting the connections between nodes. The existence of an edge between two nodes at given locations is modeled by a Markov chain, enabling memory effects in network dynamics. We then derive a lower and an upper bound on the entropy rate of the spatiotemporal network. The entropy rate measures...

  7. Investigating Time-Varying Drivers of Grid Project Emissions Impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, Emily L.; Thayer, Brandon L.; Pal, Seemita; Studarus, Karen E.

    2017-11-15

    The emissions consequences of smart grid technologies depend heavily on their context and vary not only by geographical location, but by time of year. The same technology operated to meet the same objective may increase the emissions associated with energy generation for part of the year and decrease emissions during other times. The Grid Project Impact Quantification (GridPIQ) tool provides the ability to estimate these seasonal variations and garner insight into the time-varying drivers of grid project emissions impacts. This work leverages GridPIQ to examine the emissions implications across years and seasons of adding energy storage technology to reduce daily peak demand in California and New York.

  8. Estimation of time-varying reactivity by the H∞ optimal linear filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Katsuo; Shimazaki, Junya; Watanabe, Koiti

    1995-01-01

    The problem of estimating the time-varying net reactivity from flux measurements is solved for a point reactor kinetics model using a linear filtering technique in an H ∞ settings. In order to sue this technique, an appropriate dynamical model of the reactivity is constructed that can be embedded into the reactor model as one of its variables. A filter, which minimizes the H ∞ norm of the estimation error power spectrum, operates on neutron density measurements corrupted by noise and provides an estimate of the dynamic net reactivity. Computer simulations are performed to reveal the basic characteristics of the H ∞ optimal filter. The results of the simulation indicate that the filter can be used to determine the time-varying reactivity from neutron density measurements that have been corrupted by noise

  9. Effect of the degree of high power impulse magnetron sputtering utilisation on the structure and properties of TiN films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovsepian, Papken Eh.; Sugumaran, Arunprabhu A., E-mail: Arunprabhu.ArunachalamSugumaran@student.shu.ac.uk; Purandare, Yashodhan; Loch, Daniel A.L.; Ehiasarian, Arutiun P.

    2014-07-01

    TiN films were deposited using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) enabled four cathode industrial size coating system equipped with HIPIMS power supplies. The standard version of this system allows control over the ion bombardment during coating growth by varying the strength of the electromagnetic field of the unbalancing coils and bias voltage applied to the substrate. The coatings were produced in different coating growth conditions achieved in combined HIPIMS — direct current (dc) unbalanced magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS/UBM) processes where HIPIMS was used as an additional tool to manipulate the ionisation degree in the plasma. Four cathode combinations were explored with increasing contribution of HIPIMS namely 4UBM (pure UBM), 1HIPIMS + 3UBM, 2HIPIMS + 2UBM and 2HIPIMS (pure HIPIMS) to deposit TiN coatings. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements were carried out to examine the plasma generated by the various combinations of HIPIMS and UBM cathodes. The micro-structural study was done by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique was used to calculate the residual stress and texture parameter. It has been revealed that the residual stress can be controlled in a wide range from − 0.22 GPa to − 11.67 GPa by intelligent selection of the degree of HIPIMS utilisation, strength of the electromagnetic field of the unbalancing coils and the bias voltage applied to the substrate while maintaining the stoichiometry of the coatings. The effect of the degree of HIPIMS utilisation on the microstructure, texture and residual stress is discussed. Combining HIPIMS with dc-UBM sputtering is also seen as an effective tool for improving the productivity of the deposition process. - Highlights: • High {Ti"1"+} in the plasma with increasing number of HIPIMS sources • Residual stress can be manipulated in a wide range. • Texture can be altered. • The 2HIPIMS + 2UBM combination appears to be the most advantageous.

  10. Therapeutic Benefits of Tocilizumab Vary in Different Organs of a Patient with AA Amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Matsui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic reactive AA amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of chronic inflammatory diseases. Anti-interleukin-6 receptor, tocilizumab (TCZ, has been shown to improve clinical symptoms of patients with AA amyloidosis, accompanied with regression of the amyloid deposition. We report a case of AA amyloidosis evaluated by histology of multiple organs before and after TCZ treatment. A woman in her 60s with rheumatoid arthritis was referred to our hospital because of cardiac and renal dysfunction. A gastric and renal biopsy revealed the deposition of AA amyloid, and echocardiography revealed concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. Her estimated glomerular filtration rate was decreased to 8.6 mL/min/1.73 m2, and B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A protein were significantly elevated. TCZ treatments markedly decreased her serum amyloid A protein and C-reactive protein levels, but hemodialysis was required 1 year later. Endoscopic gastric rebiopsy 3 years after initiation of TCZ treatments revealed the regression of amyloid deposition and echocardiography revealed improvement of her left ventricular hypertrophy. However, a renal rebiopsy revealed that the amyloid deposition had not regressed. In conclusion, these observations suggest that the therapeutic effects of TCZ can vary among organs in patients with AA amyloidosis.

  11. Fracture toughness testing of V-4Cr-4Ti at 25{degrees}C and -196{degrees}C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Measurements of the fracture toughness of the production-scale heat (832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti have been performed at 25{degrees}C and {minus}196{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at either 1000{degrees}C for 1 hour (HT1) or 1050{degrees}C for two hours (HT2). Specimens given the HT1 treatment were annealed after final machining, whereas the HT2 specimens received the 1050{degrees}C anneal at Teledyne Wah Chang prior to final machining. Following machining HT2 specimens were then vacuum annealed at 180{degrees}C for two hours to remove hydrogen. Specimens treated using HT1 had a partially recrystallized microstructure and those treated using HT2 had a fully recrystallized microstructure. The fracture toughness at 25{degrees}C was determined by J-integral tests and at {minus}196{degrees}C by ASTM E 399 type tests. Toughness values obtained at {minus}196{degrees}C were converted to J-integral values for comparison to the 25{degrees}C data. The 25{degrees}C fracture toughness was very high with none of the specimens giving valid results per ASTM criteria. Specimens fractured by microvoid coalescence. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was much lower than that at 25{degrees}C and the fracture surface showed predominantly cleavage features. The present results show a transition from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing test temperature which is not observed from one-third scale Charpy impact tests. The fracture toughness at {minus}196{degrees}C was still quite high, however, at about 75 kJ/m{sup 2}. Delaminations in planes normal to the thickness direction were seen at both test temperatures. Fracture surfaces inside the delaminations exhibited nearly 100% cleavage facets. The cause of the brittle delaminations was not determined, but will be a subject for further investigation.

  12. Light irradiance through novel CAD-CAM block materials and degree of conversion of composite cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lise, Diogo Pedrollo; Van Ende, Annelies; De Munck, Jan; Yoshihara, Kumiko; Nagaoka, Noriyuki; Cardoso Vieira, Luiz Clovis; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2018-02-01

    To assess light irradiance (LI) delivered by two light-curing units (LCU's) and to measure the degree of conversion (DC) of three composite cements, when cured through different thicknesses of two novel CAD-CAM block materials. 100-μm-thick films of a dual-curable composite cement (G-CEM LinkAce, GC), a light-curable flowable resin-based composite (RBC) (G-ænial Universal Flo, GC) and a micro-hybrid RBC (G-ænial Posterior, GC) were investigated as luting agents. Two 'polymer-ceramic' CAD-CAM blocks (Cerasmart, GC; Enamic, Vita Zahnfabrik) were sectioned in slabs with different thicknesses (1, 3 and 5mm). LI at the bottom of the specimens was measured using a calibrated spectrometer, while being light-cured through the CAD-CAM block slabs for 40s with a low- (±500mW/cm 2 ) or high- (±1,600mW/cm 2 ) irradiance LCU (n=5). After light-curing, micro-Raman spectra of the composite films were acquired to determine DC at 5min, 10min, 1h and 24h. LI data were statistically analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis followed by post-hoc comparisons, while a linear mixed-effect model was applied for the DC analysis. In addition, the CAD-CAM blocks ultrastructure was characterized upon argon-ion slicing using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Finally, light transmission (LT) through each CAD-CAM block material was assessed using a spectrophotometer. Curing-light attenuation and DC were significantly influenced by thickness and type of the overlying material. LCU only had a significant effect on DC of the micro-hybrid RBC. DC significantly increased over time for all composite cements. CAD-CAM block structural analysis revealed a relatively small and homogenous filler configuration (mean filler size of 0.2-0.5μm) for Cerasmart, while Enamic contained ceramic grains varying in shape and size (1-10μm), which were interconnected by the polymer-based network. LT was much higher at a wavelength range of 300-800nm for Cerasmart than for Enamic. Light-curable composite cements

  13. Identifying and Analyzing Strong Components of an Industrial Network Based on Cycle Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiying Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of big data and cloud computing, data research focuses not only on describing the individual characteristics but also on depicting the relationships among individuals. Studying dependence and constraint relationships among industries has aroused significant interest in the academic field. From the network perspective, this paper tries to analyze industrial relational structures based on cycle degree. The cycle degree of a vertex, that is, the number of cycles through a vertex in an industrial network, can describe the roles of the vertices of strong components in industrial circulation. In most cases, different vertices in a strong component have different cycle degrees, and the one with a larger cycle degree plays more important roles. However, the concept of cycle degree does not involve the lengths of the cycles, which are also important for circulations. The more indirect the relationship between two industries is, the weaker it is. In order to analyze strong components thoroughly, this paper proposes the concept of circular centrality taking into consideration the influence by two factors: the lengths and the numbers of cycles through a vertex. Exemplification indicates that a profound analysis of strong components in an industrial network can reveal the features of an economy.

  14. Characteristics of regents college nontraditional nuclear technology degrees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeSain, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    In 1971, the Board of Regents of The University of The State of New York created Regents College Degrees to assess academic knowledge of working adults and award college degrees based on demonstrated knowledge rather than time spent in a college classroom. It was founded on a basic premise that seemed radical to some but which is now widely accepted: What a person knows is more important than how or where that knowledge was acquired. Regents College degrees, therefore, are a different concept of a college: one that is an assessing institution rather than a teaching institution. It has no campus and offers no courses. Students can combine college credits from a variety of different sources int an accredited degree program. Staff and faculty evaluate that credit according to the requirements of the particular degree program. When all requirements are met, the Board or Regents of The University of The State of New York confers the degree

  15. Does a bachelor’s degree pay off?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, Martin; Weiss, Felix

    Academic education is generally rewarded by employers, but what happens to graduates if they are trained for two years less and have to compete with vocationally trained labor market entrants in a similar field of study? Focusing on Germany, we analyze labor market entries of individuals eligible...... for higher education, who either opted for newly introduced short bachelor’s degrees, or for well-established vocational degrees. Based on Microcensus data, we find that bachelor’s degrees from classical universities are associated with higher earnings and more prestigious jobs than initial vocational...... training degrees, and with higher prestige (but similar earnings) than further vocational degrees. However, bachelor’s degrees from universities are also related to higher risks of unemployment or fixed-term employment. Universities of applied sciences, which combine academic and practical training, offer...

  16. Overcoming Spurious Regression Using time-Varying Fourier ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-stationary time series data have been traditionally analyzed in the frequency domain by assuming constant amplitudes regardless of the timelag. A new approach called time-varying amplitude method (TVAM) is presented here. Oscillations are analyzed for changes in the magnitude of Fourier Coefficients which are ...

  17. Electromagnetic radiation in a time-varying background medium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budko, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented for the electromagnetic radiation by an arbitrary pulsed source into a homogeneous time-varying background medium. In the constant-impedance case an explicit radiation formula is obtained for the synchronous permittivity and permeability described by any positive

  18. Computation of gradually varied flow in compound open channel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The flow of water in an open channel can be treated as steady, gradually varied flow for ... channel between two nodes is treated as a single reach to calculate the loss ... dition at control points and (iii) critical depth is also required to verify the ...

  19. Adenoma detection rate varies greatly during colonoscopy training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doorn, Sascha C.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Hazewinkel, Yark; Fockens, Paul; Dekker, Evelien

    2015-01-01

    The adenoma detection rate (ADR) is considered the most important quality indicator for colonoscopy and varies widely among colonoscopists. It is unknown whether the ADR of gastroenterology consultants can already be predicted during their colonoscopy training. To evaluate the ADR of fellows in

  20. Peer influence on school learning among students of varying socio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined peer Influence on School Learning among students of varying socio-economic backgrounds. One hundred and twenty students (60 males and 60 females) with a mean age 15.1 years were randomly selected from four co-educational Secondary Schools in Ikenne Local Government area of Ogun State.

  1. Projected space-time and varying speed of light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iovane, G.; Bellucci, S.; Benedetto, E.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper starting from El Naschie's Cantorian space-time and our model of projected Universe, we consider its properties in connection with varying speed of light. A possible way-out of the related problem is provided by the Fantappie group approach

  2. Frontal Neurons Modulate Memory Retrieval across Widely Varying Temporal Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen-Hua; Williams, Ziv M.

    2015-01-01

    Once a memory has formed, it is thought to undergo a gradual transition within the brain from short- to long-term storage. This putative process, however, also poses a unique problem to the memory system in that the same learned items must also be retrieved across broadly varying time scales. Here, we find that neurons in the ventrolateral…

  3. Time Varying Market Integration and Expected Rteurns in Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, F.C.J.M.; de Roon, F.A.

    2001-01-01

    We use a simple model in which the expected returns in emerging markets depend on their systematic risk as measured by their beta relative to the world portfolio as well as on the level of integration in that market.The level of integration is a time-varying variable that depends on the market value

  4. Branching of positive discharge streamers in air at varying pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Briels, T.M.P.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Ebert, U.M.

    2005-01-01

    The formation of positive streamers in a 17-mm gap in air is studied at pressures varying in the range from 1010 to 100 mbar. An intensified charge coupled device camera is used to image the discharge. At high pressures, the discharge shows many branches, while at low pressure, fewer branches arise.

  5. Conductivity studies of lithium zinc silicate glasses with varying ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Values of activation energy derived from σd.c., ωh and τ are almost equal within the ... materials can be changed by varying the proportion of the .... The solid line is a guide to the eye. ... does not show a maximum as d.c. conductivity drops to a.

  6. Varying the exchange interaction between NiO nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Christian Robert Haffenden; Mørup, Steen

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate that exchange interactions between antiferromagnetic nanoparticles of 57Fe-doped NiO can be varied by simple macroscopic treatments. Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of the superparamagnetic relaxation behaviour show that grinding or suspension in water of nanoparticles of NiO can...

  7. Performance and cost implication of finisher turkeys fed varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A 28-day experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding varying levels of rice milling waste as a substitute on maize on the performance, nutrient utilization and the economics implication on finisher turkeys. Five turkey finisher diets were formulated by substituting maize with rice milling waste at 0%, 25%, 50%, ...

  8. Sheep response to sugar cane tops supplemented with varying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty WAD sheep averaging 10.14kg were randomly divided into four groups of 5 replicates, and each group was fed sugarcane tops (SCT) supplemented with varying levels (0%, 25%, 50 and 75%) of Leucaena leucocephala foliage (LLF) in a completely randomized design. Results showed that sugarcane tops (SCT) ...

  9. Scattering of a TEM wave from a time varying surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elcrat, Alan R.; Harder, T. Mark; Stonebraker, John T.

    1990-03-01

    A solution is given for reflection of a plane wave with TEM polarization from a planar surface with time varying properties. These properties are given in terms of the currents on the surface. The solution is obtained by numerically solving a system of differential-delay equations in the time domain.

  10. Adolescent Sexual Behaviors at Varying Levels of Substance Use Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Leah J.; Latimer, William

    2010-01-01

    Combining substance use and sex compounds the risk of contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including HIV. However, the association between substance use and sexual behaviors may vary by substance and sexual behavior. The current study sought to examine the relationship between alcohol and marijuana use frequency and specific sexual…

  11. Karlovy Varys linastub kaks Eesti filmi / Andris Feldmanis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Feldmanis, Andris, 1982-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmar Raagi mängufilm "Klass" osaleb 42. Karlovy Vary rahvusvahelise filmifestivali võistlusprogrammis "East of the West" ja Asko Kase lühimängufilm "Zen läbi prügi" on valitud festivali kõrvalprogrammi "Forum of Independents"

  12. Time-varying correlation and common structures in volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This thesis studies time series properties of the covariance structure of multivariate asset returns. First, the time-varying feature of correlation is investigated at the intraday level with a new correlation model incorporating the intraday correlation dynamics. Second, the thesis develops a

  13. microwave oven-induced decalcification at varying temperatures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uwaifoh

    2012-09-30

    Sep 30, 2012 ... This study was designed to evaluate the effect of decalcifying fluid types on bone tissue architecture and its staining properties following decalcification at varying temperatures. A decalcification methodology using Golding and. Stewards (GS) fluid, and Jenkings fluid (JK), and a modern household ...

  14. Contact Dynamics of EHL Contacts under Time Varying Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venner, Cornelis H.; Popovici, G.; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; Dalmaz, G.; Lubrecht, A.A.; Priest, M

    2004-01-01

    By means of numerical simulations of two situations with time varying operating conditions it is shown that the dynamic behaviour of Elasto-Hydrodynamically Lubricated contacts in terms of vibrations can be characterized as: Changes in the mutual approach lead to film thickness changes in the inlet

  15. Electricity Futures Prices : Time Varying Sensitivity to Fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S-E. Fleten (Stein-Erik); R. Huisman (Ronald); M. Kilic (Mehtap); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); S. Westgaard (Sjur)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractThis paper provides insight in the time-varying relation between electricity futures prices and fundamentals in the form of prices of contracts for fossil fuels. As supply curves are not constant and different producers have different marginal costs of production, we argue that the

  16. Visualizing time-varying harmonics using filter banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duque, C.A.; Da Silveira, P.M.; Ribeiro, P.F.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is well known that Fourier analysis is in reality only accurately applicable to steady state waveforms, it is a widely used tool to study and monitor time-varying signals, such as are commonplace in electrical power systems. The disadvantages of Fourier analysis, such as frequency

  17. Time-Varying Value of Energy Efficiency in Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mims, Natalie; Eckman, Tom; Schwartz, Lisa C.

    2018-04-02

    Quantifying the time-varying value of energy efficiency is necessary to properly account for all of its benefits and costs and to identify and implement efficiency resources that contribute to a low-cost, reliable electric system. Historically, most quantification of the benefits of efficiency has focused largely on the economic value of annual energy reduction. Due to the lack of statistically representative metered end-use load shape data in Michigan (i.e., the hourly or seasonal timing of electricity savings), the ability to confidently characterize the time-varying value of energy efficiency savings in the state, especially for weather-sensitive measures such as central air conditioning, is limited. Still, electric utilities in Michigan can take advantage of opportunities to incorporate the time-varying value of efficiency into their planning. For example, end-use load research and hourly valuation of efficiency savings can be used for a variety of electricity planning functions, including load forecasting, demand-side management and evaluation, capacity planning, long-term resource planning, renewable energy integration, assessing potential grid modernization investments, establishing rates and pricing, and customer service (KEMA 2012). In addition, accurately calculating the time-varying value of efficiency may help energy efficiency program administrators prioritize existing offerings, set incentive or rebate levels that reflect the full value of efficiency, and design new programs.

  18. The early evolution of stars and planets with varying mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, S.K.

    1980-09-01

    In this thesis some aspects of stellar and planetary evolution with varying mass are examined. It is divided into two sections. The first section deals with the evolution of stars in the pre-main-sequence phase with mass accretion while in the second section we discuss the spin angular momentum of the planets with mass loss. (author)

  19. Additional Surgery after Breast-Conserving Surgery Varies Widely

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the Feb. 1, 2012, issue of JAMA found that the number of women who have one or more additional surgeries to remove suspected residual tumor tissue (re-excisions) following breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for breast cancer varies widely across surgeons and hospitals.

  20. Steady shear viscosity of stirred yoghurts with varying ropiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Marle, M.E.; van Marle, M.E.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; de Kruif, C.G.; de Kruif, C.G.; Mellema, J.

    1999-01-01

    Stirred yogurt was viewed as a concentrated dispersion of aggregates consisting of protein particles. The steady-shear behavior of three types of stirred yogurt with varying ropiness was investigated experimentally. To describe the shear-dependent viscosity, a microrheological model was used which

  1. Effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physiologic basis of bleeding is a function of normal platelets and coagulation factors. This study is aimed at ascertaining the effect of varying concentrations of orally ingested glucose on platelet count and hemoglobin concentration during menstruation. Forty menstruating students between the ages of 18 and 25 from ...

  2. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid; Barton, Michael

    2015-01-01

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  3. Requirements of British universities for higher medical degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, R

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine the requirements and opportunities for obtaining a doctor of medicine or master of surgery degree from a university in the United Kingdom other than the graduate's own, particularly in the case of foreign graduates. DESIGN--Review of regulations governing the award of doctor of medicine and master of surgery degrees in British universities. SETTING--All 19 universities in the United Kingdom offering clinical courses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Availability of degrees to gradu...

  4. Constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to Jacobi norms

    KAUST Repository

    Ait-Haddou, Rachid

    2015-12-31

    We show that a weighted least squares approximation of Bézier coefficients with factored Hahn weights provides the best constrained polynomial degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm. This result affords generalizations to many previous findings in the field of polynomial degree reduction. A solution method to the constrained multi-degree reduction with respect to the Jacobi L2L2-norm is presented.

  5. A quantitative reading of competences documents of Law new degrees.

    OpenAIRE

    Leví Orta, Genoveva del Carmen; Ramos Méndez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Documents formulating competences of degrees are key sources for analysis, evaluation and profile comparison of training, currently offered by different university degrees. This work aims to make a quantitative reading of competences documents of Law degree from various Spanish universities, based on the ideas of Content Analysis. The methodology has two phases. Firstly, a dictionary of concepts related to the components of competences is identified in the documentary corpus. Next, the corpus...

  6. Vesicle biomechanics in a time-varying magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hui; Curcuru, Austen

    2015-01-01

    Cells exhibit distortion when exposed to a strong electric field, suggesting that the field imposes control over cellular biomechanics. Closed pure lipid bilayer membranes (vesicles) have been widely used for the experimental and theoretical studies of cellular biomechanics under this electrodeformation. An alternative method used to generate an electric field is by electromagnetic induction with a time-varying magnetic field. References reporting the magnetic control of cellular mechanics have recently emerged. However, theoretical analysis of the cellular mechanics under a time-varying magnetic field is inadequate. We developed an analytical theory to investigate the biomechanics of a modeled vesicle under a time-varying magnetic field. Following previous publications and to simplify the calculation, this model treated the inner and suspending media as lossy dielectrics, the membrane thickness set at zero, and the electric resistance of the membrane assumed to be negligible. This work provided the first analytical solutions for the surface charges, electric field, radial pressure, overall translational forces, and rotational torques introduced on a vesicle by the time-varying magnetic field. Frequency responses of these measures were analyzed, particularly the frequency used clinically by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The induced surface charges interacted with the electric field to produce a biomechanical impact upon the vesicle. The distribution of the induced surface charges depended on the orientation of the coil and field frequency. The densities of these charges were trivial at low frequency ranges, but significant at high frequency ranges. The direction of the radial force on the vesicle was dependent on the conductivity ratio between the vesicle and the medium. At relatively low frequencies (biomechanics under a time-varying magnetic field. Biological effects of clinical TMS are not likely to occur via alteration of the biomechanics of brain

  7. Study of wavefront aberration in DR patients with different degree of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ran Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the changes of wavefront aberrations in patients with diabetic retinopathy(DRand with different degrees of dry eye and to explore the reasons of visual quality decline in them. METHODS: We randomly selected 40 eyes in our hospital for treatment with DR and varying degrees of dry eye, and 40 eyes of normal control group. Topcon KR-1W visual quality analyzer was used to record the mean square the total high order corneal aberration, spherical aberration, comatic aberration and trefoil aberration of cornea with pupil diameters of 4mm and 6mm. Analysis of variance were used to compare the wavefront aberrations and the aberration values in the control group and in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with different degrees of dry eye. RESULTS: For 4mm and 6mm pupil diameters, nondiabetic retinopathy(NDRwith dry eye group, the nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy(NPDRwith dry eye group and proliferative diabetic retinopathy(PDRdry eye group had significantly increased tHOA, coma and trefoil compared with the contrast group(PPCONCLUSION: Dry eye of diabetic retinopathy with different degrees is closely related to the increase of wavefront aberration. Increased wavefront aberration may be one of the reasons to reduced visual quality in patients with diabetic retinopathy and with dry eye, and provide the basis for the decline of visual function of diabetic patients with dry eye.

  8. A review of forensic science higher education programs in the United States: bachelor's and master's degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tregar, Kristen L; Proni, Gloria

    2010-11-01

    As the number of forensic science programs offered at higher education institutions rises, and more students express an interest in them, it is important to gain information regarding the offerings in terms of courses, equipment available to students, degree requirements, and other important aspects of the programs. A survey was conducted examining the existing bachelor's and master's forensic science programs in the U.S. Of the responding institutions, relatively few were, at the time of the survey, accredited by the forensic science Education Programs Accreditation Commission (FEPAC). In general, the standards of the responding programs vary considerably primarily in terms of their size and subjects coverage. While it is clear that the standards for the forensic science programs investigated are not homogeneous, the majority of the programs provide a strong science curriculum, faculties with advanced degrees, and interesting forensic-oriented courses. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Education evolution: a historical perspective of associate degree nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orsolini-Hain, Liana; Waters, Verle

    2009-05-01

    Exploring the inception and growth of associate degree nursing education informs our understanding of what led to such explosive growth so that most of the nursing workforce is currently educated at the associate degree level. The success of associate degree nursing programs led to many divisive years in nursing education of differentiation of practice debates that were hardly productive. Work world practices and patient needs are creating pressures on community colleges to join forces with universities to increase the percentage of baccalaureate-educated nurses. Associate degree nursing education continues to evolve to meet the demands of a higher educated nursing workforce.

  10. Brief 74 Nuclear Engineering Enrollments and Degrees Survey, 2014 Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-15

    The 2014 survey includes degrees granted between September 1, 2013 and August 31, 2014, and enrollments for fall 2014. There are three academic programs new to this year's survey. Thirty-five academic programs reported having nuclear engineering programs during 2014, and data were provided by all thirty-five. The enrollments and degrees data include students majoring in nuclear engineering or in an option program equivalent to a major. Two nuclear engineering programs have indicated that health physics option enrollments and degrees are also reported in the health physics enrollments and degrees survey.

  11. Does Postsecondary Persistence in STEM Vary by Gender?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara King

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The underrepresentation of women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM is often explained by women’s greater likelihood to leave STEM at each key juncture from elementary school into the workforce. It is important to examine this more closely and look for points in the pipeline where gender equity exists. This study uses nationally representative data from a recent cohort of college students to investigate thoroughly gender differences in STEM persistence. Results indicate that no significant gender differences in persistence exist. This finding holds among those in computer science, engineering, mathematics, and physical science, and for those in life science. Additionally, the results are unchanged if the sample is limited to degree earners and are robust to the inclusion of individual and institutional variables. Although it is clear that women are less likely to choose certain STEM majors, those who do are no less likely to earn a STEM degree.

  12. Efficient approximations of dispersion relations in optical waveguides with varying refractive-index profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yutian; Zhu, Jianxin

    2015-05-04

    In this paper we consider the problem of computing the eigen-modes for the varying refractive-index profile in an open waveguide. We first approximate the refractive-index by a piecewise polynomial of degree two, and the corresponding Sturm-Liouville problem (eigenvalue problem) of the Helmholtz operator in each layer can be solved analytically by the Kummer functions. Then, analytical approximate dispersion equations are established for both TE and TM cases. Furthermore, the approximate dispersion equations converge fast to the exact ones for the continuous refractive-index function as the maximum value of the subinterval sizes tends to zero. Suitable numerical methods, such as Müller's method or the chord secant method, may be applied to the dispersion relations to compute the eigenmodes. Numerical simulations show that our method is very practical and efficient for computing eigenmodes.

  13. FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF TAPERED COMPOSITE PLATE GIRDER WITH A NON-LINEAR VARYING WEB DEPTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. A. HASAN

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents Finite Element Analysis to determine the ultimate shear capacity of tapered composite plate girder. The effect of degree of taper on the ultimate shear capacity of tapered steel-concrete composite plate girder with a nonlinear varying web depth, effect of slenderness ratio on the ultimate shear capacity, and effect of flange stiffness on the ductility were considered as the parametric studies. Effect of concrete slab on the ultimate shear capacity of tapered plate girders was also considered and it was found to be so effective on the ultimate shear capacity of the tapered plate girder compared with the steel one. The accuracy of the finite element method is established by comparing the finite element with the results existing in the literature. The study was conducted using nonlinear finite element modelling with computer software LUSAS 14.7.

  14. Periodic solution for state-dependent impulsive shunting inhibitory CNNs with time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şaylı, Mustafa; Yılmaz, Enes

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we consider existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution for state-dependent impulsive shunting inhibitory cellular neural networks with time-varying delays. By means of B-equivalence method, we reduce these state-dependent impulsive neural networks system to an equivalent fix time impulsive neural networks system. Further, by using Mawhin's continuation theorem of coincide degree theory and employing a suitable Lyapunov function some new sufficient conditions for existence and global exponential stability of periodic solution are obtained. Previous results are improved and extended. Finally, we give an illustrative example with numerical simulations to demonstrate the effectiveness of our theoretical results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The time-varying correlation between policy uncertainty and stock returns: Evidence from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiong; Bian, Yuxiang; Shen, Dehua

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we use a new policy uncertainty index to investigate the time-varying correlation between economic policy uncertainty (EPU) and Chinese stock market returns. The correlation is examined in the period from January 1995 to December 2016. We show that absolute changes in EPU have a significant impact on stock market returns. Specifically, empirical results based on the DCC-GARCH model reveal that the correlation between EPU and stock returns has large fluctuations, especially during a financial crisis; in addition, the impact of EPU on the Shanghai stock market is greater than on the Shenzhen stock market. Robustness results reveal that the impact of EPU on state-owned enterprises is larger than on non-state enterprises. All of these results highlight the important role of EPU in the Chinese stock market, and shed light on such issues for future research.

  16. Perception and description of premium beers by panels with different degrees of product expertise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giacalone, Davide; Ribeiro, Leticia Machado; Frøst, Michael Bom

    2016-01-01

    The present study compares subjects with varying degrees of product expertise with regards to their ability to provide a sensory profile of beverages. Eight premium beers were evaluated by three different panels using a Napping® test, followed by a descriptive task. Two panels were constituted of...... were all above 0.90, indicating high configurational similarity. In contrast, PLS-DA showed significant differences in the use of attributes, particularly between Experts and Novices, suggesting that product expertise is more associated with descriptive, rather than perceptual, ability....

  17. Astrometric studies of the regions BD + 17 degree 4946, BD -5 degree 3071, and Ross 730-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, J.; Gatewood, G.

    1975-01-01

    Positions, proper motions, and absolute parallaxes were found for 46 stars in the regions of BD +17 degree4946, BD -5 degree3071, and Ross 730-1. BD +17 degree4946 showed some evidence of irregular variations in position and magnitude. The residuals for Ross 730-1 were used in a preliminary study to test for an appropriate weighting system; a weak weighting system was indicated. (auth)

  18. Degree of Agreement between Cardiovascular Risk Stratification Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Guilherme Thomé; Stamm, Ana Maria Nunes de Faria; Rosa, Ariel Córdova; Marasciulo, Antônio Carlos; Marasciulo, Rodrigo Conill; Battistella, Cristian; Remor, Alexandre Augusto de Costa

    2017-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Brazil, and primary prevention care may be guided by risk stratification tools. The Framingham (FRS) and QRISK-2 (QRS) risk scores estimate 10-year overall cardiovascular risk in asymptomatic individuals, but the instrument of choice may lead to different therapeutic strategies. To evaluate the degree of agreement between FRS and QRS in 10-year overall cardiovascular risk stratification in disease-free individuals. Cross-sectional, observational, descriptive and analytical study in a convenience sample of 74 individuals attending the outpatient care service of a university hospital in Brazil between January 2014 and January 2015. After application of FRS and QRS, patients were classified in low/moderate risk (Brasil, e a prevenção primária pode ser direcionada com ferramentas que estratificam o risco. Os escores de Framingham (ERF) e QRISK-2 (ERQ) estimam o risco cardiovascular (RCV) global em 10 anos em indivíduos assintomáticos, mas a escolha do instrumento pode implicar em terapêuticas distintas. Observar o grau de concordância entre o ERF e o ERQ, na estratificação do risco cardiovascular global em 10 anos, nos indivíduos livres da doença. Estudo transversal, observacional, descritivo e analítico, com uma amostra de conveniência de 74 indivíduos, atendidos em um ambulatório de ensino de um hospital universitário brasileiro, no sul do país, de janeiro de 2014 a janeiro de 2015. O ERF e o ERQ foram aplicados nos pacientes, que foram classificados em baixo/moderado (superior no ERF que no ERQ (33,7% vs 21,6%), sendo identificado efeito sinérgico do gênero masculino com hipertensão arterial sistêmica nas duas ferramentas, e com faixa etária geriátrica no ERQ (p < 0,05) nesse estrato de risco. O índice de concordância Kappa entre os dois escores foi igual a 0,519 (IC95% = 0,386-0,652; p < 0,001). Houve concordância moderada entre o ERF e o ERQ, na estimativa de

  19. Time-varying properties of renal autoregulatory mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Rui; Cupples, Will A; Yip, K P

    2002-01-01

    In order to assess the possible time-varying properties of renal autoregulation, time-frequency and time-scaling methods were applied to renal blood flow under broad-band forced arterial blood pressure fluctuations and single-nephron renal blood flow with spontaneous oscillations obtained from...... normotensive (Sprague-Dawley, Wistar, and Long-Evans) rats, and spontaneously hypertensive rats. Time-frequency analyses of normotensive and hypertensive blood flow data obtained from either the whole kidney or the single-nephron show that indeed both the myogenic and tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) mechanisms...... have time-varying characteristics. Furthermore, we utilized the Renyi entropy to measure the complexity of blood-flow dynamics in the time-frequency plane in an effort to discern differences between normotensive and hypertensive recordings. We found a clear difference in Renyi entropy between...

  20. Performance of Traffic Noise Barriers with Varying Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Grubeša

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of noise barriers largely depends on their geometry. In this paper, the performance of noise barriers was simulated using the numerical Boundary Element Method (BEM. Traffic noise was particularly considered with its standardized noise spectrum adapted to human hearing. The cross-section of the barriers was varied with the goal of finding the optimum shape in comparison to classical rectangular barriers. The barrier performance was calculated at different receiver points for a fixed barrier height and source position. The magnitude of the insertion loss parameter was used to evaluate the performance change, both in one-third octave bands and as the broadband mean insertion loss value. The proposed barriers of varying cross-section were also compared with a typical T-shape barrier of the same height.