WorldWideScience

Sample records for revealed positive relationships

  1. Human language reveals a universal positivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Clark, Eric M; Desu, Suma; Frank, Morgan R; Reagan, Andrew J; Williams, Jake Ryland; Mitchell, Lewis; Harris, Kameron Decker; Kloumann, Isabel M; Bagrow, James P; Megerdoomian, Karine; McMahon, Matthew T; Tivnan, Brian F; Danforth, Christopher M

    2015-02-24

    Using human evaluation of 100,000 words spread across 24 corpora in 10 languages diverse in origin and culture, we present evidence of a deep imprint of human sociality in language, observing that (i) the words of natural human language possess a universal positivity bias, (ii) the estimated emotional content of words is consistent between languages under translation, and (iii) this positivity bias is strongly independent of frequency of word use. Alongside these general regularities, we describe interlanguage variations in the emotional spectrum of languages that allow us to rank corpora. We also show how our word evaluations can be used to construct physical-like instruments for both real-time and offline measurement of the emotional content of large-scale texts.

  2. Revealing Relationships: First Graders Share Personal Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weih, Timothy G.

    2014-01-01

    Literature holds the potential to significantly influence the lives of readers, but what is the nature of this influence for very young readers? This study investigated the question: What are the relationships between beginning readers and their personal literature? A first grade class of 18 students individually assembled a collection of personal…

  3. Relationship of condylar position to disc position and morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incesu, L.; Taskaya-Yilmaz, N. E-mail: nergizy@omu.edu.tr; Oeguetcen-Toller, M.; Uzun, E

    2004-09-01

    Introduction/objective: The purpose of this study was to assess whether condylar position, as depicted by magnetic resonance imaging, was an indicator of disc morphology and position. Methods and material: One hundred and twenty two TMJs of 61 patients with temporomandibular joint disorder were examined. Condylar position, disc deformity and degree of anterior disc displacement were evaluated by using magnetic resonance imaging. Results and discussion: Posterior condyle position was found to be the main feature of temporomandibular joints with slight and moderate anterior disc displacement. No statistical significance was found between the condylar position, and reducing and nonreducing disc positions. On the other hand, superior disc position was found to be statistically significant for centric condylar position. Conclusion: It was concluded that posterior condyle position could indicate anterior disc displacement whereas there was no relation between the position of condyle and the disc deformity.

  4. Inflation and Growth: Positive or Negative Relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berument, Hakan; Inamlik, Ali; Olgun, Hasan

    This study has been motivated by two developments. Firstly, by the vast literature on the relationship between inflation and growth which is abundantly endowed with diverse theoretical explanations and contradictory evidence and by the unique experience of the Turkish economy with inflation and growth. A preliminary examination of the Turkish data pointed to a negative relation between inflation and growth. Moreover, there is a unanimous agreement among the students of the Turkish economy that many factors have contributed to inflation in this country. In view of these facts this paper employs a VAR model which will enable us to identify the sources of the shocks and control for external factors. In addition VAR models have a high predictive power and enable the researcher to observe the impulse response functions. The study employs Generalised Impulse Response analysis. In the empirical experiments oil prices, money supply, government spending and taxes have been taken as the most likely determinants of inflation. The study shows that there is a negative relationship between inflation and output growth in Turkey and that the underlying explanatory factor is the real exchange rate. This result is robust.

  5. Positive biodiversity-productivity relationship predominant in global forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jingjing; Crowther, Thomas W; Picard, Nicolas; Wiser, Susan; Zhou, Mo; Alberti, Giorgio; Schulze, Ernst-Detlef; McGuire, A David; Bozzato, Fabio; Pretzsch, Hans; de-Miguel, Sergio; Paquette, Alain; Hérault, Bruno; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Barrett, Christopher B; Glick, Henry B; Hengeveld, Geerten M; Nabuurs, Gert-Jan; Pfautsch, Sebastian; Viana, Helder; Vibrans, Alexander C; Ammer, Christian; Schall, Peter; Verbyla, David; Tchebakova, Nadja; Fischer, Markus; Watson, James V; Chen, Han Y H; Lei, Xiangdong; Schelhaas, Mart-Jan; Lu, Huicui; Gianelle, Damiano; Parfenova, Elena I; Salas, Christian; Lee, Eungul; Lee, Boknam; Kim, Hyun Seok; Bruelheide, Helge; Coomes, David A; Piotto, Daniel; Sunderland, Terry; Schmid, Bernhard; Gourlet-Fleury, Sylvie; Sonké, Bonaventure; Tavani, Rebecca; Zhu, Jun; Brandl, Susanne; Vayreda, Jordi; Kitahara, Fumiaki; Searle, Eric B; Neldner, Victor J; Ngugi, Michael R; Baraloto, Christopher; Frizzera, Lorenzo; Bałazy, Radomir; Oleksyn, Jacek; Zawiła-Niedźwiecki, Tomasz; Bouriaud, Olivier; Bussotti, Filippo; Finér, Leena; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Jucker, Tommaso; Valladares, Fernando; Jagodzinski, Andrzej M; Peri, Pablo L; Gonmadje, Christelle; Marthy, William; O'Brien, Timothy; Martin, Emanuel H; Marshall, Andrew R; Rovero, Francesco; Bitariho, Robert; Niklaus, Pascal A; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Chamuya, Nurdin; Valencia, Renato; Mortier, Frédéric; Wortel, Verginia; Engone-Obiang, Nestor L; Ferreira, Leandro V; Odeke, David E; Vasquez, Rodolfo M; Lewis, Simon L; Reich, Peter B

    2016-10-14

    The biodiversity-productivity relationship (BPR) is foundational to our understanding of the global extinction crisis and its impacts on ecosystem functioning. Understanding BPR is critical for the accurate valuation and effective conservation of biodiversity. Using ground-sourced data from 777,126 permanent plots, spanning 44 countries and most terrestrial biomes, we reveal a globally consistent positive concave-down BPR, showing that continued biodiversity loss would result in an accelerating decline in forest productivity worldwide. The value of biodiversity in maintaining commercial forest productivity alone-US$166 billion to 490 billion per year according to our estimation-is more than twice what it would cost to implement effective global conservation. This highlights the need for a worldwide reassessment of biodiversity values, forest management strategies, and conservation priorities. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  6. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  7. Empathy in intimate relationships : The role of positive illusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Pieternel; Barelds, Dick P.H.; Groothof, Hinke A.K.; Van Bruggen, Marnix

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown empathy to be an important aspect of a high quality intimate relationship. Likewise, positive illusions about a partner's characteristics have been shown to contribute to relationship quality. The present study connects these issues by examining the degree to which

  8. Positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and relationship quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barelds, Dick P. H.; Dijkstra, Pieternel

    The present research examined the existence of positive illusions about a partner's physical attractiveness and its relations to relationship quality. Positive illusions were assumed to exist when individuals rated their partner as more attractive than their partner rated him or herself. In two

  9. The Relationship Between Depression And Positive Signs In Chronic Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaoddini S S

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The results of studies about relationship between depression and positive signs in schizophrenia are controversial and clarifying the nature of this association may be difficult. The aim of present study is to investigate relationship between depressive symptoms and positive signs, in acute phase of patients with chronic schizophrenia, who have been admitted in Roozbeh Hospital. Materials and Methods: Assessments were performed using the Beck depression Inventory for depression (subjectively and positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS for psychotic symptoms. Results: The results demonstrated a significant correlation between depressive symptoms and positive signs in these patients. Also, a significant correlation existed between depression and these items: delusions, hallucinatory behavior, excitement, hostility. Conclusion: depressive symptoms and positive signs in schizophrenia may have a common underlying pathophysiological origin.

  10. Buyer-Supplier Relationships and Power Position: Interchaining

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    Hebatollah Morsy

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available According to several studies, power and interdependence play a considerable role in understanding the buyer–supplier relationships, yet, empirical research is still limited. Also, the nature of the buyer-supplier relationship and managing them might vary based on the power position of buyers and suppliers. Few studies focused on the reason behind this interrelation and strong influence of power on the buyer-supplier relationships. Thus, the purpose of this study is to gain better understanding and try to identify how power position and buyer-supplier relationships are interrelated, and whether there are common determinants and/or characteristics behind this strong bond between the two concepts. Both transaction cost analysis theory and social exchange theory were integrated in building the argument. Regarding the methodology, qualitative exploratory research design was employed by using multiple-case study as the main research method, where three multinational Egyptian organizations were selected. Moreover, data was collected using individual in-depth interviews, and analyzed through coding and cross case analysis techniques. The results showed that there are common factors that influence both buyer-supplier relationship characteristics and power position attributes. And according, the findings helped in pointing out a new lens of discussing and investigating the bond between buyer-supplier relationships ad power in research.

  11. Relations among Positive Parenting, parent-child Relationship, and Empathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Liyun; Zhang, Xingli; Shi, Jiannong

    This study demonstrated relations among 2 features of positive parenting——supportive responsiveness to distress and warmth ,parent-child relationship and empathy.171 children aged 8-10 years (mean age = 9.31 years, 89 girls) participated in the study.In school,participants completed Empathic......,Prosocial Response to Another’s Distress Scale,Parental Acceptance-Rejection Questionnaire, Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Questionaire,Network of Relationships Inventory. Results showed that: (1)Parents' supportive responsiveness to distress, but not warmth, predicted children's empathy.(2)Near parent-child...... parent-child relationship....

  12. Relationship between positive mental health and appreciation in Korean individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Young-Jin

    2017-06-01

    Appreciation is a key component of subjective well-being and may contribute to positive mental health. Few studies have examined relationships between specific aspects of appreciation and the 3 dimensions of positive mental health, and thus, the aim of this study was to identify associations between aspects of appreciation and positive mental health. Appreciation and positive mental health were measured in 266 Korean university students (50% females) using the Appreciation Inventory and the Mental Health Continuum-Short Form. The results obtained showed that Have Focus significantly predicted Emotional Well-being; Have Focus and Loss/Adversity significantly predicted Social Well-being and Have Focus, Expression and Nature/Daily Life significantly predicted Psychological Well-being. The implications of results that might enable positive mental health to be enhanced are discussed. © 2015 International Union of Psychological Science.

  13. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

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    Guan-Nan Wang

    Full Text Available In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM. Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  14. Predicting Positive and Negative Relationships in Large Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Nan; Gao, Hui; Chen, Lian; Mensah, Dennis N A; Fu, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In a social network, users hold and express positive and negative attitudes (e.g. support/opposition) towards other users. Those attitudes exhibit some kind of binary relationships among the users, which play an important role in social network analysis. However, some of those binary relationships are likely to be latent as the scale of social network increases. The essence of predicting latent binary relationships have recently began to draw researchers' attention. In this paper, we propose a machine learning algorithm for predicting positive and negative relationships in social networks inspired by structural balance theory and social status theory. More specifically, we show that when two users in the network have fewer common neighbors, the prediction accuracy of the relationship between them deteriorates. Accordingly, in the training phase, we propose a segment-based training framework to divide the training data into two subsets according to the number of common neighbors between users, and build a prediction model for each subset based on support vector machine (SVM). Moreover, to deal with large-scale social network data, we employ a sampling strategy that selects small amount of training data while maintaining high accuracy of prediction. We compare our algorithm with traditional algorithms and adaptive boosting of them. Experimental results of typical data sets show that our algorithm can deal with large social networks and consistently outperforms other methods.

  15. Positivity and job burnout in emergency personnel: examining linear and curvilinear relationship

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    Basińska Beata Aleksandra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine whether the relationship between the ratio of job-related positive to negative emotions (positivity ratio and job burnout is best described as linear or curvilinear. Participants were 89 police officers (12% women and 86 firefighters. The positivity ratio was evaluated using the Job-related Affective Wellbeing Scale (Van Katwyk, Fox, Spector, & Kelloway, 2000. Exhaustion and disengagement, two components of job burnout, were measured using the Oldenburg Burnout Inventory (Demerouti, Mostert, & Bakker, 2010. The results of regression analysis revealed that curvilinear relationships between the positivity ratio and two components of job burnout appeared to better fit the data than linear relationships. The relationship between the positivity ratio and exhaustion was curvilinear with a curve point at around 2.1. A similar curvilinear relationship, but with a lower curve point, i.e., around 1.8, was observed for disengagement. It seems that beyond certain values there may be hidden costs of maintaining positive emotions at work. Also, the unequal curve points for subscales suggest that different dimensions of work-related functioning are variously prone to such costs.

  16. Using nurse managers' perceptions to guide new graduates toward positive nurse relationships.

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    Moore, Linda Weaver; Sublett, Cynthia; Leahy, Cathy; Bradley, Jennifer M

    One of the greatest challenges new graduates confront when transitioning to practice is establishing positive relationships with experienced nurses. Nursing faculty must prepare graduates for this challenge. However, nursing faculty are often removed from everyday practice and must rely on the perceptions of those entrenched in practice in order to ground teaching endeavors in authenticity. Nurse managers are well positioned to provide knowledgeable insights to nursing faculty regarding nurse relationships. The purpose of this qualitative, descriptive study was to explore nurse managers' perceptions regarding new graduates' relationships with more experienced nurses. Researcher-participant audiotaped interviews were conducted with 13 nurse managers. A content analysis revealed that all participants believed nurse relationships were significant, that factors such as perceived inequities and stressful occurrences triggered poor relationships, that new graduates were often targeted for negative relationships, and that reasons for targeting of new graduates included prolonged dependence on experienced nurses and either over or under confidence of the new graduate. Providing a supportive, protective environment and hiring practices that promote team unity were posed as strategies that could help to prevent targeting of new graduates. Findings provide real-life, practice based information that can underpin nurse educators' teaching regarding nurse relationships and relationship building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Socializing by Gaming : Revealing Social Relationships in Multiplayer Online Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, L.; Shen, S.; van de Bovenkamp, R.; Iosup, A.; Kuipers, F.A.; Epema, D.H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Multiplayer Online Games (MOGs) like Defense of the Ancients and StarCraft II have attracted hundreds of millions of users who communicate, interact, and socialize with each other through gaming. In MOGs, rich social relationships emerge and can be used to improve gaming services such as match

  18. Revealing Relationships among Relevant Climate Variables with Information Theory

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    Knuth, Kevin H.; Golera, Anthony; Curry, Charles T.; Huyser, Karen A.; Kevin R. Wheeler; Rossow, William B.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the NASA Earth-Sun Exploration Technology Office is to understand the observed Earth climate variability, thus enabling the determination and prediction of the climate's response to both natural and human-induced forcing. We are currently developing a suite of computational tools that will allow researchers to calculate, from data, a variety of information-theoretic quantities such as mutual information, which can be used to identify relationships among climate variables, and transfer entropy, which indicates the possibility of causal interactions. Our tools estimate these quantities along with their associated error bars, the latter of which is critical for describing the degree of uncertainty in the estimates. This work is based upon optimal binning techniques that we have developed for piecewise-constant, histogram-style models of the underlying density functions. Two useful side benefits have already been discovered. The first allows a researcher to determine whether there exist sufficient data to estimate the underlying probability density. The second permits one to determine an acceptable degree of round-off when compressing data for efficient transfer and storage. We also demonstrate how mutual information and transfer entropy can be applied so as to allow researchers not only to identify relations among climate variables, but also to characterize and quantify their possible causal interactions.

  19. Genetic relationships among Orobanche species as revealed by RAPD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, B; Alfaro, C; Torres, A M; Moreno, M T; Satovic, Z; Pujadas, A; Rubiales, D

    2003-05-01

    RAPD markers were used to study variation among 20 taxa in the genus OROBANCHE: O. alba, O. amethystea, O. arenaria, O. ballotae, O. cernua, O. clausonis, O. cumana, O. crenata, O. densiflora, O. foetida, O. foetida var. broteri, O. gracilis, O. haenseleri, O. hederae, O. latisquama, O. mutelii, O. nana, O. ramosa, O. rapum-genistae and O. santolinae. A total of 202 amplification products generated with five arbitrary RAPD primers was obtained and species-specific markers were identified. The estimated Jaccard's differences between the species varied between 0 and 0.864. The pattern of interspecific variation obtained is in general agreement with previous taxonomic studies based on morphology, and the partition into two different sections (Trionychon and Orobanche) is generally clear. However, the position in the dendrogram of O. clausonis did not fit this classification since it clustered with members of section TRIONYCHON: Within this section, O. arenaria was relatively isolated from the other members of the section: O. mutelii, O. nana and O. ramosa. Within section Orobanche, all O. ramosa populations showed a similar amplification pattern, whereas differences among O. crenata populations growing on different hosts were found. Orobanche foetida and O. densiflora clustered together, supporting the morphological and cytological similarities and the host preferences of these species.

  20. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

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    C. Echappé

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing (RS is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985–2015 combining high-resolution (30 m Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before–after control-impact (BACI experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our

  1. Satellite remote sensing reveals a positive impact of living oyster reefs on microalgal biofilm development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echappé, Caroline; Gernez, Pierre; Méléder, Vona; Jesus, Bruno; Cognie, Bruno; Decottignies, Priscilla; Sabbe, Koen; Barillé, Laurent

    2018-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing (RS) is routinely used for the large-scale monitoring of microphytobenthos (MPB) biomass in intertidal mudflats and has greatly improved our knowledge of MPB spatio-temporal variability and its potential drivers. Processes operating on smaller scales however, such as the impact of benthic macrofauna on MPB development, to date remain underinvestigated. In this study, we analysed the influence of wild Crassostrea gigas oyster reefs on MPB biofilm development using multispectral RS. A 30-year time series (1985-2015) combining high-resolution (30 m) Landsat and SPOT data was built in order to explore the relationship between C. gigas reefs and MPB spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics, using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Emphasis was placed on the analysis of a before-after control-impact (BACI) experiment designed to assess the effect of oyster killing on the surrounding MPB biofilms. Our RS data reveal that the presence of oyster reefs positively affects MPB biofilm development. Analysis of the historical time series first showed the presence of persistent, highly concentrated MPB patches around oyster reefs. This observation was supported by the BACI experiment which showed that killing the oysters (while leaving the physical reef structure, i.e. oyster shells, intact) negatively affected both MPB biofilm biomass and spatial stability around the reef. As such, our results are consistent with the hypothesis of nutrient input as an explanation for the MPB growth-promoting effect of oysters, whereby organic and inorganic matter released through oyster excretion and biodeposition stimulates MPB biomass accumulation. MPB also showed marked seasonal variations in biomass and patch shape, size and degree of aggregation around the oyster reefs. Seasonal variations in biomass, with higher NDVI during spring and autumn, were consistent with those observed on broader scales in other European mudflats. Our study provides the

  2. Recent adaptive events in human brain revealed by meta-analysis of positively selected genes.

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    Yue Huang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Analysis of positively-selected genes can help us understand how human evolved, especially the evolution of highly developed cognitive functions. However, previous works have reached conflicting conclusions regarding whether human neuronal genes are over-represented among genes under positive selection. METHODS AND RESULTS: We divided positively-selected genes into four groups according to the identification approaches, compiling a comprehensive list from 27 previous studies. We showed that genes that are highly expressed in the central nervous system are enriched in recent positive selection events in human history identified by intra-species genomic scan, especially in brain regions related to cognitive functions. This pattern holds when different datasets, parameters and analysis pipelines were used. Functional category enrichment analysis supported these findings, showing that synapse-related functions are enriched in genes under recent positive selection. In contrast, immune-related functions, for instance, are enriched in genes under ancient positive selection revealed by inter-species coding region comparison. We further demonstrated that most of these patterns still hold even after controlling for genomic characteristics that might bias genome-wide identification of positively-selected genes including gene length, gene density, GC composition, and intensity of negative selection. CONCLUSION: Our rigorous analysis resolved previous conflicting conclusions and revealed recent adaptation of human brain functions.

  3. Leisure Activity Engagement and Positive Affect Partially Mediate the Relationship Between Positive Views on Aging and Physical Health.

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    Hicks, Stephanie A; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2017-03-01

    To examine leisure activity engagement and positive affect as potential mediators for the relationships between positive views on aging (PVA) and two health outcomes: subjective health and physical limitations. Data from 5,194 participants from the German Ageing Survey (aged 40-91 years) were used to examine relationships between PVA to subjective health (assessed by self-rated health and perceived health change from past) and physical limitations (assessed via self-reported limitations on 10 activities). Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were examined as potential mediators in latent variable path analyses. Age moderation among these relationships was also examined. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect separately and jointly served to partially mediate the relationships between PVA and the health outcomes. When entered as joint mediators, positive affect no longer significantly predicted physical limitations, indicating a shared variance with leisure activity engagement. Age moderated the relationship between PVA and physical limitations; the relationship was stronger among older adults than among middle-aged adults. Leisure activity engagement and positive affect were shown to help explain the relationship between PVA and health, but differently for different health constructs and also among middle-aged and older adults. Findings provide further insight into ways in which PVA influence health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Relationship between gluteal muscle activation and upper extremity kinematics and kinetics in softball position players.

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    Oliver, Gretchen D

    2014-03-01

    As the biomechanical literature concerning softball pitching is evolving, there are no data to support the mechanics of softball position players. Pitching literature supports the whole kinetic chain approach including the lower extremity in proper throwing mechanics. The purpose of this project was to examine the gluteal muscle group activation patterns and their relationship with shoulder and elbow kinematics and kinetics during the overhead throwing motion of softball position players. Eighteen Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association softball players (19.2 ± 1.0 years; 68.9 ± 8.7 kg; 168.6 ± 6.6 cm) who were listed on the active playing roster volunteered. Electromyographic, kinematic, and kinetic data were collected while players caught a simulated hit or pitched ball and perform their position throw. Pearson correlation revealed a significant negative correlation between non-throwing gluteus maximus during the phase of maximum external rotation to maximum internal rotation (MIR) and elbow moments at ball release (r = -0.52). While at ball release, trunk flexion and rotation both had a positive relationship with shoulder moments at MIR (r = 0.69, r = 0.82, respectively) suggesting that the kinematic actions of the pelvis and trunk are strongly related to the actions of the shoulder during throwing.

  5. Positive School Leadership: Building Capacity and Strengthening Relationships

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    Murphy, Joseph F.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    2018-01-01

    This landmark book translates positive and asset-based understandings of organizations to develop a powerful model of school leadership that is grounded in both existing research and the complexities of life in schools. The authors--both senior scholars in educational leadership--apply insights from positive psychology to the role and function of…

  6. Patient-provider relationship predicts mental and physical health indicators for HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

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    Bankoff, Sarah M; McCullough, Mary B; Pantalone, David W

    2013-06-01

    We used secondary data analysis to examine associations among aspects of patient-provider relationships and mental and physical health indicators. Positive patient perceptions of patient-provider relationships were associated with fewer mental health symptoms in this outpatient sample of HIV-positive men who have sex with men (N = 171). Regression analyses revealed the role of anxiety and depression in explaining associations between two aspects of patient-provider relationships (i.e. quality of information offered and provider interactional style) and health-related quality of life. The findings demonstrated the importance of patient-provider relationships to improving physical health and functioning and maintaining engagement in care, among HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  7. Positive Outcome Expectancy Mediates the Relationship Between Peer Influence and Internet Gaming Addiction Among Adolescents in Taiwan.

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    Wu, Jo Yung Wei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wong, Tsui-Yin; Wu, Li-An; Oei, Tian Po

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the role of positive outcome expectancy in the relationship between peer/parental influence and Internet gaming addiction (IGA) among adolescents in Taiwan. Two thousand, one hundred and four junior high students completed the Chen Internet Addiction Scale for IGA, Parental Influence for IGA, peer influence for IGA, and Positive Outcome Expectancy of Internet Gaming Questionnaire. Results showed that the three types of peer influences (positive attitudes toward Internet gaming, frequency of Internet game use, and invitation to play) and positive outcome expectancy were significantly and positively correlated with IGA. Moreover, peer influence was also positively correlated with positive outcome expectancy. On the other hand, positive outcome expectancy and parental influences had a low correlation. Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that positive outcome expectancy did not mediate the relationship between either type of parental influences and IGA, and only the parent's invitation to play Internet games directly predicted IGA severity. However, peers' positive attitude or the frequency of peers' Internet game use positively predicted IGA and was fully mediated through positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. In addition, the frequency of peers' invitation to play Internet games directly and indirectly predicted IGA severity through a partial mediation of positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming. The overall fit of the model was adequate and was able to explain 25.0 percent of the variance. The findings provide evidence in illuminating the role of peer influences and positive outcome expectancy of Internet gaming in the process of why adolescents may develop IGA.

  8. Bringing Boys and Girls Together: Supporting Preschoolers' Positive Peer Relationships

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    Manaster, Hillary; Jobe, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Children thrive in inclusive settings where each child is an important part of the community. When differences are celebrated and similarities discovered, children learn to value themselves, appreciate their peers, and develop meaningful and significant relationships with one another. A sizable body of research indicates that promoting positive…

  9. Relationships Among Positive Emotions, Coping, Resilience and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions suggests that positive emotions can widen the range of potential coping strategies that come to mind and subsequently enhance one's resilience against stress. Studies have shown that high stress, especially chronic levels of stress, strongly contributes to the development of anxiety and depressive symptoms. However, researchers have also found that individuals who possess high levels of resilience are protected from stress and thus report lower levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Using a sample of 200 postdoctoral research fellows, the present study examined if (a) positive emotions were associated with greater resilience, (b) coping strategies mediated the link between positive emotions and resilience and (c) resilience moderated the influence of stress on trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Results support the broaden-and-build theory in that positive emotions may enhance resilience directly as well as indirectly through the mediating role of coping strategies-particularly via adaptive coping. Resilience also moderated the association of stress with trait anxiety and depressive symptoms. Although stress is unavoidable and its influences on anxiety and depressive symptoms are undeniable, the likelihood of postdocs developing anxiety or depressive symptoms may be reduced by implementing programmes designed to increase positive emotions, adaptive coping strategies and resilience. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Obesity and the relationship with positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; Brennan, Sharon L; Berk, Michael

    2013-05-01

    To examine the cross-sectional association between overweight and obesity and positive and negative affect. Participants included 273 women, aged 29-84 years, who were enrolled in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). Weight and height were measured and overweight and obesity determined from body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) according to WHO criteria. Medical history and lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire. Positive and negative affect scores were derived using the validated 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) and categorised into tertiles. A pattern of greater negative affect scores was observed for increasing levels of BMI. Setting normal weight as the referent category, the odds for having a negative affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially increased for women who were overweight (OR = 1.31, 95% CI: 0.72-2.40) and obese (OR = 1.95, 95% CI: 1.02-3.73). The association between obesity and increased negative affect was diminished by adjusting for physical illness (adjusted OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 0.91-3.42). These associations were not substantially influenced by positive affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between BMI categories and positive affect scores. We report data suggesting that obesity is associated with greater negative affect scores, reflecting emotions such as distress, anger, disgust, fear and shame, and that this association is attenuated by physical illness. Further investigations are now warranted to explore possible mechanistic interplay between pathological, neurobiological and psychosocial factors.

  11. Metabolite Profiling of Peppers of Various Colors Reveals Relationships Between Tocopherol, Carotenoid, and Phytosterol Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Jin; Choi, Jaehyuk; Kim, Kil Won; Ahn, Soon Kil; Ha, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Yongsoo; Park, Nam Il; Kim, Jae Kwang

    2017-12-01

    Peppers are widely consumed in Korea; the varietal development of peppers with increased content of beneficial plant metabolites is, therefore, of considerable interest. This requires a comprehensive understanding of the metabolic profile of pepper plants and the factors affecting this profile. To this end, we determined the content of various metabolites, such as hydrophilic and lipophilic compounds, phenolic acids, carotenoids, and capsaicinoids in peppers of various colors (green, red, pale green, and violet peppers) and in a high-pungency (green) pepper. We also performed principal component analysis (PCA), Pearson's correlation analysis, and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) to determine the relationships among these metabolites in peppers. PCA results indicated no significant variances among the 3 sample replicates. The HCA showed correlations between the metabolites resulting from common or closely linked biosynthesis pathways. Our results showed that carotenoids correlated positively with tocopherols and negatively with phytosterols; our findings also indicated a close relationship between the methylerythritol 4-phosphate and mevalonic acid biosynthesis pathways, providing evidence in favor of an earlier hypothesis regarding crosstalk across the chloroplast membrane. We, thus, demonstrate that metabolic profiling combined with multivariate analysis is a useful tool for analyzing metabolic networks. A total of 71 metabolites were measured in 5 peppers of different colors. The metabolic profiling with multivariate analysis revealed that tocopherol content had a positive correlation with the carotenoid content and a negative correlation with the phytosterol content. The results of this study may help in breeding programs to produce new germplasm with enhanced nutritional quality. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Cognitive Engagement Mediates the Relationship between Positive Life Events and Positive Emotionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Strobel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Need for Cognition (NFC is conceptualized as an individuals’ tendency to engage in and enjoy effortful cognitive activity and, thus, captures one’s cognitive engagement. It plays a well-established role in information processing in experimental or academic contexts. However, so far comparably little is known about its consequences for other than purely cognitive or academic outcomes. Indeed, NFC is positively associated with personality traits pertaining to Positive Emotionality (PE and negatively to traits related to Negative Emotionality (NE. Moreover, evidence suggests NFC to be related to an active, problem-focused coping style. We therefore hypothesized NFC to mediate between life events and individual differences in PE and NE. In a sample of N = 202 volunteers from the general population, we observed that the number of past positive and negative life events had direct effects on PE, and NE, respectively, and that for positive life events, a mediating effect on PE via NFC was observed, with a higher number of past positive life events being related to higher NFC that in turn was related to increased PE. Thus, the present results lend support to the notion of NFC as an important factor supporting personal well-being by way of its mediating role between the number of past positive life events and positive affect.

  13. Discordant relationship between Essure microinsert position and tubal occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Melody Y

    2016-07-27

    Hysteroscopic sterilisation with Essure requires confirmation of tubal occlusion by hysterosalpingogram or microinsert position by transvaginal sonography 3 months after placement before women can rely on the method for pregnancy prevention. A 39-year-old woman underwent hysteroscopic sterilisation via Essure, with successful bilateral tubal occlusion documented on hysterosalpingogram. She had a subsequent unintended pregnancy and termination, and presented with persistent pelvic pain and other non-specific symptoms. She underwent a laparoscopic-assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingectomy, with complete resolution of her symptoms. Pathological evaluation demonstrated a perforated Essure microinsert and ipsilateral tubal occlusion, and a correctly placed Essure microinsert with ipsilateral tubal patency. Clinicians should be cautious about the assumption that correctly placed microinserts based on ultrasonography, hysterosalpingogram or laparoscopic evaluation assures occlusion success. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  14. Interrogating Key Positions of Size-Reduced TALE Repeats Reveals a Programmable Sensor of 5-Carboxylcytosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Sara; Giess, Mario; Koch, Oliver; Summerer, Daniel

    2016-12-16

    Transcription-activator-like effector (TALE) proteins consist of concatenated repeats that recognize consecutive canonical nucleobases of DNA via the major groove in a programmable fashion. Since this groove displays unique chemical information for the four human epigenetic cytosine nucleobases, TALE repeats with epigenetic selectivity can be engineered, with potential to establish receptors for the programmable decoding of all human nucleobases. TALE repeats recognize nucleobases via key amino acids in a structurally conserved loop whose backbone is positioned very close to the cytosine 5-carbon. This complicates the engineering of selectivities for large 5-substituents. To interrogate a more promising structural space, we engineered size-reduced repeat loops, performed saturation mutagenesis of key positions, and screened a total of 200 repeat-nucleobase interactions for new selectivities. This provided insight into the structural requirements of TALE repeats for affinity and selectivity, revealed repeats with improved or relaxed selectivity, and resulted in the first selective sensor of 5-carboxylcytosine.

  15. Revealing the Relationship between Reading Interest and Critical Thinking Skills through Remap GI and Remap Jigsaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubaidah, Siti; Corebima, Aloysius Duran; Mahanal, Susriyati; Mistianah

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this research was to reveal the relationship between student's reading interest and critical thinking skills through Reading Concept Map Group Investigation (Remap GI) and Reading Concept Map Jigsaw (Remap Jigsaw) learning models. To do so, two science classes from first grade of two Senior High Schools in Malang, Indonesia were…

  16. The relationship between 19th century BMIs and family size: Economies of scale and positive externalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Scott Alan

    2015-04-01

    The use of body mass index values (BMI) to measure living standards is now a well-accepted method in economics. Nevertheless, a neglected area in historical studies is the relationship between 19th century BMI and family size, and this relationship is documented here to be positive. Material inequality and BMI are the subject of considerable debate, and there was a positive relationship between BMI and wealth and an inverse relationship with inequality. After controlling for family size and wealth, BMI values were related with occupations, and farmers and laborers had greater BMI values than workers in other occupations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. The Relationship Between Trust-in-God, Positive and Negative Affect, and Hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadardi, Javad S; Azadi, Zeinab

    2017-06-01

    We aimed to test the relationships between Trust-in-God, positive and negative affect, and feelings of hope. A sample of university students (N = 282, 50 % female) completed the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule, the Adult Dispositional Hope Scale, and a Persian measure of Trust-in-God for Muslims. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that Trust-in-God was positively associated with participants' scores for hope and positive affect but was negatively associated with their scores for negative affect. The results support the relationship between Trust-in-God and indices of mental health.

  18. The Relationship between Teacher Stress and Burnout in Hong Kong: Positive Humour and Gender as Moderators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sammy K.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we report on the relationship between positive humour and burnout among 379 secondary school teachers in Hong Kong, and explore whether the relationship varies according to gender. The moderating effects of both affiliative and self-enhancing humour on each burnout component were then examined. High affiliative and self-enhancing…

  19. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  20. 77 FR 45282 - NRC Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... Position on the Relationship Between General Design Criteria and Technical Specification Operability AGENCY... relationship between the general design criteria (GDC) for nuclear power plants and technical specification... Communications Branch, Division of Policy and Rulemaking, Office Nuclear Reactor Regulation, Mail Stop: OWFN-12-D...

  1. Social Relationships and Health: Is Feeling Positive, Negative, or Both (Ambivalent) about your Social Ties Related to Telomeres?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Bert N.; Cawthon, Richard M.; Smith, Timothy W.; Light, Kathleen C.; McKenzie, Justin; Carlisle, McKenzie; Gunn, Heather; Birmingham, Wendy; Bowen, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Objective The quality of one’s personal relationships has been linked to morbidity and mortality across different diseases. As a result, it is important to examine more integrative mechanisms that might link relationships across diverse physical health outcomes. In this study, we examine associations between relationships and telomeres which predict general disease risk. These questions are pursued in the context of a more comprehensive model of relationships that highlights the importance of jointly considering positive and negative aspects of social ties. Method 136 individuals from a community sample (ages 48 to 77) completed the social relationships index which allows a determination of relationships that differ in their positive and negative substrates (i.e., ambivalent, supportive, aversive, indifferent). Telomere length was determined from peripheral blood mononuclear cells via quantitative PCR. Results Participants who had a higher number of ambivalent ties in their social networks evidenced shorter telomeres. These results were independent of other relationships types (e.g., supportive), as well as standard control variables (e.g., age, health behaviors, medication use). Gender moderated the links between ambivalent ties and telomere length with these associations seen primarily in women. Follow-up analyses revealed that the links between ambivalent ties and telomeres were primarily due to friendships, parents, and social acquaintances. Conclusions Consistent with epidemiological findings, these data highlight a novel and integrative biological mechanism by which social ties may impact health across diseases, and further suggests the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of specific relationships and physical health. PMID:22229928

  2. Leading from the Centre: A Comprehensive Examination of the Relationship between Central Playing Positions and Leadership in Sport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, S. Alexander; Mallett, Cliff J.; Steffens, Niklas K.; Peters, Kim; Boen, Filip

    2016-01-01

    Research aims The present article provides a comprehensive examination of the relationship between playing position and leadership in sport. More particularly, it explores links between leadership and a player’s interactional centrality—defined as the degree to which their playing position provides opportunities for interaction with other team members. This article examines this relationship across different leadership roles, team sex, and performance levels. Results Study 1 (N = 4443) shows that athlete leaders (and the task and motivational leader in particular) are more likely than other team members to occupy interactionally central positions in a team. Players with high interactional centrality were also perceived to be better leaders than those with low interactional centrality. Study 2 (N = 308) established this link for leadership in general, while Study 3 (N = 267) and Study 4 (N = 776) revealed that the same was true for task, motivational, and external leadership. This relationship is attenuated in sports where an interactionally central position confers limited interactional advantages. In other words, the observed patterns were strongest in sports that are played on a large field with relatively fixed positions (e.g., soccer), while being weaker in sports that are played on a smaller field where players switch positions dynamically (e.g., basketball, ice hockey). Beyond this, the pattern is broadly consistent across different sports, different sexes, and different levels of skill. Conclusions The observed patterns are consistent with the idea that positions that are interactionally central afford players greater opportunities to do leadership—either through communication or through action. Significantly too, they also provide a basis for them to be seen to do leadership by others on their team. Thus while it is often stated that “leadership is an action, not a position,” it is nevertheless the case that, when it comes to performing that

  3. Positive Illusions in Adolescents: The Relationship between Academic Self-Enhancement and Depressive Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Rick N.; Heath, Nancy L.; Toste, Jessica R.

    2011-01-01

    Positive illusions are systematically inflated self-perceptions of competence, and are frequently seen in areas of great difficulty. Although these illusions have been extensively documented in children and adults, their role in typical adolescent emotion regulation is unclear. This study investigated the relationship between positive illusions,…

  4. Stratification of antibody-positive subjects by antibody level reveals an impact of immunogenicity on pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lei; Hoofring, Sarah A; Wu, Yu; Vu, Thuy; Ma, Peiming; Swanson, Steven J; Chirmule, Narendra; Starcevic, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The availability of highly sensitive immunoassays enables the detection of antidrug antibody (ADA) responses of various concentrations and affinities. The analysis of the impact of antibody status on drug pharmacokinetics (PK) is confounded by the presence of low-affinity or low-concentration antibody responses within the dataset. In a phase 2 clinical trial, a large proportion of subjects (45%) developed ADA following weekly dosing with AMG 317, a fully human monoclonal antibody therapeutic. The antibody responses displayed a wide range of relative concentrations (30 ng/mL to >13 μg/mL) and peaked at various times during the study. To evaluate the impact of immunogenicity on PK, AMG 317 concentration data were analyzed following stratification by dose group, time point, antibody status (positive or negative), and antibody level (relative concentration). With dose group as a stratifying variable, a moderate reduction in AMG 317 levels (AMG 317 levels was revealed when antibody data was stratified by both time point and antibody level. In general, high ADA concentrations (>500 ng/mL) and later time points (week 12) were associated with significantly (up to 97%) lower trough AMG 317 concentrations. The use of quasi-quantitative antibody data and appropriate statistical methods was critical for the most comprehensive evaluation of the impact of immunogenicity on PK.

  5. Distress Severity Following a Romantic Breakup is Associated with Positive Relationship Memories among Emerging Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    del Palacio Gonzalez, Adriana; Clark, David; O'Sullivan, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    symptoms has received little attention. We examined links between breakup-specific distress, depressive symptoms, and relationship memories of different valence. Ninety-one emerging adults (Mage = 20.13) who had experienced a recent romantic breakup recorded the frequency of positive and negative......Romantic relationship loss is associated with significant psychological distress for emerging adults. Intrusive memories of stressful events are typically associated with symptom severity; however, whether spontaneous positive memories of a relationship breakup may also be related to psychological...... spontaneous relationship memories in a four-day online memory diary. Control memories were also recorded. Positive memories were specifically related to breakup distress, whereas negative memories were related to both breakup distress and depression. No such associations were found for the control memories...

  6. Buffering effect of positive parent-child relationships on adolescent risk taking: A longitudinal neuroimaging investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Fuligni, Andrew J.; Galvan, Adriana; Telzer, Eva H.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence is marked by a steep increase in risk-taking behavior. The serious consequences of such heightened risk taking raise the importance of identifying protective factors. Despite its dynamic change during adolescence, family relationships remain a key source of influence for teenagers. Using a longitudinal fMRI approach, we scanned 23 adolescents twice across a 1.5-year period to examine how changes in parent-child relationships contribute to changes in adolescent risk taking over time via changes in adolescents’ neural reactivity to rewards. Results indicate that although parent-child relationships are not associated with adolescent risk taking concurrently, increases in positive parent-child relationships contribute to declines in adolescent risk taking. This process is mediated by longitudinal decreases in ventral striatum activation to rewards during risk taking. Findings highlight the neural pathways through which improvements in positive parent-child relationships serve to buffer longitudinal increases in adolescent risk taking. PMID:26342184

  7. Biochemical characterization of Arabidopsis thaliana starch branching enzyme 2.2 reveals an enzymatic positive cooperativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wychowski, A; Bompard, C; Grimaud, F; Potocki-Véronèse, G; D'Hulst, C; Wattebled, F; Roussel, X

    2017-09-01

    Starch Branching Enzymes (SBE) catalyze the formation of α(1 → 6) branching points on starch polymers: amylopectin and amylose. SBEs are classified in two groups named type 1 and 2. Both types are present in the entire plant kingdom except in some species such as Arabidopsis thaliana that expresses two type 2 SBEs: BE2.1 and BE2.2. The present work describes in vitro enzymatic characterization of the recombinant BE2.2. The function of recombinant BE2.2 was characterized in vitro using spectrophotometry assay, native PAGE and HPAEC-PAD analysis. Size Exclusion Chromatography separation and SAXS experiments were used to identify the oligomeric state and for structural analysis of this enzyme. Optimal pH and temperature for BE2.2 activity were determined to be pH 7 and 25 °C. A glucosyl donor of at least 12 residues is required for BE2.2 activity. The reaction results in the transfer in an α(1 → 6) position of a glucan preferentially composed of 6 glucosyl units. In addition, BE2.2, which has been shown to be monomeric in absence of substrate, is able to adopt different active forms in presence of branched substrates, which affect the kinetic parameters. BE2.2 has substrate specificity similar to those of the other type-2 BEs. We propose that the different conformations of the enzyme displaying more or less affinity toward its substrates would explain the adjustment of the kinetic data to the Hill equation. This work describes the enzymatic parameters of Arabidopsis BE2.2. It reveals for the first time conformational changes for a branching enzyme, leading to a positive cooperative binding process of this enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  8. Network modeling reveals prevalent negative regulatory relationships between signaling sectors in Arabidopsis immune signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanao Sato

    Full Text Available Biological signaling processes may be mediated by complex networks in which network components and network sectors interact with each other in complex ways. Studies of complex networks benefit from approaches in which the roles of individual components are considered in the context of the network. The plant immune signaling network, which controls inducible responses to pathogen attack, is such a complex network. We studied the Arabidopsis immune signaling network upon challenge with a strain of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae expressing the effector protein AvrRpt2 (Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. This bacterial strain feeds multiple inputs into the signaling network, allowing many parts of the network to be activated at once. mRNA profiles for 571 immune response genes of 22 Arabidopsis immunity mutants and wild type were collected 6 hours after inoculation with Pto DC3000 AvrRpt2. The mRNA profiles were analyzed as detailed descriptions of changes in the network state resulting from the genetic perturbations. Regulatory relationships among the genes corresponding to the mutations were inferred by recursively applying a non-linear dimensionality reduction procedure to the mRNA profile data. The resulting static network model accurately predicted 23 of 25 regulatory relationships reported in the literature, suggesting that predictions of novel regulatory relationships are also accurate. The network model revealed two striking features: (i the components of the network are highly interconnected; and (ii negative regulatory relationships are common between signaling sectors. Complex regulatory relationships, including a novel negative regulatory relationship between the early microbe-associated molecular pattern-triggered signaling sectors and the salicylic acid sector, were further validated. We propose that prevalent negative regulatory relationships among the signaling sectors make the plant immune signaling network a "sector

  9. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Golparvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction questionnaires, the research hypotheses have been tested through Pearson's correlation and structural equation modeling. The results show that there were significant relationships between meaning and spirituality at work, job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. Results of structure equation modeling reveal that during two chain models, at first meaning and spirituality at work are linked to job happiness and positive effect. Then job happiness and positive effect cause reinforcement of job satisfaction. The results of this study showed that meaning and spirituality at work cause positive affective spillover from job happiness and positive affect to job satisfaction.

  10. How Facebook might reveal users' attitudes toward work and relationships with coworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Hui-Tzu Grace; Hammond, Ron J; Johnson, Roberta

    2013-02-01

    With the spread of Facebook among people in many countries, some companies have started using applicants' Facebook profiles as a criterion of personnel selection, in an effort to identify good workers among job applicants. However, how using Facebook is connected to individuals' relationships with coworkers and work attitudes is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between using Facebook, relationships with coworkers, and some attitudes toward the current job. Undergraduate students at a state university in Utah were randomly chosen to participate in an online survey between April and May 2012. The results of a multivariate analysis, based on 516 currently employed respondents, revealed several findings. First, those more involved in using Facebook--often assumed as more people-oriented individuals--do not have better relationships with their coworkers than their counterparts. Second, those with more Facebook friends care less about their work performance than those with fewer Facebook friends. Third, those frequently update their Facebook profile like their current job less, and are more likely to think about changing their jobs, compared with those updating their Facebook profile less often. Although Facebook friendship usually begins with offline friendship, this research found that offline interaction with friends has a different impact on work attitudes than online interaction: Those spending more time with friends offline like their jobs more and are less likely to think about changing jobs. Implications are discussed.

  11. Personal and Environmental Resources Mediate the Positivity-Emotional Dysfunction Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, H Matthew; Janus, Katherine C; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the relationships among positivity, perceived personal and environmental resources, and emotional dysfunction in adolescent girls. We hypothesized that perceived resources would mediate the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. Participants (N = 510) attending an all-girls public school completed a survey assessing emotional dysfunction (depressive symptoms and perceived stress), positivity (positive/negative emotions), and personal/ environmental resources (resilience, hope, percent adaptive coping, community connectedness, social support, and school connectedness). Perceived resources were combined into one latent variable, and structural equation modeling tested the mediating effect of perceived resources on the relationship between positivity and emotional dysfunction. The model accounted for 63% of the variance in emotional dysfunction. Positivity exerted a significant direct effect on emotional dysfunction (β = -.14, p emotional dysfunction is primarily but not entirely mediated by perceived personal and environmental resources. Schools should consider strategies to enhance experiences of positive emotions and/or decrease experiences of negative emotions, in conjunction with encouraging student awareness and development of personal and environmental resources.

  12. The positives of negative emotions: willingness to express negative emotions promotes relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Steven M; Huang, Julie Y; Clark, Margaret S; Helgeson, Vicki S

    2008-03-01

    Four studies support the hypothesis that expressing negative emotion is associated with positive relationship outcomes, including elicitation of support, building of new close relationships, and heightening of intimacy in the closest of those relationships. In Study 1, participants read vignettes in which another person was experiencing a negative emotion. Participants reported they would provide more help when the person chose to express the negative emotion. In Study 2, participants watched a confederate preparing for a speech. Participants provided more help to her when she expressed nervousness. In Study 3, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotions predicted having more friends, controlling for demographic variables and extraversion. In Study 4, self-reports of willingness to express negative emotion measured prior to arrival at college predicted formation of more relationships, greater intimacy in the closest of those relationships, and greater received support from roommates across participants' first semester of college.

  13. Autonomy, positive relationships, and IL-6: evidence for gender-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory; Segerstrom, Suzanne

    2013-05-01

    A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research centre for blood draws. In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that moderate autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men. In the US national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, moderate autonomy was again associated with higher IL-6 in men only. Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. What is already known on this subject? A host of previous work indicates that women value relationship-centred aspects of well-being more than men, while men value autonomy-centred aspects of well-being more than women. Further, there is some evidence suggesting that well-being consistent with gender-linked values is more health protective, such that relationships are more protective for women than for men, while

  14. What Do Letter Migration Errors Reveal About Letter Position Coding in Visual Word Recognition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Colin J.; Bowers, Jeffrey S.

    2004-01-01

    Dividing attention across multiple words occasionally results in misidentifications whereby letters apparently migrate between words. Previous studies have found that letter migrations preserve within-word letter position, which has been interpreted as support for position-specific letter coding. To investigate this issue, the authors used word…

  15. Positive academic emotions moderate the relationship between self-regulation and academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T; Bernardo, Allan B I

    2013-06-01

    Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models, particularly with negative emotions. The study tested the hypotheses: (1) self-regulation and the positive academic emotions of enjoyment and pride are positive predictors of achievement; and (2) enjoyment and pride both moderate the relationship between self-regulation and achievement. Participants were 1,345 students enrolled in various trigonometry classes in one university. Participants answered the Academic Emotions Questionnaire-Math (Pekrun, Goetz, & Frenzel, 2005) and a self-regulation scale (Pintrich, Smith, Garcia, & McKeachie, 1991) halfway through their trigonometry class. The students' final grades in the course were regressed to self-regulation, positive emotions, and the interaction terms to test the moderation effects. Enjoyment and pride were both positive predictors of grades; more importantly, both moderated the relationship between self-regulation and grades. For students who report higher levels of both positive emotions, self-regulation was positively associated with grades. However, for those who report lower levels of pride, self-regulation was not related to grades; and, for those who reported lower levels of enjoyment, self-regulation was negatively related to grades. The results are discussed in terms of how positive emotions indicate positive appraisals of task/outcome value, and thus enhance the positive links between cognitive/motivational variables and learning. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. On the relationship between positive and negative affect: Their correlation and their co-occurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeff T; Hershfield, Hal E; Stastny, Bradley J; Hester, Neil

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the nature of emotional experience requires understanding the relationship between positive and negative affect. Two particularly important aspects of that relationship are the extent to which positive and negative affect are correlated with one another and the extent to which they co-occur. Some researchers have assumed that weak negative correlations imply greater co-occurrence (i.e., more mixed emotions) than do strong negative correlations, but others have noted that correlations may imply very little about co-occurrence. We investigated the relationship between the correlation between positive and negative affect and co-occurrence. Participants in each of 2 samples provided moment-to-moment happiness and sadness ratings as they watched an evocative film and listened to music. Results indicated (a) that 4 measures of the correlation between positive and negative affect were quite highly related to 1 another; (b) that the strength of the correlation between measures of mixed emotions varied considerably; (c) that correlational measures were generally (but not always) weakly correlated with mixed emotion measures; and (d) that bittersweet stimuli consistently led to elevations in mixed emotion measures but did not consistently weaken the correlation between positive and negative affect. Results highlight that the correlation between positive and negative affect and their co-occurrence are distinct aspects of the relationship between positive and negative affect. Such insight helps clarify the implications of existing work on age-related and cultural differences in emotional experience and sets the stage for greater understanding of the experience of mixed emotions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Applying the Nominal Response Model within a Longitudinal Framework to Construct the Positive Family Relationships Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kathleen Suzanne Johnson; Parral, Skye N.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.; Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Ibrahim, Sirena M.; Delany, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    A psychometric analysis was conducted using the nominal response model under the item response theory framework to construct the Positive Family Relationships scale. Using data from the Fullerton Longitudinal Study, this scale was constructed within a long-term longitudinal framework spanning middle childhood through adolescence. Items tapping…

  18. Effects of Parent-Child Relationship on the Primary School Children's Non-Violence Position Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeeva, Roza A.; Kalimullin, Aydar M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to identify and test experimentally the impact of parent-child relationship on the formation of the primary school children non-violence position. During the research the effectiveness of the correctional and development program "Together with my mom" was verified to promote parent-child interaction, as well…

  19. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadipour, Mohammad; Rashid, Sabariah Md; Rafik-Galea, Shameem; Thai, Yap Ngee

    2018-01-01

    Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling…

  20. Positive teacher–student relationships go beyond the classroom, problematic ones stay inside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. A. Claessens, Luce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357401530; van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; C. van der Want, Anna; Pennings, Heleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242588; Verloop, Nico; J. den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361

    2017-01-01

    The authors voice teachers' perceptions of their interpersonal experiences with students in both positive and problematic relationships. Interview data from 28 teachers were examined by coding utterances on teacher and student interactions. Results indicate that teachers defined the quality of the

  1. Investigating the Relationship among Internet Addiction, Positive and Negative Affects, and Life Satisfaction in Turkish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationships between Internet addiction and the areas of life satisfaction and positive or negative affects in Turkish adolescents. The research sample comprised 358 students studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades at four different middle schools in Canakkale city centre during the 2012-2013 academic year, of…

  2. Analyzing the Relationship between Positive Psychological Capital and Organizational Commitment of the Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Sinan

    2016-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to determine the relationship between teachers' positive psychological capital levels and organisational commitment. The study was conducted as a correlational survey which is one of the quantitative methods. The sample group consists of 244 teachers selected by using random sampling method among 1270 teachers working in…

  3. The Relationships between Positive Thinking Skills, Academic Locus of Control and Grit in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail; Sariçam, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the possible relationships between academic locus of control, positive thinking skills and grit in high school students. The participants of the research are composed of 288 adolescents continuing their high school education from 4 different schools in Agri, Turkey, which were selected with convenient…

  4. Testing Theoretical Relationships: Factors Influencing Positive Health Practices (PHP) in Filipino College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayres, Cynthia; Mahat, Ganga; Atkins, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine variables influencing the positive health practices (PHP) of Filipino college students to gain a better understanding of health practices in this ethnic/racial group. Cross-sectional study tested theoretical relationships postulated among (a) PHP, (b) social support (SS), (c) optimism, and (d) acculturation. Participants: A…

  5. The Genetic Relationship between Leishmania aethiopica and Leishmania tropica Revealed by Comparing Microsatellite Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayter, Lena; Schnur, Lionel F; Schönian, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) aethiopica and L. (L.) tropica cause cutaneous leishmaniases and appear to be related. L. aethiopica is geographically restricted to Ethiopia and Kenya; L. tropica is widely dispersed from the Eastern Mediterranean, through the Middle East into eastern India and in north, east and south Africa. Their phylogenetic inter-relationship is only partially revealed. Some studies indicate a close relationship. Here, eight strains of L. aethiopica were characterized genetically and compared with 156 strains of L. tropica from most of the latter species' geographical range to discern the closeness. Twelve unlinked microsatellite markers previously used to genotype strains of L. tropica were successfully applied to the eight strains of L. aethiopica and their microsatellite profiles were compared to those of 156 strains of L. tropica from various geographical locations that were isolated from human cases of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, hyraxes and sand fly vectors. All the microsatellite profiles were subjected to various analytical algorithms: Bayesian statistics, distance-based and factorial correspondence analysis, revealing: (i) the species L. aethiopica, though geographically restricted, is genetically very heterogeneous; (ii) the strains of L. aethiopica formed a distinct genetic cluster; and (iii) strains of L. aethiopica are closely related to strains of L. tropica and more so to the African ones, although, by factorial correspondence analysis, clearly separate from them. The successful application of the 12 microsatellite markers, originally considered species-specific for the species L. tropica, to strains of L. aethiopica confirmed the close relationship between these two species. The Bayesian and distance-based methods clustered the strains of L. aethiopica among African strains of L. tropica, while the factorial correspondence analysis indicated a clear separation between the two species. There was no correlation between

  6. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  7. Alpha-Band Activity Reveals Spontaneous Representations of Spatial Position in Visual Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Joshua J; Bsales, Emma M; Jaffe, Russell J; Awh, Edward

    2017-10-23

    An emerging view suggests that spatial position is an integral component of working memory (WM), such that non-spatial features are bound to locations regardless of whether space is relevant [1, 2]. For instance, past work has shown that stimulus position is spontaneously remembered when non-spatial features are stored. Item recognition is enhanced when memoranda appear at the same location where they were encoded [3-5], and accessing non-spatial information elicits shifts of spatial attention to the original position of the stimulus [6, 7]. However, these findings do not establish that a persistent, active representation of stimulus position is maintained in WM because similar effects have also been documented following storage in long-term memory [8, 9]. Here we show that the spatial position of the memorandum is actively coded by persistent neural activity during a non-spatial WM task. We used a spatial encoding model in conjunction with electroencephalogram (EEG) measurements of oscillatory alpha-band (8-12 Hz) activity to track active representations of spatial position. The position of the stimulus varied trial to trial but was wholly irrelevant to the tasks. We nevertheless observed active neural representations of the original stimulus position that persisted throughout the retention interval. Further experiments established that these spatial representations are dependent on the volitional storage of non-spatial features rather than being a lingering effect of sensory energy or initial encoding demands. These findings provide strong evidence that online spatial representations are spontaneously maintained in WM-regardless of task relevance-during the storage of non-spatial features. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relationship between Cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans and cerebral microbleeds in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyatani, F; Kuriyama, N; Watanabe, I; Nomura, R; Nakano, K; Matsui, D; Ozaki, E; Koyama, T; Nishigaki, M; Yamamoto, T; Mizuno, T; Tamura, A; Akazawa, K; Takada, A; Takeda, K; Yamada, K; Nakagawa, M; Ihara, M; Kanamura, N; Friedland, R P; Watanabe, Y

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral hemorrhage has been shown to occur in animals experimentally infected with Streptococcus mutans carrying the collagen-binding Cnm gene. However, the relationship between cerebral microbleeds and oral hygiene, with a focus on Cnm gene-positive S. mutans infection, remains unclear. One hundred and thirty-nine subjects participated. The presence or absence of Cnm-positive S. mutans and its collagen-binding activity were investigated using saliva samples, and relationship with cerebral microbleeds detected on MRI investigated, including clinical information and oral parameters. Fifty-one subjects were identified as Cnm-positive S. mutans carriers (36.7%), with cerebral microbleeds being detected in 43 (30.9%). A significantly larger number of subjects carried Cnm-positive S. mutans in the cerebral microbleeds (+) group. S. mutans with Cnm collagen-binding ability was detected in 39 (28.1%) of all subjects, and the adjusted odds ratio for cerebral microbleeds in the Cnm-positive group was 14.4. Regarding the presence of cerebral microbleeds, no significant differences were noted in the number of remaining teeth, dental caries, or in classic arteriosclerosis risk factors. The occurrence of cerebral microbleeds was higher in subjects carrying Cnm-positive S. mutans, indicating that the presence of Cnm-positive S. mutans increases cerebral microbleeds, and is an independent risk for the development of cerebrovascular disorders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relationships matter: contraceptive choices among HIV-positive women in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-07-01

    Efforts to eliminate mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Tanzania are guided by a four-prong strategy advocated by the World Health Organization (WHO). Prong 2, prevention of unintended pregnancies among women living with HIV, has, however, received the least attention and contraceptive use to prevent unintended pregnancies remains low. This study explored the perceived barriers to the use of modern methods of contraception, and factors influencing contraceptive choice among HIV-positive women in urban Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. A qualitative multi-site study was conducted, utilising in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women's spousal relationships; personal beliefs and the relationship of these in understanding her disease; the influence of the social demands on the woman and her relationships; and the importance of a woman's relationship with her healthcare provider/healthcare system. Being the bearers of bad news (HIV-positive status) the pregnant women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient-healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated. Therefore, the results suggest that healthcare providers should ensure patient-focused education and provide support that encompasses the importance of their relationships. Additional research is required to elucidate the functional association between contraceptive choices and personal and social relationships.

  10. Positive affect, negative affect, stress, and social support as mediators of the forgiveness-health relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michelle; Decourville, Nancy; Sadava, Stanley

    2012-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to test a model in which positive affect, negative affect, perceived stress, and social support were hypothesized to mediate the relationship between forgiveness and mental and physical health. Six hundred and twenty-three undergraduates completed a battery of self-report measures. Results of the analyses indicated that the forgiveness-health relation was mediated by positive affect, negative affect, stress, and the interrelationship between negative affect and stress. There was limited support for social support and the interrelationship between positive affect and social support as mediators. The results suggested that the relationship between forgiveness and health is mediated rather than direct. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  11. Exploring evidence of positive selection reveals genetic basis of meat quality traits in Berkshire pigs through whole genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyeonsoo; Song, Ki-Duk; Seo, Minseok; Caetano-Anollés, Kelsey; Kim, Jaemin; Kwak, Woori; Oh, Jae-Don; Kim, EuiSoo; Jeong, Dong Kee; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal; Lee, Hak-Kyo

    2015-08-20

    Natural and artificial selection following domestication has led to the existence of more than a hundred pig breeds, as well as incredible variation in phenotypic traits. Berkshire pigs are regarded as having superior meat quality compared to other breeds. As the meat production industry seeks selective breeding approaches to improve profitable traits such as meat quality, information about genetic determinants of these traits is in high demand. However, most of the studies have been performed using trained sensory panel analysis without investigating the underlying genetic factors. Here we investigate the relationship between genomic composition and this phenotypic trait by scanning for signatures of positive selection in whole-genome sequencing data. We generated genomes of 10 Berkshire pigs at a total of 100.6 coverage depth, using the Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. Along with the genomes of 11 Landrace and 13 Yorkshire pigs, we identified genomic variants of 18.9 million SNVs and 3.4 million Indels in the mapped regions. We identified several associated genes related to lipid metabolism, intramuscular fatty acid deposition, and muscle fiber type which attribute to pork quality (TG, FABP1, AKIRIN2, GLP2R, TGFBR3, JPH3, ICAM2, and ERN1) by applying between population statistical tests (XP-EHH and XP-CLR). A statistical enrichment test was also conducted to detect breed specific genetic variation. In addition, de novo short sequence read assembly strategy identified several candidate genes (SLC25A14, IGF1, PI4KA, CACNA1A) as also contributing to lipid metabolism. Results revealed several candidate genes involved in Berkshire meat quality; most of these genes are involved in lipid metabolism and intramuscular fat deposition. These results can provide a basis for future research on the genomic characteristics of Berkshire pigs.

  12. Relationship between job stress, occupational position and job satisfaction using a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki; Otsuka, Toshiaki

    2011-01-01

    Subjects with higher occupational position are speculated to have higher ability to handle with stress, and they were less affected by job stress. This study focused on the relationship between job satisfaction and three sub-scales of a brief job stress questionnaire (BJSQ) related to workload. This self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 371 employees of a company, and all the workers sent back their responses. Among the 57 items graded on a 4-point Likert-type scale to measure job stressors, psycho-physical complaints, and support for workers, the authors studied the influence of quantitative and qualitative job overload (six items), job control (three items), and support port (six items). The job satisfaction score estimated on a 4-point Likert-type scale was also used in relation to job stress determined using a 15-item scale from the BJSQ based on demand-control-support model. Occupational positions were classified into directors, managers, and general workers, and the content of job was classified into clerical workers, skilled technicians, and unskilled manual workers. All the scales on job stress presented acceptable alpha coefficients reflecting high internal consistency (job demand: 0.855, job control: 0.644, and support: 0.878, respectively). Principal axis factor analysis was conducted, and three factors were extracted; support, job demand and job control. There was a significant difference in the mean score among four groups divided by the job satisfaction level as evaluated by Dunnett's multiple comparison, and members who were dissatisfied with their job showed a high job demand, limited job control, and poor support. The mean score of support for managers were significantly higher (lower support) than that for general workers. The logistic regression analysis revealed that job control and support contributed significantly to job satisfaction. In addition, unskilled manual workers showed significantly higher job dissatisfaction compared

  13. The Assessment of Positivity and Negativity in Social Networks: The Reliability and Validity of the Social Relationships Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Rebecca A.; Uchino, Bert N.; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Vaughn, Allison; Reblin, Maija; Smith, Timothy W.

    2009-01-01

    The Social Relationships Index (SRI) was designed to examine positivity and negativity in social relationships. Unique features of this scale include its brevity and the ability to examine relationship positivity and negativity at the level of the specific individual and social network. The SRI's psychometric properties were examined in three…

  14. The Moderating Influence of Situational Motivation on the Relationship Between Preferred Exercise and Positive Affect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Guérin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite convincing evidence supporting the association between exercise and positive affect, this complex relationship requires further theoretical and person-centered explanation. The nature of one’s motivation for exercise, as postulated by Self-Determination Theory (SDT, may supply a missing and understudied link. The primary aim of this experimental study was to examine the moderating influence of situational motivation from SDT on the relationship between an acute bout of preferred exercise, namely running (vs. control, and changes in positive affect. Forty-one active women attended two sessions to engage in (a a 30-min moderate-intensity self-paced treadmill run and (b a 30-min quiet activity (i.e., newspaper reading. Participants with high introjection versus those with low introjection reported a greater increase in positive affect from pre- to postrunning and a greater decrease in positive affect from pre- to postcontrol. A “relief from guilt” effect was postulated to explain these results. Motivational variables accounted for 7% of variance in postrun positive affect. Consistent with SDT, running because one values this behavior and its benefits (i.e., identified regulation was significantly associated with postrun positive affect.

  15. Autonomy, Positive Relationships, and IL-6: Evidence for Gender-Specific Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr-Moul, Tory A.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives A body of evidence indicates that women value relationship-centered aspects of well-being more than men do, while men value autonomy-centered aspects of well-being more than women do. The current study examined whether gender moderates relations between autonomy and positive relationships and interleukin-6 (IL-6), a cytokine associated with inflammatory processes. Aspects of well-being consistent with gender-linked values were expected to be most health-protective such that positive relationships would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in women, and autonomy would predict lower IL-6 only or more strongly in men. Methods In the first study, a sample of 119 older adults (55% female) living in Kentucky were visited in their homes for interviews and blood draws. In the second study, a sample of 1,028 adults (45% female) living across the United States (U.S.) underwent a telephone interview followed by a visit to a research center for blood draws. Results In the Kentucky sample, autonomy was quadratically related to IL-6 such that average autonomy predicted higher IL-6; this effect was stronger in men, providing support for our hypothesis only at above average levels of IL-6. In the U.S. national sample, more positive relationships were associated with lower IL-6 in women only. When the national sample was restricted to match the Kentucky sample, higher autonomy was associated with lower IL-6 in men only. Conclusions Results provide preliminary evidence for gender-specific effects of positive relationships and autonomy on IL-6. Further work is needed to establish the generalizability of these effects to different ages, cultures, and health statuses. PMID:22908985

  16. Tree ferns: monophyletic groups and their relationships as revealed by four protein-coding plastid loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korall, Petra; Pryer, Kathleen M; Metzgar, Jordan S; Schneider, Harald; Conant, David S

    2006-06-01

    Tree ferns are a well-established clade within leptosporangiate ferns. Most of the 600 species (in seven families and 13 genera) are arborescent, but considerable morphological variability exists, spanning the giant scaly tree ferns (Cyatheaceae), the low, erect plants (Plagiogyriaceae), and the diminutive endemics of the Guayana Highlands (Hymenophyllopsidaceae). In this study, we investigate phylogenetic relationships within tree ferns based on analyses of four protein-coding, plastid loci (atpA, atpB, rbcL, and rps4). Our results reveal four well-supported clades, with genera of Dicksoniaceae (sensu ) interspersed among them: (A) (Loxomataceae, (Culcita, Plagiogyriaceae)), (B) (Calochlaena, (Dicksonia, Lophosoriaceae)), (C) Cibotium, and (D) Cyatheaceae, with Hymenophyllopsidaceae nested within. How these four groups are related to one other, to Thyrsopteris, or to Metaxyaceae is weakly supported. Our results show that Dicksoniaceae and Cyatheaceae, as currently recognised, are not monophyletic and new circumscriptions for these families are needed.

  17. Relationship of maxillary 3-dimensional posterior occlusal plane to mandibular spatial position and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coro, Jorge C; Velasquez, Roberto L; Coro, Ivette M; Wheeler, Timothy T; McGorray, Susan P; Sato, Sadao

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of the 3-dimensional (3D) posterior occlusal plane (POP) and the mandibular 3D spatial position. The relationship of the POP to mandibular morphology was also investigated. Retrospective data from a convenience sample of pretreatment diagnostic cone-beam computed tomography scans were rendered using InVivo software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The sample consisted of 111 subjects (51 male, 60 female) and included growing and nongrowing subjects of different races and ethnicities. The 3D maxillary POP was defined by selecting the cusp tips of the second premolars and the second molars on the rendered images of the subjects. The angles made by this plane, in reference to the Frankfort horizontal plane, were measured against variables that described the mandibular position in the coronal, sagittal, and axial views. The POP was also compared with bilateral variables that described mandibular morphology. There were significant differences of the POP among the different skeletal malocclusions (P <0.0001). The POP showed significant correlations with mandibular position in the sagittal (P <0.0001), coronal (P <0.05), and axial (P <0.05) planes. The POP also showed a significant correlation with mandibular morphology (P <0.0001). These findings suggest that there is a distinct and significant relationship between the 3D POP and the mandibular spatial position and its morphology. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Structure-activity relationship studies of the aromatic positions in cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mungalpara, Jignesh; Zachariassen, Zack G; Thiele, Stefanie

    2013-01-01

    , and autoimmune diseases. While the structure-activity relationships for Arg(1), Arg(2), and Gly(4) are well established, less is understood about the roles of the aromatic residues 2-Nal(3) and D-Tyr(5). Here we report further structure-activity relationship studies of these two positions, which showed that (i......) the distal aromatic ring of the 2-Nal(3) side chain is required in order to maintain high potency and (ii) replacement of D-Tyr(5) with conformationally constrained analogues results in significantly reduced activity. However, a simplified analogue that contained Gly instead of D-Tyr(5) was only 13-fold less...

  19. The relationship of positive and negative expressiveness to the processing of emotion information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyazev, Gennady G; Barchard, Kimberly A; Razumnikova, Olga M; Mitrofanova, Larisa G

    2012-06-01

    The tendency to express emotions non-verbally is positively related to perception of emotions in oneself. This study examined its relationship to perception of emotions in others. In 40 healthy adults, EEG theta synchronization was used to indicate emotion processing following presentation of happy, angry, and neutral faces. Both positive and negative expressiveness were associated with higher emotional sensitivity, as shown by cortical responses to facial expressions during the early, unconscious processing stage. At the late, conscious processing stage, positive expressiveness was associated with higher sensitivity to happy faces but lower sensitivity to angry faces. Thus, positive expressiveness predisposes people to allocate fewer attentional resources for conscious perception of angry faces. In contrast, negative expressiveness was consistently associated with higher sensitivity. The effects of positive expressiveness occurred in cortical areas that deal with emotions, but the effects of negative expressiveness occurred in areas engaged in self-referential processes in the context of social relationships. © 2012 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology © 2012 The Scandinavian Psychological Associations.

  20. The Relationship Between Brain-Behavioral Systems and Negative and Positive Affect in Patients With Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovharifard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Migraine is a chronic headache disorder that affects approximately 12% of the general population. Migraine is known as recurrent headache, pulsating, moderate with severe power, which lasts for 4 to 72 hours, aggravated by daily physical activity along with nausea, vomiting, photophobia or photophobia. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between brain-behavioral systems and negative and positive affects in patients with migraine. Patients and Methods The research population included patients, who had referred to neurology clinics. One hundred and twenty cases were selected by accessible sampling based on the neurologist’s diagnosis of migraine headaches. They completed the Gray-Wilson (1989 Personality Questionnaire as well as Watson, Clark and Telligent (1988 positive and negative affect scale. The data were analyzed using the SPSS 19 software, correlation and stepwise regression. Results The results showed that positive affect had a significant positive correlation with active avoidance parameters and negative significant correlation with passive avoidance and extinction parameters. The findings also indicated that negative affect had a positive and significant relationship with passive avoidance and extinction. Conclusions It can be concluded that brain-behavioral systems may be the foundation of behavioral and emotional tendencies in patients with migraine headaches.

  1. Relationships Between Positive and Negative Affect and the Five Factors of Personality in a Brazilian Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Zanon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strong associations of Neuroticism and Extraversion with positive affects (PA and negative affects (NA have been reported in the international literature. This study aimed to evaluate the occurrence of such relationships in a Brazilian sample, and also to investigate the role of Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Openness in the prediction of PA and NA through the use of a hybrid structural model. Participants were 319 university students, between 17 and 37 years of age (mean = 21.5, SD = 4.9. Approximately 64% of the students were female and 36% male. Results showed that Neuroticism was the most important predictor of PA and NA, followed by Conscientiousness, but not Extraversion. Surprisingly, Agreeableness was shown to be a weak prediction for NA, but had no relationship with PA. As expected, Openness showed no relationship with PA or NA. These results are partially in agreement with the international literature but some important differences were detected.

  2. Positive and Negative Aspects of Relationship Quality and Unprotected Sex among Young Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sonya S.; Gruber, Sandra K.; Wolfson, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine both positive and negative aspects of relationship quality in relation to condom use. Sexually active young women aged 14-18 years (n = 111; 34% non-white) were recruited from community clinics and schools in the Midwest USA and provided data via an online survey. The number of unprotected sex acts in the past…

  3. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez; Gloria Esthela González Quirarte; Rosario del Carmén Realpozo Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A...

  4. Whole genome detection of signature of positive selection in African cattle reveals selection for thermotolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taye, Mengistie; Lee, Wonseok; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Dessie, Tadelle; Hanotte, Olivier; Mwai, Okeyo Ally; Kemp, Stephen; Cho, Seoae; Oh, Sung Jong; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Kim, Heebal

    2017-12-01

    As African indigenous cattle evolved in a hot tropical climate, they have developed an inherent thermotolerance; survival mechanisms include a light-colored and shiny coat, increased sweating, and cellular and molecular mechanisms to cope with high environmental temperature. Here, we report the positive selection signature of genes in African cattle breeds which contribute for their heat tolerance mechanisms. We compared the genomes of five indigenous African cattle breeds with the genomes of four commercial cattle breeds using cross-population composite likelihood ratio (XP-CLR) and cross-population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH) statistical methods. We identified 296 (XP-EHH) and 327 (XP-CLR) positively selected genes. Gene ontology analysis resulted in 41 biological process terms and six Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. Several genes and pathways were found to be involved in oxidative stress response, osmotic stress response, heat shock response, hair and skin properties, sweat gland development and sweating, feed intake and metabolism, and reproduction functions. The genes and pathways identified directly or indirectly contribute to the superior heat tolerance mechanisms in African cattle populations. The result will improve our understanding of the biological mechanisms of heat tolerance in African cattle breeds and opens an avenue for further study. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Positive cell-free fetal DNA testing for trisomy 13 reveals confined placental mosaicism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, April L; Drendel, Holli M; Verbrugge, Jennifer L; Reese, Angela M; Schumacher, Katherine L; Griffith, Christopher B; Weaver, David D; Abernathy, Mary P; Litton, Christian G; Vance, Gail H

    2013-09-01

    We report on a case in which cell-free fetal DNA was positive for trisomy 13 most likely due to confined placental mosaicism. Cell-free fetal DNA testing analyzes DNA derived from placental trophoblast cells and can lead to incorrect results that are not representative of the fetus. We sought to confirm commercial cell-free fetal DNA testing results by chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis. These results were followed up by postnatal chromosome analysis of cord blood and placental tissue. First-trimester cell-free fetal DNA test results were positive for trisomy 13. Cytogenetic analysis of chorionic villus sampling yielded a mosaic karyotype of 47,XY,+13[10]/46,XY[12]. G-banded analysis of amniotic fluid was normal, 46,XY. Postnatal cytogenetic analysis of cord blood was normal. Karyotyping of tissues from four quadrants of the placenta demonstrated mosaicism for trisomy 13 in two of the quadrants and a normal karyotype in the other two. Our case illustrates several important aspects of this new testing methodology: that cell-free fetal DNA may not be representative of the fetal karyotype; that follow-up with diagnostic testing of chorionic villus sampling and/or amniotic fluid for abnormal test results should be performed; and that pretest counseling regarding the full benefits, limitations, and possible testing outcomes of cell-free fetal DNA screening is important.

  6. Zebrafish syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes revealed by radiation hybrid mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samonte, Irene E.

    2007-01-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is an excellent model system for vertebrate developmental analysis and a new model for human disorders. In this study, however, zebrafish was used to determine its syntenic relationship to human/mouse genomes using the zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel. The focus was on genes residing on chromosomes 6 and 17 of human and mouse, respectively, and some other genes of either immunologic or evolutionary importance. Gene sequences of interest and zebrafish expressed sequence tags deposited in the GenBank were used in identifying zebrafish homologs. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, cloning and subcloning, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis were done to confirm the homology of the candidate genes in zebrafish. The promising markers were then tested in the 94 zebrafish-hamster radiation hybrid panel cell lines and submitted for logarithm of the odds (LOD) score analysis to position genes on the zebrafish map. A total of 19 loci were successfully mapped to zebrafish linkage groups 1, 14, 15, 19, and 20. Four of these loci were positioned in linkage group 20, whereas, 3 more loci were added in linkage group 19, thus increasing to 34 loci the number of human genes syntenic to the group. With the sequencing of the zebrafish genome, about 20 more MHC genes were reported linked on the same group. (Author)

  7. Military Personnel: Improvements Needed to Increase Effectiveness of DOD's Programs to Promote Positive Working Relationships between Reservists and Their Employers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farrell, Brenda S; Schmitt, David; Anderson, Bonita; Brown, Renee; Cantin, Janine; Chatlos, Rudy; Harms, Nicole; McMurdie, Tobin; Richardson, Terry; Wallace, Shana; Williams, Tracy; Young, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    .... As demobilized reservists return to civilian life and their civilian employment, the difficulties some face in maintaining positive working relationships with their employers is an area of interest...

  8. mRNA profiling reveals determinants of trastuzumab efficiency in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia von der Heyde

    Full Text Available Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we

  9. Analysis of image versus position, scale and direction reveals pattern texture anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland eLehoucq

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern heterogeneities and anisotropies often carry significant physical information. We provide a toolbox which: (i cumulates analysis in terms of position, direction and scale; (ii is as general as possible; (iii is simple and fast to understand, implement, execute and exploit.It consists in dividing the image into analysis boxes at a chosen scale; in each box an ellipse (the inertia tensor is fitted to the signal and thus determines the direction in which the signal is more present. This tensor can be averaged in position and/or be used to study the dependence with scale. This choice is formally linked with Leray transforms and anisotropic wavelet analysis. Such protocol is intutively interpreted and consistent with what the eye detects: relevant scales, local variations in space, priviledged directions. It is fast and parallelizable.Its several variants are adaptable to the user's data and needs. It is useful to statistically characterize anisotropies of 2D or 3D patterns in which individual objects are not easily distinguished, with only minimal pre-processing of the raw image, and more generally applies to data in higher dimensions.It is less sensitive to edge effects, and thus better adapted for a multiscale analysis down to small scale boxes, than pair correlation function or Fourier transform.Easy to understand and implement,it complements more sophisticated methods such as Hough transform or diffusion tensor imaging.We use it on various fracture patterns (sea ice cover, thin sections of granite, granular materials, to pinpoint the maximal anisotropy scales. The results are robust to noise and to user choices. This toolbox could turn also useful for granular materials, hard condensed matter, geophysics, thin films, statistical mechanics, characterisation of networks, fluctuating amorphous systems, inhomogeneous and disordered systems, or medical imaging, among others.

  10. Negative relationship behavior is more important than positive: Correlates of outcomes during stressful life events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Alannah Shelby; Sanford, Keith

    2018-04-01

    When people who are married or cohabiting face stressful life situations, their ability to cope may be associated with two separate dimensions of interpersonal behavior: positive and negative. These behaviors can be assessed with the Couple Resilience Inventory (CRI). It was expected that scales on this instrument would correlate with outcome variables regarding life well-being, stress, and relationship satisfaction. It was also expected that effects for negative behavior would be larger than effects for positive and that the effects might be curvilinear. Study 1 included 325 married or cohabiting people currently experiencing nonmedical major life stressors and Study 2 included 154 married or cohabiting people with current, serious medical conditions. All participants completed an online questionnaire including the CRI along with an alternate measure of couple behavior (to confirm scale validity), a measure of general coping style (to serve as a covariate), and measures of outcome variables regarding well-being, quality of life, perceived stress, and relationship satisfaction. The effects for negative behavior were larger than effects for positive in predicting most outcomes, and many effects were curvilinear. Notably, results remained significant after controlling for general coping style, and scales measuring positive and negative behavior demonstrated comparable levels of validity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Probing of RNA structures in a positive sense RNA virus reveals selection pressures for structural elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Kyle E; Choudhary, Krishna; Aviran, Sharon; Perry, Keith L

    2018-01-01

    Abstract In single stranded (+)-sense RNA viruses, RNA structural elements (SEs) play essential roles in the infection process from replication to encapsidation. Using selective 2′-hydroxyl acylation analyzed by primer extension sequencing (SHAPE-Seq) and covariation analysis, we explore the structural features of the third genome segment of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), RNA3 (2216 nt), both in vitro and in plant cell lysates. Comparing SHAPE-Seq and covariation analysis results revealed multiple SEs in the coat protein open reading frame and 3′ untranslated region. Four of these SEs were mutated and serially passaged in Nicotiana tabacum plants to identify biologically selected changes to the original mutated sequences. After passaging, loop mutants showed partial reversion to their wild-type sequence and SEs that were structurally disrupted by mutations were restored to wild-type-like structures via synonymous mutations in planta. These results support the existence and selection of virus open reading frame SEs in the host organism and provide a framework for further studies on the role of RNA structure in viral infection. Additionally, this work demonstrates the applicability of high-throughput chemical probing in plant cell lysates and presents a new method for calculating SHAPE reactivities from overlapping reverse transcriptase priming sites. PMID:29294088

  12. Understanding the relationship between religiousness, spirituality, and underage drinking: the role of positive alcohol expectancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Burris, Jessica L; Carlson, Charles R

    2014-02-01

    Research has consistently found that religiousness and spirituality are negatively associated with underage drinking. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the mechanisms by which these variables influence this important outcome. With 344 underage young adults (ages 18-20; 61 % women), we investigated positive alcohol expectancies as a mediator between religiousness and spirituality (measured separately) and underage alcohol use. Participants completed the Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Daily Spiritual Experiences Scale, Alcohol Expectancies Questionnaire, and Drinking Styles Questionnaire. Results indicate less positive alcohol expectancies partially mediate the relationship between both religiousness and spirituality and underage alcohol use. This suggests religiousness and spirituality's protective influence on underage drinking is partly due to their influence on expectations about alcohol's positive effects. Since underage drinking predicts problem drinking later in life and places one at risk for serious physical and mental health problems, it is important to identify specific points of intervention, including expectations about alcohol that rise from religious and spiritual factors.

  13. Relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyawaki, Shouichi; Tanimoto, Yuko; Araki, Yoshiko; Katayama, Akira; Imai, Mikako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among nocturnal jaw muscle activities, decreased esophageal pH, and sleep positions. Twelve adult volunteers, including 4 bruxism patients, participated in this study. Portable pH monitoring, electromyography of the temporal muscle, and audio-video recordings were conducted during the night in the subjects' homes. Rhythmic masticatory muscle activity (RMMA) episodes were observed most frequently, with single short-burst episodes the second most frequent. The frequencies of RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes were significantly higher during decreased esophageal pH episodes than those during other times. Both the electromyography and the decreased esophageal pH episodes were most frequently observed in the supine position. These results suggest that most jaw muscle activities, ie, RMMA, single short-burst, and clenching episodes, occur in relation to gastroesophageal reflux mainly in the supine position.

  14. The Relationships between Language Learning Strategies and Positive Emotions among Malaysian ESL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadipour

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotions are an indispensable part of second language learning. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between the use of language learning strategies and positive emotions. The present study adopted a sequential mixed methods design. The participants were 300 Malaysian ESL undergraduates selected through stratified random sampling from 5 public universities in Malaysia. The quantitative data were collected through two sets of questionnaires: (a Oxford's (1990 Strategy Inventory for Language Learning (SILL, and (b Fredrickson's (2009 modified Differential Emotional Scale (mDES. The qualitative data were gathered through semi-structured interviews. With regard to the quantitative data analysis, a series of t-tests and correlational analyses were used. The data from the interviews were analysed qualitatively. A positive significant correlation was found between positive emotions and overall language learning strategy use. Also, the qualitative results of the study indicated that the learners who experienced more positive emotions tended to use a greater variety of language learning strategies. The findings of the study emphasise the importance of students’ positive emotions in their use of language learning strategies. It might be suggested that teachers by designing the classroom settings and instructions which promote positive emotions can inspire learners to use language learning strategies more frequently and with a greater variety which in sequence relate to learners’ language learning proficiency.

  15. Positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships: a scoping review protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost, Joan; Wolff, Angela; Mildon, Barbara; Price, Sheri; Godfrey, Christina; Robinson, Sandra; Ross-White, Amanda; Mercado-Mallari, Sheile

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Engaging in teamwork requires a clear understanding of positive and negative behaviours that act as facilitators and barriers to collegial workplace relationships. Identifying and correcting underlying barriers, while promoting facilitators, is fundamental to improving care delivery and, ultimately, clinical outcomes. Despite a considerable amount of literature in this area, there is a lack of clarity of the different behaviours as several parallel literatures address similar questions about antecedents, processes and outcomes. The purpose of this study is to synthesise the current state of literature reporting on behaviours in workplace relationships. Using a scoping review methodology, the following research question will be addressed: “What is known about positive and negative behaviours in workplace relationships?” Methods and analysis We will employ the methodological frameworks used by Arksey and O'Malley and Levac et al. The search strategy will include numerous electronic databases, grey literature sources and hand-searching of reference lists from 1990 to present with a limit to English language. Search strategies will be developed using controlled vocabulary and keyword terms related to various components of workplace relationships. Two reviewers will independently screen titles and abstracts for inclusion, followed by screening of the full text of potential articles to determine final inclusion. A descriptive numerical analysis will describe characteristics of included studies. A thematic analysis will provide an overview of the literature, including definitions, conceptual frameworks, antecedents, outcomes and interventions. Dissemination In reviewing a wide range of positive and negative behaviours, then integrating into a manageable, meaningful whole, this study is a critical step in helping policymakers, leaders and healthcare professionals effectively use what is known thus far. Knowledge translation activities will occur throughout

  16. Relationship between foramen magnum position and locomotion in extant and extinct hominoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neaux, Dimitri; Bienvenu, Thibaut; Guy, Franck; Daver, Guillaume; Sansalone, Gabriele; Ledogar, Justin A; Rae, Todd C; Wroe, Stephen; Brunet, Michel

    2017-12-01

    From the Miocene Sahelanthropus tchadensis to Pleistocene Homo sapiens, hominins are characterized by a derived anterior position of the foramen magnum relative to basicranial structures. It has been previously suggested that the anterior position of the foramen magnum in hominins is related to bipedal locomotor behavior. Yet, the functional relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion remains unclear. Recent studies, using ratios based on cranial linear measurements, have found a link between the anterior position of the foramen magnum and bipedalism in several mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents, and primates. In the present study, we compute these ratios in a sample including a more comprehensive dataset of extant hominoids and fossil hominins. First, we verify if the values of ratios can distinguish extant humans from apes. Then, we test whether extinct hominins can be distinguished from non-bipedal extant hominoids. Finally, we assess if the studied ratios are effective predictors of bipedal behavior by testing if they mainly relate to variation in foramen magnum position rather than changes in other cranial structures. Our results confirm that the ratios discriminate between extant bipeds and non-bipeds. However, the only ratio clearly discriminating between fossil hominins and other extant apes is that which only includes basicranial structures. We show that a large proportion of the interspecific variation in the other ratios relates to changes in facial, rather than basicranial, structures. In this context, we advocate the use of measurements based only on basicranial structures when assessing the relationship between foramen magnum position and bipedalism in future studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Proteomic Analysis of Saliva in HIV-positive Heroin Addicts Reveals Proteins Correlated with Cognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominy, Stephen; Brown, Joseph N.; Ryder, Mark I.; Gritsenko, Marina A.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) remains high despite effective antiretroviral therapies. Multiple etiologies have been proposed over the last few years to account for this phenomenon, including the neurotoxic effects of antiretrovirals and co-morbid substance abuse. However, no underlying molecular mechanism has been identified. Emerging evidence in several fields has linked the gut to brain diseases, but the effect of the gut on the brain during HIV infection has not been explored. Saliva is the most accessible gut biofluid, and is therefore of great scientific interest for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. This study presents a longitudinal, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics study investigating saliva samples taken from 8 HIV-positive (HIV+) and 11 -negative (HIV-) heroin addicts. In the HIV+ group, 58 proteins were identified that show significant correlations with cognitive scores and that implicate disruption of protein quality control pathways by HIV. Notably, no proteins from the HIV- heroin addict cohort showed significant correlations with cognitive scores. In addition, the majority of correlated proteins have been shown to be associated with exosomes, allowing us to propose that the salivary glands and/or oral epithelium may modulate brain function during HIV infection through the release of discrete packets of proteins in the form of exosomes.

  18. [The relationship of empathic-affective responses toward others' positive affect with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Shigeo; Hayama, Daichi; Suzuki, Takashi; Kurazumi, Tomoe; Hagiwara, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Miyuki; Ohuchi, Akiko; Chizuko, Oikawa

    2011-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop and validate the Empathic-Affective Response Scale, and to examine the relationship of empathic-affective responses with prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors. Undergraduate students (N = 443) participated in a questionnaire study. The results of factor analysis indicated that empathic-affective responses involved three factors: (a) sharing and good feeling toward others' positive affect, (b) sharing of negative affect and (c) sympathy toward others' negative affect. Correlations with other empathy-related scales and internal consistency suggested that this scale has satisfactory validity and reliability. Cluster analysis revealed that participants were clustered into four groups: high-empathic group, low-empathic group, insufficient positive affective response group and insufficient negative affective response group. Additional analysis showed the frequency of prosocial behaviors in high-empathic group was highest in all groups. On the other hand, the frequency of aggressive behaviors in both insufficient positive affective response group and low-empathic group were higher than others' groups. The results indicated that empathic-affective responses toward positive affect are also very important to predict prosocial behaviors and aggressive behaviors.

  19. Form and function relationships revealed by long-term research in a semiarid mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, J. P.; Benner, S. G.; Chandler, D. G.; Flores, A. N.; Marshall, H. P.; Seyfried, M. S.; Poulos, M. J.; Pierce, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Fifteen years of cumulative research in the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed in southwest Idaho, USA has revealed relationships between catchment form and function and contributed to improved fundamental understanding of Critical Zone structure, function, and evolution that would not have been possible through independent short term projects alone. The impacts of aspect and elevation on incident energy and water, coupled with climate seasonality, has produced tightly connected landforms properties and hydrologic processes. North-facing hillslopes have steeper slopes, thicker soil mantles, and finer soil texture than their south-facing counterparts. Finer soils enable higher water holding capacities on north facing slopes, which when coupled with thicker soils produces higher soil water storage capacity. The storage of water first as snow, then as soil moisture determines how upland ecosystems survive the seasonal and persistent water stress that happens each year, and sustains streamflow throughout the year. The cumulative body of local knowledge has improved general understanding of catchment science, serves as a resource for developing, evaluating, and improving conceptual and numerical of process-based models, and for data-driven hydrologic education.

  20. Metagenomic analysis reveals symbiotic relationship among bacteria in Microcystis-dominated community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meili eXie

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Microcystis bloom, a cyanobacterial mass occurrence often found in eutrophicated water bodies, is one of the most serious threats to freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In nature, Microcystis forms aggregates or colonies that contain heterotrophic bacteria. The Microcystis-bacteria colonies were persistent even when they were maintained in lab culture for a long period. The relationship between Microcystis and the associated bacteria was investigated by a metagenomic approach in this study. We developed a visualization-guided method of binning for genome assembly after total colony DNA sequencing. We found that the method was effective in grouping sequences and it did not require reference genome sequence. Individual genomes of the colony bacteria were obtained and they provided valuable insights into microbial community structures. Analysis of metabolic pathways based on these genomes revealed that while all heterotrophic bacteria were dependent upon Microcystis for carbon and energy, Vitamin B12 biosynthesis, which is required for growth by Microcystis, was accomplished in a cooperative fashion among the bacteria. Our analysis also suggests that individual bacteria in the colony community contributed a complete pathway for degradation of benzoate, which is inhibitory to the cyanobacterial growth, and its ecological implication for Microcystis bloom is discussed.

  1. [Brazilian teenagers and beer advertising: relationship between exposure, positive response, and alcohol consumption].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Alan; Pinsky, Ilana; Faria, Roberta; Silva, Rebeca

    2009-02-01

    Brazilian teenagers report problematic patterns of alcohol consumption. Alcohol advertising strategies are one of the main factors influencing adolescents' alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between positive responses to TV beer commercials, exposure, and alcohol consumption. Thirty-two recent TV commercials were shown to 133 high school students from public schools in São Bernardo do Campo, São Paulo State, Brazil. The subjects recorded how well they liked the ads and how often they had already watched each commercial. The teenagers also reported their alcohol consumption rates. The ten commercials analyzed in this article were the five most popular and the five least popular. The analysis showed that subjects had already seen the five most popular ads, but not the five least popular. In addition, the five most popular ads received higher scores from teenagers that reported having consumed beer during the previous month. The study found a positive relationship between enjoying beer advertising and exposure to beer ads, as well as between alcohol consumption and positive responses to alcohol commercials.

  2. EARLY POSTPARTUM PARENTAL PREOCCUPATION AND POSITIVE PARENTING THOUGHTS: RELATIONSHIP WITH PARENT-INFANT INTERACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Mayes, Linda; Feldman, Ruth; Leckman, James F; Swain, James E

    2013-01-01

    Parenting behaviors and parent-infant emotional bonding during the early postpartum months play a critical role in infant development. However, the nature and progression of parental thoughts and their relationship with interactive behaviors have received less research. The current study investigated the trajectory of parental thoughts and behaviors among primiparous mothers ( n = 18) and fathers ( n = 15) and multiparous mothers ( n = 13) and fathers ( n = 13), which were measured at the first and third postpartum month. At the third postpartum month, the relationship between parental thoughts and parental interactive behaviors also was tested. Mothers and fathers showed high levels of preoccupations and caregiving thoughts during the first postpartum month that significantly declined by the third postpartum month. In contrast, positive thoughts about parenting and the infant increased over the same time interval. Mothers presented higher levels of preoccupations and positive thoughts than did fathers, and first-time parents reported more intense preoccupations than did experienced parents. Although maternal sensitivity was inversely related to maternal anxious thoughts, paternal sensitivity was predicted by higher levels of anxious as well as caregiving and positive thoughts.

  3. The relationship between skin manifestations and CD4 counts among hiv positive patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rad, F.; Ghaderi, E.; Moradi, G.; Mafakheri, L.

    2008-01-01

    Skin manifestations are common clinical features among HIV positive patients. The aim of this study was to document skin manifestations and their relationships with CD4 cell counts among HIV positive patients in Sanandaj. This was a descriptive study. The patients were examined for skin disorders by a dermatologist and CD4 counts were obtained from the patient's medical records. Independent samples T test were used for data analysis. In this study 66 (94.3%) patients had at least one skin problem. Fungal infections were the most common cause. The eight most common types of mucocutaneous problems were gingivitis, pallor, itching, photosensitivity, seborrheic dermatitis, candidiasis, folliculitis and tinea versicolor. The most common manifestation was gingivitis. Mean CD4 cell counts were lower in individuals with viral and bacterial skin diseases (P <0.05). The results of this study indicated that skin problems were common among HIV positive patients. Patients with advanced stages of skin disorders had relatively lower CD4 counts. Therefore examination of skin is recommended for all HIV positive patients for early detection of skin disorders, as early diagnosis and management of dermatologic problems will improve the quality of life in HIV positive patients. (author)

  4. Relationship between head posture and lumbar curve in a sitting position: a biomechanical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rozilene Maria Cota Aroeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: The sitting position routinely used for a wide variety of tasks increases the potential of developing forward head posture, which can seriously compromise the health of different systems in the human body. Objective: A static equilibrium analysis was conducted, comparing the position of the head with the lumbar curve in three different sitting positions. Methods: The approximate force and flexion moment of the head extensor muscles in static equilibrium was calculated in each of the following positions: (A without a backrest; (B using a backrest with a 100° tilt angle; (C using a 100° tilted backrest associated with a cylindrical lumbar support cushion at the level of the L3 vertebra. Results: The C7-tragus angles were 43°, 50° and 52°; Frankfort horizontal plane (FH angles were 5°, 9° and 9°; force of the head extensor muscles was 53.0N, 59.7N and 43.5N and flexion moments were 2.60Nm, 2.05Nm and 1.78Nm, in positions A, B and C, respectively. Conclusion: The results revealed that the sitting position using a 100° tilted backrest and lumbar support with the smallest L3-tragus horizontal distance required less effort by the head and neck extensor muscles to retain the head in equilibrium. This study demonstrated the need to preserve the physiology of the lumbar spine, characterized by the position of the L3 vertebra, in order to ensure good head position.

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between smear positivity and high-resolution CT findings in children with pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolursaz, Mohammad Reza; Mehrian, Payam; Aghahosseini, Farahnaz; Lotfian, Ferial; Khalilzadeh, Soheila; Baghaie, Nooshin; Hassanzad, Maryam; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find a relationship between the radiological manifestations of childhood tuberculosis on a high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and the results of sputum smear. This study aims to propose an alternative indicator of infectivity in terms of prevention of disease transmission through selective isolation policy in children whose clinical condition is highly suggestive of tuberculosis. This retrospective comparative study was performed on 95 children under 15 years of age diagnosed with tuberculosis based on both WHO criteria and positive sputum culture for mycobacterium Tuberculosis. The children were admitted for TB screening in the pediatric department of national research institute of tuberculosis and lung disease (NRITLD) between 2008–2012. Direct smear collected from sputum or gastric lavage, as well as HRCT were performed in all children prior to administration of medical therapy. Children were divided into 2 groups based on positive and negative smear results. HRCT abnormalities, as well as their anatomical distribution were compared between these 2 groups using multivariate analytic model. The most prevalent abnormalities in the positive smear group were consolidation, tree-in-bud pattern, upper lobe nodular infiltration and cavitation. The negative smear group featured lymphadenopathy, consolidation, collapse and nodular infiltration in the upper lobe. Cavity, tree- in-bud pattern and upper lobe nodular infiltration were highly associated with smear positivity in children. Conversely, lymphadenopathy and collapse had significant association with a negative smear. This study revealed that cavity, tree-in-bud and upper lobe nodular infiltration has significant association with smear positivity in childhood tuberculosis. On the other hand, lymphadenopathy and collapse were closely associated with smear negativity in this age group. It was also demonstrated that children with a positive smear most likely presented with

  6. Relationships between drought, heat and air humidity responses revealed by transcriptome-metabolome co-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgii, Elisabeth; Jin, Ming; Zhao, Jin; Kanawati, Basem; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Albert, Andreas; Winkler, J Barbro; Schäffner, Anton R

    2017-07-10

    Elevated temperature and reduced water availability are frequently linked abiotic stresses that may provoke distinct as well as interacting molecular responses. Based on non-targeted metabolomic and transcriptomic measurements from Arabidopsis rosettes, this study aims at a systematic elucidation of relevant components in different drought and heat scenarios as well as relationships between molecular players of stress response. In combined drought-heat stress, the majority of single stress responses are maintained. However, interaction effects between drought and heat can be discovered as well; these relate to protein folding, flavonoid biosynthesis and growth inhibition, which are enhanced, reduced or specifically induced in combined stress, respectively. Heat stress experiments with and without supplementation of air humidity for maintenance of vapor pressure deficit suggest that decreased relative air humidity due to elevated temperature is an important component of heat stress, specifically being responsible for hormone-related responses to water deprivation. Remarkably, this "dry air effect" is the primary trigger of the metabolomic response to heat. In contrast, the transcriptomic response has a substantial temperature component exceeding the dry air component and including up-regulation of many transcription factors and protein folding-related genes. Data level integration independent of prior knowledge on pathways and condition labels reveals shared drought and heat responses between transcriptome and metabolome, biomarker candidates and co-regulation between genes and metabolic compounds, suggesting novel players in abiotic stress response pathways. Drought and heat stress interact both at transcript and at metabolite response level. A comprehensive, non-targeted view of this interaction as well as non-interacting processes is important to be taken into account when improving tolerance to abiotic stresses in breeding programs. Transcriptome and metabolome

  7. Comparative Genomic Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Vibrio Vulnificus Isolates Revealed Biotype 3 Evolutionary Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael eKotton

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1996 a common-source outbreak of severe soft tissue and bloodstream infections erupted among Israeli fish farmers and fish consumers due to changes in fish marketing policies. The causative pathogen was a new strain of Vibrio vulnificus, named biotype 3, which displayed a unique biochemical and genotypic profile. Initial observations suggested that the pathogen erupted as a result of genetic recombination between two distinct populations. We applied a whole genome shotgun sequencing approach using several V. vulnificus strains from Israel in order to study the pan genome of V. vulnificus and determine the phylogenetic relationship of biotype 3 with existing populations. The core genome of V. vulnificus based on 16 draft and complete genomes consisted of 3068 genes, representing between 59% and 78% of the whole genome of 16 strains. The accessory genome varied in size from 781 kbp to 2044 kbp. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole, core, and accessory genomes displayed similar clustering patterns with two main clusters, clinical (C and environmental (E, all biotype 3 strains formed a distinct group within the E cluster. Annotation of accessory genomic regions found in biotype 3 strains and absent from the core genome yielded 1732 genes, of which the vast majority encoded hypothetical proteins, phage-related proteins, and mobile element proteins. A total of 1916 proteins (including 713 hypothetical proteins were present in all human pathogenic strains (both biotype 3 and non-biotype 3 and absent from the environmental strains. Clustering analysis of the non-hypothetical proteins revealed 148 protein clusters shared by all human pathogenic strains; these included transcriptional regulators, arylsulfatases, methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, acetyltransferases, GGDEF family proteins, transposases, type IV secretory system (T4SS proteins, and integrases. Our study showed that V. vulnificus biotype 3 evolved from environmental populations and

  8. Predictive coding of visual object position ahead of moving objects revealed by time-resolved EEG decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Burkitt, Anthony N

    2018-05-01

    Due to the delays inherent in neuronal transmission, our awareness of sensory events necessarily lags behind the occurrence of those events in the world. If the visual system did not compensate for these delays, we would consistently mislocalize moving objects behind their actual position. Anticipatory mechanisms that might compensate for these delays have been reported in animals, and such mechanisms have also been hypothesized to underlie perceptual effects in humans such as the Flash-Lag Effect. However, to date no direct physiological evidence for anticipatory mechanisms has been found in humans. Here, we apply multivariate pattern classification to time-resolved EEG data to investigate anticipatory coding of object position in humans. By comparing the time-course of neural position representation for objects in both random and predictable apparent motion, we isolated anticipatory mechanisms that could compensate for neural delays when motion trajectories were predictable. As well as revealing an early neural position representation (lag 80-90 ms) that was unaffected by the predictability of the object's trajectory, we demonstrate a second neural position representation at 140-150 ms that was distinct from the first, and that was pre-activated ahead of the moving object when it moved on a predictable trajectory. The latency advantage for predictable motion was approximately 16 ± 2 ms. To our knowledge, this provides the first direct experimental neurophysiological evidence of anticipatory coding in human vision, revealing the time-course of predictive mechanisms without using a spatial proxy for time. The results are numerically consistent with earlier animal work, and suggest that current models of spatial predictive coding in visual cortex can be effectively extended into the temporal domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources. PMID:29324823

  10. Relationship of self-esteem and happiness from the positive psychology among intercultural nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Alberto Núñez Ramírez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There are contradictions on the relationship between self-esteem and happiness: it exists for some researches, for others it does not, and even some argue that self-esteem affects happiness. These variables are elementary for the practice of Nursing; however, their study is small within intercultural environments. The objective of this research is to know the association between self-esteem and happiness among Intercultural Nursing students from the positive psychology.Method: A quantitative, descriptive, transversal and correlational, research with a non-experimental design was realized, with a sample of 55 students of Intercultural Nursing. Two questionnaires were applied: the scale of Rosenberg self-esteem and happiness of Lima scale.Results: High levels of self-esteem and happiness were obtained. Through correlation of Pearson and hierarchical regression we found that self-esteem is associated in negative and positive way with certain factors of happiness; the same thing happened in the level of influence.Conclusion: In positive psychology is possible to associate variables such as self-esteem and happiness as strengths. Much more in the case of Intercultural Nursing students which have the aim to contribute to the indigenous communities development, that require nurses with favorable levels of self-esteem and the perception of subjective well-being to counteract an historical legacy of backwardness. From positive psychology is possible that this educational model will contribute to the mutual enrichment and empowerment within the work of the Intercultural Nursing.

  11. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biying Shen

    Full Text Available Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS, the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ, the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38 and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55. In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38 in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  12. The relationship between personalities and self-report positive driving behavior in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Biying; Qu, Weina; Ge, Yan; Sun, Xianghong; Zhang, Kan

    2018-01-01

    Driving behaviors play an important role in accident involvement. Concretely speaking, aberrant driving behaviors would cause more accidents, and oppositely positive driving behaviors would promote to build safety traffic environment. The main goals of this study were to explore the positive driving behavior and its relationship with personality in a Chinese sample. A total of 421 licensed drivers (286 male and 135 female) from Beijing, China completed the Positive Driver Behavior Scale (PDBS), the Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), the Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) on a voluntary and anonymous basis. The results showed that the Chinese version of the PDBS has both reliability and validity and that the PDBS was significantly correlated with the BFI. Specifically, the PDBS was negatively correlated with neuroticism (r = -0.38) and positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and openness to experience (the correlation coefficient ranged from 0.36 to 0.55). In contrast with previous research, age was negatively correlated with the PDBS (r = -0.38) in our sample, which may have resulted from less driving experience or a lack of available cognitive resources.

  13. Religiousness, well-being and ageing – selected explanations of positive relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woźniak Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available According to research that have been conducted in the field of gerontology, sociology and psychology of ageing, there is a relationship between the level of religious involvement and health status/ well-being/quality of life in older age. How does religiousness influence aging process and health status? The aim of the article is to review explanations of a positive relationship between religiousness and health that are discussed in the literature. Those explanations may be grouped in three broad categories reflecting three functions of religion that play a role for well-being in older age. Those functions are: (1 religiousness as a source of coherence and the role of religious coping and provision of meaning in dealing with stressful life events (including ageing losses (2 religiousness as a source of positive self-perception and a sense of personal control, (3 provision of social resources (i.e. social ties and social support within religious community and emphasis on interpersonal relations (with special focus on forgiveness as a norm in interpersonal relations. Those functions of religion are discussed in the context of their potential role in successful ageing, as determined by - among others - active engagement in life.

  14. Positive Institutions and their relationship with transformational leadership, empathy and team performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Solares Menegazzo

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study tests the relationship between transformational leadership, empathy and excellent team performance, based on the HEalthy & Resilient Organizations (HERO Model (Salanova, Llorens, Cifre & Martínez, 2012 in positive institutions, the third pillar of positive psychology (Seligman & Csikszentmihalyi, 2000. The study of empathy and its role in companies is important because it is not yet widely known the benefits that can provide to any institution. The study attempt to show a full mediating role of empathy in this relationship. The sample consist on  69 work teams, from 7 Small -and Medium- sized Enterprises (SMEs including 4 educational institutions and 3 institutions of medical services from Spain. The Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC1 and ICC2 and the Average Deviation Index (ADM(J supports data aggregation at the team level. The results using SEM, through work teams, supported the hypothesis, that is, the empathy plays a full mediating role between transformational leadership and excellent team performance. Finally, theoretical and practical implications of the results are discussed.

  15. Parent-child relationships and offspring's positive mental wellbeing from adolescence to early older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stafford, Mai; Kuh, Diana L; Gale, Catharine R; Mishra, Gita; Richards, Marcus

    2016-05-03

    We examined parent-child relationship quality and positive mental well-being using Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development data. Well-being was measured at ages 13-15 (teacher-rated happiness), 36 (life satisfaction), 43 (satisfaction with home and family life) and 60-64 years (Diener Satisfaction With Life scale and Warwick Edinburgh Mental Well-being scale). The Parental Bonding Instrument captured perceived care and control from the father and mother to age 16, recalled by study members at age 43. Greater well-being was seen for offspring with higher combined parental care and lower combined parental psychological control ( p  < 0.05 at all ages). Controlling for maternal care and paternal and maternal behavioural and psychological control, childhood social class, parental separation, mother's neuroticism and study member's personality, higher well-being was consistently related to paternal care. This suggests that both mother-child and father-child relationships may have short and long-term consequences for positive mental well-being.

  16. A Qualitative Study Revealing the Relationship Between Cultural Indicators and Attitudes Toward the Ads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emine Sahin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The companies, in International markets, are required to examine the attitudes and the behaviours to recognize the consumer to be able to make their products preferable under constantly growing competitive conditions. Therefore, it is of great importance to know cultural values of the customers in the country's where global brands compete and to shape ads which is one of the marketing communication tools in this direction. In this respect, knowing the cultural similarities or differences of the countries where the ads are used (such as that country's religion, language, norms and cultural values gains importance. The consumer attitudes towards the ads change in accordance with their cultural similarities or dissimilarities and this attitude change determines the tendency of shopping. According to Geert Hofstede, social anthropologist who analyzes the cultural levels and the relationships among them the basic elements of the culture consists of symbols, heroes, rituals and values underlying them. Thorough symbols, a number of cultural values are conveyed to ads. The problem of this study which was carried out in order to determine attitude change towards the ads including cultural differences is “Is there a difference in the attitudes towards the ads including different cultural symbols? How it is distributed according to gender differences?" In this study, a qualitative research method was applied and interviewed with 20 test subject. 20 students studying in one of the universities in Turkey were selected with formal sampling, they were asked questions, and it was tried to determine the difference between the ad of Doğuş Çay-a tea brand which uses the symbols and local accent of Black sea region in Turkey in its ads- and the ad of Lipton which is an international British tea brand. At the end of the study, it was found out that sample’s the attitude was positive towards ad of Doğuş Çay, not Lipton.

  17. Physical Activity and Motor Competence Present a Positive Reciprocal Longitudinal Relationship Across Childhood and Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rodrigo A; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R; Bugge, Anna; Moller, Niels C; Anderson, Lars B; Stodden, David F

    2017-06-01

    The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. MC was evaluated by the Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder (KTK) test battery. Cardiorespiratory fitness (VO 2 peak) was evaluated using a continuous running protocol until exhaustion. Structural equation modeling was performed to evaluate the longitudinal associations. Vigorous PA (VPA) and MC presented reciprocal longitudinal association during the 7-year follow-up (VPA → MC; β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.26; MC → VPA; β = 0.14; 95% CI: 0.08, 0.21). In addition, VO 2 peak mediated the relationship in both directions (VPA → MC; β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.06, 0.12; MC → VPA; β = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.09). PA and MC presented a positive reciprocal relationship across childhood through early adolescence and VO 2 peak mediated the association in both directions. Interventions targeting to increase PA in children and adolescents should also address the development of MC skills because of the clear positive feedback loop between PA and MC.

  18. Negative Thinking versus Positive Thinking in a Singaporean Student Sample: Relationships with Psychological Well-Being and Psychological Maladjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Shyh Shin

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationships of positive thinking versus negative thinking with psychological well-being and psychological maladjustment. Three hundred and ninety-eight undergraduate students from Singapore participated in this study. First, positive thinking were positively correlated with indicators psychological well-being--life…

  19. The Relationships Between Positive-Negative Affectivity and Individual-Organizational Level Aggressiveness: The Role of Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut ÖZDEVECİOĞLU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to find out the relationships between, positive and negative affectivity, physical activity, personal level aggressiveness - organization level aggressiveness and mediation effect of physical activity. The universe of the research is employees of Kayseri Organized Industrial Zone businesses in which physical activity is done. The size of the research is 273. According to the results, there is a significant and negative oriented relationship between positive affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between positive affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between negative affectivity and physical activity. There is a significant and negative oriented relationship between physical activity and individual level aggressiveness. There is a significant and positive oriented relationship between individual level aggressiveness and organization level aggressiveness. Separately physical activity has a significant mediation role between positive-negative affectivity and individual level aggressiveness.

  20. Relationship between the position of upper and lower incisors and the internal structure of symphysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kayou; Nishide, Masashi; Ishii, Yasumasa; Enomoto, Yutaka; Kawamura, Akira; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the position of the upper and lower incisors and cortical bone thickness and CT value of mandibular symphysis obtained by CT images and cephalograms. The specimens were 24 dry skulls of mordern Japanese males (mean age 29 years) without marked crowding and missing tooth, which had been preserved in the Tokyou University Museum. The data were transferred to a workstation, and CT value and thickness of cortical bone were measured. The dentofacial morphology was investigated with a lateral cephalogram. The results were as follows; The thickness of cortal bone was more thicker in order of basal, lingual and labial cortical bone. The CT value showed the same tendency as cortical bone thickness. Significant correlation coefficients were found between cortical bone thickness and CT value in 30, 60, 90, 120 degree areas. The inclination of upper incisors was negatively related to the CT value in basal and lingual region of symphysis. The inclination of lower incisors was positively related to the CT value in basal and lingual region of symphysis. The interincisor angle was positively related to the CT value in basal region of symphysis. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that the labio-lingual inclination of the upper and lower incisors was associated with the CT value of basal region of sysphysis. It is suggested that the internal structures of symphysis which relate to the occlusion types of incisors are affected by function of masticatory muscles. (author)

  1. A positive relationship between spring temperature and productivity in 20 songbird species in the boreal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meller, Kalle; Piha, Markus; Vähätalo, Anssi V; Lehikoinen, Aleksi

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic climate warming has already affected the population dynamics of numerous species and is predicted to do so also in the future. To predict the effects of climate change, it is important to know whether productivity is linked to temperature, and whether species' traits affect responses to climate change. To address these objectives, we analysed monitoring data from the Finnish constant effort site ringing scheme collected in 1987-2013 for 20 common songbird species together with climatic data. Warm spring temperature had a positive linear relationship with productivity across the community of 20 species independent of species' traits (realized thermal niche or migration behaviour), suggesting that even the warmest spring temperatures remained below the thermal optimum for reproduction, possibly due to our boreal study area being closer to the cold edge of all study species' distributions. The result also suggests a lack of mismatch between the timing of breeding and peak availability of invertebrate food of the study species. Productivity was positively related to annual growth rates in long-distance migrants, but not in short-distance migrants. Across the 27-year study period, temporal trends in productivity were mostly absent. The population sizes of species with colder thermal niches had decreasing trends, which were not related to temperature responses or temporal trends in productivity. The positive connection between spring temperature and productivity suggests that climate warming has potential to increase the productivity in bird species in the boreal zone, at least in the short term.

  2. Integrative analysis reveals relationships of genetic and epigenetic alterations in osteosarcoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stine H Kresse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Osteosarcomas are the most common non-haematological primary malignant tumours of bone, and all conventional osteosarcomas are high-grade tumours showing complex genomic aberrations. We have integrated genome-wide genetic and epigenetic profiles from the EuroBoNeT panel of 19 human osteosarcoma cell lines based on microarray technologies. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell lines showed complex patterns of DNA copy number changes, where genomic copy number gains were significantly associated with gene-rich regions and losses with gene-poor regions. By integrating the datasets, 350 genes were identified as having two types of aberrations (gain/over-expression, hypo-methylation/over-expression, loss/under-expression or hyper-methylation/under-expression using a recurrence threshold of 6/19 (>30% cell lines. The genes showed in general alterations in either DNA copy number or DNA methylation, both within individual samples and across the sample panel. These 350 genes are involved in embryonic skeletal system development and morphogenesis, as well as remodelling of extracellular matrix. The aberrations of three selected genes, CXCL5, DLX5 and RUNX2, were validated in five cell lines and five tumour samples using PCR techniques. Several genes were hyper-methylated and under-expressed compared to normal osteoblasts, and expression could be reactivated by demethylation using 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine treatment for four genes tested; AKAP12, CXCL5, EFEMP1 and IL11RA. Globally, there was as expected a significant positive association between gain and over-expression, loss and under-expression as well as hyper-methylation and under-expression, but gain was also associated with hyper-methylation and under-expression, suggesting that hyper-methylation may oppose the effects of increased copy number for detrimental genes. CONCLUSIONS: Integrative analysis of genome-wide genetic and epigenetic alterations identified dependencies and relationships between

  3. [Relationship between the prone position and achieving head control at 3 months].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Machado, J L; Rodríguez-Fuentes, G

    2013-10-01

    Owing to the significant increase of mild motor delays and the strong intolerance of infants to be placed on prone position observed in the Physiotherapy Unit of the Maternal and Children's University Hospital of the Canaries (HUMIC), a study was conducted to determine whether positioning infants in the prone position while awake affected the achievement and quality of head control at three months. A prospective comparative practice-based study of a representative sample of 67 healthy infants born in the HUMIC, and divided into an experimental group (n = 35) and control group (n = 32). The Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and a parent questionnaire were used as measurement tools. The intervention consisted of regular home visits to the experimental group (from the first to the third month). The two groups were evaluated in their homes at the end of 3 months. The differences in mean raw score of the AIMS at 3 months were, 16.26 in the experimental group and 10.38 in control group (P<.001). The percentile mean was 94 in the experimental group, and less than 50 (42) in the control group. All of the experimental group babies achieved the head control, with only 8 in the control group (25%). The significant findings suggest a direct relationship between the time spent in the prone position when the baby is awake and the achievement of head control at three months. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Circle Solutions, a philosophy and pedagogy for learning positive relationships: What promotes and inhibits sustainable outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence McCarthy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Educators are increasingly aware that the efficacy of social and emotional learning (SEL is dependent on implementation factors, not just program content. These include the philosophy underpinning an intervention, the beliefs as well as the skills of facilitators, and the classroom/whole school context in which the intervention takes place. This article outlines the philosophy and pedagogy of Circle Solutions and presents findings from research where 18 undergraduate students supported and developed ‘Circle Time’ in 8 Greater Western Sydney primary schools for a university module on community service. The study indicates that when there is full teacher participation within the principles of the Circle philosophy, together with activeschool support that promotes relational values, the learning outcomes for positive relationship building are more sustainable.

  5. Mixture models reveal multiple positional bias types in RNA-Seq data and lead to accurate transcript concentration estimates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Tuerk

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accuracy of transcript quantification with RNA-Seq is negatively affected by positional fragment bias. This article introduces Mix2 (rd. "mixquare", a transcript quantification method which uses a mixture of probability distributions to model and thereby neutralize the effects of positional fragment bias. The parameters of Mix2 are trained by Expectation Maximization resulting in simultaneous transcript abundance and bias estimates. We compare Mix2 to Cufflinks, RSEM, eXpress and PennSeq; state-of-the-art quantification methods implementing some form of bias correction. On four synthetic biases we show that the accuracy of Mix2 overall exceeds the accuracy of the other methods and that its bias estimates converge to the correct solution. We further evaluate Mix2 on real RNA-Seq data from the Microarray and Sequencing Quality Control (MAQC, SEQC Consortia. On MAQC data, Mix2 achieves improved correlation to qPCR measurements with a relative increase in R2 between 4% and 50%. Mix2 also yields repeatable concentration estimates across technical replicates with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 47% and reduced standard deviation across the full concentration range. We further observe more accurate detection of differential expression with a relative increase in true positives between 74% and 378% for 5% false positives. In addition, Mix2 reveals 5 dominant biases in MAQC data deviating from the common assumption of a uniform fragment distribution. On SEQC data, Mix2 yields higher consistency between measured and predicted concentration ratios. A relative error of 20% or less is obtained for 51% of transcripts by Mix2, 40% of transcripts by Cufflinks and RSEM and 30% by eXpress. Titration order consistency is correct for 47% of transcripts for Mix2, 41% for Cufflinks and RSEM and 34% for eXpress. We, further, observe improved repeatability across laboratory sites with a relative increase in R2 between 8% and 44% and reduced standard deviation.

  6. Beginning and experienced secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessens, Luce|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357401530; van Tartwijk, Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/112629385; Pennings, Heleen|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/323242588; van der Want, Anna; Verloop, Nico; den Brok, Perry; Wubbels, Theo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070651361

    2016-01-01

    The quality of teacher-student relationships is important for teachers' well-being in schools. In this interview study we investigated which cognitions comprise secondary school teachers' self- and student schema in positive and problematic teacher-student relationships. Frequency analyses of these

  7. Personality and emotional processing: A relationship between extraversion and the late positive potential in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed, Brittany C; Nelson, Brady D; Perlman, Greg; Klein, Daniel N; Kotov, Roman; Hajcak, Greg

    2015-08-01

    Neuroticism and extraversion are multifaceted affective-laden personality traits that have been associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). Research and theory have argued that extraversion, and particularly its facet positive emotionality, is specific to MDD, while neuroticism is common across internalizing disorders. Converging evidence has suggested that MDD is associated with reduced engagement with emotional stimuli, but it remains unclear whether either extraversion, neuroticism, or both modulate reactivity to emotional cues. The late positive potential (LPP) is an event-related brain potential that is uniquely suited to assess engagement with emotional stimuli because it reflects sustained attention toward emotional content. The current study examined the LPP in relation to personality traits that may confer risk for depression by examining the relationship between the LPP and both neuroticism and extraversion in never-depressed adolescent girls. Specifically, 550 girls aged 13.5-15.5 with no lifetime history of depression completed an emotional picture-viewing task, and the LPP was measured in response to neutral, pleasant, and unpleasant pictures. Personality traits were gathered via self- and informant report. Results indicated that high extraversion was associated with a potentiated LPP to emotional pictures-and this effect was accounted for by positive emotionality in particular. In contrast, there was no association between the LPP and neuroticism or its facets. The present study is one of the first to demonstrate that extraversion is associated with variation in neural indices of emotional picture processing, similar to what has been observed among individuals with depression and at high risk for depression. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  8. Why You Go Reveals Who You Know: Disclosing Social Relationship by Cooccurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The popularity of location-based services (LBS and the ubiquity of sensor device have resulted in rich spatiotemporal data. A large number of human behaviors had been recorded including cooccurrence which refers to the phenomenon that two people have been to the same places at the same time. These data enable attackers to infer people’s social relationship based on their cooccurrences and many attack models were proposed. However, current attack models still cannot effectively address the following two challenges: How to distinguish cooccurrences between acquaintances and strangers? What kind of cooccurrence contributes to strong social strength? In this paper, we present a novel social relationship attack model—the Mobility Intention-based Relationship Inference (MIRI model—which can solve the above two issues. Firstly, we extract mobility intentions and adopt them to characterize cooccurrences. A classification model is trained for attacking social relationship. The experimental results on two real-world datasets demonstrate that the proposed MIRI model can properly differentiate cooccurrences by simultaneously considering spatial and temporal features. The comparison results also indicate that MIRI model significantly outperforms state-of-the-art social relationship attack models.

  9. Trial sequential analysis reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta-analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brok, J.; Thorlund, K.; Gluud, C.

    2008-01-01

    in 80% (insufficient information size). TSA(15%) and TSA(LBHIS) found that 95% and 91% had absence of evidence. The remaining nonsignificant meta-analyses had evidence of lack of effect. CONCLUSION: TSA reveals insufficient information size and potentially false positive results in many meta......OBJECTIVES: To evaluate meta-analyses with trial sequential analysis (TSA). TSA adjusts for random error risk and provides the required number of participants (information size) in a meta-analysis. Meta-analyses not reaching information size are analyzed with trial sequential monitoring boundaries...... analogous to interim monitoring boundaries in a single trial. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: We applied TSA on meta-analyses performed in Cochrane Neonatal reviews. We calculated information sizes and monitoring boundaries with three different anticipated intervention effects of 30% relative risk reduction (TSA...

  10. Generalised power graph compression reveals dominant relationship patterns in complex networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnert, Sebastian E

    2014-03-25

    We introduce a framework for the discovery of dominant relationship patterns in complex networks, by compressing the networks into power graphs with overlapping power nodes. When paired with enrichment analysis of node classification terms, the most compressible sets of edges provide a highly informative sketch of the dominant relationship patterns that define the network. In addition, this procedure also gives rise to a novel, link-based definition of overlapping node communities in which nodes are defined by their relationships with sets of other nodes, rather than through connections within the community. We show that this completely general approach can be applied to undirected, directed, and bipartite networks, yielding valuable insights into the large-scale structure of real-world networks, including social networks and food webs. Our approach therefore provides a novel way in which network architecture can be studied, defined and classified.

  11. Low dose irradiation of thyroid cells reveals a unique transcriptomic and epigenetic signature in RET/PTC-positive cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-El-Ardat, Khalil, E-mail: kabouela@sckcen.be [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Monsieurs, Pieter [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Anastasov, Natasa; Atkinson, Mike [Department of Radiation Sciences, Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Munich (Germany); Derradji, Hanane [Radiobiology Unit, Molecular and Cellular Biology, GKD Building, Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire (SCK-CEN), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); De Meyer, Tim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Department of Applied Mathematics, Biometrics and Process Control, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Bekaert, Sofie [Clinical Research Center, Faculty for Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiteit Gent, 185 De Pintelaan, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); Van Criekinge, Wim [Department of Molecular Biotechnology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Universiteit Gent, 9000 Ghent (Belgium); and others

    2012-03-01

    The high doses of radiation received in the wake of the Chernobyl incident and the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been linked to the increased appearance of thyroid cancer in the children living in the vicinity of the site. However, the data gathered on the effect of low doses of radiation on the thyroid remain limited. We have examined the genome wide transcriptional response of a culture of TPC-1 human cell line of papillary thyroid carcinoma origin with a RET/PTC1 translocation to various doses (0.0625, 0.5, and 4 Gy) of X-rays and compared it to response of thyroids with a RET/PTC3 translocation and against wild-type mouse thyroids irradiated with the same doses using Affymetrix microarrays. We have found considerable overlap at a high dose of 4 Gy in both RET/PTC-positive systems but no common genes at 62.5 mGy. In addition, the response of RET/PTC-positive system at all doses was distinct from the response of wild-type thyroids with both systems signaling down different pathways. Analysis of the response of microRNAs in TPC-1 cells revealed a radiation-responsive signature of microRNAs in addition to dose-responsive microRNAs. Our results point to the fact that a low dose of X-rays seems to have a significant proliferative effect on normal thyroids. This observation should be studied further as opposed to its effect on RET/PTC-positive thyroids which was subtle, anti-proliferative and system-dependent.

  12. Fathers make a difference: positive relationships with mother and baby in relation to infant colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H

    2017-09-01

    Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post

  13. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  14. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodionova, V.; Kudinov, N.; Zhukov, A.; Perov, N.

    2012-01-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180°. When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  15. Examining the relationship between local extinction risk and position in range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boakes, Elizabeth H; Isaac, Nicholas J B; Fuller, Richard A; Mace, Georgina M; McGowan, Philip J K

    2018-02-01

    Over half of globally threatened animal species have experienced rapid geographic range loss. Identifying the parts of species' distributions most vulnerable to local extinction would benefit conservation planning. However, previous studies give little consensus on whether ranges decline to the core or edge. We built on previous work by using empirical data to examine the position of recent local extinctions within species' geographic ranges, address range position as a continuum, and explore the influence of environmental factors. We aggregated point-locality data for 125 Galliform species from across the Palearctic and Indo-Malaya into equal-area half-degree grid cells and used a multispecies dynamic Bayesian occupancy model to estimate rates of local extinctions. Our model provides a novel approach to identify loss of populations from within species ranges. We investigated the relationship between extinction rates and distance from range edge by examining whether patterns were consistent across biogeographic realm and different categories of land use. In the Palearctic, local extinctions occurred closer to the range edge than range core in both unconverted and human-dominated landscapes. In Indo-Malaya, no pattern was found for unconverted landscapes, but in human-dominated landscapes extinctions tended to occur closer to the core than the edge. Our results suggest that local and regional factors override general spatial patterns of recent local extinction within species' ranges and highlight the difficulty of predicting the parts of a species' distribution most vulnerable to threat. © 2017 The Authors. Conservation Biology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. Linear and Non-Linear Dose-Response Functions Reveal a Hormetic Relationship Between Stress and Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Zoladz, Phillip R.; Diamond, David M.

    2008-01-01

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as ...

  17. Genetic diversity and relationships among different tomato varieties revealed by EST-SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korir, N K; Diao, W; Tao, R; Li, X; Kayesh, E; Li, A; Zhen, W; Wang, S

    2014-01-08

    The genetic diversity and relationship of 42 tomato varieties sourced from different geographic regions was examined with EST-SSR markers. The genetic diversity was between 0.18 and 0.77, with a mean of 0.49; the polymorphic information content ranged from 0.17 to 0.74, with a mean of 0.45. This indicates a fairly high degree of diversity among these tomato varieties. Based on the cluster analysis using unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic average (UPGMA), all the tomato varieties fell into 5 groups, with no obvious geographical distribution characteristics despite their diverse sources. The principal component analysis (PCA) supported the clustering result; however, relationships among varieties were more complex in the PCA scatterplot than in the UPGMA dendrogram. This information about the genetic relationships between these tomato lines helps distinguish these 42 varieties and will be useful for tomato variety breeding and selection. We confirm that the EST-SSR marker system is useful for studying genetic diversity among tomato varieties. The high degree of polymorphism and the large number of bands obtained per assay shows that SSR is the most informative marker system for tomato genotyping for purposes of rights/protection and for the tomato industry in general. It is recommended that these varieties be subjected to identification using an SSR-based manual cultivar identification diagram strategy or other easy-to-use and referable methods so as to provide a complete set of information concerning genetic relationships and a readily usable means of identifying these varieties.

  18. Authoritarian parenting attitudes and social origin: The multigenerational relationship of socioeconomic position to childrearing values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Support for authoritarian approaches to parenting, including corporal punishment, is known to be elevated among individuals with low current levels of socioeconomic attainment. The objectives of this study are: (1) to determine whether authoritarian parenting dispositions are related to disadvantages in one's social background, in addition to one's present socioeconomic standing; and (2) to distinguish, in this regard, between support for spanking and other authoritarian parenting dispositions. Ordered logit models, applied to General Social Survey data concerning a nationally representative sample of US adults, are used to examine relationships of authoritarian parenting dispositions to the socioeconomic positions that respondents currently occupy and in which they were raised. It is found that support for spanking (N=10,725) and valuing of obedience (N=10,043) are inversely related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of one's family of origin, and that these associations are robust to controls for one's current SES. A disadvantaged family background is found to increase support for spanking most among those with high current SES. Strong associations (robust to controls for SES indicators) are additionally found between African-American racial identity and support for authoritarian parenting. Prior research indicates that authoritarian parenting practices such as spanking may be harmful to children. Thus, if the parenting attitudes analyzed here translate into parenting practices, then this study's findings may point to a mechanism for the intergenerational transmission of disadvantages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identified Phases in the Building and Maintaining of Positive Teacher-Student Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newberry, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Teacher-student relationships are accepted as influential but the dynamics of those relationships are not well understood, especially with difficult students. A series of interviews were combined with classroom observations and written reflections to understand in what ways a teacher negotiated her relationship with a behaviorally challenging…

  20. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  1. Perceived positive teacher-student relationship as a protective factor for Chinese left-behind children's emotional and behavioural adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Li, Xiaowei; Chen, Li; Qu, Zhiyong

    2015-10-01

    Using cross-sectional data collected in rural communities of two provinces of China, this study examined the protective role of perceived positive teacher-student relationship for Chinese left-behind children. The participants included 1442 children with a mean age of 14.13 classified into two groups: a left-behind group (104 boys and 110 girls) and a comparison group (588 boys and 640 girls). Self-reported questionnaires concerning self-esteem, depression, problem behaviours and the teacher-student relationship were administered. Relative to the comparison group, after controlling for age, gender and family socioeconomic status, the left-behind group was disadvantaged in terms of self-esteem and depression but not in problem behaviours. As hypothesised, the results of regression analyses indicated that teacher-student relationship positively predicted self-esteem and negatively predicted depression and problem behaviours for both groups. Moreover, the association between teacher-student relationship and depression was stronger among the left-behind group, suggesting that left-behind children were more responsive to the positive effect of a desired teacher-student relationship. Taken together, the results of our study support the idea that perceived positive teacher-student relationship may serve as a protective factor for left-behind children. Practical implications and limitations of the present study are discussed. © 2014 International Union of Psychological Science.

  2. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  3. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  4. Fronto-parietal network oscillations reveal relationship between working memory capacity and cognitive control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa eGulbinaite

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Executive-attention theory proposes a close relationship between working memory capacity (WMC and cognitive control abilities. However, conflicting results are documented in the literature, with some studies reporting that individual variations in WMC predict differences in cognitive control and trial-to-trial control adjustments (operationalized as the size of the congruency effect and congruency sequence effects, respectively, while others report no WMC-related differences. We hypothesized that brain network dynamics might be a more sensitive measure of WMC-related differences in cognitive control abilities. Thus, in the present study, we measured human EEG during the Simon task to characterize WMC-related differences in the neural dynamics of conflict processing and adaptation to conflict. Although high- and low-WMC individuals did not differ behaviorally, there were substantial WMC-related differences in theta (4-8 Hz and delta (1-3 Hz connectivity in fronto-parietal networks. Group differences in local theta and delta power were relatively less pronounced. These results suggest that the relationship between WMC and cognitive control abilities is more strongly reflected in large-scale oscillatory network dynamics than in spatially localized activity or in behavioral task performance.

  5. Genetic diversity and relationship of global faba bean (Vicia faba L.) germplasm revealed by ISSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hai-Fei; Zong, Xu-Xiao; Guan, Jian-Ping; Yang, Tao; Sun, Xue-Lian; Ma, Yu; Redden, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Genetic diversity and relationships of 802 faba bean (Vicia faba L.) landraces and varieties from different geographical locations of China and abroad were examined using ISSR markers. A total of 212 repeatable amplified bands were generated with 11 ISSR primers, of which 209 were polymorphic. Accessions from North China showed highest genetic diversity, while accessions from central China showed low level of diversity. Chinese spring faba bean germplasm was clearly separated from Chinese winter faba bean, based on principal component analysis and UPGMA clustering analysis. Winter accessions from Zhejiang (East China), Jiangxi (East China), Sichuan (Southwest China) and Guizhou (Southwest China) were quite distinct to that from other provinces in China. Great differentiation between Chinese accessions and those from rest of the world was shown with a UPGMA dendrogram. AMOVA analyses demonstrated large variation and differentiation within and among groups of accessions from China. As a continental geographic group, accessions from Europe were genetically closer to those from North Africa. Based on ISSR data, grouping results of accessions from Asia, Europe and Africa were obviously associated with their geographical origin. The overall results indicated that the genetic relationship of faba bean germplasm was closely associated with their geographical origin and their ecological habit.

  6. Cross-site comparisons of concentration-discharge relationships reveal climate-driven chemostatic set points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godsey, S.; Kirchner, J. W.

    2017-12-01

    Streamflow solute concentrations often vary predictably with flows, providing insight into processes controlling solute generation and export. Previous work by the authors showed that log-transformed concentration-discharge relationships of weathering-derived solutes in 59 headwater catchments had relatively low slopes, implying that these watersheds behaved almost like chemostats. That is, their rates of solute production and/or mobilization were nearly proportional to water fluxes, on both event and inter-annual time scales. Here we re-examine these findings using data from roughly 1000 catchments, ranging from ˜10 to >1,000,000 sq. km in drainage area, and spanning a wide range of lithologic and climatic settings.Concentration-discharge relationships among this much larger set of much larger catchments are broadly consistent with the chemostatic behavior described above. However, site-to-site variations in mean concentrations among these catchments are negatively correlated with long-term average precipitation and discharge, suggesting dilution of stream concentrations under long-term leaching of the critical zone. Thus, on event and inter-annual time scales, stream solute concentrations are chemostatically buffered by groundwater storage and fast chemical reactions (such as ion exchange), but on much longer time scales, the catchment's chemostatic "set point" is determined by climatically driven critical zone evolution. We present examples illustrating short-term and long-term controls on water quality consistent with variations in weather and climate, and discuss their implications.

  7. How the negative and positive aspects of partner relationships affect the mental health of young married people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horwitz, A V; McLaughlin, J; White, H R

    1998-06-01

    The relationship between marriage and positive mental health is one of the most established findings in the stress literature. Few studies, however, examine the problematic as well as the supportive impacts of marriage on mental health. This paper uses a cohort of young adults who were sampled at 18, 21, or 24 years of age and resampled seven years later when they were married at 25, 28, or 31. It examines what factors are associated with the quality of marital relationships, the relative impact of and balance between negative and positive partner relationships on mental health, and sex differences in the determinants and outcomes of marital quality. The results indicate that the structural strains of parenthood and financial need and their interaction predict problematic and supportive spousal relationships and the difference in the levels of these two relationships. Problematic relationships with spouses have considerably stronger impacts than supportive relationships on depression. However, the difference between the amounts of supportive and problematic relationships with spouses has a greater impact on mental health than levels of either considered separately. Finally, relational quality has a greater impact on the mental health of wives than husbands. These findings indicate the importance of considering how marriage affects mental health in complex, rather than in straightforward, ways.

  8. Is the Relationship between Race and Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence Mediated by Sleep Duration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Martha E.; Rosen, Carol L.; Wang, Rui; Auckley, Dennis; Benca, Ruth; Foldvary-Schaefer, Nancy; Iber, Conrad; Zee, Phyllis; Redline, Susan; Kapur, Vishesh K.

    2013-01-01

    ://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00642486. NIH clinical trials registry number: NCT00642486. Citation: Billings ME; Rosen CL; Wang R; Auckley D; Benca R; Foldvary-Schaefer N; Iber C; Zee P; Redline S; Kapur VK. Is the relationship between race and continuous positive airway pressure adherence mediated by sleep duration? SLEEP 2013;36(2):221-227. PMID:23372269

  9. Expressions of positive emotion in women's college yearbook pictures and their relationship to personality and life outcomes across adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, L; Keltner, D

    2001-01-01

    To test hypotheses about positive emotion, the authors examined the relationship of positive emotional expression in women's college pictures to personality, observer ratings, and life outcomes. Consistent with the notion that positive emotions help build personal resources, positive emotional expression correlated with the self-reported personality traits of affiliation, competence, and low negative emotionality across adulthood and predicted changes in competence and negative emotionality. Observers rated women displaying more positive emotion more favorably on several personality dimensions and expected interactions with them to be more rewarding; thus, demonstrating the beneficial social consequences of positive emotions. Finally, positive emotional expression predicted favorable outcomes in marriage and personal well-being up to 30 years later. Controlling for physical attractiveness and social desirability had little impact on these findings.

  10. Positive relationship between p42.3 gene and inflammation in chronic non-atrophic gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Cui, Yun; Fu, Qing Yan; Lu, You Yong; Fang, Jing Yuan; Chen, Xiao Yu

    2015-10-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a typical type of inflammation-related tumor. The p42.3 gene is shown to be highly expressed in GC, but its association with gastritis remains unknown. We aimed to explore the relationship between gastric inflammation and p42.3 gene in vitro and in vivo. Normal gastric epithelial cells (GES-1) were treated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Total cell mRNA and protein were extracted and collected, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were performed to determine the relative expression of p42.3 gene. In total, 291 biopsy samples from patients with chronic non-atrophic gastritis were collected and immunohistochemistry was used to measure the p42.3 protein expression. The association between p42.3 protein expression and the clinicopathological characteristics of these patients were analyzed. Both H. pylori and TNF-α significantly enhanced the p42.3 protein expression in GES-1 cells in a time and dose-dependent manner. In addition, p42.3 gene expression was positively associated with the severity of gastric mucosal inflammation and H. pylori infection (P = 0.000). Its expression was significantly more common in severe gastric inflammation and in H. pylori-infected cases. p42.3 gene expression is associated with gastric mucosal inflammation that can be upregulated by TNF-α and H. pylori infection. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Structure of Prokaryotic Polyamine Deacetylase Reveals Evolutionary Functional Relationships with Eukaryotic Histone Deacetylases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P Lombardi; H Angell; D Whittington; E Flynn; K Rajashankar; D Christianson

    2011-12-31

    Polyamines are a ubiquitous class of polycationic small molecules that can influence gene expression by binding to nucleic acids. Reversible polyamine acetylation regulates nucleic acid binding and is required for normal cell cycle progression and proliferation. Here, we report the structures of Mycoplana ramosa acetylpolyamine amidohydrolase (APAH) complexed with a transition state analogue and a hydroxamate inhibitor and an inactive mutant complexed with two acetylpolyamine substrates. The structure of APAH is the first of a histone deacetylase-like oligomer and reveals that an 18-residue insert in the L2 loop promotes dimerization and the formation of an 18 {angstrom} long 'L'-shaped active site tunnel at the dimer interface, accessible only to narrow and flexible substrates. The importance of dimerization for polyamine deacetylase function leads to the suggestion that a comparable dimeric or double-domain histone deacetylase could catalyze polyamine deacetylation reactions in eukaryotes.

  12. Phylodynamic analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti reveals diversification driven by positive selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarian, Taj; Ali, Afsar; Johnson, Judith A; Mohr, David; Prosperi, Mattia; Veras, Nazle M; Jubair, Mohammed; Strickland, Samantha L; Rashid, Mohammad H; Alam, Meer T; Weppelmann, Thomas A; Katz, Lee S; Tarr, Cheryl L; Colwell, Rita R; Morris, J Glenn; Salemi, Marco

    2014-12-23

    Phylodynamic analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is a powerful tool to investigate underlying evolutionary processes of bacterial epidemics. The method was applied to investigate a collection of 65 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti collected between 2010 and 2012. Characterization of isolates recovered from environmental samples identified a total of four toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates, four non-O1/O139 isolates, and a novel nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate with the classical tcpA gene. Phylogenies of strains were inferred from genome-wide SNPs using coalescent-based demographic models within a Bayesian framework. A close phylogenetic relationship between clinical and environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains was observed. As cholera spread throughout Haiti between October 2010 and August 2012, the population size initially increased and then fluctuated over time. Selection analysis along internal branches of the phylogeny showed a steady accumulation of synonymous substitutions and a progressive increase of nonsynonymous substitutions over time, suggesting diversification likely was driven by positive selection. Short-term accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions driven by selection may have significant implications for virulence, transmission dynamics, and even vaccine efficacy. Cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, emerged in 2010 in Haiti, a country where there were no available records on cholera over the past 100 years. While devastating in terms of morbidity and mortality, the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary dynamics of V. cholerae and its environmental presence. The present study expands on previous work and provides an in-depth phylodynamic analysis inferred from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms of clinical and environmental strains from dispersed geographic settings in

  13. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self-other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, Christian E; Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2006-04-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300-319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218-226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feelings of self-other overlap in the beginning of a new relationship. In a prospective study of first-year college students, we found that, after 1 week in college, positive emotions predicted increased self-other overlap with new roommates, which in turn predicted a more complex understanding of the roommate. In addition, participants who experienced a high ratio of positive to negative emotions throughout the first month of college reported a greater increase in self-other overlap and complex understanding than participants with a low positivity ratio. Implications for the role of positive emotions in the formation of new relationships are discussed.

  14. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; FREDRICKSON, BARBARA L.

    2007-01-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feelings of self–other overlap in the beginning of a new relationship. In a prospective study of first-year college students, we found that, after 1 week in college, positive emotions predicted increased self–other overlap with new roommates, which in turn predicted a more complex understanding of the roommate. In addition, participants who experienced a high ratio of positive to negative emotions throughout the first month of college reported a greater increase in self–other overlap and complex understanding than participants with a low positivity ratio. Implications for the role of positive emotions in the formation of new relationships are discussed. PMID:21691460

  15. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed. PMID:15914700

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of Sesarmops sinensis reveals gene rearrangements and phylogenetic relationships in Brachyura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Bo-Ping; Xin, Zhao-Zhe; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Dai-Zhen; Wang, Zheng-Fei; Zhang, Hua-Bin; Chai, Xin-Yue; Zhou, Chun-Lin; Liu, Qiu-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) is very important to understand molecular evolution and phylogenetics. Herein, in this study, the complete mitogenome of Sesarmops sinensis was reported. The mitogenome was 15,905 bp in size, and contained 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), two ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, 22 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and a control region (CR). The AT skew and the GC skew are both negative in the mitogenomes of S. sinensis. The nucleotide composition of the S. sinensis mitogenome was also biased toward A + T nucleotides (75.7%). All tRNA genes displayed a typical mitochondrial tRNA cloverleaf structure, except for the trnS1 gene, which lacked a dihydroxyuridine arm. S. sinensis exhibits a novel rearrangement compared with the Pancrustacean ground pattern and other Brachyura species. Based on the 13 PCGs, the phylogenetic analysis showed that S. sinensis and Sesarma neglectum were clustered on one branch with high nodal support values, indicating that S. sinensis and S. neglectum have a sister group relationship. The group (S. sinensis + S. neglectum) was sister to (Parasesarmops tripectinis + Metopaulias depressus), suggesting that S. sinensis belongs to Grapsoidea, Sesarmidae. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid sequences and nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial 13 PCGs using BI and ML respectively indicate that section Eubrachyura consists of four groups clearly. The resulting phylogeny supports the establishment of a separate subsection Potamoida. These four groups correspond to four subsections of Raninoida, Heterotremata, Potamoida, and Thoracotremata.

  17. Molecular and morphological analyses reveal phylogenetic relationships of stingrays focusing on the family Dasyatidae (Myliobatiformes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kean Chong Lim

    Full Text Available Elucidating the phylogenetic relationships of the current but problematic Dasyatidae (Order Myliobatiformes was the first priority of the current study. Here, we studied three molecular gene markers of 43 species (COI gene, 33 species (ND2 gene and 34 species (RAG1 gene of stingrays to draft out the phylogenetic tree of the order. Nine character states were identified and used to confirm the molecularly constructed phylogenetic trees. Eight or more clades (at different hierarchical level were identified for COI, ND2 and RAG1 genes in the Myliobatiformes including four clades containing members of the present Dasyatidae, thus rendering the latter non-monophyletic. The uncorrected p-distance between these four 'Dasytidae' clades when compared to the distance between formally known families confirmed that these four clades should be elevated to four separate families. We suggest a revision of the present classification, retaining the Dasyatidae (Dasyatis and Taeniurops species but adding three new families namely, Neotrygonidae (Neotrygon and Taeniura species, Himanturidae (Himantura species and Pastinachidae (Pastinachus species. Our result indicated the need to further review the classification of Dasyatis microps. By resolving the non-monophyletic problem, the suite of nine character states enables the natural classification of the Myliobatiformes into at least thirteen families based on morphology.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  19. Polygenic risk score and heritability estimates reveals a genetic relationship between ASD and OCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W; Samuels, J F; Wang, Y; Cao, H; Ritter, M; Nestadt, P S; Krasnow, J; Greenberg, B D; Fyer, A J; McCracken, J T; Geller, D A; Murphy, D L; Knowles, J A; Grados, M A; Riddle, M A; Rasmussen, S A; McLaughlin, N C; Nurmi, E L; Askland, K D; Cullen, B A; Piacentini, J; Pauls, D L; Bienvenu, O J; Stewart, S E; Goes, F S; Maher, B; Pulver, A E; Valle, D; Mattheisen, M; Qian, J; Nestadt, G; Shugart, Y Y

    2017-07-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are both highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders that conceivably share genetic risk factors. However, the underlying genetic determinants remain largely unknown. In this work, the authors describe a combined genome-wide association study (GWAS) of ASD and OCD. The OCD dataset includes 2998 individuals in nuclear families. The ASD dataset includes 6898 individuals in case-parents trios. GWAS summary statistics were examined for potential enrichment of functional variants associated with gene expression levels in brain regions. The top ranked SNP is rs4785741 (chromosome 16) with P value=6.9×10 -7 in our re-analysis. Polygenic risk score analyses were conducted to investigate the genetic relationship within and across the two disorders. These analyses identified a significant polygenic component of ASD, predicting 0.11% of the phenotypic variance in an independent OCD data set. In addition, we examined the genomic architecture of ASD and OCD by estimating heritability on different chromosomes and different allele frequencies, analyzing genome-wide common variant data by using the Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) program. The estimated global heritability of OCD is 0.427 (se=0.093) and 0.174 (se=0.053) for ASD in these imputed data. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays

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    Thangavelu K

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. Results RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500–3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%, with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid species. Conclusion These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies.

  1. Complete mitochondrial genomes reveal phylogeny relationship and evolutionary history of the family Felidae.

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    Zhang, W Q; Zhang, M H

    2013-09-03

    Many mitochondrial DNA sequences are used to estimate phylogenetic relationships among animal taxa and perform molecular phylogenetic evolution analysis. With the continuous development of sequencing technology, numerous mitochondrial sequences have been released in public databases, especially complete mitochondrial DNA sequences. Using multiple sequences is better than using single sequences for phylogenetic analysis of animals because multiple sequences have sufficient information for evolutionary process reconstruction. Therefore, we performed phylogenetic analyses of 14 species of Felidae based on complete mitochondrial genome sequences, with Canis familiaris as an outgroup, using neighbor joining, maximum likelihood, maximum parsimony, and Bayesian inference methods. The consensus phylogenetic trees supported the monophyly of Felidae, and the family could be divided into 2 subfamilies, Felinae and Pantherinae. The genus Panthera and species tigris were also studied in detail. Meanwhile, the divergence of this family was estimated by phylogenetic analysis using the Bayesian method with a relaxed molecular clock, and the results shown were consistent with previous studies. In summary, the evolution of Felidae was reconstructed by phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial genome sequences. The described method may be broadly applicable for phylogenetic analyses of anima taxa.

  2. Mitochondrial genome sequences reveal evolutionary relationships of the Phytophthora 1c clade species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassiter, Erica S; Russ, Carsten; Nusbaum, Chad; Zeng, Qiandong; Saville, Amanda C; Olarte, Rodrigo A; Carbone, Ignazio; Hu, Chia-Hui; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Samaniego, Jose A; Thorne, Jeffrey L; Ristaino, Jean B

    2015-11-01

    Phytophthora infestans is one of the most destructive plant pathogens of potato and tomato globally. The pathogen is closely related to four other Phytophthora species in the 1c clade including P. phaseoli, P. ipomoeae, P. mirabilis and P. andina that are important pathogens of other wild and domesticated hosts. P. andina is an interspecific hybrid between P. infestans and an unknown Phytophthora species. We have sequenced mitochondrial genomes of the sister species of P. infestans and examined the evolutionary relationships within the clade. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that the P. phaseoli mitochondrial lineage is basal within the clade. P. mirabilis and P. ipomoeae are sister lineages and share a common ancestor with the Ic mitochondrial lineage of P. andina. These lineages in turn are sister to the P. infestans and P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineages. The P. andina Ic lineage diverged much earlier than the P. andina Ia mitochondrial lineage and P. infestans. The presence of two mitochondrial lineages in P. andina supports the hybrid nature of this species. The ancestral state of the P. andina Ic lineage in the tree and its occurrence only in the Andean regions of Ecuador, Colombia and Peru suggests that the origin of this species hybrid in nature may occur there.

  3. Metagenomic sequencing reveals the relationship between microbiota composition and quality of Chinese Rice Wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xutao; Chen, Jing; Liu, Lin; Wu, Huan; Tan, Haiqin; Xie, Guangfa; Xu, Qian; Zou, Huijun; Yu, Wenjing; Wang, Lan; Qin, Nan

    2016-05-31

    Chinese Rice Wine (CRW) is a common alcoholic beverage in China. To investigate the influence of microbial composition on the quality of CRW, high throughput sequencing was performed for 110 wine samples on bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer II (ITS2). Bioinformatic analyses demonstrated that the quality of yeast starter and final wine correlated with microbial taxonomic composition, which was exemplified by our finding that wine spoilage resulted from a high proportion of genus Lactobacillus. Subsequently, based on Lactobacillus abundance of an early stage, a model was constructed to predict final wine quality. In addition, three batches of 20 representative wine samples selected from a pool of 110 samples were further analyzed in metagenomics. The results revealed that wine spoilage was due to rapid growth of Lactobacillus brevis at the early stage of fermentation. Gene functional analysis indicated the importance of some pathways such as synthesis of biotin, malolactic fermentation and production of short-chain fatty acid. These results led to a conclusion that metabolisms of microbes influence the wine quality. Thus, nurturing of beneficial microbes and inhibition of undesired ones are both important for the mechanized brewery.

  4. The Power of Positivity: Predictors of Relationship Satisfaction for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekas, Naomi V.; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Ghilain, Christine; Alessandri, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The current study uses the actor-partner interdependence model to examine the predictors of relationship satisfaction for mothers and fathers of children with autism spectrum disorder. Sixty-seven couples completed measures of optimism, benefit finding, coping strategies, social support, and relationship satisfaction. Results indicated that…

  5. Differentiating Three Conceptualisations of the Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood

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    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose; Frydenberg, Erica

    2011-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by both great potential for positive change and a relatively high incidence of problem outcomes. A multidimensional model of positive development during the transition to adulthood (at 19-20 years) has recently been proposed. However, an unresolved question regarding the nature of positive development…

  6. Simulated tri-trophic networks reveal complex relationships between species diversity and interaction diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardikes, Nicholas A; Lumpkin, Will; Hurtado, Paul J; Dyer, Lee A

    2018-01-01

    Most of earth's biodiversity is comprised of interactions among species, yet it is unclear what causes variation in interaction diversity across space and time. We define interaction diversity as the richness and relative abundance of interactions linking species together at scales from localized, measurable webs to entire ecosystems. Large-scale patterns suggest that two basic components of interaction diversity differ substantially and predictably between different ecosystems: overall taxonomic diversity and host specificity of consumers. Understanding how these factors influence interaction diversity, and quantifying the causes and effects of variation in interaction diversity are important goals for community ecology. While previous studies have examined the effects of sampling bias and consumer specialization on determining patterns of ecological networks, these studies were restricted to two trophic levels and did not incorporate realistic variation in species diversity and consumer diet breadth. Here, we developed a food web model to generate tri-trophic ecological networks, and evaluated specific hypotheses about how the diversity of trophic interactions and species diversity are related under different scenarios of species richness, taxonomic abundance, and consumer diet breadth. We investigated the accumulation of species and interactions and found that interactions accumulate more quickly; thus, the accumulation of novel interactions may require less sampling effort than sampling species in order to get reliable estimates of either type of diversity. Mean consumer diet breadth influenced the correlation between species and interaction diversity significantly more than variation in both species richness and taxonomic abundance. However, this effect of diet breadth on interaction diversity is conditional on the number of observed interactions included in the models. The results presented here will help develop realistic predictions of the relationships

  7. Identification of Complete Repertoire of Apis florea Odorant Receptors Reveals Complex Orthologous Relationships with Apis mellifera

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    Karpe, Snehal D.; Jain, Rikesh; Brockmann, Axel; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We developed a computational pipeline for homology based identification of the complete repertoire of olfactory receptor (OR) genes in the Asian honey bee species, Apis florea. Apis florea is phylogenetically the most basal honey bee species and also the most distant sister species to the Western honey bee Apis mellifera, for which all OR genes had been identified before. Using our pipeline, we identified 180 OR genes in A. florea, which is very similar to the number of ORs identified in A. mellifera (177 ORs). Many characteristics of the ORs including gene structure, synteny of tandemly repeated ORs and basic phylogenetic clustering are highly conserved. The composite phylogenetic tree of A. florea and A. mellifera ORs could be divided into 21 clades which are in harmony with the existing Hymenopteran tree. However, we found a few nonorthologous OR relationships between both species as well as independent pseudogenization of ORs suggesting separate evolutionary changes. Particularly, a subgroup of the OR gene clade XI, which had been hypothesized to code cuticular hydrocarbon receptors showed a high number of species-specific ORs. RNAseq analysis detected a total number of 145 OR transcripts in male and 162 in female antennae. Most of the OR genes were highly expressed on the female antennae. However, we detected five distinct male-biased OR genes, out of which three genes (AfOr11, AfOr18, AfOr170P) were shown to be male-biased in A. mellifera, too, thus corroborating a behavioral function in sex-pheromone communication. PMID:27540087

  8. Multifaceted diversity-area relationships reveal global hotspots of mammalian species, trait and lineage diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazel, Florent; Guilhaumon, François; Mouquet, Nicolas; Devictor, Vincent; Gravel, Dominique; Renaud, Julien; Cianciaruso, Marcus Vinicius; Loyola, Rafael Dias; Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Mouillot, David; Thuiller, Wilfried

    2014-08-01

    To define biome-scale hotspots of phylogenetic and functional mammalian biodiversity (PD and FD, respectively) and compare them to 'classical' hotspots based on species richness (SR) only. Global. SR, PD & FD were computed for 782 terrestrial ecoregions using distribution ranges of 4616 mammalian species. We used a set of comprehensive diversity indices unified by a recent framework that incorporates the species relative coverage in each ecoregion. We build large-scale multifaceted diversity-area relationships to rank ecoregions according to their levels of biodiversity while accounting for the effect of area on each diversity facet. Finally we defined hotspots as the top-ranked ecoregions. While ignoring species relative coverage led to a relative good congruence between biome top ranked SR, PD and FD hotspots, ecoregions harboring a rich and abundantly represented evolutionary history and functional diversity did not match with top ranked ecoregions defined by species richness. More importantly PD and FD hotspots showed important spatial mismatches. We also found that FD and PD generally reached their maximum values faster than species richness as a function of area. The fact that PD/FD reach faster their maximal value than SR may suggest that the two former facets might be less vulnerable to habitat loss than the latter. While this point is expected, it is the first time that it is quantified at global scale and should have important consequences in conservation. Incorporating species relative coverage into the delineation of multifaceted hotspots of diversity lead to weak congruence between SR, PD and FD hotspots. This means that maximizing species number may fail at preserving those nodes (in the phylogenetic or functional tree) that are relatively abundant in the ecoregion. As a consequence it may be of prime importance to adopt a multifaceted biodiversity perspective to inform conservation strategies at global scale.

  9. Puffins reveal contrasting relationships between forage fish and ocean climate in the North Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydeman, William J.; Piatt, John F.; Thompson, Sarah Ann; Garcia-Reyes, Marisol; Hatch, Scott A.; Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Slater, Leslie; Williams, Jeffrey C.; Rojek, Nora A.; Zador, Stephani G.; Renner, Heather M.

    2017-01-01

    Long-term studies of predator food habits (i.e., ‘predator-based sampling’) are useful for identifying patterns of spatial and temporal variability of forage nekton in marine ecosystems. We investigated temporal changes in forage fish availability and relationships to ocean climate by analyzing diet composition of three puffin species (horned puffin Fratercula corniculata, tufted puffin Fratercula cirrhata, and rhinoceros auklet Cerorhinca monocerata) from five sites in the North Pacific from 1978–2012. Dominant forage species included squids and hexagrammids in the western Aleutians, gadids and Pacific sand lance (Ammodytes personatus) in the eastern Aleutians and western Gulf of Alaska (GoA), and sand lance and capelin (Mallotus villosus) in the northern and eastern GoA. Interannual fluctuations in forage availability dominated variability in the western Aleutians, whereas lower-frequency shifts in forage fish availability dominated elsewhere. We produced regional multivariate indicators of sand lance, capelin, and age-0 gadid availability by combining data across species and sites using Principal Component Analysis, and related these indices to environmental factors including sea level pressure (SPL), winds, and sea surface temperature (SST). There was coherence in the availability of sand lance and capelin across the study area. Sand lance availability increased linearly with environmental conditions leading to warmer ocean temperatures, whereas capelin availability increased in a non-linear manner when environmental changes led to lower ocean temperatures. Long-term studies of puffin diet composition appear to be a promising tool for understanding the availability of these difficult-to-survey forage nekton in remote regions of the North Pacific.

  10. Relationships between meaning in life, social and achievement events, and positive and negative affect in daily life.

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    Machell, Kyla A; Kashdan, Todd B; Short, Jerome L; Nezlek, John B

    2015-06-01

    Research on meaning in life has generally focused on global meaning judgments. This study examined how people's daily experiences, represented by events that occur in daily life, influence their perceived sense of meaning on a daily basis. One hundred sixty-two college students completed daily reports for 2 weeks. We examined the relationships among daily social and achievement events, daily positive and negative affect, and daily meaning in life. In addition, we tested the possible moderating influence of depressive symptoms on these relationships. Positive daily social and achievement events were related to greater daily meaning, above and beyond the contributions of daily positive and negative affect. Negative social and achievement events were related to less daily meaning, and negative achievement events covaried with daily meaning above and beyond positive and negative affect. Depression moderated the relationships between positive events and meaning, such that people who reported more depressive symptoms had greater increases in daily meaning in response to positive social and achievement events than individuals who reported fewer symptoms. These findings suggest the important role that daily events may play in fluctuations in people's affective experiences and sense of meaning in life. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Hydrologic responses to restored wildfire regimes revealed by soil moisture-vegetation relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisramé, Gabrielle; Thompson, Sally; Stephens, Scott

    2018-02-01

    Many forested mountain watersheds worldwide evolved with frequent fire, which Twentieth Century fire suppression activities eliminated, resulting in unnaturally dense forests with high water demand. Restoration of pre-suppression forest composition and structure through a variety of management activities could improve forest resilience and water yields. This study explores the potential for "managed wildfire", whereby naturally ignited fires are allowed to burn, to alter the water balance. Interest in this type of managed wildfire is increasing, yet its long-term effects on water balance are uncertain. We use soil moisture as a spatially-distributed hydrologic indicator to assess the influence of vegetation, fire history and landscape position on water availability in the Illilouette Creek Basin in Yosemite National Park. Over 6000 manual surface soil moisture measurements were made over a period of three years, and supplemented with continuous soil moisture measurements over the top 1m of soil in three sites. Random forest and linear mixed effects models showed a dominant effect of vegetation type and history of vegetation change on measured soil moisture. Contemporary and historical vegetation maps were used to upscale the soil moisture observations to the basin and infer soil moisture under fire-suppressed conditions. Little change in basin-averaged soil moisture was inferred due to managed wildfire, but the results indicated that large localized increases in soil moisture had occurred, which could have important impacts on local ecology or downstream flows.

  12. [Relationship between serum level of uric acid and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Junliang; Chen, Yili; Chen, Yudan; Niu, Shiqin; Li, Shujuan; Dong, Qian; Hu, Wenli

    2015-02-03

    To confirm the possible relationships between serum level of uric acid (UA) and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). A total of 87 patients with BPPV and 36 age- and gender-matched control subjects were recruited from our hospital between July 1, 2013 and July 1, 2014. All patients underwent a complete audio-vestibular test battery, such as Dix-Hallpike maneuver for posterior semicircular canal and supine roll test for horizontal semicircular canal. All risk factors such as the histories of heart and cerebral vascular diseases, and routine hematological and biochemical analyses were analyzed between two groups. No significant inter-group differences existed in age, gender, histories of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, coronary heart disease, smoking or drinking (P > 0.05). No significant differences existed between systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, ejection fraction, whole blood count, lipid profile, homocysteine, prealbumin and blood urea nitrogen in patients with BPPV compared with controls (P >0. 05). However, the values of UA (267 ± 86 vs 325 ± 75) µmol/L, hemoglobin ale (5.6 ± 1. 4 vs 6.5 ± 1. 0)%, albumin (36 ± 4 vs 40 ± 4) g/L and creatinine (72 ± 20 vs 81 ± 22) µmol/L were much lower in patients with BPPV versus controls (P < 0. 05). According to multiple Logistic regression model, the lower levels of hemoglobin ale and albumin were independently associated with BPPV (P <0. 05) with the odds ratio of 1. 473 (95% CI 1. 066 - 2. 037) and 1. 162 (95% CI 1. 025 - 1. 318), respectively. However, the level of UA was not independently correlated with the occurrence of BPPV [OR = 1. 005 (95% CI 1. 000 - 1. 011), P =0. 063]. The lower levels of hemoglobin alc and albumin are independently associated with BPPV. Although the value of UA is lower in patients with BPPV versus controls, it is not an independent risk factor for BPPV. Due to limited patient data, further studies are needed to clarify the association in a

  13. Radical prostatectomy and positive surgical margins: relationship with prostate cancer outcome

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    Ricardo L. R. Felts de La Roca

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Positive surgical margins (PSMs are an adverse factor that may predict a worse outcome in patients submitted to radical prostatectomy (RP. However, not all of these cases will evolve to biochemical (BCR or clinical (CR recurrence, therefore relationship between PSMs and these recurrent events has to be correlated with other clinical and pathologic findings to indicate complementary treatment for selected patients. Materials and Methods Of 1250 patients submitted to open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP, between March 1991 and June 2008, the outcome of 161 patients with PSMs and of 67 without PSMs as a control group, comprising a total of 228 cases were retrospectively reviewed. A minimum follow-up time of 2 years after surgery was considered. BCR was determined when PSA ≥ 0.2ng/mL. CR was determined whenever there was clinical evidence of tumor. Chi-square test was used to correlate clinical and pathologic variables with PSMs. Time interval to biochemical recurrence was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier product limit analysis using the log-rank test for comparison between groups. Univariate and multivariate Cox stepwise logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of risk of shorter intervals to BCR. Results Prostate circumference margin was the most common site with 78 cases (48.44%. Regarding the outcome of 228 cases from both groups, BCR occurred in 68 patients (29.82%, and CR in 10 (4.38%. Univariate analysis showed statistically significant associations (p < 0.001 between presence of PSMs with BCR, but not with CR (p = 0.05. At follow-up of the 161 patients with PSMs, only 61(37.8% presented BCR, while 100 (62.8% did not. BCR correlated with pathologic stage; Gleason score; preoperative PSA; tumor volume in the specimen; capsular and perineural invasion; presence and number of PSMs. CR correlated only with angiolymphatic invasion and Gleason score. Considering univariate analysis of clinical and

  14. Relationship between vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions and vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araz Server, Ela; Edizer, Deniz Tuna; Yiğit, Özgür; Yasak, Ahmet Görkem; Erdim, Çağrı

    2018-01-01

    To identify the vertebral artery blood flow in different head positions in patients with positional vertigo with no specific diagnosis. Patients with history of vestibular symptoms associated with changes in head position were enrolled into the study. Healthy volunteers were evaluated as control group. Doppler ultrasonography examination of the cervical segment of the vertebral arteries was performed under three different head positions: (i) supine position, (ii) head hyperextended and rotated to the right side and (iii) head hyperextended and rotated to the left side. In the study group, right and left vertebral artery blood flow was significantly lower in the ipsilateral hyperextended position compared to standard supine position (respectively p = .014; p = .001), but did not differ significantly when compared between the standard supine and contralateral hyperextended positions (respectively = .959; p = .669). In the control group, left and right vertebral artery blood flow did not differ significantly when the head was hyperextended to the right or left sides compared to standard supine position (p > .05). Our data demonstrated that the etiology of vestibular complaints in patients with undiagnosed positional vertigo might be related to impairment in vertebral artery blood flow according to head positions.

  15. Giant ants and their shape: revealing relationships in the genus Titanomyrma with geometric morphometrics

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    Julian Katzke

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape is a natural phenomenon inherent to many different lifeforms. A modern technique to analyse shape is geometric morphometrics (GM, which offers a whole range of methods concerning the pure shape of an object. The results from these methods have provided new insights into biological problems and have become especially useful in the fields of entomology and palaeontology. Despite the conspicuous successes in other hymenopteran groups, GM analysis of wings and fossil wings of Formicidae has been neglected. Here we tested if landmarks defining the wing shape of fossil ants that belong to the genus Titanomyrma are reliable and if this technique is able to expose relationships among different groups of the largest Hymenoptera that ever lived. This study comprises 402 wings from 362 ants that were analysed and assigned with the GM methods linear discriminant function analysis, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and regression. The giant ant genus Titanomyrma and the parataxon Formicium have different representatives that are all very similar but these modern methods were able to distinguish giant ant types even to the level of the sex. Thirty-five giant ant specimens from the Eckfeld Maar were significantly differentiable from a collection of Messel specimens that consisted of 187 Titanomyrma gigantea females and 42 T. gigantea males, and from 74 Titanomyrma simillima females and 21 T. simillima males. Out of the 324 Messel ants, 127 are newly assigned to a species and 223 giant ants are newly assigned to sex with GM analysis. All specimens from Messel fit to the two species. Moreover, shape affinities of these groups and the species Formicium brodiei, Formicium mirabile, and Formicium berryi, which are known only from wings, were investigated. T. gigantea stands out with a possible female relative in one of the Eckfeld specimens whereas the other groups show similar shape patterns that are possibly plesiomorphic. Formicidae

  16. Giant ants and their shape: revealing relationships in the genus Titanomyrma with geometric morphometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzke, Julian; Barden, Phillip; Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Wappler, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    Shape is a natural phenomenon inherent to many different lifeforms. A modern technique to analyse shape is geometric morphometrics (GM), which offers a whole range of methods concerning the pure shape of an object. The results from these methods have provided new insights into biological problems and have become especially useful in the fields of entomology and palaeontology. Despite the conspicuous successes in other hymenopteran groups, GM analysis of wings and fossil wings of Formicidae has been neglected. Here we tested if landmarks defining the wing shape of fossil ants that belong to the genus Titanomyrma are reliable and if this technique is able to expose relationships among different groups of the largest Hymenoptera that ever lived. This study comprises 402 wings from 362 ants that were analysed and assigned with the GM methods linear discriminant function analysis, principal component analysis, canonical variate analysis, and regression. The giant ant genus Titanomyrma and the parataxon Formicium have different representatives that are all very similar but these modern methods were able to distinguish giant ant types even to the level of the sex. Thirty-five giant ant specimens from the Eckfeld Maar were significantly differentiable from a collection of Messel specimens that consisted of 187 Titanomyrma gigantea females and 42 T. gigantea males, and from 74 Titanomyrma simillima females and 21 T. simillima males. Out of the 324 Messel ants, 127 are newly assigned to a species and 223 giant ants are newly assigned to sex with GM analysis. All specimens from Messel fit to the two species. Moreover, shape affinities of these groups and the species Formicium brodiei , Formicium mirabile , and Formicium berryi , which are known only from wings, were investigated. T. gigantea stands out with a possible female relative in one of the Eckfeld specimens whereas the other groups show similar shape patterns that are possibly plesiomorphic. Formicidae are one of the

  17. Gene Expression Profiling Reveals a Massive, Aneuploidy-Dependent Transcriptional Deregulation and Distinct Differences between Lymph Node–Negative and Lymph Node–Positive Colon Carcinomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grade, Marian; Hörmann, Patrick; Becker, Sandra; Hummon, Amanda B.; Wangsa, Danny; Varma, Sudhir; Simon, Richard; Liersch, Torsten; Becker, Heinz; Difilippantonio, Michael J.; Ghadimi, B. Michael; Ried, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    To characterize patterns of global transcriptional deregulation in primary colon carcinomas, we did gene expression profiling of 73 tumors [Unio Internationale Contra Cancrum stage II (n = 33) and stage III (n = 40)] using oligonucleotide microarrays. For 30 of the tumors, expression profiles were compared with those from matched normal mucosa samples. We identified a set of 1,950 genes with highly significant deregulation between tumors and mucosa samples (P 5-fold average expression difference between normal colon mucosa and carcinomas, including up-regulation of MYC and of HMGA1, a putative oncogene. Furthermore, we identified 68 genes that were significantly differentially expressed between lymph node–negative and lymph node–positive tumors (P deregulated genes were validated using quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR in >40 tumor and normal mucosa samples with good concordance between the techniques. Finally, we established a relationship between specific genomic imbalances, which were mapped for 32 of the analyzed colon tumors by comparative genomic hybridization, and alterations of global transcriptional activity. Previously, we had conducted a similar analysis of primary rectal carcinomas. The systematic comparison of colon and rectal carcinomas revealed a significant overlap of genomic imbalances and transcriptional deregulation, including activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling cascade, suggesting similar pathogenic pathways. PMID:17210682

  18. The Mediation Effect of School Satisfaction in the Relationship between Teacher Support, Positive Affect and Life Satisfaction in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telef, Bülent Baki; Arslan, Gökmen; Mert, Abdullah; Kalafat, Sezai

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the relationships among teacher support, positive emotions, school satisfaction and life satisfaction in adolescences. The study had the participation of 344 adolescents from different socio-economic levels studying in the sixth, seventh and eighth grades of three public middle schools in the province of…

  19. The Relationship between Positive Development and Psychopathology during the Transition to Adulthood: A Person-Centred Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Meredith; Sanson, Ann; Hawkins, Mary T.; Olsson, Craig; Frydenberg, Erica; Toumbourou, John W.; Letcher, Primrose

    2012-01-01

    The transition to adulthood is characterised by potential for both positive development and problem outcomes such as psychopathology, yet little is known about relationships between the two. Given the diversity of pathways observed during this transition period, there is likely to be significant heterogeneity in young people's experiences of these…

  20. Positive and Negative Affectivity as Mediator and Moderator of the Relationship between Optimism and Life Satisfaction in Turkish University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapikiran, Necla Acun

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to examine the mediator and moderator role of positive and negative affectivity variables on the relationship between optimism and life satisfaction in university students. 397 university students, ranging in age from 18 to 27 (M = 20.98), attending different departments of the Faculty of Education, at Pamukkale…

  1. The Association Between Positive Relationships with Adults and Suicide-Attempt Resilience in American Indian Youth in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FitzGerald, Courtney A; Fullerton, Lynne; Green, Dan; Hall, Meryn; Peñaloza, Linda J

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the 2013 New Mexico Youth Risk and Resiliency Survey (NM-YRRS) to determine whether cultural connectedness and positive relationships with adults protected against suicide attempts among American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) youth and whether these relationships differed by gender. The sample included 2,794 AI/AN students in grades 9 to 12 who answered the question about past-year suicide attempts. Protective factor variables tested included relationships with adults at home, school, and the community. The language spoken at home was used as a proxy measure for cultural connectedness. Positive relationships with adults were negatively associated with the prevalence of past-year suicide attempts in bivariate analysis. However, language spoken at home was not associated with the prevalence of suicide attempts. Multivariate analysis showed that among girls, relationships with adults at home, at school, and in the community were independently associated with lower suicide-attempt prevalence. Among boys, only relationships with adults at home showed such an association. These results have important implications for the direction of future research about protective factors associated with AI/AN youth suicide risk as well as in the design of suicide intervention and prevention programs.

  2. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lima, Rodrigo A.; Pfeiffer, Karin; Larsen, Lisbeth R.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervent......Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child...

  3. Paradoxical Relationship between the Amount of Negative eWOM Messages and Positive Consumer Attitude

    OpenAIRE

    Mai Kikumori; Akinori Ono

    2013-01-01

    Most research has shown that positive electric word-of-mouth (e-WOM) has positive effects, while negative e-WOM has negative effects on consumer attitude towards a product. However, negative e-WOM may have positive impacts rather than negative impacts. Using ANOVA in three experiments, this study found that negative e-WOM can have a positive impact on consumer attitude under some conditions, including when the e-WOM is in regard to hedonic products, when expert consumers read attribute-centri...

  4. Joint cross-correlation analysis reveals complex, time-dependent functional relationship between cortical neurons and arm electromyograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between cortical activity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of limb muscles has long been a subject of neurophysiological studies, especially in terms of corticospinal connectivity. Interest in this issue has recently increased due to the development of brain-machine interfaces with output signals that mimic muscle force. For this study, three monkeys were implanted with multielectrode arrays in multiple cortical areas. One monkey performed self-timed touch pad presses, whereas the other two executed arm reaching movements. We analyzed the dynamic relationship between cortical neuronal activity and arm EMGs using a joint cross-correlation (JCC) analysis that evaluated trial-by-trial correlation as a function of time intervals within a trial. JCCs revealed transient correlations between the EMGs of multiple muscles and neural activity in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortical areas. Matching results were obtained using spike-triggered averages corrected by subtracting trial-shuffled data. Compared with spike-triggered averages, JCCs more readily revealed dynamic changes in cortico-EMG correlations. JCCs showed that correlation peaks often sharpened around movement times and broadened during delay intervals. Furthermore, JCC patterns were directionally selective for the arm-reaching task. We propose that such highly dynamic, task-dependent and distributed relationships between cortical activity and EMGs should be taken into consideration for future brain-machine interfaces that generate EMG-like signals. PMID:25210153

  5. The affective tie that binds: Examining the contribution of positive emotions and anxiety to relationship formation in social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Charles T; Pearlstein, Sarah L; Stein, Murray B

    2017-06-01

    Individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) have difficulty forming social relationships. The prevailing clinical perspective is that negative emotions such as anxiety inhibit one's capacity to develop satisfying social connections. However, empirical findings from social psychology and affective neuroscience suggest that positive emotional experiences are fundamental to establishing new social bonds. To reconcile these perspectives, we collected repeated measurements of anxiety, positive emotions (pleasantness), and connectedness over the course of a controlled relationship formation encounter in 56 participants diagnosed with SAD (64% female; M age =23.3, SD=4.7). Participants experienced both increases in positive emotions and decreases in anxiety throughout the interaction. Change in positive emotions was the most robust predictor of subsequent increases in connectedness, as well as a greater desire to engage one's partner in future social activities, above and beyond reductions in anxiety (medium to large sized effects). Those findings suggest that anxiety-based models alone may not fully explain difficulties in relationship formation in SAD, and underscore the potential value of considering positive emotional experiences in conceptual and treatment models of SAD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Relationship between Positive Well-Being and Academic Assessment: Results from a Prospective Study on Dental Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Teodora Preoteasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Presumably, the academic stress that builds throughout the academic year has a negative effect on dental students’ psychological well-being and may have a relationship with academic performance. This research aimed to analyse the variation of positive well-being in second-year dental students, across the academic semester, in relation to consecutive examinations as part of academic assessment system (1 and to observe the relationship between academic performance during semester evaluation period and dental students’ positive well-being (2. Methods. A prospective study was conducted on second-year dental students, data on positive well-being being collected with WHO-Five Well-Being Index (WHO-5, at the beginning of the semester and after three consecutive mandatory examinations. Results. One hundred and forty-six dental students were included (77% response rate. Repeated ANOVA showed a significant progressive decline of positive well-being over the semester, which was clinically significant for an important part of them. Students who performed better in the semester evaluation period registered higher well-being levels at the beginning of the semester but a more pronounced decline of it until the semester evaluation period. Conclusion. Based on this research, a relationship between positive well-being, academic assessments, and academic performance is suggested, when evaluating them in a prospective frame.

  7. Authors' financial relationships with the food and beverage industry and their published positions on the fat substitute olestra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-04-01

    This study examined the association between authors' published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P <.0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Because authors' published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests.

  8. Authors’ Financial Relationships With the Food and Beverage Industry and Their Published Positions on the Fat Substitute Olestra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jane; Gussow, Joan Dye; Hastings, Diane; Eccher, Amy

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the association between authors’ published positions on the safety and efficacy in assisting with weight loss of the Procter & Gamble (P&G) fat substitute olestra and their financial relationships with the food and beverage industry. Methods. Journal articles about olestra, and their authors, were classified as supportive, critical, or neutral with respect to its use. Authors not known to have industry affiliations were surveyed about their financial relationships. Results. Supportive authors were significantly more likely than critical or neutral authors to have financial relationships with P&G (80% vs 11% and 21%, respectively; P < .0001). All authors disclosing an affiliation with P&G were supportive. Conclusions. Because authors’ published opinions were associated with their financial relationships, obtaining noncommercial funding may be more essential to maintaining objectivity than disclosing personal financial interests. PMID:12660215

  9. Linear and non-linear dose-response functions reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Diamond, David M

    2008-10-16

    Over a century of behavioral research has shown that stress can enhance or impair learning and memory. In the present review, we have explored the complex effects of stress on cognition and propose that they are characterized by linear and non-linear dose-response functions, which together reveal a hormetic relationship between stress and learning. We suggest that stress initially enhances hippocampal function, resulting from amygdala-induced excitation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity, as well as the excitatory effects of several neuromodulators, including corticosteroids, norepinephrine, corticotropin-releasing hormone, acetylcholine and dopamine. We propose that this rapid activation of the amygdala-hippocampus brain memory system results in a linear dose-response relation between emotional strength and memory formation. More prolonged stress, however, leads to an inhibition of hippocampal function, which can be attributed to compensatory cellular responses that protect hippocampal neurons from excitotoxicity. This inhibition of hippocampal functioning in response to prolonged stress is potentially relevant to the well-described curvilinear dose-response relationship between arousal and memory. Our emphasis on the temporal features of stress-brain interactions addresses how stress can activate, as well as impair, hippocampal functioning to produce a hormetic relationship between stress and learning.

  10. Positive Psychology Course and Its Relationship to Well-Being, Depression, and Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodmon, Leilani B.; Middleditch, Ashlea M.; Childs, Bethany; Pietrasiuk, Stacey E.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a positive psychology course on student well-being, depressive symptoms, and stress in a repeated measure, nonequivalent control design. As hypothesized, the positive psychology students reported higher overall happiness, life satisfaction, routes to happiness, and lower depressive…

  11. Positive and negative affect mediate the bidirectional relationship between emotional processing and symptom severity and impact in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibelli, Alice; Chalder, Trudie; Everitt, Hazel; Chilcot, Joseph; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2018-02-01

    Individuals with IBS report higher levels of psychological distress compared to healthy controls. Distress has been associated with emotional processing difficulties but studies have not explored how the relationship between distress and emotional processing affects IBS. There is little research on the role of positive affect (PA) in IBS. (a) If difficulties in self-reported emotional processing are associated with affect and IBS measures (i.e., symptom severity, interference in life roles) (b1) If affect mediates the relationship between emotional processing and IBS measures (b2) Alternative model: if affect mediates the relationship between IBS and emotional processing (c) If PA moderates the relationship between distress and IBS. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of IBS (n=558) completed a questionnaire including measures of emotional processing (i.e., unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions, impoverished emotional experience), distress, PA, and IBS symptoms/interference. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted with Maximum Likelihood Estimation. Distress and PA mediated or partly mediated the relationship between unhelpful beliefs about negative emotions/impoverished emotional experience and both IBS measures. The alternative models were also valid, suggesting a two-way relationship between emotional processing and IBS through affect. PA did not moderate the relationship between distress and IBS. Future interventions in IBS may benefit from not only targeting the management of physical symptoms and their daily impact but also aspects related to the experience of both negative and positive affect, and the acceptance and expression of negative emotions. Longitudinal studies are needed to confirm causal relationships within the explored models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Circulating MicroRNAs in Plasma of Hepatitis B e Antigen Positive Children Reveal Liver-Specific Target Genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Thilde Nordmann; Jacobsen, Kari Stougaard; Mirza, Aashiq Hussain

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim. Hepatitis B e antigen positive (HBeAg-positive) children are at high risk of severe complications such as hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis. Liver damage is caused by the host immune response to infected hepatocytes, and we hypothesise that specific microRNAs play a role...... in this complex interaction between virus and host. The study aimed to identify microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children and with liver-specific target genes. Methods. By revisiting our previous screen of microRNA plasma levels in HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative children...... with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and in healthy controls, candidate microRNAs with aberrant plasma expressions in HBeAg-positive children were identified. MicroRNAs targeting liver-specific genes were selected based on bioinformatics analysis and validated by qRT-PCR using plasma samples from 34 HBe...

  13. Effects of Positioning Aids on Understanding the Relationship Between a Mobile Map and the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Kässi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Positioning technologies such as GPS enable mobile map applications to display a symbol representing an estimation of a user’s location on a mobile map, therefore acting as a positioning aid. Previous research on the cognitive processes involved in map reading suggests that map readers need at least two map–environment points (objects that are visualized on the map and perceived in the environment for determining their location on a map. Hence, the positioning aid alone does not provide enough information for self-location. Using a field experiment, we assessed the effect of representing the user’s location on a map on the cognitive processes involved in self-location. The results show that positioning aids guide the search for map–environment points and narrow the area on the map that must be scanned for self-location.

  14. Psychological need fulfillment as a mediator of the relationship between transformational leadership and positive job attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetland, J.; Hetland, H.; Bakker, A.B.; Demerouti, E.; Andreassen, C.S.; Pallesen, S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore the possible mediating role of need fulfilment in the relationship between transformational leadership and employee job attitudes (job satisfaction and dedication). Design/methodology/approach – The two samples include both cross-sectional and diary

  15. Positive Academic Emotions Moderate the Relationship between Self-Regulation and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villavicencio, Felicidad T.; Bernardo, Allan B. I.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Research has shown how academic emotions are related to achievement and to cognitive/motivational variables that promote achievement. Mediated models have been proposed to account for the relationships among academic emotions, cognitive/motivational variables, and achievement, and research has supported such mediated models,…

  16. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavão, Silvia L; Santos, Adriana N; Oliveira, Ana B; Rocha, Nelci A C F

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD) children and children with cerebral palsy (CP) during the sit-to-stand (STS) movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position) and dynamic postural control (during STS movement) in both groups. The center of pressure (CoP) behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II) was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP) and mediolateral (ML) amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  17. Postural control during sit-to-stand movement and its relationship with upright position in children with hemiplegic spastic cerebral palsy and in typically developing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia L. Pavão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare postural control in typically developing (TD children and children with cerebral palsy (CP during the sit-to-stand (STS movement and to assess the relationship between static (during static standing position and dynamic postural control (during STS movement in both groups. METHOD: The center of pressure (CoP behavior of 23 TD children and 6 children with spastic hemiplegic CP (Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] I and II was assessed during STS movement performance and during static standing conditions with the use of a force plate. The data obtained from the force plate were used to calculate CoP variables: anteroposterior (AP and mediolateral (ML amplitudes of CoP displacement and the area and velocity of CoP oscillation. RESULTS: According to the Mann-Whitney test, children with CP exhibited higher CoP values in all of the analyzed variables during the beginning of STS movement. Pearson's correlation verified a positive correlation between the CoP variables during both static conditions and the performance of STS movement. CONCLUSIONS: Children with spastic hemiplegic CP present major postural oscillations during the beginning of STS movement compared with typical children. Moreover, the observed relationship between postural control in static and dynamic conditions reveals the importance of body control in the static position for the performance of functional activities that put the body in motion, such as STS movement.

  18. The analysis of spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space in different arm positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Yuefen; Wang Dehang; Wang Xiaoning; Li Shener

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the distance between the acromion and the humerus head at different arm abduction to observe whether it changes or not, to determine at which position the distance is smallest, and to evaluate the relationship between the subacromial space and the rotator cuff. Methods: Fifteen normal volunteers were examined with MRI in six arm positions, and the coronal thin images were obtained with a spin echo sequence. Using a special positioning device, the arm was placed at 0 degree, 30 degree, 60 degree, 90 degree, 120 degree and 150 degree arm abduction, respectively. Of them, 0 degree-90 degree positions were not rotated, while 120 degree and 150 degree positions were slight internal rotated. The minimal distance of acromion-humerus (A-H) and clavicle-humerus (C-H), and the spatial relationship between the rotator cuff and the subacromial space were measured and observed. Results: The values of A-H and C-H at 60 degree - 150 degree arm abduction were obviously smaller than those at 0 degree-30 degree arm abduction (P 0.05). The rotator cuff (mainly supraspinatus tendon) just went through between the acromion and the humerus at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions but not at 0 degree, 30 degree and 150 degree arm positions. So at 60 degree - 120 degree arm positions, rotator cuff between the humerus and the acromion was often impinged. Conclusion: The closest contact between the supraspinatus tendon and subacromial space occurs at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction. The findings testify that the patients with impingement syndrome have shoulder pain at 60 degree - 120 degree abduction in clinic from etiology and pathology. In the future, MRI-based analyses should allow investigating the morphological basis of the impingement syndrome, choosing the appropriate therapy, and minimizing failure rates of surgery

  19. Genetic relationships and evolution in Cucurbita pepo (pumpkin, squash, gourd) as revealed by simple sequence repeat polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li; Paris, Harry S; Nee, Michael H; Stift, Gertraud; Pachner, Martin; Vollmann, Johann; Lelley, Tamas

    2012-03-01

    Genetic relationships among 104 accessions of Cucurbita pepo were assessed from polymorphisms in 134 SSR (microsatellite) and four SCAR loci, yielding a total of 418 alleles, distributed among all 20 linkage groups. Genetic distance values were calculated, a dendrogram constructed, and principal coordinate analyses conducted. The results showed 100 of the accessions as distributed among three clusters representing each of the recognized subspecies, pepo, texana, and fraterna. The remaining four accessions, all having very small, round, striped fruits, assumed central positions between the two cultivated subspecies, pepo and texana, suggesting that they are relicts of undescribed wild ancestors of the two domesticated subspecies. In both, subsp. texana and subsp. pepo, accessions belonging to the same cultivar-group (fruit shape) associated with one another. Within subsp. pepo, accessions grown for their seeds or that are generalists, used for both seed and fruit consumption, assumed central positions. Specialized accessions, grown exclusively for consumption of their young fruits, or their mature fruit flesh, or seed oil extraction, tended to assume outlying positions, and the different specializations radiated outward from the center in different directions. Accessions of the longest-fruited cultivar-group, Cocozelle, radiated bidirectionally, indicating independent selection events for long fruits in subsp. pepo probably driven by a common desire to consume the young fruits. Among the accessions tested, there was no evidence for crossing between subspecies after domestication.

  20. The Effectiveness Of The Intelligence E-CRM Application In Enhancing Positive Customer Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashar Ahmed

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractE-CRM electronic customer relationship management is a derivation from CRM techniques which influenced direct marketing technology and call Centre to promote massively created products and services to small sub-segments of market. When CRM techniques are incorporated in e-commerce environment it becomes E-CRM which involves building a strong and sustainable customer relationship by using Internet. It is a strategy which is purely based on Internet and software development it requires to create essential integrated software suite to deal with all kinds of customer related issues like customer services sales and marketing field support. The essential parts of E-CRM are to focus on building new customer base segmentation of high valued customers enhancing the profitability of existing customer and maximize the value and life of profitable customers.

  1. Is there a positive relationship between naturalness and genetic diversity in forest tree communities?

    OpenAIRE

    Wehenkel, C.; Corral-Rivas, J. J.; Castellanos-Bocaz, H. A.; Pinedo-Alvarez, A.

    2009-01-01

    The concepts of genetic diversity and naturalness are well known as measures of conservation values and as descriptors of state or condition. A lack of research evaluating the relationship between genetic diversity and naturalness in biological communities, along with the possible implications in terms of evolutionary aspects and conservation management, make this subject particularly important as regards forest tree communities.We therefore examined the following hypothesis: the genetic dive...

  2. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    I Brage finner du siste tekst-versjon av artikkelen, og den kan inneholde ubetydelige forskjeller fra forlagets pdf-versjon. Forlagets pdf-versjon finner du på humankinetics.com / In Brage you'll find the final text version of the article, and it may contain insignificant differences from the journal's pdf version. The definitive version is available at humankinetics.com Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and moto...

  3. The relationship between positive or negative phrasing and patients' coping with lateral epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Oh; Gong, Hyun Sik; Kim, Jeong Hwan; Rhee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Young Ho; Baek, Goo Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Research suggests that phrases with negative content can affect patients' response to medical procedures and how they cope with medical illnesses. We hypothesized that patients with lateral epicondylitis who describe their condition in positive phrases cope better than those who do not. We prospectively followed up 91 patients with lateral epicondylitis for 12 months. The patients indicated their baseline coping status based on the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) and were discharged with a wait-and-see policy. During follow-up interviews, the patients described the nature of their condition in their own words and were then categorized into either positive or negative phrasing groups. We compared these two groups regarding current coping status and whether they had sought additional treatment. We also analyzed for the factors associated with these outcomes. There were no significant differences in baseline PCS scores between the two groups. At follow-up, patients in the positive phrasing group (n = 62) had significantly lower PCS scores and were less likely to seek additional treatment than those in the negative phrasing group (n = 29). Multivariable analyses showed that positive phrasing and low pain levels were independently associated with improvement in PCS scores and that negative phrasing and depression were independently associated with patients' seeking additional treatment. Patients' positive phrasing about their condition are associated with improvement in their coping status and with less use of medical resources in the case of lateral epicondylitis. This study suggests that patients with more positive attitudes toward their illness cope and comply better when a wait-and-see treatment is recommended by their physicians. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    OpenAIRE

    CRAFT, SHONDA M.; SEROVICH, JULIANNE M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide ...

  5. Spatio-temporal dynamics of ocean conditions and forage taxa reveal regional structuring of seabird–prey relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santora, Jarrod A; Schroeder, Isaac D; Field, John C; Wells, Brian K; Sydeman, William J

    Studies of predator–prey demographic responses and the physical drivers of such relationships are rare, yet essential for predicting future changes in the structure and dynamics of marine ecosystems. Here, we hypothesize that predator–prey relationships vary spatially in association with underlying physical ocean conditions, leading to observable changes in demographic rates, such as reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we quantified spatio-temporal variability in hydrographic conditions, krill, and forage fish to model predator (seabird) demographic responses over 18 years (1990–2007). We used principal component analysis and spatial correlation maps to assess coherence among ocean conditions, krill, and forage fish, and generalized additive models to quantify interannual variability in seabird breeding success relative to prey abundance. The first principal component of four hydrographic measurements yielded an index that partitioned “warm/weak upwelling” and “cool/strong upwelling” years. Partitioning of krill and forage fish time series among shelf and oceanic regions yielded spatially explicit indicators of prey availability. Krill abundance within the oceanic region was remarkably consistent between years, whereas krill over the shelf showed marked interannual fluctuations in relation to ocean conditions. Anchovy abundance varied on the shelf, and was greater in years of strong stratification, weak upwelling and warmer temperatures. Spatio-temporal variability of juvenile forage fish co-varied strongly with each other and with krill, but was weakly correlated with hydrographic conditions. Demographic responses between seabirds and prey availability revealed spatially variable associations indicative of the dynamic nature of “predator–habitat” relationships. Quantification of spatially explicit demographic responses, and their variability through time, demonstrate the possibility of delineating specific critical areas where the

  6. The Relationship between Identity-Related Constructs and Positive Mental Health in Black College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushonga, Dawnsha R.

    2017-01-01

    This cross-sectional, exploratory study examined positive mental health (PMH) in 156 Black college students, ages 18-25, attending Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). In addition, identity-related constructs such as spirituality, self-esteem, social support, life satisfaction, racial…

  7. Positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung Hwa; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2008-01-01

    To assess the positional relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar using cone beam computed tomograph (CBCT). CBCTs from 127 subjects were analysed. A total of 134 maxillary first molars were classified according to their vertical and horizontal positional relationship to the maxillary sinus floor and measured according to the distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary first molar. Type III (The root projected laterally on the sinus cavity but its apex is outside the sinus boundaries) was dominated between 10 and 19 years and type I (The root apex was not in contact with the cortical borders of the sinus) was dominated (P<0.05) between 20 and 72 years on the vertical relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. The maxillary sinus floor was located more at the apex (78.2%) than at the furcation (21.3%) for the palatal root. The distance from the root apex to the maxillary sinus floor confined to type I was increased according to the ages (P<0.05). Type M (The maxillary sinus floor was located between the buccal and the palatal root) was most common (72.4%) on the horizontal relationship between the maxillary sinus floor and the apex of the maxillary first molar. CBCT can provide highly qualified images for the maxillary sinus floor and the root apex of the maxillary first molar.

  8. Positive and negative meanings are simultaneously ascribed to colorectal cancer: relationship to quality of life and psychosocial adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Aldo Aguirre; Garland, Sheila N; Martopullo, Celestina; Pelletier, Guy

    2014-08-01

    Experiencing cancer can give rise to existential concerns causing great distress, and consequently drive individuals to make sense of what cancer may mean to their lives. To date, meaning-based research in the context of cancer has largely focused on one possible outcome of this process, the emergence of positive meanings (e.g. post-traumatic growth). However, negative meanings may also be ascribed to cancer, simultaneously with positive meanings. This study focused on the nature of the co-existence of positive and negative meanings in a sample of individuals diagnosed with colorectal cancer to find out whether negative meaning had an impact on quality of life and psychosocial adjustment above and beyond positive meaning. Participants were given questionnaires measuring meaning-made, quality of life, and psychological distress. Semi structured interviews were conducted with a subgroup from the original sample. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that negative meaning-made (i.e. helplessness) was a significant predictor of poor quality of life and increased levels of depression/anxiety above and beyond positive meaning-made (i.e. life meaningfulness, acceptance, and perceived benefits). Correlational analyses and interview data revealed that negative meaning-made was mainly associated with physical and functional disability, while positive meaning-made was mostly related to emotional and psychological well-being. Meanings of varying valence may simultaneously be ascribed to cancer as it impacts different life dimensions, and they may independently influence quality of life and psychosocial adjustment. The presence of positive meaning was not enough to prevent the detrimental effects of negative meaning on psychosocial adjustment and quality of life among individuals taking part in this study. Future attention to negative meaning is warranted, as it may be at least as important as positive meaning in predicting psychosocial adjustment and quality of

  9. Self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and early adolescents' positive and negative outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla-Walker, Laura M; Harper, James M; Jensen, Alexander C

    2010-08-01

    The current study examined the role of adolescents' self-regulation as a mediator between sibling relationship quality and adolescent outcomes, after controlling for the quality of the parent-child relationship. Participants were 395 families (282 two parent; 113 single parent) with an adolescent child (M age of child at Time 1 = 11.15, SD = .96, 49% female) who took part in [project name masked for blind review] at both Time 1 and Time 2. Path analysis via structural equation modeling suggested that sibling affection was longitudinally and positively related to self-regulation and prosocial behaviors, and negatively related to externalizing behaviors; while sibling hostility was positively, and having a sister was negatively related to internalizing behaviors (in general, paths were stronger for adolescents from two- vs. single-parent families). There was also evidence that adolescents' self-regulation partially mediated the relation between sibling affection and positive and negative adolescent outcomes. The discussion focuses on the importance of continued research examining the mechanisms through which the sibling relationship influences development during adolescence.

  10. Anticipation of public speaking in virtual reality reveals a relationship between trait social anxiety and startle reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Brian R; Johnson, Linda; Berardi, Luciano; Grillon, Christian

    2006-04-01

    Startle reflex modification has become valuable to the study of fear and anxiety, but few studies have explored startle reactivity in socially threatening situations. Healthy participants ranging in trait social anxiety entered virtual reality (VR) that simulates standing center-stage in front of an audience to anticipate giving a speech and count backward. We measured startle and autonomic reactivity during anticipation of both tasks inside VR after a single baseline recording outside VR. Trait social anxiety, but not general trait anxiety, was positively correlated with startle before entering VR and most clearly during speech anticipation inside VR. Speech anticipation inside VR also elicited stronger physiologic responses relative to anticipation of counting. Under social-evaluative threat, startle reactivity showed robust relationships with fear of negative evaluation, a central aspect of social anxiety and clinical social phobia. Context-specific startle modification may be an endophenotype for subtypes of pathological anxiety.

  11. Physical activity and motor competence present a positive reciprocal longitudinal relationship across childhood and early adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Rodrigo Antunes; Pfeiffer, Karin Allor; Larsen, Lisbeth Runge; Bugge, Anna; Møller, Niels Christian; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stodden, David F.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The current study evaluated the reciprocal longitudinal relationship between physical activity (PA) and motor competence (MC) and the potential mediation of cardiorespiratory endurance across 7 years. Methods: This was a 7-year longitudinal study, the Copenhagen School Child Intervention Study (CoSCIS), with 3 measuring points [mean ages (in years) and respective sample size: 6.75 ± 0.37, n = 696; 9.59 ± 1.07, n = 617; 13.35 ± 0.34, n = 513]. PA was assessed using accelerometers. ...

  12. Explaining effervescence: Investigating the relationship between shared social identity and positive experience in crowds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Nick; Reicher, Stephen D; Khan, Sammyh S; Tewari, Shruti; Srinivasan, Narayanan; Stevenson, Clifford

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the intensely positive emotional experiences arising from participation in a large-scale collective event. We predicted such experiences arise when those attending a collective event are (1) able to enact their valued collective identity and (2) experience close relations with other participants. In turn, we predicted both of these to be more likely when participants perceived crowd members to share a common collective identity. We investigated these predictions in a survey of pilgrims (N = 416) attending a month-long Hindu pilgrimage festival in north India. We found participants' perceptions of a shared identity amongst crowd members had an indirect effect on their positive experience at the event through (1) increasing participants' sense that they were able to enact their collective identity and (2) increasing the sense of intimacy with other crowd members. We discuss the implications of these data for how crowd emotion should be conceptualised.

  13. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Academic Librarian Positions during 2013: What Carnegie Classifications Reveal about Desired STEM Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trei, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the requirements and preferences of 171 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academic librarian positions in the United States as advertised in 2013. This analysis compares the STEM background experience preferences with the Carnegie rankings of the employing institution. The research examines the extent to which…

  14. Relationship between the pitch of modulation collimators and the determination accuracy of source positions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Masami; Nishimura, Jun

    1989-01-01

    The celestial positions of X-ray bursters and gamma-ray burst sources can be accurately determined with rotating modulation collimators which possess wide fields of view and also high angular resolutions. Since the determination accuracy is dependent on the signal to noise ratio of incident photons, the distribution of signal power is analysed and the optimum pitch of the modulation collimator for a burst of a given size is discussed. (author)

  15. Assessment of Isometric Trunk Strength - The Relevance of Body Position and Relationship between Planes of Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocjan, Andrej; Sarabon, Nejc

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the differences in maximal isometric trunk extension and flexion strength during standing, sitting and kneeling. Additionally, we were interested in correlations between the maximal strength in sagittal, frontal and transverse plane, measured in the sitting position. Sixty healthy subjects (24 male, 36 female; age 41.3 ± 15.1 yrs; body height 1.70 ± 0.09 m; body mass 72.7 ± 13.3 kg) performed maximal voluntary isometric contractions of the trunk flexor and extensor muscles in standing, sitting and kneeling position. The subjects also performed lateral flexions and rotations in the sitting position. Each task was repeated three times and average of maximal forces was used for data analysis. RANOVA with post-hoc testing was applied to the flexion and extension data. The level of statistical significance was set to p strength showed the strongest correlation, followed by frontal-transverse and sagittal-frontal plane correlation pairs (R(2) = 0.830, 0.712 and 0.657). The baseline trunk isometric strength data provided by this study should help further strength diagnostics, more precisely, the prevention of low back disorders. Key pointsMaximal voluntary isometric force of the trunk extensors increased with the angle at the hips (highest in sitting, medium in kneeling and lowest in upright standing).The opposite trend was true for isometric MVC force of trunk flexors (both genders together and men only).In the sitting position, the strongest correlation between MVC forces was found between sagittal (average flexion/extension) and transverse plane (average left/right rotation).IN ORDER TO INCREASE THE VALIDITY OF TRUNK STRENGTH TESTING THE LETTER SHOULD INCLUDE: specific warm-up, good pelvic fixation and visual feedback.

  16. Characterizing the structure-function relationship reveals the mode of action of a novel antimicrobial peptide, P1, from jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Tien-Sheng; Tsai, Keng-Chang; Chen, Chinpan

    2017-06-01

    Microbial infections of antibiotic-resistant strains cause serious diseases and have a significant impact on public health worldwide, so novel antimicrobial drugs are urgently needed. Insect venoms, a rich source of bioactive components containing antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), are attractive candidates for new therapeutic agents against microbes. Recently, a novel peptide, P1, identified from the venom of the Australian jumper ant Myrmecia pilosula, showed potent antimicrobial activities against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, but its structure-function relationship is unknown. Here, we used biochemical and biophysical techniques coupled with computational simulations to explore the mode of action of P1 interaction with dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles as a model membrane system. Our circular dichroism (CD) and NMR studies revealed an amphipathic α-helical structure for P1 upon interaction with DPC micelles. A paramagnetic relaxation enhancement approach revealed that P1 orients its α-helix segment (F6-G14) into DPC micelles. In addition, the α-helix segment could be essential for membrane permeabilization and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the arginine residues R8, R11, and R15 significantly contribute to helix formation and membrane-binding affinity. The lysine residue K19 of the C-terminus functionally guides P1 to interact with DPC micelles in the early interaction stage. Our study provides insights into the mode of action of P1, which is valuable in modifying and developing potent AMPs as antibiotic drugs.

  17. Relationship between lower limb position and pelvic floor muscle surface electromyography activity in menopausal women: a prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halski T

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tomasz Halski,1 Kuba Ptaszkowski,2 Lucyna Słupska,1 Robert Dymarek,3 Małgorzata Paprocka-Borowicz2 1Department of Physiotherapy, Opole Medical School, Opole, 2Department of Clinical Biomechanics and Physiotherapy in Motor System Disorders, 3Department of Nervous System Diseases, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Objectives: In physiotherapeutic practice, special attention is being given to the reciprocal anatomical, physiological, and biomechanical relationship of the pelvis and the structures connected to it. However, the scientific literature shows mainly the theoretical information about their mutual connections. The lack of information about these relations from a practical aspect coupled with the paucity of scientific papers on the impact of posture changes on the pelvic floor led the authors to conduct this study. The primary aim of this study was to compare the resting and functional bioelectrical activities of pelvic floor muscles (PFMs depending on three different positions of the lower limbs (positions A, B, and C in the supine position.Materials and methods: This was a prospective observational study evaluating resting and functional activities of the PFM depending on the position of the lower limbs. The study was carried out at the Department and Clinic of Urology, University Hospital in Wroclaw, Poland and the target group were women in the menopausal period. Bioelectrical activity of PFM was recorded using a surface electromyographic instrument in the supine position. Results of the values obtained in A, B, and C positions were compared using a one-way analysis of variance.Results: In position A, the average resting surface electromyography (sEMG activity of PFM was 6.9±2.6 µV; in position B, the result was 6.9±2.5 µV and in position C, the resting sEMG activity was 5.7±1.8 µV (P=0.0102. The results of the functional bioelectrical activity of PFM were as follows: position A – 20.3

  18. Age-Related Decline of Wrist Position Sense and its Relationship to Specific Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Van de Winckel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perception of limb and body positions is known as proprioception. Sensory feedback, especially from proprioceptive receptors, is essential for motor control. Aging is associated with a decline in position sense at proximal joints, but there is inconclusive evidence of distal joints being equally affected by aging. In addition, there is initial evidence that physical activity attenuates age-related decline in proprioception. Our objectives were, first, to establish wrist proprioceptive acuity in a large group of seniors and compare their perception to young adults, and second, to determine if specific types of training or regular physical activity are associated with preserved wrist proprioception. We recruited community-dwelling seniors (n = 107, mean age, 70 ± 5 years, range, 65–84 years without cognitive decline (Mini Mental State Examination-brief version ≥13/16 and young adult students (n = 51, mean age, 20 ± 1 years, range, 19–26 years. Participants performed contralateral and ipsilateral wrist position sense matching tasks with a bimanual wrist manipulandum to a 15° flexion reference position. Systematic error or proprioceptive bias was computed as the mean difference between matched and reference position. The respective standard deviation over five trials constituted a measure of random error or proprioceptive precision. Current levels of physical activity and previous sport, musical, or dance training were obtained through a questionnaire. We employed longitudinal mixed effects linear models to calculate the effects of trial number, sex, type of matching task and age on wrist proprioceptive bias and precision. The main results were that relative proprioceptive bias was greater in older when compared to young adults (mean difference: 36% ipsilateral, 88% contralateral, p < 0.01. Proprioceptive precision for contralateral but not for ipsilateral matching was smaller in older than in young adults (mean difference: 38

  19. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test: Validity and Relationship with Cardiovascular Stress-Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Melanie M; Brosschot, Jos F; Thayer, Julian F; Verkuil, Bart

    2016-01-01

    Self-report, i.e., explicit, measures of affect cannot fully explain the cardiovascular (CV) responses to stressors. Measuring affect beyond self-report, i.e., using implicit measures, could add to our understanding of stress-related CV activity. The Implicit Positive and Negative Affect Test (IPANAT) was administered in two studies to test its ecological validity and relation with CV responses and self-report measures of affect. In Study 1 students (N = 34) viewed four film clips inducing anger, happiness, fear, or no emotion, and completed the IPANAT and the Positive And Negative Affect Scale at baseline and after each clip. Implicit negative affect (INA) was higher and implicit positive affect (IPA) was lower after the anger inducing clip and vice versa after the happiness inducing clip. In Study 2 students performed a stressful math task with (n = 14) or without anger harassment (n = 15) and completed the IPANAT and a Visual Analog Scale as an explicit measure afterwards. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP) blood pressure, heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout. SBP and DBP were higher and TPR was lower in the harassment condition during the task with a prolonged effect on SBP and DBP during recovery. As expected, explicit negative affect (ENA) was higher and explicit positive affect (EPA) lower after harassment, but ENA and EPA were not related to CV activity. Although neither INA nor IPA differed between the tasks, during both tasks higher INA was related to higher SBP, lower HRV and lower TPR and to slower recovery of DBP after both tasks. Low IPA was related to slower recovery of SBP and DBP after the tasks. Implicit affect was not related to recovery of HR, HRV, and TPR. In conclusion, the IPANAT seems to respond to film clip-induced negative and positive affect and was related to CV activity during and after stressful tasks. These findings support the theory that implicitly measured affect

  20. Public green spaces and positive mental health - investigating the relationship between access, quantity and types of parks and mental wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lisa; Hooper, Paula; Foster, Sarah; Bull, Fiona

    2017-11-01

    Associations between parks and mental health have typically been investigated in relation to the presence or absence of mental illness. This study uses a validated measure of positive mental health and data from RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Project to investigate the association between the presence, amount and attributes of public green space in new greenfield neighbourhood developments and the mental health of local residents (n = 492). Both the overall number and total area of public green spaces were significantly associated with greater mental wellbeing, and findings support a dose-response relationship. Positive mental health was not only associated with parks with a nature focus, but also with green spaces characterised by recreational and sporting activity. The study demonstrates that adequate provision of public green space in local neighbourhoods and within walking distance is important for positive mental health. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Position of the Mental Foramen in Panoramic Radiography and Its Relationship to Age in a Selected Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dehghani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background The position of the mental foramen is critical for surgery and local anesthesia. Objectives This study was conducted to assess the position of the mental foramen and its relationship to age in a selected Iranian population. Materials and Methods This was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Three hundred panoramic radiographs were assessed. Three variables were assessed for each radiograph: anterior-posterior position, superior-inferior position, and radiographic appearance. The position and appearance of the mental foramen were recorded according to gender and age. The results were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. Results Considering the anterior-posterior position, the mental foramina were located in the following positions: between premolars (41.5%, at the apex of the second premolars (31.7%, in the posterior area of the second premolars (19.2%, in the anterior area of the first premolars (4.3%, and at the apex of the first premolars (3.3%.The superior-inferior position of the mental foramina were below, above, and at the level of the apices of the premolars in 78.8%, 2.5%, and 18.7% of cases, respectively. The appearance of the mental foramen was continuous in relation to the mandibular canal in 55.9% of cases, while it was separated, diffuse, and unidentified in 29.5%, 9.7%, and 5% of cases, respectively. Age was found to affect the position and appearance of mental foramen. Conclusions The mental foramina were most commonly located between the first and second premolars and below the apex. A continuous appearance was the most common appearance for the mental foramen, which was similar in males and females.

  2. Structure-Activity Relationship and Molecular Mechanics Reveal the Importance of Ring Entropy in the Biosynthesis and Activity of a Natural Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai L; Lexa, Katrina W; Julien, Olivier; Young, Travis S; Walsh, Christopher T; Jacobson, Matthew P; Wells, James A

    2017-02-22

    Macrocycles are appealing drug candidates due to their high affinity, specificity, and favorable pharmacological properties. In this study, we explored the effects of chemical modifications to a natural product macrocycle upon its activity, 3D geometry, and conformational entropy. We chose thiocillin as a model system, a thiopeptide in the ribosomally encoded family of natural products that exhibits potent antimicrobial effects against Gram-positive bacteria. Since thiocillin is derived from a genetically encoded peptide scaffold, site-directed mutagenesis allows for rapid generation of analogues. To understand thiocillin's structure-activity relationship, we generated a site-saturation mutagenesis library covering each position along thiocillin's macrocyclic ring. We report the identification of eight unique compounds more potent than wild-type thiocillin, the best having an 8-fold improvement in potency. Computational modeling of thiocillin's macrocyclic structure revealed a striking requirement for a low-entropy macrocycle for activity. The populated ensembles of the active mutants showed a rigid structure with few adoptable conformations while inactive mutants showed a more flexible macrocycle which is unfavorable for binding. This finding highlights the importance of macrocyclization in combination with rigidifying post-translational modifications to achieve high-potency binding.

  3. The Relationship between Oral Hygiene Index and Gastric Helicobacter Pylori Positivity

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    Tolga Önder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Helicobacter pylori (HP is a bacterial patho­gen that leads to gastroduodenal inflammation, gastric and duodenal ulcer and atrophic gastritis. Colonization of bacteria can be shown by using rapid-urease test during endoscopy. There are conflicting data about the route of transmission and reservoir. It’s thought to be transmitted primarily by oral route. Many studies showed results sup­porting that the presence of bacteria in dental plaques has effects on gastric colonization and eradication. There are data about the potential inhibitory effect of oral flora on HP. We aimed to analyze the association of simplified oral hygiene index -a possible representation of a healthy oral flora- with HP positivity. Methods: Patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy for symptoms of dyspepsia were as­sessed by a dentist for the simplified oral hygiene index (OHI. Patients were classified as good, poor and bad groups based on oral hygiene index scale. Pre-pyloric biopsy materials were assessed using rapid-urease test. Oral hygiene indexes were analyzed retrospectively, groups were compared for HP positivity. Results: 66 patients (30 females, 45.5% were included. Mean age of patients was 34.17±14.7 years. 11 (16.7%, 29 (43.9% and 26 (39.4% patients were classified as in good, poor and bad hygiene index groups, respectively. In patients with good OHI gastric HP positivity was less frequent. Conclusion: Decreased frequency in gastric HP may be observed with maintaining an ideal oral hygiene.

  4. Relationship between pre-extubation positive endexpiratory pressure and oxygenation after coronary artery bypass grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijane Oliveira Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction After removal of endotracheal tube and artificial ventilation, ventilatory support should be continued, offering oxygen supply to ensure an arterial oxygen saturation close to physiological. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of positive-end expiratory pressure before extubation on the oxygenation indices of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Methods: A randomized clinical trial with seventy-eight patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting divided into three groups and ventilated with different positive-end expiratory pressure levels prior to extubation: Group A, 5 cmH2O (n=32; Group B, 8 cmH2O (n=26; and Group C, 10 cmH2O (n=20. Oxygenation index data were obtained from arterial blood gas samples collected at 1, 3, and 6 h after extubation. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease and those who underwent off-pump, emergency, or combined surgeries were excluded. For statistical analysis, we used Shapiro-Wilk, G, Kruskal-Wallis, and analysis of variance tests and set the level of significance at P<0.05. Results Groups were homogenous with regard to demographic, clinical, and surgical variables. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the first 6 h after extubation with regard to oxygenation indices and oxygen therapy utilization. Conclusion: In this sample of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting, the use of different positive-end expiratory pressure levels before extubation did not affect gas exchange or oxygen therapy utilization in the first 6 h after endotracheal tube removal.

  5. Vaginal position and length in the bitch: relationship to spaying and urinary incontinence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, S.P.; Holt, P.E.; Parkinson, T.J.; Wathes, C.M.

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine if the vagina might be a suitable site for the measurement of intra-abdominal pressure during cystometry in the bitch, The position of the cranial vagina and vaginal length were measured radiographically and the effects of spaying and urinary Incontinence on these variables were evaluated in 30 continent and 30 incontinent bitches. The study used retrograde vaginourethrograms which had been obtained from animals used in a previous study, The cranial vagina was intra-abdominal on 36 of the vaginourethrograms, being least commonly intra-abdominal in incontinent bitches (11/30), Vaginal position was related linearly to vaginal length and continence status (P<0.01), while its length was related to bodyweight(P<0.01). Allowing for bodyweight, neutered animals had significantly shorter vaginas than entire bitches (P<0.01). Measurement of intra-abdominal pressure with concomitant measurement of intravesical pressure is essential if accurate assessment of detrusor pressure is to be determined during cystometry, The vagina is unlikely to be a useful location from which to measure intra-abdominal pressure since any pressure-measuring catheter inserted into it may fall outside the abdominal pressure zone. This is particularly true of neutered and/or incontinent bitches, the groups in which urodynamic investigations of urinary incontinence are most frequently indicated

  6. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (Pborn early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (Ptalent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  7. Euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, and Christianity's positive relationship to the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delkeskamp-Hayes, Corinna

    2003-01-01

    This essay addresses the problem of communication between Christianity and the secular world in an area where the latter tends to oppose the moral norms endorsed by the former. How, in the interest of missionary outreach (and with which understandings of what such outreach involves) can the language barriers be bridged? Whereas the Roman Catholic natural law tradition posits a neutral common ground of (traditional or hermeneutical) rationality between Christianity and the world, an Ebeling- and Barth-modified Lutheranism engages in an argument ad hominem by seizing upon an admitted deficiency within that world, and by recommending Christianity for mending that deficiency. Both positions differ from the Evangelical claim that since that which the world politically values is derived from Christianity, it must remain subject to Christianity's moral legislation. An entirely different approach to the communication- and outreach-problem is taken by Orthodox Christianity: The gulf which separates it from the world is acknowledged, and the possibility of trans-gulf-traffic is referred to God's grace. It is only this latter model, however, which preserves Christianity's theological terms (such as "Scripture", "law", and "holiness") from common-ground-securing, deficiency-mending, or authority-imposing secularizing, and thus from compromising that very theological context into which communicative outreach endeavors were to invite.

  8. Microbial Metabolism in Soil at Subzero Temperatures: Adaptation Mechanisms Revealed by Position-Specific 13C Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel K. Bore

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although biogeochemical models designed to simulate carbon (C and nitrogen (N dynamics in high-latitude ecosystems incorporate extracellular parameters, molecular and biochemical adaptations of microorganisms to freezing remain unclear. This knowledge gap hampers estimations of the C balance and ecosystem feedback in high-latitude regions. To analyze microbial metabolism at subzero temperatures, soils were incubated with isotopomers of position-specifically 13C-labeled glucose at three temperatures: +5 (control, -5, and -20°C. 13C was quantified in CO2, bulk soil, microbial biomass, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC after 1, 3, and 10 days and also after 30 days for samples at -20°C. Compared to +5°C, CO2 decreased 3- and 10-fold at -5 and -20°C, respectively. High 13C recovery in CO2 from the C-1 position indicates dominance of the pentose phosphate pathway at +5°C. In contrast, increased oxidation of the C-4 position at subzero temperatures implies a switch to glycolysis. A threefold higher 13C recovery in microbial biomass at -5 than +5°C points to synthesis of intracellular compounds such as glycerol and ethanol in response to freezing. Less than 0.4% of 13C was recovered in DOC after 1 day, demonstrating complete glucose uptake by microorganisms even at -20°C. Consequently, we attribute the fivefold higher extracellular 13C in soil than in microbial biomass to secreted antifreeze compounds. This suggests that with decreasing temperature, intracellular antifreeze protection is complemented by extracellular mechanisms to avoid cellular damage by crystallizing water. The knowledge of sustained metabolism at subzero temperatures will not only be useful for modeling global C dynamics in ecosystems with periodically or permanently frozen soils, but will also be important in understanding and controlling the adaptive mechanisms of food spoilage organisms.

  9. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  10. The effects of positive cognitions on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness in nursing students in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekhet, Abir K; ElGuenidi, Mervat; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A

    2011-01-01

    Alienation is a subjective state, a feeling of being a stranger, as if one were not one's normal self. It is also a sense of homelessness; a feeling of uneasiness or discomfort, which signifies the person's exclusion from social or cultural participation. Alienation can adversely affect healthy functioning of nursing students. Nursing students are the adolescents of today and the nurses of tomorrow who will deal with human behavior, and their psychological well-being will be important in managing their clients' conditions. Healthy nursing students are likely to become healthy nurses who can then model and promote healthy lifestyles for their patients. This study looked at whether the effects of alienation on adolescents' resourcefulness are influenced by positive cognitions. Zauszniewski's theory of resourcefulness, which is based on the conceptualization of two forms of resourcefulness: personal (self-help) and social (help-seeking) resourcefulness, served as the theoretical framework for the study. A descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design was used to examine hypothesized relationships among the study variables in a convenience sample of 170 first-year nursing students aged 17 to 20 years. Results showed that positive cognitions had a moderating and a partial mediating effect on the relationship between alienation and resourcefulness. It is imperative for nurse educators to generate interventions to enhance positive cognitions among nursing students.

  11. Positive relationship detected between soil bioaccessible organic pollutants and antibiotic resistance genes at dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingming; Ye, Mao; Wu, Jun; Feng, Yanfang; Wan, Jinzhong; Tian, Da; Shen, Fangyuan; Liu, Kuan; Hu, Feng; Li, Huixin; Jiang, Xin; Yang, Linzhang; Kengara, Fredrick Orori

    2015-01-01

    Co-contaminated soils by organic pollutants (OPs), antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have been becoming an emerging problem. However, it is unclear if an interaction exists between mixed pollutants and ARG abundance. Therefore, the potential relationship between OP contents and ARG and class 1 integron-integrase gene (intI1) abundance was investigated from seven dairy farms in Nanjing, Eastern China. Phenanthrene, pentachlorophenol, sulfadiazine, roxithromycin, associated ARG genes, and intI1 had the highest detection frequencies. Correlation analysis suggested a stronger positive relationship between the ARG abundance and the bioaccessible OP content than the total OP content. Additionally, the significant correlation between the bioaccessible mixed pollutant contents and ARG/intI1 abundance suggested a direct/indirect impact of the bioaccessible mixed pollutants on soil ARG dissemination. This study provided a preliminary understanding of the interaction between mixed pollutants and ARGs in co-contaminated soils. - Highlights: • Coexistence of OPs, antibiotics, and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous. • Bioaccessible pollutants exhibited positive correlation with ARG abundance. • ARGs significantly correlated with intI1. • Bioaccessible pollutants demonstrated strong correlation with intI1. • The intI1 gene might serve as a potential proxy for mixed pollution. - Coexistence of mixed OPs and ARGs in dairy farm soils was ubiquitous; a positive correlation can be found between the bioaccessible OP fractions and ARG/intI1 abundance.

  12. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications. PMID:29755381

  13. Relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life

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    Otani K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Koichi Otani, Akihito Suzuki, Yoshihiko Matsumoto, Toshinori Shirata Department of Psychiatry, Yamagata University School of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Objective: Cognitive theory assumes a pivotal role of negative core beliefs about the self in dysfunctional attitudes predisposing to depression. Meanwhile, the role of positive core beliefs about the self in cognitive vulnerability to depression is unknown. Therefore, we examined the relationship of negative and positive core beliefs about the self with dysfunctional attitudes in three aspects of life.Methods: The subjects were 311 Japanese volunteers. Core beliefs of negative-self and positive-self were evaluated by the corresponding subscales of the Brief Core Schema Scales. Dysfunctional attitudes in the areas of achievement, dependency and self-control were measured by the corresponding subscales of the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale.Results: The negative-self subscale was correlated with the achievement, dependency and self-control subscales. The positive-self subscale was correlated with the achievement and self-control subscales.Conclusion: The present study suggests that negative core beliefs about the self underlie all types of dysfunctional attitudes, while positive core beliefs about the self have some connections with dysfunctional attitudes related to achievement and self-control. Keywords: negative-self, achievement, dependency, self-control, depression

  14. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Jo; Kim, Minhee; Kwon, Seungwoo; Lee, Hae-Gyoung

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  15. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    In-Jo Park

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed, first, to determine whether the intra-individual variability in positive affect was related to the intra-individual variability in career decision-making self-efficacy, and career choice anxiety. The second objective was to examine whether social support moderates the relationship between affect and these outcome variables. The third objective was to find out how career decision-making self-efficacy and career choice anxiety change according to self-esteem and future time perspective. We conducted a study using the daily diary method in which participants were asked to rate their affect or attitudes for 21 consecutive days. In total, 128 university students participated in this study. The main results were as follows. First, positive affect was associated positively with career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively with career choice anxiety. Second, social support had a synergy effect with positive affect to influence career choice anxiety. Third, self-esteem was related positively to career decision-making self-efficacy and negatively to career choice anxiety. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  16. The relationship of positive work environments and workplace injury: evidence from the National Nursing Assistant Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCaughey, Deirdre; McGhan, Gwen; Walsh, Erin M; Rathert, Cheryl; Belue, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    With estimates of a 51% growth in the number of nursing assistants needed by 2016, there is a critical need to examine workplace factors that negatively contribute to the recruitment and retention of nursing assistants. Studies have shown that high demands, physical stress, and chronic workforce shortages contribute to a working environment that fosters one of the highest workforce injury rates in the United States. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between nursing assistant injury rates and key outcomes, such as job satisfaction and turnover intent, while exploring workplace environment factors, such as injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement, that can decrease the rates of workplace injury. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey were used to examine the negative effects of workplace injury on nursing assistants and the workplace environment factors that are related to the rate of worker injury. Nursing assistants who experience job-related injuries have lower levels of job satisfaction, increased turnover intentions, and are less likely to recommend their facility as a place to work or seek care services. It was also found that nursing assistant injury rates are related to employee ratings of injury prevention training, supervisor support, and employee engagement. NAs with multiple injuries (>2) were 1.3-1.6 times more likely to report being injured at work than NAs who had not been injured when supervisor support, employee engagement, and training ratings were low. Evidence that health care organizations can use to better understand how workplace injuries occur and insight into ways to reduce the current staggering rate of on-the-job injuries occurring in health care workplaces were offered in this study. The findings also offer empirical support for an extension of the National Institute for Occupational Health and Safety/National Occupational Research Agenda Work Organization Framework for

  17. The prognostic significance and relationship with body composition of CCR7-positive cells in colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Knight, Stella C; Moorghen, Morgan; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Jenkins, John T

    2015-07-01

    The host local immune response (LIR) to cancer is a determinant of cancer outcome. Regulation of this local response is largely achieved through chemokine synthesis from the tumor microenvironment such as C-Chemokine-Receptor-7 (CCR7). We examined the LIR measured as CCR7 expression, in colorectal cancers (CRC) and explored relationships with body composition (BC) and survival. A study of paraffin-embedded tissue specimens was carried out in 116 patients with non-metastatic CRC. CCR7 expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Analysis of computer tomography scans was used to calculate BC parameters. Survival analyses and multivariate regression models were used. High CCR7(+) cell density within the tumor stroma and at the margin was significantly associated with increased age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion, higher tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, high Klintrup-Makinen immune score, and myosteatosis. High CCR7(+) cell density in the tumor margin was significantly associated with shorter disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001). This was also significantly associated with shorter survival in multivariate analysis (HR = 8.87; 95%CI [2.51-31.3]; P < 0.01 for OS and HR = 4.72; 95%CI (1.24-12.9); P = 0.02 for DFS). Our results suggest that a specific immune microenvironment may be associated with altered host's BC and tumor behavior, and that CCR7 may serve as a novel prognostic biomarker. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Quantitative genome-wide genetic interaction screens reveal global epistatic relationships of protein complexes in Escherichia coli.

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    Mohan Babu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale proteomic analyses in Escherichia coli have documented the composition and physical relationships of multiprotein complexes, but not their functional organization into biological pathways and processes. Conversely, genetic interaction (GI screens can provide insights into the biological role(s of individual gene and higher order associations. Combining the information from both approaches should elucidate how complexes and pathways intersect functionally at a systems level. However, such integrative analysis has been hindered due to the lack of relevant GI data. Here we present a systematic, unbiased, and quantitative synthetic genetic array screen in E. coli describing the genetic dependencies and functional cross-talk among over 600,000 digenic mutant combinations. Combining this epistasis information with putative functional modules derived from previous proteomic data and genomic context-based methods revealed unexpected associations, including new components required for the biogenesis of iron-sulphur and ribosome integrity, and the interplay between molecular chaperones and proteases. We find that functionally-linked genes co-conserved among γ-proteobacteria are far more likely to have correlated GI profiles than genes with divergent patterns of evolution. Overall, examining bacterial GIs in the context of protein complexes provides avenues for a deeper mechanistic understanding of core microbial systems.

  19. [Investigation of the relationship between chronic diseases and residual symptoms of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fengjie; Fu, Min; Zhang, Nan; Xu, Ye; Ge, Ying

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prognosis-related influence factors of the residual symptoms after the canalith repositioning procedure (CRP) for the benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in the second affiliated hospital of dalian medical university. Among patients who were diagnosed with BPPV and treated by CRP, the one that still show residual symptoms were enrolled in our study, then make a follow-up irregularly about the tendency of their residual symptoms' self-healing,and respectively record in their gender, age and chronic diseases and so on. Single-factor analysis and multi-factors analysis was utilized to investigate the residual symptoms' related influencing factors. In this study, 149 cases of patients were in record, for the residual symptoms, 71 patients can go to self-healing, 78 patients can not; age is 23-88, 30 cases in the young group, 46 cases in the middle aged group, 47 cases in the young elderly group, 26 cases in the elderly group; patients suffering from high blood pressure are 76 cases, 76 cases had diabetes, 47 cases had hyperlipidemia, 110 cases had heart disease, 43 cases had ischemic encephalopathy. The residual symptoms in the elderly females patients and patients suffering from the hypertension, diabetes, heart disease patients and ischemic encephalopathy are not easy to heal by itself, in which, the older and the fact suffering from the hypertension and diabetes are the risk factors influencing the prognosis of the residual symptoms.

  20. Narrating spiritual well-being in relationship to positive psychology and religion

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    B. van Rooyen

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Constructed as new and located in the discourse of positive psychology, “spiritual well-being” is a signifier with a (hisstory in which one possible reading is highlighted in this postmodern (deconstructive narrative. The construction of “spiritual + well-being” could be narrated as a secularisation of the religious by positivist psy-complex knowledges, where spiritual well-being is reconstructed as a measurable outcome. Or it could be nar-rated as a “spiritualisation” of the psy-complex by religious knowledges, with measurable well-being becoming dependent on the pursuit of the postmodern, multiple-storied spiritual/ religious features. As the psy-complex has followed medicine from a focus on pathology to a focus on holistic wellness, it has found itself in the religious realm which it has simultaneously centred and marginalised. Additionally, as the psy-complex has moved from measuring illness to measuring wellness, it could be described as having constructed new categories of non-well-being or ill-being.

  1. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

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    Yuhua Zhang

    Full Text Available Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  2. Interspecific neighbor interactions promote the positive diversity-productivity relationship in experimental grassland communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuhua; Wang, Yongfan; Yu, Shixiao

    2014-01-01

    Because the frequency of heterospecific interactions inevitably increases with species richness in a community, biodiversity effects must be expressed by such interactions. However, little is understood how heterospecific interactions affect ecosystem productivity because rarely are biodiversity ecosystem functioning experiments spatially explicitly manipulated. To test the effect of heterospecific interactions on productivity, direct evidence of heterospecific neighborhood interaction is needed. In this study we conducted experiments with a detailed spatial design to investigate whether and how heterospecific neighborhood interactions promote primary productivity in a grassland community. The results showed that increasing the heterospecific: conspecific contact ratio significantly increased productivity. We found there was a significant difference in the variation in plant height between monoculture and mixture communities, suggesting that height-asymmetric competition for light plays a central role in promoting productivity. Heterospecific interactions make tall plants grow taller and short plants become smaller in mixtures compared to monocultures, thereby increasing the efficiency of light interception and utilization. Overyielding in the mixture communities arises from the fact that the loss in the growth of short plants is compensated by the increased growth of tall plants. The positive correlation between species richness and primary production was strengthened by increasing the frequency of heterospecific interactions. We conclude that species richness significantly promotes primary ecosystem production through heterospecific neighborhood interactions.

  3. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  4. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM): an interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsikitis, Mary; Jones, Christian; Muscat, Melody; Crawford, Kate

    2014-01-01

    This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviors in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  5. Mutational studies reveal a complex set of positive and negative control elements within the chicken vitellogenin II promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seal, S N; Davis, D L; Burch, J B

    1991-05-01

    The endogenous chicken vitellogenin II (VTGII) gene is transcribed exclusively in hepatocytes in response to estrogen. We previously identified two estrogen response elements (EREs) upstream of this gene. We now present an analysis of the VTGII promoter activated by these EREs in response to estrogen. Chimeric VTGII-CAT genes were cotransfected into LMH chicken hepatoma cells along with an estrogen receptor expression vector, and transient CAT expression was assayed after culturing the cells in the absence or presence of estrogen. An analysis of constructs bearing deletions downstream of the more proximal ERE indicated that promoter elements relevant to transcription in LMH cells extend to between -113 and -96. The relative importance of sequences within the VTGII promoter was examined by using 10 contiguous linker scanner mutations spanning the region from -117 to -24. Although most of these mutations compromised VTGII promoter function, one dramatically increased expression in LMH cells and also rendered the VTGII promoter capable of being activated by cis-linked EREs in fibroblasts cotransfected with an estrogen receptor expression vector. Gel retardation and DNase I footprinting assays revealed four factor-binding sites within this promoter. We demonstrate that three of these sites bind C/EBP, SP1, and USF (or related factors), respectively; the fourth site binds a factor that we denote TF-V beta. The biological relevance of these findings is suggested by the fact that three of these binding sites map to sites previously shown to be occupied in vivo in response to estrogen.

  6. Significant positive relationship between serum magnesium and muscle quality in maintenance hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, Hisanori; Ishimura, Eiji; Okuno, Senji; Norimine, Kyoko; Yamakawa, Kenjiro; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shoji, Shigeichi; Nishizawa, Yoshiki; Inaba, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Serum magnesium (Mg) levels have been associated with muscle performance in the general population. We hypothesized that serum Mg would be associated with muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. A total of 310 patients were examined (age: 58 ± 12 years, hemodialysis duration: 6.4 ± 6.0 years, 60.6% men, and 36.1% diabetics). Arm lean mass was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) on the dominant side. Arm muscle quality was defined as the ratio of the handgrip strength to the arm lean mass of the same side (kg/kg). Serum Mg was 1.15 ± 0.16 mmol/L (2.8 ± 0.4 mg/dL), being higher than the reference range of normal subjects. There was a significant negative correlation between muscle quality and age (r = -0.326, p<0.0001) and duration of hemodialysis (r = -0.253, p<0.0001). The muscle quality of the diabetics was significantly lower than that of the non-diabetics (p<0.001). There was a significant, positive correlation between muscle quality and serum Mg (r = 0.118, p<0.05), but not serum calcium or phosphate. In multiple regression analysis, age, gender, hemodialysis duration, diabetes, and serum Mg (β = 0.129, p<0.05) were significantly and independently associated with muscle quality (R(2) = 0.298, p<0.0001). These results demonstrated that a lower serum Mg concentration was significantly associated with poor muscle quality in hemodialysis patients. Further studies are needed to explore the mechanism by which lower serum Mg affects muscle quality.

  7. Relationship between deprotection and film thickness loss during plasma etching of positive tone chemically amplified resists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahorowala, A.P.; Medeiros, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Positive tone chemically amplified (CA) resists have demonstrated the sensitivity, contrast, and resolution necessary to print state-of-the-art subwavelength features using 248 nm and more recently 193 nm lithography. These materials are also being considered for printing sub-100 nm features with 157 nm and next-generation lithography technologies such as extreme ultraviolet and electron beam projection lithography. The basis for solubility differential and image formation in these resists is the acid catalyzed deprotection of labile protecting groups of an inherently base soluble polymer. The deprotection is effected by the photochemical generation of strong acid during the exposure process. Such acid-catalyzed deprotection reactions can also occur in unexposed resist areas when etched in a plasma. This can be due to UV exposure, high-energy ion bombardment, elevated substrate temperatures, or interaction of the resist surface with plasma species to form acidic moieties. Deprotection has been associated with resist mass loss and film shrinkage during plasma etching, leaving inadequate masking material for the entire etch step. In this article, we report the film thickness loss of several unexposed CA resists as a function of etch time in a variety of plasmas and correlate these data with film composition, monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These results are compared with theoretical predictions based on generally accepted deprotection mechanisms. Our findings indicate that the 'acidic' nature of certain plasmas such as Cl 2 /O 2 can result in deprotection in the resist film, even in the absence of a photoacid generator. Additionally, the data suggest that the nature of the resist polymer and, in turn, the identity of the deprotection products directly influence resist mass loss and etch rate linearity, both of which can be controlled by careful selection of resist materials

  8. Facets of Spirituality Diminish the Positive Relationship between Insecure Attachment and Mood Pathology in Young Adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Hiebler-Ragger

    Full Text Available Traditionally, in attachment theory, secure attachment has been linked to parameters of mental health, while insecure attachment has been associated with parameters of psychopathology. Furthermore, spirituality and attachment to God have been discussed as corresponding to, or compensating for, primary attachment experiences. Accordingly, they may contribute to mental health or to mental illness. In this cross-sectional observational study, we investigate attachment styles (Avoidant and Anxious Attachment; ECR-RD, spirituality (Religious and Existential Well-Being; MI-RSWB, and mood pathology (Anxiety, Depression, Somatization; BSI-18 in 481 (76% female young adults (age range: 18-30 years who had a Roman Catholic upbringing. In accordance with previous research, we found insecure attachment to be associated with low levels of spirituality. Furthermore, insecure attachment and low levels of spirituality were associated with higher levels of mood pathology. In hierarchical regression analyses, only Anxious Attachment positively predicted all three dimensions of mood pathology while Existential Well-Being-but not Religious Well-Being-was an additional negative predictor for Depression. Our results underline that spirituality can correspond to the attachment style, or may also compensate for insecure attachment. Higher Existential Well-Being-comprised of facets such as hope for a better future, forgiveness and the experience of sense and meaning-seems to have an especially corrective effect on mood pathology, independent of attachment styles. Our findings emphasize the vital role of existential well-being in young adults' affective functioning, which might be considered in prevention and treatment. Further research in clinical surroundings is recommended.

  9. Modeling the Relationship between Trauma and Psychological Distress among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumsey, Ayesha Delany; Joseph, Nataria T; Myers, Hector F; Ullman, Jodie B; Wyatt, Gail E

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and psychosocial resources (i.e., social support, self-esteem and optimism). Structural equation modeling confirmed that cumulative trauma exposure is positively associated with greater psychological distress, and that this association is partially mediated through impaired psychosocial resources. However, although cumulative trauma was associated with greater problematic substance use, substance use did not mediate the relationship between trauma and psychological distress.

  10. Gene expression profiling reveals novel regulation by bisphenol-A in estrogen receptor-α-positive human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, David W.; Feng, Yuxin; Yang, Jun; Puga, Alvaro; Lee, Adrian V.; Khan, Sohaib A.

    2006-01-01

    Bisphenol-A (BPA) shows proliferative actions in uterus and mammary glands and may influence the development of male and female reproductive tracts in utero or during early postnatal life. Because of its ability to function as an estrogen receptor (ER) agonist, BPA has the potential to disrupt normal endocrine signaling through regulation of ER target genes. Some genes are regulated by both estradiol (E2) and BPA, but those exclusive to either agent have not been described. Using a yeast strain incorporating a vitellogenin A2 ERE-LacZ reporter gene into the genome, we found that BPA induced expression of the reporter in colonies transformed with the ERα expression plasmid, illustrating BPA-mediated regulation within a chromatin context. Additionally, a reporter gene transiently transfected into the endometrial cancer (Ishikawa) cell line also showed BPA activity, although at 100-fold less potency than E2. To compare global gene expression in response to BPA and E2, we used a variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line stably expressing HA-tagged ERα. Cultures were treated for 3 h with an ethanol vehicle, E2 (10 -8 M), or BPA (10 -6 M), followed by isolation of RNA and microarray analysis with the human U95A probe array (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA, USA). More than 300 genes were changed 2-fold or more by either or both agents, with roughly half being up-regulated and half down-regulated. A number of growth- and development-related genes, such as HOXC1 and C6, Wnt5A, Frizzled, TGFβ-2, and STAT inhibitor 2, were found to be affected exclusively by BPA. We used quantitative real-time PCR to verify regulation of the HOXC6 gene, which showed decreased expression of approximately 2.5-fold by BPA. These results reveal novel effects by BPA and E2, raising interesting possibilities regarding the role of endocrine disruptors in sexual development

  11. The data on health locus of control and its relationship with quality of life in HIV-positive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Mostafavian

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Locus of control is a concept defined based on social learning theory, and focuses on individuals' beliefs regarding factors that influence their health status. Health Locus of Control (HLC and its relationship with Quality of Life (QOL in HIV positive patients in local population were studied. This was a cross-sectional study on 80 HIV-positive patients. Multidimensional Health Locus of Control (MHLC Scale and Medical Outcome Study Short-Form Health Survey (MOS-SF-36 used to measure patients' HLC and QOL, respectively. Internal, external, and chance HLC mean ± SD scores were 30.31±3.87, 24.17±5.03, and 32.01±4.49, respectively. Positive correlation was found between internal HLC scores and both physical (p <0.001, r = 0.53 and mental quality of life (p <0.001, r = 0.48. Multiple regression analysis showed that internal HLC was the only significant predictor of quality of life. HIV-positive patients who believe their health is mostly influenced by individual's actions and behaviors (internal HLC showed a higher quality of life. These findings suggest that modifying health locus of control beliefs, hypothetically could influence patients' quality of life. Keywords: HIV, Health locus of control, Quality of life, Medicine

  12. Positive self-beliefs as a mediator of the relationship between adolescents' sports participation and health in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Tonya; Lambert, Sharon F

    2009-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between participation in sports during adolescence and physical activity and subjective health in young adulthood. A sample of 8,152 (males = 50.8%, females = 49.2%) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health were used. Results of the study showed that participating in an organized sport during adolescence was associated with higher levels of physical activity and better subjective health during young adulthood after controlling for participation in general physical activities (e.g., jogging, biking, skateboarding) during adolescence. Participation in sports during adolescence was associated with more positive self-beliefs 1 year later that, in turn, were associated with higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and better subjective health 6 years later. Results suggest that positive self-beliefs partially mediate the relationship between adolescents' participation in sports and two health outcomes in young adulthood: moderate to vigorous physical activity and subjective health. Findings highlight the utility of youths' participation in organized sports for promoting healthy outcomes. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

  13. [Relationships of positive and negative affectivity to sleep quality in Japanese civil servants: 3-year follow-up study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Urara; Nasermoaddeli, Ali; Sekine, Michikazu; Kagamimori, Sadanobu

    2008-11-01

    We conducted this longitudinal study to evaluate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity (Affect Balance Scale) to sleep quality among civil servants. For this study we evaluated 827 civil servants of T city in Toyama prefecture in the springs of 2001 (Baseline) and 2004 with complete information in both phases of the study. Based on the median score at each phase, we divided Affect Balance Scale (ABS) scores into high and low groups. We conducted logistic regression analysis to determine the odds ratios (OR) of 3-yr follow-up sleep quality by baseline and follow-up ABS scores. After adjusting for baseline sleep quality scores, age, sex, employment, job strain, and exercise habits, participants who had high ABS scores were more likely (OR: 3.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.78-5.53) to have better sleep quality than those with low ABS scores at both phases. In addition, participants with low ABS scores at baseline and high ABS scores 3 yr later had better sleep quality (OR: 1.81, 95%CI: 1.02-3.20) than those with low ABS scores at both phases. These findings substantiate the relationships of positive and negative affectivity to sleep quality. Improving the affect balance condition as well as maintaining good affect balance condition may be important determinants of sleep quality in civil servants.

  14. Relationship between Joint Position Sense, Force Sense, and Muscle Strength and the Impact of Gymnastic Training on Proprioception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Niespodziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to assess the relationship between joint position (JPS and force sense (FS and muscle strength (MS and (2 to evaluate the impact of long-term gymnastic training on particular proprioception aspects and their correlations. 17 elite adult gymnasts and 24 untrained, matched controls performed an active reproduction (AR and passive reproduction (PR task and a force reproduction (FR task at the elbow joint. Intergroup differences and the relationship between JPS, FS, and MS were evaluated. While there was no difference in AR or PR between groups, absolute error in the control group was higher during the PR task (7.15 ± 2.72° than during the AR task (3.1 ± 1.93°. Mean relative error in the control group was 61% higher in the elbow extensors than in the elbow flexors during 50% FR, while the gymnast group had similar results in both reciprocal muscles. There was no linear correlation between JPS and FS in either group; however, FR was negatively correlated with antagonist MS. In conclusion, this study found no evidence for a relationship between the accuracy of FS and JPS at the elbow joint. Long-term gymnastic training improves the JPS and FS of the elbow extensors.

  15. Shifts in river-floodplain relationship reveal the impacts of river regulation: A case study of Dongting Lake in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cai; Jia, Yifei; Jing, Lei; Zeng, Qing; Lei, Jialin; Zhang, Shuanghu; Lei, Guangchun; Wen, Li

    2018-04-01

    Better understanding of the dynamics of hydrological connectivity between river and floodplain is essential for the ecological integrity of river systems. In this study, we proposed a regime-switch modelling (RSM) framework, which integrates change point analysis with dynamic linear regression, to detect and date change points in linear regression, and to quantify the relative importance of natural variations and anthropogenic disturbances. The approach was applied to the long-term hydrological time series to investigate the evolution of river-floodplain relation in Dongting Lake in the last five decades, during which the Yangtze River system experienced unprecedented anthropogenic manipulations. Our results suggested that 1) there were five distinct regimes during which the influence of inflows and local climate on lake water level changed significantly. The detected change points were well corresponding to the major events occurred upon the Yangtze; 2) although the importance of inflows from the Yangtze was greater than that of the tributaries flows over the five regimes, the relative contribution gradually decreased from regime 1 to regime 5. The weakening of hydrological forcing from the Yangtze was mainly attributed to the reduction in channel capacity resulting from sedimentation in the outfalls and water level dropping caused by river bed scour in the mainstream; 3) the effects of local climate was much smaller than these of inflows; and 4) since the operation of The Three Gorges Dam in 2006, the river-floodplain relationship entered a new equilibrium in that all investigated variables changed synchronously in terms of direction and magnitude. The results from this study reveal the mechanisms underlying the alternated inundation regime in Dongting Lake. The identified change points, some of which have not been previously reported, will allow a reappraisal of the current dam and reservoir operation strategies not only for flood/drought risk management but

  16. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents' Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents' daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents' self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents' positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents' social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  17. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:29187827

  18. Intra- and interspecific trait variations reveal functional relationships between specific leaf area and soil niche within a subtropical forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Dong; Chen, Yongfa; Zhao, Kangning; Cornelissen, J H C; Chu, Chengjin

    2018-02-03

    How functional traits vary with environmental conditions is of fundamental importance in trait-based community ecology. However, how intraspecific variability in functional traits is connected to species distribution is not well understood. This study investigated inter- and intraspecific variation of a key functional trait, i.e. specific leaf area (leaf area per unit dry mass; SLA), in relation to soil factors and tested if trait variation is more closely associated with specific environmental regimes for low-variability species than for high-variability species. In a subtropical evergreen forest plot (50 ha, southern China), 106 700 leaves from 5335 individuals of 207 woody species were intensively collected, with 30 individuals sampled for most species to ensure a sufficient sample size representative of intraspecific variability. Soil conditions for each plant were estimated by kriging from more than 1700 observational soil locations across the plot. Intra- and interspecific variation in SLA were separately related to environmental factors. Based on the species-specific variation of SLA, species were categorized into three groups: low-, intermediate- and high-intraspecific variability. Intraspecific habitat ranges and the strength of SLA-habitat relationships were compared among these three groups. Interspecific variation in SLA overrides the intraspecific variation (77 % vs. 8 %). Total soil nitrogen (TN, positively) and total organic carbon (TOC, negatively) are the most important explanatory factors for SLA variation at both intra- and interspecific levels. SLA, both within and between species, decreases with decreasing soil nitrogen availability. As predicted, species with low intraspecific variability in SLA have narrower habitat ranges with respect to soil TOC and TN and show a stronger SLA-habitat association than high-variability species. For woody plants low SLA is a phenotypic and probably adaptive response to nitrogen stress, which drives the

  19. Multiple correlation analyses revealed complex relationship between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang-Fei; Deng, Fei-Yan; Wu, Long-Fei; Mo, Xing-Bo; Zhu, Hong; Wu, Jian; Guo, Yu-Fan; Zeng, Ke-Qin; Wang, Ming-Jun; Zhu, Xiao-Wei; Xia, Wei; Wang, Lan; He, Pei; Bing, Peng-Fei; Lu, Xin; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng

    2018-01-01

    DNA methylation is an important regulator on the mRNA expression. However, a genome-wide correlation pattern between DNA methylation and mRNA expression in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is largely unknown. The comprehensive relationship between mRNA and DNA methylation was explored by using four types of correlation analyses and a genome-wide methylation-mRNA expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analysis in PBMCs in 46 unrelated female subjects. An enrichment analysis was performed to detect biological function for the detected genes. Single pair correlation coefficient (r T1 ) between methylation level and mRNA is moderate (-0.63-0.62) in intensity, and the negative and positive correlations are nearly equal in quantity. Correlation analysis on each gene (T4) found 60.1% genes showed correlations between mRNA and gene-based methylation at P correlation (R T4  > 0.8). Methylation sites have regulation effects on mRNA expression in eQTL analysis, with more often observations in region of transcription start site (TSS). The genes under significant methylation regulation both in correlation analysis and eQTL analysis tend to cluster to the categories (e.g., transcription, translation, regulation of transcription) that are essential for maintaining the basic life activities of cells. Our findings indicated that DNA methylation has predictive regulation effect on mRNA with a very complex pattern in PBMCs. The results increased our understanding on correlation of methylation and mRNA and also provided useful clues for future epigenetic studies in exploring biological and disease-related regulatory mechanisms in PBMC.

  20. Positive relationship between dietary fat, ethanol intake, triglycerides, and hypothalamic peptides: counteraction by lipid-lowering drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barson, Jessica R; Karatayev, Olga; Chang, Guo-Qing; Johnson, Deanne F; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Hoebel, Bartley G; Leibowitz, Sarah F

    2009-09-01

    Studies in both humans and animals suggest a positive relationship between the intake of ethanol and intake of fat, which may contribute to alcohol abuse. This relationship may be mediated, in part, by hypothalamic orexigenic peptides such as orexin (OX), which stimulate both consumption of ethanol and fat, and circulating triglycerides (TGs), which stimulate these peptides and promote consummatory behavior. The present study investigated this vicious cycle between ethanol and fat, to further characterize its relation to TGs and to test the effects of lowering TG levels. In Experiment 1, the behavioral relationship between fat intake and ethanol was confirmed. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, chronically injected intraperitoneally with ethanol (1g/kg) and tested in terms of their preference for a high-fat diet (HFD) compared with low-fat diet (LFD), showed a significant increase in their fat preference, compared with rats injected with saline, in measures of 2h and 24h intake. Experiment 2 tested the relationship of circulating TGs in this positive association between ethanol and fat, in rats chronically consuming 9% ethanol versus water and given acute meal tests (25kcal) of a HFD versus LFD. Levels of TGs were elevated in response to both chronic drinking of ethanol versus water and acute eating of a high-fat versus low-fat meal. Most importantly, ethanol and a HFD showed an interaction effect, whereby their combination produced a considerably larger increase in TG levels (+172%) compared to ethanol with a LFD (+111%). In Experiment 3, a direct manipulation of TG levels was found to affect ethanol intake. After intragastric administration of gemfibrozil (50mg/kg) compared with vehicle, TG levels were lowered by 37%, and ethanol intake was significantly reduced. In Experiment 4, the TG-lowering drug gemfibrozil also caused a significant reduction in the expression of the orexigenic peptide, OX, in the perifornical lateral hypothalamus. These results support the

  1. The frequency of hypothyroidism and its relationship with HCV positivity in patients with thalassemia major in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Jelodari, Shohreh; Karamifar, Hammdollah; Saki, Forough; Rahimi, Rahil; De Sanctis, Vincenzo; Dehbozorgian, Javad; Karimi, Mehran

    2018-03-27

    Hypothyroidism is one the most complication due to iron overload in patients with β-thalassemia major (TM). On the other hand these patients are prone to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection that can cause  thyroid dysfunction by itself or as the side effect of treatment with interferon (INF) or IFN plus ribavirin. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association of hypothyroidism with HCV positivity and serum ferritin levels in patients with TM. In this cross-sectional study, 201 randomly selected patients with TM who were registered at the Thalassemia Clinic of a tertiary hospital in Shiraz, southern Iran were investigated. Thyroid function tests and serologic screening assays for HCV seropositivity (HCV Ab and HCV-RNA) were conducted for all patients. Frequency of hypothyroidism was 22.9% including 19.9% subclinical hypothyroidism, 2% primary overt hypothyroidism and 1% central hypothyroidism. Eighty six patients (42.8%) were HCV Ab positive and 60 patients (29.9%) were HCV RNA positive. No significant relationship was found between hypothyroidism and HCV positivity or receiving IFN-α (P>0.05). Hypothyroidism showed a borderline significant association with high serum ferritin levels in TM patients (P=0.055). Our results showed no significant association between hypothyroidism and HCV infection in TM patients. It seems that the main mechanism of hypothyroidism in our patients is iron overload; however, for better evaluation a larger multicenter study is recommended.  Also due to the importance of consequences of HCV infection, more careful pre-transfusional screening of blood should be considered in TM patients.

  2. The relationship of C-reactive protein levels and positive culture with quality of life in acute rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalek P

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Petr Schalek, Zuzana Hornáčková, Aleš Hahn Ear, Nose and Throat department, 3rd Medical Faculty of Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic Background: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS has been shown to significantly reduce patient quality of life (QoL. While the QoL in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis has been the subject of intensive research over the last decade, studies measuring the impact of ARS on patient QoL have remained relatively scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the QoL and parameters suggestive of acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (C-reactive protein [CRP] levels and positive culture and to see if measurement of the QoL could be used as an indicator for antibiotic treatment in ARS.Methods: Eighty patients with ARS were enrolled in the study. A novel QoL instrument for patients with ARS, called Measurement of Acute Rhinosinusitis (MARS questionnaire, was given to patients at the time of diagnosis. We assessed patient QoL, obtained endoscopically guided cultures from the middle meatus, and measured levels of CRP. The relationship between QoL MARS scores (QoL-Mscores and CRP was determined using a correlation coefficient. To compare QoL-Mscores, relative to culture-positive and culture-negative patients, the Student’s t-test was used.Results: No correlation between the QoL, assessed using the MARS questionnaire, and positive middle meatus culture was demonstrated (P=0.332. A weak correlation was found between QoL-Mscores and CRP values, with a correlation coefficient of 0.221 and P=0.0498.Conclusion: No correlation between the QoL in ARS patients and positive culture was found in this study. The clinical significance of the correlation between QoL-Mscores and CRP values in the antibiotic decision making process needs further research. Keywords: endoscopy, quality of life, questionnaires, anti-bacterial agents

  3. Complete plastid genomes from Ophioglossum californicum, Psilotum nudum, and Equisetum hyemale reveal an ancestral land plant genome structure and resolve the position of Equisetales among monilophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grewe Felix

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plastid genome structure and content is remarkably conserved in land plants. This widespread conservation has facilitated taxon-rich phylogenetic analyses that have resolved organismal relationships among many land plant groups. However, the relationships among major fern lineages, especially the placement of Equisetales, remain enigmatic. Results In order to understand the evolution of plastid genomes and to establish phylogenetic relationships among ferns, we sequenced the plastid genomes from three early diverging species: Equisetum hyemale (Equisetales, Ophioglossum californicum (Ophioglossales, and Psilotum nudum (Psilotales. A comparison of fern plastid genomes showed that some lineages have retained inverted repeat (IR boundaries originating from the common ancestor of land plants, while other lineages have experienced multiple IR changes including expansions and inversions. Genome content has remained stable throughout ferns, except for a few lineage-specific losses of genes and introns. Notably, the losses of the rps16 gene and the rps12i346 intron are shared among Psilotales, Ophioglossales, and Equisetales, while the gain of a mitochondrial atp1 intron is shared between Marattiales and Polypodiopsida. These genomic structural changes support the placement of Equisetales as sister to Ophioglossales + Psilotales and Marattiales as sister to Polypodiopsida. This result is augmented by some molecular phylogenetic analyses that recover the same relationships, whereas others suggest a relationship between Equisetales and Polypodiopsida. Conclusions Although molecular analyses were inconsistent with respect to the position of Marattiales and Equisetales, several genomic structural changes have for the first time provided a clear placement of these lineages within the ferns. These results further demonstrate the power of using rare genomic structural changes in cases where molecular data fail to provide strong phylogenetic

  4. As long as you've got your health: Longitudinal relationships between positive affect and functional health in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gana, Kamel; Saada, Yaël; Broc, Guillaume; Quintard, Bruno; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Reciprocal relationships between positive affect (PA) and health are now subject of a heuristic debate in psychology and behavioral medicine. Two radically opposed approaches address the link between subjective well being (SWB) and physical health: top-down (i.e., psychosomatic hypothesis) and bottom-up (i.e., disability/ability hypothesis) approaches. The aim of the present study was to test these two approaches by investigating thirteen-year longitudinal relationships between PA, as an affective dimension of SWB, and functional health in older people. The study included 3754 participants aged 62-101 years assessed 6 times over a thirteen-year period. PA was measured by the mean of the positive affect subscale of the CES-D scale. Functional health was assessed by four composite items: a single-item self-rating of hearing impairment, a single-item self-rating of vision impairment, the number of medically prescribed drugs, and a single-item self-rating of dyspnoea. We used cross-lagged modeling with latent variables, which is appropriate for testing specific theories. Mean arterial pressure, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia status, sequelae of stroke, gender, level of education, and age at baseline were use as control variables in the models. Results indicated that good health significantly predicted subsequent levels of PA (average β = -0.58, p got your health". Limitations of this finding are reviewed and discussed. Models including longitudinal mediators, such as biomarkers and life style patterns, are needed to clarify the nature of the link between these constructs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Using high resolution aridity and drainage position data to better predict rainfall-runoff relationships in complex upland topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzen, D.; Sheridan, G. J.; Benyon, R. G.; Lane, P. N. J.

    2015-12-01

    In topographically complex terrain, the interaction of aspect-dependent solar exposure and drainage-position-dependent flow accumulation results in energy and water partitioning that is highly spatially variable. Catchment scale rainfall-runoff relationships are dependent on these smaller scale spatial patterns. However, there remains considerable uncertainty as to how to represent this smaller scale variability within lumped parameter, catchment scale rainfall-runoff models. In this study we aim to measure and represent the key interactions between aridity and drainage position in complex terrain to inform the development of simple catchment-scale hydrologic model parameters. Six measurement plots were setup on opposing slopes in an east-west facing eucalypt forest headwater catchment. The field sites are spanning three drainage positions with two contrasting aridity indices each, while minimizing variations in other factors, e.g. geology and weather patterns. Sapflow, soil water content (SWC) and throughfall were continuously monitored on two convergent hillslopes with similar size (1.3 and 1.6ha) but contrasting aspects (north and south). Soil depth varied from 0.6m at the topslope to >2m at the bottomslope positions. Maximum tree heights ranged from 16.2m to 36.9m on the equator-facing slope and from 30.1m to 45.5m on the pole-facing slope, with height decreasing upslope on both aspects. Two evapotranspiration (ET) patterns emerged in relation to aridity and drainage position. On the equator-facing slope (AI~ 2.1), seasonal understorey and overstorey ET patterns were in sync, whereas on the pole-facing slope (AI~1.5) understorey ET showed larger seasonal fluctuations than overstorey ET. Seasonal ET patterns and competition between soil evaporation and root water uptake lead to distinct differences in profile SWC across the sites, likely caused by depletion from different depths. Topsoil water content on equator-facing slopes was generally lower and responded

  6. Feasibility of Using Ultrasonography to Establish Relationships Among Sacral Base Position, Sacral Sulcus Depth, Body Mass Index, and Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Michael D; Kondrashova, Tatyana; Johnson, Jane C

    2015-11-01

    Identifying relationships among anatomical structures is key in diagnosing somatic dysfunction. Ultrasonography can be used to visualize anatomical structures, identify sacroiliac landmarks, and validate anatomical findings and measurements in relation to somatic dysfunction. As part of the osteopathic manipulative medicine course at A.T. Still University-Kirksville College of Osteopathic Medicine, first-year students are trained to use ultrasonography to establish relationships among musculoskeletal structures. To determine the ability of first-year osteopathic medical students to establish sacral base position (SBP) and sacral sulcus depth (SSD) using ultrasonography and to identify the relationship of SBP and SSD to body mass index (BMI) and sex. Students used ultrasonography to obtain the distance between the skin and the sacral base (the SBP) and the distance between the skin and the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine bilaterally. Next, students calculated the SSD (the distance between the tip of the posterior superior iliac spine and the SBP). Data were analyzed with respect to side of the body, BMI, sex, and age. The BMI data were subdivided into normal (18-25 mg/kg) and overweight (25-30 mg/kg) groups. Ultrasound images of 211 students were included in the study. The SBP was not significantly different between the left and right sides (36.5 mm vs 36.5 mm; P=.95) but was significantly different between normal and overweight BMI categories (33.0 mm vs 40.0 mm; Psex may point to more soft tissue overlaying the sacrum in these groups. Further research is needed on the use of ultrasonography to establish criteria for somatic dysfunction.

  7. Structure-activity relationship of daptomycin analogues with substitution at (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Du'an; Lam, Hiu Yung; Han, Wenbo; Cotroneo, Nicole; Pandya, Bhaumik A; Li, Xuechen

    2017-02-01

    Daptomycin is a highly effective lipopeptide antibiotic against Gram-positive pathogens. The presence of (2S, 3R) 3-methyl glutamic acid (mGlu) in daptomycin has been found to be important to the antibacterial activity. However the role of (2S, 3R) mGlu is yet to be revealed. Herein, we reported the syntheses of three daptomycin analogues with (2S, 3R) mGlu substituted by (2S, 3R) methyl glutamine (mGln), dimethyl glutamic acid and (2S, 3R) ethyl glutamic acid (eGlu), respectively, and their antibacterial activities. The detailed synthesis of dimethyl glutamic acid was also reported. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Moderating role of positive aspects of caregiving in the relationship between depression in persons with Alzheimer's disease and caregiver burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Haihong; Zhai, Junwei; He, Runlian; Zhou, Liye; Liang, Ruifeng; Yu, Hongmei

    2018-03-01

    Improving caregivers' positive perception of their role may be important in reducing their subjective burden when caring for Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with depression. The purpose of present study was to explore the moderating role of the positive aspects of caregiving (PAC) on the subjective burden on family caregivers when managing depressive behaviors. We conducted a cross-sectional study including 200 pairs of patients with mild AD and their caregivers from three communities and two hospitals in Taiyuan, China in October 2014. The latent variable interaction model based on a two stage least squares (2SLS) regression was fitted. A significant moderating effect of the PAC was found on the relationship between depression in patients with AD and the caregiver burden they cause. Caregivers dealing with patients with low levels of depression but with high levels of the PAC had significantly lower levels of caregiver burden compared to those caregivers with the low levels of PAC. Continuously detecting the patient's mental state combined with caregivers having an optimistic attitude towards life may improve the quality of life for both patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Metzler, Anna; Scheithauer, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a) positive self-presentation, (b) number of friends, and (c) the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years) in two waves. Adole...

  10. Relationship of low vitamin D status with positive, negative and cognitive symptom domains in people with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, K A; Keefe, R S; Lieberman, J A; Calikoglu, A S; Lansing, K M; Perkins, D O

    2015-10-01

    Deficient vitamin D levels are very common among Americans of all ages and ethnicities, but little is known about its prevalence or associated problems among those with schizophrenia. Stored plasma from 20 recent onset schizophrenia subjects and 20 matched healthy comparison subjects were analysed for 25 OH vitamin D, and related to measures of symptom severity and neurocognition. There was no significant difference in mean 25 OH vitamin D between the schizophrenia and the healthy comparison subjects (28.2 standard deviation (SD) 12.6 ng mL(-1) vs. 29.9 SD 14.3 ng mL(-1) ), and about half the subjects in each group had insufficient levels (vitamin D status (r = -0.55, P = 0.012); the correlations of overall symptom severity and positive symptom severity with 25 OH vitamin D levels approached significance (r = -0.42, P = 0.07 and r = -0.36, P = 0.12, respectively). There was no relationship of vitamin D with depressive symptoms. Among the schizophrenia subjects, lower 25 OH vitamin D levels were associated with more severe overall cognitive deficits (r = 0.56, P = 0.019). This study found that lower vitamin D levels in schizophrenia subjects were associated with more severe negative symptoms and overall cognitive deficits. However, the cross-sectional design precludes any conclusions about whether low vitamin D status in fact causes more severe negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. No relationship was found between lower vitamin D levels and depressive symptoms. © 2014 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Atmospheric Heat Transport and the Position of the ITCZ in NASA NEWS products, CMIP5 GCMs, and Multiple Reanalyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, R.; Dong, X.; Su, H.; Xi, B.; Jiang, J. H.

    2016-12-01

    In the past few years, studies have found a strong connection between atmospheric heat transport across the equator (AHTEQ) and the position of the ITCZ. This study investigates the seasonal, annual-mean and interannual variability of the ITCZ position and explores the relationships between the ITCZ position and inter-hemispheric energy transport in NASA NEWS products, multiple reanalyses datasets, and CMIP5 simulations. We find large discrepancies exist in the ITCZ-AHTEQ relationships in these datasets and model simulations. The components of energy fluxes are examined to identify the primary sources for the discrepancies among the datasets and models results.

  12. A little similarity goes a long way: the effects of peripheral but self-revealing similarities on improving and sustaining interracial relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Tessa V; Magee, Joe C; Gordon, Sarah H; Gullett, Lindy

    2014-07-01

    Integrating theory on close relationships and intergroup relations, we construct a manipulation of similarity that we demonstrate can improve interracial interactions across different settings. We find that manipulating perceptions of similarity on self-revealing attributes that are peripheral to the interaction improves interactions in cross-race dyads and racially diverse task groups. In a getting-acquainted context, we demonstrate that the belief that one's different-race partner is similar to oneself on self-revealing, peripheral attributes leads to less anticipatory anxiety than the belief that one's partner is similar on peripheral, nonself-revealing attributes. In another dyadic context, we explore the range of benefits that perceptions of peripheral, self-revealing similarity can bring to different-race interaction partners and find (a) less anxiety during interaction, (b) greater interest in sustained contact with one's partner, and (c) stronger accuracy in perceptions of one's partners' relationship intentions. By contrast, participants in same-race interactions were largely unaffected by these manipulations of perceived similarity. Our final experiment shows that among small task groups composed of racially diverse individuals, those whose members perceive peripheral, self-revealing similarity perform superior to those who perceive dissimilarity. Implications for using this approach to improve interracial interactions across different goal-driven contexts are discussed.

  13. Examination of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale factor structure and longitudinal relationships with functioning in early psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Michael W; Grossman, Michael; Oyewumi, L Kola; Bowie, Christopher R

    2016-04-01

    We examined the factor structure of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) in early-episode psychosis and its relationships with functioning at baseline and follow-up. A total of 240 consecutive admissions to an early intervention in psychosis clinic were assessed at intake to the program with the PANSS, Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS). Seventy individuals were reassessed at follow-up. A maximum likelihood factor analysis was conducted on baseline PANSS scores and the ability of each factor to predict baseline and follow-up GAF and SOFAS was examined. A five-factor model with varimax rotation was the best fit to our data and was largely congruent with factors found previously. The negative symptom factor was the best predictor of GAF and SOFAS at baseline and follow-up. Negative symptoms are the best symptomatic predictor of functioning in individuals with early psychosis and are an important treatment target to improve recovery. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. On the relationships between electron spot size, focal spot size, and virtual source position in Monte Carlo simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterpin, E.; Chen, Y.; Lu, W.; Mackie, T. R.; Olivera, G. H.; Vynckier, S.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Every year, new radiotherapy techniques including stereotactic radiosurgery using linear accelerators give rise to new applications of Monte Carlo (MC) modeling. Accurate modeling requires knowing the size of the electron spot, one of the few parameters to tune in MC models. The resolution of integrated megavoltage imaging systems, such as the tomotherapy system, strongly depends on the photon spot size which is closely related to the electron spot. The aim of this article is to clarify the relationship between the electron spot size and the photon spot size (i.e., the focal spot size) for typical incident electron beam energies and target thicknesses. Methods: Three electron energies (3, 5.5, and 18 MeV), four electron spot sizes (FWHM=0, 0.5, 1, and 1.5 mm), and two tungsten target thicknesses (0.15 and 1 cm) were considered. The formation of the photon beam within the target was analyzed through electron energy deposition with depth, as well as photon production at several phase-space planes placed perpendicular to the beam axis, where only photons recorded for the first time were accounted for. Photon production was considered for ''newborn'' photons intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane at the isocenter (85 cm from source). Finally, virtual source position and ''effective'' focal spot size were computed by backprojecting all the photons from the bottom of the target intersecting a 45x45 cm 2 plane. The virtual source position and focal spot size were estimated at the plane position where the latter is minimal. Results: In the relevant case of considering only photons intersecting the 45x45 cm 2 plane, the results unambiguously showed that the effective photon spot is created within the first 0.25 mm of the target and that electron and focal spots may be assumed to be equal within 3-4%. Conclusions: In a good approximation photon spot size equals electron spot size for high energy X-ray treatments delivered by linear accelerators.

  15. The Relationship Between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Intervention and Supports and Performance on State Accountability Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Marin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined data from 96 schools in a Southeastern U.S. state participating in training and/or coaching on School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS provided by the State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG in their state. Schools studied either received training only (“non-intensive” sites or training and on-site coaching (“intensive” sites. Fidelity of implementation was self-evaluated by both types of schools using the Benchmarks of Quality (BOQ. Some schools were also externally evaluated using the School-Wide Evaluation Tool (SET, with those scoring 80% or higher determined “model sites.” Using an independent sample t-test, analyses revealed statistically significant differences between intensive and nonintensive schools’ Quality of Distribution Index (QDI scores and between model sites and nonmodel sites on QDI scores. Correlations were performed to determine whether the fidelity of implementation of SWPBIS as measured by the BOQ was related to any of the state’s accountability measures: performance classification, QDI, or growth.

  16. Introgression evidence and phylogenetic relationships among three (ParaMisgurnus species as revealed by mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakovlić I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomy of (ParaMisgurnus genera is still debated. We therefore used mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers to analyze the phylogenetic relationships among Misgurnus anguillicaudatus, Paramisgurnus dabryanus and Misgurnus fossilis. Differing phylogenetic signals from mitochondrial and nuclear marker data suggest an introgression event in the history of M. anguillicaudatus and M. mohoity. No substantial genetic evidence was found that Paramisgurnus dabryanus should be classified as a separate genus.

  17. Karyotypic evolution and phylogenetic relationships in the order Chiroptera as revealed by G-banding comparison and chromosome painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, Lei; Mao, Xiuguang; Nie, Wenhui; Gu, Xiaoming; Feng, Qing; Wang, Jinhuan; Su, Weiting; Wang, Yingxiang; Volleth, Marianne; Yang, Fengtang

    2007-01-01

    Bats are a unique but enigmatic group of mammals and have a world-wide distribution. The phylogenetic relationships of extant bats are far from being resolved. Here, we investigated the karyotypic relationships of representative species from four families of the order Chiroptera by comparative chromosome painting and banding. A complete set of painting probes derived from flow-sorted chromosomes of Myotis myotis (family Vespertilionidae) were hybridized onto metaphases of Cynopterus sphinx (2n = 34, family Pteropodidae), Rhinolophus sinicus (2n=36, family Rhinolophidae) and Aselliscus stoliczkanus (2n=30, family Hipposideridae) and delimited 27, 30 and 25 conserved chromosomal segments in the three genomes, respectively. The results substantiate that Robertsonian translocation is the main mode of chromosome evolution in the order Chiroptera, with extensive conservation of whole chromosomal arms. The use of M. myotis (2n=44) probes has enabled the integration of C. sphinx, R. sinicus and A. stoliczkanus chromosomes into the previously established comparative maps between human and Eonycteris spelaea (2n=36), Rhinolophus mehelyi (2n=58), Hipposideros larvatus (2n=32), and M. myotis. Our results provide the first cytogenetic signature rearrangement that supports the grouping of Pteropodidae and Rhinolophoidea in a common clade (i.e. Pteropodiformes or Yinpterochiroptera) and thus improve our understanding on the karyotypic relationships and genome phylogeny of these bat species.

  18. Does Your Library Have an Attitude Problem towards "Marketing"? Revealing Inter-Relationship between Marketing Attitudes and Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    This paper attempts to find if there is any connection between the marketing attitudes and behaviour of librarians in thirty-three different libraries of Finland. Based on market-oriented behaviour, three kinds of libraries were found: "strong," "medium" and "weak." The findings indicate a positive relation between…

  19. Integrative Approach with Electrophysiological and Theoretical Methods Reveals a New Role of S4 Positively Charged Residues in PKD2L1 Channel Voltage-Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Tomohiro; Tsumoto, Kunichika; Yamada, Kazunori; Kurokawa, Tatsuki; Hirose, Shinichi; Nomura, Hideki; Kawano, Mitsuhiro; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Inoue, Ryuji; Mori, Yasuo

    2017-08-29

    Numerical model-based simulations provide important insights into ion channel gating when experimental limitations exist. Here, a novel strategy combining numerical simulations with patch clamp experiments was used to investigate the net positive charges in the putative transmembrane segment 4 (S4) of the atypical, positively-shifted voltage-dependence of polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1) channel. Charge-neutralising mutations (K452Q, K455Q and K461Q) in S4 reduced gating charges, positively shifted the Boltzmann-type activation curve [i.e., open probability (P open )-V curve] and altered the time-courses of activation/deactivation of PKD2L1, indicating that this region constitutes part of a voltage sensor. Numerical reconstruction of wild-type (WT) and mutant PKD2L1-mediated currents necessitated, besides their voltage-dependent gating parameters, a scaling factor that describes the voltage-dependence of maximal conductance, G max . Subsequent single-channel conductance (γ) measurements revealed that voltage-dependence of G max in WT can be explained by the inward-rectifying property of γ, which is greatly changed in PKD2L1 mutants. Homology modelling based on PKD2 and Na V Ab structures suggest that such voltage dependence of P open and γ in PKD2L1 could both reflect the charged state of the S4 domain. The present conjunctive experimental and theoretical approaches provide a framework to explore the undetermined mechanism(s) regulating TRP channels that possess non-classical voltage-dependent properties.

  20. Canopy position affects the relationships between leaf respiration and associated traits in a tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weerasinghe, Lasantha K; Creek, Danielle; Crous, Kristine Y; Xiang, Shuang; Liddell, Michael J; Turnbull, Matthew H; Atkin, Owen K

    2014-06-01

    We explored the impact of canopy position on leaf respiration (R) and associated traits in tree and shrub species growing in a lowland tropical rainforest in Far North Queensland, Australia. The range of traits quantified included: leaf R in darkness (RD) and in the light (RL; estimated using the Kok method); the temperature (T)-sensitivity of RD; light-saturated photosynthesis (Asat); leaf dry mass per unit area (LMA); and concentrations of leaf nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), soluble sugars and starch. We found that LMA, and area-based N, P, sugars and starch concentrations were all higher in sun-exposed/upper canopy leaves, compared with their shaded/lower canopy and deep-shade/understory counterparts; similarly, area-based rates of RD, RL and Asat (at 28 °C) were all higher in the upper canopy leaves, indicating higher metabolic capacity in the upper canopy. The extent to which light inhibited R did not differ significantly between upper and lower canopy leaves, with the overall average inhibition being 32% across both canopy levels. Log-log RD-Asat relationships differed between upper and lower canopy leaves, with upper canopy leaves exhibiting higher rates of RD for a given Asat (both on an area and mass basis), as well as higher mass-based rates of RD for a given [N] and [P]. Over the 25-45 °C range, the T-sensitivity of RD was similar in upper and lower canopy leaves, with both canopy positions exhibiting Q10 values near 2.0 (i.e., doubling for every 10 °C rise in T) and Tmax values near 60 °C (i.e., T where RD reached maximal values). Thus, while rates of RD at 28 °C decreased with increasing depth in the canopy, the T-dependence of RD remained constant; these findings have important implications for vegetation-climate models that seek to predict carbon fluxes between tropical lowland rainforests and the atmosphere. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Mining routinely collected acute data to reveal non-linear relationships between nurse staffing levels and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, Alison; Cook, Rob; Jones, Sarahjane; Smith, Judith; Gough, Malcolm; Maxwell, Elaine; Punshon, Geoffrey; Radford, Mark

    2016-12-16

    Nursing is a safety critical activity but not easily quantified. This makes the building of predictive staffing models a challenge. The aim of this study was to determine if relationships between registered and non-registered nurse staffing levels and clinical outcomes could be discovered through the mining of routinely collected clinical data. The secondary aim was to examine the feasibility and develop the use of 'big data' techniques commonly used in industry for this area of healthcare and examine future uses. The data were obtained from 1 large acute National Health Service hospital trust in England. Routinely collected physiological, signs and symptom data from a clinical database were extracted, imported and mined alongside a bespoke staffing and outcomes database using Mathmatica V.10. The physiological data consisted of 120 million patient entries over 6 years, the bespoke database consisted of 9 years of daily data on staffing levels and safety factors such as falls. To discover patterns in these data or non-linear relationships that would contribute to modelling. To examine feasibility of this technique in this field. After mining, 40 correlations (pdata (such as the presence or absence of nausea) and staffing factors. Several inter-related factors demonstrated step changes where registered nurse availability appeared to relate to physiological parameters or outcomes such as falls and the management of symptoms. Data extraction proved challenging as some commercial databases were not built for extraction of the massive data sets they contain. The relationship between staffing and outcomes appears to exist. It appears to be non-linear but calculable and a data-driven model appears possible. These findings could be used to build an initial mathematical model for acute staffing which could be further tested. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Nice to know you: Positive emotions, self–other overlap, and complex understanding in the formation of a new relationship

    OpenAIRE

    WAUGH, CHRISTIAN E.; FREDRICKSON, BARBARA L.

    2006-01-01

    Based on Fredrickson's ((1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2, 300–319.; (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226) broaden-and-build theory and Aron and Aron's ((1986). Love as expansion of the self: Understanding attraction and satisfaction. New York: Hemisphere) self-expansion theory, it was hypothesized that positive emotions broaden people's feeling...

  3. Massively parallel sequencing and genome-wide copy number analysis revealed a clonal relationship in benign metastasizing leiomyoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-Chin; Chao, An-Shine; Lee, Li-Yu; Lin, Gigin; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lu, Yen-Jung; Huang, Huei-Jean; Yen, Chi-Feng; Han, Chien Min; Lee, Yun-Shien; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chao, Angel

    2017-07-18

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease entity typically presenting as multiple extrauterine leiomyomas associated with a uterine leiomyoma. It has been hypothesized that the extrauterine leiomyomata represent distant metastasis of the uterine leiomyoma. To date, the only molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis was derived from clonality analyses based on X-chromosome inactivation assays. Here, we sought to address this issue by examining paired specimens of synchronous pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata from three patients using targeted massively parallel sequencing and molecular inversion probe array analysis for detecting somatic mutations and copy number aberrations. We detected identical non-hot-spot somatic mutations and similar patterns of copy number aberrations (CNAs) in paired pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata from two patients, indicating the clonal relationship between pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata. In addition to loss of chromosome 22q found in the literature, we identified additional recurrent CNAs including losses of chromosome 3q and 11q. In conclusion, our findings of the clonal relationship between synchronous pulmonary and uterine leiomyomas support the hypothesis that BML represents a condition wherein a uterine leiomyoma disseminates to distant extrauterine locations.

  4. Massively parallel sequencing and genome-wide copy number analysis revealed a clonal relationship in benign metastasizing leiomyoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Yu; Lin, Gigin; Chen, Shu-Jen; Lu, Yen-Jung; Huang, Huei-Jean; Yen, Chi-Feng; Han, Chien Min; Lee, Yun-Shien; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Chao, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Benign metastasizing leiomyoma (BML) is a rare disease entity typically presenting as multiple extrauterine leiomyomas associated with a uterine leiomyoma. It has been hypothesized that the extrauterine leiomyomata represent distant metastasis of the uterine leiomyoma. To date, the only molecular evidence supporting this hypothesis was derived from clonality analyses based on X-chromosome inactivation assays. Here, we sought to address this issue by examining paired specimens of synchronous pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata from three patients using targeted massively parallel sequencing and molecular inversion probe array analysis for detecting somatic mutations and copy number aberrations. We detected identical non-hot-spot somatic mutations and similar patterns of copy number aberrations (CNAs) in paired pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata from two patients, indicating the clonal relationship between pulmonary and uterine leiomyomata. In addition to loss of chromosome 22q found in the literature, we identified additional recurrent CNAs including losses of chromosome 3q and 11q. In conclusion, our findings of the clonal relationship between synchronous pulmonary and uterine leiomyomas support the hypothesis that BML represents a condition wherein a uterine leiomyoma disseminates to distant extrauterine locations. PMID:28533481

  5. Body Talk: Siblings' Use of Positive and Negative Body Self-Disclosure and Associations with Sibling Relationship Quality and Body-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Kelly Bassett; Campione-Barr, Nicole; Lindell, Anna K

    2015-08-01

    The sibling relationship has been deemed the quintessential "love-hate relationship." Sibling relationships have also been found to have both positive and negative impacts on the adjustment of youth. Unlike previous research, however, the present study examined the associations between siblings' positive and negative body-related disclosures with relationship quality and body-esteem. Additionally, ordinal position, individual sex, and sibling sex composition were tested as moderators. Participants included 101 predominantly White and middle class adolescent sibling dyads (54 % female adolescents, with relatively equal sibling gender compositions). Older siblings were, on average, 16.46 (SD = 1.35) years old with younger siblings an average of 13.67 (SD = 1.56) years. Adolescents completed questionnaires and data were analyzed using Actor-Partner Interdependence Modeling, which focused on disclosure to and from dyad members. In general, sibling body-related disclosure was positive for the quality of the sibling relationship, regardless of the valance of disclosure. Also, adolescents' body esteem was greater when adolescents reported disclosing (i.e., actor-effects) about positive or negative body issues to their siblings (particularly for females). Conversely, when adolescents received positive or negative body-related disclosures from their siblings (i.e., partner-effects), adolescents reported lower levels of body esteem (particularly for girls and younger siblings). Thus, the impact of body-related disclosure on adolescents' feelings of body esteem appear to be associated more with whether they are the discloser or the one being disclosed to, while the impact on the quality of the relationship has simply more to do with whether or not they are generally disclosing to one another.

  6. Phylogenetic relationships among Synallaxini spinetails (Aves: Furnariidae) reveal a new biogeographic pattern across the Amazon and Paraná river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago

    2014-09-01

    Relationships among genera in the tribe Synallaxini have proved difficult to resolve. In this study, I investigate relationships among Synallaxis, Certhiaxis and Schoeniophylax using DNA sequences from the mitochondrion and three nuclear regions. I implemented novel primers and protocols for amplifying and sequencing autosomal and sex-linked introns in Furnariidae that resolved basal relationships in the Synallaxini with strong support. Synallaxis propinqua is sister to Schoeniophylax phryganophilus, and together they form a clade with Certhiaxis. The results are robust to analytical approaches when all genomic regions are analyzed jointly (parsimony, maximum likelihood, and species-tree analysis) and the same basal relationships are recovered by most genomic regions when analyzed separately. A sister relationship between S. propinqua, an Amazonian river island specialist, and S. phryganophilus, from the Paraná River basin region, reveals a new biogeographic pattern shared by at least other four pairs of taxa with similar distributions and ecologies. Estimates of divergence times for these five pairs span from the late Miocene to the Pleistocene. Identification of the historical events that produced this pattern is difficult and further advances will require additional studies of the taxa involved and a better understanding of the recent environmental history of South America. A new classification is proposed for the Synallaxini, including the description of a new genus for S. propinqua. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Coupled cryoconite ecosystem structure-function relationships are revealed by comparing bacterial communities in alpine and Arctic glaciers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Arwyn; Mur, Luis A. J.; Girdwood, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    Cryoconite holes are known as foci of microbial diversity and activity on polar glacier surfaces, but are virtually unexplored microbial habitats in alpine regions. In addition, whether cryoconite community structure reflects ecosystem functionality is poorly understood. Terminal restriction...... revealed Proteobacteria were particularly abundant, with Cyanobacteria likely acting as ecosystem engineers in both alpine and Arctic cryoconite communities. However, despite these generalities, significant differences in bacterial community structures, compositions and metabolomes are found between alpine...... fragment length polymorphism and Fourier transform infrared metabolite fingerprinting of cryoconite from glaciers in Austria, Greenland and Svalbard demonstrated cryoconite bacterial communities are closely correlated with cognate metabolite fingerprints. The influence of bacterial-associated fatty acids...

  8. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents’ Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Metzler

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social networking sites are a substantial part of adolescents’ daily lives. By using a longitudinal approach the current study examined the impact of (a positive self-presentation, (b number of friends, and (c the initiation of online relationships on Facebook on adolescents’ self-esteem and their initiation of offline relationships, as well as the mediating role of positive feedback. Questionnaire data were obtained from 217 adolescents (68% girls, mean age 16.7 years in two waves. Adolescents’ positive self-presentation and number of friends were found to be related to a higher frequency of receiving positive feedback, which in turn was negatively associated with self-esteem. However, the number of Facebook friends had a positive impact on self-esteem, and the initiation of online relationships positively influenced the initiation of offline relationships over time, demonstrating that Facebook may be a training ground for increasing adolescents’ social skills. Implications and suggestions for future research are provided.

  9. Vulnerability of Agriculture to Climate Change as Revealed by Relationships between Simulated Crop Yield and Climate Change Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, A. W.; Absar, S. M.; Nair, S.; Preston, B. L.

    2012-12-01

    The vulnerability of agriculture is among the leading concerns surrounding climate change. Agricultural production is influenced by drought and other extremes in weather and climate. In regions of subsistence farming, worst case reductions in yield lead to malnutrition and famine. Reduced surplus contributes to poverty in agrarian economies. In more economically diverse and industrialized regions, variations in agricultural yield can influence the regional economy through market mechanisms. The latter grows in importance as agriculture increasingly services the energy market in addition to markets for food and fiber. Agriculture is historically a highly adaptive enterprise and will respond to future changes in climate with a variety of adaptive mechanisms. Nonetheless, the risk, if not expectation, of increases in climate extremes and hazards exceeding historical experience motivates scientifically based anticipatory assessment of the vulnerability of agriculture to climate change. We investigate the sensitivity component of that vulnerability using EPIC, a well established field-scale model of cropping systems that includes the simulation of economic yield. The core of our analysis is the relationship between simulated yield and various indices of climate change, including the CCI/CLIVAR/JCOM ETCCDI indices, calculated from weather inputs to the model. We complement this core with analysis using the DSSAT cropping system model and exploration of relationships between historical yield statistics and climate indices calculated from weather records. Our analyses are for sites in the Southeast/Gulf Coast region of the United States. We do find "tight" monotonic relationships between annual yield and climate for some indices, especially those associated with available water. More commonly, however, we find an increase in the variability of yield as the index value becomes more extreme. Our findings contribute to understanding the sensitivity of crop yield as part of

  10. Metabolomics Reveals Relationship between Plasma Inositols and Birth Weight: Possible Markers for Fetal Programming of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia Marlene Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies in man and with experimental animal models have shown that intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR resulting in low birth weight is associated with higher risk of programming welfare diseases in later life. In the pig, severe IUGR occurs naturally and contribute substantially to a large intralitter variation in birth weight and may therefore be a good model for man. In the present paper the natural form of IUGR in pigs was studied close to term by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR-based metabolomics. The NMR-based investigations revealed different metabolic profiles of plasma samples from low-birth weight (LW and high-birth weight (HW piglets, respectively, and differences were assigned to levels of glucose and myo-inositol. Further studies by GC-MS revealed that LW piglets had a significant higher concentration of myoinositol and D-chiro-inositol in plasma compared to larger littermates. Myo-inositol and D-chiro-inositol have been coupled with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in adults, and the present paper therefore suggests that IUGR is related to impaired glucose metabolism during fetal development, which may cause type 2 diabetes in adulthood.

  11. Connecting rules from paired miRNA and mRNA expression data sets of HCV patients to detect both inverse and positive regulatory relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Renhua; Liu, Qian; Liu, Tao; Li, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    Background Intensive research based on the inverse expression relationship has been undertaken to discover the miRNA-mRNA regulatory modules involved in the infection of Hepatitis C virus (HCV), the leading cause of chronic liver diseases. However, biological studies in other fields have found that inverse expression relationship is not the only regulatory relationship between miRNAs and their targets, and some miRNAs can positively regulate a mRNA by binding at the 5' UTR of the mRNA. Result...

  12. Genome-scale regression analysis reveals a linear relationship for promoters and enhancers after combinatorial drug treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Rapakoulia, Trisevgeni

    2017-08-09

    Motivation: Drug combination therapy for treatment of cancers and other multifactorial diseases has the potential of increasing the therapeutic effect, while reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. In order to reduce time and cost spent in comprehensive screens, methods are needed which can model additive effects of possible drug combinations. Results: We here show that the transcriptional response to combinatorial drug treatment at promoters, as measured by single molecule CAGE technology, is accurately described by a linear combination of the responses of the individual drugs at a genome wide scale. We also find that the same linear relationship holds for transcription at enhancer elements. We conclude that the described approach is promising for eliciting the transcriptional response to multidrug treatment at promoters and enhancers in an unbiased genome wide way, which may minimize the need for exhaustive combinatorial screens.

  13. Comparative Proteomics Reveals Differences in Host-Pathogen Interaction between Infectious and Commensal Relationship with Campylobacter jejuni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan J. Garrido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Campylobacter jejuni is the leading food-borne poisoning in industrialized countries. While the bacteria causes disease in humans, it merely colonizes the gut in poultry or pigs, where seems to establish a commensal relationship. Until now, few studies have been conducted to elucidate the relationship between C. jejuni and its different hosts. In this work, a comparative proteomics approach was used to identify the underlying mechanisms involved in the divergent outcome following C. jejuni infection in human and porcine host. Human (INT-407 and porcine (IPEC-1 intestinal cell lines were infected by C. jejuni for 3 h (T3h and 24 h (T24h. C. jejuni infection prompted an intense inflammatory response at T3h in human intestinal cells, mainly characterized by expression of proteins involved in cell spreading, cell migration and promotion of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Proteomic analysis evidenced significantly regulated biofunctions in human cells related with engulfment and endocytosis, and supported by canonical pathways associated to infection such as caveolar- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis signaling. In porcine IPEC-1 cells, inflammatory response as well as signaling pathways that control cellular functions such as cell migration, endocytosis and cell cycle progression resulted downregulated. These differences in the host response to infection were supported by the different pattern of adhesion and invasion proteins expressed by C. jejuni in human and porcine cells. No marked differences in expression of virulence factors involved in adaptive response and iron acquisition functions were observed. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that both host and pathogen factors are responsible for commensal or infectious character of C. jejuni in different hosts.

  14. Optimising the benefits of community health workers' unique position between communities and the health sector: A comparative analysis of factors shaping relationships in four countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Maryse C; Ormel, Hermen; Broerse, Jacqueline E W; Kane, Sumit; Namakhoma, Ireen; Otiso, Lilian; Sidat, Moshin; Kea, Aschenaki Z; Taegtmeyer, Miriam; Theobald, Sally; Dieleman, Marjolein

    2017-11-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) have a unique position between communities and the health sector. The strength of CHWs' relationships with both sides influences their motivation and performance. This qualitative comparative study aimed at understanding similarities and differences in how relationships between CHWs, communities and the health sector were shaped in different Sub-Saharan African settings. The study demonstrates a complex interplay of influences on trust and CHWs' relationships with their communities and actors in the health sector. Mechanisms influencing relationships were feelings of (dis)connectedness, (un)familiarity and serving the same goals, and perceptions of received support, respect, competence, honesty, fairness and recognition. Sometimes, constrained relationships between CHWs and the health sector resulted in weaker relationships between CHWs and communities. The broader context (such as the socio-economic situation) and programme context (related to, for example, task-shifting, volunteering and supervision) in which these mechanisms took place were identified. Policy-makers and programme managers should take into account the broader context and could adjust CHW programmes so that they trigger mechanisms that generate trusting relationships between CHWs, communities and other actors in the health system. This can contribute to enabling CHWs to perform well and responding to the opportunities offered by their unique intermediary position.

  15. Serological and virological survey of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in animal reservoirs from Uruguay reveals elevated prevalences and a very close phylogenetic relationship between swine and human strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirazo, Santiago; Gardinali, Noemí R; Cecilia, D'Albora; Verger, Lorenzo; Ottonelli, Florencia; Ramos, Natalia; Castro, Gustavo; Pinto, Marcelo A; Ré, Viviana; Pisano, Belén; Lozano, Alejandra; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Arbiza, Juan

    2018-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is an issue of public health concern in high-income and non-endemic countries. Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis of a zoonotic route as the main mode of infection in this epidemiological setting, since the transmission of genotypes HEV-3 and HEV-4 from reservoirs to humans has been demonstrated. In America, studies have confirmed the circulation of HEV in pig herds but the zoonotic role of wild boars has never been evaluated. Uruguay has a high burden of HEV- associated acute hepatitis, and a close phylogenetic relationship was observed among human HEV-3 strains and European isolates detected in swine. However in this context, swine herds have never been surveyed. Herein is reported a survey of HEV in swine herds, pigs at slaughter-house and free-living wild boar populations. Two-hundred and twenty sera and 150 liver tissue samples from domestic pigs, and 140 sera from wild boars were tested for HEV by ELISA and PCR-based approaches. All tested swine farms resulted seropositive with an overall rate of 46.8%. In turn, 22.1% of the wild boars had anti-HEV antibodies. HEV RNA was detected in 16.6% and 9.3% of liver samples from slaughter-age pigs and adult wild boars sera, respectively. Three strains from domestic pig were also amplified by nested-PCR approaches. By contrast, none of the positive samples obtained from wild boars could be confirmed by nested-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a very high nucleotide identity among swine strains and sequences obtained from humans in Uruguay. Results showed that HEV is widely distributed among swine herds in Uruguay. Additionally, this study evidences for the first time in the American continent that wild boar populations are a reservoir for HEV, though its zoonotic role remains to be elucidated. Altogether, data presented here suggest a high zoonotic risk of HEV transmission from swine to humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  17. Parent-Child Positivity and Romantic Relationships in Emerging Adulthood: Congruence, Compensation, and the Role of Social Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been discussed but not rigorously tested. Using data…

  18. Parent-child positivity and romantic relationships in emerging adulthood : Congruence, compensation, and the role of social skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kretschmer, Tina; Vollebergh, Wilma; Oldehinkel, Albertine J.

    2017-01-01

    Romantic relationship quality in adolescence and early adulthood has often been linked to earlier parent-child relationship quality but it is possible that these links are nonlinear. Moreover, the role of social skills as mediator of associations between parent-child and romantic relations has been

  19. Assessing the relationship between the Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory: Revealing sub-groups of drivers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Laila Marianne; Møller, Mette; Prato, Carlo Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    The Driver Behavior Questionnaire and the Driver Skill Inventory are two of the most frequently used measures of self-reported driving style and driving skill. The motivation behind the present study was to identify sub-groups of drivers that potentially act dangerously in traffic (as measured...... self-reported driving skills and whether the reported skill level was reflected in the reported aberrant driving behaviors. 3908 drivers aged 18–84 participated in the survey. K-means cluster analysis revealed four distinct sub-groups that differed in driving skills and frequency of aberrant driving...... by frequency of aberrant driving behaviors and level of driving skills), as well as to test whether the sub-groups differ in characteristics such as age, gender, annual mileage and accident involvement. Furthermore, the joint analysis of the two instruments was used to test drivers’ assessment of their own...

  20. A novel low-temperature-active β-glucosidase from symbiotic Serratia sp. TN49 reveals four essential positions for substrate accommodation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junpei; Zhang, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Huang, Huoqing; Meng, Kun; Yuan, Tiezheng; Yang, Peilong; Yao, Bin

    2011-10-01

    A 2,373-bp full-length gene (bglA49) encoding a 790-residue polypeptide (BglA49) with a calculated mass of 87.8 kDa was cloned from Serratia sp. TN49, a symbiotic bacterium isolated from the gut of longhorned beetle (Batocera horsfieldi) larvae. The deduced amino acid sequence of BglA49 showed the highest identities of 80.1% with a conceptually translated protein from Pantoea sp. At-9b (EEW02556), 38.3% with the identified glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 3 β-glucosidase from Clostridium stercorarium NCBI 11754 (CAB08072), and sp. G5 (ABL09836) and Paenibacillus sp. C7 (AAX35883). The recombinant enzyme (r-BglA49) was expressed in Escherichia coli and displayed the typical characteristics of low-temperature-active enzymes, such as low temperature optimum (showing apparent optimal activity at 35°C), activity at low temperatures (retaining approximately 60% of its maximum activity at 20°C and approximately 25% at 10°C). Compared with the thermophilic GH 3 β-glucosidase, r-BglA49 had fewer hydrogen bonds and salt bridges and less proline residues. These features might relate to the increased structure flexibility and higher catalytic activity at low temperatures of r-BglA49. The molecular docking study of four GH 3 β-glucosidases revealed five conserved positions contributing to substrate accommodation, among which four positions of r-BglA49 (R192, Y228, D260, and E449) were identified to be essential based on site-directed mutagenesis analysis.

  1. Domestic work and psychological distress--what is the importance of relative socioeconomic position and gender inequality in the couple relationship?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Harryson

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate whether the relation between responsibility for domestic work and psychological distress was influenced by perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship and relative socioeconomic position.In the Northern Swedish Cohort, all pupils who studied in the last year of compulsory school in a northern Swedish town in 1981 have been followed regularly until 2007. In this study, participants living with children were selected (n = 371 women, 352 men. The importance of relative socioeconomic position and perception of gender inequality in the couple relationship in combination with domestic work for psychological distress was examined through logistic regression analysis.Two combinations of variables including socioeconomic position ('having less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and partner higher socioeconomic position' and 'having more than half the responsibility for domestic work and equal socioeconomic position' were related to psychological distress. There were also higher ORs for psychological distress for the combinations of having 'less than half of the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship' and 'more than half the responsibility for domestic work and gender-unequal couple relationship'. Having a lower socioeconomic position than the partner was associated with higher ORs for psychological distress among men.This study showed that domestic work is a highly gendered activity as women tend to have a greater and men a smaller responsibility. Both these directions of inequality in domestic work, in combination with experiencing the couple relationship as gender-unequal, were associated with psychological distress There is a need for more research with a relational approach on inequalities in health in order to capture the power relations within couples in various settings.

  2. Phylogenetic relationships among zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium) associated to excavating sponges (Cliona spp.) reveal an unexpected lineage in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados, C; Camargo, C; Zea, S; Sánchez, J A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic relationships of symbiotic dinoflagellate lineages, distributed in all tropical and subtropical seas, suggest strategies for long distance dispersal but at the same time strong host specialization. Zooxanthellae (Symbiodinium: Dinophyta), which are associated to diverse shallow-water cnidarians, also engage in symbioses with some sponge species of the genus Cliona. In the Caribbean, zooxanthellae-bearing Cliona has recently become abundant due to global warming, overfishing, and algae abundance. Using molecular techniques, the symbionts from five excavating species (Clionacaribbaea, C. tenuis, C. varians, C. aprica and C. laticavicola) from the southern and southwestern Caribbean were surveyed. Several DNA sequence regions were used in order to confirm zooxanthellae identity; 18S rDNA, domain V of chloroplast large subunit (cp23S), internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2), and ITS2 secondary structure. Sequence analyses corroborated the presence of three zooxanthellae clades: A, B, and G. Presence of clades A and B in common boring sponges of the Caribbean fit with the general pattern of the province. The discovery of clade G for the first time in any organism of the Atlantic Ocean leads us to consider this unusual finding as a phylogenetic relict through common ancestors of sponge clades or an invasion of the sponge from the Indo-Pacific.

  3. Revealing the relationships between chemistry, topology and stiffness of ultrastrong Co-based metallic glass thin films: A combinatorial approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnabel, Volker; Köhler, Mathias; Evertz, Simon; Gamcova, Jana; Bednarcik, Jozef; Music, Denis; Raabe, Dierk; Schneider, Jochen M.

    2016-01-01

    An efficient way to study the relationship between chemical composition and mechanical properties of thin films is to utilize the combinatorial approach, where spatially resolved mechanical property measurements are conducted along a concentration gradient. However, for thin film glasses many properties including the mechanical response are affected by chemical topology. Here a novel method is introduced which enables spatially resolved short range order analysis along concentration gradients of combinatorially synthesized metallic glass thin films. For this purpose a CoZrTaB metallic glass film of 3 μm thickness is deposited on a polyimide foil, which is investigated by high energy X-ray diffraction in transmission mode. Through the correlative chemistry-topology-stiffness investigation, we observe that an increase in metalloid concentration from 26.4 to 32.7 at% and the associated formation of localized (hybridized) metal – metalloid bonds induce a 10% increase in stiffness. Concomitantly, along the same composition gradient, a metalloid-concentration-induced increase in first order metal - metal bond distances of 1% is observed, which infers itinerant (metallic) bond weakening. Hence, the metalloid concentration induced increase in hybridized bonding dominates the corresponding weakening of metallic bonds.

  4. Structural organization of the genes for rat von Ebner's gland proteins 1 and 2 reveals their close relationship to lipocalins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, K; Ahlers, C; Schmale, H

    1994-05-01

    The rat von Ebner's gland protein 1 (VEGP 1) is a secretory protein, which is abundantly expressed in the small acinar von Ebner's salivary glands of the tongue. Based on the primary structure of this protein we have previously suggested that it is a member of the lipocalin superfamily of lipophilic-ligand carrier proteins. Although the physiological role of VEGP 1 is not clear, it might be involved in sensory or protective functions in the taste epithelium. Here, we report the purification of VEGP 1 and of a closely related secretory polypeptide, VEGP 2, the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding VEGP 2, and the isolation and structural characterization of the genes for both proteins. Protein purification by gel-filtration and anion-exchange chromatography using Mono Q revealed the presence of two different immunoreactive VEGP species. N-terminal sequence determination of peptide fragments isolated after protease Asp-N digestion allowed the identification of a new VEGP, named VEGP 2, in addition to the previously characterized VEGP 1. The complete VEGP 2 sequence was deduced from a cDNA clone isolated from a von Ebner's gland cDNA library. The VEGP 2 cDNA encodes a protein of 177 amino acids and is 94% identical to VEGP 1. DNA sequence analysis of the rat VEGP 1 and 2 genes isolated from rat genomic libraries revealed that both span about 4.5 kb and contain seven exons. The VEGP 1 and 2 genes are non-allelic distinct genes in the rat genome and probably arose by gene duplication. The high degree of nucleotide sequence identity in introns A-C (94-100%) points to a recent gene conversion event that included the 5' part of the genes. The genomic organization of the rat VEGP genes closely resembles that found in other lipocalins such as beta-lactoglobulin, mouse urinary proteins (MUPs) and prostaglandin D synthase, and therefore provides clear evidence that VEGPs belong to this superfamily of proteins.

  5. Phylogeny and phylogeography of functional genes shared among seven terrestrial subsurface metagenomes reveal N-cycling and microbial evolutionary relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maggie CY Lau

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Comparative studies on community phylogenetics and phylogeography of microorganisms living in extreme environments are rare. Terrestrial subsurface habitats are valuable for studying microbial biogeographical patterns due to their isolation and the restricted dispersal mechanisms. Since the taxonomic identity of a microorganism does not always correspond well with its functional role in a particular community, the use of taxonomic assignments or patterns may give limited inference on how microbial functions are affected by historical, geographical and environmental factors. With seven metagenomic libraries generated from fracture water samples collected from five South African mines, this study was carried out to (1 screen for ubiquitous functions or pathways of biogeochemical cycling of CH4, S and N; (2 to characterize the biodiversity represented by the common functional genes; (3 to investigate the subsurface biogeography as revealed by this subset of genes; and (4 to explore the possibility of using metagenomic data for evolutionary study. The ubiquitous functional genes are NarV, NPD, PAP reductase, NifH, NifD, NifK, NifE and NifN genes. Although these 8 common functional genes were taxonomically and phylogenetically diverse and distinct from each other, the dissimilarity between samples did not correlate strongly with either geographical, environmental or residence time of the water. Por genes homologous to those of Thermodesulfovibrio yellowstonii detected in all metagenomes were deep lineages of Nitrospirae, suggesting that subsurface habitats have preserved ancestral genetic signatures that inform the study of the origin and evolution of prokaryotes.

  6. Identifying Relationships between High-Risk Sexual Behaviors and Screening Positive for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea in School-Wide Screening Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Jennifer; Darling-Fisher, Cindy; Hawkins, Nicole M.; Fraker, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Background: This article describes a school-wide sexually transmitted infection (STI) screening to identify adolescent high-risk sexual behaviors, STI history/incidence, and presence of chlamydia and gonorrhea, and examines relationships between high-risk behaviors and screening positive for chlamydia and gonorrhea in an alternative high school…

  7. The mean–variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H.; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed. PMID:26236216

  8. The mean-variance relationship reveals two possible strategies for dynamic brain connectivity analysis in fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, William H; Fransson, Peter

    2015-01-01

    When studying brain connectivity using fMRI, signal intensity time-series are typically correlated with each other in time to compute estimates of the degree of interaction between different brain regions and/or networks. In the static connectivity case, the problem of defining which connections that should be considered significant in the analysis can be addressed in a rather straightforward manner by a statistical thresholding that is based on the magnitude of the correlation coefficients. More recently, interest has come to focus on the dynamical aspects of brain connectivity and the problem of deciding which brain connections that are to be considered relevant in the context of dynamical changes in connectivity provides further options. Since we, in the dynamical case, are interested in changes in connectivity over time, the variance of the correlation time-series becomes a relevant parameter. In this study, we discuss the relationship between the mean and variance of brain connectivity time-series and show that by studying the relation between them, two conceptually different strategies to analyze dynamic functional brain connectivity become available. Using resting-state fMRI data from a cohort of 46 subjects, we show that the mean of fMRI connectivity time-series scales negatively with its variance. This finding leads to the suggestion that magnitude- versus variance-based thresholding strategies will induce different results in studies of dynamic functional brain connectivity. Our assertion is exemplified by showing that the magnitude-based strategy is more sensitive to within-resting-state network (RSN) connectivity compared to between-RSN connectivity whereas the opposite holds true for a variance-based analysis strategy. The implications of our findings for dynamical functional brain connectivity studies are discussed.

  9. A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of dalytyphloplanida (platyhelminthes: rhabdocoela reveals multiple escapes from the marine environment and origins of symbiotic relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Van Steenkiste

    Full Text Available In this study we elaborate the phylogeny of Dalytyphloplanida based on complete 18S rDNA (156 sequences and partial 28S rDNA (125 sequences, using a Maximum Likelihood and a Bayesian Inference approach, in order to investigate the origin of a limnic or limnoterrestrial and of a symbiotic lifestyle in this large group of rhabditophoran flatworms. The results of our phylogenetic analyses and ancestral state reconstructions indicate that dalytyphloplanids have their origin in the marine environment and that there was one highly successful invasion of the freshwater environment, leading to a large radiation of limnic and limnoterrestrial dalytyphloplanids. This monophyletic freshwater clade, Limnotyphloplanida, comprises the taxa Dalyelliidae, Temnocephalida, and most Typhloplanidae. Temnocephalida can be considered ectosymbiotic Dalyelliidae as they are embedded within this group. Secondary returns to brackish water and marine environments occurred relatively frequently in several dalyeliid and typhloplanid taxa. Our phylogenies also show that, apart from the Limnotyphloplanida, there have been only few independent invasions of the limnic environment, and apparently these were not followed by spectacular speciation events. The distinct phylogenetic positions of the symbiotic taxa also suggest multiple origins of commensal and parasitic life strategies within Dalytyphloplanida. The previously established higher-level dalytyphloplanid clades are confirmed in our topologies, but many of the traditional families are not monophyletic. Alternative hypothesis testing constraining the monophyly of these families in the topologies and using the approximately unbiased test, also statistically rejects their monophyly.

  10. Bacterial Communities in Women with Bacterial Vaginosis: High Resolution Phylogenetic Analyses Reveal Relationships of Microbiota to Clinical Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sujatha; Hoffman, Noah G.; Morgan, Martin T.; Matsen, Frederick A.; Fiedler, Tina L.; Hall, Robert W.; Ross, Frederick J.; McCoy, Connor O.; Bumgarner, Roger; Marrazzo, Jeanne M.; Fredricks, David N.

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common condition that is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes and is characterized by poorly understood changes in the vaginal microbiota. We sought to describe the composition and diversity of the vaginal bacterial biota in women with BV using deep sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene coupled with species-level taxonomic identification. We investigated the associations between the presence of individual bacterial species and clinical diagnostic characteristics of BV. Methodology/Principal Findings Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR and pyrosequencing were performed on vaginal swabs from 220 women with and without BV. BV was assessed by Amsel’s clinical criteria and confirmed by Gram stain. Taxonomic classification was performed using phylogenetic placement tools that assigned 99% of query sequence reads to the species level. Women with BV had heterogeneous vaginal bacterial communities that were usually not dominated by a single taxon. In the absence of BV, vaginal bacterial communities were dominated by either Lactobacillus crispatus or Lactobacillus iners. Leptotrichia amnionii and Eggerthella sp. were the only two BV-associated bacteria (BVABs) significantly associated with each of the four Amsel’s criteria. Co-occurrence analysis revealed the presence of several sub-groups of BVABs suggesting metabolic co-dependencies. Greater abundance of several BVABs was observed in Black women without BV. Conclusions/Significance The human vaginal bacterial biota is heterogeneous and marked by greater species richness and diversity in women with BV; no species is universally present. Different bacterial species have different associations with the four clinical criteria, which may account for discrepancies often observed between Amsel and Nugent (Gram stain) diagnostic criteria. Several BVABs exhibited race-dependent prevalence when analyzed in separate groups by BV status which may contribute to increased incidence of BV in

  11. Is there a relationship between positive affect and other dimensions of quality of life in colorectal cancer patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cardoso Louro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available It can be stated from the previous research that positive emotions should allow to better health outcomes in sick populations. The aim of the present work is to know the state-of-the-art of how positive affect (PA relates with quality of life in colorectal cancer (CRC patients, as well as to give some guidelines to develop more efficacious psychological interventions in CRC patients to enhance positive affect. This review describes a search of published literature from January 2001 to March of 2012 on the Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Psycho Inf and Cochrane databases using publications that contain positive emotions, positive affect, health outcomes, quality of life, CRC and cancer. These articles were classified into two groups: a "descriptive papers" b "interventional studies". Results from "descriptive papers" suggest that positive affect (PA was significantly associated with greater levels of general health, better social functioning, benefit finding, positive changes, low depression, less anxiety and greather psychological well-being. PA also increases when different activities are developed. The overall results from interventional studies suggest that the interventions described can be recommended for improving patient's levels of positive affect. The present review offers some suggestions which could be useful for CRC patients.

  12. Differential relationships in the association of the Big Five personality traits with positive mental health and psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, S.M.A.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Kovács, Viktòria; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2012-01-01

    According to the two continua model of mental health, psychopathology and positive mental health (emotional, psychological, and social well-being) are related but distinct continua. This study investigates the two continua model by examining whether psychopathology and positive mental health show

  13. Potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics in revealing livestock-associated Staphylococcus aureus in Chinese humans without occupational livestock contact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanping Fan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available While some studies have defined Staphylococcus aureus based on its clonal complex and resistance pattern, few have explored the relations between the genetic lineages and antibiotic resistance patterns and immune evasion cluster (IEC genes. Our aim was to investigate the potential relationship between phenotypic and molecular characteristics so as to reveal livestock-associated S. aureus in humans. The study participants were interviewed, and they provided two nasal swabs for S. aureus analysis. All S. aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA were tested for antibiotic susceptibility, multilocus sequence type and IEC genes. Of the 1162 participants, 9.3% carried S. aureus, including MRSA (1.4% and multidrug-resistant S. aureus (MDRSA, 2.8%. The predominant multidrug-resistant pattern among MDRSA isolates was nonsusceptibility to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. The most common S. aureus genotypes were ST7, ST6, ST188 and ST59, and the predominant MRSA genotype was ST7. Notably, the livestock-associated S. aureus isolates (IEC-negative CC9, IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC398, and IEC-negative tetracycline-resistant CC5 were found in people with no occupational livestock contact. These findings reveal a potential relationship between S. aureus CCs and IEC genes and antibiotic resistance patterns in defining livestock-associated S. aureus in humans and support growing concern about the potential livestock-to-human transmission of livestock-associated S. aureus by non-occupational livestock contact.

  14. Positive Psychology in Context: Effects of Expressing Gratitude in Ongoing Relationships Depend on Perceptions of Enactor Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algoe, Sara B; Zhaoyang, Ruixue

    2016-01-01

    Recent correlational evidence implicates gratitude in personal and relational growth, for both members of ongoing relationships. From these observations, it would be tempting to prescribe interpersonal gratitude exercises to improve relationships. In this experiment, couples were randomly assigned to express gratitude over a month, or to a relationally-active control condition. Results showed modest effects of condition on personal and relational well-being. However, those whose partners were perceived as being particularly responsive when expressing gratitude at the initial lab session showed greater well-being across a range of outcomes, whereas this was not so for people in the control condition. Notably, evidence raises concerns about the effectiveness of artificial injections of gratitude when the partner is perceived to be low in responsiveness. Given the importance of close relationships, this work highlights the need for more theory-driven basic research tested in context before assuming what appears to work naturally will also work artificially.

  15. Explaining the Positive Relationship between Fourth-Grade Children’s Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND A positive relationship exists between children’s body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals. To help explain this relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals—energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. METHODS We observed children in grade 4 (N=465) eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on one to 4 days per child. We measured children’s weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). RESULTS BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m2 for every 100-kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. CONCLUSIONS Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. PMID:23517000

  16. Explaining the positive relationship between fourth-grade children's body mass index and energy intake at school-provided meals (breakfast and lunch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B

    2013-05-01

    A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of meal components selected, number of meal components eaten, amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions, energy intake from flavored milk, energy intake received in trades, and energy content given in trades. Fourth-grade children (N = 465) from Columbia, SC, were observed eating school-provided breakfast and lunch on 1 to 4 days per child. Researchers measured children's weight and height. For daily values at school meals, a generalized linear model was fit with BMI (dependent variable) and the 7 outcome variables, sex, and age (independent variables). BMI was positively related to amounts eaten of standardized school-meal portions (p kcal consumed. BMI was negatively related to energy intake received in trades (p = .0003) and decreased 0.468 kg/m(2) for every 100 kcal received. BMI was not significantly related to 4 outcome variables. Knowing that relationships between BMI and actual consumption, not selection, at school-provided meals explained the (previously found) positive relationship between BMI and energy intake at school-provided meals is helpful for school-based obesity interventions. © 2013, American School Health Association.

  17. Relationship between the serum TGA, TMA positiveness and development of hypothyroidism after 131I therapy in patients with Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hui; Xu Xiaohong; Yu Hui

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the likelihood of development of hypothyroidism after 131 I therapy in patients with Graves' disease as related to the serum positiveness of TGA and TMA before treatment. Methods: Altogether, 176 patients with Graves' disease were treated with 131 I and followed for 3 years of these patients, serum TGA and TMA were positive in 70 and were negative in 106. Results: In the 70 patients with positive TGA and TMA, development of hypothyroidism after 131 I treatment occurred in 22 subjects three years later (31.4%). However, only 4 of the 106 patients with negative TGA and TMA developed hypothyroidism 3 years after 131 I therapy (3.8%). Difference in the incidence of hypothyroidism was significant (P 131 I be administered to patients with Graves' disease and positive serum TGA, TMA. (authors)

  18. Positive and negative affect in the future teacher: relationships with their academic achievement, mental health and satisfaction with life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Pinedo González

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Affects are composed of two key dimensions: the positive affect (PA and negative affect (NA. Both dimensions are related to psychological adjustment of the person and life satisfaction. This study is exploratory in nature and aims to make a first correlational analysis between different constructs: emotional disposition, academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction in a sample of 143 student teachers. We have used the following scales adapted to the culture: The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS, the Mental Health Inventory (MHI-5 and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS. Among the most interesting results it was found that positive affect was associated with academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction. Positive and negative affects and satisfaction with life were formed as predictors of future teachers’ mental health. Extensive analysis and discussion of the results is included in the document.

  19. Positive and negative affect in the future teacher: relationships with their academic achievement, mental health and satisfaction with life

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Pinedo González; María José Arroyo González; César Caballero San José

    2017-01-01

    Affects are composed of two key dimensions: the positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA). Both dimensions are related to psychological adjustment of the person and life satisfaction. This study is exploratory in nature and aims to make a first correlational analysis between different constructs: emotional disposition, academic achievement, mental health and life satisfaction in a sample of 143 student teachers. We have used the following scales adapted to the culture: The Positive and Ne...

  20. A comprehensive study on the relationship between meaning and spirituality at work with job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Golparvar; Hassan Abedini

    2014-01-01

    Positive affectivity and affective management are among important issues for the most desirable effectiveness of employees in the workplace. Accordingly, in this research, the role of meaning and spirituality at workplace is considered for job happiness, positive affect and job satisfaction. To this end, within a correlation study, with the selection of two hundred and four employees of two custom organizations in Esfahan and Tehran, in Iran, who answer meaning and spirituality at work, job h...

  1. Building Assets Reducing Risks: Academic Success for All Students through Positive Relationships and Use of Real-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Maryann; Sharma, Anu; Jerabek, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Building Assets Reducing Risks (BARR) is a social emotional model that achieves academic outcomes through combining use of real-time student data with proven relationship-building strategies and intensive teacher collaboration to prevent course failure. BARR is a recipient of US Department of Education "Investing in Innovation (i3)"…

  2. Fostering Positive Classroom Environments: The Relationship between Teacher Qualifications, Facility Management, and Perceptions of Leadership on Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Bryan Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of schools that have highly qualified teachers, along with a well managed facility, and the administration's perception of the leadership role as an instructional specialist on the outcomes that students displayed. Also, the relationship between two instruments used to determine the quality of…

  3. Listening to community health workers: how ethnographic research can inform positive relationships among community health workers, health institutions, and communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Kenneth; Closser, Svea; Kalofonos, Ippolytos

    2014-05-01

    Many actors in global health are concerned with improving community health worker (CHW) policy and practice to achieve universal health care. Ethnographic research can play an important role in providing information critical to the formation of effective CHW programs, by elucidating the life histories that shape CHWs' desires for alleviation of their own and others' economic and health challenges, and by addressing the working relationships that exist among CHWs, intended beneficiaries, and health officials. We briefly discuss ethnographic research with 3 groups of CHWs: volunteers involved in HIV/AIDS care and treatment support in Ethiopia and Mozambique and Lady Health Workers in Pakistan. We call for a broader application of ethnographic research to inform working relationships among CHWs, communities, and health institutions.

  4. The relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis MGIT time to positivity and cfu in sputum samples demonstrates changing bacterial phenotypes potentially reflecting the impact of chemotherapy on critical sub-populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bowness, R.; Boeree, M.J.; Aarnoutse, R.; Dawson, R.; Diacon, A.; Mangu, C.; Heinrich, N.; Ntinginya, N.E.; Kohlenberg, A.; Mtafya, B.; Phillips, P.P.; Rachow, A.; Plemper van Balen, G.; Gillespie, S.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The relationship between cfu and Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) time to positivity (TTP) is uncertain. We attempted to understand this relationship and create a mathematical model to relate these two methods of determining mycobacterial load. METHODS: Sequential

  5. Positive Relationship Between Individuality and Social Identity in Virtual Communities: Self-Categorization and Social Identification as Distinct Forms of Social Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tian-Chao; Li, Xuemei

    2016-11-01

    Previous studies have reported conflicting results regarding the relationship between individuality and social identity, indicating this area requires further examination. This study constructed a research model to help understand the positive role of individualized behavior and social identity in virtual communities. The results of an online survey conducted to assess our theoretical research model indicated that social identity can be expressed in two ways: self-categorization and social identification. Furthermore, we found individualized behavior was positively related to social identification, while self-categorization was directly derived from social identification.

  6. Structural analysis of respiratory syncytial virus reveals the position of M2-1 between the matrix protein and the ribonucleoprotein complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Gabriella; Holl, Jens M; Williams, Grant M; Alonas, Eric; Vanover, Daryll; Lifland, Aaron W; Gudheti, Manasa; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Nair, Vinod; Yi, Hong; Graham, Barney S; Santangelo, Philip J; Wright, Elizabeth R

    2014-07-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family of nonsegmented, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA genome viruses, is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants, young children, and the elderly or immunocompromised. There are many open questions regarding the processes that regulate human RSV (hRSV) assembly and budding. Here, using cryo-electron tomography, we identified virus particles that were spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric in structure, all within the same virus preparation. The three particle morphologies maintained a similar organization of the surface glycoproteins, matrix protein (M), M2-1, and the ribonucleoprotein (RNP). RNP filaments were traced in three dimensions (3D), and their total length was calculated. The measurements revealed the inclusion of multiple full-length genome copies per particle. RNP was associated with the membrane whenever the M layer was present. The amount of M coverage ranged from 24% to 86% in the different morphologies. Using fluorescence light microscopy (fLM), direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM), and a proximity ligation assay (PLA), we provide evidence illustrating that M2-1 is located between RNP and M in isolated viral particles. In addition, regular spacing of the M2-1 densities was resolved when hRSV viruses were imaged using Zernike phase contrast (ZPC) cryo-electron tomography. Our studies provide a more complete characterization of the hRSV virion structure and substantiation that M and M2-1 regulate virus organization. hRSV is a leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants and young children as well as elderly or immunocompromised individuals. We used cryo-electron tomography and Zernike phase contrast cryo-electron tomography to visualize populations of purified hRSV in 3D. We observed the three distinct morphologies, spherical, filamentous, and asymmetric, which maintained comparable organizational profiles

  7. Gambling: the Iniquity of a Voluntary Tax. The relationship between socio-economic position and propensity of gambling

    OpenAIRE

    Sarti Simone; Triventi Moris

    2012-01-01

    Italian sociology has largely overlooked gambling, even if it is a widespreadphenomenon with important socio-economic redistributive consequences. Inthis paper, we aim to fill this gap exploring the relationship between socio-economicposition and propensity to gamble among Italian households in the last decade. Inthe first part, we describe the main features of legal gambling in Italy and its importancefor the State's revenues. In the second part, we review the main researchfindings from othe...

  8. Homogamy in Masculinity-Femininity Is Positively Linked to Relationship Quality in Gay Male Couples from the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bártová, Klára; Štěrbová, Zuzana; Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Binter, Jakub; Varella, Marco Antonio Corrêa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella

    2017-07-01

    The main aims of this research were to test the similarity of masculinity-femininity in long-term male same-sex couples from the Czech Republic and to examine whether this similarity predicts higher relationship quality. In Study 1, participants (N = 30) and their partners completed the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) and the Childhood Gender Nonconformity Scale (CGN). In Study 2, participants (N = 40) and their partners completed DAS and the Gender Diagnosticity Scale (GD). Results showed that the partners were no more alike than individuals paired at random in their CGN or GD, but greater similarity in CGN between partners increased Dyadic Cohesion (r = -.41 [-.71, -.02]) and Affectional Expression (r = -.38 [-.60, -.13]). Our results add to previous evidence showing that similarity in same-sex couples increased relationship quality. Although, on average, gay men were not coupled on the basis of homogamy in gender roles, their relationship quality is linked to the gender egalitarian model rather than to the gender stratified one. Thus, a widespread stereotype suggesting that same-sex partners are divided by different gender roles seems to be, at least in our sample from a Western society, rather incorrect.

  9. Marriage, Family and Gender Inequality : An historical exploration of the relationship between family systems, the position of women and development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, S.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/35751405X

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation explores the historical underpinnings of current day gender inequalities at a global scale, with a focus on female agency (the degree of control people have over their own lives). To do so it brings together different explorations of the position of women both historically and

  10. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  11. Structural Modeling on the Relationship between Positive Perception, Deliberative Belief, and Friendship Quality: A Study with Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Wen

    2018-01-01

    Some of the key issues in pedagogy are the way of students' peer learning, collaboration, and team work at school. Friendship quality is essential for academic achievement by peer learning and team work. In line with that, the aim of the present study is to examine the associations between variables that are positive perception, deliberative…

  12. Rugby Union on-field position and its relationship to shoulder injury leading to anterior reconstruction for instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Abayasankar; Bokor, Desmond J; Davidson, Andrew S

    2011-03-01

    Due to the unique demands of each position on the Rugby Union field, the likelihood of an athlete sustaining a dislocation of their shoulder joint that requires surgical reconstruction may be affected by their position on the field. 166 patients with 184 involved shoulders requiring anterior reconstruction following an on-field Rugby Union injury between January 1996 and September 2008 were analysed. The mean age at time of injury was 18 years with the mean age at time of surgery being 20 years. The most prevalent mechanism of injury was a tackle in 66.3% of players. Players were more likely to suffer injury to their non-dominant shoulder than their dominant side (McNemar's Test, prisk of injury for all player positions. Positions with significantly different risk of injury were five-eighth (increased risk) and wing (reduced risk). Although we observed an increased risk in flankers and fullbacks, and a lower risk in second row, these results did not reach statistical significance after application of the Bonferroni correction. This information can be utilized by team staff to assist in pre-season conditioning as well as the development of improved muscle co-ordination programmes for the non-dominant shoulder, and planning a graduated return to sport by the player recovering from surgical reconstruction of the shoulder for instability. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Bivalent Fear of Evaluation Model of Social Anxiety: The Relationship between Fear of Positive Evaluation, Social Anxiety, and Perfectionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Keong; Gibbs, Amy L; Francis, Andrew J P; Schuster, Sharynn E

    2016-01-01

    The Bivalent Fear of Evaluation (BFOE) model of social anxiety proposes that fear of negative evaluation (FNE) and fear of positive evaluation (FPE) play distinct roles in social anxiety. Research is however lacking in terms of how FPE is related to perfectionism and how these constructs interact to predict social anxiety. Participants were 382 individuals from the general community and included an oversampling of individuals with social anxiety. Measures of FPE, FNE, perfectionism, and social anxiety were administered. Results were mostly consistent with the predictions made by the BFOE model and showed that accounting for confounding variables, FPE correlated negatively with high standards but positively with maladaptive perfectionism. FNE was also positively correlated with maladaptive perfectionism, but there was no significant relationship between FNE and high standards. Also consistent with BFOE model, both FNE and FPE significantly moderated the relationship between maladaptive perfectionism and social anxiety with the relationship strengthened at high levels of FPE and FNE. These findings provide additional support for the BFOE model and implications are discussed.

  14. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: Phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariën J

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. Results In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length, of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Conclusion Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  15. Revealing pancrustacean relationships: phylogenetic analysis of ribosomal protein genes places Collembola (springtails) in a monophyletic Hexapoda and reinforces the discrepancy between mitochondrial and nuclear DNA markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, M J T N; Roelofs, D; Mariën, J; van Straalen, N M

    2008-03-12

    In recent years, several new hypotheses on phylogenetic relations among arthropods have been proposed on the basis of DNA sequences. One of the challenged hypotheses is the monophyly of hexapods. This discussion originated from analyses based on mitochondrial DNA datasets that, due to an unusual positioning of Collembola, suggested that the hexapod body plan evolved at least twice. Here, we re-evaluate the position of Collembola using ribosomal protein gene sequences. In total 48 ribosomal proteins were obtained for the collembolan Folsomia candida. These 48 sequences were aligned with sequence data on 35 other ecdysozoans. Each ribosomal protein gene was available for 25% to 86% of the taxa. However, the total sequence information was unequally distributed over the taxa and ranged between 4% and 100%. A concatenated dataset was constructed (5034 inferred amino acids in length), of which ~66% of the positions were filled. Phylogenetic tree reconstructions, using Maximum Likelihood, Maximum Parsimony, and Bayesian methods, resulted in a topology that supports monophyly of Hexapoda. Although ribosomal proteins in general may not evolve independently, they once more appear highly valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction. Our analyses clearly suggest that Hexapoda is monophyletic. This underpins the inconsistency between nuclear and mitochondrial datasets when analyzing pancrustacean relationships. Caution is needed when applying mitochondrial markers in deep phylogeny.

  16. Giving Work a Rain Check: Relationship Between Soldiering and Positive Work Outcomes Within the Job Demands-Resources Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Baran Metin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Soldiering is defined as engaging behaviourally or cognitively into non-work-related activities during working hours with no intention of harming the employer, co-workers, and/or clients. The present study will investigate this phenomenon using the Job-Demands Resources Model. The proposed model will consider the influence of job demands and resources on soldiering, as well as the relationship of soldiering with employee wellbeing and performance. The data, collected via online questionnaires across seven European countries, will be analysed using structural equation modelling in order to explore the goodness-of-fit of the proposed model as well as its potential cross cultural variations.

  17. Longitudinal Relationships Between Positive Affect, Loneliness, and Suicide Ideation: Age-Specific Factors in a General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennardi, Marco; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Miret, Marta; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Haro, Josep Maria; Lara, Elvira; Arensman, Ella; Cabello, Maria

    2017-12-06

    The aims of this study were to analyze whether positive and negative affect, social support, and loneliness are factors longitudinally related to suicide ideation in the general population in different age groups. A total of 2,392 individuals from a nationally representative sample of the Spanish general population were evaluated in 2011-2012 and in 2014-2015. After including relevant control variables in the analyses, lower positive affect was prospectively related to ideation in 18- to 59-year-old individuals, whereas feelings of loneliness were related to ideation in 60-year-and-older individuals. Social support was not associated with suicide ideation in any age group. These results are in line with the need for age-tailored suicide prevention programs. The present findings might also suggest that health care professionals should consider feelings of loneliness rather than social support to assess the presence of suicide ideation in older people. © 2017 The American Association of Suicidology.

  18. Modeling the Relationship Between Trauma and Psychological Distress Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women

    OpenAIRE

    Delany-Brumsey, A; Joseph, NT; Myers, HF; Ullman, JB; Wyatt, GE

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the association between cumulative exposure to multiple traumatic events and psychological distress, as mediated by problematic substance use and impaired psychosocial resources. A sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women were assessed for a history of childhood and adult sexual abuse and non-sexual trauma as predictors of psychological distress (i.e., depression, non-specific anxiety, and posttraumatic stress), as mediated by problematic alcohol and drug use and ...

  19. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE USE OF KANGAROO POSITION ON PRETERM BABIES AND MOTHER-CHILD INTERACTION UPON DISCHARGE

    OpenAIRE

    Nunes, Cynthia Ribeiro do Nascimento; Campos, Lu?s Gustavo; Lucena, Aline Moreira; Pereira, Janser Moura; da Costa, Patr?cia Rodrigues; de Lima, Fl?via Aparecida Felipe; Azevedo, Vivian Mara Gon?alves de Oliveira

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the influence of the Kangaroo Position duration in the initial interactions between mothers and preterm infants. Methods: This is an exploratory prospective observational study that analyzed the mother-infant interaction during breastfeeding, before hospital discharge. All eligible newborns, with a gestational age of 28-32 weeks and a birth weight of 1,000-1,800 g from June 11 to September 31, 2014 were included. The films of the interaction were evaluated by th...

  20. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Esteve

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Methods. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Results. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. Conclusions. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  1. Optimism, Positive and Negative Affect, and Goal Adjustment Strategies: Their Relationship to Activity Patterns in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteve, Rosa; López-Martínez, Alicia E; Peters, Madelon L; Serrano-Ibáñez, Elena R; Ruiz-Párraga, Gema T; Ramírez-Maestre, Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Activity patterns are the product of pain and of the self-regulation of current goals in the context of pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between goal management strategies and activity patterns while taking into account the role of optimism/pessimism and positive/negative affect. Two hundred and thirty-seven patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain filled out questionnaires on optimism, positive and negative affect, pain intensity, and the activity patterns they employed in dealing with their pain. Questionnaires were also administered to assess their general goal management strategies: goal persistence, flexible goal adjustment, and disengagement and reengagement with goals. Structural equation modelling showed that higher levels of optimism were related to persistence, flexible goal management, and commitment to new goals. These strategies were associated with higher positive affect, persistence in finishing tasks despite pain, and infrequent avoidance behaviour in the presence or anticipation of pain. The strategies used by the patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain to manage their life goals are related to their activity patterns.

  2. HIV Positive Diagnosis During Pregnancy Increases Risk of IPV Postpartum Among Women with No History of IPV in Their Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, Allison K; Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Moodley, Dhayendre; Maman, Suzanne

    2017-07-24

    There has been limited study of whether and for whom physical intimate partner violence (IPV) is a consequence of an HIV-positive diagnosis. Per the diathesis stress model, the consequences of HIV infection may be worse for women with a history of IPV. We hypothesize that the positive association between HIV diagnosis in pregnancy and postpartum IPV will be exacerbated for women with a history of IPV. Data come from a prospective cohort study with 1015 participants who completed a baseline antenatal and 9-month postpartum visit. Using logistic regression analyses, we found a statistically significant interaction between HIV diagnosis, history of IPV and postpartum IPV (AOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.17-0.96). The findings were in the opposite direction as expected: HIV-diagnosis was not associated with IPV for women with a history of IPV (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). However, HIV-positive women without a history of IPV faced more than two times the risk of incident postpartum IPV than HIV-negative women (AOR: 2.17, 95% CI 1.06, 4.42). Interventions to reduce incident and ongoing IPV during the perinatal period are needed.

  3. [Relationships between Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in clinic couples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Seong Sook

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships between the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) psychological type and marital satisfaction, divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation in couple visiting a clinic. Couples (n=62) who visited "M" couple clinic participated in the study. Data were collected from March to June 2009 using the Marital Satisfaction Scale, Marital Status Inventory, Positive Affect Inventory, and Conflict Regulation Inventory. The couples showed no significant differences in marital satisfaction, positive affect, and conflict regulation according to similarities between spouses in MBTI types. However, they showed significant differences in divorce proneness of husband according to a similarity in the Sensing/Intuition indicator. They also showed significant differences in divorce proneness, positive affect, and conflict regulation between the couples for ISTJ (Introversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) or ESTJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Thinking, Judging) types compared to other couples. When nurses counsel couples, they should understand that differences in psychological type between spouses affects their marital relationship. In addition, nurses should educate couples on the characteristics of each type according to the couple's types and help them to understand each other, especially for couples where one spouse is the ISTJ/ESTJ type. These interventions will improve marital satisfaction and prevent the divorce in these couples.

  4. Genetic relationships between clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A as revealed by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and multilocus restriction typing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virdi Jugsharan S

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic relationships among 81 strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from clinical and non-clinical sources were discerned by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE and multilocus restriction typing (MLRT using six loci each. Such studies may reveal associations between the genotypes of the strains and their sources of isolation. Results All loci were polymorphic and generated 62 electrophoretic types (ETs and 12 restriction types (RTs. The mean genetic diversity (H of the strains by MLEE and MLRT was 0.566 and 0.441 respectively. MLEE (DI = 0.98 was more discriminatory and clustered Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A strains into four groups, while MLRT (DI = 0.77 identified two distinct groups. BURST (Based Upon Related Sequence Types analysis of the MLRT data suggested aquatic serotype O:6,30-6,31 isolates to be the ancestral strains from which, clinical O:6,30-6,31 strains might have originated by host adaptation and genetic change. Conclusion MLEE revealed greater genetic diversity among strains of Y. enterocolitica biovar 1A and clustered strains in four groups, while MLRT grouped the strains into two groups. BURST analysis of MLRT data nevertheless provided newer insights into the probable evolution of clinical strains from aquatic strains.

  5. Genetic relationships among wild and cultivated accessions of curry leaf plant (Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng.), as revealed by DNA fingerprinting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sushma; Rana, T S

    2013-02-01

    Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng. (Rutaceae), is an aromatic plant and much valued for its flavor, nutritive and medicinal properties. In this study, three DNA fingerprinting methods viz., random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD), directed amplification of minisatellite DNA (DAMD), and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR), were used to unravel the genetic variability and relationships across 92 wild and cultivated M. koenigii accessions. A total of 310, 102, and 184, DNA fragments were amplified using 20 RAPD, 5 DAMD, and 13 ISSR primers, revealing 95.80, 96.07, and 96.73% polymorphism, respectively, across all accessions. The average polymorphic information content value obtained with RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers was 0.244, 0.250, and 0.281, respectively. The UPGMA tree, based on Jaccard's similarity coefficient generated from the cumulative (RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR) band data showed two distinct clusters, clearly separating wild and cultivated accessions in the dendrogram. Percentage polymorphism, gene diversity (H), and Shannon information index (I) estimates were higher in cultivated accessions compared to wild accessions. The overall high level of polymorphism and varied range of genetic distances revealed a wide genetic base in M. koenigii accessions. The study suggests that RAPD, DAMD, and ISSR markers are highly useful to unravel the genetic variability in wild and cultivated accessions of M. koenigii.

  6. 4D-CT scans reveal reduced magnitude of respiratory liver motion achieved by different abdominal compression plate positions in patients with intrahepatic tumors undergoing helical tomotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Yong, E-mail: hu.yong@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Zhou, Yong-Kang, E-mail: zhouyk2009@163.com; Chen, Yi-Xing, E-mail: chen.yixing@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Shi, Shi-Ming, E-mail: shiming32@126.com; Zeng, Zhao-Chong, E-mail: zeng.zhaochong@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, 180 Feng Lin Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: While abdominal compression (AC) can be used to reduce respiratory liver motion in patients receiving helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma, the nature and extent of this effect is not well described. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in magnitude of three-dimensional liver motion with abdominal compression using four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) images of several plate positions. Methods: From January 2012 to October 2015, 72 patients with intrahepatic carcinoma and divided into four groups underwent 4D-CT scans to assess respiratory liver motion. Of the 72 patients, 19 underwent abdominal compression of the cephalic area between the subxiphoid and umbilicus (group A), 16 underwent abdominal compression of the caudal region between the subxiphoid area and the umbilicus (group B), 11 patients underwent abdominal compression of the caudal umbilicus (group C), and 26 patients remained free breathing (group D). 4D-CT images were sorted into ten-image series, according to the respiratory phase from the end inspiration to the end expiration, and then transferred to treatment planning software. All liver contours were drawn by a single physician and confirmed by a second physician. Liver relative coordinates were automatically generated to calculate the liver respiratory motion in different axial directions to compile the 10 ten contours into a single composite image. Differences in respiratory liver motion were assessed with a one-way analysis of variance test of significance. Results: The average respiratory liver motion in the Y axial direction was 4.53 ± 1.16, 7.56 ± 1.30, 9.95 ± 2.32, and 9.53 ± 2.62 mm in groups A, B, C, and D, respectively, with a significant change among the four groups (p < 0.001). Abdominal compression was most effective in group A (compression plate on the subxiphoid area), with liver displacement being 2.53 ± 0.93, 4.53 ± 1.16, and 2.14 ± 0.92 mm on the X-, Y-, and Z

  7. Revisiting the Housing-Health Relationship for HIV-Positive Persons: Qualitative Evidence From the Lower Manya Krobo District, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teye-Kau, Mabel; Tenkorang, Eric Y; Adjei, Paul B

    2018-03-01

    The relationship between housing and HIV infection is complex. On one hand, poor housing arrangements may affect the health of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs). On the other hand, PLWHAs may be more likely to live in substandard homes because of their health. We used qualitative in-depth individual interviews of 38 PLWHAs attending voluntary counseling services at two government hospitals in the Lower Manya Krobo District (LMKD) in the Eastern region of Ghana to examine their housing and health outcomes. Results show that the majority of PLWHAs lived in homes that lacked basic amenities, were overcrowded, had structural deficiencies, and were noisy and dirty. They suffered from poor housing conditions mainly because of their HIV serostatus, as this affected their ability to finance adequate homes, while HIV-related stigmatization led to eviction from either family homes or rented facilities.

  8. Is there a relationship between the playing position of soccer players and their food and macronutrient intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo; García, Angela; García-Zapico, Pedro; Pérez-Landaluce, Javier; Patterson, Angeles M; García-Rovés, Pablo Miguel

    2012-04-01

    Many authors have proposed the necessity of the design and implementation of dietary and nutrition education programs for soccer players, although little information is available about the determinants of food selection and nutrient intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional intake and eating patterns of soccer players according to their playing position in the team. Eighty-seven young male soccer players (aged 16-21 years) were recruited from the junior teams of a Spanish First Division Soccer League Club and divided into 6 positional categories (goalkeepers, full-backs, centre-backs, midfielders, wingers, and forwards). Body composition (height, weight, and body fat), performance in soccer-specific tests (jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance), and dietary intake (weighed food intake method) were assessed. A spontaneous higher carbohydrate intake was observed for full-backs, midfielders, and wingers (g·kg(-1) body mass: 4.9 ± 1.0, 4.9 ± 1.3, 4.9 ± 0.8; % of energy intake: 47 ± 5, 46 ± 6, 46 ± 4), compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (g·kg(-1) of body mass: 3.9 ± 1.0, 4.3 ± 1.1; % of energy intake: 44 ± 3, 42 ± 4). These differences were related to food selection patterns, and a higher contribution to daily energy intake of cereals, derivatives, and potatoes was observed between full-backs compared with goalkeepers and centre-backs (33% vs. 27% and 25%). The magnitude of these differences is limited considering the whole diet, and an inadequate nutrient intake were observed in most individuals of every group. The design and implementation of nutrition intervention programs, taking into consideration positional differences in nutritional intake, would be useful for these players.

  9. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  10. Mathematics revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, Elizabeth

    1979-01-01

    Mathematics Revealed focuses on the principles, processes, operations, and exercises in mathematics.The book first offers information on whole numbers, fractions, and decimals and percents. Discussions focus on measuring length, percent, decimals, numbers as products, addition and subtraction of fractions, mixed numbers and ratios, division of fractions, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. The text then examines positive and negative numbers and powers and computation. Topics include division and averages, multiplication, ratios, and measurements, scientific notation and estim

  11. Child Perfectionism and its Relationship with Personality, Excessive Parental Demands, Depressive Symptoms and Experience of Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Laura B; Iuorno, Ornella; Serppe, Mónica

    2017-02-13

    While adaptive perfectionism ensures good overall performance, maladaptive perfectionism is associated with emotional disorders for which psychological treatment is sought. There are many factors that can explain the development of this disorder throughout childhood. The present study analyzed to what extent the child's personality traits and excessive parental demands can predict maladaptive perfectionism, and, in turn, also analyzed how this relates to positive emotions and depressive symptoms in a sample of 404 Argentinian children (M age = 10.30; SD = 1.03). Stepwise multiple regression analyses and Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were performed. Results showed that excessive parental demands, together with high child neuroticism increased the likelihood of developing perfectionism (p children's mental health.

  12. Culture-positive Pediatric Tuberculosis in Toronto, Ontario: Sources of Infection and Relationship of Birthplace and Mycobacterial Lineage to Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayment, Jonathan H; Guthrie, Jennifer L; Lam, Karen; Whelan, Michael; Lee, Brenda; Jamieson, Frances B; Kitai, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Few data relate Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lineage and disease phenotype in the pediatric population or examine the contribution of travel to the tuberculosis (TB)-endemic country in North America. We examined clinical, demographic and Mtb genotype data from patients with TB who were treated in Toronto between 2002 and 2012. Consecutive Mtb culture-positive, pediatric patients were included. Clinical data were collected from a prospectively populated clinical database. Mtb case isolate genotypes were identified using Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Units-Variable Number Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) and spoligotyping and were categorized into phylogeographic lineages for analysis. The 77 patients included 30.4% of all culture-positive pediatric TB cases in Ontario from 2002 to 2012. Seventy-six (99%) patients were first or second generation Canadians. Foreign-born patients were more likely to have extrathoracic disease [odds ratios (OR) = 3.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-8.71; P < 0.05] and less likely to have a genotype match in the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database [OR = 0.32 (95% CI: 0.11-0.90); P < 0.05] than Canadian-born patients. For those without a known TB contact, Canadian-born patients were more likely to have travelled to a TB-endemic country [OR = 13.0 (95% CI: 2.5-78.5); P < 0.001]. Extrathoracic disease was less likely in patients infected with the East Asian Mtb lineage [OR = 0.1 (95% CI: 0.01-0.9); P < 0.05] and more likely in those infected with the Indo-Oceanic Mtb lineage [OR = 5.4 (95% CI: 1.5-19.2); P < 0.05]. Travel to TB-endemic countries likely plays an important part in the etiology of pediatric TB infection and disease, especially in Canadian-born children. Mtb lineage seems to contribute to disease phenotype in children as it has been described in adults.

  13. More than Resisting Temptation: Beneficial Habits Mediate the Relationship between Self-Control and Positive Life Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M.; Duckworth, Angela L.

    2015-01-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across six studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a five-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits three months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and two objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits--perhaps more so than effortful inhibition--are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. PMID:25643222

  14. More than resisting temptation: Beneficial habits mediate the relationship between self-control and positive life outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galla, Brian M; Duckworth, Angela L

    2015-09-01

    Why does self-control predict such a wide array of positive life outcomes? Conventional wisdom holds that self-control is used to effortfully inhibit maladaptive impulses, yet this view conflicts with emerging evidence that self-control is associated with less inhibition in daily life. We propose that one of the reasons individuals with better self-control use less effortful inhibition, yet make better progress on their goals is that they rely on beneficial habits. Across 6 studies (total N = 2,274), we found support for this hypothesis. In Study 1, habits for eating healthy snacks, exercising, and getting consistent sleep mediated the effect of self-control on both increased automaticity and lower reported effortful inhibition in enacting those behaviors. In Studies 2 and 3, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on reduced motivational interference during a work-leisure conflict and on greater ability to study even under difficult circumstances. In Study 4, homework habits mediated the effect of self-control on classroom engagement and homework completion. Study 5 was a prospective longitudinal study of teenage youth who participated in a 5-day meditation retreat. Better self-control before the retreat predicted stronger meditation habits 3 months after the retreat, and habits mediated the effect of self-control on successfully accomplishing meditation practice goals. Finally, in Study 6, study habits mediated the effect of self-control on homework completion and 2 objectively measured long-term academic outcomes: grade point average and first-year college persistence. Collectively, these results suggest that beneficial habits-perhaps more so than effortful inhibition-are an important factor linking self-control with positive life outcomes. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. An assessment of the EU-Chinese bilateral relationship under the current economic and geostrategic context. Romania's position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulia Monica Oehler-Şincai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available China stands out as a rising economic power. Its leap in international hierarchies is remarkable both in terms of GDP, international trade and investment flows and qualitative indicators. Based on these developments, China is increasingly assertive, both regionally and internationally. At the global level, China's assertiveness is revealed by the largest project ever launched by a single country: One Belt, One Road (OBOR. It represents "a strategic priority" of the Chinese leaders, motivated by economic and geopolitical factors, internal and external determinants. This initiative includes cooperation with over 70 countries and international organizations from Asia to Europe and Africa. At the same time, it involves growing coordination among the countries in terms of policies, increasing financial integration, promoting trade and investment, fostering connectivity through infrastructure projects, and encouraging the movement of people and cultural exchanges. This initiative, as well as the platform for cooperation with 16 countries in Central and Eastern Europe (16+1 have opened on the one hand new ways of enhancing the bilateral EU-China, but on the other hand an unjustified competition between EU countries for financial resources Chinese, although the EU-China strategic partnership, OBOR and 16+1 can benefit all countries involved, given their competitive advantages. Romania, as a member country of the EU and participant at the platform 16+1 should take into account both such new opportunities and the need for an active cooperation with all countries.

  16. Phylogeny and systematic position of Opiliones: a combined analysis of chelicerate relationships using morphological and molecular data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Edgecombe, Gregory D.; Wheeler, Ward C.; Babbitt, Courtney

    2002-01-01

    The ordinal level phylogeny of the Arachnida and the suprafamilial level phylogeny of the Opiliones were studied on the basis of a combined analysis of 253 morphological characters, the complete sequence of the 18S rRNA gene, and the D3 region of the 28S rRNA gene. Molecular data were collected for 63 terminal taxa. Morphological data were collected for 35 exemplar taxa of Opiliones, but groundplans were applied to some of the remaining chelicerate groups. Six extinct terminals, including Paleozoic scorpions, are scored for morphological characters. The data were analyzed using strict parsimony for the morphological data matrix and via direct optimization for the molecular and combined data matrices. A sensitivity analysis of 15 parameter sets was undertaken, and character congruence was used as the optimality criterion to choose among competing hypotheses. The results obtained are unstable for the high-level chelicerate relationships (except for Tetrapulmonata, Pedipalpi, and Camarostomata), and the sister group of the Opiliones is not clearly established, although the monophyly of Dromopoda is supported under many parameter sets. However, the internal phylogeny of the Opiliones is robust to parameter choice and allows the discarding of previous hypotheses of opilionid phylogeny such as the "Cyphopalpatores" or "Palpatores." The topology obtained is congruent with the previous hypothesis of "Palpatores" paraphyly as follows: (Cyphophthalmi (Eupnoi (Dyspnoi + Laniatores))). Resolution within the Eupnoi, Dyspnoi, and Laniatores (the latter two united as Dyspnolaniatores nov.) is also stable to the superfamily level, permitting a new classification system for the Opiliones. c2002 The Willi Hennig Society.

  17. Relationship between positive self-recognition of maternal role and psychosocial factors in Japanese mothers with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Rie; Kamibeppu, Kiyoko

    2011-10-01

    Mothers with mental illness have positive self-recognition of maternal role (PM), and it is important for parenting. The purpose of this study was to determine the psychosocial factors related to the PM. We recruited a total of 74 women diagnosed as having schizophrenia or mood disorders according to the DSM-IV-TR and who had minor children. Participant completed devaluation-discrimination measure, The social support questionnaire, self-efficacy for community life scale (SECL), parenting stress-short form scale (PS-SF), and Acceptance of maternal role scale. To identify factors predicting the PM, we utilized hierarchical regression analysis. The variables in all blocks explained 53% of the variance in the PM. In the final model, 'hard' living conditions (β = -0.31, P < 0.05), SECL (β = 0.34, P < 0.01) and PS-SF (β = -0.45, P < 0.01) were significant predictors of the PM. Our result indicates that psychosocial approach could enhance the PM.

  18. Systematic analysis of immune infiltrates in high-grade serous ovarian cancer reveals CD20, FoxP3 and TIA-1 as positive prognostic factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katy Milne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating T cells are associated with survival in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC, but their functional status is poorly understood, especially relative to the different risk categories and histological subtypes of EOC. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tissue microarrays containing high-grade serous, endometrioid, mucinous and clear cell tumors were analyzed immunohistochemically for the presence of lymphocytes, dendritic cells, neutrophils, macrophages, MHC class I and II, and various markers of activation and inflammation. In high-grade serous tumors from optimally debulked patients, positive associations were seen between intraepithelial cells expressing CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45RO, CD25, TIA-1, Granzyme B, FoxP3, CD20, and CD68, as well as expression of MHC class I and II by tumor cells. Disease-specific survival was positively associated with the markers CD8, CD3, FoxP3, TIA-1, CD20, MHC class I and class II. In other histological subtypes, immune infiltrates were less prevalent, and the only markers associated with survival were MHC class II (positive association in endometrioid cases and myeloperoxidase (negative association in clear cell cases. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host immune responses to EOC vary widely according to histological subtype and the extent of residual disease. TIA-1, FoxP3 and CD20 emerge as new positive prognostic factors in high-grade serous EOC from optimally debulked patients.

  19. Comparative activity of tigecycline and tetracycline on Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria revealed by a multicentre study in four North European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Lennart E; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Vaara, Martti

    2011-01-01

    This study involves a multicentre surveillance of tigecycline and tetracycline activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria from primary care centres (PCCs), general hospital wards (GHWs) and intensive care units (ICUs) in Denmark (n = 9), Finland (n = 10), Norway (n = 7) and Sweden (n...

  20. The relationship between BMI and insulin resistance and progression from single to multiple autoantibody positivity and type 1 diabetes among TrialNet Pathway to Prevention participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meah, Farah A; DiMeglio, Linda A; Greenbaum, Carla J; Blum, Janice S; Sosenko, Jay M; Pugliese, Alberto; Geyer, Susan; Xu, Ping; Evans-Molina, Carmella

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes is increasing at a rate of 3-5% per year. Genetics cannot fully account for this trend, suggesting an influence of environmental factors. The accelerator hypothesis proposes an effect of metabolic factors on type 1 diabetes risk. To test this in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention (PTP) cohort, we analysed the influence of BMI, weight status and insulin resistance on progression from single to multiple islet autoantibodies (Aab) and progression from normoglycaemia to diabetes. HOMA1-IR was used to estimate insulin resistance in Aab-positive PTP participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the effects of BMI, BMI percentile (BMI%), weight status and HOMA1-IR on the progression of autoimmunity or the development of diabetes. Data from 1,310 single and 1,897 multiple Aab-positive PTP participants were included. We found no significant relationships between BMI, BMI%, weight status or HOMA1-IR and the progression from one to multiple Aabs. Similarly, among all Aab-positive participants, no significant relationships were found between BMI, weight status or HOMA1-IR and progression to diabetes. Diabetes risk was modestly increased with increasing BMI% among the entire cohort, in obese participants 13-20 years of age and with increasing HOMA1-IR in adult Aab-positive participants. Analysis of the accelerator hypothesis in the TrialNet PTP cohort does not suggest a broad influence of metabolic variables on diabetes risk. Efforts to identify other potentially modifiable environmental factors should continue.

  1. Examining the relationships between posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, and cigarette smoking in people with substance use disorders: a multiple mediator model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruska, Bryce; Bernier, Jennifer; Kenner, Frank; Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Richardson, Christopher J; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in people with substance use disorders (SUDs) and is associated with significant physical health problems. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is also highly associated with both SUDs and cigarette smoking and may serve as a barrier to smoking cessation efforts. In addition, people with PTSD are more likely to hold positive smoking outcome expectancies (i.e., beliefs that smoking cigarettes results in positive outcomes); these beliefs may contribute to cigarette smoking in people with SUDs experiencing PTSD symptoms. The present study examined the relationship between PTSD symptoms and typical daily cigarette smoking/cigarette dependence symptoms in a sample of 227 trauma-exposed current smokers with SUDs (59.9% male, 89.4% Caucasian) seeking detoxification treatment services. Additionally, the indirect effects of multiple types of positive smoking outcome expectancies on these relationships were examined. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, positive smoking outcome expectancies, cigarette consumption, and cigarette dependence symptoms. Results indicated that PTSD symptoms were not directly related to cigarette consumption or cigarette dependence symptoms. However, negative affect reduction outcome expectancies were shown to have a significant indirect effect between PTSD symptoms and cigarette consumption, while negative affect reduction, boredom reduction, and taste-sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies were all found to have significant indirect effects between PTSD symptoms and cigarette dependence symptoms. The indirect effect involving negative affect reduction outcome expectancies was statistically larger than that of taste sensorimotor manipulation outcome expectancies, while negative affect reduction and boredom reduction outcome expectancies were comparable in magnitude. These results suggest that expectancies that smoking can manage negative affective experiences are related to

  2. Diversity of 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS reveals phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-neighbors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Liguori

    Full Text Available Length polymorphisms within the 16S-23S ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS have been described as stable genetic markers for studying bacterial phylogenetics. In this study, we used these genetic markers to investigate phylogenetic relationships in Burkholderia pseudomallei and its near-relative species. B. pseudomallei is known as one of the most genetically recombined bacterial species. In silico analysis of multiple B. pseudomallei genomes revealed approximately four homologous rRNA operons and ITS length polymorphisms therein. We characterized ITS distribution using PCR and analyzed via a high-throughput capillary electrophoresis in 1,191 B. pseudomallei strains. Three major ITS types were identified, two of which were commonly found in most B. pseudomallei strains from the endemic areas, whereas the third one was significantly correlated with worldwide sporadic strains. Interestingly, mixtures of the two common ITS types were observed within the same strains, and at a greater incidence in Thailand than Australia suggesting that genetic recombination causes the ITS variation within species, with greater recombination frequency in Thailand. In addition, the B. mallei ITS type was common to B. pseudomallei, providing further support that B. mallei is a clone of B. pseudomallei. Other B. pseudomallei near-neighbors possessed unique and monomorphic ITS types. Our data shed light on evolutionary patterns of B. pseudomallei and its near relative species.

  3. Molecular identification of Anaplasma marginale in two autochthonous South American wild species revealed an identical new genotype and its phylogenetic relationship with those of bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemi, Eliana C; de la Fourniere, Sofía; Orozco, Marcela; Peña Martinez, Jorge; Correa, Elena; Fernandez, Javier; Lopez Arias, Ludmila; Paoletta, Martina; Corona, Belkis; Pinarello, Valérie; Wilkowsky, Silvina E; Farber, Marisa D

    2016-05-26

    Anaplasma marginale is a well-known cattle pathogen of tropical and subtropical world regions. Even though, this obligate intracellular bacterium has been reported in other host species different than bovine, it has never been documented in Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater) or Hippocamelus antisense (taruca), which are two native endangered species. Samples from two sick wild animals: a Myrmecophaga tridactyla (blood) and a Hippocamelus antisense (blood and serum) were studied for the presence of A. marginale DNA through msp5 gene fragment amplification. Further characterization was done through MSP1a tandem repeats analysis and MLST scheme and the genetic relationship among previously characterized A. marginale sequences were studied by applying, eBURST algorithm and AMOVA analysis. Anaplasma marginale DNA was identified in the Myrmecophaga tridactyla and Hippocamelus antisense samples. Through molecular markers, we identified an identical genotype in both animals that was not previously reported in bovine host. The analysis through eBURST and AMOVA revealed no differentiation between the taruca/anteater isolate and the bovine group. In the present publication we report the identification of A. marginale DNA in a novel ruminant (Hippocamelus antisense) and non-ruminant (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) host species. Genotyping analysis of isolates demonstrated the close relatedness of the new isolate with the circulation population of A. marginale in livestock. Further analysis is needed to understand whether these two hosts contribute to the anaplasmosis epidemiology.

  4. Synthesis and evaluation of 8,4'-dideshydroxy-leinamycin revealing new insights into the structure-activity relationship of the anticancer natural product leinamycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Ming; Ge, Hui-Ming; Yang, Chunying; Cleveland, John; Shen, Ben

    2015-11-01

    Leinamycin (LNM, 1) is a novel antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces atroolivaceus S-140 and features an unusual 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety that is spiro-fused to a thiazole-containing 18-membered lactam ring. The 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety of LNM is essential for its antitumor activity via an episulfonium ion-mediated DNA alkylation upon reductive activation in the presence of cellular thiols. We recently isolated leinamycin E1 (LNM E1, 2) from an engineered strain S. atroolivaceus SB3033, which lacks the 1,3-dioxo-1,2-dithiolane moiety. Here we report the chemical synthesis of 8,4'-dideshydroxy-LNM (5) from 2 and determination of the cytotoxicity of 5 against selected cancer cell lines in comparison with 1; 5 exhibits comparable activity as 1 with the EC50 values between 8.21 and 275 nM. This work reveals new insight into the structure-activity relationship of LNM and highlights the synergy between metabolic pathway engineering and medicinal chemistry for natural product drug discovery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genomic Characterization of Variable Surface Antigens Reveals a Telomere Position Effect as a Prerequisite for RNA Interference-Mediated Silencing in Paramecium tetraurelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranasic, Damir; Oppermann, Timo; Cheaib, Miriam; Cullum, John; Schmidt, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Antigenic or phenotypic variation is a widespread phenomenon of expression of variable surface protein coats on eukaryotic microbes. To clarify the mechanism behind mutually exclusive gene expression, we characterized the genetic properties of the surface antigen multigene family in the ciliate Paramecium tetraurelia and the epigenetic factors controlling expression and silencing. Genome analysis indicated that the multigene family consists of intrachromosomal and subtelomeric genes; both classes apparently derive from different gene duplication events: whole-genome and intrachromosomal duplication. Expression analysis provides evidence for telomere position effects, because only subtelomeric genes follow mutually exclusive transcription. Microarray analysis of cultures deficient in Rdr3, an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, in comparison to serotype-pure wild-type cultures, shows cotranscription of a subset of subtelomeric genes, indicating that the telomere position effect is due to a selective occurrence of Rdr3-mediated silencing in subtelomeric regions. We present a model of surface antigen evolution by intrachromosomal gene duplication involving the maintenance of positive selection of structurally relevant regions. Further analysis of chromosome heterogeneity shows that alternative telomere addition regions clearly affect transcription of closely related genes. Consequently, chromosome fragmentation appears to be of crucial importance for surface antigen expression and evolution. Our data suggest that RNAi-mediated control of this genetic network by trans-acting RNAs allows rapid epigenetic adaptation by phenotypic variation in combination with long-term genetic adaptation by Darwinian evolution of antigen genes. PMID:25389173

  6. The Dynamic Relationship Between Cognitive Function and Positive Well-Being in Older People: A Prospective Study Using the English Longitudinal Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    There is evidence that having a stronger sense of positive well-being may be a potential resource for healthier aging as represented by slower physical decline, reduced risk of frailty and longer survival. However, it is unclear whether positive well-being is protective of another crucial component of healthy aging, cognitive function, or whether it has a bidirectional relationship with cognitive function. We use multilevel models with within-person centering to estimate the within- and between-person association between cognitive function and positive well-being in 4 waves of data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), (N = 10985, aged 50–90 years at wave 1). Our findings show that, although most variation in cognitive function was explained by age, and most variation in well-being was explained by depression, small but significant associations between cognition and well-being remained after variation in age and depression were controlled. In models where cognition was the outcome, the association was mainly because of variation in mean levels of well-being between persons. In models where well-being was the outcome, the association was mainly because of within-person fluctuation in cognitive test performance. Exercise and depression were the most important moderating influences on the association between cognition and positive well-being. Depression had greater effect upon this association for those with higher well-being, but exercise protected cognitive performance against the adverse effects of lower well-being. PMID:24955999

  7. Positioning consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkier, Bente; Keller, Margit

    2014-01-01

    positionings emerges based on empirical examples of research in parent–children consumption. Positionings are flexible discursive fixations of the relationship between the performances of the practitioner, other practitioners, media discourse and consumption activities. The basic positioning types...... are the practice maintenance and the practice change position, with different sorts of adapting in between. Media discourse can become a resource for a resistant position against social control or for an appropriating position in favour of space for action. Regardless of the current relation to a particular media......This article analyses the ways in which media discourses become a part of contested consumption activities. We apply a positioning perspective with practice theory to focus on how practitioners relate to media discourse as a symbolic resource in their everyday practices. A typology of performance...

  8. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chantana, J.; Minemoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K.

    2013-01-01

    Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V OC ) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V OC before solar cell fabrication

  9. Conserved intron positions in FGFR genes reflect the modular structure of FGFR and reveal stepwise addition of domains to an already complex ancestral FGFR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebscher, Nicole; Deichmann, Christina; Sudhop, Stefanie; Fritzenwanker, Jens Holger; Green, Stephen; Hassel, Monika

    2009-10-01

    We have analyzed the evolution of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) tyrosine kinase genes throughout a wide range of animal phyla. No evidence for an FGFR gene was found in Porifera, but we tentatively identified an FGFR gene in the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens. The gene encodes a protein with three immunoglobulin-like domains, a single-pass transmembrane, and a split tyrosine kinase domain. By superimposing intron positions of 20 FGFR genes from Placozoa, Cnidaria, Protostomia, and Deuterostomia over the respective protein domain structure, we identified ten ancestral introns and three conserved intron groups. Our analysis shows (1) that the position of ancestral introns correlates to the modular structure of FGFRs, (2) that the acidic domain very likely evolved in the last common ancestor of triploblasts, (3) that splicing of IgIII was enabled by a triploblast-specific insertion, and (4) that IgI is subject to substantial loss or duplication particularly in quickly evolving genomes. Moreover, intron positions in the catalytic domain of FGFRs map to the borders of protein subdomains highly conserved in other serine/threonine kinases. Nevertheless, these introns were introduced in metazoan receptor tyrosine kinases exclusively. Our data support the view that protein evolution dating back to the Cambrian explosion took place in such a short time window that only subtle changes in the domain structure are detectable in extant representatives of animal phyla. We propose that the first multidomain FGFR originated in the last common ancestor of Placozoa, Cnidaria, and Bilateria. Additional domains were introduced mainly in the ancestor of triploblasts and in the Ecdysozoa.

  10. Intraspecific Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Are Revealed by ITS1 Secondary Structure Analysis and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Haisheng; Chen, Zhou; Tan, Xiaoyan; Hu, Jing; Yang, Bin; Sun, Junshe

    2017-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum is a typical polypore fungus used for traditional Chinese medical purposes. The taxonomic delimitation of Ganoderma lucidum is still debated. In this study, we sequenced seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of Ganoderma lucidum strains and annotated the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 differentiated the strains into three geographic groups. Groups 1–3 were originated from Europe, tropical Asia, and eastern Asia, respectively. While ITS2 could only differentiate the strains into two groups in which Group 2 originated from tropical Asia gathered with Groups 1 and 3 originated from Europe and eastern Asia. By determining the secondary structures of the ITS1 sequences, these three groups exhibited similar structures with a conserved central core and differed helices. While compared to Group 2, Groups 1 and 3 of ITS2 sequences shared similar structures with the difference in helix 4. Large-scale evaluation of ITS1 and ITS2 both exhibited that the majority of subgroups in the same group shared the similar structures. Further Weblogo analysis of ITS1 sequences revealed two main variable regions located in helix 2 in which C/T or A/G substitutions frequently occurred and ITS1 exhibited more nucleotide variances compared to ITS2. ITS1 multi-alignment of seven spawn strains and culture tests indicated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) site at position 180 correlated with strain antagonism. The HZ, TK and 203 fusion strains of Ganoderma lucidum had a T at position 180, whereas other strains exhibiting antagonism, including DB, RB, JQ, and YS, had a C. Taken together, compared to ITS2 region, ITS1 region could differentiated Ganoderma lucidum into three geographic originations based on phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction. Besides, a SNP in ITS 1 could delineate Ganoderma lucidum strains at the intraspecific level. These findings will be implemented to improve species quality control in the

  11. Intraspecific Variation and Phylogenetic Relationships Are Revealed by ITS1 Secondary Structure Analysis and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism in Ganoderma lucidum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuqing Zhang

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum is a typical polypore fungus used for traditional Chinese medical purposes. The taxonomic delimitation of Ganoderma lucidum is still debated. In this study, we sequenced seven internal transcribed spacer (ITS sequences of Ganoderma lucidum strains and annotated the ITS1 and ITS2 regions. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS1 differentiated the strains into three geographic groups. Groups 1-3 were originated from Europe, tropical Asia, and eastern Asia, respectively. While ITS2 could only differentiate the strains into two groups in which Group 2 originated from tropical Asia gathered with Groups 1 and 3 originated from Europe and eastern Asia. By determining the secondary structures of the ITS1 sequences, these three groups exhibited similar structures with a conserved central core and differed helices. While compared to Group 2, Groups 1 and 3 of ITS2 sequences shared similar structures with the difference in helix 4. Large-scale evaluation of ITS1 and ITS2 both exhibited that the majority of subgroups in the same group shared the similar structures. Further Weblogo analysis of ITS1 sequences revealed two main variable regions located in helix 2 in which C/T or A/G substitutions frequently occurred and ITS1 exhibited more nucleotide variances compared to ITS2. ITS1 multi-alignment of seven spawn strains and culture tests indicated that a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP site at position 180 correlated with strain antagonism. The HZ, TK and 203 fusion strains of Ganoderma lucidum had a T at position 180, whereas other strains exhibiting antagonism, including DB, RB, JQ, and YS, had a C. Taken together, compared to ITS2 region, ITS1 region could differentiated Ganoderma lucidum into three geographic originations based on phylogenetic analysis and secondary structure prediction. Besides, a SNP in ITS 1 could delineate Ganoderma lucidum strains at the intraspecific level. These findings will be implemented to improve species quality

  12. Relationship Between the Menstrual Cycle and Timing of Ovulation Revealed by New Protocols: Analysis of Data from a Self-Tracking Health App.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohda, Satoshi; Suzuki, Kenta; Igari, Ichiro

    2017-11-27

    There are many mobile phone apps aimed at helping women map their ovulation and menstrual cycles and facilitating successful conception (or avoiding pregnancy). These apps usually ask users to input various biological features and have accumulated the menstrual cycle data of a vast number of women. The purpose of our study was to clarify how the data obtained from a self-tracking health app for female mobile phone users can be used to improve the accuracy of prediction of the date of next ovulation. Using the data of 7043 women who had reliable menstrual and ovulation records out of 8,000,000 users of a mobile phone app of a health care service, we analyzed the relationship between the menstrual cycle length, follicular phase length, and luteal phase length. Then we fitted a linear function to the relationship between the length of the menstrual cycle and timing of ovulation and compared it with the existing calendar-based methods. The correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the follicular phase was stronger than the correlation between the length of the menstrual cycle and the length of the luteal phase, and there was a positive correlation between the lengths of past and future menstrual cycles. A strong positive correlation was also found between the mean length of past cycles and the length of the follicular phase. The correlation between the mean cycle length and the luteal phase length was also statistically significant. In most of the subjects, our method (ie, the calendar-based method based on the optimized function) outperformed the Ogino method of predicting the next ovulation date. Our method also outperformed the ovulation date prediction method that assumes the middle day of a mean menstrual cycle as the date of the next ovulation. The large number of subjects allowed us to capture the relationships between the lengths of the menstrual cycle, follicular phase, and luteal phase in more detail than previous studies. We

  13. Biomarker screening of oral cancer cell lines revealed sub-populations of CD133-, CD44-, CD24- and ALDH1- positive cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendall K

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC ranks sixth worldwide for cancer-related mortality. For the past several decades the mainstay of treatment for HNSCC has been surgery and external beam radiation, although more recent trials combining chemotherapy and radiation have demonstrated improvements. However, cancer recurrence and treatment failures continue to occur in a significant percentage of patients. Recent advances in tumor biology have led to the discovery that many cancers, including HNSCC, may contain subpopulations of cells with stem cell-like properties that may explain relapse and recurrence. The objective of this study was to screen existing oral cancer cell lines for biomarkers specific for cells with stem cell-like properties. RNA was isolated for RT-PCR screening using primers for specific mRNA of the biomarkers: CD44, CD24, CD133, NANOG, Nestin, ALDH1, and ABCG2 in CAL27, SCC25 and SCC15 cells. This analysis revealed that some oral cancer cell lines (CAL27 and SCC25 may contain small subpopulations of adhesion- and contact-independent cells (AiDC that also express tumor stem cell markers, including CD44, CD133, and CD24. In addition, CAL27 cells also expressed the intracellular tumor stem cell markers, ALDH1 and ABCG2. Isolation and culture of the adhesion- and contact-independent cells from CAL27 and SCC25 populations revealed differential proliferation rates and more robust inhibition by the MEK inhibitor PD98059, as well as the chemotherapeutic agents Cisplatin and Paclitaxel, within the AiDC CAL27 cells. At least one oral cancer cell line (CAL27 contained subpopulations of cells that express specific biomarkers associated with tumor stem cells which were morphologically and phenotypically distinct from other cells within this cell line.

  14. Integrated in silico Analyses of Regulatory and Metabolic Networks of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 Reveal Relationships between Gene Centrality and Essentiality

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    Hyun-Seob Song

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cyanobacteria dynamically relay environmental inputs to intracellular adaptations through a coordinated adjustment of photosynthetic efficiency and carbon processing rates. The output of such adaptations is reflected through changes in transcriptional patterns and metabolic flux distributions that ultimately define growth strategy. To address interrelationships between metabolism and regulation, we performed integrative analyses of metabolic and gene co-expression networks in a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002. Centrality analyses using the gene co-expression network identified a set of key genes, which were defined here as “topologically important.” Parallel in silico gene knock-out simulations, using the genome-scale metabolic network, classified what we termed as “functionally important” genes, deletion of which affected growth or metabolism. A strong positive correlation was observed between topologically and functionally important genes. Functionally important genes exhibited variable levels of topological centrality; however, the majority of topologically central genes were found to be functionally essential for growth. Subsequent functional enrichment analysis revealed that both functionally and topologically important genes in Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 are predominantly associated with translation and energy metabolism, two cellular processes critical for growth. This research demonstrates how synergistic network-level analyses can be used for reconciliation of metabolic and gene expression data to uncover fundamental biological principles.

  15. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) reveals a significant expansion of the inverted repeat and phylogenetic relationship with other angiosperms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ji; Yang, Bingxian; Zhu, Wei; Sun, Lianli; Tian, Jingkui; Wang, Xumin

    2013-10-10

    Mahonia bealei (Berberidaceae) is a frequently-used traditional Chinese medicinal plant with efficient anti-inflammatory ability. This plant is one of the sources of berberine, a new cholesterol-lowering drug with anti-diabetic activity. We have sequenced the complete nucleotide sequence of the chloroplast (cp) genome of M. bealei. The complete cp genome of M. bealei is 164,792 bp in length, and has a typical structure with large (LSC 73,052 bp) and small (SSC 18,591 bp) single-copy regions separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs 36,501 bp) of large size. The Mahonia cp genome contains 111 unique genes and 39 genes are duplicated in the IR regions. The gene order and content of M. bealei are almost unarranged which is consistent with the hypothesis that large IRs stabilize cp genome and reduce gene loss-and-gain probabilities during evolutionary process. A large IR expansion of over 12 kb has occurred in M. bealei, 15 genes (rps19, rpl22, rps3, rpl16, rpl14, rps8, infA, rpl36, rps11, petD, petB, psbH, psbN, psbT and psbB) have expanded to have an additional copy in the IRs. The IR expansion rearrangement occurred via a double-strand DNA break and subsequence repair, which is different from the ordinary gene conversion mechanism. Repeat analysis identified 39 direct/inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity ≥ 90%. Analysis also revealed 75 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and almost all are composed of A or T, contributing to a distinct bias in base composition. Comparison of protein-coding sequences with ESTs reveals 9 putative RNA edits and 5 of them resulted in non-synonymous modifications in rpoC1, rps2, rps19 and ycf1. Phylogenetic analysis using maximum parsimony (MP) and maximum likelihood (ML) was performed on a dataset composed of 65 protein-coding genes from 25 taxa, which yields an identical tree topology as previous plastid-based trees, and provides strong support for the sister relationship between Ranunculaceae and Berberidaceae

  16. Analysis of HLA class II haplotypes in the Cayapa indians of ecuador: A novel DRBI allele reveals evidence for convergent evolution and balancing selection at position 86

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    Titus-Trachtenberg, E.A.; Erlich, H. (Roche Molecular Systems, Alameda, CA (United States)); Rickards, O.; De Stefano, G.F. (Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy))

    1994-07-01

    PCR amplification, oligonucleotide probe typing, and sequencing were used to analyze the HLA class II loci (DRB1, DQA1, DAB1, and DPB1) of an isolated South Amerindian tribe. Here the authors report HLA class II variation, including the identification of a new DRB1 allele, several novel DR/DQ haplotypes, and an unusual distribution of DPB1 alleles, among the Cayapa Indians (N=100) of Ecuador. A general reduction of HLA class II allelic variation in the Cayapa is consistent with a population bottleneck during the colonization of the Americas. The new Cayapa DRB1 allele, DRB1[sup *]08042, which arose by a G[yields]T point mutation in the parental DRB1[sup *]0802, contains a novel Val codon (GTT) at position 86. The generation of DRB1[sup *]08042 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 (Gly-86) in the Cayapa, by a different mechanism than the (GT[yields]TG) change in the creation of DRB1[sub *]08041 (Val-86) from DRB1[sup *]0802 in Africa, implicates selection in the convergent evolution of position 86 DR[beta] variants. The DRB1[sup *]08042 allele has not been found in >1,800 Amerindian haplotypes and thus presumably arose after the Cayapa separated from other South American Amerindians. Selection pressure for increased haplotype diversity can be inferred in the generation and maintenance of three new DRB1[sup *]08042 haplotypes and several novel DR/DQ haplotypes in this population. The DPB1 allelic distribution in the Cayapa is also extraordinary, with two alleles, DPB1[sup *]1401, a very rare allele in North American Amerindian populations, and DPB1[sup *]0402, the most common Amerindian DPB1 allele, constituting 89% of the Cayapa DPB1. These data are consistent with the postulated rapid rate of evolution as noted for the class I HLA-B locus of other South American Indians. 34 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Revealing the relationship between the photocatalytic property and structure characteristic of reduced TiO2 by hydrogen and carbon monoxide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunpeng; Li, Yuhang; Yang, Siyuan; Lin, Yuan; Zuo, Jianliang; Liang, Hong; Peng, Feng

    2018-06-04

    The hydrogenation (reduction) has been considered as an effective method to improve the photocatalytic activity of TiO2, however, the underlying relationship between structure and photocatalytic performance has still not been adequately unveiled so far. Herein, to obtain insight into the effect of structure on photocatalytic activity, two types of reduced TiO2 were prepared by CO (CO-TiO2) and H2 (H-TiO2), respectively. For H-TiO2, Ti-H bonds and oxygen vacancies are formed on the surface of H-TiO2, resulting in a more disorder surface lattice. However, for CO-TiO2, the more Ti-OH bonds are formed on the surface and the more bulk oxygen vacancies are introduced, the disorder layer of CO-TiO2 is relatively thin owing to the most of surface vacancies repaired by Ti-OH bonds. Under the simulated solar irradiation, the photocatalytic H2 evolution rate of CO-TiO2 reaches 7.17 mmol g-1 h-1, which is 4.14 and 1.50 times those of TiO2 and H-TiO2, respectively. The photocatalytic degradation rate constant of methyl orange on CO-TiO2 is 2.45 and 6.39 times those on H-TiO2 and TiO2. The superior photocatalytic activity of CO-TiO2 is attributed to the effective separation and transfer of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs, due to the synergistic effects of oxygen vacancies and surface Ti-OH bonds. This study reveals the relation between the photocatalytic property and structure, and provides a new method to prepare highly active TiO2 for H2 production and environmental treatment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Structure-activity relationships for flavone interactions with amyloid β reveal a novel anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Dylan T; Das, Sukanya; Ridell, Jessica; Smid, Scott D

    2017-07-15

    Naturally-occurring flavonoids have well documented anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective properties against the hallmark toxic protein in Alzheimer's disease, amyloid β (Aβ). However the extensive diversity of flavonoids has limited the insight into the precise structure-activity relationships that confer such bioactive properties against the Aβ protein. In the present study we have characterised the Aβ binding properties, anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effects of a discreet set of flavones, including the recently described novel protein sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Quercetin, transilitin, jaceosidin, nobiletin and 2-D08 were incubated with human Aβ 1-42 for 48h in vitro and effects on Aβ fibrillisation kinetics and morphology measured using Thioflavin T (ThT) and electron microscopy respectively, in addition to effects on neuronal PC12 cell viability. Of the flavones studied, only quercetin, transilitin and 2-D08 significantly inhibited Aβ 1-42 aggregation and toxicity in PC12 cells. Of those, 2-D08 was the most effective inhibitor. The strong anti-amyloid activity of 2-D08 indicates that extensive hydroxylation in the B ring is the most important determinant of activity against β amyloid within the flavone scaffold. The lack of efficacy of jaceosidin and nobiletin indicate that extension of B ring hydroxylation with methoxyl groups result in an incremental loss of anti-fibrillar and neuroprotective activity, highlighting the constraint to vicinal hydroxyl groups in the B ring for effective inhibition of aggregation. These findings reveal further structural insights into anti-amyloid bioactivity of flavonoids in addition to a novel and efficacious anti-aggregatory and neuroprotective effect of the semi-synthetic flavone and sumoylation inhibitor 2',3',4'-trihydroxyflavone (2-D08). Such modified flavones may facilitate drug development targeting multiple pathways in neurodegenerative disease. Crown Copyright © 2017

  19. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdin, Edimansyah; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi Ajit; Peh, Chao Xu; Poon, Lye Yin; Rao, Sujatha; Verma, Swapna; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP) and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period. Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling. Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory) for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory) were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders. The results confirm that the symptoms trajectories among

  20. Trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathology symptoms in first episode psychosis and their relationship with functioning over a 2-year follow-up period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edimansyah Abdin

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined the trajectories of symptom severity in first episode psychosis (FEP and their impact on functioning. This study aimed to identify discrete trajectories of positive, negative and general psychopathological symptoms and functioning, determine predictors of the identified symptom trajectories and subsequently investigate the relationship between symptom and functioning trajectories over the 2-year follow-up period.Data were extracted from the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme clinical database. Trajectories of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF scale over the two-year follow up were modelled using latent class growth curve modelling.Two distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory and delayed response trajectory for positive symptoms, four distinct trajectories (early response and stable trajectory, early response and relapse trajectory, slower response and no response trajectory and delayed response trajectory for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and three distinct trajectories for functioning (high functioning trajectory, moderately stable functioning trajectory and deterioration in functioning trajectory were identified in our sample. Compared to individuals in the early response and stable trajectory, those in the delayed response trajectory for positive and negative symptoms, early response and relapse for negative and general psychopathology symptoms and slower response and no response trajectories for general psychopathology symptoms were significantly associated with higher odds of having deterioration in functioning over time. Poor symptom trajectories were also significantly predicted by younger age, male gender, unemployed and economically inactive status, lower education, longer duration of untreated psychosis and diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum and delusional disorders.The results confirm that the symptoms

  1. Subtype Specific Differences in NS5A Domain II Reveals Involvement of Proline at Position 310 in Cyclosporine Susceptibility of Hepatitis C Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr-ul H. Ansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV is susceptible to cyclosporine (CsA and other cyclophilin (CypA inhibitors, but the genetic basis of susceptibility is controversial. Whether genetic variation in NS5A alters cell culture susceptibility of HCV to CypA inhibition is unclear. We constructed replicons containing NS5A chimeras from genotypes 1a, 2a and 4a to test how variation in carboxy terminal regions of NS5A altered the genotype 1b CsA susceptibility. All chimeric replicons including genotype 1b Con1LN-wt replicon exhibited some cell culture sensitivity to CsA with genotype 4a being most sensitive and 1a the least. The CypA binding pattern of truncated NS5A genotypes correlated with the susceptibility of these replicons to CsA. The Con1LN-wt replicon showed increased susceptibility towards CsA when proline at position 310P was mutated to either threonine or alanine. Furthermore, a 15 amino acid long peptide fused N terminally to GFP coding sequences confirmed involvement of proline at 310 in CypA binding. Our findings are consistent with CypA acting on multiple prolines outside of the previously identified CypA binding sites. These results suggest multiple specific genetic variants between genotype 1a and 1b in the C-terminus of NS5A alter the CsA susceptibility of replicons, and some variants may oppose the effects of others.

  2. High sensitivity detection of Plasmodium species reveals positive correlations between infections of different species, shifts in age distribution and reduced local variation in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    demonstrates that application of molecular diagnosis reveals patterns of malaria risk that are significantly different from those obtained by standard LM. Results provide insight relevant to design of malaria control and eradication strategies.

  3. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [Clinton, TN; Kertesz, Vilmos [Knoxville, TN

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  4. Untangling the Relationship Between Antiretroviral Therapy Use and Incident Pregnancy: A Marginal Structural Model Analysis Using Data From 47,313 HIV-Positive Women in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elul, Batya; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara K; Wu, Yingfeng; Musick, Beverly S; Nuwagaba-Biribonwoha, Harriet; Nash, Denis; Ayaya, Samuel; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Okong, Pius; Otieno, Juliana; Wabwire, Deo; Kambugu, Andrew; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T

    2016-07-01

    Scale-up of triple-drug antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Africa has transformed the context of childbearing for HIV-positive women and may impact pregnancy incidence in HIV programs. Using observational data from 47,313 HIV-positive women enrolled at 26 HIV clinics in Kenya and Uganda between 2001 and 2009, we calculated the crude cumulative incidence of pregnancy for the pre-ART and on-ART periods. The causal effect of ART use on incident pregnancy was assessed using inverse probability weighted marginal structural models, and the relationship was further explored in multivariable Cox models. Crude cumulative pregnancy incidence at 1 year after enrollment/ART initiation was 4.0% and 3.9% during the pre-ART and on-ART periods, respectively. In marginal structural models, ART use was not significantly associated with incident pregnancy [hazard ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99 to 1.12]. Similarly, in Cox models, there was no significant relationship between ART use and incident pregnancy (cause-specific hazard ratio: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.05), but effect modification was observed. Specifically, women who were pregnant at enrollment and on ART had an increased risk of incident pregnancy compared to those not pregnant at enrollment and not on ART (cause-specific hazard ratio: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.23). In this large cohort, ART initiation was not associated with incident pregnancy in the general population of women enrolling in HIV care but rather only among those pregnant at enrollment. This finding further highlights the importance of scaling up access to lifelong treatment for pregnant women.

  5. [Relationship between HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers and regulatory T cells in neonates and its influence on HBV intrauterine transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H Y; Yang, Z Q; Xu, X X; Wang, X F; Wang, B; Shi, X H; Fu, Z D; Wang, B; Wang, S P

    2017-10-10

    Objective: To explore the relationship between HBeAg in HBsAg positive mothers and CD(4)(+)CD(25)(+) Foxp3 (+)regulatory T cells (Treg) in newborns, as well as how they would influence the increasing risk on HBV intrauterine transmission. Methods: We collected information on general demographic characteristics and delivery on 270 HBsAg positive mothers and their newborns from the Third People's Hospital of Taiyuan. Fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR) and chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) were used to detect HBV DNA and HBV serological markers in peripheral blood from both mothers and neonates. The expression of Treg and other immune cells in peripheral blood of neonates were detected with flow cytometry (FCM). Results: Maternal HBeAg positive rates were associated with an increased risk of intrauterine transmission ( OR =4.08, 95 %CI : 1.89-8.82). Rates of Treg in newborns born to HBsAg-positive mothers were higher than that of the negative group ( Z =2.29, P =0.022). Each pair of the subjects was assigned to five different groups according to the HBeAg titers of mothers. Frequencies of both Treg and HBeAg in newborns and HBV DNA in mothers between the above said 5 groups showed similar trends of changing patterns and the differences between groups were statistically significant(χ(2)=18.73, P mother's HBeAg titers were positively related to the percentage of Treg in their newborns ( r(s) =0.19, P =0.039). In addition, the frequencies of Treg were negatively correlated with pDC and CD(4)(+) T cell in their newborns ( r(s) =-0.21, P =0.017; r(s) =-0.23, P =0.009). Conclusion: HBeAg from HBsAg positive mothers might have inhibited the function of neonatal DC cells and T cells to reduce the immune response to HBV by up-regulating the proportion of Treg and finally increased the risk of HBV intrauterine transmission.

  6. Social support among HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescents in Umlazi, South Africa: changes in family and partner relationships during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Lauren M; Maman, Suzanne; Groves, Allison K; Moodley, Dhayendre

    2015-05-17

    Pregnancy is common among adolescents in South Africa, yet the social experiences of adolescents during the pregnancy and postpartum period remain understudied in this context. We aimed to explore how adolescent women's discovery and disclosure of both their pregnancy and HIV status affected their relationships with family members and sexual partners, with a particular focus on whether and how support changed throughout this time period. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 15 HIV-positive and HIV-negative adolescent women who were either pregnant or had delivered in the last 18 months from one urban clinic in Umlazi, South Africa. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, and coded for analysis. Young women described stress and instability in their relationships with family and partners during pregnancy and the postpartum period, though prior to and during HIV-status disclosure women generally experienced less stress than in disclosing their pregnancy to family members and partners. After a destabilizing period immediately following pregnancy disclosure, families became and remained the primary source of material and emotional support for the young women. Women discussed heightened closeness with their partners during pregnancy, but few women had close relationships with their partners postpartum. Support experiences did not differ by HIV status. Programs should be aware of the relative importance of pregnancy-related concerns over HIV-related concerns in this population of young women. Engaging family members is critical in ensuring social support for this population of young pregnant women, and in encouraging timely initiation of antenatal care.

  7. Automatic affective-motivational regulation processes underlying supportive dyadic coping: the role of increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals in response to a stressed relationship partner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koranyi, Nicolas; Hilpert, Peter; Job, Veronika; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-09-01

    We examined the implicit affective mechanisms underlying provision of support in intimate dyads. Specifically, we hypothesized that in individuals with high relationship satisfaction, the perception that one's partner is stressed leads to increased implicit positive attitudes toward communal goals. In turn, this change in implicit attitudes facilitates supportive behavior. In two studies, we induced partner stress by instructing participants to either recall a situation where their partner was highly stressed (Study 1; N = 47 university students) or imagine a specific stressful event (excessive workload; Study 2; N = 85 university students). Subsequently, implicit attitudes toward communal goals were assessed with an Implicit Association Test. In both studies, we found that among participants with high relationship satisfaction partner stress increases preferences for communal goals. In addition, implicit preferences for communal goals predicted stronger inclinations to engage in supportive dyadic coping (Study 2). The current findings provide important insights into the implicit cognitive-affective mechanics of dyadic coping. Moreover, they can explain how people manage to avoid experiencing motivational conflicts between partner-oriented and self-oriented goals in situations characterized by high partner stress.

  8. Relationships Between Simple Toe Elevation Angle in the Standing Position and Dynamic Balance and Fall Risk Among Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takatori, Katsuhiko; Matsumoto, Daisuke

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the relationships between toe elevation ability in the standing position and dynamic balance and fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional survey. General community. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 287). Toe elevation angles in the standing position. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of measurements of the toe elevation angle was high (internal coefficient of correlation [ICC] (1,2) = 0.94 for the former and ICC (2,1) = 0.90 for the latter). Significant correlations were found between the toe elevation angle and age (r = -0.20, P fall in the previous 6 months had a significantly lower toe elevation angle compared with subjects who did not experience a fall (t = 2.19, P balance ability and appears to be a simple screening test for fall risk in community-dwelling older adults. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Myeloperoxidase-Related Chlorination Activity Is Positively Associated with Circulating Ceruloplasmin in Chronic Heart Failure Patients: Relationship with Neurohormonal, Inflammatory, and Nutritional Parameters

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    Aderville Cabassi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale. Heart failure (HF is accompanied by the development of an imbalance between oxygen- and nitric oxide-derived free radical production leading to protein nitration. Both chlorinating and peroxidase cycle of Myeloperoxidase (MPO contribute to oxidative and nitrosative stress and are involved in tyrosine nitration of protein. Ceruloplasmin (Cp has antioxidant function through its ferroxidase I (FeOxI activity and has recently been proposed as a physiological defense mechanism against MPO inappropriate actions. Objective. We investigated the relationship between plasma MPO-related chlorinating activity, Cp and FeOxI, and nitrosative stress, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nutritional biomarkers in HF patients. Methods and Results. In chronic HF patients (n=81, 76 ± 9 years, NYHA Class II (26; Class III (29; Class IV (26 and age-matched controls (n=17, 75 ± 11 years, CTR, plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, FeOxI, nitrated protein, free Malondialdehyde, BNP, norepinephrine, hsCRP, albumin, and prealbumin were measured. Plasma MPO chlorinating activity, Cp, BNP, norepinephrine, and hsCRP were increased in HF versus CTR. FeOxI, albumin, and prealbumin were decreased in HF. MPO-related chlorinating activity was positively related to Cp (r= 0.363, P<0.001, nitrated protein, hsCRP, and BNP and inversely to albumin. Conclusions. Plasma MPO chlorinated activity is increased in elderly chronic HF patients and positively associated with Cp, inflammatory, neurohormonal, and nitrosative parameters suggesting a role in HF progression.

  10. Health enhancing coping as a mediator in relationships of positive emotionality and cognitive curiosity with quality of life among type 2 diabetes patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalka Dorota

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The number of people suffering from type 2 diabetes has been growing recently. This chronic disease is connected with lower perceived quality of life and experiencing a lot of stressful situations. Some of these situations can be anticipated. Thus, it is possible to prepare oneself for future difficult situations by using proactive coping strategies. The aim of this research was to verify the level of satisfaction with various areas of life, the frequency of use of proactive coping strategies in the case of type 2 diabetes patients and healthy individuals, as well as mediation role of these strategies in the relationship between positive emotionality, cognitive curiosity and perceived quality of life. One hundred and seventy four persons took part in the research: 85 persons with diabetes and 89 healthy individuals. We used instruments with recognized psychometric properties: The Proactive Coping Inventory, The World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument-BREF, PANAS Questionnaire and State-Trait Personality Inventory. The analysis of the results showed, among other things, that people suffering from type 2 diabetes are the least satisfied with their health, and the most with their treatment and knowledge about the disease. Healthy individuals are the most satisfied with the physical domain and one’s present life, whereas the least satisfied with the environmental domain. Both groups differ in terms of using proactive coping strategies. People with diabetes most often adopt a preventive strategy, whereas healthy individuals a reflective one. Two strategies turned out to be able to mediate in the relationship of positive emotionality and life satisfaction in the diabetes group. It was a strictly proactive and preventive coping strategy. No mediation effect was found in the group of healthy people. The results show that in the face of anticipated difficulties, people with type 2 diabetes try to protect their current resources by

  11. Self-in-love versus self-in-stigma: implications of relationship quality and love attitudes on self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue; Mak, Winnie W S; Ho, Connie Y Y; Chidgey, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The present study examines the mediating effect of love attitude on the associations between relationship quality with self-stigma and mental health among HIV-positive men having sex with men (MSM). Participants included 211 HIV-positive MSM (M age  = 41.77 years, SD = 11.10) and they were assessed on their relationship quality, love attitudes, HIV-positive self-stigma, and mental health. Structural equation modeling showed that the model fit the data well, χ 2 (50) = 152.80, p love attitude. The indirect effect of love attitude on mental health was significant through reduced self-stigma. The outcomes differed by the number of partners, partner's knowledge of HIV-positive status, relationship nature, and marital status. Implications for developing a positive self-in-love to diminish self-stigma were discussed.

  12. Orchestrating Proactive and Reactive Mechanisms for Filtering Distracting Information: Brain-Behavior Relationships Revealed by a Mixed-Design fMRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Francesco; Demeter, Elise; Roberts, Kenneth C.; Chelazzi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Given the information overload often imparted to human cognitive-processing systems, suppression of irrelevant and distracting information is essential for successful behavior. Using a hybrid block/event-related fMRI design, we characterized proactive and reactive brain mechanisms for filtering distracting stimuli. Participants performed a flanker task, discriminating the direction of a target arrow in the presence versus absence of congruent or incongruent flanking distracting arrows during either Pure blocks (distracters always absent) or Mixed blocks (distracters on 80% of trials). Each Mixed block had either 20% or 60% incongruent trials. Activations in the dorsal frontoparietal attention network during Mixed versus Pure blocks evidenced proactive (blockwise) recruitment of a distraction-filtering mechanism. Sustained activations in right middle frontal gyrus during 60% Incongruent blocks correlated positively with behavioral indices of distraction-filtering (slowing when distracters might occur) and negatively with distraction-related behavioral costs (incongruent vs congruent trials), suggesting a role in coordinating proactive filtering of potential distracters. Event-related analyses showed that incongruent trials elicited greater reactive activations in 20% (vs 60%) Incongruent blocks for counteracting distraction and conflict, including in the insula and anterior cingulate. Context-related effects in occipitoparietal cortex consisted of greater target-evoked activations for distracter-absent trials (central-target-only) in Mixed versus Pure blocks, suggesting enhanced attentional engagement. Functional-localizer analyses in V1/V2/V3 revealed less distracter-processing activity in 60% (vs 20%) Incongruent blocks, presumably reflecting tonic suppression by proactive filtering mechanisms. These results delineate brain mechanisms underlying proactive and reactive filtering of distraction and conflict, and how they are orchestrated depending on distraction

  13. The positive pharmacy care law: an area-level analysis of the relationship between community pharmacy distribution, urbanity and social deprivation in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, Adam; Copeland, Alison; Husband, Andy; Kasim, Adetayo; Bambra, Clare

    2014-08-12

    To: (1) determine the percentage of the population in England that have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk; (2) explore any relationship between the walking distance and urbanity; (3) explore any relationship between the walking distance and social deprivation; and (4) explore any interactions between urbanity, social deprivation and community pharmacy access. This area level analysis spatial study used postcodes for all community pharmacies in England. Each postcode was assigned to a population lookup table and lower super output area (LSOA). The LSOA was then matched to urbanity (urban, town and fringe or village, hamlet and isolated dwellings) and deprivation decile (using the Index of Multiple Deprivation score). Access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. Overall, 89.2% of the population is estimated to have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk. For urban areas, that is 98.3% of the population, for town and fringe, 79.9% of the population, while for rural areas, 18.9% of the population. For areas of lowest deprivation (deprivation decile 1) 90.2% of the population have access to a community pharmacy within 20 min walk, compared to 99.8% in areas of highest deprivation (deprivation decile 10), a percentage difference of 9.6% (8.2, 10.9). Our study shows that the majority of the population can access a community pharmacy within 20 min walk and crucially, access is greater in areas of highest deprivation--a positive pharmacy care law. More research is needed to explore the perceptions and experiences of people--from various levels of deprivation--around the accessibility of community pharmacy services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  14. The electron trap parameter extraction-based investigation of the relationship between charge trapping and activation energy in IGZO TFTs under positive bias temperature stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, Jihyun; Choi, Sungju; Kang, Hara; Kim, Jae-Young; Ko, Daehyun; Ahn, Geumho; Jung, Haesun; Choi, Sung-Jin; Myong Kim, Dong; Kim, Dae Hwan

    2018-02-01

    Experimental extraction of the electron trap parameters which are associated with charge trapping into gate insulators under the positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) is proposed and demonstrated for the first time in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors. This was done by combining the PBTS/recovery time-evolution of the experimentally decomposed threshold voltage shift (ΔVT) and the technology computer-aided design (TCAD)-based charge trapping simulation. The extracted parameters were the trap density (NOT) = 2.6 × 1018 cm-3, the trap energy level (ΔET) = 0.6 eV, and the capture cross section (σ0) = 3 × 10-19 cm2. Furthermore, based on the established TCAD framework, the relationship between the electron trap parameters and the activation energy (Ea) is comprehensively investigated. It is found that Ea increases with an increase in σ0, whereas Ea is independent of NOT. In addition, as ΔET increases, Ea decreases in the electron trapping-dominant regime (low ΔET) and increases again in the Poole-Frenkel (PF) emission/hopping-dominant regime (high ΔET). Moreover, our results suggest that the cross-over ΔET point originates from the complicated temperature-dependent competition between the capture rate and the emission rate. The PBTS bias dependence of the relationship between Ea and ΔET suggests that the electric field dependence of the PF emission-based electron hopping is stronger than that of the thermionic field emission-based electron trapping.

  15. Females engage in stronger relationships: positive and negative effects of shrubs are more intense for Poa ligularis females than for males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Pamela; Aguiar, Martin R; Almeida, Rocio J

    2018-05-22

    Dioecious plants are of particular concern in view of global environmental changes because reproductive females are more sensitive to abiotic stresses, thus compromising population viability. Positive interactions with other plants may counteract the direct effects of any abiotic environmental stress, allowing them to thrive and maintain a viable population in suboptimal habitats, although this process has not been tested for dioecious species. Furthermore, almost no data are available on the outcome of such species interactions and their link with local spatial patterns and sex ratios. We set up a field experiment with Poa ligularis, a dioecious native grass from the arid grasslands of South America. We studied the interaction of male and female plants with cushion shrubs of contrasting ecological strategies. We experimentally limited direct shrub-grass competition for soil moisture and transplanted plants to evaluate the amelioration of abiotic stress by shrub canopies (i.e. sun and wind) on grasses. We also studied the distribution of naturally established female and male plants to infer process-pattern relationships. Positive canopy effects as well as negative below-ground effects were more intense for females than for males. Deep-rooted Mulinum spinosum shrubs strongly facilitated survival, growth and reproduction of P. ligularis females. Naturally established female plants tended to distribute more closely to Mulinum than co-occurring males. Female growth suffered intensive negative root competition from the shallow-rooted Senecio filaginoides shrub. Interactions with other plants may reduce or enhance the effect of abiotic stresses on the seemingly maladapted sex to arid environments. We found that these biased interactions are evident in the current organization of sexes in the field, confirming our experimental findings. Therefore, indirect effects of climate change on population sex ratios may be expected if benefactor species abundances are

  16. The Indirect Effect of Positive Parenting on the Relationship Between Parent and Sibling Bereavement Outcomes After the Death of a Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Adam T; Gabert-Quillen, Crystal; Friebert, Sarah; Carst, Nancy; Delahanty, Douglas L

    2016-01-01

    Families are referred to pediatric palliative care (PPC) programs when a child is diagnosed with a medical condition associated with less than a full life expectancy. When a child dies, PPC programs typically offer a range of bereavement interventions to these families, often focusing on parents. Currently, it is unclear which factors increase the likelihood that bereaved siblings will experience negative outcomes, limiting the development of empirically supported interventions that can be delivered in PPC programs. The present study explored the relationship between parents' and surviving sibling's mental health symptoms (i.e., post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], prolonged grief disorder (PGD), and depression symptoms) after a child's death. Additionally, the extent to which parent functioning indirectly impacted sibling functioning through parenting behaviors (i.e., positive parenting and parent involvement) was also examined, with a specific focus on differences based on parent gender. Sixty bereaved parents and siblings (aged 8-18) who enrolled in a PPC program from 2008 to 2013 completed measures of PTSD, PGD, and depression related to the loss of a child/sibling. Siblings also completed a measure of general parenting behaviors. Maternal, but not paternal, symptoms of PTSD and PGD were directly associated with sibling outcomes. Paternal symptoms were associated with sibling symptoms indirectly, through parenting behaviors (i.e., via decreasing positive parenting). These results underscore the importance of examining both maternal and paternal influences after the death of a child, demonstrate differential impact of maternal vs. paternal symptoms on siblings, and stress the importance of addressing postloss symptoms from a family systems perspective. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Maintaining positive

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe Gh. IONESCU; Adina Letitia NEGRUSA

    2004-01-01

    Maintaining positive work-force relationships includes in effective labor-management relations and making appropriate responses to current employee issues. Among the major current employee issues are protection from arbitrary dismissal, drug and alcohol abuse, privacy rights and family maters and they impact work. In our paper we discus two problems: first, the meanings of industrial democracy; second, the three principal operational concepts of industrial democracy (1) industrial democracy t...

  18. The Enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: Assessing the relationship between internalising symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9-11 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia eKennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalising symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven Year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS - a universal school-based program targeting internalising symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-month follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalising symptoms at the 6-month follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as nine years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalising symptomology.

  19. Positive inotropic and vasodilator actions of milrinone in patients with severe congestive heart failure. Dose-response relationships and comparison to nitroprusside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaski, B E; Fifer, M A; Wright, R F; Braunwald, E; Colucci, W S

    1985-01-01

    Milrinone is a potent positive inotropic and vascular smooth muscle-relaxing agent in vitro, and therefore, it is not known to what extent each of these actions contributes to the drug's hemodynamic effects in patients with heart failure. In 11 patients with New York Heart Association class III or IV congestive heart failure, incremental intravenous doses of milrinone were administered to determine the dose-response relationships for heart rate, systemic vascular resistance, and inotropic state, the latter measured by peak positive left ventricular derivative of pressure with respect to time (dP/dt). To clarify further the role of a positive inotropic action, the relative effects of milrinone and nitroprusside on left ventricular stroke work and dP/dt were compared in each patient at doses matched to cause equivalent reductions in mean arterial pressure or systemic vascular resistance, indices of left ventricular afterload. Milrinone caused heart rate, stroke volume, and dP/dt to increase, and systemic vascular resistance to decrease in a concentration-related manner. At the two lowest milrinone doses resulting in serum concentrations of 63 +/- 4 and 156 +/- 5 ng/ml, respectively, milrinone caused significant increases in stroke volume and dP/dt, but no changes in systemic vascular resistance or heart rate. At the maximum milrinone dose administered (mean serum concentration, 427 +/- 11 ng/ml), heart rate increased from 92 +/- 4 to 99 +/- 4 bpm (P less than 0.01), mean aortic pressure fell from 82 +/- 3 to 71 +/- 3 mmHg (P less than 0.01), right atrial pressure fell from 15 +/- 2 to 7 +/- 1 mmHg (P less than 0.005), left ventricular end-diastolic pressure fell from 26 +/- 3 to 18 +/- 3 (P less than 0.005), stroke volume index increased from 20 +/- 2 to 30 +/- 2 ml/m2 (P less than 0.005), stroke work index increased from 14 +/- 2 to 21 +/- 2 g X m/m2 (P less than 0.01), and dP/dt increased from 858 +/- 54 to 1,130 +/- 108 mmHg/s (P less than 0.005). When compared

  20. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions.

  1. Relationship between hunger, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and plasma HIV RNA suppression among HIV-positive illicit drug users in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anema, Aranka; Kerr, Thomas; Milloy, M-J; Feng, Cindy; Montaner, Julio S G; Wood, Evan

    2014-04-01

    Food insecurity may be a barrier to achieving optimal HIV treatment-related outcomes among illicit drug users. This study therefore, aimed to assess the impact of severe food insecurity, or hunger, on plasma HIV RNA suppression among illicit drug users receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). A cross-sectional Multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the potential relationship between hunger and plasma HIV RNA suppression. A sample of n = 406 adults was derived from a community-recruited open prospective cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC), Canada. A total of 235 (63.7%) reported "being hungry and unable to afford enough food," and 241 (59.4%) had plasma HIV RNA hunger was associated with lower odds of plasma HIV RNA suppression (Odds Ratio = 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.39-0.90, p = 0.015). In multivariate analyses, this association was no longer significant after controlling for socio-demographic, behavioral, and clinical characteristics, including 95% adherence (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.37-1.10, p = 0.105). Multivariate models stratified by 95% adherence found that the direction and magnitude of this association was not significantly altered by the adherence level. Hunger was common among illicit drug users in this setting. Although, there was an association between hunger and lower likelihood of plasma HIV RNA suppression, this did not persist in adjusted analyses. Further research is warranted to understand the social-structural, policy, and physical factors shaping the HIV outcomes of illicit drug users.

  2. A breast cancer meta-analysis of two expression measures of chromosomal instability reveals a relationship with younger age at diagnosis and high risk histopathological variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Endesfelder, David; McGranahan, Nicholas; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer in younger patients often presents with adverse histopathological features, including increased frequency of estrogen receptor negative and lymph node positive disease status. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is increasingly recognised as an important prognostic variable in solid tumours...... may be a defining feature of breast cancer biology and clinical outcome....

  3. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laura E; Liu, Alvin Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Page, Laura S; Liebeskind, Emily S; Shadle, Christina P; Troisch, Pamela; Marzolf, Bruz; True, Lawrence D; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10 - /CD13 - /CD24 hi /CD26 + /CD38 lo /CD44 - /CD104 - . This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26 + cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  4. High resolution isotope data and ensemble modelling reveal ecohydrological controls on catchment storage-discharge relationships and flux travel time distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulsby, C.; Kuppel, S.; Smith, A.; Tetzlaff, D.

    2017-12-01

    The dynamics of water storage in a catchment provides a fundamental insight into the interlinkages between input and output fluxes, and how these are affected by environmental change. Such dynamics also mediate, and help us understand, the fundamental difference of the rapid celerity of the rainfall-runoff (minutes to hours) response of catchments and the much slower velocity of water particles (months to decades) as they are transported through catchment systems. In this contribution we report an intensive, long-term (>10year), multi-scale isotope study in the Scottish Highlands that has sought to better understand these issues. We have integrated empirical data collection with diverse modelling approaches to quantify the dynamics and residence times of storage in different compartments of the hydrological system (vegetation canopies, soils, ground waters etc.) and their relationship between the magnitude and travel time distributions of output fluxes (stream flow, transpiration and evaporation). Use of conceptual, physically-based and probabilistic modelling approaches give broadly consistent perspectives on the storage-discharge relationships and the preferential selection of younger waters in runoff, evaporation and transpiration; while older waters predominate in groundwater. The work also highlighted the importance role vegetation plays in regulating fluxes in evaporation and transpiration and how this contributes to the differential ageing of water in mobile and bulk waters in the soil compartment. A separate case study shows how land use change can affect storage distributions in a catchment and radically change travel time distributions in output fluxes.

  5. Course Level and the Relationship between Research Productivity and Teaching Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Ivo J. M.

    2008-01-01

    The author examines the relationship between research productivity and teaching effectiveness using data from the Erasmus School of Economics. The initial findings indicate a positive overall relationship between the variables. A more detailed analysis reveals a sharp reversal in the nature of the relationship. Although the relationship is…

  6. The Relationships Between the Center of Mass Position and the Trunk, Hip, and Knee Kinematics in the Sagittal Plane: A Pilot Study on Field-Based Video Analysis for Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki Shogo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Athletes with non-contact anterior cruciate ligament tears have common features in the sagittal plane; namely, the body’s center of mass (COM is located posterior to the base of support, the trunk and knee joints are extended, and the hip angle is flexed. However, the relationships among these variables have not been assessed in field-based movements. This study sought to determine relationships between distances from the COM to the base of support and the trunk, hip, and knee positions in women while playing soccer. Sixty events (29 single-leg landing and 31 single-leg stopping events were analyzed using two-dimensional video analysis. The relationships among the measurement variables were determined using the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient, and stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to explore the relationships between the COM position and the kinematic variables. The distance from the COM to the base of support displayed a moderate negative relationship with the trunk angle (r = - 0.623, p < .0001, r2 = 0.388 and a strong positive relationship with the limb angle (r = 0.869, p < .0001, r2 = 0.755. The limb, knee, and trunk angles were selected in the best regression model (adjusted r2 = 0.953, p < .0001, f2 = 20.277. These findings suggest that an increased trunk angle and a decreased limb angle at initial contact are associated with a safer COM position. Neuromuscular training may be useful for controlling the trunk and lower limb positions during dynamic activities.

  7. Comparative expression analysis reveals lineage relationships between human and murine gliomas and a dominance of glial signatures during tumor propagation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Nico V; Forshew, Tim; Tatevossian, Ruth; Ellis, Matthew; Richard-Loendt, Angela; Rogers, Hazel; Jacques, Thomas S; Reitboeck, Pablo Garcia; Pearce, Kerra; Sheer, Denise; Grundy, Richard G; Brandner, Sebastian

    2013-09-15

    Brain tumors are thought to originate from stem/progenitor cell populations that acquire specific genetic mutations. Although current preclinical models have relevance to human pathogenesis, most do not recapitulate the histogenesis of the human disease. Recently, a large series of human gliomas and medulloblastomas were analyzed for genetic signatures of prognosis and therapeutic response. Using a mouse model system that generates three distinct types of intrinsic brain tumors, we correlated RNA and protein expression levels with human brain tumors. A combination of genetic mutations and cellular environment during tumor propagation defined the incidence and phenotype of intrinsic murine tumors. Importantly, in vitro passage of cancer stem cells uniformly promoted a glial expression profile in culture and in brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that experimental gliomas corresponded to distinct subclasses of human glioblastoma, whereas experimental supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) correspond to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare childhood tumor. ©2013 AACR.

  8. Driving south: a multi-gene phylogeny of the brown algal family Fucaceae reveals relationships and recent drivers of a marine radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cánovas Fernando G

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the processes driving speciation in marine ecosystems remained a challenge until recently, due to the unclear nature of dispersal boundaries. However, recent evidence for marine adaptive radiations and ecological speciation, as well as previously undetected patterns of cryptic speciation is overturning this view. Here, we use multi-gene phylogenetics to infer the family-level evolutionary history of Fucaceae (intertidal brown algae of the northern Pacific and Atlantic in order to investigate recent and unique patterns of radiative speciation in the genus Fucus in the Atlantic, in contrast with the mainly monospecific extant genera. Results We developed a set of markers from 13 protein coding genes based on polymorphic cDNA from EST libraries, which provided novel resolution allowing estimation of ancestral character states and a detailed reconstruction of the recent radiative history. Phylogenetic reconstructions yielded similar topologies and revealed four independent trans-Arctic colonization events by Fucaceae lineages, two of which also involved transitions from hermaphroditism to dioecy associated with Atlantic invasions. More recently, reversion of dioecious ancestral lineages towards hermaphroditism has occurred in the genus Fucus, particularly coinciding with colonization of more extreme habitats. Novel lineages in the genus Fucus were also revealed in association with southern habitats. These most recent speciation events occurred during the Pleistocene glaciations and coincided with a shift towards selfing mating systems, generally southward shifts in distribution, and invasion of novel habitats. Conclusions Diversification of the family occurred in the Late-Mid Miocene, with at least four independent trans-Artic lineage crossings coincident with two reproductive mode transitions. The genus Fucus arose in the Pliocene but radiated within a relatively short time frame about 2.5 million years ago

  9. Analyzing the Relationship of Geographic Mobility and Institutional Prestige to Career Advancement of Women in Academic Medicine Pursuing Midcareer-, Senior-, or Executive-Level Administrative Positions: Implications for Career Advancement Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Marsha Renee

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of geographic mobility and institutional prestige to career advancement defined as administrative promotions of women seeking midcareer-, senior-, or executive-level positions at academic health centers (AHCs) and their medical schools or in non-AHC related medical schools in the United…

  10. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  11. Theta band activity in response to emotional expressions and its relationship with gamma band activity as revealed by MEG and advanced beamformer source imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian eLuo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal oscillations in the theta and gamma bands have been shown to be important for cognition. Here we examined the temporal and spatial relationship between the two frequency bands in emotional processing using Magnetoencephalography and an advanced dynamic beamformer source imaging method called Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry. We found that areas including the amygdala, visual and frontal cortex showed significant event-related synchronization (ERS in both bands, suggesting a functional association of neuronal oscillations in the same areas in the two bands. However, while the temporal profile in both bands was similar in the amygdala, the peak in gamma band power was much earlier within both visual and frontal areas. Our results do not support a traditional view that the localizations of lower and higher frequencies are spatially distinct. Instead, they suggest that in emotional processing, neuronal oscillations in the gamma and theta bands may reflect, at least in visual and frontal cortex either different but related functional processes or, perhaps more probably, different computational components of the same functional process.

  12. Structural and biochemical analysis of a unique phosphatase from Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus reveals its structural and functional relationship with the protein tyrosine phosphatase class of phytase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Gruninger

    Full Text Available Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus is an unusual δ-proteobacterium that invades and preys on other Gram-negative bacteria and is of potential interest as a whole cell therapeutic against pathogens of man, animals and crops. PTPs (protein tyrosine phosphatases are an important class of enzyme involved in desphosphorylating a variety of substrates, often with implications in cell signaling. The B. bacteriovorus open reading frame Bd1204 is predicted to encode a PTP of unknown function. Bd1204 is both structurally and mechanistically related to the PTP-like phytase (PTPLP class of enzymes and possesses a number of unique properties not observed in any other PTPLPs characterized to date. Bd1204 does not display catalytic activity against some common protein tyrosine phosphatase substrates but is highly specific for hydrolysis of phosphomonoester bonds of inositol hexakisphosphate. The structure reveals that Bd1204 has the smallest and least electropositive active site of all characterized PTPLPs to date yet possesses a unique substrate specificity characterized by a strict preference for inositol hexakisphosphate. These two active site features are believed to be the most significant contributors to the specificity of phytate degrading enzymes. We speculate that Bd1204 may be involved in phosphate acquisition outside of prey.

  13. Spatiotemporal relationships between growth and microtubule orientation as revealed in living root cells of Arabidopsis thaliana transformed with green-fluorescent-protein gene construct GFP-MBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, C. L.; Cyr, R. J.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana plants were transformed with GFP-MBD (J. Marc et al., Plant Cell 10: 1927-1939, 1998) under the control of a constitutive (35S) or copper-inducible promoter. GFP-specific fluorescence distributions, levels, and persistence were determined and found to vary with age, tissue type, transgenic line, and individual plant. With the exception of an increased frequency of abnormal roots of 35S GFP-MBD plants grown on kanamycin-containing media, expression of GFP-MBD does not appear to affect plant phenotype. The number of leaves, branches, bolts, and siliques as well as overall height, leaf size, and seed set are similar between wild-type and transgenic plants as is the rate of root growth. Thus, we conclude that the transgenic plants can serve as a living model system in which the dynamic behavior of microtubules can be visualized. Confocal microscopy was used to simultaneously monitor growth and microtubule behavior within individual cells as they passed through the elongation zone of the Arabidopsis root. Generally, microtubules reoriented from transverse to oblique or longitudinal orientations as growth declined. Microtubule reorientation initiated at the ends of the cell did not necessarily occur simultaneously in adjacent neighboring cells and did not involve complete disintegration and repolymerization of microtubule arrays. Although growth rates correlated with microtubule reorientation, the two processes were not tightly coupled in terms of their temporal relationships, suggesting that other factor(s) may be involved in regulating both events. Additionally, microtubule orientation was more defined in cells whose growth was accelerating and less stringent in cells whose growth was decelerating, indicating that microtubule-orienting factor(s) may be sensitive to growth acceleration, rather than growth per se.

  14. Physical mapping of the split hand/split foot (SHSF) locus on chromosome 7 reveals a relationship between SHSF and the syndromic ectrodactylies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poorkaj, P.; Nunes, M.E.; Geshuri, D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Split hand/split foot (also knows as ectrodactyly) is a human developmental malformation characterized by missing digits and claw-like extremities. An autosomal dominant form of this disorder has been mapped to 7q21.3-q22.1 on the basis of SHSF-associated chromosomal rearrangements: this locus has been designated SHFD1. We have constructed a physical map of the SHFD1 region that consists of contiguous yeast artificial chromosome clones and spans approximately 8 Mb. Somatic cell hybrid and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses were used to define SHSF-associated chromosomal breakpoints in fourteen patients. A critical interval of about 1 Mb was established for SHFD1 by analysis of six patients with deletions. Translocation and inversion breakpoints in seven other patients were found to localize within a 500-700 kb interval within the critical region. Several candidate genes including DLX5 and DLX6 (members of the Drosophilia Distal-less homeobox-containing gene family) localize to this region. At least four of these genes are expressed in the developing mouse limb bud. Of particular interest is the observation that 8 of the 14 patients studied have syndromic ectrodactyly, which is characterized by the association of SHSF with a variety of other anomalies including cleft lip/palate, ectodermal dysplasia, and renal anomalies. Thus, these data implicate a single gene or cluster of genes at the SHFD1 locus in a wide range of developmental processes and serve to establish a molecular genetic relationship between simple SHSF and a broad group of human birth defects.

  15. A Closer Look at the Camp Experience: Examining Relationships between Life Skills, Elements of Positive Youth Development, and Antecedents of Change among Camp Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Whittington, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding program components that contribute to positive youth outcomes following camp experiences can help program providers bring a greater level of intentionality to their efforts. The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to develop reliable and valid measures of life skill development, elements of positive youth development (PYD), and…

  16. Relationship between presence of cows with milk positive for Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust in cattle barns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Susanne W F; Chuchaisangrat, Ruj; Nielen, Mirjam; Koets, Ad P

    2013-09-01

    Paratuberculosis, or Johne's disease, in cattle is caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis, which has recently been suspected to be transmitted through dust. This longitudinal study on eight commercial M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-positive dairy farms studied the relationship between the number of cows with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibody-positive milk and the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in settled-dust samples, including their temporal relationship. Milk and dust samples were collected in parallel monthly for 2 years. M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis antibodies in milk were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and used as a proxy for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis shedding. Settled-dust samples were collected by using electrostatic dust collectors (EDCs) at six locations in housing for dairy cattle and young stock. The presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was identified by liquid culture and PCR. The results showed a positive relationship (odds ratio [OR], 1.2) between the number of cows with ELISA-positive milk and the odds of having positive EDCs in the same airspace as the adult dairy cattle. Moreover, the total number of lactating cows also showed an OR slightly above 1. This relationship remained the same for settled-dust samples collected up to 2 months before or after the time of milk sampling. The results suggest that removal of adult cows with milk positive for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis-specific antibody by ELISA might result in a decrease in the presence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in dust and therefore in the environment. However, this decrease is likely delayed by several weeks at least. In addition, the data support the notion that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis exposure of young stock is reduced by separate housing.

  17. The structure of the nucleoprotein binding domain of lyssavirus phosphoprotein reveals a structural relationship between the N-RNA binding domains of Rhabdoviridae and Paramyxoviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Olivier; Assenberg, Rene; Grimes, Jonathan M; Bourhy, Hervé

    2010-01-01

    The phosphoprotein P of non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses is an essential component of the replication and transcription complex and acts as a co-factor for the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. P recruits the viral polymerase to the nucleoprotein-bound viral RNA (N-RNA) via an interaction between its C-terminal domain and the N-RNA complex. We have obtained the structure of the C-terminal domain of P of Mokola virus (MOKV), a lyssavirus that belongs to the Rhabdoviridae family and mapped at the amino acid level the crucial positions involved in interaction with N and in the formation of the viral replication complex. Comparison of the N-RNA binding domains of P solved to date suggests that the N-RNA binding domains are structurally conserved among paramyxoviruses and rhabdoviruses in spite of low sequence conservation. We also review the numerous other functions of this domain and more generally of the phosphoprotein.

  18. Complex within a Complex: Integrative Taxonomy Reveals Hidden Diversity in Cicadetta brevipennis (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) and Unexpected Relationships with a Song Divergent Relative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertach, Thomas; Puissant, Stéphane; Gogala, Matija; Trilar, Tomi; Hagmann, Reto; Baur, Hannes; Kunz, Gernot; Wade, Elizabeth J.; Loader, Simon P.; Simon, Chris; Nagel, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sources of data in combination are essential for species delimitation and classification of difficult taxonomic groups. Here we investigate a cicada taxon with unusual cryptic diversity and we attempt to resolve seemingly contradictory data sets. Cicada songs act as species-specific premating barriers and have been used extensively to reveal hidden taxonomic diversity in morphologically similar species. The Palaearctic Cicadetta montana species complex is an excellent example where distinct song patterns have disclosed multiple recently described species. Indeed, two taxa turned out to be especially diverse in that they form a “complex within the complex”: the Cicadetta cerdaniensis song group (four species studied previously) and Cicadetta brevipennis (examined in details here). Based on acoustic, morphological, molecular, ecological and spatial data sampled throughout their broad European distribution, we find that Cicadetta brevipennis s. l. comprises five lineages. The most distinct lineage is identified as Cicadetta petryi Schumacher, 1924, which we re-assign to the species level. Cicadetta brevipennis litoralis Puissant & Hertach ssp. n. and Cicadetta brevipennis hippolaidica Hertach ssp. n. are new to science. The latter hybridizes with Cicadetta brevipennis brevipennis Fieber, 1876 at a zone inferred from intermediate song patterns. The fifth lineage requires additional investigation. The C. cerdaniensis and the C. brevipennis song groups exhibit characteristic, clearly distinct basic song patterns that act as reproductive barriers. However, they remain completely intermixed in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood COI and COII mitochondrial DNA phylogenies. The closest relative of each of the four cerdaniensis group species is a brevipennis group taxon. In our favoured scenario the phylogenetic pairs originated in common Pleistocene glacial refuges where the taxa speciated and experienced sporadic inter-group hybridization leading to extensive

  19. Patterns of altered neural synchrony in the default mode network in autism spectrum disorder revealed with magnetoencephalography (MEG): Relationship to clinical symptomatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajiness-O'Neill, Renée; Brennan, Jonathan R; Moran, John E; Richard, Annette E; Flores, Ana-Mercedes; Swick, Casey; Goodcase, Ryan; Andersen, Tiffany; McFarlane, Kaitlyn; Rusiniak, Kenneth; Kovelman, Ioulia; Wagley, Neelima; Ugolini, Maggie; Albright, Jeremy; Bowyer, Susan M

    2018-03-01

    Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (M Age  = 9.2) and 13 age and gender-matched neurotypicals (NT) (M Age  = 9.3) with magnetoencephalography. Coherence between 231 brain region pairs within four frequency bands (theta (4-7 Hz), alpha, (8-12 Hz), beta (13-30 Hz), and gamma (30-80 Hz)) was calculated. Relationships between neural coherence and social functioning were examined. ASD was characterized by lower synchronization across all frequencies, reaching clinical significance in the gamma band. Lower gamma synchrony between fronto-temporo-parietal regions was observed, partially consistent with diminished default mode network (DMN) connectivity. Lower gamma coherence in ASD was evident in cross-hemispheric connections between: angular with inferior/middle frontal; middle temporal with middle/inferior frontal; and within right-hemispheric connections between angular, middle temporal, and inferior/middle frontal cortices. Lower gamma coherence between left angular and left superior frontal, right inferior/middle frontal, and right precuneus and between right angular and inferior/middle frontal cortices was related to lower social/social-communication functioning. Results suggest a pattern of lower gamma band coherence in a subset of regions within the DMN in ASD (angular and middle temporal cortical areas) related to lower social/social-communicative functioning. Autism Res 2018, 11: 434-449. © 2017 International

  20. Changes in host-mycorrhiza relationships revealed by stable isotopes after naturally-induced thinning of the stand: case study on Tuber aestivum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavrichkova, Olga; Lauteri, Marco; Ciolfi, Marco; Chiocchini, Francesca; Paris, Pierluigi; Pisanelli, Andrea; Portarena, Silvia; Brugnoli, Enrico

    2016-04-01

    Terrestrial plants overcome nutrients and water limitations by forming mutualistic associations with mycorrhizal fungi. Fungi, in return, take advantage from the carbohydrates supplied by the host. Some mycorrhizal fruit bodies, like that of Tuber spp., have a peculiar gastronomic value with many efforts being undertaken to predict and enhance their productivity. However, many issues of truffle-producing mycorrhizal ecology are still poorly understood, in particular optimal conditions favoring fruit formation, potential host plants and host-mycorrhiza relationships. In this study, we tested the applicability of stable isotope measurements under natural abundance to identify the plants which likely host the mycorrhiza of Tuber aestivum and to characterize host-mycorrhizal nutrient, water and carbohydrate exchange under plant natural growing conditions and with the change of the forest cover after naturally occurred thinning. For these purposes, sampling of the fruit bodies of T. aestivum was performed during the growing season 2011 in a mixed broadleaved-coniferous forest in central Italy (initially the site was a manmade pine plantation). Nine truffle-producing parcels were identified with five being composed of the original Pinus pinaster -dominated vegetation and four in which pine was replaced by broadleaf species after both wind-induced thinning and natural dieback of pine trees. Seasonal variation of δ13C, δ15N and δ18O were analyzed in the fungal material, in the surrounding soil and in the plant material of the potential host species (xylem water in the trunk, branches and leaves, recently assimilated carbohydrates in phloem and leaves). The results showed a possibility of the identification of the mycorrhizal host species applying isotope analyses, with mycorrhiza receiving most part of the carbohydrates from the pine in pine-dominated parcels. Interestingly, in thinned parcels, the truffle bodies maintained isotope composition similar to bodies gathered

  1. Synthesis, in-vitro cytotoxicity of 1H-benzo[f]chromene derivatives and structure-activity relationships of the 1-aryl group and 9-position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hany M; Fouda, Ahmed M; Khattab, Essam S A E H; Agrody, Ahmed M El-; Afifi, Tarek H

    2017-05-01

    A series of 1H-benzo[f]chromene-2-carbonitriles was synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, HCT-116, and HepG-2 cancer cells. The SAR studies reported that the substitution in the phenyl ring at 1-position of 1H-benzo[f]chromene nucleus with the specific group, H atom, or methoxy group at 9-position increases the ability of the molecule against the different cell lines.

  2. Engaging Students in Constructive Youth-Adult Relationships: A Case Study of Urban School-Based Agriculture Students and Positive Adult Mentors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, William A.; Martin, Michael J.; Tummons, John D.; Ball, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this bounded single case study was to explore the day-to-day functioning of a successful urban school-based agriculture veterinary program. Findings indicated student success was a product of multiple youth-adult relationships created through communal environments. Adults served as mentors with whom students felt constant, caring…

  3. An Analysis of the Relationship between Implementation of School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports and High School Dropout Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Jennifer; Simonsen, Brandi; McCoach, D. Betsy; Sugai, George; Lombardi, Allison; Horner, Rob

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the direct and indirect effects of SWPBIS on high school dropout rates. We used structural equation modeling methods to analyze the web of relationships among important high school level outcomes and SWPBIS in a large sample of high schools from 37 states. Results suggest that SWPBIS has statistically…

  4. Mapping of a Cellulose-Deficient Mutant Named dwarf1-1 in Sorghum bicolor to the Green Revolution Gene gibberellin20-oxidase Reveals a Positive Regulatory Association between Gibberellin and Cellulose Biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Carloalberto; Hirano, Ko; Stork, Jozsef; DeBolt, Seth

    2015-09-01

    Here, we show a mechanism for expansion regulation through mutations in the green revolution gene gibberellin20 (GA20)-oxidase and show that GAs control biosynthesis of the plants main structural polymer cellulose. Within a 12,000 mutagenized Sorghum bicolor plant population, we identified a single cellulose-deficient and male gametophyte-dysfunctional mutant named dwarf1-1 (dwf1-1). Through the Sorghum propinquum male/dwf1-1 female F2 population, we mapped dwf1-1 to a frameshift in GA20-oxidase. Assessment of GAs in dwf1-1 revealed ablation of GA. GA ablation was antagonistic to the expression of three specific cellulose synthase genes resulting in cellulose deficiency and growth dwarfism, which were complemented by exogenous bioactive gibberellic acid application. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that GA was positively regulating the expression of a subset of specific cellulose synthase genes. To cross reference data from our mapped Sorghum sp. allele with another monocotyledonous plant, a series of rice (Oryza sativa) mutants involved in GA biosynthesis and signaling were isolated, and these too displayed cellulose deficit. Taken together, data support a model whereby suppressed expansion in green revolution GA genes involves regulation of cellulose biosynthesis. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  5. An Exploratory Path Model of the Relationships between Positive and Negative Adaptation to Cancer on Quality of Life among non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Sophia K.; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M.; Bailey, Donald E.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. Methods This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross sectional sample of NHL survivors (N=750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥18 years, at least two years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Results 68% of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (−0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately three times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; adaptation compared to those ≥65. Of the disease characteristics, comorbidity score had the strongest direct effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL. PMID:25751114

  6. Negative and positive components of psychological masculinity and femininity and their relationships to self-reports of neurotic and acting out behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, J T; Helmreich, R L; Holahan, C K

    1979-10-01

    Negatively valued masculinity (M-) and femininity (F-) personality scales were developed to supplement the positively valued Masculinity (M+) and Femininity (F+) scales of the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ; Spence & Helmreich). M- consisted of traits that had been judged to be (a) more typical of males than females, (b) undesirable in both sexes, and (c ) agentic or instrumental in content. Two F- scales were developed, both containing stereotypically feminine, undesirable traits, one set of traits referring to communionlike characteristics (Fc-) and the other to verbal passive-aggressive qualities (FVA-). Significant sex differences in the predicted direction were found on all scales. In both sexes, low and typically nonsignificant correlations were found between parallel positive and negative scales, but highly significant negative correlations were found between positive and negative cross-sex scales. These findings provide additional evidence for the multidimentionslity of masculinity and femininity. Scores on a self-esteem measure were positively correlated with M+ and F+, uncorrelated with M-, and negatively correlated with the F- scales. Different patterns of scores were associated with two types of problem behaviors. In both sexes, neuroticism was most highly correlated (in a negative direction) with M+, and acting out behavoir was most strongly correlated (in a positive direction) with M-. The next highest correlation in both instances was with FVA-.

  7. An exploratory path model of the relationships between positive and negative adaptation to cancer on quality of life among non-Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Smith, Sophia K; Zimmer, Catherine; Crandell, Jamie; Jenerette, Coretta M; Bailey, Donald E; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Mayer, Deborah K

    2015-01-01

    Adaptation is an ongoing, cognitive process with continuous appraisal of the cancer experience by the survivor. This exploratory study tested a path model examining the personal (demographic, disease, and psychosocial) characteristics associated with quality of life (QOL) and whether or not adaptation to living with cancer may mediate these effects. This study employed path analysis to estimate adaptation to cancer. A cross-sectional sample of NHL survivors (N = 750) was used to test the model. Eligible participants were ≥ 18 years, at least 2 years post-diagnosis, and living with or without active disease. Sixty-eight percent of the variance was accounted for in QOL. The strongest effect (-0.596) was direct by negative adaptation, approximately 3 times that of positive adaptation (0.193). The strongest demographic total effects on QOL were age and social support; effect on QOL; each additional comorbidity was associated with a 0.309 standard deviation decline on QOL. There were no fully mediated effects through positive adaptation alone. Our exploratory findings support the coexistence of positive and negative adaptations perception as mediators of personal characteristics of the cancer experience. Negative adaptation can affect QOL in a positive way. Cancer survivorship is simultaneously shaped by both positive and negative adaptation with future research and implications for practice aimed at improving QOL.

  8. Triploblastic relationships with emphasis on the acoelomates and the position of Gnathostomulida, Cycliophora, Plathelminthes, and Chaetognatha: a combined approach of 18S rDNA sequences and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giribet, G; Distel, D L; Polz, M; Sterrer, W; Wheeler, W C

    2000-09-01

    Triploblastic relationships were examined in the light of molecular and morphological evidence. Representatives for all triploblastic "phyla" (except Loricifera) were represented by both sources of phylogenetic data. The 18S ribosomal (rDNA) sequence data for 145 terminal taxa and 276 morphological characters coded for 36 supraspecific taxa were combined in a total evidence regime to determine the most consistent picture of triploblastic relationships for these data. Only triploblastic taxa are used to avoid rooting with distant outgroups, which seems to happen because of the extreme distance that separates diploblastic from triploblastic taxa according to the 18S rDNA data. Multiple phylogenetic analyses performed with variable analysis parameters yield largely inconsistent results for certain groups such as Chaetognatha, Acoela, and Nemertodermatida. A normalized incongruence length metric is used to assay the relative merit of the multiple analyses. The combined analysis having the least character incongruence yields the following scheme of relationships of four main clades: (1) Deuterostomia [((Echinodermata + Enteropneusta) (Cephalochordata (Urochordata + Vertebrata)))]; (2) Ecdysozoa [(((Priapulida + Kinorhyncha) (Nematoda + Nematomorpha)) ((Onychophora + Tardigrada) Arthropoda))]; (3) Trochozoa [((Phoronida + Brachiopoda) (Entoprocta (Nemertea (Sipuncula (Mollusca (Pogonophora (Echiura + Annelida)))))))]; and (4) Platyzoa [((Gnathostomulida (Cycliophora + Syndermata)) (Gastrotricha + Plathelminthes))]. Chaetognatha, Nemertodermatida, and Bryozoa cannot be assigned to any one of these four groups. For the first time, a data analysis recognizes a clade of acoelomates, the Platyzoa (sensu Cavalier-Smith, Biol. Rev. 73:203-266, 1998). Other relationships that corroborate some morphological analyses are the existence of a clade that groups Gnathostomulida + Syndermata (= Gnathifera), which is expanded to include the enigmatic phylum Cycliophora, as sister group

  9. On the spatial relationship between auroral emissions and magnetic signatures of plasma convection in the midday polar cusp and cap ionospheres during negative and positive IMF Bsub(z)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.

    1986-03-01

    The dynamics of midday auroras, including polar cusp and cap emissions, and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been investigated with optical ground-based observations from Svalbard, Norway and IMF data from spacecraft ISEE-2. One case is presented showing the spatial relationship, along the magnetic meridian in the midday sector, between the cusp aurora and IMF Bγ-related convection currets (the DPY signature) for negative and positive values of IMF Bsub(z)

  10. The Relationship of Level of Positive Mental Health with Current Mental Disorders in Predicting Suicidal Behavior and Academic Impairment in College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Corey L. M.; Eisenberg, Daniel; Perry, Geraldine S.; Dube, Shanta R.; Kroenke, Kurt; Dhingra, Satvinder S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether level of positive mental health complements mental illness in predicting students at risk for suicidal behavior and impaired academic performance. Participants: A sample of 5,689 college students participated in the 2007 Healthy Minds Study and completed an Internet survey that included the Mental Health…

  11. Relationship between caga-positive Helicobacter pylori infection and risk of gastric cancer: a case control study in Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Coelho Meine

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer related death worldwide. Although Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a class I carcinogen, the presence of infection is not a factor that alone is able to lead to gastric cancer, and one of the possible explanations for this is the existence of different strains of H. pylori with different degrees of virulence. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between cagA-positive H. pylori and gastric cancer, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the detection of this bacterial strain. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with gastric cancer were matched by sex and age (± 5 years with 58 patients without gastric cancer, submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. All patients were evaluated for the status of infection by H. pylori (through urease test, histological analysis and PCR for the genes ureA and 16SrRNA and by cagA-positive strain (through PCR for cagA gene. RESULTS: Evaluating the presence of infection by cagA-positive H. pylori, it was verified that the rate of infection was significantly higher in the group with gastric cancer when compared with the matched controls, occurring in 62.1% and 29.3%, respectively (OR = 3.95; CI 95% 1.543-10.096. CONCLUSIONS: There is an association between cagA-positive H. pylori strain and risk of gastric cancer.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships among extinct and extant turtles: the position of Pleurodira and the effects of the fossils on rooting crown-group turtles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sterli, J.

    2010-01-01

    The origin and evolution of the crown-group of turtles (Cryptodira + Pleurodira) is one of the most interesting topics in turtle evolution, second perhaps only to the phylogenetic position of turtles among amniotes. The present contribution focuses on the former problem, exploring the phylogenetic

  13. In Search for H.E.R.O among Filipino Teachers: The Relationship of Positive Psychological Capital and Work-Related Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganotice, Fraide A., Jr.; Yeung, Susanna S.; Beguina, Leonora A.; Villarosa, Jonalyn B.

    2016-01-01

    Recent positive psychology literature has consistently demonstrated the link between PsyCap (composite score of hope, efficacy, resilience, and optimism--HERO) and employee productivity. However, most of these studies were conducted in industrial or organizational settings and have mostly examined the independent effect of hope, efficacy,…

  14. Genetic relationship among Musa genotypes revealed by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    enoh

    2012-03-29

    Mar 29, 2012 ... A banana germplasm was established containing 44 Musa genotypes collected from various locations in Malaysia. To detect their genetic variation and to rule out duplicates among cultivar, microsatellite markers were used in their analysis. The microsatellite profiles of 44 Musa genotypes of various origins.

  15. Relationship between serum concetrations of type III procollagen, hyluronic acid and histopathological findings in the liver of HCV-positive blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho,Vera Regina Rodrigues; Silveira,Themis Reverbel da; Oliveira,Jarbas Rodrigues de; Barros,Sérgio Gabriel Silva de; Cerski,Carlos Thadeu Schmidt

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serologic markers have been proposed for monitoring hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver disease. Among fibrosis markers, type III procollagen (PIIIP) and hyaluronic acid have been studied in these patients. AIM: To evaluate the association between these serum markers with histological findings. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study was carried out with HCV-positive blood donors. The studied population included men and women whose age ranged from 18 to 60 years, with elevated ...

  16. Is there a relationship between preferred posture and positioning in early life and the direction of subsequent asymmetrical postural deformity in non ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David; Michael, Shona; Kirkwood, Craig

    2008-09-01

    It has been suggested that asymmetrical positioning of an infant with reduced mobility may lead to postural deformity becoming established over time. However, evidence to support or question this line of thinking is lacking. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective cohort study was to test the association between asymmetrical positioning in the first 12 months of life and the subsequent direction of postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy. The direction of scoliosis, pelvic obliquity and windswept hip pattern and also the side of unilateral hip subluxation/dislocation were determined for 246 young people ranging in age from 1 year and 2 months to 19 years (median age 10 years and 3 months). Parents/carers of the participants were interviewed to establish holding and feeding positions and preferred lying posture adopted in early life. Univariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were carried out. The study provided evidence of an association between asymmetrical lying posture adopted in the first year of life and the direction of the subsequent pattern of postural deformity. If the child's head had been rotated to the right during supine lying, it was more likely that the scoliosis would be convex to the left, pelvic obliquity would be lower on the left, windswept hip pattern would be to the right and hip subluxation/dislocation would occur on the left. The likelihood of the deformities occurring in the same direction was also increased if consistent side lying on the right had been preferred. Clinicians should be aware of positioning for children with severe disabilities particularly those who prefer supine lying with their head rotated to the side and those who prefer consistent side lying.

  17. Is there a relationship between foetal position and both preferred lying posture after birth and pattern of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant people with cerebral palsy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D; Michael, S; Kirkwood, C

    2010-09-01

    A pattern of postural deformity was observed in a previous study that included an association between direction of spinal curvature and direction of windsweeping with more windswept deformities occurring to the right and lateral spinal curvatures occurring convex to the left. The direction of this pattern was found to be associated with preferred lying posture in early life. The aim of this study was to test the association between foetal position and both the preferred lying posture after birth, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity in non-ambulant children with cerebral palsy (CP). A retrospective cohort study was carried out involving 60 participants at level five on the gross motor function classification for CP. Foetal position during the last month of pregnancy was taken from antenatal records and parents were interviewed to identify preferred lying posture in the first year of life. At the time of the physical assessment ages ranged from 1 year and 1 month to 19 years with a median age of 13 years and 1 month. Foetal presentation was found to be associated with the preferred lying posture with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral position more likely to adopt a supine head right lying posture, and vice versa. An association was also observed between the foetal position and asymmetrical postural deformity occurring later in life with participants carried in a left occipito-anterior/lateral presentation more likely to have a convex left spinal curve, a lower left pelvic obliquity, and a windswept hip pattern to the right. Clinicians should be aware of the association between foetal presentation, asymmetrical lying posture, and the direction of subsequent postural deformity for severely disabled children. A hypothesis is described that might help to explain these findings.

  18. Relationship between intratumoral expression of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes and benefit from adjuvant tamoxifen in estrogen receptor alpha-positive postmenopausal breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bièche, Ivan; Girault, Igor; Urbain, Estelle; Tozlu, Sengül; Lidereau, Rosette

    2004-01-01

    Little is known of the function and clinical significance of intratumoral dysregulation of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme expression in breast cancer. One molecular mechanism proposed to explain tamoxifen resistance is altered tamoxifen metabolism and bioavailability. To test this hypothesis, we used real-time quantitative RT-PCR to quantify the mRNA expression of a large panel of genes coding for the major xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (12 phase I enzymes, 12 phase II enzymes and three members of the ABC transporter family) in a small series of normal breast (and liver) tissues, and in estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-negative and ERα-positive breast tumors. Relevant genes were further investigated in a well-defined cohort of 97 ERα-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients treated with primary surgery followed by adjuvant tamoxifen alone. Seven of the 27 genes showed very weak or undetectable expression in both normal and tumoral breast tissues. Among the 20 remaining genes, seven genes (CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5, NAT1, SULT2B1, GSTM3 and ABCC11) showed significantly higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in normal breast tissue, or showed higher mRNA levels in ERα-positive breast tumors than in ERα-negative breast tumors. In the 97 ERα-positive breast tumor series, most alterations of these seven genes corresponded to upregulations as compared with normal breast tissue, with an incidence ranging from 25% (CYP2A6) to 79% (NAT1). Downregulation was rare. CYP2A6, CYP2B6, FMO5 and NAT1 emerged as new putative ERα-responsive genes in human breast cancer. Relapse-free survival was longer among patients with FMO5-overexpressing tumors or NAT1-overexpressing tumors (P = 0.0066 and P = 0.000052, respectively), but only NAT1 status retained prognostic significance in Cox multivariate regression analysis (P = 0.0013). Taken together, these data point to a role of genes coding for xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in breast tumorigenesis, NAT1 being an

  19. Revealing roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2018-01-01

    against the motorway’s grain. Based on moving with selected walkers who conduct ‘deliberately slow travelling’, and tracing the narratives of time-based civic art projects, the chapter explores the spectral dimensions of motorways in the UK. The chapter ends by positioning their streams of traffic as much...

  20. Hydroxypropyl-β-CD vs. its α-homologue for a 3D modified polyrotaxane network formation and properties: the relationship between modified CD and polymer revealed through comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao; Zheng, Zhen; Su, Shan; Yu, Lin; Wang, Xinling

    2016-09-14

    The threading mechanism of the hydroxypropyl-cyclodextrin (Hy-CD)/tetrahedron-like poly(ethylene glycol) (tetra-PEG) based host-guest complex and the relationship between Hy-CD and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) in the three-dimensional modified polyrotaxane (PR) formed by the complex were revealed through the comparison between Hy-β-CD/tetra-PEG and Hy-α-CD/tetra-PEG based systems from the macroscopic material view to the microscopic molecular view. The complexation between Hy-CD and tetra-PEG in water experiences a threading-dethreading-rethreading process which is controlled by the intermolecular interaction intensity or molecular hindrance depending on the feed ratio of Hy-CD to tetra-PEG. In the 3D modified PR, the methyl group of the Hy part on one Hy-CD can insert into the cavity of the adjacent Hy-CD and interacts with both the interior surface of the cavity and the PEO segment within the cavity if the cavity of Hy-CD is large enough. The threaded Hy-CD in the PR straightens the chain of PEO and suppresses the segment motion of the PEO. With the decrease of the cavity size of Hy-CD, the degree of suppression on the segment motion of PEO increases. Hy-CD threaded on the PEO chain can also deform when the 3D modified PR is compressed, and the degree of deformation increases with the increase of the cavity size of Hy-CD. These results of the modified CD/PEG based complex system set it apart from the unmodified CD/PEG based one, and reveal the structure-property relationship of this new type of Hy-CD/tetra-PEG based 3D modified PR material.

  1. Relación entre el virus humano herpes 8 y el sarcoma de Kaposi en pacientes positivos y negativos para el VIH Relationship between human herpes virus 8 and Kaposi sarcomain HIV positive and negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ OROZCO

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Parece existir una relación de causalidad entre la infección por el virus humano herpes 8 ( human Herpesvirus 8, HHV-8 y el desarrollo de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente en la población positiva para virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH. Objetivo. Fue determinar la relación entre los resultados serológicos positivos para HHV-8 y el sarcoma de Kaposi en pacientes positivos y negativos para VIH de Medellín, buscando la relación con distintas variables. Materiales y métodos. Es un estudio descriptivo, de cohorte, prospectivo, del suero de 98 pacientes de diferentes instituciones de salud de Medellín, los cuales se dividieron en cuatro grupos para determinar por inmunofluorescencia su seropositividad frente a HHV-8 y poder asociar en forma univariada y bivariada con diferentes variables. Resultados. Se estudiaron 98 sueros. En el grupo de pacientes con sarcoma de Kaposi y VIH, 83,3% fueron positivos para HHV- 8, en el grupo sin sarcoma de Kaposi pero con sífilis, 20,8% fueron positivos para HHV-8, en el grupo sin sarcoma de Kaposi pero VIH positivos, 8% fueron positivos para HHV-8 y en el grupo de sueros de banco de sangre, 4% fueron positivos para HHV-8. La presencia de sarcoma de Kaposi no tuvo relación con la evolución de la enfermedad por VIH ni con el recuento de CD4/ml. Conclusiones. El HHV-8 circula en nuestro medio y existe una relación entre la infección por este virus y el desarrollo de sarcoma de Kaposi, especialmente en pacientes con enfermedades de transmisión sexual y VIH positivos.Background: Apparently, there is a relationship between human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection and Kaposi´ sarcoma, especially in HIV-positive population. Objectives: To define the relationship between seropositivity against HHV- 8 and Kaposi´ sarcoma in an HIV positive and negative population from Medellín, looking for its relationship with different variables. Methods: It is a descriptive, cohort, prospective study which

  2. The Relationship of Repeated Technical Assistance Support Visits to the Delivery of Positive Health, Dignity, and Prevention (PHDP) Messages by Healthcare Providers in Mozambique: A Longitudinal Multilevel Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Sarah A; Amico, K Rivet; Hunguana, Elsa; Munguambe, António Orlando; Rose, Carol Dawson

    Positive health, dignity, and prevention (PHDP) is Mozambique's strategy to engage clinicians in the delivery of prevention messages to their HIV-positive clients. This national implementation strategy uses provider trainings on offering key messages and focuses on intervening on 9 evidence-based risk reduction areas. We investigated the impact of longitudinal technical assistance (TA) as an addition to this basic training. We followed 153 healthcare providers in 5 Mozambican provinces over 6 months to evaluate the impact of on-site, observation-based TA on PHDP implementation. Longitudinal multilevel models were estimated to model change in PHDP message delivery over time among individual providers. With each additional TA visit, providers delivered about 1 additional PHDP message ( P < .001); clinicians and nonclinicians started at about the same baseline level, but clinicians improved more quickly ( P = .004). Message delivery varied by practice sector; maternal and child health sectors outperformed other sectors. Longitudinal TA helped reach the programmatic goals of the PHDP program in Mozambique.

  3. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) at the mouse melanocortin receptors. 1. Modifications at the His position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2002-06-20

    The melanocortin pathway is an important participant in obesity and energy homeostasis. The centrally located melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC3R, MC4R) are involved in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). The melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp", and it has been well documented that inversion of chirality of the Phe to DPhe results in a dramatic increase in melanocortin receptor potency. Herein, we report a tetrapeptide library based on the template Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2), consisting of 17 members that have been modified at the His(6) position (alpha-MSH numbering) and pharmacologically characterized for agonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. These studies provide further experimental evidence that the His(6) position can determine MC4R versus MC3R agonist selectivity and that chemically nonreactive side chains may be substituted for the imidazole ring (generally needs to be side chain protected in synthetic schemes) in the design of MC4R-selective, small-molecule, non-peptide agonists. Specifically, the tetrapeptide containing the amino-2-naphthylcarboxylic acid (Anc) amino acid at the His position resulted in a potent agonist at the mMC4R (EC(50) = 21 nM), was a weak mMC3R micromolar antagonist (pA(2) = 5.6, K(i) = 2.5 microM), and possessed >4700-fold agonist selectivity for the MC4R versus the MC3R. Substitution of the His(6) amino acid in the tetrapeptide template by the Phe, Anc, 3-(2-thienyl)alanine (2Thi), and 3-(4-pyridinyl)alanine (4-Pal) resulted in equipotency or only up to a 7-fold decrease in potency, compared to the His(6)-containing tetrapeptide at the mMC4R, demonstrating that these amino acid side chains may be substituted for the imidazole in the design of MC4R-selective non-peptide molecules.

  4. Relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic position and neighbourhood public green space availability: An environmental inequality analysis in a large German city applying generalized linear models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Gabriel, Katharina M A; Bolte, Gabriele

    2017-06-01

    The environmental justice framework states that besides environmental burdens also resources may be social unequally distributed both on the individual and on the neighbourhood level. This ecological study investigated whether neighbourhood socioeconomic position (SEP) was associated with neighbourhood public green space availability in a large German city with more than 1 million inhabitants. Two different measures were defined for green space availability. Firstly, percentage of green space within neighbourhoods was calculated with the additional consideration of various buffers around the boundaries. Secondly, percentage of green space was calculated based on various radii around the neighbourhood centroid. An index of neighbourhood SEP was calculated with principal component analysis. Log-gamma regression from the group of generalized linear models was applied in order to consider the non-normal distribution of the response variable. All models were adjusted for population density. Low neighbourhood SEP was associated with decreasing neighbourhood green space availability including 200m up to 1000m buffers around the neighbourhood boundaries. Low neighbourhood SEP was also associated with decreasing green space availability based on catchment areas measured from neighbourhood centroids with different radii (1000m up to 3000 m). With an increasing radius the strength of the associations decreased. Social unequally distributed green space may amplify environmental health inequalities in an urban context. Thus, the identification of vulnerable neighbourhoods and population groups plays an important role for epidemiological research and healthy city planning. As a methodical aspect, log-gamma regression offers an adequate parametric modelling strategy for positively distributed environmental variables. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigating the form-function interface in African apes: Relationships between principal moments of area and positional behaviors in femoral and humeral diaphyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Kristian J

    2005-07-01

    Investigations of cross-sectional geometry in nonhuman primate limb bones typically attribute shape ratios to qualitative behavioral characterizations, e.g., leaper, slow climber, brachiator, or terrestrial vs. arboreal quadruped. Quantitative positional behavioral data, however, have yet to be used in a rigorous evaluation of such shape-behavior connections. African apes represent an ideal population for such an investigation because their relatedness minimizes phylogenetic inertia, they exhibit diverse behavioral repertoires, and their locomotor behaviors are known from multiple studies. Cross-sectional data from femoral and humeral diaphyses were collected for 222 wild-shot specimens, encompassing Pan paniscus and all commonly recognized African ape subspecies. Digital representations of diaphyseal cross sections were acquired via computed tomography at three locations per diaphysis. Locomotor behaviors were pooled broadly into arboreal and terrestrial categories, then partitioned into quadrupedal walking, quadrumanous climbing, scrambling, and suspensory categories. Sex-specific taxonomic differences in ratios of principal moments of area (PMA) were statistically significant more often in the femoral diaphysis than the humeral diaphysis. While it appears difficult to relate a measure of shape (e.g., PMA ratio) to individual locomotor modes, general locomotor differences (e.g., percentage arboreal vs. terrestrial locomotion) are discerned more easily. As percentage of arboreal locomotion for a group increases, average cross sections appear more circular. Associations between PMA ratio and specific locomotor behaviors are less straightforward. Individual behaviors that integrate eccentric limb positions (e.g., arboreal scrambling) may not engender more circular cross sections than behaviors that incorporate repetitive sagittal movements (e.g., quadrupedal walking) in a straightforward manner. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  6. Relationship between Forest Color Characteristics and Scenic Beauty: Case Study Analyzing Pictures of Mountainous Forests at Sloped Positions in Jiuzhai Valley, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Zhang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Forests are important place for outdoor recreation and scenery appreciation. So in order to better meet the needs of the public, forest appreciation has received increasing attention from foresters in recent years. However, related research is still limited. Therefore, this paper seeks to examine the relationship between forest colors (measured by specific elements and spatial indices of color and Scenic Beauty Estimation values. We researched Jiuzhai Valley in China by selecting 104 pictures to determine the scenic beauty estimation values of forests in a mountainous region. Quantitative color elements were extracted by programming on Matlab, and spatial indices of color patches were extracted by ArcGIS and FRAGSTATS. A total of 23 indices were obtained to explain the color characteristics of each forest picture. The results showed that the yellow and red colors were the main mutable colors of Jiuzhai Valley in autumn, but the color patches index had no significant change over time in that season. After partial correlation analysis, principal component analysis, and cluster analysis, we found that 14 color elements, eight color patch factors and six particular indices had an effect on the SBE values, which can then be used to efficiently measure and enhance the forest color beauty of Jiuzhai Valley.

  7. Structure-Activity Relationships of New Natural Product-Based Diaryloxazoles with Selective Activity against Androgen Receptor-Positive Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Andrew J; McCowen, Shelby; Cai, Shengxin; Glassman, Michaels; Ruiz, Francisco; Cichewicz, Robert H; McHardy, Stanton F; Mooberry, Susan L

    2017-11-22

    Targeted therapies for ER+/PR+ and HER2-amplified breast cancers have improved patient survival, but there are no therapies for triple negative breast cancers (TNBC) that lack expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER/PR), or amplification or overexpression of HER2. Gene expression profiling of TNBC has identified molecular subtypes and representative cell lines. An extract of the Texas native plant Amyris texana was found to have selective activity against MDA-MB-453 cells, a model of the luminal androgen receptor (LAR) subtype of TNBC. Bioassay-guided fractionation identified two oxazole natural products with selective activity against this cell line. Conducted analog synthesis and structure-activity relationship studies provided analogs with more potent and selective activity against two LAR subtype cell line models, culminating in the discovery of compound 30 (CIDD-0067106). Lead compounds discovered have potent and selective antiproliferative activities, and mechanisms of action studies show they inhibit the activity of the mTORC1 pathway.

  8. Phantom position dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorson, M.R.; Endres, G.W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Sensitivity of the Hanford dosimeter response to its position relative to the phantom and the neutron source has always been recognized. A thorough investigation was performed to quantify dosimeter response according to: (a) dosimeter position on phantom, (b) dosimeter distance from phantom, and (c) angular relationship of dosimeter relative to neutron source and phantom. Results were obtained for neutron irradiation at several different energies

  9. The death of recency: Relationship between end-state comfort and serial position effects in serial recall: Logan and Fischman (2011) revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Samuel W; Fischman, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    Two experiments examined the dynamic interaction between cognitive resources in short-term memory and bimanual object manipulation by extending recent research by Logan and Fischman (2011). In Experiment 1, 16 participants completed a bimanual end-state comfort task and a memory task requiring serial recall of 12 words or pictures. The end-state comfort task involved moving two glasses between two shelves. Participants viewed the items, performed the end-state comfort task, and then serially recalled the items. Recall was evaluated by the presence or absence of primacy and recency effects. The end-state comfort effect (ESCE) was assessed by the percentage of initial hand positions that allowed the hands to end comfortably. The main findings indicated that the ESCE was disrupted; the primacy effect remained intact; and the recency effect disappeared regardless of the type of memory item recalled. In Experiment 2, 16 participants viewed six items, performed an end-state comfort task, viewed another six items, and then serially recalled all 12 items. Results were essentially the same as in Experiment 1. Findings suggest that executing a bimanual end-state comfort task, regardless of when it is completed during a memory task, diminishes the recency effect irrespective of the type of memory item. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH2 at the mouse melanocortin receptors. Part 3: modifications at the Arg position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Xiang, Zhimin; Bauzo, Rayna M; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2003-01-01

    The melanocortin pathway is involved in the regulation of several physiological functions including skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis, and exocrine gland function. This melanocortin pathway consists of five known G-protein coupled receptors, endogenous agonists derived from the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene transcript, the endogenous antagonists Agouti and the Agouti-related protein (AGRP) and signals through the intracellular cAMP signal transduction pathway. The melanocortin-3 receptor (MC3R) and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) located in the brain are implicated as participating in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). All the endogenous (POMC-derived) melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp." Herein, we report 12 tetrapeptides, based upon the template Ac-His(6)-DPhe(7)-Arg(8)-Trp(9)-NH(2) (alpha-MSH numbering) that have been modified at the Arg(8) position by neutral, basic, or acidic amino acid side chains. These peptides have been pharmacologically characterized for agonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The most notable results of this study include the observation that removal of the guanidinyl side chain moiety results in decreased melanocortin receptor potency, but that this Arg(8) side chain is not critical for melanocortin receptor agonist activity. Additionally, incorporation of the homoArg(8) residue results in 56-fold MC4R versus MC3R selectivity, and the Orn(8) residue results in 123-fold MC4R versus MC5R and 63-fold MC5R versus MC3R selectivity. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.

  11. Revealing Rembrandt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The power and significance of artwork in shaping human cognition is self-evident. The starting point for our empirical investigations is the view that the task of neuroscience is to integrate itself with other forms of knowledge, rather than to seek to supplant them. In our recent work, we examined a particular aspect of the appreciation of artwork using present-day functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Our results emphasised the continuity between viewing artwork and other human cognitive activities. We also showed that appreciation of a particular aspect of artwork, namely authenticity, depends upon the co-ordinated activity between the brain regions involved in multiple decision making and those responsible for processing visual information. The findings about brain function probably have no specific consequences for understanding how people respond to the art of Rembrandt in comparison with their response to other artworks. However, the use of images of Rembrandt’s portraits, his most intimate and personal works, clearly had a significant impact upon our viewers, even though they have been spatially confined to the interior of an MRI scanner at the time of viewing. Neuroscientific studies of humans viewing artwork have the capacity to reveal the diversity of human cognitive responses that may be induced by external advice or context as people view artwork in a variety of frameworks and settings.

  12. Structure-activity relationships of the melanocortin tetrapeptide Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) at the mouse melanocortin receptors: part 2 modifications at the Phe position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holder, Jerry Ryan; Bauzo, Rayna M; Xiang, Zhimin; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie

    2002-07-04

    The melanocortin pathway is an important participant in skin pigmentation, steroidogenesis, obesity, energy homeostasis and exocrine gland function. The centrally located melanocortin-3 and melanocortin-4 receptors (MC3R, MC4R) are involved in the metabolic and food intake aspects of energy homeostasis and are stimulated by melanocortin agonists such as alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone (alpha-MSH). The melanocortin agonists contain the putative message sequence "His-Phe-Arg-Trp," and it has been well-documented that inversion of chirality of the Phe to DPhe results in a dramatic increase in melanocortin receptor potency. Herein, we report a tetrapeptide library, based upon the template Ac-His-DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2), consisting of 26 members that have been modified at the DPhe(7) position (alpha-MSH numbering) and pharmacologically characterized for agonist and antagonist activity at the mouse melanocortin receptors MC1R, MC3R, MC4R, and MC5R. The most notable results of this study include the identification of the tetrapeptide Ac-His-(pI)DPhe-Arg-Trp-NH(2) that is a full nanomolar agonist at the mMC1 and mMC5 receptors, a mMC3R partial agonist with potent antagonist activity (pA(2) = 7.25, K(i) = 56 nM) and, but unexpectedly, is a potent agonist at the mMC4R (EC(50) = 25 nM). This ligand possesses novel melanocortin receptor pharmacology, as compared to previously reported peptides, and is potentially useful for in vivo studies to differentiate MC3R vs MC4R physiological roles in animal models, such as primates, where "knockout" animals are not viable options. The DNal(2') substitution for DPhe resulted in a mMC3R partial agonist with antagonist activity (pA(2) = 6.5, K(i) = 295 nM) and a mMC4R (pA(2) = 7.8, K(i) = 17 nM) antagonist possessing 60- and 425-fold decreased potency, respectively, as compared with SHU9119 at these receptors. Examination of this DNal(2')-containing tetrapeptide at the F254S and F259S mutant mMC4Rs resulted in agonist activity of this m

  13. Relationship between open-circuit voltage in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cell and peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation near its absorber surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chantana, J., E-mail: jakapan@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp; Minemoto, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, T.; Teraji, S.; Kawamura, K. [Environment and Energy Research Center, Nitto Denko Corporation, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-11-25

    Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) absorbers with various Ga/III, Ga/(In+Ga), profiles are prepared by the so-called “multi-layer precursor method” using multi-layer co-evaporation of material sources. It is revealed that open-circuit voltage (V{sub OC}) of CIGS solar cell is primarily dependent on averaged Ga/III near the surface of its absorber. This averaged Ga/III is well predicted by peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation of CIGS film near its surface investigated by glancing-incidence X-ray diffraction with 0.1° incident angle. Finally, the peak position of (220/204) preferred orientation is proposed as a measure of V{sub OC} before solar cell fabrication.

  14. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities following disclosure of transsexualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegría, C Aramburu

    2010-12-01

    • Transsexual persons are increasing their visibility in society, and health care providers and others (such as social workers) will be called upon to help with issues that transsexual persons face. Challenges that face transsexual persons often include issues involving relationships. Psychiatric and mental health nurses and other caregivers can increase their therapeutic skills in working with couples that include transsexual persons by becoming aware of these challenges and subsequent activities that can help with them. • This research study looks at couple relationships in which one partner reveals male-to-female transsexual identity. These are relationships that were established as man-woman and now will transition into relationships that include a male-to-female person and a female partner. • Common challenges for these couples include issues related to: (1) sexual identity and relationship uncertainty; (2) male-to-female transition decision making; and (3) presenting in public. • Relationship maintenance activities that helped the couples in the study maintain and strengthen their relationships through these challenges include: (1) communication; (2) self-talk (for example, putting the situation in perspective); (3) social networks; (4) positive interactions; (5) impression management (for example, managing displays of affection in public); and (6) social activism. This qualitative study describes the relational dynamics that help sustain relationships of couples that include male-to-female transsexual persons (MTF) and their natal female partners (NF) following disclosure of transsexualism. Relationship challenges and relationship maintenance activities are identified. Each partner in 17 MTF-NF couples participated in individual surveys and interviews. The data were coded for themes related to relationship challenges and activities. MTF-NF couples experience challenges within the contexts of their relationships and of society. These challenges

  15. Exploring the impact of marital relationship on the mental health of children: Does parent-child relationship matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunkai; Jiang, Shan; Fan, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiunv

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the associations between marital relationships and parent-child relationships on children's mental health. Participants included 19,487 students from the 2013-2014 baseline China Education Panel Survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to analyze the data and results revealed that marital and parent-child relationships positively affected children's mental health. Parent-child relationship also played a mediating role between marital relationship and children's mental health. The unique contributions of this study and its theoretical and practical implications were discussed.

  16. A Relationship Strategy Perspective on Relationship Portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritter, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...... managers to determine appropriate customer relationship strategies and appropriate performance indicators. Results from applying the portfolio model are reported and managerial implications and future research are discussed.......The paper develops a three-dimensional portfolio model for business relationships which distinguishes among six different categories. Based on assessments of customer profitability, customer commitment, and growth potential, the positioning of a given customer relationship in the portfolio allows...

  17. Position Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Position Information Data Asset provides the ability to search for active SSA position descriptions using various search criteria. An individual may search by PD...

  18. Positive Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. Ubiquitous positioning

    CERN Document Server

    Mannings, Robin

    2008-01-01

    This groundbreaking resource offers a practical, in-depth understanding of Ubiquitous Positioning - positioning systems that identify the location and position of people, vehicles and objects in time and space in the digitized networked economy. The future and growth of ubiquitous positioning will be fueled by the convergence of many other areas of technology, from mobile telematics, Internet technology, and location systems, to sensing systems, geographic information systems, and the semantic web. This first-of-its-kind volume explores ubiquitous positioning from a convergence perspective, of

  20. Relationships matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyanja, Tabitha Alexandria Njeri; Tulinius, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    -depth interviews and focus group discussions with 37 sexually active HIV-positive women aged between 20 and 44 years, attending three health facilities within Dar-es-Salaam. The theoretical framework was a patient centred model. Four barriers were identified: the influence of the women’s spousal relationships...... women experienced conflicts, violence, abandonment and rejection. The loss in negotiating power for the women was in relation to their intimate partners, but also in the patient–healthcare provider relationship. The role of the male partner as a barrier to contraceptive use cannot be understated...

  1. Detailed molecular analyses of the hexon loop-1 and fibers of fowl aviadenoviruses reveal new insights into the antigenic relationship and confirm that specific genotypes are involved in field outbreaks of inclusion body hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachner, Anna; Marek, Ana; Grafl, Beatrice; Hess, Michael

    2016-04-15

    Forty-eight fowl aviadenoviruses (FAdVs) isolated from recent IBH outbreaks across Europe were investigated, by utilizing for the first time the two major adenoviral antigenic domains, hexon loop-1 and fiber, for compound molecular characterization of IBH-associated FAdVs. Successful target gene amplification, following virus isolation in cell culture or from FTA-card samples, demonstrated presence of FAdVs in all cases indicative for IBH. Based on hexon loop-1 analysis, 31 European field isolates exhibited highest nucleotide identity (>97.2%) to reference strains FAdV-2 or -11 representing FAdV-D, while 16 and one European isolates shared >96.0% nucleotide identity with FAdV-8a and -8b, or FAdV-7, the prototype strains representing FAdV-E. These results extend recognition of specific FAdV-D and FAdV-E affiliate genotypes as causative agents of IBH to the European continent. In all isolates, species specificity determined by fiber gene analysis correlated with hexon-based typing. A threshold of 72.0% intraspecies nucleotide identity between fibers from investigated prototype and field strains corresponded with demarcation criteria proposed for hexon, suggesting fiber-based analysis as a complementary tool for molecular FAdV typing. A limited number of strains exhibited inconsistencies between hexon and fiber subclustering, indicating potential constraints for single-gene based typing of those FAdVs. Within FAdV-D, field isolate fibers shared a high degree of nucleotide (>96.7%) and aa (>95.8%) identity, while FAdV-E field isolate fibers displayed greater nucleotide divergence of up to 22.6%, resulting in lower aa identities of >81.7%. Furthermore, comparison with FAdVs from IBH outbreaks outside Europe revealed close genetic relationship in the fiber, independent of the strains' geographic origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Relationship between Widening and Position of the Tunnels and Clinical Results of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction to Knee Osteoarthritis: 30 Patients at a Minimum Follow-Up of 10 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala-Mejias, Juan Diego; Garcia-Gonzalez, Benjamin; Alcocer-Perez-España, Luis; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Berjano, Pedro

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the relationship between tunnel position and widening and long-term clinical results in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, a retrospective cohort of 30 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction with double semitendinous plus double gracilis (SAC technique) with longer than 10-year follow-up was selected. CT scans in the first 3 months and at final follow-up was evaluated. Position, angle, and widening of tunnels including Nebelung criteria were recorded in all CT scans. Physical, KT-1000, and clinical evaluation were performed at final follow-up. Outcomes and knee arthritis severity were evaluated at final follow-up. Mean follow-up was 11.2 ± 1.2. At final follow-up, 85 and 57% of tibial and femoral tunnels, respectively, developed some degree of enlargement. Frontal tibial angle (mean) was 72°, sagittal tibial angle 63°, frontal femoral angle 47°, sagittal femoral angle 20°, and tunnels divergence angle 36°. Preoperatively, KT-1000 30L and Lachman test scores were 5.52 and 5.79 respectively. In the last follow-up, 30L and manual Lachman test scores were 0.97 and 1.13, respectively ( p  verticalization. Tibial tunnel dilation was associated with long-term degenerative changes but not with final knee instability. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  3. Researcher positioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Line Lerche; Khawaja, Iram

    2009-01-01

    abstract  This article focuses on the complex and multi-layered process of researcher positioning, specifically in relation to the politically sensitive study of marginalised and ‘othered' groups such as Muslims living in Denmark. We discuss the impact of different ethnic, religious and racial...... political and personal involvement by the researcher, which challenges traditional perspectives on research and researcher positioning. A key point in this regard is the importance of constant awareness of and reflection on the multiple ways in which one's positioning as a researcher influences the research...

  4. Analysis of positive control STR experiments reveals that results obtained for FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317 condition the success rate of the analysis of routine reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murigneux, Valentine; Dufour, Anne-Béatrice; Lobry, Jean R; Pène, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    About 120,000 reference samples are analyzed each year in the Forensic Laboratory of Lyon. A total of 1640 positive control experiments used to validate and optimize the analytical method in the routine process were submitted to a multivariate exploratory data analysis approach with the aim of better understanding the underlying sources of variability. The peak heights of the 16 genetic markers targeted by the AmpFℓSTR(®) Identifiler(®) STR kit were used as variables of interest. Six different 3130xl genetic analyzers located in the same controlled environment were involved. Two major sources of variability were found: (i) the DNA load of the sample modulates all peak heights in a similar way so that the 16 markers are highly correlated, (ii) the genetic analyzer used with a locus-specific response for peak height and a better sensitivity for the most recently acquired. Three markers (FGA, D3S1358, and D13S317) were found to be of special interest to predict the success rate observed in the routine process. © 2014 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  6. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, Vsevolod

    1975-01-01

    A circuitry for deriving the quotient of signal delivered by position-sensitive detectors is described. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10- to 12-bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words

  7. Position encoder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goursky, V.

    1975-05-01

    This paper describes circuitry for deriving the quotient of signals delivered by position-sensitive detectors. Digital output is obtained in the form of 10 to 12 bit words. Impact position may be determined with 0.25% accuracy when the dynamic range of the energy signal is less than 1:10, and 0.5% accuracy when the dynamic range is 1:20. The division requires an average time of 5μs for 10-bit words [fr

  8. International Entrepreneurship: A Meta-Analysis on the Internationalization and Performance Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwens, Christian; Zapkau, F.B.; Bierwerth, Michael; Isidor, Rodrigo; Knight, Gary; Kabst, Rüdiger

    2018-01-01

    The article conducts a meta-analysis on the relationship between internationalization and firm performance in international entrepreneurship. Empirical evidence from 15,648 internationalizing entrepreneurial firms nested in 43 independent samples reveals a positive relationship between degree and

  9. Physical activity measurement in older adults: relationships with mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Sarah J; Strath, Scott J; Swartz, Ann M

    2008-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between physical activity (PA) and mental health among older adults as measured by objective and subjective PA-assessment instruments. Pedometers (PED), accelerometers (ACC), and the Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly (PASE) were administered to measure 1 week of PA among 84 adults age 55-87 (mean = 71) years. General mental health was measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS) and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWL). Linear regressions revealed that PA estimated by PED significantly predicted 18.1%, 8.3%, and 12.3% of variance in SWL and positive and negative affect, respectively, whereas PA estimated by the PASE did not predict any mental health variables. Results from ACC data were mixed. Hotelling-William tests between correlation coefficients revealed that the relationship between PED and SWL was significantly stronger than the relationship between PASE and SWL. Relationships between PA and mental health might depend on the PA measure used.

  10. Group identity and positive deviance in work groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon Joung; Choi, Jin Nam

    2017-12-05

    This study examines why and how identity cognitions, including group identification and individual differentiation, influence the positive deviance of employees. We identify the risk-taking intention of employees as a critical psychological mechanism to overcome stigma-induced identity threat of positive deviance. The analysis of data collected from 293 members comprising 66 work teams reveals that the relationship between individual differentiation and positive deviance is partially mediated by risk-taking intention. The indirect effect of group identification on positive deviance through risk-taking intention is also significant and positive in groups with low conformity pressure, whereas the same indirect effect is neutralized in groups with high conformity pressure. The current analysis offers new insights into the way the group context and the identity cognition of members explain the development of positive deviance and workplace creativity.

  11. Multicolor immunofluorescence reveals that p63- and/or K5-positive progenitor cells contribute to normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Werner; Stenman, Göran; Schroeder, Tina; Schumacher, Udo; Loening, Thomas; Stahnke, Lisa; Löhnert, Catharina; Siering, Robert Michael; Kuper, Arthur; Samoilova, Vera; Tiemann, Markus; Korsching, Eberhard; Buchwalow, Igor

    2017-05-01

    We contend that knowledge about the cellular composition of normal breast epithelium is a prerequisite for understanding proliferative breast disease. Against this background, we used multicolor immunofluorescence to study normal breast epithelium and two types of intraepithelial proliferative breast lesion for expression of the p63, basal keratin K5, glandular keratin K8/18, SMA, ER-alpha, and Ki67. We studied eight normal breast epithelium samples, 12 cases of usual ductal hyperplasia, and 33 cases of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (9 flat epithelial atypia, 14 low-grade ductal carcinoma in situ and 10 cases of lobular neoplasia). Usual ductal hyperplasia showed striking similarity to normal luminal breast epithelium including p63+ and/or K5+ luminal progenitor cells and the full spectrum of luminal progeny cells. In normal breast epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, expression of ER-alpha was associated with lack of expression of the proliferation antigen Ki67. In contrast, we found in both types of low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia robust expression of keratin K8/18 and a positive association between ER-alpha and Ki67 expression. However, these lesions were consistently negative for p63 and/or K5. Our observational study supports the view that usual ductal hyperplasia and low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia are different entities rather than part of a spectrum of the same disease. We propose a new operational model of cell differentiation that may serve to better understand correlations between normal breast epithelium and proliferative breast diseases. From our data we conclude that p63+ and/or K5+ progenitor cells contribute to maintenance of normal epithelium and usual ductal hyperplasia, but not to low-grade intraepithelial neoplasia of the breast.

  12. Instructors' Positive Emotions: Effects on Student Engagement and Critical Thinking in U.S. and Chinese Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jibiao

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we used the broaden-and-build theory and emotional response theory as the framework to examine the effects of instructors' positive emotions on student engagement and critical thinking in U.S. and Chinese classrooms, as well as the mediating role of students' positive emotions in their relationships. MANOVA results revealed no…

  13. Oligotyping reveals stronger relationship of organic soil bacterial community structure with N-amendments and soil chemistry in comparison to that of mineral soil at Harvard Forest, MA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turlapati, Swathi A; Minocha, Rakesh; Long, Stephanie; Ramsdell, Jordan; Minocha, Subhash C

    2015-01-01

    The impact of chronic nitrogen amendments on bacterial communities was evaluated at Harvard Forest, Petersham, MA, USA. Thirty soil samples (3 treatments × 2 soil horizons × 5 subplots) were collected in 2009 from untreated (control), low nitrogen-amended (LN; 50 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) yr(-1)) and high nitrogen-amended (HN; 150 kg NH4NO3 ha(-1) yr(-1)) plots. PCR-amplified partial 16S rRNA gene sequences made from soil DNA were subjected to pyrosequencing (Turlapati et al., 2013) and analyses using oligotyping. The parameters M (the minimum count of the most abundant unique sequence in an oligotype) and s (the minimum number of samples in which an oligotype is expected to be present) had to be optimized for forest soils because of high diversity and the presence of rare organisms. Comparative analyses of the pyrosequencing data by oligotyping and operational taxonomic unit clustering tools indicated that the former yields more refined units of taxonomy with sequence similarity of ≥99.5%. Sequences affiliated with four new phyla and 73 genera were identified in the present study as compared to 27 genera reported earlier from the same data (Turlapati et al., 2013). Significant rearrangements in the bacterial community structure were observed with N-amendments revealing the presence of additional genera in N-amended plots with the absence of some that were present in the control plots. Permutational MANOVA analyses indicated significant variation associated with soil horizon and N treatment for a majority of the phyla. In most cases soil horizon partitioned more variation relative to treatment and treatment effects were more evident for the organic (Org) horizon. Mantel test results for Org soil showed significant positive correlations between bacterial communities and most soil parameters including NH4 and NO3. In mineral soil, correlations were seen only with pH, NH4, and NO3. Regardless of the pipeline used, a major hindrance for such a study remains to be the lack

  14. Oligotyping reveals stronger relationship of organic soil bacterial community structure with N-amendments and soil chemistry in comparison to that of mineral soil at Harvard Forest, MA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Anuradha Turlapati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of chronic nitrogen amendments on bacterial communities was evaluated at Harvard Forest, Petersham MA. Thirty soil samples (3 treatments x 2 soil horizons x 5 subplots were collected in 2009 from untreated (control, low nitrogen-amended (LN; 50 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1 and high nitrogen-amended (HN; 150 kg NH4NO3 ha-1 yr-1 plots. PCR-amplified partial 16S rDNA sequences made from soil DNA were subjected to pyrosequencing (Turlapati et al., 2013 and analyses using oligotyping. The parameters M (the minimum count of the most abundant unique sequence in an oligotype and s (minimum number of samples in which an oligotype is expected to be present had to be optimized for forest soils because of high diversity and the presence of rare organisms. Comparative analyses of the pyrosequencing data by oligotyping and OTU (Operational Taxonomic Unit clustering tools indicated that the former yields more refined units of taxonomy with sequence similarity of ≥99.5%. Sequences affiliated with 4 new phyla and 73 genera were identified in the present study as compared to 27 genera reported earlier from the same data (Turlapati et al., 2013. Significant rearrangements in the bacterial community structure were observed with N-amendments revealing the presence of additional genera in N-amended plots with the absence of some that were present in the control plots. Permutational M