WorldWideScience

Sample records for reusable launch system

  1. Navigation System for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Schlotterer, Markus

    2008-01-01

    PHOENIX is a downscaled experimental vehicle to demonstrate automatic landing capabilities of future Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). PHOENIX has flown in May 2004 at NEAT (North European Aerospace Test range) in Vidsel, Sweden. As the shape of the vehicle has been designed for re-entry, the dynamics are very high and almost unstable. This requires a fast and precise GNC system. This paper describes the navigation system and the navigation filter of PHOENIX. The system is introduced and the h...

  2. Integrated Navigation System for the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    An array of components in a laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is being tested by the Flight Mechanics Office to develop an integrated navigation system for the second generation reusable launch vehicle. The laboratory is testing Global Positioning System (GPS) components, a satellite-based location and navigation system, and Inertial Navigation System (INS) components, sensors on a vehicle that determine angular velocity and linear acceleration at various points. The GPS and INS components work together to provide a space vehicle with guidance and navigation, like the push of the OnStar button in your car assists you with directions to a specific address. The integration will enable the vehicle operating system to track where the vehicle is in space and define its trajectory. The use of INS components for navigation is not new to space technology. The Space Shuttle currently uses them. However, the Space Launch Initiative is expanding the technology to integrate GPS and INS components to allow the vehicle to better define its position and more accurately determine vehicle acceleration and velocity. This advanced technology will lower operational costs and enhance the safety of reusable launch vehicles by providing a more comprehensive navigation system with greater capabilities. In this photograph, Dr. Jason Chuang of MSFC inspects an INS component in the laboratory.

  3. Design of Neural Network Variable Structure Reentry Control System for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wei-jun; ZHOU Jun

    2008-01-01

    A flight control system is designed for a reusable launch vehicle with aerodynamic control surfaces and reaction control system based on a variable-structure control and neural network theory. The control problems of coupling among the channels and the uncertainty of model parameters are solved by using the method. High precise and robust tracking of required attitude angles can be achieved in complicated air space. A mathematical model of reusable launch vehicle is pre-sented first, and then a controller of flight system is presented. Base on the mathematical model, the controller is divided into two parts: variable-structure controller and neural network module which is used to modify the parameters of con-troller. This control system decouples the lateral/directional tunnels well with a neural network sliding mode controller and provides a robust and de-coupled tracking for mission angle profiles. After this a control allocation algorithm is employed to allocate the torque moments to aerodynamic control surfaces and thrusters. The final simulation shows that the control system has a good accurate, robust and de-coupled tracking performance. The stable state error is less than 1°, and the overshoot is less than 5%.

  4. Global atmospheric response to emissions from a proposed reusable space launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik J. L.; Portmann, Robert W.; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Fahey, David W.; Daniel, John S.; Ross, Martin N.

    2017-01-01

    Modern reusable launch vehicle technology may allow high flight rate space transportation at low cost. Emissions associated with a hydrogen fueled reusable rocket system are modeled based on the launch requirements of developing a space-based solar power system that generates present-day global electric energy demand. Flight rates from 104 to 106 per year are simulated and sustained to a quasisteady state. For the assumed rocket engine, H2O and NOX are the primary emission products; this also includes NOX produced during reentry heating. For a base case of 105 flights per year, global stratospheric and mesospheric water vapor increase by approximately 10 and 100%, respectively. As a result, high-latitude cloudiness increases in the lower stratosphere and near the mesopause by as much as 20%. Increased water vapor also results in global effective radiative forcing of about 0.03 W/m2. NOX produced during reentry exceeds meteoritic production by more than an order of magnitude, and along with in situ stratospheric emissions, results in a 0.5% loss of the globally averaged ozone column, with column losses in the polar regions exceeding 2%.

  5. Integrated Entry Guidance for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Guo-dong; ZHANG Shu-guang; FANG Zhen-ping

    2007-01-01

    A method for the implementation of integrated three-degree-of-freedom constrained entry guidance for reusable launch vehicle is presented. Given any feasible entry conditions, terminal area energy management interface conditions, and the reference trajectory generated onboard then, the method can generate a longitudinal guidance profile rapidly, featuring linear quadratic regular method and a proportional-integral-derivative tracking law with time-varying gains, which satisfies all the entry corridor constraints and meets the requirements with high precision. Afterwards, by utilizing special features of crossrange parameter, establishing bank-reversal corridor,and determining bank-reversals according to dynamically adjusted method, the algorithm enables the lateral entry guidance system to fly a wide range of missions and provides reliable and good performance in the presence of significant aerodynamic modeling uncertainty.Fast trajectory guidance profiles and simulations with a reusable launch vehicle model for various missions and aerodynamic uncertainties are presented to demonstrate the capacity and reliability of this method.

  6. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  7. Australia and the new reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalker, R. J.

    The new generation of reusable launch vehicles represented by ESA's Hermes and HOTOL, NASA's National Aerospace Plane, and the DFVLR's Saenger, promises to radically alter the economic basis of space flight by allowing such operations as the on-orbit servicing of satellites. Attention is presently drawn to the opportunities that arise for Australia's aerospace industry from the availability in Australia of two wind tunnel facilities capable of furnishing the requisite hypersonic aerothermodynamics testing capabilities for these vehicles' development.

  8. Bantam: A Systematic Approach to Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, Carolyn; Lyles, Garry

    1999-01-01

    The Bantam technology project is focused on providing a low cost launch capability for very small (100 kilogram) NASA and University science payloads. The cost goal has been set at one million dollars per launch. The Bantam project, however, represents much more than a small payload launch capability. Bantam represents a unique, systematic approach to reusable launch vehicle technology development. This technology maturation approach will enable future highly reusable launch concepts in any payload class. These launch vehicle concepts of the future could deliver payloads for hundreds of dollars per pound, enabling dramatic growth in civil and commercial space enterprise. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has demonstrated a better, faster, and cheaper approach to science discovery in recent years. This approach is exemplified by the successful Mars Exploration Program lead by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for the NASA Space Science Enterprise. The Bantam project represents an approach to space transportation technology maturation that is very similar to the Mars Exploration Program. The NASA Advanced Space Transportation Program (ASTP) and Future X Pathfinder Program will combine to systematically mature reusable space transportation technology from low technology readiness to system level flight demonstration. New reusable space transportation capability will be demonstrated at a small (Bantam) scale approximately every two years. Each flight demonstration will build on the knowledge derived from the previous flight tests. The Bantam scale flight demonstrations will begin with the flights of the X-34. The X-34 will demonstrate reusable launch vehicle technologies including; flight regimes up to Mach 8 and 250,000 feet, autonomous flight operations, all weather operations, twenty-five flights in one year with a surge capability of two flights in less than twenty-four hours and safe abort. The Bantam project will build on this initial

  9. NASA's Reusable Launch Vehicle Technologies: A Composite Materials Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, R. G., Jr.; Cook, Steve; Effinger, Mike; Smith, Dennis; Swint, Shayne

    1999-01-01

    A materials overview of the NASA's Earth-to-Orbit Space Transportation Program is presented. The topics discussed are: Earth-to-Orbit Goals and Challenges; Space Transportation Program Structure; Generations of Reusable Launch Vehicles; Space Transportation Derived Requirements; X 34 Demonstrator; Fastrac Engine System; Airframe Systems; Propulsion Systems; Cryotank Structures; Advanced Materials, Fabrication, Manufacturing, & Assembly; Hot and Cooled Airframe Structures; Ceramic Matrix Composites; Ultra-High Temp Polymer Matrix Composites; Metal Matrix Composites; and PMC Lines Ducts and Valves.

  10. Automated System Checkout to Support Predictive Maintenance for the Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Hine, Ann; Deb, Somnath; Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Lau, Sonie (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    The Propulsion Checkout and Control System (PCCS) is a predictive maintenance software system. The real-time checkout procedures and diagnostics are designed to detect components that need maintenance based on their condition, rather than using more conventional approaches such as scheduled or reliability centered maintenance. Predictive maintenance can reduce turn-around time and cost and increase safety as compared to conventional maintenance approaches. Real-time sensor validation, limit checking, statistical anomaly detection, and failure prediction based on simulation models are employed. Multi-signal models, useful for testability analysis during system design, are used during the operational phase to detect and isolate degraded or failed components. The TEAMS-RT real-time diagnostic engine was developed to utilize the multi-signal models by Qualtech Systems, Inc. Capability of predicting the maintenance condition was successfully demonstrated with a variety of data, from simulation to actual operation on the Integrated Propulsion Technology Demonstrator (IPTD) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Playback of IPTD valve actuations for feature recognition updates identified an otherwise undetectable Main Propulsion System 12 inch prevalve degradation. The algorithms were loaded into the Propulsion Checkout and Control System for further development and are the first known application of predictive Integrated Vehicle Health Management to an operational cryogenic testbed. The software performed successfully in real-time, meeting the required performance goal of 1 second cycle time.

  11. A New Way of Doing Business: Reusable Launch Vehicle Advanced Thermal Protection Systems Technology Development: NASA Ames and Rockwell International Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Fleming, Mary; Hogenson, Pete; Green, Michael J.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    NASA Ames Research Center and Rockwell International are partners in a Cooperative Agreement (CA) for the development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program. This Cooperative Agreement is a 30 month effort focused on transferring NASA innovations to Rockwell and working as partners to advance the state-of-the-art in several TPS areas. The use of a Cooperative Agreement is a new way of doing business for NASA and Industry which eliminates the traditional customer/contractor relationship and replaces it with a NASA/Industry partnership.

  12. Reusable Launch Vehicle Control In Multiple Time Scale Sliding Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    A reusable launch vehicle control problem during ascent is addressed via multiple-time scaled continuous sliding mode control. The proposed sliding mode controller utilizes a two-loop structure and provides robust, de-coupled tracking of both orientation angle command profiles and angular rate command profiles in the presence of bounded external disturbances and plant uncertainties. Sliding mode control causes the angular rate and orientation angle tracking error dynamics to be constrained to linear, de-coupled, homogeneous, and vector valued differential equations with desired eigenvalues placement. Overall stability of a two-loop control system is addressed. An optimal control allocation algorithm is designed that allocates torque commands into end-effector deflection commands, which are executed by the actuators. The dual-time scale sliding mode controller was designed for the X-33 technology demonstration sub-orbital launch vehicle in the launch mode. Simulation results show that the designed controller provides robust, accurate, de-coupled tracking of the orientation angle command profiles in presence of external disturbances and vehicle inertia uncertainties. This is a significant advancement in performance over that achieved with linear, gain scheduled control systems currently being used for launch vehicles.

  13. Controls for Reusable Launch Vehicles During Terminal Area Energy Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driessen, Brian J.

    2005-01-01

    During the terminal energy management phase of flight (last of three phases) for a reusable launch vehicle, it is common for the controller to receive guidance commands specifying desired values for (i) the roll angle roll q(sub roll), (ii) the acceleration a(sub n) in the body negative z direction, -k(sub A)-bar, and (iii) omega(sub 3), the projection of onto the body-fixed axis k(sub A)-bar, is always indicated by guidance to be zero. The objective of the controller is to regulate the actual values of these three quantities, i.e make them close to the commanded values, while maintaining system stability.

  14. Cryopumping in Cryogenic Insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Theodore F.; Weiser, Erik S.; Grimsley, Brian W.; Jensen, Brian J.

    2003-01-01

    Testing at cryogenic temperatures was performed to verify the material characteristics and manufacturing processes of reusable propellant tank cryogenic insulations for a Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The unique test apparatus and test methods developed for the investigation of cryopumping in cryogenic insulations are described. Panel level test specimens with various types of cryogenic insulations were subjected to a specific thermal profile where the temperature varied from -262 C to 21 C. Cryopumping occurred if the interior temperature of the specimen exhibited abnormal temperature fluctuations, such as a sudden decrease in temperature during the heating phase.

  15. Solar thermal OTV - applications to reusable and expendable launch vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessler, Thomas L. [Boeing Co., Phantom Works (United States); Frye, Patrick [Boeing Co., Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power (United States); Partch, Russ [Air Force Research Lab. (United States)

    2000-11-01

    The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing technology that will engender revolutionary benefits to satellites and orbit-to-orbit transfer systems. Solar thermal propulsion offers significant advantages for near-term expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) such as Delta IV, mid- to far-term reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and ultimately to manned exploration of the Moon and Mars. Solar thermal propulsion uses a relatively large mirrored concentrator to focus solar energy onto a compact absorber, which is in turn heated to >2200 K. This heat can then be used in two major ways. By flowing hydrogen or another working fluid through the absorber, high efficiency thrust can be generated with 800 sec or more specific impulse (Isp), almost twice that of conventional cryogenic stages and comparable with typical solid-core nuclear thermal stages. Within a decade, advances in materials and fabrication processes hold the promise of the Isp ranging up to 1,100 sec. In addition, attached thermionic or alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) power converters can be used to generate 20 to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. The SOTV Space Experiment (SOTV-SE), planned to be flown in 2003, will demonstrate both hydrogen propulsion and thermionic power generation, including advanced lightweight deployable concentrators suitable for large-scale applications. Evolutionary geosynchronous-transfer orbit/geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) payload lift capability improvements of 50% or more to the Delta IV launch vehicles could be implemented as part of the Delta IV P4I plan shortly thereafter. Beyond that, SOTV technology should allow long-term storage of stages in orbits up to GEO with tremendous manoeuvring capability, potentially 4 to 5 km/sec or more. Servicing of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and GEO assets and reusable (ROTVs) are other possible applications. Offering a combination of high Isp and high

  16. Integration of reusable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rubin, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    Software reuse and integration has been described as the process of creating software systems from existing software rather than building software systems from scratch. Whereas reuse solely deals with the artifacts creation, integration focuses on how reusable artifacts interact with the already existing parts of the specified transformation. Currently, most reuse research focuses on creating and integrating adaptable components at development or at compile time. However, with the emergence of ubiquitous computing, reuse technologies that can support adaptation and reconfiguration of architectures and components at runtime are in demand. This edited book includes 15 high quality research papers written by experts in information reuse and integration to cover the most recent advances in the field. These papers are extended versions of the best papers which were presented at IEEE International Conference on Information Reuse and Integration and IEEE International Workshop on Formal Methods Integration, which wa...

  17. Macroeconomic Benefits of Low-Cost Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Greenberg, Joel

    1998-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) initiated its Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Technology Program to provide information on the technical and commercial feasibility of single-stage to orbit (SSTO), fully-reusable launchers. Because RLVs would not depend on expendable hardware to achieve orbit, they could take better advantage of economies of scale than expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) that discard costly hardware on ascent. The X-33 experimental vehicle, a sub-orbital, 60%-scale prototype of Lockheed Martin's VentureStar SSTO RLV concept, is being built by Skunk Works for a 1999 first flight. If RLVs achieve prices to low-earth orbit of less than $1000 US per pound, they could hold promise for eliciting an elastic response from the launch services market. As opposed to the capture of existing market, this elastic market would represent new space-based industry businesses. These new opportunities would be created from the next tier of business concepts, such as space manufacturing and satellite servicing, that cannot earn a profit at today's launch prices but could when enabled by lower launch costs. New business creation contributes benefits to the US Government (USG) and the US economy through increases in tax revenues and employment. Assumptions about the costs and revenues of these new ventures, based on existing space-based and aeronautics sector businesses, can be used to estimate the macroeconomic benefits provided by new businesses. This paper examines these benefits and the flight prices and rates that may be required to enable these new space industries.

  18. Highly reusable space transportation system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    To significantly increase demand for launch services by stimulating existing and planned markets as well as enabling new markets, the cost to orbit needs to be reduced a factor of ten below projected Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) goals. This will place the recurring operations cost around 200 per payload pound to low earth orbit (LEO). Methods for reducing the cost include: increasing relative vehicle performance, increasing vehicle reusability, and decreasing recurring operations. A study was conducted for NASA in support of its Highly Reusable Space Transportation (HRST) initiative to identify for further assessment and development, those launch strategies that hold the greatest potential with respect to meeting this goal. During this study a number of candidate strategies were evaluated associated with access to space. Both technical and cost trades were performed, and concluded that there are two airbreathing propulsion concepts utilizing launch assist that appear promising in achieving the HRST-cost goals. These concepts employ both turbine based combine cycle (TBCC) and rocket based combine cycle (RBCC) propulsion systems. The launch assist selected uses electromagnetic propulsion and a guideway to provide both delta velocity and altitude. A first order investigation of system level requirements associated with HRST launch assist for a magnetically launched vehicle including guideway concept and requirements as well as magnetic levitation and propulsion concepts and requirements were also conducted. This study concluded that the HRST goals of total recurring operations cost of 200 per payload pound to Low Earth Orbit based on a ten year operational period were feasible if the required technology was matured. The most promising concept to achieve these goals is based on a RBCC powered vehicle with electromagnetic launch assist.

  19. 14 CFR 431.35 - Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Safety Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431.35 Acceptable reusable launch vehicle mission risk. (a) To obtain safety approval for an RLV mission, an applicant must...) To obtain safety approval, an applicant shall demonstrate: (i) For public risk, the risk level to the...

  20. Reusable Military Launch Systems (RMLS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    Thermal barriers , a kind of seal, are used around openings into the vehicle and in the closeout areas between major components. Aerothermal seals...into the windward side of the vehicle. The thermal barriers are split into the high temperature (nose gear door), low temperature (main gear door...area. The high temperature region is approximately above 2000 degrees F. This area requires the most complicated thermal barriers . The low

  1. 14 CFR 431.43 - Reusable launch vehicle mission operational requirements and restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle poses risk to public health and safety and the safety of property in excess of acceptable flight... LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval for Launch and Reentry of a Reusable Launch Vehicle § 431... RLV mission safety approval shall submit procedures— (1) That ensure RLV mission risks do not exceed...

  2. Estimating Logistics Support of Reusable Launch Vehicles During Conceptual Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Davies, W. T.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1997-01-01

    Methods exist to define the logistics support requirements for new aircraft concepts but are not directly applicable to new launch vehicle concepts. In order to define the support requirements and to discriminate among new technologies and processing choices for these systems, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is developing new analysis methods. This paper describes several methods under development, gives their current status, and discusses the benefits and limitations associated with their use.

  3. Structures and Materials Technologies for Extreme Environments Applied to Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J.; Clay, Christopher; Rezin, Marc

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the evolution of structures and materials technology approaches to survive the challenging extreme environments encountered by earth-to-orbit space transportation systems, with emphasis on more recent developments in the USA. The evolution of technology requirements and experience in the various approaches to meeting these requirements has significantly influenced the technology approaches. While previous goals were primarily performance driven, more recently dramatic improvements in costs/operations and in safety have been paramount goals. Technologies that focus on the cost/operations and safety goals in the area of hot structures and thermal protection systems for reusable launch vehicles are presented. Assessments of the potential ability of the various technologies to satisfy the technology requirements, and their current technology readiness status are also presented.

  4. A robust adaptive nonlinear fault-tolerant controller via norm estimation for reusable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chaofang; Gao, Zhifei; Ren, Yanli; Liu, Yunbing

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control problem with actuator faults is addressed via the robust adaptive nonlinear fault-tolerant control (FTC) with norm estimation. Firstly, the accurate tracking task of attitude angles in the presence of parameter uncertainties and external disturbances is considered. A fault-free controller is proposed using dynamic surface control (DSC) combined with fuzzy adaptive approach. Furthermore, the minimal learning parameter strategy via norm estimation technique is introduced to reduce the multi-parameter adaptive computation burden of fuzzy approximation of the lump uncertainties. Secondly, a compensation controller is designed to handle the partial loss fault of actuator effectiveness. The unknown maximum eigenvalue of actuator efficiency loss factors is estimated online. Moreover, stability analysis guarantees that all signals of the closed-loop control system are semi-global uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, illustrative simulations show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  5. Modeling and Simulation of Reliability & Maintainability Parameters for Reusable Launch Vehicles using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Resit; Morris, W. Douglas; White, Nancy H.; Lepsch, Roger A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a methodology for estimating reliability and maintainability distribution parameters for a reusable launch vehicle. A disciplinary analysis code and experimental designs are used to construct approximation models for performance characteristics. These models are then used in a simulation study to estimate performance characteristic distributions efficiently. The effectiveness and limitations of the developed methodology for launch vehicle operations simulations are also discussed.

  6. Robust adaptive constrained backstepping flight controller design for re-entry reusable launch vehicle under input constraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zou

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear constrained controller is designed for a reusable launch vehicle during re-entry phase in the presence of model uncertainty, external disturbance, and input constraint, via combining sliding mode control and adaptive backstepping control. Since the complex coupling between the translational and rotational dynamics of reusable launch vehicle, a control-oriented model derived from rotational dynamic is used for controller design. During the virtual control input design procedure, a dynamic robust term is utilized to compensate for the uncertainty. In addition, a filter is applied to handle “explosion of terms” problem during the actual control input design. To reduce the computational burden, adaptive law is used to evaluate the unknown norm bound of the lumped uncertainty. An auxiliary system is constructed to compensate for the input constraint effect. The stability of the closed-loop system is analyzed based on Lyapunov theory. Simulation results demonstrate the validity of the developed controller in providing stable tracking of the guidance command by numerical simulation on the 6-degree-of-freedom model of reusable launch vehicle.

  7. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) is intended to provide investigators in several biological disciplines with a relatively inexpensive method to access space for up to 60 days with eventual recovery on Earth. The RRS will permit totally intact, relatively soft, recovery of the vehicle, system refurbishment, and reflight with new and varied payloads. The RRS is to be capable of three reflights per year over a 10-year program lifetime. The RRS vehicle will have a large and readily accessible volume near the vehicle center of gravity for the Payload Module (PM) containing the experiment hardware. The vehicle is configured to permit the experimenter late access to the PM prior to launch and rapid access following recovery. The RRS will operate in one of two modes: (1) as a free-flying spacecraft in orbit, and will be allowed to drift in attitude to provide an acceleration environment of less than 10(exp -5) g. the acceleration environment during orbital trim maneuvers will be less than 10(exp -3) g; and (2) as an artificial gravity system which spins at controlled rates to provide an artificial gravity of up to 1.5 Earth g. The RRS system will be designed to be rugged, easily maintained, and economically refurbishable for the next flight. Some systems may be designed to be replaced rather than refurbished, if cost effective and capable of meeting the specified turnaround time. The minimum time between recovery and reflight will be approximately 60 days. The PMs will be designed to be relatively autonomous, with experiments that require few commands and limited telemetry. Mass data storage will be accommodated in the PM. The hardware development and implementation phase is currently expected to start in 1991 with a first launch in late 1993.

  8. Future reusable space launcher systems - A European view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Rudi G.

    Plans for future, reusable space launcher systems in Europe, beyond Ariane V/Hermes, are discussed. A family of launch vehicles, known as the European Advanced Rocket Launchers (EARLs), is presented. Technical and performance data for the EARL concept are given and the cost of development and operating the launchers is estimated. Also, the EARL concept is compared with other planned and existing concepts, including the Saenger launcher.

  9. Solar thermal OTV—Applications to reusable and expendable launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassler, Thomas L.; Frye, Patrick; Partch, Russ

    2000-07-01

    The Solar Orbit Transfer Vehicle (SOTV) program being sponsored by the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is developing technology that will engender revolutionary benefits to satellites and orbitto-orbit transfer systems. Solar thermal propulsion offers significant advantages for near-term expendable launch vehicles (ELVs) such as Delta IV, mid- to farterm reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) and ultimately to manned exploration of the Moon and Mars. Solar thermal propulsion uses a relatively large mirrored concentrator to focus solar energy onto a compact absorber, which is in turn heated to > 2200 K. This heat can then be used in two major ways. By flowing hydrogen or another working fluid through the absorber, high efficiency thrust can be generated with 800 sec or more specific impulse (Isp), almost twice that of conventional cryogenic stages and comparable with typical solid-core nuclear thermal stages. Within a decade, advances in materials and fabrication processes hold the promise of the Isp ranging up to 1,100 sec. In addition, attached thermionic or alkali metal thermoelectric converter (AMTEC) power converters can be used to generate 20 to 100 kilowatts (kW) of electricity. The SOTV Space Experiment (SOTV-SE), planned to be flown in 2003, will demonstrate both hydrogen propulsion and thermionic power generation, including advanced lightweight deployable concentrators suitable for large-scale applications. Evolutionary geosynchronous-transfer orbit/ geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GTO/GEO) payload lift capability improvements of 50% or more to the Delta IV launch vehicles could be implemented as part of the Delta IV P4I plan shortly thereafter. Beyond that, SOTV technology should allow long-term storage of stages in orbits up to GEO with tremendous maneuvering capability, potentially 4 to 5 km/sec or more. Servicing of low-Earth orbit (LEO) and GEO assets and reusable (ROTVs) are other possible applications. Offering a combination of high Isp and high

  10. Design of control system rapid prototyping for suborbital reusable launch vehicle%亚轨道飞行器控制系统快速原型设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛瑞; 李新国; 泮斌峰

    2014-01-01

    In order to achieve the fast, cheap, efficient and other design requirements for flight vehicle control system, the design of suborbital spacecraft control system based on rapid control prototyping technology is proposed, and the design of hardware system, software system and real-time simulation is done in this paper. The system consists of the overall control computer, two real-time numerical simulation computers, VMIC, hardware interfaces, physical devices and other components. The six degrees of freedom mathematical model of SRLV re-entry process were built. The control distribution and classical control methods for attitude control is designed, too. RtFly platform is selected to the distributed rapid prototyping simulation. Simulation results show that the control parameter adjustment convenient, real-time system is good, rapid control prototyping technology can be effectively applied to aircraft control system design. The result of Simulation shows that the control parameters are easy to adjust and optimize, and the system has good real-time performance. Rapid control prototyping technology could be effectively applied to aircraft control system design.%为了实现对飞行器控制系统的快速、廉价、高效等设计需求,提出了一种基于快速控制原型技术的亚轨道飞行器控制系统设计方案,并完成系统的软硬件设计与实时仿真。该系统由总体控制计算机、两台实时数值仿真机、VMIC、硬件接口以及物理设备等组成,建立了亚轨道飞行器再入阶段六自由度运动模型,设计控制分配并采用经典控制方法进行姿态控制,通过RtFly平台进行分布式快速原型仿真。仿真结果表明,控制参数调节方便,系统实时性良好,快速控制原型技术可以有效应用于飞行器控制系统设计。

  11. Process Time Refinement for Reusable Launch Vehicle Regeneration Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Adjustments / Calibrations / Post-Repair QC 138 HLV systems check Inspections / Checks / Diagnosis / Troubleshooting 131 139 Waterproof TPS Adjustments...stenciling, lettering, installing decals, instrument range marking, etc., and painting for cosmetic purposes only). Do Not Use This Code For Treating...painting for cosmetic purposes only). Do Not Use This Code For Treating Corrosion or Painting of Parts/Assemblies/Equipment For Corrosion Prevention

  12. Authoring Systems Delivering Reusable Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Nicola Sammour

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A three layer e-learning course development model has been defined based on a conceptual model of learning content object. It starts by decomposing the learning content into small chunks which are initially placed in a hierarchic structure of units and blocks. The raw content components, being the atomic learning objects (ALO, were linked to the blocks and are structured in the database. We set forward a dynamic generation of LO's using re-usable e-learning raw materials or ALO’s In that view we need a LO authoring/ assembling system fitting the requirements of interoperability and reusability and starting from selecting the raw learning content from the learning materials content database. In practice authoring systems are used to develop e-learning courses. The company EDUWEST has developed an authoring system that is database based and will be SCORM compliant in the near future.

  13. NASA's Advanced Propulsion Technology Activities for Third Generation Fully Reusable Launch Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueter, Uwe

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Transportation Technology (OASTT) established the following three major goals, referred to as "The Three Pillars for Success": Global Civil Aviation, Revolutionary Technology Leaps, and Access to Space. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala. focuses on future space transportation technologies under the "Access to Space" pillar. The Propulsion Projects within ASTP under the investment area of Spaceliner100, focus on the earth-to-orbit (ETO) third generation reusable launch vehicle technologies. The goals of Spaceliner 100 is to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The ETO Propulsion Projects in ASTP, are actively developing combination/combined-cycle propulsion technologies that utilized airbreathing propulsion during a major portion of the trajectory. System integration, components, materials and advanced rocket technologies are also being pursued. Over the last several years, one of the main thrusts has been to develop rocket-based combined cycle (RBCC) technologies. The focus has been on conducting ground tests of several engine designs to establish the RBCC flowpaths performance. Flowpath testing of three different RBCC engine designs is progressing. Additionally, vehicle system studies are being conducted to assess potential operational space access vehicles utilizing combined-cycle propulsion systems. The design, manufacturing, and ground testing of a scale flight-type engine are planned. The first flight demonstration of an airbreathing combined cycle propulsion system is envisioned around 2005. The paper will describe the advanced propulsion technologies that are being being developed under the ETO activities in the ASTP program. Progress, findings, and future activities for the propulsion technologies will be discussed.

  14. Advanced Guidance and Control Methods for Reusable Launch Vehicles: Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Jones, Robert E.; Krupp, Don R.; Fogle, Frank R. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of approaches to advanced guidance and control (AG&C) that have the potential for achieving the goals of significantly increasing reusable launch vehicle (RLV) safety/reliability and reducing the cost. In this paper, we examine some of these methods and compare the results. We briefly introduce the various methods under test, list the test cases used to demonstrate that the desired results are achieved, show an automated test scoring method that greatly reduces the evaluation effort required, and display results of the tests. Results are shown for the algorithms that have entered testing so far.

  15. Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicles as an Opportunity to Consolidate and Calibrate Ground Based and Satellite Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, K.

    2014-12-01

    XCOR Aerospace, a commercial space company, is planning to provide frequent, low cost access to near-Earth space on the Lynx suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (sRLV). Measurements in the external vacuum environment can be made and can launch from most runways on a limited lead time. Lynx can operate as a platform to perform suborbital in situ measurements and remote sensing to supplement models and simulations with new data points. These measurements can serve as a quantitative link to existing instruments and be used as a basis to calibrate detectors on spacecraft. Easier access to suborbital data can improve the longevity and cohesiveness of spacecraft and ground-based resources. A study of how these measurements can be made on Lynx sRLV will be presented. At the boundary between terrestrial and space weather, measurements from instruments on Lynx can help develop algorithms to optimize the consolidation of ground and satellite based data as well as assimilate global models with new data points. For example, current tides and the equatorial electrojet, essential to understanding the Thermosphere-Ionosphere system, can be measured in situ frequently and on short notice. Furthermore, a negative-ion spectrometer and a Faraday cup, can take measurements of the D-region ion composition. A differential GPS receiver can infer the spatial gradient of ionospheric electron density. Instruments and optics on spacecraft degrade over time, leading to calibration drift. Lynx can be a cost effective platform for deploying a reference instrument to calibrate satellites with a frequent and fast turnaround and a successful return of the instrument. A calibrated reference instrument on Lynx can make collocated observations as another instrument and corrections are made for the latter, thus ensuring data consistency and mission longevity. Aboard a sRLV, atmospheric conditions that distort remotely sensed data (ground and spacecraft based) can be measured in situ. Moreover, an

  16. Closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance for reusable launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongsheng

    This dissertation focuses on the development of a closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance algorithm for the 2nd generation reusable launch vehicle. Special attention has been given to the issues that impact on viability, complexity and reliability in on-board implementation. The algorithm is called once every guidance update cycle to recalculate the optimal solution based on the current flight condition, taking into account atmospheric effects and path constraints. This is different from traditional ascent guidance algorithms which operate in a simple open-loop mode inside atmosphere, and later switch to a closed-loop vacuum ascent guidance scheme. The classical finite difference method is shown to be well suited for fast solution of the constrained optimal three-dimensional ascent problem. The initial guesses for the solutions are generated using an analytical vacuum optimal ascent guidance algorithm. Homotopy method is employed to gradually introduce the aerodynamic forces to generate the optimal solution from the optimal vacuum solution. The vehicle chosen for this study is the Lockheed Martin X-33 lifting-body reusable launch vehicle. To verify the algorithm presented in this dissertation, a series of open-loop and closed-loop tests are performed for three different missions. Wind effects are also studied in the closed-loop simulations. For comparison, the solutions for the same missions are also obtained by two independent optimization softwares. The results clearly establish the feasibility of closed-loop endo-atmospheric ascent guidance of rocket-powered launch vehicles. ATO cases are also tested to assess the adaptability of the algorithm to autonomously incorporate the abort modes.

  17. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enyinda, Chris I.

    2002-01-01

    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  18. Cyclic Oxidation Behavior of CuCrAl Cold-Sprayed Coatings for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai; Karthikeyan, J.

    2009-01-01

    The next generation of reusable launch vehicles is likely to use GRCop-84 [Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb] copper alloy combustion liners. The application of protective coatings on GRCop-84 liners can minimize or eliminate many of the environmental problems experienced by uncoated liners and significantly extend their operational lives and lower operational cost. A newly developed Cu- 23 (wt.%) Cr-5% Al (CuCrAl) coating, shown to resist hydrogen attack and oxidation in an as-cast form, is currently being considered as a protective coating for GRCop-84. The coating was deposited on GRCop-84 substrates by the cold spray deposition technique, where the CuCrAl was procured as gas-atomized powders. Cyclic oxidation tests were conducted between 773 and 1,073 K to characterize the coated substrates.

  19. Six-DOF trajectory optimization for reusable launch vehicles via Gauss pseudospectral method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Wang; Zhong Wu

    2016-01-01

    To be close to the practical flight process and in-crease the precision of optimal trajectory, a six-degree-of- freedom (6-DOF) trajectory is optimized for the reusable launch vehicle (RLV) using the Gauss pseudospectral method (GPM). Different from the traditional trajectory optimization problem which generaly considers the RLV as a point mass, the coupling between translational dynamics and rotational dynamics is taken into account. An optimization problem is formulated to minimize a performance index subject to 6-DOF equations of motion, including translational and rotational dynamics. A two-step optimal strategy is then introduced to reduce the large calculations caused by multiple variables and convergence confinement in 6-DOF trajectory optimization. The simulation results demonstrate that the 6-DOF trajectory optimal strategy for RLV is feasible.

  20. Natural Atmospheric Environment Model Development for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Leahy, Frank; Overbey, Glenn; Batts, Glen W.; Parker, Nelson (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) recently began development of a new reusable launch vehicle. The program office is located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and is called the Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2GRLV). The purpose of the program is to improve upon the safety and reliability of the first generation reusable launch vehicle, the Space Shuttle. Specifically, the goals are to reduce the risk of crew loss to less than 1-in-10,000 missions and decreased costs by a factor of 10 to approximately $1,000 per pound of payload launched to low Earth orbit. The program is currently in the very early stages of development and many two-stage vehicle concepts will be evaluated. Risk reduction activities are also taking place. These activities include developing new technologies and advancing current technologies to be used by the vehicle. The Environments Group at MSFC is tasked by the 2GRLV Program to develop and maintain an extensive series of analytical tools and environmental databases which enable it to provide detailed atmospheric studies in support of structural, guidance, navigation and control, and operation of the 2GRLV.

  1. Commercial suborbital reusable launch vehicles: ushering in a new era for turbopause exploration (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. T.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple companies are in the process of developing commercial suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV's). While these companies originally targeted space tourism as the primary customer base, it is rapidly becoming apparent that this dramatic increase in low cost access to space could provide revolutionary opportunities for scientific research, engineering/instrument development and STEM education. These burgeoning capabilities will offer unprecedented opportunities regarding access to space with frequent low-cost access to the region of space from the ground to the boundary of near-Earth space at ~100 km. In situ research of this region is difficult because it is too high for aircraft and balloons and yet too low for orbital satellites and spacecraft. However, this region is very significant because it represents the tenuous boundary of Earth's Atmosphere and Space. It contains a critical portion of the atmosphere where the regime transitions from collisional to non-collisional physics and includes complex charged and neutral particle interactions. These new launch vehicles are currently designed for manned and unmanned flights that reach altitudes up to 110 km for 5K-500K per flight with payload capacity exceeding 600 kg. Considering the much higher cost per flight for a sounding rocket with similar capabilities, high flight cadence, and guaranteed return of payload, commercial spacecraft has the potential to revolutionize access to near space. This unprecedented access to space allows participation at all levels of research, engineering, education and the public at large. For example, one can envision a model where students can conduct complete end to end projects where they design, build, fly and analyze data from individual research projects for thousands of dollars instead of hundreds of thousands. Our community is only beginning to grasp the opportunities and impactions of these new capabilities but with operational flights anticipated in 2014, it is

  2. Onboard planning of constrained longitudinal trajectory for reusable launch vehicles in terminal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zixuan; Li, Qingdong; Ren, Zhang

    2016-02-01

    A rapid planning algorithm is developed to generate a constrained longitudinal trajectory onboard for reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in the terminal area energy management (TAEM) phase. The longitudinal trajectory is planned in the flight-path angle vs. altitude space. This flight-path angle profile is designed with required altitude, flight-path angle and range-to-go, and then optimized as a one-parameter search problem to meet the velocity constraint. Considering the dynamic pressure constraint, a dynamic pressure protection (DPP) method is designed. With the DPP, the highly constrained longitudinal trajectory is generated by tracking the planned flight-path angle profile. Finally, the TAEM trajectory planning algorithm is tested on the X-33 vehicle model in different cases. The algorithm is shown to be effective and robust to generate longitudinal flight trajectories with all constraints satisfied in high precision. In each case, the constrained trajectory is planned within 1 s on a PC, which indicates that the algorithm is feasible to be employed onboard.

  3. Reusable Launch Vehicle Attitude Control Using a Time-Varying Sliding Mode Control Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.; Zhu, J. Jim; Daniels, Dan; Jackson, Scott (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TVSMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC ascent and descent designs are currently being tested with high fidelity, 6-DOF dispersion simulations. The test results will be presented in the final version of this paper.

  4. Experimental investigation of a graphite-composite wing-box section for a reusable launch vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, James Wayne; Bush, Harold; Sutter, Tom

    1997-01-01

    The use of graphite-composites as primary structure is essential for the development of a cost effective single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle (RLV) to replace the Space Shuttle. A full-scale segment of a graphite-composite wing was designed and fabricated by an industry team and tested at NASA Langley Research Center as a part of the RLV technology development program. The wing-box test component was 1.5 m wide by 3.0 m long and 1.1 m deep. It was construction from honeycomb sandwich panels with graphite-bisaleimide composite skins. The test component was loaded to design limit load in reverse bending followed by a test to design ultimate load, also in reverse bending. It was then loaded to failure. Resistance and fiber optic gages were used to measure strains in the wing box section during the test. A comprehensive finite element analysis of the specimen was performed. The test results verified the structural integrity of the wing-box component for RLV design loads, and good correlation between test and analysis was obtained. Both the failure location and the failure load were accurately predicted by the analysis.

  5. Viability of a Reusable In-Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Sharon A.; McCleskey, Carey M.; Nufer, Brian M.; Lepsch, Roger A.; Merrill, Raymond G.; North, David D.; Martin, John G.; Komar, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is currently developing options for an Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) that expands human presence from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) into the solar system and to the surface of Mars. The Hybrid in-space transportation architecture is one option being investigated within the EMC. The architecture enables return of the entire in-space propulsion stage and habitat to cis-lunar space after a round trip to Mars. This concept of operations opens the door for a fully reusable Mars transportation system from cis-lunar space to a Mars parking orbit and back. This paper explores the reuse of in-space transportation systems, with a focus on the propulsion systems. It begins by examining why reusability should be pursued and defines reusability in space-flight context. A range of functions and enablers associated with preparing a system for reuse are identified and a vision for reusability is proposed that can be advanced and implemented as new capabilities are developed. Following this, past reusable spacecraft and servicing capabilities, as well as those currently in development are discussed. Using the Hybrid transportation architecture as an example, an assessment of the degree of reusability that can be incorporated into the architecture with current capabilities is provided and areas for development are identified that will enable greater levels of reuse in the future. Implications and implementation challenges specific to the architecture are also presented.

  6. Coating Development for GRCop-84 Liners for Reusable Launch Vehicles Aided by Modeling Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Despite its considerable advantage over other copper alloys, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuels used and on thermomechanical fatigue. Applying protective coatings on GRCop-84 substrates can minimize or eliminate many of these problems and extend the operational life of the combustion liner. This could increase component reliability, shorten depot maintenance turnaround times, and lower operating costs. Therefore, Glenn is actively pursuing the development of advanced coatings technology for GRCop-84 liners. Technology is being developed in four major areas: (1) new metallic coating compositions, (2) application techniques, (3) test methods, and (4) life prediction design methodology using finite element analysis. The role of finite element analysis in guiding the coating effort is discussed in this report. Thermal analyses were performed at Glenn for different combinations of top- and bondcoat compositions to determine the temperature variation across the coated cross section with the thickness of the top coat. These calculations were conducted for simulated LH2/LO2 booster engine conditions assuming that the bond coat had a constant thickness of 50 m. The preceding graphs show the predicted temperatures at the outer surface of the top coat (hot wall), at the top-coat/bond-coat interface, at the bond-coat/GRCop-84 interface, and at the GRCop-84 cold wall as a function of top-coat thickness for Cu- 26(wt%)Cr top coat (top graph), Ni-17(wt%)Cr-6%Al-0.5%Y top coat and Cu-26%Cr bond coat, and NiAl top coat and Ni bond coat. In all cases, the temperature of the top coat at the hot wall increased with increasing top-coat thickness and with corresponding decreases in the temperatures at the two interfaces and the cold wall

  7. Architectures Toward Reusable Science Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. F.

    2014-12-01

    Science Data Systems (SDS) comprise an important class of data processing systems that support product generation from remote sensors and in-situ observations. These systems enable research into new science data products, replication of experiments and verification of results. NASA has been building ground systems for satellite data processing since the first Earth observing satellites launched and is continuing development of systems to support NASA science research, NOAA's weather satellites and USGS's Earth observing satellite operations. The basic data processing workflows and scenarios continue to be valid for remote sensor observations research as well as for the complex multi-instrument operational satellite data systems being built today. System functions such as ingest, product generation and distribution need to be configured and performed in a consistent and repeatable way with an emphasis on scalability. This paper will examine the key architectural elements of several NASA satellite data processing systems currently in operation and under development that make them suitable for scaling and reuse. Examples of architectural elements that have become attractive include virtual machine environments, standard data product formats, metadata content and file naming, workflow and job management frameworks, data acquisition, search, and distribution protocols. By highlighting key elements and implementation experience the goal is to recognize architectures that will outlast their original application and be readily adaptable for new applications. Concepts and principles are explored that lead to sound guidance for SDS developers and strategists.

  8. Launch Stabilisation System for Vertical Launch of a Missile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sreekumar

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The launch platform stabilisation control system is a roll-pitch stabilised platform for the vertical launch of a missile from a naval ship. Stabilisation of the launch platform is achievedwith the help of embedded controllers and electro-hydraulic servo control system. The launch platform is stabilised wrt true horizontal with a 2-axis (roll and pitch stabilisation systemconsisting of a gimbal and a set of three high-pressure servo hydraulic actuators. The control system uses rate gyro and tilt sensor feedbacks for stabilising the platform. This paper outlines the details of the launch platform stabilisation control system, results of digital simulation, and the performance during sea trials.

  9. RADEM: An Air Launched, Rocket Demonstrator for Future Advanced Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, R. C.; Skorodelov, V. A.; Serdijk, I. I.; Neiland, V. Ya.

    1995-10-01

    Critical features associated with future reusable launch vehicles include reduction of turn around effort, use of integral liquid hydrogen tanks, advanced structures and thermal protection, and re-usable LOx-hydrogen propulsion with low maintenance overheads. Many doubts associated with such designs could be removed by a sub-orbital demonstrator. An air launched vehicle would fulfil many of the objectives for such demonstration. British Aerospace, NPO Molnija, TsAGI and DB Antonov have made an initial study for ESA for such a demonstrator (RADEM), using earlier studies of operational launch systems with the An-225 /Hotol and MAKS proposals. The paper describes the results of this study, including the selection of two potential vehicle designs, and an approach to sub-system design and vehicle development to minimize the costs. It appears that such a vheicle, capable of flying to Mach 12 or beyond using currently available technology, could have a cost an order of magnitude less than that required for development of an operational vehicle.

  10. Air Force Reusable Booster System: A Quick-look, Design Focused Modeling and Cost Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a method and an initial analysis of the costs of a reusable booster system (RBS) as envisioned by the US Department of Defense (DoD) and numerous initiatives that form the concept of Operationally Responsive Space (ORS). This paper leverages the knowledge gained from decades of experience with the semi-reusable NASA Space Shuttle to understand how the costs of a military next generation semi-reusable space transport might behave in the real world - and how it might be made as affordable as desired. The NASA Space Shuttle had a semi-expendable booster, that being the reusable Solid Rocket MotorslBoosters (SRMlSRB) and the expendable cryogenic External Tank (ET), with a reusable cargo and crew capable orbiter. This paper will explore DoD concepts that invert this architectural arrangement, using a reusable booster plane that flies back to base soon after launch, with the in-space elements of the launch system being the expendable portions. Cost estimating in the earliest stages of any potential, large scale program has limited usefulness. As a result, the emphasis here is on developing an approach, a structure, and the basic concepts that could continue to be matured as the program gains knowledge. Where cost estimates are provided, these results by necessity carry many caveats and assumptions, and this analysis becomes more about ways in which drivers of costs for diverse scenarios can be better understood. The paper is informed throughout with a design-for-cost philosophy whereby the design and technology features of the proposed RBS (who and what, the "architecture") are taken as linked at the hip to a desire to perform a certain mission (where and when), and together these inform the cost, responsiveness, performance and sustainability (how) of the system. Concepts for developing, acquiring, producing or operating the system will be shown for their inextricable relationship to the "architecture" of the system, and how these too relate to costs

  11. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study: System cost estimates document

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) program was initiated to provide life science investigators relatively inexpensive, frequent access to space for extended periods of time with eventual satellite recovery on earth. The RRS will provide an on-orbit laboratory for research on biological and material processes, be launched from a number of expendable launch vehicles, and operate in Low-Altitude Earth Orbit (LEO) as a free-flying unmanned laboratory. SAIC's design will provide independent atmospheric reentry and soft landing in the continental U.S., orbit for a maximum of 60 days, and will sustain three flights per year for 10 years. The Reusable Reentry Vehicle (RRV) will be 3-axis stabilized with artificial gravity up to 1.5g's, be rugged and easily maintainable, and have a modular design to accommodate a satellite bus and separate modular payloads (e.g., rodent module, general biological module, ESA microgravity botany facility, general botany module). The purpose of this System Cost Estimate Document is to provide a Life Cycle Cost Estimate (LCCE) for a NASA RRS Program using SAIC's RRS design. The estimate includes development, procurement, and 10 years of operations and support (O&S) costs for NASA's RRS program. The estimate does not include costs for other agencies which may track or interface with the RRS program (e.g., Air Force tracking agencies or individual RRS experimenters involved with special payload modules (PM's)). The life cycle cost estimate extends over the 10 year operation and support period FY99-2008.

  12. New Approaches in Reusable Booster System Life Cycle Cost Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a 2012 life cycle cost (LCC) study of hybrid Reusable Booster Systems (RBS) conducted by NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL). The work included the creation of a new cost estimating model and an LCC analysis, building on past work where applicable, but emphasizing the integration of new approaches in life cycle cost estimation. Specifically, the inclusion of industry processes/practices and indirect costs were a new and significant part of the analysis. The focus of LCC estimation has traditionally been from the perspective of technology, design characteristics, and related factors such as reliability. Technology has informed the cost related support to decision makers interested in risk and budget insight. This traditional emphasis on technology occurs even though it is well established that complex aerospace systems costs are mostly about indirect costs, with likely only partial influence in these indirect costs being due to the more visible technology products. Organizational considerations, processes/practices, and indirect costs are traditionally derived ("wrapped") only by relationship to tangible product characteristics. This traditional approach works well as long as it is understood that no significant changes, and by relation no significant improvements, are being pursued in the area of either the government acquisition or industry?s indirect costs. In this sense then, most launch systems cost models ignore most costs. The alternative was implemented in this LCC study, whereby the approach considered technology and process/practices in balance, with as much detail for one as the other. This RBS LCC study has avoided point-designs, for now, instead emphasizing exploring the trade-space of potential technology advances joined with potential process/practice advances. Given the range of decisions, and all their combinations, it was necessary to create a model of the original model

  13. Determining Logistics Ground Support Manpower Requirements for a Reusable Military Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    Force Link, 28 February 2005. n. pag. 28 December 2006 http://www.af.mil/news/story.asp?storyID=123009914. Leedy , P. D., & Ormrod , J. E...nature” of providing logistics support to a newly-emerging space launch platform ( Leedy , 2005: 94). As such, the research process exhibited the...requirements can only be “easily divided into discrete, measurable variables” ( Leedy , 2005: 96) based upon historical data for a platform. Since

  14. A Reusable Component Retrieval System for Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    for a prototyped software system. 20 graphic editor -Protte Edit Font Pattem FqCalor 39Color lign ption Select Se move Modify q Specif ? Streas M...CAPS the designer uses a graphical editor to design and decompose the prototype’s operators [Ref 19]. Future versions of CAPS will also allow for...spec_1ext (): SB TEXTO -03.1 ECT *imip-body-text ( SBTEXTOBJ CT *illformal-descript ioni( SB.TEXTOBJECT *formal-description(); SBJTEXTOBJ ECT *norn-forml

  15. Launch vehicle systems design analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Robert; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    Current launch vehicle design emphasis is on low life-cycle cost. This paper applies total quality management (TQM) principles to a conventional systems design analysis process to provide low-cost, high-reliability designs. Suggested TQM techniques include Steward's systems information flow matrix method, quality leverage principle, quality through robustness and function deployment, Pareto's principle, Pugh's selection and enhancement criteria, and other design process procedures. TQM quality performance at least-cost can be realized through competent concurrent engineering teams and brilliance of their technical leadership.

  16. Quick Access Rocket Exhaust Rig Testing of Coated GRCop-84 Sheets Used to Aid Coating Selection for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Sai V.; Robinson, Raymond C.; Ghosn, Louis J.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation of reusable launch vehicles calls for using GRCop-84 copper alloy liners based on a composition1 invented at the NASA Glenn Research Center: Cu-8(at.%)Cr-4%Nb. Many of the properties of this alloy have been shown to be far superior to those of other conventional copper alloys, such as NARloy-Z. Despite this considerable advantage, it is expected that GRCop-84 will suffer from some type of environmental degradation depending on the type of rocket fuel utilized. In a liquid hydrogen (LH2), liquid oxygen (LO2) booster engine, copper alloys undergo repeated cycles of oxidation of the copper matrix and subsequent reduction of the copper oxide, a process termed "blanching". Blanching results in increased surface roughness and poor heat-transfer capabilities, local hot spots, decreased engine performance, and premature failure of the liner material. This environmental degradation coupled with the effects of thermomechanical stresses, creep, and high thermal gradients can distort the cooling channel severely, ultimately leading to its failure.

  17. Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C. F.; Figueroa, F.; Politopoulos, T.; Oonk, S.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to correctly detect and identify any possible failure in the systems, subsystems, or sensors within a reusable liquid rocket engine is a major goal at NASA John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC). A health management (HM) system is required to provide an on-ground operation crew with an integrated awareness of the condition of every element of interest by determining anomalies, examining their causes, and making predictive statements. However, the complexity associated with relevant systems, and the large amount of data typically necessary for proper interpretation and analysis, presents difficulties in implementing complete failure detection, identification, and prognostics (FDI&P). As such, this paper presents a Distributed Health Monitoring System for Reusable Liquid Rocket Engines as a solution to these problems through the use of highly intelligent algorithms for real-time FDI&P, and efficient and embedded processing at multiple levels. The end result is the ability to successfully incorporate a comprehensive HM platform despite the complexity of the systems under consideration.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Towards First Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum programmatically and technically toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. Its first mission will be the launch of the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back. SLS will also launch the first Orion crewed flight in 2021. SLS can evolve to a 130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. Managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. At KDP-C, the Agency Planning Management Council determines the readiness of a program to go to the next life-cycle phase and makes technical, cost, and schedule commitments to its external stakeholders. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015, and a launch readiness date of November 2018. Every SLS element is currently in testing or test preparations. The Program shipped its first flight hardware in 2014 in preparation for Orion's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) launch on a Delta IV Heavy rocket in December, a significant first step toward human journeys into deep space. Accomplishments during 2014 included manufacture of Core Stage test articles and preparations for qualification testing the Solid Rocket Boosters and the RS-25 Core Stage engines. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment

  19. A Reusable Software Architecture for Small Satellite AOCS Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alminde, Lars; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Laursen, Karl Kaas

    2006-01-01

    with both hardware and on-board software. Some of the key issues addressed by the framework are automatic translation of mathematical specifications of hybrid systems into executable software entities, management of execution of coupled models in a parallel distributed environment, as well as interaction......This paper concerns the software architecture called Sophy, which is an abbreviation for Simulation, Observation, and Planning in HYbrid systems. We present a framework that allows execution of hybrid dynamical systems in an on-line distributed computing environment, which includes interaction...... with external components, hardware and/or software, through generic interfaces. Sophy is primarily intended as a tool for development of model based reusable software for the control and autonomous functions of satellites and/or satellite clusters....

  20. Integrated G and C Implementation within IDOS: A Simulink Based Reusable Launch Vehicle Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Joseph E.; Bevacqua, Tim; Lawrence, Douglas A.; Zhu, J. Jim; Mahoney, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The implementation of multiple Integrated Guidance and Control (IG&C) algorithms per flight phase within a vehicle simulation poses a daunting task to coordinate algorithm interactions with the other G&C components and with vehicle subsystems. Currently being developed by Universal Space Lines LLC (USL) under contract from NASA, the Integrated Development and Operations System (IDOS) contains a high fidelity Simulink vehicle simulation, which provides a means to test cutting edge G&C technologies. Combining the modularity of this vehicle simulation and Simulink s built-in primitive blocks provide a quick way to implement algorithms. To add discrete-event functionality to the unfinished IDOS simulation, Vehicle Event Manager (VEM) and Integrated Vehicle Health Monitoring (IVHM) subsystems were created to provide discrete-event and pseudo-health monitoring processing capabilities. Matlab's Stateflow is used to create the IVHM and Event Manager subsystems and to implement a supervisory logic controller referred to as the Auto-commander as part of the IG&C to coordinate the control system adaptation and reconfiguration and to select the control and guidance algorithms for a given flight phase. Manual creation of the Stateflow charts for all of these subsystems is a tedious and time-consuming process. The Stateflow Auto-builder was developed as a Matlab based software tool for the automatic generation of a Stateflow chart from information contained in a database. This paper describes the IG&C, VEM and IVHM implementations in IDOS. In addition, this paper describes the Stateflow Auto-builder.

  1. Synthetic studies on reusable propulsion system: (1) Study on the reliability design method (2) General planning of the reusable propulsion system

    OpenAIRE

    Kuratani, Naoshi; Taguchi, Hideyuki; Himeno, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Takuya; Aoki, Hiroshi; 倉谷 尚志; 田口 秀之; 姫野 武洋; 長谷川 卓也; 青木 宏

    2004-01-01

    Synthetic studies on the reusable and future propulsion systems are presented in this paper. Especially, focused are the high reliability design methodology for the liquid rocket engine at conceptual phase, the flight demonstration project SubLEO that is propelled by the existing propulsion system, the propellant management of the liquid propellant behavior in the fuselage tank for the reusable vehicle testing and existing rocket under the accelerated environment and the health monitoring sen...

  2. Launch Control System Message Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Uyen

    2014-01-01

    System Monitoring and Control (SMC) message browsers receive many messages daily that operators do not need to see. My job is to reduce the number of messages so that warning and emergency messages can be seen easily and therefore, responded to promptly. There are two methods to reduce messages: duplicate and state-based message correlations. With duplicate message correlation, SMC display the message the first time it shows up. The next times it occurs, a duplicate number will count the number of times the message appears. State-based message correlation is a process in which more informative messages acknowledge less useful ones and send them to history. I also work on correcting the severity level and text formats of messages. I follow two SMC message filtering tenets as I'm working on this project. Firstly, before filtering an offending message, a non-conformance (NC) must be created in order to attempt fixing that message through hardware or software. Only after the NC assessment states that it cannot fix an offending message, it can be filtered by SMC. Secondly, per Launch Control System (LCS) Coding Standards, SMC does not send information messages to the active message browser unless it's a response to an operator action.

  3. Launch processing system concept to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, W. W.

    1985-01-01

    The Launch Processing System represents Kennedy Space Center's role in providing a major integrated hardware and software system for the test, checkout and launch of a new space vehicle. Past programs considered the active flight vehicle to ground interfaces as part of the flight systems and therefore the related ground system was provided by the Development Center. The major steps taken to transform the Launch Processing System from a concept to reality with the successful launches of the Shuttle Programs Space Transportation System are addressed.

  4. Modeling Reusable and Interoperable Faceted Browsing Systems with Category Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R

    2015-08-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and lightweight ontologies, but in many regards, they are implementations of faceted browsing rather than a specification of the basic, underlying structures and interactions. We will demonstrate that category theory allows us to specify faceted objects and study the relationships and interactions within a faceted browsing system. Implementations can then be constructed through a category-theoretic lens using these models, allowing abstract comparison and communication that naturally support interoperability and reuse.

  5. Space Ops 2002: Bringing Space Operations into the 21st Century. Track 3: Operations, Mission Planning and Control. 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle-Concepts for Flight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    With the successful implementation of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) enters a new era of opportunity for scientific research. The ISS provides a working laboratory in space, with tremendous capabilities for scientific research. Utilization of these capabilities requires a launch system capable of routinely transporting crew and logistics to/from the ISS, as well as supporting ISS assembly and maintenance tasks. The Space Shuttle serves as NASA's launch system for performing these functions. The Space Shuttle also serves as NASA's launch system for supporting other science and servicing missions that require a human presence in space. The Space Shuttle provides proof that reusable launch vehicles are technically and physically implementable. However, a couple of problems faced by NASA are the prohibitive cost of operating and maintaining the Space Shuttle and its relative inability to support high launch rates. The 2nd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (2nd Gen RLV) is NASA's solution to this problem. The 2nd Gen RLV will provide a robust launch system with increased safety, improved reliability and performance, and less cost. The improved performance and reduced costs of the 2nd Gen RLV will free up resources currently spent on launch services. These resource savings can then be applied to scientific research, which in turn can be supported by the higher launch rate capability of the 2nd Gen RLV. The result is a win - win situation for science and NASA. While meeting NASA's needs, the 2nd Gen RLV also provides the United States aerospace industry with a commercially viable launch capability. One of the keys to achieving the goals of the 2nd Gen RLV is to develop and implement new technologies and processes in the area of flight operations. NASA's experience in operating the Space Shuttle and the ISS has brought to light several areas where automation can be used to augment or eliminate functions

  6. Using Reusable Design Patterns in Disributed Systems%Using Reusable Design Patterns in Distributed Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LI Zhan-bo

    2007-01-01

    The article revealed the software design issues for the object-oriented distributed system. By surveying several existed design issues, the solution of common design issues is conducted which is compromised by design patterns. Each pattern is described according to its functionality which could be valuable for objected-oriented distributed system developer.

  7. NASA's Space Launch System: Momentum Builds Toward First Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Lyles, Garry M.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) is gaining momentum toward the first launch of a new exploration-class heavy lift launch vehicle for international exploration and science initiatives. The SLS comprises an architecture that begins with a vehicle capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit. It will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) on its first autonomous flight beyond the Moon and back in December 2017. Its first crewed flight follows in 2021. SLS can evolve to a130-t lift capability and serve as a baseline for numerous robotic and human missions ranging from a Mars sample return to delivering the first astronauts to explore another planet. The SLS Program formally transitioned from the formulation phase to implementation with the successful completion of the rigorous Key Decision Point C review in 2014. As a result, the Agency authorized the Program to move forward to Critical Design Review, scheduled for 2015. In the NASA project life cycle process, SLS has completed 50 percent of its major milestones toward first flight. Every SLS element manufactured development hardware for testing over the past year. Accomplishments during 2013/2014 included manufacture of core stage test articles, preparations for qualification testing the solid rocket boosters and the RS-25 main engines, and shipment of the first flight hardware in preparation for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) in 2014. SLS was conceived with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, while also providing unprecedented capability for human exploration and scientific discovery beyond Earth orbit. In an environment of economic challenges, the SLS team continues to meet ambitious budget and schedule targets through the studied use of hardware, infrastructure, and workforce investments the United States made in the last half century, while selectively using new technologies for design, manufacturing, and testing, as well as streamlined management approaches

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: Moving Toward the Launch Pad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Designed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Supporting Orion's first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown via an upgrade approach that will provide building blocks for future space exploration. NASA is working to deliver this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact that has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the 2 years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, the path it is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after 2021. The paper will explain how, to meet the challenge of a flat funding curve, an architecture was chosen that combines the use and enhancement of legacy systems and technology with strategic new developments that will evolve the launch vehicle's capabilities. This approach reduces the time and cost of delivering the initial 70 t Block 1 vehicle, and reduces the number of parallel development investments required to deliver the evolved 130 t Block 2 vehicle. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware, to life

  9. Methodology for Assessing Reusability of Spaceflight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childress-Thompson, Rhonda; Thomas, L. Dale; Farrington, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    In 2011 the Space Shuttle, the only Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) in the world, returned to earth for the final time. Upon retirement of the Space Shuttle, the United States (U.S.) no longer possessed a reusable vehicle or the capability to send American astronauts to space. With the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) out of the RLV business and now only pursuing Expendable Launch Vehicles (ELV), not only did companies within the U.S. start to actively pursue the development of either RLVs or reusable components, but entities around the world began to venture into the reusable market. For example, SpaceX and Blue Origin are developing reusable vehicles and engines. The Indian Space Research Organization is developing a reusable space plane and Airbus is exploring the possibility of reusing its first stage engines and avionics housed in the flyback propulsion unit referred to as the Advanced Expendable Launcher with Innovative engine Economy (Adeline). Even United Launch Alliance (ULA) has announced plans for eventually replacing the Atlas and Delta expendable rockets with a family of RLVs called Vulcan. Reuse can be categorized as either fully reusable, the situation in which the entire vehicle is recovered, or partially reusable such as the National Space Transportation System (NSTS) where only the Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME), and Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) are reused. With this influx of renewed interest in reusability for space applications, it is imperative that a systematic approach be developed for assessing the reusability of spaceflight hardware. The partially reusable NSTS offered many opportunities to glean lessons learned; however, when it came to efficient operability for reuse the Space Shuttle and its associated hardware fell short primarily because of its two to four-month turnaround time. Although there have been several attempts at designing RLVs in the past with the X-33, Venture Star and Delta Clipper

  10. Reusable Reentry Satellite (RRS) system design study. Phase B, appendix E: Attitude control system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    A study which consisted of a series of design analyses for an Attitude Control System (ACS) to be incorporated into the Re-usable Re-entry Satellite (RRS) was performed. The main thrust of the study was associated with defining the control laws and estimating the mass and power requirements of the ACS needed to meet the specified performance goals. The analyses concentrated on the different on-orbit control modes which start immediately after the separation of the RRS from the launch vehicle. The three distinct on-orbit modes considered for these analyses are as follows: (1) Mode 1 - A Gravity Gradient (GG) three-axis stabilized spacecraft with active magnetic control; (2) Mode 2 - A GG stabilized mode with a controlled yaw rotation rate ('rotisserie') using three-axis magnetic control and also incorporating a 10 N-m-s momentum wheel along the (Z) yaw axis; and (3) Mode 3 - A spin stabilized mode of operation with the spin about the pitch (Y) axis, incorporating a 20 N-m-s momentum wheel along the pitch (Y) axis and attitude control via thrusters. To investigate the capabilities of the different controllers in these various operational modes, a series of computer simulations and trade-off analyses have been made to evaluate the achievable performance levels, and the necessary mass and power requirements.

  11. Universal and reusable virus deactivation system for respiratory protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Fu-Shi; Rubino, Ilaria; Lee, Su-Hwa; Koch, Brendan; Choi, Hyo-Jick

    2017-01-01

    Aerosolized pathogens are a leading cause of respiratory infection and transmission. Currently used protective measures pose potential risk of primary/secondary infection and transmission. Here, we report the development of a universal, reusable virus deactivation system by functionalization of the main fibrous filtration unit of surgical mask with sodium chloride salt. The salt coating on the fiber surface dissolves upon exposure to virus aerosols and recrystallizes during drying, destroying the pathogens. When tested with tightly sealed sides, salt-coated filters showed remarkably higher filtration efficiency than conventional mask filtration layer, and 100% survival rate was observed in mice infected with virus penetrated through salt-coated filters. Viruses captured on salt-coated filters exhibited rapid infectivity loss compared to gradual decrease on bare filters. Salt-coated filters proved highly effective in deactivating influenza viruses regardless of subtypes and following storage in harsh environmental conditions. Our results can be applied in obtaining a broad-spectrum, airborne pathogen prevention device in preparation for epidemic and pandemic of respiratory diseases.

  12. Design of launch systems using continuous improvement process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Richard W.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to identify a systematic process for improving ground operations for future launch systems. This approach is based on the Total Quality Management (TQM) continuous improvement process. While the continuous improvement process is normally identified with making incremental changes to an existing system, it can be used on new systems if they use past experience as a knowledge base. In the case of the Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV), the Space Shuttle operations provide many lessons. The TQM methodology used for this paper will be borrowed from the United States Air Force 'Quality Air Force' Program. There is a general overview of the continuous improvement process, with concentration on the formulation phase. During this phase critical analyses are conducted to determine the strategy and goals for the remaining development process. These analyses include analyzing the mission from the customers point of view, developing an operations concept for the future, assessing current capabilities and determining the gap to be closed between current capabilities and future needs and requirements. A brief analyses of the RLV, relative to the Space Shuttle, will be used to illustrate the concept. Using the continuous improvement design concept has many advantages. These include a customer oriented process which will develop a more marketable product and a better integration of operations and systems during the design phase. But, the use of TQM techniques will require changes, including more discipline in the design process and more emphasis on data gathering for operational systems. The benefits will far outweigh the additional effort.

  13. Development of the Architectural Simulation Model for Future Launch Systems and its Application to an Existing Launch Fleet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabadi, Ghaith

    2005-01-01

    A significant portion of lifecycle costs for launch vehicles are generated during the operations phase. Research indicates that operations costs can account for a large percentage of the total life-cycle costs of reusable space transportation systems. These costs are largely determined by decisions made early during conceptual design. Therefore, operational considerations are an important part of vehicle design and concept analysis process that needs to be modeled and studied early in the design phase. However, this is a difficult and challenging task due to uncertainties of operations definitions, the dynamic and combinatorial nature of the processes, and lack of analytical models and the scarcity of historical data during the conceptual design phase. Ultimately, NASA would like to know the best mix of launch vehicle concepts that would meet the missions launch dates at the minimum cost. To answer this question, we first need to develop a model to estimate the total cost, including the operational cost, to accomplish this set of missions. In this project, we have developed and implemented a discrete-event simulation model using ARENA (a simulation modeling environment) to determine this cost assessment. Discrete-event simulation is widely used in modeling complex systems, including transportation systems, due to its flexibility, and ability to capture the dynamics of the system. The simulation model accepts manifest inputs including the set of missions that need to be accomplished over a period of time, the clients (e.g., NASA or DoD) who wish to transport the payload to space, the payload weights, and their destinations (e.g., International Space Station, LEO, or GEO). A user of the simulation model can define an architecture of reusable or expendable launch vehicles to achieve these missions. Launch vehicles may belong to different families where each family may have it own set of resources, processing times, and cost factors. The goal is to capture the required

  14. Determining the Economic Plausibility of Dual Manifesting Reusable Launch Vehicles and Reusable Orbital Transfer Vehicles for the Replenishment of Military Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-28

    C4)~ ;1 6c . Lt io )V - CM- C4V r- If C14 0)0 0D0 VcE ) ) O( -0) V-00 0Df-0C -U’ o0C00 C)0 GO M C) Vco’) m r- e C)0[- -Oc 𔃺 C N --- 0 60 6 NNNc6 r- ’j...Satellite Launch Policies: The Dynamic Case," submitted for publication in Management Science, November 1995. Griffin, M.D. and Claybaugh, W.R. "On the...34Policy Recommendations for a Shipment- Consolidation Program," Journal of Business Logistics, 15:87-111 (1994). Hill, P. and Peterson, C. Mechanics and

  15. Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...

  16. Magnetic Launch Assist System Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have been testing Magnetic Launch Assist Systems, formerly known as Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at a very high speed. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, the launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This photograph shows a subscale model of an airplane running on the experimental track at MSFC during the demonstration test. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5- feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  17. Saenger - European reusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegenauer, E.

    1988-06-01

    An account is given of the design features and performance capabilities of the Saenger two-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle. Saenger, in addition to employing a novel, airbreathing lower-stage propulsion system, is unique in its alternative employment of either a manned, reentry-capable upper stage or an expendable, unmanned cargo-carrying one. This configuration is also noted to offer the use of the lower stage as a hypersonic-cruise passenger aircraft. It is in the choice of a propulsion system configuration that Saenger's designers face the most critical challenge.

  18. National Launch System comparative economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of economic benefits (or losses), in the form of the life cycle cost savings, resulting from the development of the National Launch System (NLS) family of launch vehicles. The analysis was carried out by comparing various NLS-based architectures with the current Shuttle/Titan IV fleet. The basic methodology behind this NLS analysis was to develop a set of annual payload requirements for the Space Station Freedom and LEO, to design launch vehicle architectures around these requirements, and to perform life-cycle cost analyses on all of the architectures. A SEI requirement was included. Launch failure costs were estimated and combined with the relative reliability assumptions to measure the effects of losses. Based on the analysis, a Shuttle/NLS architecture evolving into a pressurized-logistics-carrier/NLS architecture appears to offer the best long-term cost benefit.

  19. MLP based Reusability Assessment Automation Model for Java based Software Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Maggo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reuse refers to a common principle of using existing resources repeatedly, that is pervasively applicable everywhere. In software engineering reuse refers to the development of software systems using already available artifacts or assets partially or completely, with or without modifications. Software reuse not only promises significant improvements in productivity and quality but also provides for the development of more reliable, cost effective, dependable and less buggy (considering that prior use and testing have removed errors software with reduced time and effort. In this paper we present an efficient and reliable automation model for reusability evaluation of procedure based object oriented software for predicting the reusability levels of the components as low, medium or high. The presented model follows a reusability metric framework that targets the requisite reusability attributes including maintainability (using the Maintainability Index for functional analysis of the components. Further Multilayer perceptron (using back propagation based neural network is applied for the establishment of significant relationships among these attributes for reusability prediction. The proposed approach provides support for reusability evaluation at functional level rather than at structural level. The automation support for this approach is provided in the form of a tool named JRA2M2 (Java based Reusability Assessment Automation Model using Multilayer Perceptron (MLP, implemented in Java. The performance of JRA2M2 is recorded using parameters like accuracy, classification error, precision and recall. The results generated using JRA2M2 indicate that the proposed automation tool can be effectively used as a reliable and efficient solution for automated evaluation of reusability.

  20. Health Monitoring Technology for Thermal Protection Systems on Reusable Hypersonic Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milos, Frank S.; Watters, D. G.; Heinemann, J. M.; Karunaratne, K. S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Integrated subsystem health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. This talk summarizes a joint effort between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop rapid non-contact diagnostic tools for health and performance monitoring of thermal protection systems (TPS) on future RLVs. The specific goals for TPS health monitoring are to increase the speed and reliability of TPS inspections for improved operability at lower cost. The technology being developed includes a 3-D laser scanner for examining the exterior surface of the TPS, and a subsurface microsensor suite for monitoring the health and performance of the TPS. The sensor suite consists of passive overlimit sensors and sensors for continuous parameter monitoring in flight. The sensors are integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable wireless communication of-the sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Prototypes of the laser system and both types of subsurface sensors have been developed. The laser scanner was tested on Shuttle Orbiter Columbia and was able to dimension surface chips and holes on a variety of TPS materials. The temperature-overlimit microsensor has a diameter under 0.05 inch (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles) and can withstand 700 F for 15 minutes.

  1. Space Launch System for Exploration and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, K.

    2013-12-01

    Introduction: The Space Launch System (SLS) is the most powerful rocket ever built and provides a critical heavy-lift launch capability enabling diverse deep space missions. The exploration class vehicle launches larger payloads farther in our solar system and faster than ever before. The vehicle's 5 m to 10 m fairing allows utilization of existing systems which reduces development risks, size limitations and cost. SLS lift capacity and superior performance shortens mission travel time. Enhanced capabilities enable a myriad of missions including human exploration, planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, planetary defense and commercial space exploration endeavors. Human Exploration: SLS is the first heavy-lift launch vehicle capable of transporting crews beyond low Earth orbit in over four decades. Its design maximizes use of common elements and heritage hardware to provide a low-risk, affordable system that meets Orion mission requirements. SLS provides a safe and sustainable deep space pathway to Mars in support of NASA's human spaceflight mission objectives. The SLS enables the launch of large gateway elements beyond the moon. Leveraging a low-energy transfer that reduces required propellant mass, components are then brought back to a desired cislunar destination. SLS provides a significant mass margin that can be used for additional consumables or a secondary payloads. SLS lowers risks for the Asteroid Retrieval Mission by reducing mission time and improving mass margin. SLS lift capacity allows for additional propellant enabling a shorter return or the delivery of a secondary payload, such as gateway component to cislunar space. SLS enables human return to the moon. The intermediate SLS capability allows both crew and cargo to fly to translunar orbit at the same time which will simplify mission design and reduce launch costs. Science Missions: A single SLS launch to Mars will enable sample collection at multiple, geographically dispersed locations and a

  2. NASA Facts: Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartres, James; Cappuccio, Gelsomina

    2013-01-01

    The Nanosatellite Launch Adapter System (NLAS) was developed to increase access to space while simplifying the integration process of miniature satellites, called nanosats or cubesats, onto launch vehicles. A standard cubesat measures about 4inches (10 cm) long, 4 inches wide,and 4 inches high, and is called a one-unit (1U) cubesat. A single NLAS provides the capability to deploy 24U of cubesats. The system is designed to accommodate satellites measuring 1U, 1.5U, 2U, 3U and 6U sizes for deployment into orbit. The NLAS may be configured for use on different launch vehicles. The system also enables flight demonstrations of new technologies in the space environment.

  3. Launch Pad Escape System Design (Human Spaceflight)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelli

    2011-01-01

    A launch pad escape system for human spaceflight is one of those things that everyone hopes they will never need but is critical for every manned space program. Since men were first put into space in the early 1960s, the need for such an Emergency Escape System (EES) has become apparent. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has made use of various types of these EESs over the past 50 years. Early programs, like Mercury and Gemini, did not have an official launch pad escape system. Rather, they relied on a Launch Escape System (LES) of a separate solid rocket motor attached to the manned capsule that could pull the astronauts to safety in the event of an emergency. This could only occur after hatch closure at the launch pad or during the first stage of flight. A version of a LES, now called a Launch Abort System (LAS) is still used today for all manned capsule type launch vehicles. However, this system is very limited in that it can only be used after hatch closure and it is for flight crew only. In addition, the forces necessary for the LES/LAS to get the capsule away from a rocket during the first stage of flight are quite high and can cause injury to the crew. These shortcomings led to the development of a ground based EES for the flight crew and ground support personnel as well. This way, a much less dangerous mode of egress is available for any flight or ground personnel up to a few seconds before launch. The early EESs were fairly simple, gravity-powered systems to use when thing's go bad. And things can go bad very quickly and catastrophically when dealing with a flight vehicle fueled with millions of pounds of hazardous propellant. With this in mind, early EES designers saw such a passive/unpowered system as a must for last minute escapes. This and other design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at the safety design requirements had to be derived for an EES, and this section will take a look at

  4. Space Launch System Mission Flexibility Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Timothy; Holladay, Jon; Sanders, Terry; Hampton, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) missions. While multiple assessments have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS, this effort was undertaken to evaluate the flexibility of various concepts for the range of missions that may be required of this system. These mission scenarios include single launch crew and/or cargo delivery to LEO, single launch cargo delivery missions to LEO in support of multi-launch mission campaigns, and single launch beyond LEO missions. Specifically, we assessed options for the single launch beyond LEO mission scenario using a variety of in-space stages and vehicle staging criteria. This was performed to determine the most flexible (and perhaps optimal) method of designing this particular type of mission. A specific mission opportunity to the Jovian system was further assessed to determine potential solutions that may meet currently envisioned mission objectives. This application sought to significantly reduce mission cost by allowing for a direct, faster transfer from Earth to Jupiter and to determine the order-of-magnitude mass margin that would be made available from utilization of the SLS. In general, smaller, existing stages provided comparable performance to larger, new stage developments when the mission scenario allowed for optimal LEO dropoff orbits (e.g. highly elliptical staging orbits). Initial results using this method with early SLS configurations and existing Upper Stages showed the potential of capturing Lunar flyby missions as well as providing significant mass delivery to a Jupiter transfer orbit.

  5. Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David Alan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this Space Launch System (SLS) Mission Planner's Guide (MPG) is to provide future payload developers/users with sufficient insight to support preliminary SLS mission planning. Consequently, this SLS MPG is not intended to be a payload requirements document; rather, it organizes and details SLS interfaces/accommodations in a manner similar to that of current Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) user guides to support early feasibility assessment. Like ELV Programs, once approved to fly on SLS, specific payload requirements will be defined in unique documentation.

  6. White list management system was officially launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    March 28,in China International Exhibition Center the China National Textile and Apparel Council,held a seminar on the Japanese textile industry standards & white list management system,marking the two sides to build a white list management system was officially launched. It is understood that the white list management system developed self-regulatory standards for the Japanese textile industry,that textiles do

  7. Control of NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.

    2014-01-01

    The flight control system for the NASA Space Launch System (SLS) employs a control architecture that evolved from Saturn, Shuttle & Ares I-X while also incorporating modern enhancements. This control system, baselined for the first unmanned launch, has been verified and successfully flight-tested on the Ares I-X rocket and an F/A-18 aircraft. The development of the launch vehicle itself came on the heels of the Space Shuttle retirement in 2011, and will deliver more payload to orbit and produce more thrust than any other vehicle, past or present, opening the way to new frontiers of space exploration as it carries the Orion crew vehicle, equipment, and experiments into new territories. The initial 70 metric ton vehicle consists of four RS-25 core stage engines from the Space Shuttle inventory, two 5- segment solid rocket boosters which are advanced versions of the Space Shuttle boosters, and a core stage that resembles the External Tank and carries the liquid propellant while also serving as the vehicle's structural backbone. Just above SLS' core stage is the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), based upon the payload motor used by the Delta IV Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV).

  8. Improved Re-Configurable Sliding Mode Controller for Reusable Launch Vehicle of Second Generation Addressing Aerodynamic Surface Failures and Thrust Deficiencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtessel, Yuri B.

    2002-01-01

    In this report we present a time-varying sliding mode control (TV-SMC) technique for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) attitude control in ascent and entry flight phases. In ascent flight the guidance commands Euler roll, pitch and yaw angles, and in entry flight it commands the aerodynamic angles of bank, attack and sideslip. The controller employs a body rate inner loop and the attitude outer loop, which are separated in time-scale by the singular perturbation principle. The novelty of the TVSMC is that both the sliding surface and the boundary layer dynamics can be varied in real time using the PD-eigenvalue assignment technique. This salient feature is used to cope with control command saturation and integrator windup in the presence of severe disturbance or control effector failure, which enhances the robustness and fault tolerance of the controller. The TV-SMC is developed and tuned up for the X-33 sub-orbital technology demonstration vehicle in launch and re-entry modes. A variety of nominal, dispersion and failure scenarios have tested via high fidelity 6DOF simulations using MAVERIC/SLIM simulation software.

  9. Hail Disrometer Array for Launch Systems Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Sharp, David W.; Kasparis, Takis C.; Doesken, Nolan J.

    2008-01-01

    Prior to launch, the space shuttle might be described as a very large thermos bottle containing substantial quantities of cryogenic fuels. Because thermal insulation is a critical design requirement, the external wall of the launch vehicle fuel tank is covered with an insulating foam layer. This foam is fragile and can be damaged by very minor impacts, such as that from small- to medium-size hail, which may go unnoticed. In May 1999, hail damage to the top of the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 required a rollback from the launch pad to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for repair of the insulating foam. Because of the potential for hail damage to the ET while exposed to the weather, a vigilant hail sentry system using impact transducers was developed as a hail damage warning system and to record and quantify hail events. The Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Hail Monitor System, a joint effort of the NASA and University Affiliated Spaceport Technology Development Contract (USTDC) Physics Labs, was first deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain. Hail, and Snow Network (CoCoRaHS) in conjunction with Colorado State University were and continue to be active in testing duplicate hail monitor systems at sites in the hail prone high plains of Colorado. The KSC Hail Monitor System (HMS), consisting of three stations positioned approximately 500 ft from the launch pad and forming an approximate equilateral triangle (see Figure 1), was deployed to Pad 39B for support of STS-115. Two months later, the HMS was deployed to Pad 39A for support of STS-116. During support of STS-117 in late February 2007, an unusual hail event occurred in the immediate vicinity of the exposed space shuttle and launch pad. Hail data of this event was collected by the HMS and analyzed. Support of STS-118 revealed another important application of the hail monitor system. Ground Instrumentation personnel check the hail monitors daily when a

  10. NASA's Space Launch System Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.; Lyles, Garry M.; Beaman, David E.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Earth will be an enduring legacy for future generations, confirming America's commitment to explore, learn, and progress. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is responsible for designing and developing the first exploration-class rocket since the Apollo Program's Saturn V that sent Americans to the Moon. The SLS offers a flexible design that may be configured for the MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle and associated equipment, or may be outfitted with a payload fairing that will accommodate flagship science instruments and a variety of high-priority experiments. Both options support a national capability that will pay dividends for future generations. Building on legacy systems, facilities, and expertise, the SLS will have an initial lift capability of 70 metric tons (mT) and will be evolvable to 130 mT. While commercial launch vehicle providers service the International Space Station market, this capability will surpass all vehicles, past and present, providing the means to do entirely new missions, such as human exploration of asteroids and Mars. With its superior lift capability, the SLS can expand the interplanetary highway to many possible destinations, conducting revolutionary missions that will change the way we view ourselves, our planet and its place in the cosmos. To perform missions such as these, the SLS will be the largest launch vehicle ever built. It is being designed for safety and affordability - to sustain our journey into the space age. Current plans include launching the first flight, without crew, later this decade, with crewed flights beginning early next decade. Development work now in progress is based on heritage space systems and working knowledge, allowing for a relatively quick start and for maturing the SLS rocket as future technologies become available. Together, NASA and the U.S. aerospace industry are partnering to develop this one-of-a-kind asset. Many of NASA's space

  11. Grenade-launched imaging projectile system (GLIMPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunan, Scott C.; Coakley, Peter G.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Lum, Chris

    2001-09-01

    A system has been developed for delivering and attaching a sensor payload to a target using a standard 40-mm grenade launcher. The projectile incorporates an attachment mechanism, a shock mitigation system, a power source, and a video-bandwidth transmitter. Impact and launch g-loads have been limited to less than 10,000 g's, enabling sensor payloads to be assembled using Commercial Off-The-Shelf components. The GLIMPS projectile is intended to be a general-purpose delivery system for a variety of sensor payloads under the Unattended Ground Sensors program. Test results and development issues are presented.

  12. Gun Launch System: efficient and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtyarev, Alexander; Ventskovsky, Oleg; Korostelev, Oleg; Yakovenko, Peter; Kanevsky, Valery; Tselinko, Alexander

    2005-08-01

    The Gun Launch System with a reusable sub-orbital launch vehicle as a central element is proposed by a consortium of several Ukrainian high-tech companies as an effective, fast-response and low-cost means of research and real-time monitoring. The system is described in details, with the emphasis on its most important advantages. Multiple applications of the system are presented, including ones for the purposes of microgravity research; chemical, bacteriological and radiation monitoring and research of atmosphere and ionosphere; operational monitoring of natural and man-made disasters, as well as for some other areas of great practical interest. The current level of the system development is given, and the way ahead towards full system's implementation is prescribed.

  13. NASA Space Launch System Operations Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Joan A.; Cook, Jerry R.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS also will provide backup crew and cargo services to the International Space Station, where astronauts have been training for long-duration voyages to destinations such as asteroids and Mars. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V, providing 10 percent more thrust at liftoff in its initial 70 metric ton (t) configuration and 20 percent more in its evolved 130 t configuration. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability. This paper will provide an overview of its operations strategy, which includes initiatives to reduce both development and fixed costs by using existing hardware and infrastructure assets to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat using competitively selected advanced technologies that offer appropriate return on investment. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. A series of design reference missions has informed the SLS operations concept, including launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle on an autonomous demonstration mission in a lunar flyby scenario in 2017, and the first flight of a crew on Orion for a lunar flyby in 2021. Additional concepts address the processing of very large payloads, using a series of modular fairings and adapters to flexibly configure the rocket for the mission. This paper will describe how the SLS, Orion, and 21st Century Ground Systems programs are working together to create streamlined, affordable operations for sustainable exploration.

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: Development and Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, John; Lyles, Garry

    2016-01-01

    NASA is embarked on a new era of space exploration that will lead to new capabilities, new destinations, and new discoveries by both human and robotic explorers. Today, the International Space Station (ISS), supported by NASA's commercial partners, and robotic probes, are yielding knowledge that will help make this exploration possible. NASA is developing both the Orion crew vehicle and the Space Launch System (SLS) that will carry out a series of increasingly challenging missions that will eventually lead to human exploration of Mars. This paper will discuss the development and progress on the SLS. The SLS architecture was designed to be safe, affordable, and sustainable. The current configuration is the result of literally thousands of trade studies involving cost, performance, mission requirements, and other metrics. The initial configuration of SLS, designated Block 1, will launch a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) into low Earth orbit - significantly greater capability than any current launch vehicle. It is designed to evolve to a capability of 130 t through the use of upgraded main engines, advanced boosters, and a new upper stage. With more payload mass and volume capability than any rocket in history, SLS offers mission planners larger payloads, faster trip times, simpler design, shorter design cycles, and greater opportunity for mission success. Since the program was officially created in fall 2011, it has made significant progress toward first launch readiness of the Block 1 vehicle in 2018. Every major element of SLS continued to make significant progress in 2015. The Boosters element fired Qualification Motor 1 (QM-1) in March 2015, to test the 5-segment motor, including new insulation, joint, and propellant grain designs. The Stages element marked the completion of more than 70 major components of test article and flight core stage tanks. The Liquid Engines element conducted seven test firings of an RS-25 engine under SLS conditions. The Spacecraft

  15. Constellation Ground Systems Launch Availability Analysis: Enhancing Highly Reliable Launch Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Jeffrey L.; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Cummings, Nicholas H.

    2010-01-01

    Success of the Constellation Program's lunar architecture requires successfully launching two vehicles, Ares I/Orion and Ares V/Altair, in a very limited time period. The reliability and maintainability of flight vehicles and ground systems must deliver a high probability of successfully launching the second vehicle in order to avoid wasting the on-orbit asset launched by the first vehicle. The Ground Operations Project determined which ground subsystems had the potential to affect the probability of the second launch and allocated quantitative availability requirements to these subsystems. The Ground Operations Project also developed a methodology to estimate subsystem reliability, availability and maintainability to ensure that ground subsystems complied with allocated launch availability and maintainability requirements. The verification analysis developed quantitative estimates of subsystem availability based on design documentation; testing results, and other information. Where appropriate, actual performance history was used for legacy subsystems or comparative components that will support Constellation. The results of the verification analysis will be used to verify compliance with requirements and to highlight design or performance shortcomings for further decision-making. This case study will discuss the subsystem requirements allocation process, describe the ground systems methodology for completing quantitative reliability, availability and maintainability analysis, and present findings and observation based on analysis leading to the Ground Systems Preliminary Design Review milestone.

  16. Launch Pad 39 Hail Monitor Array System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Weather conditions at Kennedy Space Center are extremely dynamic, and they greatly affect the safety of the Space Shuttles sitting on the launch pads. For example, on May 13, 1999, the foam on the External Tank (ET) of STS-96 was significantly damaged by hail at the launch pad, requiring rollback to the Vehicle Assembly Building. The loss of ET foam on STS-114 in 2005 intensified interest in monitoring and measuring damage to ET foam, especially from hail. But hail can be difficult to detect and monitor because it is often localized and obscured by heavy rain. Furthermore, the hot Florida climate usually melts the hail even before the rainfall subsides. In response, the hail monitor array (HMA) system, a joint effort of the Applied Physics Laboratory operated by NASA and ASRC Aerospace at KSC, was deployed for operational testing in the fall of 2006. Volunteers from the Community Collaborative Rain, Hail, and Snow (CoCoRaHS) network, in conjunction with Colorado State University, continue to test duplicate hail monitor systems deployed in the high plains of Colorado.

  17. Using Selection Pressure as an Asset to Develop Reusable, Adaptable Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, S. W.; Lynnes, C.

    2007-12-01

    The Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) at NASA has over the years developed and honed a number of reusable architectural components for supporting large-scale data centers with a large customer base. These include a processing system (S4PM) and an archive system (S4PA) based upon a workflow engine called the Simple, Scalable, Script-based Science Processor (S4P); an online data visualization and analysis system (Giovanni); and the radically simple and fast data search tool, Mirador. These subsystems are currently reused internally in a variety of combinations to implement customized data management on behalf of instrument science teams and other science investigators. Some of these subsystems (S4P and S4PM) have also been reused by other data centers for operational science processing. Our experience has been that development and utilization of robust, interoperable, and reusable software systems can actually flourish in environments defined by heterogeneous commodity hardware systems, the emphasis on value-added customer service, and continual cost reduction pressures. The repeated internal reuse that is fostered by such an environment encourages and even forces changes to the software that make it more reusable and adaptable. Allowing and even encouraging such selective pressures to software development has been a key factor in the success of S4P and S4PM, which are now available to the open source community under the NASA Open Source Agreement.

  18. Wireless Data Acquisition System for Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabooj Ray

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Present launch vehicle integration architecture for avionics uses wired link to transfer data between various sub-systems. Depending on system criticality and complexity, MIL1553 and RS485 are the common protocols that are adopted. These buses have their inherent complexity and failure issues due to harness defects or under adverse flight environments. To mitigate this problem, a prototype wireless, data acquisition system for telemetry applications has been developed and demonstrated. The wireless system simplifies the integration, while reducing weight and costs. Commercial applications of wireless systems are widespread. Few systems have recently been developed for complex and critical environments. Efforts have been underway to make such architectures operational in promising application scenarios. This paper discusses the system concept for adapting a wireless system to the existing bus topology. The protocol involved and the internal implementation of the different modules are described. The test results are presented; some of the issues faced are discussed and the; future course of action is identified.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.186-191, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.63.4262

  19. Reusable Component Technology in the Development of Agile Supply Chain Management System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Agile Supply Chain Management (ASCM) is one of the ke y techniques, which support dynamic enterprise alliance and realize agile manufa cturing. But the optimal run of ASCS depends on a good-constructed Agile Supply Chain Management System (ASCMS), so that the materials flow, information flow a nd funding flow in the supply chain are used with high efficiency. The requireme nts of ASCMS are constantly changeable, which requires that ASCMS has dynamical reuse, integration and open interface. Reusable compo...

  20. NASA's Space Launch System Program Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd; Lyles, Garry

    2015-01-01

    Hardware and software for the world's most powerful launch vehicle for exploration is being welded, assembled, and tested today in high bays, clean rooms and test stands across the United States. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) continued to make significant progress in 2014 with more planned for 2015, including firing tests of both main propulsion elements and the program Critical Design Review (CDR). Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS will still deliver unmatched capability for human and robotic exploration. The initial Block 1 configuration will deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). The evolved Block 2 design will deliver some 130 metric tons to LEO. Both designs offer enormous opportunity and flexibility for larger payloads, simplifying payload design as well as ground and on-orbit operations, shortening interplanetary transit times, and decreasing overall mission risk. Over the past year, every vehicle element has manufactured or tested hardware. An RS-25 liquid propellant engine was hotfire-tested at NASA's Stennis Space Center, Miss. for the first time since 2009 exercising and validating the new engine controller, the renovated A-1 test stand, and the test teams. Four RS-25s will power the SLS core stage. A qualification five-segment solid rocket motor incorporating several design, material, and process changes was scheduled to be test-fired in March at the prime contractor's facility in Utah. The booster also successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) validating the planned design. All six major manufacturing tools for the core stage are in place at the Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana, and have been used to build numerous pieces of confidence, qualification, and even flight hardware, including barrel sections, domes and rings used to assemble the world's largest rocket stage. SLS Systems Engineering accomplished several key tasks including vehicle avionics software

  1. Economic Metrics for Commercial Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The success of any effort depends upon the effective initial definition of its purpose, in terms of the needs to be satisfied and the goals to be fulfilled. If the desired product is "A System" that is well-characterized, these high-level need and goal statements can be transformed into system requirements by traditional systems engineering techniques. The satisfaction of well-designed requirements can be tracked by fairly straightforward cost, schedule, and technical performance metrics. Unfortunately, some types of efforts, including those that NASA terms "Programs," tend to resist application of traditional systems engineering practices. In the NASA hierarchy of efforts, a "Program" is often an ongoing effort with broad, high-level goals and objectives. A NASA "project" is a finite effort, in terms of budget and schedule, that usually produces or involves one System. Programs usually contain more than one project and thus more than one System. Special care must be taken in the formulation of NASA Programs and their projects, to ensure that lower-level project requirements are traceable to top-level Program goals, feasible with the given cost and schedule constraints, and measurable against top-level goals. NASA Programs and projects are tasked to identify the advancement of technology as an explicit goal, which introduces more complicating factors. The justification for funding of technology development may be based on the technology's applicability to more than one System, Systems outside that Program or even external to NASA. Application of systems engineering to broad-based technology development, leading to effective measurement of the benefits, can be valid, but it requires that potential beneficiary Systems be organized into a hierarchical structure, creating a "system of Systems." In addition, these Systems evolve with the successful application of the technology, which creates the necessity for evolution of the benefit metrics to reflect the changing

  2. Mini-RPV Launch System Conceptual Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    are needed to produce total launch forces sufficient to launch mini-RPV’s. 4. Votta , F. A. Jr.;THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF LONG DEFLECTION, CONSTANT...Amendment 1, 29 September 1966. 4. Votta , F. A., Jr., THE THEORY AND DESIGN OF LONG DEFLECTION, CONSTANT FORCE SPRING ELEMENTS, Transactions of the ASME

  3. Reusable holographic velocimetry system based on polarization multiplexing in Bacteriorhodopsin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek, W.D.; Chan, V.S.S.; Ooms, T.A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Westerweel, J.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a novel holographic particle image velocimetry (HPIV) system using a reversible holographic material as the recording medium. In HPIV the three-dimensional flow field throughout a volume is detected by adding small tracer particles to a normally transparent medium. By recording the

  4. Space Launch System Accelerated Booster Development Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockiam, Nicole; Whittecar, William; Edwards, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, NASA is seeking to reinvigorate the national space program and recapture the public s interest in human space exploration by developing missions to the Moon, near-earth asteroids, Lagrange points, Mars, and beyond. The would-be successor to the Space Shuttle, NASA s Constellation Program, planned to take humans back to the Moon by 2020, but due to budgetary constraints was cancelled in 2010 in search of a more "affordable, sustainable, and realistic" concept2. Following a number of studies, the much anticipated Space Launch System (SLS) was unveiled in September of 2011. The SLS core architecture consists of a cryogenic first stage with five Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSMEs), and a cryogenic second stage using a new J-2X engine3. The baseline configuration employs two 5-segment solid rocket boosters to achieve a 70 metric ton payload capability, but a new, more capable booster system will be required to attain the goal of 130 metric tons to orbit. To this end, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center recently released a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) entitled "Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction." The increased emphasis on affordability is evident in the language used in the NRA, which is focused on risk reduction "leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS" and "enabling competition" to "enhance SLS affordability. The purpose of the work presented in this paper is to perform an independent assessment of the elements that make up an affordable and realistic path forward for the SLS booster system, utilizing advanced design methods and technology evaluation techniques. The goal is to identify elements that will enable a more sustainable development program by exploring the trade space of heavy lift booster systems and focusing on affordability, operability, and reliability at the system and subsystem levels5. For this study

  5. RLV自主着陆航迹设计与控制研究%Autolanding Trajectory Design and Control for Reusable Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗欢; 侯明善; 刘文风; 唐成师

    2012-01-01

    研究了重复使用运载器(RLV)自主着陆陡下滑捕获-陡下滑-圆弧拉起-指数拉平模式航迹生成算法设计;为解决不同着陆段航迹控制指令跳变问题,提出了航迹指令自适应平滑算法;以捕获点法向过载跳变最小为指标研究了三次多项式陡下滑捕获点的优化方法;给出了完整的在线航迹生成算法;基于法向过载的开环加闭环复合控制指令跟踪方案,使用simulink进行数值仿真,结果显示文章提出的航迹生成算法可以自动生成有效航迹,控制方法可以保证航迹平滑过渡且对初始扰动具有良好的鲁棒性,从而验证了方法的可行性和有效性.%Autolanding trajectory generation algorithm for reusable launch vehicle (RLV) is investigated, the trajectory includes four parts: steep glideslope capture, steep glideslope. Circular pull-up and exponential flare. The trajectory command adaptive smoothing algorithm is proposed to reduce the command jumps between different trajectory sections. The optimization method based minimum normal acceleration jumps for the capture point in steep glideslope and complete on-line trajectory generation algorithm are presented. Numerical simulations were performed using an open and closed-loop composite control scheme, the results show trajectory generation algorithm can generate effective trajectory autonomy, control method can guarantee a smooth transition and robustness against initial disturbance. It verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of this method.

  6. Near-term U.S. military and commercial launch systems. A post cold war assessment of future needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehair, C. L.; Wolfe, M. G.

    In late 1992, the Vice President's Space Policy Advisory Board made a number of major space policy recommendations that impact the United States launch industry. These recommendations included greater cooperation and synergism and less duplication between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD); development of a new, more efficient space launch capability to replace the aging and operationally expensive current launch systems that are finding it increasingly difficult to compete in the global commercial market place; transition to more cost-effective ways of meeting both unmanned and manned space transportation needs in the 21st century; prudent relaxation of security regulations to foster increased world trade; sharing of capabilities with allies and friendly states; and expansion of efforts to forge partnerships with other nations in carefully selected areas. The recommendations were intended to aid the incoming administration and the new president in making funding decisions for near-term future launch systems. In the light of these recommendations, this paper examines the limitations of the current U.S. expendable launch fleet; the performance, operability, reliability, and cost-effectiveness enhancement options available; the availability of new technologies and design changes that can be applied to current systems; the requirements that would have to be met to make U.S. systems more competitive in the global market place; and the advisability of replacing or augmenting current systems with a new "Spacelift" vehicle or family of vehicles. The Spacelift concept is described and assessed against projected domestic and global mission requirements, including possible manned missions. Expendable options are compared with current launch systems and with near-term future systems such as Ariane 5. Alternative design approaches, such as partially reusable concepts; fully reusable systems; and the possibility of using

  7. A Low-Cost Launch Assistance System for Orbital Launch Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Nizhnik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author reviews the state of art of nonrocket launch assistance systems (LASs for spaceflight focusing on air launch options. The author proposes an alternative technologically feasible LAS based on a combination of approaches: air launch, high-altitude balloon, and tethered LAS. Proposed LAS can be implemented with the existing off-the-shelf hardware delivering 7 kg to low-earth orbit for the 5200 USD per kg. Proposed design can deliver larger reduction in price and larger orbital payloads with the future advances in the aerostats, ropes, electrical motors, and terrestrial power networks.

  8. Space Launch System Upper Stage Technology Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holladay, Jon; Hampton, Bryan; Monk, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) is envisioned as a heavy-lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) exploration missions. Previous studies have been performed to determine the optimal configuration for the SLS and the applicability of commercial off-the-shelf in-space stages for Earth departure. Currently NASA is analyzing the concept of a Dual Use Upper Stage (DUUS) that will provide LEO insertion and Earth departure burns. This paper will explore candidate in-space stages based on the DUUS design for a wide range of beyond LEO missions. Mission payloads will range from small robotic systems up to human systems with deep space habitats and landers. Mission destinations will include cislunar space, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Given these wide-ranging mission objectives, a vehicle-sizing tool has been developed to determine the size of an Earth departure stage based on the mission objectives. The tool calculates masses for all the major subsystems of the vehicle including propellant loads, avionics, power, engines, main propulsion system components, tanks, pressurization system and gases, primary structural elements, and secondary structural elements. The tool uses an iterative sizing algorithm to determine the resulting mass of the stage. Any input into one of the subsystem sizing routines or the mission parameters can be treated as a parametric sweep or as a distribution for use in Monte Carlo analysis. Taking these factors together allows for multi-variable, coupled analysis runs. To increase confidence in the tool, the results have been verified against two point-of-departure designs of the DUUS. The tool has also been verified against Apollo moon mission elements and other manned space systems. This paper will focus on trading key propulsion technologies including chemical, Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), and Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). All of the key performance inputs and relationships will be presented and

  9. Modern architectures for intelligent systems: reusable ontologies and problem-solving methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musen, M A

    1998-01-01

    When interest in intelligent systems for clinical medicine soared in the 1970s, workers in medical informatics became particularly attracted to rule-based systems. Although many successful rule-based applications were constructed, development and maintenance of large rule bases remained quite problematic. In the 1980s, an entire industry dedicated to the marketing of tools for creating rule-based systems rose and fell, as workers in medical informatics began to appreciate deeply why knowledge acquisition and maintenance for such systems are difficult problems. During this time period, investigators began to explore alternative programming abstractions that could be used to develop intelligent systems. The notions of "generic tasks" and of reusable problem-solving methods became extremely influential. By the 1990s, academic centers were experimenting with architectures for intelligent systems based on two classes of reusable components: (1) domain-independent problem-solving methods-standard algorithms for automating stereotypical tasks--and (2) domain ontologies that captured the essential concepts (and relationships among those concepts) in particular application areas. This paper will highlight how intelligent systems for diverse tasks can be efficiently automated using these kinds of building blocks. The creation of domain ontologies and problem-solving methods is the fundamental end product of basic research in medical informatics. Consequently, these concepts need more attention by our scientific community.

  10. Non-Toxic Reaction Control System for the Reusable First Stage Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, E. L.; Rothschild, W. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents the Boeing Reusable Space Systems vision of a Reaction Control System (RCS) for the Reusable First Stage (RFS) being considered as a replacement for the Solid Rocket Booster for the Space Shuttle. The requirement is to achieve reliable vehicle control during the upper atmospheric portion of the RFS trajectory while enabling more efficient ground operations, unhindered by constraints caused by operating with highly toxic RCS propellants. Boeing's objective for this effort is to develop a safer, more efficient and environmentally friendly RCS design approach that is suitable for the RFS concept of operations, including a low cost, efficient turnaround cycle. The Boeing RCS concept utilizes ethanol and liquid oxygen in place of the highly toxic, suspected carcinogen, ozone-depleting mono-methyl-hydrazine and highly toxic nitrogen tetroxide. The Space Shuttle Upgrade program, under the leadership of the NASA Johnson Space Flight Center, is currently developing liquid oxygen and ethanol (ethyl alcohol) technology for use as non-toxic orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and RCS. The development of this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology for the Space Shuttle offers a significant leverage to select much of the same technology for the RFS program. There are significant design and development issues involved with bringing this liquid oxygen and ethanol technology to a state of maturity suitable for an operational RCS. The risks associated with a new LOX and Ethanol RCS are mitigated by maintaining kerosene and hydrogen peroxide RCS technology as an alternative. These issues, presented within this paper, include managing the oxygen supply and achieving reliable ignition in the short pulse mode of engine operation. Performance, reliability and operations requirements are presented along with a specific RCS design concept to satisfying these requirements. The work reported in this paper was performed under NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Contract Number

  11. GoldenBraid: an iterative cloning system for standardized assembly of reusable genetic modules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Sarrion-Perdigones

    Full Text Available Synthetic Biology requires efficient and versatile DNA assembly systems to facilitate the building of new genetic modules/pathways from basic DNA parts in a standardized way. Here we present GoldenBraid (GB, a standardized assembly system based on type IIS restriction enzymes that allows the indefinite growth of reusable gene modules made of standardized DNA pieces. The GB system consists of a set of four destination plasmids (pDGBs designed to incorporate multipartite assemblies made of standard DNA parts and to combine them binarily to build increasingly complex multigene constructs. The relative position of type IIS restriction sites inside pDGB vectors introduces a double loop ("braid" topology in the cloning strategy that allows the indefinite growth of composite parts through the succession of iterative assembling steps, while the overall simplicity of the system is maintained. We propose the use of GoldenBraid as an assembly standard for Plant Synthetic Biology. For this purpose we have GB-adapted a set of binary plasmids for A. tumefaciens-mediated plant transformation. Fast GB-engineering of several multigene T-DNAs, including two alternative modules made of five reusable devices each, and comprising a total of 19 basic parts are also described.

  12. Orion Launch Abort System Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel; Davidson, John; Gonzalez, Guillo

    2015-01-01

    The Orion Launch Abort System Office is taking part in flight testing to enable certification that the system is capable of delivering the astronauts aboard the Orion Crew Module to a safe environment during both nominal and abort conditions. Orion is a NASA program, Exploration Flight Test 1 is managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched on a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. Although the Launch Abort System Office has tested the critical systems to the Launch Abort System jettison event on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. During Exploration Flight Test 1, the Launch Abort System was to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Exploration Flight Test 1 was successfully flown on December 5, 2014 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station's Space Launch Complex 37. This was the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. The abort motor and attitude control motors were inert for Exploration Flight Test 1, since the mission did not require abort capabilities. Exploration Flight Test 1 provides critical data that enable engineering to improve Orion's design and reduce risk for the astronauts it will protect as NASA continues to move forward on its human journey to Mars. The Exploration Flight Test 1 separation event occurred at six minutes and twenty seconds after liftoff. The separation of the Launch Abort System jettison occurs once Orion is safely through the most dynamic portion of the launch. This paper will present a brief overview of the objectives of the Launch Abort System during a nominal Orion flight. Secondly, the paper will present the performance of the Launch Abort System at it fulfilled those objectives. The lessons learned from Exploration Flight Test 1 and the other Flight Test Vehicles will certainly

  13. Reusable Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    overseeing reusable software, the Reusable Software Organization ( RUSO ). This author does not feel at this time that establishment of such a specific...49] have not been accompanied by establishment of RUSO -like activities. There is need, however, for assurance that functions which a RUSO might be...assurance 6. establishment and maintenance of reuse archival facilities and activities. Actual establishment of a RUSO is best dictated by size of the

  14. Development of Batch and Flow Immobilized Catalytic Systems with High Catalytic Activity and Reusability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yoichi M A

    2017-01-01

    My mission in catalysis research is to develop highly active and reusable supported catalytic systems in terms of fundamental chemistry and industrial application. For this purpose, I developed three types of highly active and reusable supported catalytic systems. The first type involves polymeric base-supported metal catalysts: Novel polymeric imidazole-Pd and Cu complexes were developed that worked at the mol ppm level for a variety of organic transformations. The second involves catalytic membrane-installed microflow reactors: Membranous polymeric palladium and copper complex/nanoparticle catalysts were installed at the center of a microtube to produce novel catalytic membrane-immobilized flow microreactor devices. These catalytic devices mediated a variety of organic transformations to afford the corresponding products in high yield within 1-38 s. The third is a silicon nanowire array-immobilized palladium nanoparticle catalyst. This device promoted a variety of organic transformations as a heterogeneous catalyst. The Mizoroki-Heck reaction proceeded with 280 mol ppb (0.000028 mol%) of the catalyst, affording the corresponding products in high yield.

  15. Reusable design: A proposed approach to Public Health Informatics system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revere Debra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since it was first defined in 1995, Public Health Informatics (PHI has become a recognized discipline, with a research agenda, defined domain-specific competencies and a specialized corpus of technical knowledge. Information systems form a cornerstone of PHI research and implementation, representing significant progress for the nascent field. However, PHI does not advocate or incorporate standard, domain-appropriate design methods for implementing public health information systems. Reusable design is generalized design advice that can be reused in a range of similar contexts. We propose that PHI create and reuse information design knowledge by taking a systems approach that incorporates design methods from the disciplines of Human-Computer Interaction, Interaction Design and other related disciplines. Discussion Although PHI operates in a domain with unique characteristics, many design problems in public health correspond to classic design problems, suggesting that existing design methods and solution approaches are applicable to the design of public health information systems. Among the numerous methodological frameworks used in other disciplines, we identify scenario-based design and participatory design as two widely-employed methodologies that are appropriate for adoption as PHI standards. We make the case that these methods show promise to create reusable design knowledge in PHI. Summary We propose the formalization of a set of standard design methods within PHI that can be used to pursue a strategy of design knowledge creation and reuse for cost-effective, interoperable public health information systems. We suggest that all public health informaticians should be able to use these design methods and the methods should be incorporated into PHI training.

  16. Distributed Web-Based Expert System for Launch Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2005-01-01

    The simulation and modeling of launch operations is based on a representation of the organization of the operations suitable to experiment of the physical, procedural, software, hardware and psychological aspects of space flight operations. The virtual test bed consists of a weather expert system to advice on the effect of weather to the launch operations. It also simulates toxic gas dispersion model, and the risk impact on human health. Since all modeling and simulation is based on the internet, it could reduce the cost of operations of launch and range safety by conducting extensive research before a particular launch. Each model has an independent decision making module to derive the best decision for launch.

  17. Engineering Next Generation Launch Systems for Supportability Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In order to meet the challenges of high probability of mission success for space exploration, ground support system for various launch operations that responds...

  18. Space Launch System Spacecraft and Payload Elements: Making Progress Toward First Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andrew A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Significant and substantial progress continues to be accomplished in the design, development, and testing of the Space Launch System (SLS), the most powerful human-rated launch vehicle the United States has ever undertaken. Designed to support human missions into deep space, SLS is one of three programs being managed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Exploration Systems Development directorate. The Orion spacecraft program is developing a new crew vehicle that will support human missions beyond low Earth orbit, and the Ground Systems Development and Operations program is transforming Kennedy Space Center into next-generation spaceport capable of supporting not only SLS but also multiple commercial users. Together, these systems will support human exploration missions into the proving ground of cislunar space and ultimately to Mars. SLS will deliver a near-term heavy-lift capability for the nation with its 70 metric ton (t) Block 1 configuration, and will then evolve to an ultimate capability of 130 t. The SLS program marked a major milestone with the successful completion of the Critical Design Review in which detailed designs were reviewed and subsequently approved for proceeding with full-scale production. This marks the first time an exploration class vehicle has passed that major milestone since the Saturn V vehicle launched astronauts in the 1960s during the Apollo program. Each element of the vehicle now has flight hardware in production in support of the initial flight of the SLS -- Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1), an un-crewed mission to orbit the moon and return. Encompassing hardware qualification, structural testing to validate hardware compliance and analytical modeling, progress in on track to meet the initial targeted launch date in 2018. In Utah and Mississippi, booster and engine testing are verifying upgrades made to proven shuttle hardware. At Michoud Assembly Facility in Louisiana, the world's largest spacecraft welding

  19. Comparison of reusable insulation systems for cryogenically-tanked earth-based space vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, I. E.; Barber, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Three reusable insulation systems concepts have been developed for use with cryogenic tanks of earth-based space vehicles. Two concepts utilized double-goldized Kapton (DGK) or double-aluminized Mylar (DAM) multilayer insulation (MLI), while the third utilized a hollow-glass-microsphere, load-bearing insulation (LBI). All three insulation systems have recently undergone experimental testing and evaluation under NASA-sponsored programs. Thermal performance measurements were made under space-hold (vacuum) conditions for insulation warm boundary temperatures of approximately 291 K. The resulting effective thermal conductivity was approximately .00008 W/m-K for the MLI systems (liquid hydrogen test results) and .00054 W/m-K for the LBI system (liquid nitrogen test results corrected to liquid hydrogen temperature). The DGK MLI system experienced a maximum thermal degradation of 38 percent, the DAM MLI system 14 percent, and the LBI system 6.7 percent due to repeated thermal cycling representing typical space flight conditions. Repeated exposure of the DAM MLI system to a high humidity environment for periods as long as 8 weeks provided a maximum degradation of only 24 percent.

  20. Developing a Toolset Supporting the Construction of Reusable Components for Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.

    2010-01-01

    Reusing software components for embedded control applications enhances product quality and reduces time to market when appropriate (formal) methodologies and supporting toolsets are available. That is why industrial companies are interested in developing trusted, in-house reusable components for ...

  1. Flight Performance Feasibility Studies for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Beaty, James R.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) initiated the Max Launch Abort System Project to explore crew escape system concepts designed to be fully encapsulated within an aerodynamic fairing and smoothly integrated onto a launch vehicle. One objective of this design was to develop a more compact launch escape vehicle that eliminated the need for an escape tower, as was used in the Mercury and Apollo escape systems and what is planned for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The benefits for the launch vehicle of eliminating a tower from the escape vehicle design include lower structural weights, reduced bending moments during atmospheric flight, and a decrease in induced aero-acoustic loads. This paper discusses the development of encapsulated, towerless launch escape vehicle concepts, especially as it pertains to the flight performance and systems analysis trade studies conducted to establish mission feasibility and assess system-level performance. Two different towerless escape vehicle designs are discussed in depth: one with allpropulsive control using liquid attitude control thrusters, and a second employing deployable aft swept grid fins to provide passive stability during coast. Simulation results are presented for a range of nominal and off-nominal escape conditions.

  2. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS will propel the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  3. Space Launch System: Building the Future of Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Markeeva

    2016-01-01

    NASA has begun a new era of human space exploration, with the goal of landing humans on Mars. To carry out that mission, NASA is building the Space Launch System, the world's most powerful rocket. Space Launch System is currently under construction, with substantial amounts of hardware already created and testing well underway. Because of its unrivaled power, SLS can perform missions no other rocket can, like game-changing science and human landings on Mars. The Journey to Mars has begun; NASA has begun a series of missions that will result in astronauts taking the first steps on the Red Planet.

  4. Convective Heat Transfer in the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor of the Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Rashid A.; Cash, Stephen F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This simulation involved a two-dimensional axisymmetric model of a full motor initial grain of the Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) of the Space Transportation System (STS). It was conducted with CFD (computational fluid dynamics) commercial code FLUENT. This analysis was performed to: a) maintain continuity with most related previous analyses, b) serve as a non-vectored baseline for any three-dimensional vectored nozzles, c) provide a relatively simple application and checkout for various CFD solution schemes, grid sensitivity studies, turbulence modeling and heat transfer, and d) calculate nozzle convective heat transfer coefficients. The accuracy of the present results and the selection of the numerical schemes and turbulence models were based on matching the rocket ballistic predictions of mass flow rate, head end pressure, vacuum thrust and specific impulse, and measured chamber pressure drop. Matching these ballistic predictions was found to be good. This study was limited to convective heat transfer and the results compared favorably with existing theory. On the other hand, qualitative comparison with backed-out data of the ratio of the convective heat transfer coefficient to the specific heat at constant pressure was made in a relative manner. This backed-out data was devised to match nozzle erosion that was a result of heat transfer (convective, radiative and conductive), chemical (transpirating), and mechanical (shear and particle impingement forces) effects combined.

  5. Re-usable quick-release interconnect for characterization of microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Jothimuthu, Preetha; Pais, Andrea; Papautsky, Ian

    2007-01-01

    In this work, we present a simple method for establishing re-usable quick-release compression-based fluidic connections for characterization of microfluidic systems. Our interconnect scheme uses O-rings to form a compression seal against the upper surface of the microfluidic device and around the inlet/outlet tubing, thus establishing connections to the macroworld and preventing any leaks at the ports. With this approach, fabrication is inexpensive and easy, not requiring time-consuming or specialized fabrication procedures. The connections to the real world can be established and removed numerous times without damaging the microfluidic device, and since the approach is adhesive-free there is no danger of microchannel blockage. The demonstrated interconnect is also flexible enough to permit tube bending parallel to the device and makes it possible to place input ports close together to minimize dimensions of complex microfluidic systems. In leakage tests, the interconnect was measured to withstand pressures up to 1.7 MPa, which is enough for most microfluidic applications, and probably nanofluidic applications. This interconnect makes connecting inlets and outlets faster and easier, saving hours of processing time. It can be quickly and easily reconfigured to match device port positions, and is compatible with microfluidic systems fabricated in polymer, plastic, glass or silicon. Further, the flexible nature of the developed compression-based interconnect, both with regard to tubing flexibility and the ability to re-use numerous times, makes it ideal for rapid prototyping of research systems and potentially for quality control in large-scale production.

  6. Evolved expendable launch vehicle system: RS-68 main engine development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conley, David [USAF SMC/MVB (United States); Lee, Norman Y.; Portanova, Peter L. [Aerospace Corp. (United States); Wood, Byron K. [Boeing Co., Rocketdyne Propulsion and Power (United States)

    2003-11-01

    Delta IV is one of two competing Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) systems being developed in an industry/United States Government partnership to meet the needs of the new era of space launch for the early decades of the 21st Century. The Rocketdyne Division of The Boeing Company and the United States Air Force have developed a 650 Klbf sea-level (2.9 MN) class liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen main engine for the Delta IV family of EELV. The purpose of this paper is to present the innovative approach to the design, development, testing and certification of the RS-68 engine. (Author)

  7. Guidance and dispersion studies of National Launch System ascent trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, John M.; Shrader, M. W.; Chang, Hopen; Freeman, Scott E.

    1992-01-01

    The National Launch System (NLS) is a joint concept, between DoD and NASA, for building a family of new launch vehicles. Two of the many choices to be made are the trajectory shaping methods and the onboard guidance scheme. This paper presents results from some ongoing studies to address these issues. First, potential gains from new guidance concepts are listed. Next the paper gives a list of possible discriminators between different guidance schemes, lists a number of potential guidance schemes, and explains two in some detail. A reference scheme is tested to determine its performance versus the discriminators. Finally, results from some special studies using the reference guidance scheme are given, including the effects of closed-loop guidance initiation time, time of enforcement of sideslip, vehicle roll for engine out, time and location of an engine out, use of load relief control, and use of day of launch wind biasing.

  8. The Max Launch Abort System - Concept, Flight Test, and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) is an independent engineering analysis and test organization providing support across the range of NASA programs. In 2007 NASA was developing the launch escape system for the Orion spacecraft that was evolved from the traditional tower-configuration escape systems used for the historic Mercury and Apollo spacecraft. The NESC was tasked, as a programmatic risk-reduction effort to develop and flight test an alternative to the Orion baseline escape system concept. This project became known as the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS), named in honor of Maxime Faget, the developer of the original Mercury escape system. Over the course of approximately two years the NESC performed conceptual and tradeoff analyses, designed and built full-scale flight test hardware, and conducted a flight test demonstration in July 2009. Since the flight test, the NESC has continued to further develop and refine the MLAS concept.

  9. Systems design analysis applied to launch vehicle configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R.; Verderaime, V.

    1993-01-01

    As emphasis shifts from optimum-performance aerospace systems to least lift-cycle costs, systems designs must seek, adapt, and innovate cost improvement techniques in design through operations. The systems design process of concept, definition, and design was assessed for the types and flow of total quality management techniques that may be applicable in a launch vehicle systems design analysis. Techniques discussed are task ordering, quality leverage, concurrent engineering, Pareto's principle, robustness, quality function deployment, criteria, and others. These cost oriented techniques are as applicable to aerospace systems design analysis as to any large commercial system.

  10. Orion Launch Abort System Performance on Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, R.; Davidson, J.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    This paper will present an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System preforming Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. NASA is currently designing and testing the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). Orion will serve as NASA's new exploration vehicle to carry astronauts to deep space destinations and safely return them to earth. The Orion spacecraft is composed of four main elements: the Launch Abort System, the Crew Module, the Service Module, and the Spacecraft Adapter (Fig. 1). The Launch Abort System (LAS) provides two functions; during nominal launches, the LAS provides protection for the Crew Module from atmospheric loads and heating during first stage flight and during emergencies provides a reliable abort capability for aborts that occur within the atmosphere. The Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) consists of an Abort Motor to provide the abort separation from the Launch Vehicle, an Attitude Control Motor to provide attitude and rate control, and a Jettison Motor for crew module to LAS separation (Fig. 2). The jettison motor is used during a nominal launch to separate the LAS from the Launch Vehicle (LV) early in the flight of the second stage when it is no longer needed for aborts and at the end of an LAS abort sequence to enable deployment of the crew module's Landing Recovery System. The LAS also provides a Boost Protective Cover fairing that shields the crew module from debris and the aero-thermal environment during ascent. Although the

  11. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for human spaceflight and scientific missions beyond Earth orbit. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Making its first uncrewed test flight in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will evolve into the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, capable of supporting human missions into deep space and to Mars. This paper will summarize the planned capabilities of the vehicle, the progress the SLS Program has made in the years since the Agency formally announced its architecture in September 2011, and the path the program is following to reach the launch pad in 2017 and then to evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130 t lift capability. The paper will outline the milestones the program has already reached, from developmental milestones such as the manufacture of the first flight hardware and recordbreaking engine testing, to life-cycle milestones such as the vehicle's Preliminary Design Review in the summer of 2013. The paper will also discuss the remaining challenges in both delivering the 70 t vehicle and in evolving its capabilities to the 130 t vehicle, and how the program plans to accomplish these goals. In addition, this paper will demonstrate how the Space Launch System is being designed to enable or enhance not only human exploration missions, but robotic scientific missions as well. Because of its unique launch capabilities, SLS will support simplifying spacecraft complexity, provide improved mass margins and radiation mitigation, and reduce mission durations. These capabilities offer attractive advantages for ambitious science missions by reducing

  12. Datgan, a reusable software system for facile interrogation and visualization of complex transcription profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King Benjamin L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We introduce Glaucoma Discovery Platform (GDP, an online environment for facile visualization and interrogation of complex transcription profiling datasets for glaucoma. We also report the availability of Datgan, the suite of scripts that was developed to construct GDP. This reusable software system complements existing repositories such as NCBI GEO or EBI ArrayExpress as it allows the construction of searchable databases to maximize understanding of user-selected transcription profiling datasets. Description Datgan scripts were used to construct both the underlying data tables and the web interface that form GDP. GDP is populated using data from a mouse model of glaucoma. The data was generated using the DBA/2J strain, a widely used mouse model of glaucoma. The DBA/2J-Gpnmb+ strain provided a genetically matched control strain that does not develop glaucoma. We separately assessed both the retina and the optic nerve head, important tissues in glaucoma. We used hierarchical clustering to identify early molecular stages of glaucoma that could not be identified using morphological assessment of disease. GDP has two components. First, an interactive search and retrieve component provides the ability to assess gene(s of interest in all identified stages of disease in both the retina and optic nerve head. The output is returned in graphical and tabular format with statistically significant differences highlighted for easy visual analysis. Second, a bulk download component allows lists of differentially expressed genes to be retrieved as a series of files compatible with Excel. To facilitate access to additional information available for genes of interest, GDP is linked to selected external resources including Mouse Genome Informatics and Online Medelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM. Conclusion Datgan-constructed databases allow user-friendly access to datasets that involve temporally ordered stages of disease or developmental stages

  13. Dual-Fuel Propulsion in Single-Stage Advanced Manned Launch System Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepsch, Roger A., Jr.; Stanley, Douglas O.; Unal, Resit

    1995-01-01

    As part of the United States Advanced Manned Launch System study to determine a follow-on, or complement, to the Space Shuttle, a reusable single-stage-to-orbit concept utilizing dual-fuel rocket propulsion has been examined. Several dual-fuel propulsion concepts were investigated. These include: a separate-engine concept combining Russian RD-170 kerosene-fueled engines with space shuttle main engine-derivative engines: the kerosene- and hydrogen-fueled Russian RD-701 engine; and a dual-fuel, dual-expander engine. Analysis to determine vehicle weight and size characteristics was performed using conceptual-level design techniques. A response-surface methodology for multidisciplinary design was utilized to optimize the dual-fuel vehicles with respect to several important propulsion-system and vehicle design parameters, in order to achieve minimum empty weight. The tools and methods employed in the analysis process are also summarized. In comparison with a reference hydrogen- fueled single-stage vehicle, results showed that the dual-fuel vehicles were from 10 to 30% lower in empty weight for the same payload capability, with the dual-expander engine types showing the greatest potential.

  14. Decision Support Systems for Launch and Range Operations Using Jess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalainambi, Rajkumar

    2007-01-01

    The virtual test bed for launch and range operations developed at NASA Ames Research Center consists of various independent expert systems advising on weather effects, toxic gas dispersions and human health risk assessment during space-flight operations. An individual dedicated server supports each expert system and the master system gather information from the dedicated servers to support the launch decision-making process. Since the test bed is based on the web system, reducing network traffic and optimizing the knowledge base is critical to its success of real-time or near real-time operations. Jess, a fast rule engine and powerful scripting environment developed at Sandia National Laboratory has been adopted to build the expert systems providing robustness and scalability. Jess also supports XML representation of knowledge base with forward and backward chaining inference mechanism. Facts added - to working memory during run-time operations facilitates analyses of multiple scenarios. Knowledge base can be distributed with one inference engine performing the inference process. This paper discusses details of the knowledge base and inference engine using Jess for a launch and range virtual test bed.

  15. Research of a Reusable Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QiangWang; WanhuaQiu

    2004-01-01

    We will present the concept and definition about software architecture and software reuse. And then discuss the software architecture that can be reused. Finally we present a demo of reusable software system in a MIS project.

  16. Modular and Reusable Power System Design for the BRRISON Balloon Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truesdale, Nicholas A.

    High altitude balloons are emerging as low-cost alternatives to orbital satellites in the field of telescopic observation. The near-space environment of balloons allows optics to perform near their diffraction limit. In practice, this implies that a telescope similar to the Hubble Space Telescope could be flown for a cost of tens of millions as opposed to billions. While highly feasible, the design of a balloon telescope to rival Hubble is limited by funding. Until a prototype is proven and more support for balloon science is gained, projects remain limited in both hardware costs and man hours. Thus, to effectively create and support balloon payloads, engineering designs must be efficient, modular, and if possible reusable. This thesis focuses specifically on a modular power system design for the BRRISON comet-observing balloon telescope. Time- and cost-saving techniques are developed that can be used for future missions. A modular design process is achieved through the development of individual circuit elements that span a wide range of capabilities. Circuits for power conversion, switching and sensing are designed to be combined in any configuration. These include DC-DC regulators, MOSFET drivers for switching, isolated switches, current sensors and voltage sensing ADCs. Emphasis is also given to commercially available hardware. Pre-fabricated DC-DC converters and an Arduino microcontroller simplify the design process and offer proven, cost-effective performance. The design of the BRRISON power system is developed from these low-level circuits elements. A board for main power distribution supports the majority of flight electronics, and is extensible to additional hardware in future applications. An ATX computer power supply is developed, allowing the use of a commercial ATX motherboard as the flight computer. The addition of new capabilities is explored in the form of a heater control board. Finally, the power system as a whole is described, and its overall

  17. Variable Length Inflatable Ramp Launch and Recovery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-22

    DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY OFFICE OF COUNSEL NAVAL UNDERSEA WARFARE CENTER DIVISION 1176 HOWELL STREET NEWPORT Rl 02841-1708...recovery system for towed bodies. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] Various at-sea training exercises require the launch, tracking and recovery...continuously circular braided material, reinforced with tensile webbing straps for shaping. As is known to those of skill in the art , tubes fabricated in

  18. Multidisciplinary design optimization method for suborbital reusable launch vehicle%亚轨道重复使用运载器总体多学科优化方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚春林; 谷良贤; 粟华

    2012-01-01

    In order to figure out tight-coupling overall design problem of Suborbital Reusable Launch Vehicle (SRLV) , the crucial technologies of Multidisciplinary Design Optimization (MDO) were investigated,namely task planning,discipline modeling,integration and solving strategy. A SRLV concept serving as the booster of orbital vehicle was selected as the baseline. First, the overall design task of SRLV was decomposed into seven disciplinary components including geometry,aerodynamics,structure, propulsion, trajectory, aero-heating, and thermal conduction/TPS design. The functions of disciplines and dataflow between them were defined. Then,the computational models of these disciplines were established,which met the requirements of overall design. Based on the task of SRLV,the MDO problems were presented,including objectives,constraints and variables. Within multidisciplinary framework software,the architecture of Multi-Disciplinary Feasible (MDF) was created. By integrating seven disciplinary models into MDF architecture,a MDO software system for SRLV overall design was established. Genetic Algorithm was chosen to optimize the take-off weight of SRLV. The obtained results show that the mass of propulsion structure and TPS parts both increase slightly,but the fuel mass and airframe structural mass decrease,and the take-off weight decreases about 2.4%.%针对亚轨道运载器总体设计多学科耦合的特点,从任务规划、学科建模、集成和求解策略等方面对多学科优化方法进行了研究.以助推亚轨道飞行器为对象,确定了学科模块组成、功能和数据耦合关系.建立了与总体设计过程相适应的7个学科模型,包括几何主模型、气动、推进、弹道、气动热、传热/热防护系统、结构.结合飞行器任务要求和基准方案,从系统级定义了多学科优化问题,包括目标函数、约束条件和设计变量.基于多学科软件框架集成学科模型,采用多学科可行法作为求解框

  19. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 t to LEO or comanifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 t to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6U smallsat payloads, representing multiple

  20. NASA's Space Launch System: A Transformative Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Cook, Jerry; Hitt, David

    2016-01-01

    Currently making rapid progress toward first launch in 2018, NASA's exploration-class Space Launch System (SLS) represents a game-changing new spaceflight capability, enabling mission profiles that are currently impossible. Designed to launch human deep-space missions farther into space than ever before, the initial configuration of SLS will be able to deliver more than 70 metric tons of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO), and will send NASA's new Orion crew vehicle into lunar orbit. Plans call for the rocket to evolve on its second flight, via a new upper stage, to a more powerful configuration capable of lofting 105 tons to LEO or co-manifesting additional systems with Orion on launches to the lunar vicinity. Ultimately, SLS will evolve to a configuration capable of delivering more than 130 tons to LEO. SLS is a foundational asset for NASA's Journey to Mars, and has been recognized by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group as a key element for cooperative missions beyond LEO. In order to enable human deep-space exploration, SLS provides unrivaled mass, volume, and departure energy for payloads, offering numerous benefits for a variety of other missions. For robotic science probes to the outer solar system, for example, SLS can cut transit times to less than half that of currently available vehicles, producing earlier data return, enhancing iterative exploration, and reducing mission cost and risk. In the field of astrophysics, SLS' high payload volume, in the form of payload fairings with a diameter of up to 10 meters, creates the opportunity for launch of large-aperture telescopes providing an unprecedented look at our universe, and offers the ability to conduct crewed servicing missions to observatories stationed at locations beyond low Earth orbit. At the other end of the spectrum, SLS opens access to deep space for low-cost missions in the form of smallsats. The first launch of SLS will deliver beyond LEO 13 6-unit smallsat payloads

  1. Structural arrangement trade study. Volume 3: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the third of a 3 volume set that addresses the structural trade study plan that will identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The most suitable Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Tank System (GCPS) composite materials for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. Vehicle resizing charts, selection criteria and back-up charts, parametric costing approach and the finite element method analysis are discussed.

  2. Design Considerations for a Launch Vehicle Development Flight Instrumentation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Martin L.; Crawford, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    When embarking into the design of a new launch vehicle, engineering models of expected vehicle performance are always generated. While many models are well established and understood, some models contain design features that are only marginally known. Unfortunately, these analytical models produce uncertainties in design margins. The best way to answer these analytical issues is with vehicle level testing. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration respond to these uncertainties by using a vehicle level system called the Development Flight Instrumentation, or DFI. This DFI system can be simple to implement, with only a few measurements, or it may be a sophisticated system with hundreds of measurement and video, without a recording capability. From experience with DFI systems, DFI never goes away. The system is renamed and allowed to continue, in most cases. Proper system design can aid the transition to future data requirements. This paper will discuss design features that need to be considered when developing a DFI system for a launch vehicle. It will briefly review the data acquisition units, sensors, multiplexers and recorders, telemetry components and harnessing. It will present a reasonable set of requirements which should be implemented in the beginning of the program in order to start the design. It will discuss a simplistic DFI architecture that could be the basis for the next NASA launch vehicle. This will be followed by a discussion of the "experiences gained" from a past DFI system implementation, such as the very successful Ares I-X test flight. Application of these design considerations may not work for every situation, but they may direct a path toward success or at least make one pause and ask the right questions.

  3. Full-Envelope Launch Abort System Performance Analysis Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubuchon, Vanessa V.

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of a new dispersion methodology is described, which dis-perses abort initiation altitude or time along with all other Launch Abort System (LAS) parameters during Monte Carlo simulations. In contrast, the standard methodology assumes that an abort initiation condition is held constant (e.g., aborts initiated at altitude for Mach 1, altitude for maximum dynamic pressure, etc.) while dispersing other LAS parameters. The standard method results in large gaps in performance information due to the discrete nature of initiation conditions, while the full-envelope dispersion method provides a significantly more comprehensive assessment of LAS abort performance for the full launch vehicle ascent flight envelope and identifies performance "pinch-points" that may occur at flight conditions outside of those contained in the discrete set. The new method has significantly increased the fidelity of LAS abort simulations and confidence in the results.

  4. Optimal control theory determination of feasible return-to-launch-site aborts for the HL-20 Personnel Launch System vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, Kevin E.

    1994-01-01

    The personnel launch system (PLS) being studied by NASA is a system to complement the space shuttle and provide alternative access to space. The PLS consists of a manned spacecraft launched by an expendable launch vehicle (ELV). A candidate for the manned spacecraft is the HL-20 lifting body. In the event of an ELV malfunction during the initial portion of the ascent trajectory, the HL-20 will separate from the rocket and perform an unpowered return to launch site (RTLS) abort. This work details an investigation, using optimal control theory, of the RTLS abort scenario. The objective of the optimization was to maximize final altitude. With final altitude as the cost function, the feasibility of an RTLS abort at different times during the ascent was determined. The method of differential inclusions was used to determine the optimal state trajectories, and the optimal controls were then calculated from the optimal states and state rates.

  5. Structural Arrangement Trade Study. Volume 1: Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS) and Graphite Composite Primary Structures (GCPS). Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    This volume is the first of a three volume set that discusses the structural arrangement trade study plan that will identify the most suitable configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 deg inclination. The Reusable Hydrogen Composite Tank System (RHCTS), and Graphite Composite Primary Structures most suitable for intertank, wing and thrust structures are identified. This executive summary presents the trade study process, the selection process, requirements used, analysis performed and data generated. Conclusions and recommendations are also presented.

  6. Testing Strategies and Methodologies for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaible, Dawn M.; Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was tasked to develop an alternate, tower-less launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test in July 2009 of the "Max" launch abort system (MLAS) provided data critical to the design of future LASs, while demonstrating the Agency s ability to rapidly design, build and fly full-scale hardware at minimal cost in a "virtual" work environment. Limited funding and an aggressive schedule presented a challenge for testing of the complex MLAS system. The successful pad abort flight demonstration test was attributed to the project s systems engineering and integration process, which included: a concise definition of, and an adherence to, flight test objectives; a solid operational concept; well defined performance requirements, and a test program tailored to reducing the highest flight test risks. The testing ranged from wind tunnel validation of computational fluid dynamic simulations to component ground tests of the highest risk subsystems. This paper provides an overview of the testing/risk management approach and methodologies used to understand and reduce the areas of highest risk - resulting in a successful flight demonstration test.

  7. Developing a Toolset Supporting the Construction of Reusable Components for Embedded Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Wei; Sierszecki, Krzysztof; Angelov, Christo K.

    2010-01-01

    Reusing software components for embedded control applications enhances product quality and reduces time to market when appropriate (formal) methodologies and supporting toolsets are available. That is why industrial companies are interested in developing trusted, in-house reusable components....... That demand can be satisfied by a highly customized toolset providing an integrated development environment for rapid graphical component specification, component validation, automatic generation of artifacts and documentation. The paper presents a possible solution for creating a customized toolset based...... on open-source technology, in accordance with industrial requirements, as well as the approach used to engineer a toolset supporting component development for embedded control applications....

  8. Sustained small oscillations in nonlinear control systems. [launch vehicle dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, J. H.; Gunderson, R. W.; Hahn, H.

    1975-01-01

    Some results of bifurcation theory were used to study the existence of small-amplitude periodic behavior in launch vehicle dynamics, assuming that nonlinearity exists as a cubic term in the rudder response. The analysis follows closely Sattinger's (1973) approach to the theory of periodic bifurcations. The conditions under which a bifurcating branch of orbitally stable periodic solutions will exist are determined. It is shown that in more complicated cases, the conditions under which the system matrix has a pair of simple purely imaginary eigenvalues can be determined with the aid of linear stability techniques.

  9. A Hydraulic Blowdown Servo System For Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Anping; Deng, Tao

    2016-07-01

    This paper introduced a hydraulic blowdown servo system developed for a solid launch vehicle of the family of Chinese Long March Vehicles. It's the thrust vector control (TVC) system for the first stage. This system is a cold gas blowdown hydraulic servo system and consist of gas vessel, hydraulic reservoir, servo actuator, digital control unit (DCU), electric explosion valve, and pressure regulator etc. A brief description of the main assemblies and characteristics follows. a) Gas vessel is a resin/carbon fiber composite over wrapped pressure vessel with a titanium liner, The volume of the vessel is about 30 liters. b) Hydraulic reservoir is a titanium alloy piston type reservoir with a magnetostrictive sensor as the fluid level indicator. The volume of the reservoir is about 30 liters. c) Servo actuator is a equal area linear piston actuator with a 2-stage low null leakage servo valve and a linear variable differential transducer (LVDT) feedback the piston position, Its stall force is about 120kN. d) Digital control unit (DCU) is a compact digital controller based on digital signal processor (DSP), and deployed dual redundant 1553B digital busses to communicate with the on board computer. e) Electric explosion valve is a normally closed valve to confine the high pressure helium gas. f) Pressure regulator is a spring-loaded poppet pressure valve, and regulates the gas pressure from about 60MPa to about 24MPa. g) The whole system is mounted in the aft skirt of the vehicle. h) This system delivers approximately 40kW hydraulic power, by contrast, the total mass is less than 190kg. the power mass ratio is about 0.21. Have finished the development and the system test. Bench and motor static firing tests verified that all of the performances have met the design requirements. This servo system is complaint to use of the solid launch vehicle.

  10. Ada (Trademark) Reusability Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    to do if a Problem Occurs 61 6.1.10 Examples of Reuse 61 6.2 INTERFACE DESCRIPTION 61 6.2.1 Reusable Component Called Via Subprogram Call by Reuser 62...6.2.2 Reusable Component Calls Subprogram of Reuser 62 6.2.3 Reusable Component is a Task with an Entry Called by Rouser 62 6.2.4 Reusable Component...is a Task that Calls an Entry of Reuser 62 6.2.5 Reusable Component Shares Memory with Subprogram of Reuser 63 6.2.6 Reusable Component is a Task

  11. Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology Based Reusable Verification Environment for Efficient Verification of Image Signal Processing IPS/SOCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Jain

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology based Reusable Verification Environment for efficient verification of Image Signal Processing IP’s/SoC’s. With the tight schedules on all projects it is important to have a strong verification methodology which contributes to First Silicon Success. Deploy methodologies which enforce full functional coverage and verification of corner cases through pseudo random test scenarios is required. Also, standardization of verification flow is needed. Previously, inside imaging group of ST, Specman (e/Verilog based Verification Environment forIP/Subsystem level verification and C/C++/Verilog based Directed Verification Environment for SoC Level Verification was used for Functional Verification. Different Verification Environments were used at IP level and SoC level. Different Verification/Validation Methodologies were used for SoC Verification across multiple sites. Verification teams were also looking for the ways how to catch bugs early in the design cycle? Thus, Generic System Verilog Universal Verification Methodology (UVM based Reusable Verification Environment is required to avoid the problem of having so many methodologies and provides a standard unified solution which compiles on all tools.

  12. Assessment of the Feasibility of Innovative Reusable Launchers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, S.; Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    The demand for getting access to space, in particular to Low Earth Orbit, is increasing and fully reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) are likely to play a key role in the development of future space activities. Up until now this kind of space systems has not been successfully carried out: in fact today only the Space Shuttle, which belongs to the old generation of launchers, is operative and furthermore it is not a fully reusable system. In the nineties many studies regarding advanced transatmospheric planes were started, but no one was accomplished because of the technological problems encountered and the high financial resources required with the corresponding industrial risk. One of the most promising project was the Lockheed Venture Star, which seemed to have serious chances to be carried out. Anyway, if this ever happens, it will take quite a long time thus the operative life of Space Shuttle will have to be extended for the International Space Station support. The purpose of the present work is to assess the feasibility of different kinds of advanced reusable launch vehicles to gain access to space and to meet the requirements of today space flight needs, which are mainly safety and affordability. Single stage to orbit (SSTO), two stage to orbit (TSTO) and the so called "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicles are here taken into account to highlight their advantages and disadvantages. The "one and a half" stage to orbit vehicle takes off and climbs to meet a tanker aircraft to be aerially refuelled and then, after disconnecting from the tanker, it flies to reach the orbit. In this case, apart from the space vehicle, also the tanker aircraft needs a dedicated study to examine the problems related to the refuelling at high subsonic speeds and at a height near the tropopause. Only winged vehicles which take off and land horizontally are considered but different architectural layouts and propulsive configurations are hypothesised. Unlike the Venture Star, which

  13. Space Launch System, Core Stage, Structural Test Design and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaughnessy, Ray

    2017-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, engineers at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama are working to design, develop and implement the SLS Core Stage structural testing. The SLS will have the capability to return humans to the Moon and beyond and its first launch is scheduled for December of 2017. The SLS Core Stage consist of five major elements; Forward Skirt, Liquid Oxygen (LOX) tank, Intertank (IT), Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) tank and the Engine Section (ES). Structural Test Articles (STA) for each of these elements are being designed and produced by Boeing at Michoud Assembly Facility located in New Orleans, La. The structural test for the Core Stage STAs (LH2, LOX, IT and ES) are to be conducted by the MSFC Test Laboratory. Additionally, the MSFC Test Laboratory manages the Structural Test Equipment (STE) design and development to support the STAs. It was decided early (April 2012) in the project life that the LH2 and LOX tank STAs would require new test stands and the Engine Section and Intertank would be tested in existing facilities. This decision impacted schedules immediately because the new facilities would require Construction of Facilities (C of F) funds that require congressional approval and long lead times. The Engine Section and Intertank structural test are to be conducted in existing facilities which will limit lead times required to support the first launch of SLS. With a SLS launch date of December, 2017 Boeing had a need date for testing to be complete by September of 2017 to support flight certification requirements. The test facilities were required to be ready by October of 2016 to support test article delivery. The race was on to get the stands ready before Test Article delivery and meet the test complete date of September 2017. This paper documents the past and current design and development phases and the supporting processes, tools, and

  14. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1987-01-01

    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  15. Launch Processing System operations with a future look to Operations Analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    1987-01-01

    The Launch Processing System architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle System engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter are described. The described ground operations are the culmination of eleven years of experience and redesign. Some of the 'lessons learned' are examined, and problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and Launch Processing Systems continue to grow in complexity are discussed. The Operational Analyst for Distributed Systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for the Launch Processing System Operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the Launch Processing System.

  16. The Triangle of the Space Launch System Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayolle, Eric

    2010-09-01

    Firemen know it as “fire triangle”, mathematicians know it as “golden triangle”, sailormen know it as “Bermuda triangle”, politicians know it as “Weimar triangle”… This article aims to present a new aspect of that shape geometry in the space launch system world: “the triangle of the space launch system operations”. This triangle is composed of these three following topics, which have to be taken into account for any space launch system operation processing: design, safety and operational use. Design performance is of course taking into account since the early preliminary phase of a system development. This design performance is matured all along the development phases, thanks to consecutives iterations in order to respect the financial and timing constraints imposed to the development of the system. This process leads to a detailed and precise design to assess the required performance. Then, the operational use phase brings its batch of constraints during the use of the system. This phase is conducted by specific procedures for each operation. Each procedure has sequences for each sub-system, which have to be conducted in a very precise chronological way. These procedures can be processed by automatic way or manual way, with the necessity or not of the implication of operators, and in a determined environment. Safeguard aims to verify the respect of the specific constraints imposed to guarantee the safety of persons and property, the protection of public health and the environment. Safeguard has to be taken into account above the operational constraints of any space operation, without forgetting the highest safety level for the operators of the space operation, and of course without damaging the facilities or without disturbing the external environment. All space operations are the result of a “win-win” compromise between these three topics. Contrary to the fire triangle where one of the topics has to be suppressed in order to avoid the

  17. Potential large missions enabled by NASA's space launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Hopkins, Randall C.; Schnell, Andrew; Smith, David A.; Jackman, Angela; Warfield, Keith R.

    2016-07-01

    Large space telescope missions have always been limited by their launch vehicle's mass and volume capacities. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was specifically designed to fit inside the Space Shuttle and the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is specifically designed to fit inside an Ariane 5. Astrophysicists desire even larger space telescopes. NASA's "Enduring Quests Daring Visions" report calls for an 8- to 16-m Large UV-Optical-IR (LUVOIR) Surveyor mission to enable ultra-high-contrast spectroscopy and coronagraphy. AURA's "From Cosmic Birth to Living Earth" report calls for a 12-m class High-Definition Space Telescope to pursue transformational scientific discoveries. NASA's "Planning for the 2020 Decadal Survey" calls for a Habitable Exoplanet Imaging (HabEx) and a LUVOIR as well as Far-IR and an X-Ray Surveyor missions. Packaging larger space telescopes into existing launch vehicles is a significant engineering complexity challenge that drives cost and risk. NASA's planned Space Launch System (SLS), with its 8 or 10-m diameter fairings and ability to deliver 35 to 45-mt of payload to Sun-Earth-Lagrange-2, mitigates this challenge by fundamentally changing the design paradigm for large space telescopes. This paper reviews the mass and volume capacities of the planned SLS, discusses potential implications of these capacities for designing large space telescope missions, and gives three specific mission concept implementation examples: a 4-m monolithic off-axis telescope, an 8-m monolithic on-axis telescope and a 12-m segmented on-axis telescope.

  18. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  19. Systems Integration Challenges for a National Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.

    2011-01-01

    System Integration was refined through the complexity and early failures experienced in rocket flight. System Integration encompasses many different viewpoints of the system development. System Integration must ensure consistency in development and operations activities. Human Space Flight tends toward large, complex systems. Understanding the system fs operational and use context is the guiding principle for System Integration: (1) Sizeable costs can be driven into systems by not fully understanding context (2). Adhering to the system context throughout the system fs life cycle is essential to maintaining efficient System Integration. System Integration exists within the System Architecture. Beautiful systems are simple in use and operation -- Block upgrades facilitate manageable steps in functionality evolution. Effective System Integration requires a stable system concept. Communication is essential to system simplicity

  20. Reverse Launch Abort System Parachute Architecture Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litton, Daniel K.; O'Keefe, Stephen A.; Winski, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a potential Launch Abort System (LAS) Concept of Operations and abort parachute architecture. The purpose of the study was to look at the concept of jettisoning the LAS tower forward (Reverse LAS or RLAS) into the free-stream flow rather than after reorienting to a heatshield forward orientation. A hypothesized benefit was that due to the compressed timeline the dynamic pressure at main line stretch would be substantially less. This would enable the entry parachutes to be designed and sized based on entry loading conditions rather than the current stressing case of a Pad Abort. Ultimately, concerns about the highly dynamic reorientation of the CM via parachutes, and the additional requirement of a triple bridle attachment for the RLAS parachute system, overshadowed the potential benefits and ended this effort.

  1. NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Program: Mars Program Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System is being designed for safe, affordable, and sustainable human and scientific exploration missions beyond Earth's orbit (BEO), as directed by the NASA Authorization Act of 2010 and NASA's 2011 Strategic Plan. This paper describes how the SLS can dramatically change the Mars program's science and human exploration capabilities and objectives. Specifically, through its high-velocity change (delta V) and payload capabilities, SLS enables Mars science missions of unprecedented size and scope. By providing direct trajectories to Mars, SLS eliminates the need for complicated gravity-assist missions around other bodies in the solar system, reducing mission time, complexity, and cost. SLS's large payload capacity also allows for larger, more capable spacecraft or landers with more instruments, which can eliminate the need for complex packaging or "folding" mechanisms. By offering this capability, SLS can enable more science to be done more quickly than would be possible through other delivery mechanisms using longer mission times.

  2. Techniques for developing approximate optimal advanced launch system guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Timothy S.; Speyer, Jason L.

    1991-01-01

    An extension to the authors' previous technique used to develop a real-time guidance scheme for the Advanced Launch System is presented. The approach is to construct an optimal guidance law based upon an asymptotic expansion associated with small physical parameters, epsilon. The trajectory of a rocket modeled as a point mass is considered with the flight restricted to an equatorial plane while reaching an orbital altitude at orbital injection speeds. The dynamics of this problem can be separated into primary effects due to thrust and gravitational forces, and perturbation effects which include the aerodynamic forces and the remaining inertial forces. An analytic solution to the reduced-order problem represented by the primary dynamics is possible. The Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman or dynamic programming equation is expanded in an asymptotic series where the zeroth-order term (epsilon = 0) can be obtained in closed form.

  3. A microfluidic control system with re-usable micropump/valve actuator and injection moulded disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bu, Minqiang; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.; Yi, Sun

    2011-01-01

    A microfluidic control system consisting of micropump/valves with a re-usable pneumatic actuator and a disposable polymer lab-on-a-slide is presented. The lab-on-a-slide was fabricated using low cost methods, such as injection moulding of TOPAS® cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) slide, lamination...... of different layers of polymer, and ultrasonic welding of TOPAS® lid to the slide. The re-usable pneumatic actuator not only simplifies the design of the lab-on-a-slide and reduces the fabrication cost, but also reduces the possibility of cross contamination during replacement of the disposable lab...

  4. A 16 MJ compact pulsed power system for electromagnetic launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ling; Zhang, Qin; Zhong, Heqing; Lin, Fuchang; Li, Hua; Wang, Yan; Su, Cheng; Huang, Qinghua; Chen, Xu

    2015-07-01

    This paper has established a compact pulsed power system (PPS) of 16 MJ for electromagnetic rail gun. The PPS consists of pulsed forming network (PFN), chargers, monitoring system, and current junction. The PFN is composed of 156 pulse forming units (PFUs). Every PFU can be triggered simultaneously or sequentially in order to obtain different total current waveforms. The whole device except general control table is divided into two frameworks with size of 7.5 m × 2.2 m × 2.3 m. It is important to estimate the discharge current of PFU accurately for the design of the whole electromagnetic launch system. In this paper, the on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor have been researched to improve the estimation accuracy. The on-state characteristics of pulse thyristor are expressed as a logarithmic function based on experimental data. The circuit current waveform of the single PFU agrees with the simulating one. On the other hand, the coaxial discharge cable is a quick wear part in PFU because the discharge current will be up to dozens of kA even hundreds of kA. In this article, the electromagnetic field existing in the coaxial cable is calculated by finite element method. On basis of the calculation results, the structure of cable is optimized in order to improve the limit current value of the cable. At the end of the paper, the experiment current wave of the PPS with the load of rail gun is provided.

  5. Reusable Rapid Prototyped Blunt Impact Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    RP technology to create a custom reusable projectile for air-cannon-launched impact research. Several projectile configurations with varying frontal... impact area geometries were manufactured using selective laser sintering RP technology . These projectiles were launched with a compressed air cannon...connector interface for analysis. The objective of this report is to inform the audience of a novel use of RP technology to fabricate projectiles

  6. State Machine Modeling of the Space Launch System Solid Rocket Boosters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Joshua A.; Patterson-Hine, Ann

    2013-01-01

    The Space Launch System is a Shuttle-derived heavy-lift vehicle currently in development to serve as NASA's premiere launch vehicle for space exploration. The Space Launch System is a multistage rocket with two Solid Rocket Boosters and multiple payloads, including the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. Planned Space Launch System destinations include near-Earth asteroids, the Moon, Mars, and Lagrange points. The Space Launch System is a complex system with many subsystems, requiring considerable systems engineering and integration. To this end, state machine analysis offers a method to support engineering and operational e orts, identify and avert undesirable or potentially hazardous system states, and evaluate system requirements. Finite State Machines model a system as a finite number of states, with transitions between states controlled by state-based and event-based logic. State machines are a useful tool for understanding complex system behaviors and evaluating "what-if" scenarios. This work contributes to a state machine model of the Space Launch System developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The Space Launch System Solid Rocket Booster avionics and ignition subsystems are modeled using MATLAB/Stateflow software. This model is integrated into a larger model of Space Launch System avionics used for verification and validation of Space Launch System operating procedures and design requirements. This includes testing both nominal and o -nominal system states and command sequences.

  7. Advanced Launch System (ALS) Space Transportation Expert System Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    CONTROL ELECTRONICS DEVELOPMENT ENGR CONTROL SYSTEMS DEVELOPMENT BRANCH DAVID K. BOWSER ASST CHIEF FLIGHT CONTROL DIVISION IF YOUR ADDRESS HAS CHANGED...Routers) to Processed Facts ato Conclusions. high& -- %sm memcry) omands . lee requestslevel KNOWLEDGE-BASE SYSTEMS Internal World (Layered Structure) kw...Kaiser, Gail E. and David Garlan ttl: MELDIng Data Flow and Object Oriented Programming - OPSLA 󈨛 Proceedings, October 1987 -eoories: Object Oriented

  8. Space Launch System Trans Lunar Payload Delivery Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, A. L.; Smith, D. A.

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has successfully completed the Critical Design Review (CDR) of the heavy lift Space Launch System (SLS) and is working towards first flight of the vehicle in 2018. SLS will begin flying crewed missions with an Orion to a lunar vicinity every year after the first 2 flights starting in the early 2020's. So as early as 2021 these Orion flights will deliver ancillary payload, termed "Co-Manifested Payload", with a mass of at least 5.5 metric tons and volume up to 280 cubic meters to a cis-lunar destination. Later SLS flights have a goal of delivering as much as 10 metric tons to a cis-lunar destination. This presentation will describe the ground and flight accommodations, interfaces, and resources planned to be made available to Co-Manifested Payload providers as part of the SLS system. An additional intention is to promote a two-way dialogue between vehicle developers and potential payload users in order to most efficiently evolve required SLS capabilities to meet diverse payload requirements.

  9. Fiber Optic Sensing Systems for Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The FOSS project primary test objectives are to demonstrate by flying on an Antares launch vehicle, the ability of FOSS flight hardware to measure strain and...

  10. REUSABLE PROPULSION ARCHITECTURE FOR SUSTAINABLE LOW-COST ACCESS TO SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonometti, J. A.; Dankanich, J. W.; Frame, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary obstacle to any space-based mission is, and has always been, the cost of access to space. Even with impressive efforts toward reusability, no system has come close to lowering the cost a significant amount. It is postulated here, that architectural innovation is necessary to make reusability feasible, not incremental subsystem changes. This paper shows two architectural approaches of reusability that merit further study investments. Both #inherently# have performance increases and cost advantages to make affordable access to space a near term reality. A rocket launched from a subsonic aircraft (specifically the Crossbow methodology) and a momentum exchange tether, reboosted by electrodynamics, offer possibilities of substantial reductions in the total transportation architecture mass - making access-to-space cost-effective. They also offer intangible benefits that reduce risk or offer large growth potential. The cost analysis indicates that approximately a 50% savings is obtained using today#s aerospace materials and practices.

  11. POF hydrogen detection sensor systems for launch vehicles applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Alex A.; Larson, David B.; Wuestling, Mark D.

    2011-06-01

    This paper describes the first successful Plastic Optical Fiber (POF) cable and glass fiber hydrogen detection sensor systems developed for Delta IV Launch Vehicle. Hydrogen detection in space application is very challenging; the hydrogen detection is priority for rocket industry and every transport device or any application where hydrogen is involved. H2 sensors are necessary to monitor the detection possible leak to avoid explosion, which can be highly dangerous. The hydrogen sensors had to perform in temperatures between -18° C to 60° C (0° F to 140° F). The response of the sensor in this temperature regime was characterized to ensure proper response of the sensors to fugitive hydrogen leakage during vehicle ground operations. We developed the first 75 m combination of POF and glass fiber H2 sensors. Performed detail investigation of POF-glass cables for attenuation loss, thermal, humidity, temperature, shock, accelerate testing for life expectancy. Also evaluated absorption, operating and high/low temperatures, and harsh environmental for glass-POF cables connectors. The same test procedures were performed for glass multi mode fiber part of the H2 and O2 sensors. A new optical waveguides was designed and developed to decrease the impact of both noise and long term drift of sensor. A field testing of sensors was performed at NASA Stennis on the Aerospike X-33 to quantify the element of the sensor package that was responsible for hydrogen detection and temperature.

  12. Advanced transportation system study: Manned launch vehicle concepts for two way transportation system payloads to LEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, James B.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of the Advanced Transportation System Study (ATSS) task area 1 study effort is to examine manned launch vehicle booster concepts and two-way cargo transfer and return vehicle concepts to determine which of the many proposed concepts best meets NASA's needs for two-way transportation to low earth orbit. The study identified specific configurations of the normally unmanned, expendable launch vehicles (such as the National Launch System family) necessary to fly manned payloads. These launch vehicle configurations were then analyzed to determine the integrated booster/spacecraft performance, operations, reliability, and cost characteristics for the payload delivery and return mission. Design impacts to the expendable launch vehicles which would be required to perform the manned payload delivery mission were also identified. These impacts included the implications of applying NASA's man-rating requirements, as well as any mission or payload unique impacts. The booster concepts evaluated included the National Launch System (NLS) family of expendable vehicles and several variations of the NLS reference configurations to deliver larger manned payload concepts (such as the crew logistics vehicle (CLV) proposed by NASA JSC). Advanced, clean sheet concepts such as an F-1A engine derived liquid rocket booster (LRB), the single stage to orbit rocket, and a NASP-derived aerospace plane were also included in the study effort. Existing expendable launch vehicles such as the Titan 4, Ariane 5, Energia, and Proton were also examined. Although several manned payload concepts were considered in the analyses, the reference manned payload was the NASA Langley Research Center's HL-20 version of the personnel launch system (PLS). A scaled up version of the PLS for combined crew/cargo delivery capability, the HL-42 configuration, was also included in the analyses of cargo transfer and return vehicle (CTRV) booster concepts. In addition to strictly manned payloads, two-way cargo

  13. Beyond Percheron - Launch vehicle systems from the private sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, W. C.; Pavia, T. C.; Schrick, B. L.; Wolf, R. S.; Fruchterman, J. R.; Ross, D. J.

    Private ventures for operation of spacecraft launching services are discussed in terms of alternative strategies for commercialization of space activities. The Percheron was the product of a philosophy of a cost-, rather than a weight-, minimized a lunch vehicle. Although the engine exploded during a static test firing, other private projects continued, including the launch of the Conestoga, an Aries second stage Minuteman I. Consideration is being directed toward commercial production and launch of the Delta rocket, and $1 and a $1.5 billion offers have been tendered for financing a fifth Orbiter for NASA in exchange for marketing rights. Funding for the ventures is contingent upon analyses of the size and projected growth rate of payload markets, a favorable national policy, investor confidence, and agreeable capitalization levels. It is shown that no significant barriers exist against satisfying the criteria, and private space ventures are projected to result in more cost-effective operations due to increased competition.

  14. 可重用决策支持系统框架研究%Decision Support System reusable framework

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡震云; 雷明

    2013-01-01

    Due to the use of decision support systems in the crowd, architecture and other aspects of the development cycle and specificity,making today’s decision support system framework Overall reusability is generally low,and therefore propose a Web-based decision support system for reusable frameworks,the design and construction modeling framework includes technical aspects,including design modeling,including interac-tive design,content design and architecture design;construction techniques include:using Presentation mode separation performance model complex components,the use of mixed mode Singleton and Observer establishment message passing mechanism,use Module mode modular business logic processing model,use IoC and Strategy hy-brid model reconstruction algorithm library call flow,use the Command pattern encapsulates a long transac-tion request response process.%由于决策支持系统在使用人群、开发周期和架构等方面的特殊性,使得当今决策支持系统框架总体上看可重用性普遍较低,因此提出一个基于Web的决策支持系统可重用框架,该框架包含设计建模和构建技术两方面,其中设计建模包括交互设计、内容设计和架构设计;构建技术包括:使用Presentation模式分离复合构件的表现模型、使用Singleton和Observer混合模式建立消息传递机制、使用Module模式模块化业务逻辑处理模型、使用IoC与Strategy的混合模式重构算法库调用流程、使用Command模式封装长事务请求响应流程。

  15. Analysis and Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Du, Wei; Whorton, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the fundamental principles of launch vehicle flight control analysis and design. In particular, the classical concept of "drift-minimum" and "load-minimum" control principles is re-examined and its performance and stability robustness with respect to modeling uncertainties and a gimbal angle constraint is discussed. It is shown that an additional feedback of angle-of-attack or lateral acceleration can significantly improve the overall performance and robustness, especially in the presence of unexpected large wind disturbance. Non-minimum-phase structural filtering of "unstably interacting" bending modes of large flexible launch vehicles is also shown to be effective and robust.

  16. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors...

  17. STARS Reusability Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-04-30

    on the body of the reusable component. Since this effect is usually unexpected, take care to insure that the reuser is aware of the compilation issues...code to depend on the body of the reusable component. Since this effect is usually unexpected, take care to insure that the reuser is aware of the

  18. Investigation of Capabilities and Technologies Supporting Rapid UAV Launch System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    other launch methods. Since the launch only requires that each UAV be equipped with landing gear of some type, this launch method is both highly...simple machines such as levers or pulley systems are often used to provide the mechanical advantage necessary to increase the relatively slow motion...consid- ering the Zephyr’s size and configuration constraints. For example, since the Zephyr II has no wheels or landing gear , a conventional runway

  19. Orion Launch Abort System Jettison Motor Performance During Exploration Flight Test 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCauley, Rachel J.; Davidson, John B.; Winski, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the flight test objectives and performance of the Orion Launch Abort System during Exploration Flight Test-1. Exploration Flight Test-1, the first flight test of the Orion spacecraft, was managed and led by the Orion prime contractor, Lockheed Martin, and launched atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket. This flight test was a two-orbit, high-apogee, high-energy entry, low-inclination test mission used to validate and test systems critical to crew safety. This test included the first flight test of the Launch Abort System performing Orion nominal flight mission critical objectives. Although the Orion Program has tested a number of the critical systems of the Orion spacecraft on the ground, the launch environment cannot be replicated completely on Earth. Data from this flight will be used to verify the function of the jettison motor to separate the Launch Abort System from the crew module so it can continue on with the mission. Selected Launch Abort System flight test data is presented and discussed in the paper. Through flight test data, Launch Abort System performance trends have been derived that will prove valuable to future flights as well as the manned space program.

  20. Mars Mobile Lander Systems for 2005 and 2007 Launch Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabahi, D.; Graf, J. E.

    2000-01-01

    A series of Mars missions are proposed for the August 2005 launch opportunity on a medium class Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) with a injected mass capability of 2600 to 2750 kg. Known as the Ranger class, the primary objective of these Mars mission concepts are: (1) Deliver a mobile platform to Mars surface with large payload capability of 150 to 450 kg (depending on launch opportunity of 2005 or 2007); (2) Develop a robust, safe, and reliable workhorse entry, descent, and landing (EDL) capability for landed mass exceeding 750 kg; (3) Provide feed forward capability for the 2007 opportunity and beyond; and (4) Provide an option for a long life telecom relay orbiter. A number of future Mars mission concepts desire landers with large payload capability. Among these concepts are Mars sample return (MSR) which requires 300 to 450 kg landed payload capability to accommodate sampling, sample transfer equipment and a Mars ascent vehicle (MAV). In addition to MSR, large in situ payloads of 150 kg provide a significant step up from the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) and Mars Polar Lander (MPL) class payloads of 20 to 30 kg. This capability enables numerous and physically large science instruments as well as human exploration development payloads. The payload may consist of drills, scoops, rock corers, imagers, spectrometers, and in situ propellant production experiment, and dust and environmental monitoring.

  1. Launch processing system operations with a future look to operations analyst (OPERA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Astrid E.

    The launch processing system at Kennedy Space Center is used to process a Shuttle vehicle from its initial arrival in an Orbiter processing facility to a launch pad. This paper describes the launch processing system architecture and the ground support operations required to provide Shuttle system engineers with the capability to safely process and launch an Orbiter. The described ground operations are the culmination of 11 years of experience and redesign. In this paper, I examine some of the "lessons learned" and discuss problem areas which ground support operations have identified over the years as the Shuttle and launch processing systems continue to grow in complexity. As we strive to maintain the efficient level of support currently provided, some benefits have been gained through standard information management and automation techniques. However, problems requiring complex correlational analyses of information have defied resolution until artificial intelligence research developed expert system applications technology. The operational analyst for distributed systems (OPERA), a proposed set of expert systems for launch processing system operational assistance, is discussed along with its extensions to prospective future configurations and components for the launch processing system.

  2. Reusable Launch Vehicles: Rethinking Access to Space (cover title: Reusable Launch Vehicles and Space Operations)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    to $l billion. See Jamie G. G. Varni, —Space Operations: Through the Looking Glass ,“ 2025 Study (Maxwell Air Force Base, AL: Air University Press...Aviation, 1945 - 1950 (Washington DC: Naval Historical Center, 1994), p. 121. 134. Jamie G.G Varni et al, —Space Operations: Through the Looking Glass ,“ 2025

  3. A Multi-disciplinary Tool for Space Launch Systems Propulsion Analysis Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An accurate predictive capability of coupled fluid-structure interaction in propulsion system is crucial in the development of NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS)....

  4. An air launched, highly responsive military transatmospheric vehicle (TAV), based on existing aerospace systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampsten, Kenneth R.

    1996-03-01

    A novel vehicle design is presented that minimizes Research Development Test and Evaluation (RDT&E) cost. The proposed TAV can satisfy a broad range of military mission applications for the 21st century. TAV deployment is provided by a Rockwell B-1B bomber. Pre-launch orientation of the vehicle is centerline, underneath the B-1B forward weapon bays. Launch occurs at 30,000 ft, Mach 0.90, and at a flight path angle of 15-20 degrees. The TAV is a Two-Stage-To-Orbit (TSTO) vehicle utilizing Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and RP-1 (kerosene) propellants. The reusable upper stage, or TAV, incorporates a 130 cubic foot payload bay for mission specific equipment. The booster can either be expended, or potentially recovered for reuse. TAV reentry relies on a biconic aeroshell for the hypersonic flight phase and a parafoil for the subsonic, terminal recovery phase. Nominal mission performance is between 1,150-1,800 lbs of payload into a 100 nmi circular orbit.

  5. Design and Flight Performance of the Orion Pre-Launch Navigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Renato

    2016-01-01

    Launched in December 2014 atop a Delta IV Heavy from the Kennedy Space Center, the Orion vehicle's Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) successfully completed the objective to test the prelaunch and entry components of the system. Orion's pre-launch absolute navigation design is presented, together with its EFT-1 performance.

  6. Electromagnetic launch systems for civil aircraft assisted take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertola Luca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the feasibility of different technologies for an electromagnetic launcher to assist civil aircraft take-off. This method is investigated to reduce the power required from the engines during initial acceleration. Assisted launch has the potential of reducing the required runway length, reducing noise near airports and improving overall aircraft efficiency through reducing engine thrust requirements. The research compares two possible linear motor topologies which may be efficaciously used for this application. The comparison is made on results from both analytical and finite element analysis (FEA.

  7. Advanced Air Evaporation System with Reusable Wicks for Water Recovery Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A microgravity-compatible Advanced Air Evaporation System (AAES) is proposed for recovering nearly 100% of water from highly contaminated wastewater without concern...

  8. Open Journal Systems and Dataverse Integration– Helping Journals to Upgrade Data Publication for Reusable Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah Altman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the novel open source tools for open data publication in open access journal workflows. This comprises a plugin for Open Journal Systems that supports a data submission, citation, review, and publication workflow; and an extension to the Dataverse system that provides a standard deposit API. We describe the function and design of these tools, provide examples of their use, and summarize their initial reception. We conclude by discussing future plans and potential impact.

  9. Reliable, Reusable Cryotank Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcracking issues have significantly limited the reusability of state-of-the-art (SOA) composite cryotanks. While developers have made some progress addressing...

  10. Reusable Component Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  11. A Theoretical Analysis of Authentication, Privacy and Reusability Across Secure Biometric Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ye; Draper, Stark C; Ishwar, Prakash

    2011-01-01

    We present a theoretical framework for the analysis of privacy and security tradeoffs in secure biometric authentication systems. We use this framework to conduct a comparative information-theoretic analysis of two biometric systems that are based on linear error correction codes, namely fuzzy commitment and secure sketches. We derive upper bounds for the probability of false rejection ($P_{FR}$) and false acceptance ($P_{FA}$) for these systems. We use mutual information to quantify the information leaked about a user's biometric identity, in the scenario where one or multiple biometric enrollments of the user are fully or partially compromised. We also quantify the probability of successful attack ($P_{SA}$) based on the compromised information. Our analysis reveals that fuzzy commitment and secure sketch systems have identical $P_{FR}, P_{FA}, P_{SA}$ and information leakage, but secure sketch systems have lower storage requirements. We analyze both single-factor (keyless) and two-factor (key-based) varian...

  12. Russian aluminum-lithium alloys for advanced reusable spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charette, Ray O.; Leonard, Bruce G.; Bozich, William F.; Deamer, David A.

    1998-01-01

    Cryotanks that are cost-affordable, robust, fuel-compatible, and lighter weight than current aluminum design are needed to support next-generation launch system performance and operability goals. The Boeing (McDonnell Douglas Aerospace-MDA) and NASA's Delta Clipper-Experimental Program (DC-XA) flight demonstrator test bed vehicle provided the opportunity for technology transfer of Russia's extensive experience base with weight-efficient, highly weldable aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) alloys for cryogenic tank usage. As part of NASA's overall reusable launch vehicle (RLV) program to help provide technology and operations data for use in advanced RLVs, MDA contracted with the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS/IMASH) for design, test, and delivery of 1460 Al-Li alloy liquid oxygen (LO2) cryotanks: one for development, one for ground tests, and one for DC-XA flight tests. This paper describes the development of Al-Li 1460 alloy for reusable LO2 tanks, including alloy composition tailoring, mechanical properties database, forming, welding, chemical milling, dissimilar metal joining, corrosion protection, completed tanks proof, and qualification testing. Mechanical properties of the parent and welded materials exceeded expectations, particularly the fracture toughness, which promise excellent reuse potential. The LO2 cryotank was successfully demonstrated in DC-XA flight tests.

  13. Research on the Reliability Centered Maintenance Plan of a Launching System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Chao; SUN Ming-fang; DU Jun-min

    2011-01-01

    Aiming at the shortcomings of the traditional maintenance plan of a launching system, an analysis was made on the development of the reliability centered maintenance methods (RCM) and the basic models for reliability centered maintenance of a launching system are presented in this paper. The common methods for functional impor- tant product determination, failure modes and effect analysis ( FMEA ) and logic decision analysis were illustrated and the basic methods for maintenance interval calculation models were studied based on availability. According to the research, the reliability centered maintenance plan of a certain launching system was given.

  14. Engineering Engine/Airframe Integration for Fully Reusable Space Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 1.0 THE APPROACH OF THE GERMAN HYPERSONICS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM (1988-1995) Fig. 01 SÄNGER/ HTP ...Experimental Flying Testbeds fully Integrated for Propulsion Systems During the German HTP and FESTIP (1988 – 1998) In Europe several experimental flying

  15. The Space Launch System and Missions to the Outer Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaus, Kurt K.; Post, Kevin

    2015-11-01

    Introduction: America’s heavy lift launch vehicle, the Space Launch System, enables a variety of planetary science missions. The SLS can be used for most, if not all, of the National Research Council’s Planetary Science Decadal Survey missions to the outer planets. The SLS performance enables larger payloads and faster travel times with reduced operational complexity.Europa Clipper: Our analysis shows that a launch on the SLS would shorten the Clipper mission travel time by more than four years over earlier mission concept studies.Jupiter Trojan Tour and Rendezvous: Our mission concept replaces Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs) in the original design with solar arrays. The SLS capability offers many more target opportunities.Comet Surface Sample Return: Although in our mission concept, the SLS launches later than the NRC mission study (November 2022 instead of the original launch date of January 2021), it reduces the total mission time, including sample return, by two years.Saturn Apmospheric Entry Probe: Though Saturn arrivial time remains the same in our concept as the arrival date in the NRC study (2034), launching on the SLS shortens the mission travel time by three years with a direct ballistic trajectory.Uranus Orbiter with Probes: The SLS shortens travel time for an Uranus mission by four years with a Jupiter swing-by trajectory. It removes the need for a solar electric propulsion (SEP) stage used in the NRC mission concept study.Other SLS Science Mission Candidates: Two other mission concepts we are investigating that may be of interest to this community are the Advanced Technology Large Aperature Space Telescope (ATLAST) and the Interstellar Explorer also referred to as the Interstellar Probe.Summary: The first launch of the SLS is scheduled for 2018 followed by the first human launch in 2021. The SLS in its evolving configurations will enable a broad range of exploration missions which will serve to recapture the enthusiasm and

  16. The Engineering Design of Engine/Airframe Integration for the SAENGER Fully Reusable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Z39-18 1.0 THE GERMAN HYPERSONICS TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM (1988-1995) Fig. 01 SÄNGER/ HTP : Schedule of the German Hypersonics Activities In Germany...Concept Study Preliminary Study  System Study  Propulsion Study  Concept Studies  Basic Technologies  Test facilities  Techn. Dev.+Verific. Concept...Flight Test Vehicle Study  RAM-Engine Dev./Ground Test , SCRAM  Materials/Structures Technology The Engineering Design of Engine/Airframe

  17. Dual-fuel versus single-fuel propulsion systems for AMLS applications. [Advanced Manned Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Douglas O.; Talay, T. A.

    1989-01-01

    The results of using a computerized preliminary design system to integrate propulsion systems examined as a part of the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) and Space Transportation Booster Engine (STBE) studies with reference vehicle concepts from the Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS) study are presented. The major trade study presented is an analysis of the effect of using a single fuel for both stages of two-stage AMLS reference vehicles as opposed to using a separate fuel for the boosters. Other trade studies presented examine the effect of varying relevant engine parameters in an attempt to optimize the reference engines for use with the AMLS launch vehicles. In each propulsion trade discussed, special attention is given to the major vehicle performance and operational issues involved.

  18. White certificate: how to launch the system?; Les certificats blancs: comment lancer le systeme?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    White certificates are a supple and suitable economical system for the quest of diffuse energy saving. It relies on the energy distribution networks and is complementary to other existing system (fiscality, regulation, etc). It is an open system, based on a market logics in order to make energy savings where they are the less costly. This document gathers the synthesis of the conference about white certificates, held in Paris in October 2005, the presentations (transparencies) given by J. Percebois (Creden) about the French system of energy savings and by P. Guyonnet (ATEE) about the way to launch the system of white certificates. The debate with the audience is also reported. (J.S.)

  19. Performance evaluation of multi-sensor data-fusion systems in launch vehicles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B N Suresh; K Sivan

    2004-04-01

    In this paper, the utilization of multi-sensors of different types, their characteristics, and their data-fusion in launch vehicles to achieve the goal of injecting the satellite into a precise orbit is explained. Performance requirements of sensors and their redundancy management in a typical launch vehicle are also included. The role of an integrated system level-test bed for evaluating multi-sensors and mission performance in a typical launch vehicle mission is described. Some of the typical simulation results to evaluate the effect of the sensors on the overall system are highlighted.

  20. Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided...

  1. A new ball launching system with controlled flight parameters for catching experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Avella, A; Cesqui, B; Portone, A; Lacquaniti, F

    2011-03-30

    Systematic investigations of sensorimotor control of interceptive actions in naturalistic conditions, such as catching or hitting a ball moving in three-dimensional space, requires precise control of the projectile flight parameters and of the associated visual stimuli. Such control is challenging when air drag cannot be neglected because the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters cannot be computed analytically. We designed, calibrated, and experimentally validated an actuated launching apparatus that can control the average spatial position and flight duration of a ball at a given distance from a fixed launch location. The apparatus was constructed by mounting a ball launching machine with adjustable delivery speed on an actuated structure capable of changing the spatial orientation of the launch axis while projecting balls through a hole in a screen hiding the apparatus. The calibration procedure relied on tracking the balls with a motion capture system and on approximating the mapping of launch parameters into flight parameters by means of polynomials functions. Polynomials were also used to estimate the variability of the flight parameters. The coefficients of these polynomials were obtained using the launch and flight parameters of 660 launches with 65 different initial conditions. The relative accuracy and precision of the apparatus were larger than 98% for flight times and larger than 96% for ball heights at a distance of 6m from the screen. Such novel apparatus, by reliably and automatically controlling desired ball flight characteristics without neglecting air drag, allows for a systematic investigation of naturalistic interceptive tasks.

  2. NASA Space Technology Draft Roadmap Area 13: Ground and Launch Systems Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Greg

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the technology development roadmap for the area of ground and launch systems processing. The scope of this technology area includes: (1) Assembly, integration, and processing of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and payload hardware (2) Supply chain management (3) Transportation of hardware to the launch site (4) Transportation to and operations at the launch pad (5) Launch processing infrastructure and its ability to support future operations (6) Range, personnel, and facility safety capabilities (7) Launch and landing weather (8) Environmental impact mitigations for ground and launch operations (9) Launch control center operations and infrastructure (10) Mission integration and planning (11) Mission training for both ground and flight crew personnel (12) Mission control center operations and infrastructure (13) Telemetry and command processing and archiving (14) Recovery operations for flight crews, flight hardware, and returned samples. This technology roadmap also identifies ground, launch and mission technologies that will: (1) Dramatically transform future space operations, with significant improvement in life-cycle costs (2) Improve the quality of life on earth, while exploring in co-existence with the environment (3) Increase reliability and mission availability using low/zero maintenance materials and systems, comprehensive capabilities to ascertain and forecast system health/configuration, data integration, and the use of advanced/expert software systems (4) Enhance methods to assess safety and mission risk posture, which would allow for timely and better decision making. Several key technologies are identified, with a couple of slides devoted to one of these technologies (i.e., corrosion detection and prevention). Development of these technologies can enhance life on earth and have a major impact on how we can access space, eventually making routine commercial space access and improve building and manufacturing, and weather

  3. Conceptual Design of an APT Reusable Spaceplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corpino, S.; Viola, N.

    Safety characteristics. Several applications of this conceptual design methodology have been carried out in order to validate it. Here we will show one of the most challenging case studies: the APT73 spaceplane. Today the demand for getting access to space is increasing and fully reusable launch vehicles are likely to play a key role in future space activities, but up until now this kind of space system has not been successfully developed. The ideal reusable launcher should be a vehicle able to maintain physical integrity during its mission, to takeoff and land at any conventional airport, to be operated with a minimum maintenance effort and to guarantee an adequate safety level. Thanks to its flexibility it should be able to enter the desired orbital plane and to abort its mission any time in case of mishap. Moreover considerable cost reduction could be expected only by having extremely high launch rates comparable to today's aircraft fleets in the commercial airlines business. In our opinion the solution which better meets these specifications is the Aerial Propellant Transfer spaceplane concept, the so called "one stage and a half" space vehicle, which takes off and climbs to meet a tanker aircraft to be aerially re-fuelled and then, after disconnecting from the tanker, it flies to reach the orbit. The APT73 has been designed to reach the Low Earth Orbit to perform two kinds of mission: 1) to release payloads; 2) to be flown as crew return vehicle from the ISS. The concept has emerged from a set of preliminary choices established at the beginning of the project: Possible variants to the basic plan have been investigated and a trade off analysis has been carried out in order to obtain the optimum configuration. Listed below are the options that have been evaluated: This paper provides a technical description of the APT73 and illustrates the design challenges encountered in the development of the project.

  4. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  5. Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) for Space Shuttle Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardina, Jorge E.; Rajkumar, T.

    2003-01-01

    The Web-based Weather Expert System (WES) is a critical module of the Virtual Test Bed development to support 'go/no go' decisions for Space Shuttle operations in the Intelligent Launch and Range Operations program of NASA. The weather rules characterize certain aspects of the environment related to the launching or landing site, the time of the day or night, the pad or runway conditions, the mission durations, the runway equipment and landing type. Expert system rules are derived from weather contingency rules, which were developed over years by NASA. Backward chaining, a goal-directed inference method is adopted, because a particular consequence or goal clause is evaluated first, and then chained backward through the rules. Once a rule is satisfied or true, then that particular rule is fired and the decision is expressed. The expert system is continuously verifying the rules against the past one-hour weather conditions and the decisions are made. The normal procedure of operations requires a formal pre-launch weather briefing held on Launch minus 1 day, which is a specific weather briefing for all areas of Space Shuttle launch operations. In this paper, the Web-based Weather Expert System of the Intelligent Launch and range Operations program is presented.

  6. Design and Feasibility Demonstration of a Deployment System for a Rocket Launched Buoy

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-06

    as described in Section 3.3. 3.2 Deployment Piston After early experiments with the standard Sonobuoy deployment piston it was decided to utilize a...syzt-em- desee 4 s not limited to the electronic buoy for which it was developed but is applicable to any quasi cylindrical payload to be deployed following a rocket launch from the MK 36 launching system. -12-

  7. Electromagnetic Aircraft Launching System: Do the Benefits Outweigh the Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    levitation ( MAGLEV ) trains . State-of-the-art systems make up the components of the system. There are several benefits the EIV1ALS has over the current...around for’ many years in other applications such as magnetic levitation (MAGL~V) trains . State-of-the-ali systems make up the components of the...detail the aspect of training a new rate to maintain and service i the new technology. Also, due to no significant testing done on Electro Magnetic

  8. Design of Launch Vehicle Flight Control Systems Using Ascent Vehicle Stability Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiann-Woei; Alaniz, Abran; Hall, Robert; Bedossian, Nazareth; Hall, Charles; Jackson, Mark

    2011-01-01

    A launch vehicle represents a complicated flex-body structural environment for flight control system design. The Ascent-vehicle Stability Analysis Tool (ASAT) is developed to address the complicity in design and analysis of a launch vehicle. The design objective for the flight control system of a launch vehicle is to best follow guidance commands while robustly maintaining system stability. A constrained optimization approach takes the advantage of modern computational control techniques to simultaneously design multiple control systems in compliance with required design specs. "Tower Clearance" and "Load Relief" designs have been achieved for liftoff and max dynamic pressure flight regions, respectively, in the presence of large wind disturbances. The robustness of the flight control system designs has been verified in the frequency domain Monte Carlo analysis using ASAT.

  9. EXODUS: Integrating intelligent systems for launch operations support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Richard M.; Cottman, Bruce H.

    1991-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is developing knowledge-based systems to automate critical operations functions for the space shuttle fleet. Intelligent systems will monitor vehicle and ground support subsystems for anomalies, assist in isolating and managing faults, and plan and schedule shuttle operations activities. These applications are being developed independently of one another, using different representation schemes, reasoning and control models, and hardware platforms. KSC has recently initiated the EXODUS project to integrate these stand alone applications into a unified, coordinated intelligent operations support system. EXODUS will be constructed using SOCIAL, a tool for developing distributed intelligent systems. EXODUS, SOCIAL, and initial prototyping efforts using SOCIAL to integrate and coordinate selected EXODUS applications are described.

  10. SKYLAB II - Making a Deep Space Habitat from a Space Launch System Propellant Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Brand N.; Smitherman, David; Kennedy, Kriss J.; Toups, Larry; Gill, Tracy; Howe, A. Scott

    2012-01-01

    Called a "House in Space," Skylab was an innovative program that used a converted Saturn V launch vehicle propellant tank as a space station habitat. It was launched in 1973 fully equipped with provisions for three separate missions of three astronauts each. The size and lift capability of the Saturn V enabled a large diameter habitat, solar telescope, multiple docking adaptor, and airlock to be placed on-orbit with a single launch. Today, the envisioned Space Launch System (SLS) offers similar size and lift capabilities that are ideally suited for a Skylab type mission. An envisioned Skylab II mission would employ the same propellant tank concept; however serve a different mission. In this case, the SLS upper stage hydrogen tank is used as a Deep Space Habitat (DSH) for NASA s planned missions to asteroids, Earth-Moon Lagrangian point and Mars.

  11. Materials in NASA's Space Launch System: The Stuff Dreams are Made of

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    Mr. Todd May, Program Manager for NASA's Space Launch System, will showcase plans and progress the nation s new super-heavy-lift launch vehicle, which is on track for a first flight to launch an Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle around the Moon in 2017. Mr. May s keynote address will share NASA's vision for future human and scientific space exploration and how SLS will advance those plans. Using new, in-development, and existing assets from the Space Shuttle and other programs, SLS will provide safe, affordable, and sustainable space launch capabilities for exploration payloads starting at 70 metric tons (t) and evolving through 130 t for entirely new deep-space missions. Mr. May will also highlight the impact of material selection, development, and manufacturing as they contribute to reducing risk and cost while simultaneously supporting the nation s exploration goals.

  12. Single reusable spacecraft

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Design of a my single person reusable spacecraft. It can carry one person and it has to be dropped from an aircraft at an altitude of 40,000 - 45,000 feet. Can be...

  13. 46 CFR 108.545 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... capable of individual release from its stowage rack. (3) Each inflatable liferaft used in conjunction with...) Stowage. Each marine evacuation system must be stowed as follows: (1) There must not be any openings..., when deployed, its stowage container, and its operational arrangement must not interfere with...

  14. 46 CFR 133.145 - Marine evacuation system launching arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... individual release from its stowage rack. (3) Each inflatable liferaft used in conjunction with the marine... evacuation. (b) Stowage. Each marine evacuation system must be stowed as follows: (1) There must not be any... deployed; its stowage container; and its operational arrangement must not interfere with the operation...

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: An Evolving Capability for Exploration An Evolving Capability for Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Crumbly, Christopher M.; Robinson, Kimerly F.

    2016-01-01

    A foundational capability for international human deep-space exploration, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, creating opportunities for mission profiles and space systems that cannot currently be executed. While the primary purpose of SLS, which is making rapid progress towards initial launch readiness in two years, will be to support NASA's Journey to Mars, discussions are already well underway regarding other potential utilization of the vehicle's unique capabilities. In its initial Block 1 configuration, capable of launching 70 metric tons (t) to low Earth orbit (LEO), SLS is capable of propelling the Orion crew vehicle to cislunar space, while also delivering small CubeSat-class spacecraft to deep-space destinations. With the addition of a more powerful upper stage, the Block 1B configuration of SLS will be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and enable more ambitious human missions into the proving ground of space. This configuration offers opportunities for launching co-manifested payloads with the Orion crew vehicle, and a class of secondary payloads, larger than today's CubeSats. Further upgrades to the vehicle, including advanced boosters, will evolve its performance to 130 t in its Block 2 configuration. Both Block 1B and Block 2 also offer the capability to carry 8.4- or 10-m payload fairings, larger than any contemporary launch vehicle. With unmatched mass-lift capability, payload volume, and C3, SLS not only enables spacecraft or mission designs currently impossible with contemporary EELVs, it also offers enhancing benefits, such as reduced risk, operational costs and/or complexity, shorter transit time to destination or launching large systems either monolithically or in fewer components. This paper will discuss both the performance and capabilities of Space Launch System as it evolves, and the current state of SLS utilization planning.

  16. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Chris; Butt, Adam; Sharp, David; Pitts, Hank

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Ares I launch vehicle, consisting of a five segment solid rocket booster first stage and a liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine upper stage, is the vehicle that's been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. This paper provides an overview of the work that has taken place on the Ares I launch vehicle roll and reaction control systems. Reaction control systems are found on many launch vehicles and provide a vehicle with a three degree of freedom stabilization during the mission. The Ares I baseline configuration currently consists of a first stage roll control system that will provide the vehicle with a method of counteracting the roll torque that is expected during launch. An upper stage reaction control system will allow the upper stage three degrees of freedom control as needed. Design assessments and trade studies are being conducted on the roll and reaction control systems including: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Other vehicle considerations and issues include thruster plume impingement, thruster module aerothermal and aerodynamic effects, and system integration. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.

  17. 21st century space transportation system design approach - HL-20 personnel launch system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Howard W.; Piland, William M.

    1993-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to and overview of the research that was conducted on the HL-20 lifting body. The concept has been defined as an option for a personnel launch system (PLS) that is intended to carry six to eight Space Station Freedom crew persons. In this role the HL-20 will complement the Space Shuttle operation and ensure the ability to transport people to and from Earth orbit after the year 2000. The research covers a broad range of disciplines, including aerodynamics, aerodynamic heating and thermal protection systems, structural design, subsystem definition, trajectory and guidance system development for entry and abort, production and operations, and human factors. This article also presents the lifting-body heritage, design features of the concept, and HL-20/PLS mission requirements.

  18. StarTram: An Ultra Low Cost Launch System to Enable Large Scale Exploration of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, James; Maise, George; Paniagua, John

    2006-01-01

    StarTram is a new approach for low launch to space using Maglev technology. Spacecraft are magnetically levitated and accelerated without propellants to orbital speeds in an evacuated tunnel at ground level using only electrical energy. The cost of the electric energy for acceleration to 8 kilometers per second is only 60 cents per kilogram of payload. After reaching orbital speed, the StarTram spacecraft coast upwards inside an evacuated levitated launch tube to an altitude, of 10 kilometers or more, where they enter the low-pressure ambient atmosphere. The launch tube is magnetically levitated by the repulsive force between a set of high current superconducting cables on it and oppositely directed currents in a set of superconducting cables on the ground beneath. High strength Kevlar tethers anchor the launch tube against crosswinds and prevent it from moving laterally or vertically. A Magneto Hydro Dynamic (MHD) pump at the exit of the evacuated launch tube prevents air from entering the tube. Two StarTram systems are described, a high G (30G) system for cargo only launch and a moderate G (2.5 G) system for passenger/cargo spacecraft. StarTram's projected unit cost is $30 per kilogram of payload launched, including operating and amortization costs. A single StarTram facility could launch more than 100,000 tons of cargo per year and many thousands of passengers. StarTram would use existing superconductors and materials, together with Maglev technology similar to that now operating. The StarTram cargo launch system could be implemented by 2020 AD and the passenger system by 2030 AD.

  19. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  20. Reusable Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-13

    2003 by Carnegie Mellon University page 1 Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute Reusable Security Requirements RE’2003 RHAS’03 Workshop...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Carnegie Mellon University , Software Engineering Institute,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING...Carnegie Mellon University page 2 Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute In a Nut Shell • Similar Assets, Attackers, and Threats • Security

  1. EPA Launches Technology Challenge for an Advanced Septic System Nitrogen Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Today, the U.S. EPA and its partners launched a technology challenge for an Advanced Septic System Nitrogen Sensor. The total award pool for this phase is $55,000. The Challenge is open for submissions today. Submissions are due on or before March 17, 2017

  2. LOX/LH2 propulsion system for launch vehicle upper stage, test results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, T.; Imachi, U.; Yuzawa, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Higashino, K.

    1984-01-01

    The test results of small LOX/LH2 engines for two propulsion systems, a pump fed system and a pressure fed system are reported. The pump fed system has the advantages of higher performances and higher mass fraction. The pressure fed system has the advantages of higher reliability and relative simplicity. Adoption of these cryogenic propulsion systems for upper stage of launch vehicle increases the payload capability with low cost. The 1,000 kg thrust class engine was selected for this cryogenic stage. A thrust chamber assembly for the pressure fed propulsion system was tested. It is indicated that it has good performance to meet system requirements.

  3. Enabling Science and Deep Space Exploration through Space Launch System (LSL) Secondary Payload Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). By reaching this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. NASA is making investments to expand science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1), currently planned for launch no earlier than July 2018, will be the first mission to carry such payloads on the SLS. The EM-1 launch will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites that will be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload capacity of SLS, and the payload requirements for launch and

  4. NASA Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems Design Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Popp, Chris G.; Pitts, Hank M.; Sharp, David J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides an update of design status following the preliminary design review of NASA s Ares I first stage roll and upper stage reaction control systems. The Ares I launch vehicle has been chosen to return humans to the moon, mars, and beyond. It consists of a first stage five segment solid rocket booster and an upper stage liquid bi-propellant J-2X engine. Similar to many launch vehicles, the Ares I has reaction control systems used to provide the vehicle with three degrees of freedom stabilization during the mission. During launch, the first stage roll control system will provide the Ares I with the ability to counteract induced roll torque. After first stage booster separation, the upper stage reaction control system will provide the upper stage element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. Trade studies and design assessments conducted on the roll and reaction control systems include: propellant selection, thruster arrangement, pressurization system configuration, and system component trades. Since successful completion of the preliminary design review, work has progressed towards the critical design review with accomplishments made in the following areas: pressurant / propellant tank, thruster assembly, and other component configurations, as well as thruster module design, and waterhammer mitigation approach. Also, results from early development testing are discussed along with plans for upcoming system testing. This paper concludes by summarizing the process of down selecting to the current baseline configuration for the Ares I roll and reaction control systems.

  5. Output-Based Adaptive Meshing Applied to Space Launch System Booster Separation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalle, Derek J.; Rogers, Stuart E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents details of Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulations of the Space Launch System during solid-rocket booster separation using the Cart3D inviscid code with comparisons to Overflow viscous CFD results and a wind tunnel test performed at NASA Langley Research Center's Unitary PlanWind Tunnel. The Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle includes two solid-rocket boosters that burn out before the primary core stage and thus must be discarded during the ascent trajectory. The main challenges for creating an aerodynamic database for this separation event are the large number of basis variables (including orientation of the core, relative position and orientation of the boosters, and rocket thrust levels) and the complex flow caused by the booster separation motors. The solid-rocket boosters are modified from their form when used with the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle, which has a rich flight history. However, the differences between the SLS core and the Space Shuttle External Tank result in the boosters separating with much narrower clearances, and so reducing aerodynamic uncertainty is necessary to clear the integrated system for flight. This paper discusses an approach that has been developed to analyze about 6000 wind tunnel simulations and 5000 flight vehicle simulations using Cart3D in adaptive-meshing mode. In addition, a discussion is presented of Overflow viscous CFD runs used for uncertainty quantification. Finally, the article presents lessons learned and improvements that will be implemented in future separation databases.

  6. Overview of C/C-SiC Composite Development for the Orion Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Valentine, Peter G.; Schofield, Elizabeth S.; Beshears, Ronald D.; Coston, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Past and present efforts by the authors to further understanding of the ceramic matrix composite (CMC) material used in the valve components of the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Attitude Control Motor (ACM) will be presented. The LAS is designed to quickly lift the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) away from its launch vehicle in emergency abort scenarios. The ACM is a solid rocket motor which utilizes eight throttleable nozzles to maintain proper orientation of the CEV during abort operations. Launch abort systems have not been available for use by NASA on manned launches since the last Apollo ]Saturn launch in 1975. The CMC material, carbon-carbon/silicon-carbide (C/C-SiC), is manufactured by Fiber Materials, Inc. and consists of a rigid 4-directional carbon-fiber tow weave reinforced with a mixed carbon plus SiC matrix. Several valve and full system (8-valve) static motor tests have been conducted by the motor vendor. The culmination of these tests was the successful flight test of the Orion LAS Pad Abort One (PA ]1) vehicle on May 6, 2010. Due to the fast pace of the LAS development program, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center assisted the LAS community by performing a series of material and component evaluations using fired hardware from valve and full ]system development motor tests, and from the PA-1 flight ACM motor. Information will be presented on the structure of the C/C-SiC material, as well as the efficacy of various non ]destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, including but not limited to: radiography, computed tomography, nanofocus computed tomography, and X-ray transmission microscopy. Examinations of the microstructure of the material via scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy will also be discussed. The findings resulting from the subject effort are assisting the LAS Project in risk assessments and in possible modifications to the final ACM operational design.

  7. A Survey of Software Reusability

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Patidar; Prof. Virendra Singh

    2014-01-01

    Reusability is an only one best direction to increase developing productivity and maintainability of application. One must first search for good tested software component and reusable. Developed Application software by one programmer can be shown useful for others also component. This is proving that code specifics to application requirements can be also reused in develop projects related with same requirements. The main aim of this paper proposed a way for reusable module. An...

  8. Data Applicability of Heritage and New Hardware for Launch Vehicle System Reliability Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan Mohammad; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Many launch vehicle systems are designed and developed using heritage and new hardware. In most cases, the heritage hardware undergoes modifications to fit new functional system requirements, impacting the failure rates and, ultimately, the reliability data. New hardware, which lacks historical data, is often compared to like systems when estimating failure rates. Some qualification of applicability for the data source to the current system should be made. Accurately characterizing the reliability data applicability and quality under these circumstances is crucial to developing model estimations that support confident decisions on design changes and trade studies. This presentation will demonstrate a data-source classification method that ranks reliability data according to applicability and quality criteria to a new launch vehicle. This method accounts for similarities/dissimilarities in source and applicability, as well as operating environments like vibrations, acoustic regime, and shock. This classification approach will be followed by uncertainty-importance routines to assess the need for additional data to reduce uncertainty.

  9. The Falcon I Launch Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Koenigsmann, Hans; Musk, Elon; Shotwell, Gwynne; Chinnery, Anne

    2004-01-01

    Falcon I is the first in a family of launch vehicles designed by Space Exploration Technologies to facilitate low cost access to space. Falcon I is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon I can carry over 1000 lbs to sun-synchronous orbit and 1500 lbs due east to 100 NM. To minimize failure modes, the...

  10. SSV Launch Monitoring Strategies: HGDS Design and Development Through System Maturity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoemaker, Marc D.; Crimi, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This poster presentation reviews the design and development of the Hazardous Gas Detection System (HGDS). It includes a overview schematic of the HGDS, pictures of the shuttle on the Mobile Launch platform, the original HGDS, the current HGDS and parts of the original and current system. There are charts showing the dynamics of the orbiter during external tank loading, and transient leaks observed on HGDS during Power Reactant Storage and Distribution (PRSD) load.

  11. A Survey of Software Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Patidar

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Reusability is an only one best direction to increase developing productivity and maintainability of application. One must first search for good tested software component and reusable. Developed Application software by one programmer can be shown useful for others also component. This is proving that code specifics to application requirements can be also reused in develop projects related with same requirements. The main aim of this paper proposed a way for reusable module. An process that takes source code as a input that will helped to take the decision approximately which particular software, reusable artefacts should be reused or not.

  12. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) on the ICESat Mission: Science Measurement Performance since Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X.; Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; McGarry, J.; Sirota, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System is a space lidar and the primary instrument on NASA's ICESat mision. Since launch in January 2003 GLAS has produced about 544 million measurements of the Earth's surface and atmosphere. It has made global measurements of the Earth's icesheets, land topography and atmosphere with unprecedented vertical resolution and accuracy. GLAS was first activated for science measurements in February 2003. Since then its operation and performance has confirmed many pre-launch expectations and exceed a few of the most optimistic expectations in vertical resolution and sensitivity. However GLAS also suffered an unexpected failure with its first laser, and the GLAS measurements have yielded some surprises in other areas. This talk will give a post-launch assessment of the science measurement performance of the GLAS instrument, and compare the measurement environment and its science measurements to pre-launch expectations. It also will address some of what has been learned from the GLAS design, operations and measurements which may benefit future space lidar.

  13. A Proposed Ascent Abort Flight Test for the Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartabini, Paul V.; Gilbert, Michael G.; Starr, Brett R.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center initiated the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Project to investigate alternate crew escape system concepts that eliminate the conventional launch escape tower by integrating the escape system into an aerodynamic fairing that fully encapsulates the crew capsule and smoothly integrates with the launch vehicle. This paper proposes an ascent abort flight test for an all-propulsive towerless escape system concept that is actively controlled and sized to accommodate the Orion Crew Module. The goal of the flight test is to demonstrate a high dynamic pressure escape and to characterize jet interaction effects during operation of the attitude control thrusters at transonic and supersonic conditions. The flight-test vehicle is delivered to the required test conditions by a booster configuration selected to meet cost, manufacturability, and operability objectives. Data return is augmented through judicious design of the boost trajectory, which is optimized to obtain data at a range of relevant points, rather than just a single flight condition. Secondary flight objectives are included after the escape to obtain aerodynamic damping data for the crew module and to perform a high-altitude contingency deployment of the drogue parachutes. Both 3- and 6-degree-of-freedom trajectory simulation results are presented that establish concept feasibility, and a Monte Carlo uncertainty assessment is performed to provide confidence that test objectives can be met.

  14. Benefits to the Europa Clipper Mission Provided by the Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.; Patel, Keyur

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) proposed Europa Clipper mission would provide an unprecedented look at the icy Jovian moon, and investigate its environment to determine the possibility that it hosts life. Focused on exploring the water, chemistry, and energy conditions on the moon, the spacecraft would examine Europa's ocean, ice shell, composition and geology by performing 32 low-altitude flybys of Europa from Jupiter orbit over 2.3 years, allowing detailed investigations of globally distributed regions of Europa. In hopes of expediting the scientific program, mission planners at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory are working with the Space Launch System (SLS) program, managed at Marshall Space Flight Center. Designed to be the most powerful launch vehicle ever flown, SLS is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit. The SLS rocket will offer an initial low-Earth-orbit lift capability of 70 metric tons (t) beginning with a first launch in 2017 and will then evolve into a 130 t Block 2 version. While the primary focus of the development of the initial version of SLS is on enabling human exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit using the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle, the rocket offers unique benefits to robotic planetary exploration missions, thanks to the high characteristic energy it provides. This paper will provide an overview of both the proposed Europa Clipper mission and the Space Launch System vehicle, and explore options provided to the Europa Clipper mission for a launch within a decade by a 70 t version of SLS with a commercially available 5-meter payload fairing, through comparison with a baseline of current Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) capabilities. Compared to that baseline, a mission to the Jovian system could reduce transit times to less than half, or increase mass to more than double, among other benefits. In addition to these primary benefits, the paper will

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: A New Opportunity for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, David; Robinson, Kimberly F.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2016-01-01

    Designed for human exploration missions into deep space, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) represents a new spaceflight infrastructure asset, enabling a wide variety of unique utilization opportunities. Together with the Orion crew vehicle and ground operations at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, SLS is a foundational capability for NASA's Journey to Mars. From the beginning of the SLS flight program, utilization of the vehicle will also include launching secondary payloads, including CubeSats, to deep-space destinations. Currently, SLS is making rapid progress toward readiness for its first launch in 2018, using the initial configuration of the vehicle, which is capable of delivering 70 metric tons (t) to Low Earth Orbit (LEO). On its first flight, Exploration Mission-1, SLS will launch an uncrewed test flight of the Orion spacecraft into distant retrograde orbit around the moon. Accompanying Orion on SLS will be 13 CubeSats, which will deploy in cislunar space. These CubeSats will include not only NASA research, but also spacecraft from industry and international partners and potentially academia. Following its first flight and potentially as early as its second, which will launch a crewed Orion spacecraft into cislunar space, SLS will evolve into a more powerful configuration with a larger upper stage. This configuration will initially be able to deliver 105 t to LEO and will continue to be upgraded to a performance of greater than 130 t to LEO. While the addition of the more powerful upper stage will mean a change to the secondary payload accommodations from Block 1, the SLS Program is already evaluating options for future secondary payload opportunities. Early discussions are also already underway for the use of SLS to launch spacecraft on interplanetary trajectories, which could open additional opportunities for CubeSats. This presentation will include an overview of the SLS vehicle and its capabilities, including the current status of progress toward

  16. Strategy of Khrunichev's Launch Vehicles Further Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, A. A.; Kuzin, A. I.; Karrask, V. K.

    2002-01-01

    vehicles and it is concerned with a further evolution of its launcher fleet in order to meet arising demands of their services customers. Continuing to provide an operation of current "Proton" heavy launch vehicle and "Rockot" small launch vehicle, Khrunichev is carrying out a permanent improvement of these launchers as well as is developing new advanced launch systems. Thus, the `Proton' just has the improved "Proton-M" version, which was successfully tested in a flight, while an improvement of the "Rockot" is provided by a permanent modernization of its "Breeze-KM" upper stage and a payload fairing. Enhancing of the "Proton/Proton-M's" lift capabilities and flexibility of operation is being provided by introduction of advanced upper stages, the "Breeze- M", which was just put into service, and KVRB being in the development. "Angara-1.1" small launcher is scheduled to a launch in 2003. A creation of this family foresees not only a range of small, medium and heavy launch vehicles based on a modular principle of design but also a construction of high-automated launch site at the Russian Plesetsk spaceport. An operation of the "Angara" family's launchers will allow to inject payloads of actually all classes from Russian national territory into all range of applicable orbits with high technical and economic indices. ecological safety of drop zones, Khrunichev is developing the "Baikal" fly-back reusable booster. This booster would replace expendable first stages of small "Angaras" and strap-ons of medium/heavy launchers, which exert a most influence on the Earth's environment. intercontinental ballistic missiles to current and advanced space launch vehicles of various classes. A succession of the gained experience and found technological solutions are shown.

  17. Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) Propulsion on Pad Abort 1 (PA-1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides a concise overview of the highly successful Orion Pad Abort 1 (PA-1) flight test, and the three rocket motors that contributed to this success. The primary purpose of the Orion PA-1 flight was to help certify the Orion Launch Abort System (LAS), which can be utilized in the unlikely event of an emergency on the launchpad or during mission vehicle ascent. The PA-1 test was the first fully integrated flight test of the Orion LAS, one of the primary systems within the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). The Orion MPCV is part of the architecture within the Space Launch System (SLS), which is being designed to transport astronauts beyond low-Earth orbit for future exploration missions. Had the Orion PA-1 flight abort occurred during launch preparations for a real human spaceflight mission, the PA-1 LAS would have saved the lives of the crew. The PA-1 flight test was largely successful due to the three solid rocket motors of the LAS: the Attitude Control Motor (ACM); the Jettison Motor (JM); and the Abort Motor (AM). All three rocket motors successfully performed their required functions during the Orion PA-1 flight test, flown on May 6, 2010 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico, culminating in a successful demonstration of an abort capability from the launchpad.

  18. Development and flight test of metal-lined CFRP cryogenic tank for reusable rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Ken; Takeuchi, Shinsuke; Sato, Eiichi; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Inatani, Yoshifumi; Namiki, Fumiharu; Tanaka, Kohtaro; Watabe, Yoko

    2005-07-01

    A cryogenic tank made of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) shell with aluminum thin liner has been designed as a liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank for an ISAS reusable launch vehicle, and the function of it has been proven by repeated flights onboard the test vehicle called reusable vehicle testing (RVT) in October 2003. The liquid hydrogen tank has to be a pressure vessel, because the fuel of the engine of the test vehicle is supplied by fuel pressure. The pressure vessel of a combination of the outer shell of CFRP for strength element at a cryogenic temperature and the inner liner of aluminum for gas barrier has shown excellent weight merit for this purpose. Interfaces such as tank outline shape, bulk capacity, maximum expected operating pressure (MEOP), thermal insulation, pipe arrangement, and measurement of data are also designed to be ready onboard. This research has many aims, not only development of reusable cryogenic composite tank but also the demonstration of repeated operation including thermal cycle and stress cycle, familiarization with test techniques of operation of cryogenic composite tanks, and the accumulation of data for future design of tanks, vehicle structures, safety evaluation, and total operation systems.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF NON ERODING NOZZLE MATERIALS FOR OPTIMIZED COATED HYBRID LEADING EDGE DESIGNS FOR REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICALS WITH LEADING EDGE RADII OF 0.03? TO 1? AND TEMPERATURES NEAR 4000?F Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Effort explores using innovative hybrid reinforced carbon-carbon, refractory ceramics, super alloys and composite materials as thermal protection system specifically...

  20. Launch Vehicle Performance with Solid Particle Feed Systems for Atomic Propellants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of launch vehicle Gross Liftoff Weight (GLOW) using high energy density atomic propellants with solid particle feed systems was conducted. The analyses covered several propellant combinations, including atoms of aluminum (Al), boron (B). carbon (C), and hydrogen (H) stored in a solid cryogenic particle, with a cryogenic liquid as the carrier fluid. Several different weight percents (wt%) for the liquid carrier were investigated and the gross lift off weight (GLOW) of the vehicles using the solid particle feed systems were compared with a conventional 02/H2 propellant vehicle. The potential benefits and effects of feed systems using solid particles in a liquid cryogenic fluid are discussed.

  1. A Framework for Assessing the Software Reusability using Fuzzy Logic Approach for Aspect Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Software reusability is very important and crucial attribute to evaluate the system software. Due to incremental growth of software development, the software reusability comes under attention of many researcher and practitioner. It is pretty easier to reuse the software than developing the new software. Software reusability reduces the development time, cost and effort of software product. Software reusability define the depth to which a module can be reused again with very little or no modification. However the prediction of this quality attribute is cumbersome process. Aspect oriented software development is new approach that introduce the concerns to overcome the issues with modular programming and object oriented programming. However many researcher worked on accessing the software reusability on object oriented system but the software reusability of aspect oriented system is not completely explored. This paper explores the various metric that affects the reusability of aspect oriented software and estimate it using fuzzy logic approach.

  2. Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle Launch Abort System Guidance and Control Analysis Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Kim, Sungwan; Raney, David L.; Aubuchon, Vanessa V.; Sparks, Dean W.; Busan, Ronald C.; Proud, Ryan W.; Merritt, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Aborts during the critical ascent flight phase require the design and operation of Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) systems to escape from the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) and return the crew safely to the Earth. To accomplish this requirement of continuous abort coverage, CEV ascent abort modes are being designed and analyzed to accommodate the velocity, altitude, atmospheric, and vehicle configuration changes that occur during ascent. Aborts from the launch pad to early in the flight of the CLV second stage are performed using the Launch Abort System (LAS). During this type of abort, the LAS Abort Motor is used to pull the Crew Module (CM) safely away from the CLV and Service Module (SM). LAS abort guidance and control studies and design trades are being conducted so that more informed decisions can be made regarding the vehicle abort requirements, design, and operation. This paper presents an overview of the Orion CEV, an overview of the LAS ascent abort mode, and a summary of key LAS abort analysis methods and results.

  3. Aerodynamics of the advanced launch system (ALS) propulsion and avionics (P/A) module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Stan; Savage, Dick

    1992-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and testing of candidate Advanced Launch System (ALS) Propulsion and Avionics (P/A) Module configurations. The P/A Module is a key element of future launch systems because it is essential to the recovery and reuse of high-value propulsion and avionics hardware. The ALS approach involves landing of first stage (booster) and/or second stage (core) P/A modules near the launch site to minimize logistics and refurbishment cost. The key issue addressed herein is the aerodynamic design of the P/A module, including the stability characteristics and the lift-to-drag (L/D) performance required to achieve the necessary landing guidance accuracy. The reference P/A module configuration was found to be statically stable for the desired flight regime, to provide adequate L/D for targeting, and to have effective modulation of the L/D performance using a body flap. The hypersonic aerodynamic trends for nose corner radius, boattail angle and body flap deflections were consistent with pretest predictions. However, the levels for the L/D and axial force for hypersonic Mach numbers were overpredicted by impact theories.

  4. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  5. Secondary Payload Opportunities on NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Enable Science and Deep Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Jody; Pelfrey, Joseph; Norris, George

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in almost 40 years, a NASA human-rated launch vehicle has completed its Critical Design Review (CDR). With this milestone, NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion spacecraft are on the path to launch a new era of deep space exploration. This first launch of SLS and the Orion Spacecraft is planned no later than November 2018 and will fly along a trans-lunar trajectory, testing the performance of the SLS and Orion systems for future missions. NASA is making investments to expand the science and exploration capability of the SLS by developing the capability to deploy small satellites during the trans-lunar phase of the mission trajectory. Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) will include thirteen 6U Cubesat small satellites to be deployed beyond low earth orbit. By providing an earth-escape trajectory, opportunities are created for the advancement of small satellite subsystems, including deep space communications and in-space propulsion. This SLS capability also creates low-cost options for addressing existing Agency strategic knowledge gaps and affordable science missions. A new approach to payload integration and mission assurance is needed to ensure safety of the vehicle, while also maintaining reasonable costs for the small payload developer teams. SLS EM-1 will provide the framework and serve as a test flight, not only for vehicle systems, but also payload accommodations, ground processing, and on-orbit operations. Through developing the requirements and integration processes for EM-1, NASA is outlining the framework for the evolved configuration of secondary payloads on SLS Block upgrades. The lessons learned from the EM-1 mission will be applied to processes and products developed for future block upgrades. In the heavy-lift configuration of SLS, payload accommodations will increase for secondary opportunities including small satellites larger than the traditional Cubesat class payload. The payload mission concept of operations, proposed payload

  6. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle S.; Seaford, C. Mark; Dufrene, Aaron T.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle is composed of four RS-25 liquid oxygen- hydrogen rocket engines in the core-stage and two 5-segment solid rocket boosters and as a result six hot supersonic plumes interact within the aft section of the vehicle during ight. Due to the complex nature of rocket plume-induced ows within the launch vehicle base during ascent and a new vehicle con guration, sub-scale wind tunnel testing is required to reduce SLS base convective environment uncertainty and design risk levels. This hot- re test program was conducted at the CUBRC Large Energy National Shock (LENS) II short-duration test facility to simulate ight from altitudes of 50 kft to 210 kft. The test program is a challenging and innovative e ort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle. This presentation discusses the various trends of base convective heat ux and pressure as a function of altitude at various locations within the core-stage and booster base regions of the two-percent SLS wind tunnel model. In-depth understanding of the base ow physics is presented using the test data, infrared high-speed imaging and theory. The normalized test design environments are compared to various NASA semi- empirical numerical models to determine exceedance and conservatism of the ight scaled test-derived base design environments. Brief discussion of thermal impact to the launch vehicle base components is also presented.

  8. An Approach to Design Reusable Workflow Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Developers still need design workflow system according to users' specific needs, though workflow management coalition standardized the five kinds of abstract interfaces in workflow reference model. Specific business process characteristics are still supported by specific workflow system. A set of common functionalities of workflow engine are abstracted from business component, so the reusability of business component is extended into workflow engine and composition method is proposed. Needs of different business requirements and characteristics are met by reusing the workflow engine.

  9. 可复用的高职网站后台管理系统的设计%Design of Reusable Website Background Management System for Vocational College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄旺华; 罗方燕; 毛可洪

    2016-01-01

    高职院校经常需要创建新的网站进行业务办理,网站的后台管理功能基本相似。为了提高开发速度,该文提出设计可复用的高职网站后台管理系统。该系统主要功能包括导航栏管理、板块管理、内容管理、用户管理和图片管理等。这些功能基本可满足网站的后台管理需要,可以快捷的创建出信息的网站。%many new website are often required to be created for various business in vocational college, which have the same background management functions. A reusable website background system is designed, in order to improve the speed of website development. The system's main functions include navigation management, plate management, content management, user man-agement, and image management, etc. These basic functions can meet the needs of the website backstage management system, and it can help to create a new website quickly.

  10. Modeling the Thermal Rocket Fuel Preparation Processes in the Launch Complex Fueling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zolin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary to carry out fuel temperature preparation for space launch vehicles using hydrocarbon propellant components. A required temperature is reached with cooling or heating hydrocarbon fuel in ground facilities fuel storages. Fuel temperature preparing processes are among the most energy-intensive and lengthy processes that require the optimal technologies and regimes of cooling (heating fuel, which can be defined using the simulation of heat exchange processes for preparing the rocket fuel.The issues of research of different technologies and simulation of cooling processes of rocket fuel with liquid nitrogen are given in [1-10]. Diagrams of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel, mathematical models and characteristics of cooling fuel with its direct contact with liquid nitrogen dispersed are considered, using the numerical solution of a system of heat transfer equations, in publications [3,9].Analytical models, allowing to determine the necessary flow rate and the mass of liquid nitrogen and the cooling (heating time fuel in specific conditions and requirements, are preferred for determining design and operational characteristics of the hydrocarbon fuel cooling system.A mathematical model of the temperature preparation processes is developed. Considered characteristics of these processes are based on the analytical solutions of the equations of heat transfer and allow to define operating parameters of temperature preparation of hydrocarbon fuel in the design and operation of the filling system of launch vehicles.The paper considers a technological system to fill the launch vehicles providing the temperature preparation of hydrocarbon gases at the launch site. In this system cooling the fuel in the storage tank before filling the launch vehicle is provided by hydrocarbon fuel bubbling with liquid nitrogen. Hydrocarbon fuel is heated with a pumping station, which provides fuel circulation through the heat exchanger-heater, with

  11. Robust Stability Analysis of the Space Launch System Control Design: A Singular Value Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing; Newsome, Jerry R.

    2015-01-01

    Classical stability analysis consists of breaking the feedback loops one at a time and determining separately how much gain or phase variations would destabilize the stable nominal feedback system. For typical launch vehicle control design, classical control techniques are generally employed. In addition to stability margins, frequency domain Monte Carlo methods are used to evaluate the robustness of the design. However, such techniques were developed for Single-Input-Single-Output (SISO) systems and do not take into consideration the off-diagonal terms in the transfer function matrix of Multi-Input-Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. Robust stability analysis techniques such as H(sub infinity) and mu are applicable to MIMO systems but have not been adopted as standard practices within the launch vehicle controls community. This paper took advantage of a simple singular-value-based MIMO stability margin evaluation method based on work done by Mukhopadhyay and Newsom and applied it to the SLS high-fidelity dynamics model. The method computes a simultaneous multi-loop gain and phase margin that could be related back to classical margins. The results presented in this paper suggest that for the SLS system, traditional SISO stability margins are similar to the MIMO margins. This additional level of verification provides confidence in the robustness of the control design.

  12. Performance analysis of IMU-augmented GNSS tracking systems for space launch vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Benjamin; Markgraf, Markus; Montenbruck, Oliver

    2016-06-01

    European space launch operators consider the potential of GNSS (global navigation satellite system) as a promising novel means of localization for the purpose of range safety of launch vehicles like Ariane and Vega, since it is expected that recurring costs are lower and accuracy is higher than currently existing systems like radar tracking. Range safety requires continuous information about the position and velocity of the launch vehicle to quickly detect the occurrence of catastrophic events. However, GNSS outages due, for example, to high jerks at fairing and stage jettisons or other external interferences like (un-)intentional jamming cannot be precluded. The OCAM-G experiment on Ariane 5 flight VA219 has provided evidence that GNSS is capable of providing a highly accurate position and velocity solution during most of the flight, but that outages of several seconds do occur. To increase the continuity of a GNSS-based localization system, it is proposed that the GNSS receiver is augmented by an inertial measurement unit (IMU), which is able to output a position and velocity solution even during GNSS outages. Since these outages are expected to be short, a tactical- or even consumer-grade IMU is expected to be sufficient. In this paper, the minimum IMU performance that is required to bridge outages of up to 10 s, and thereby meeting the accuracy requirements of range safety, is determined by means of a thorough simulation study. The focus of the analysis is on current generation microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based IMU, which is lightweight, low-cost, available commercially and has reached acceptable maturity in the last decade.

  13. A Scaled Underwater Launch System Accomplished by Stress Wave Propagation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yan-Peng; WANG Yi-Wei; FANG Xin; HUANG Cheng-guang; DUAN Zhu-Ping

    2011-01-01

    A scaled underwater launch system based on the stress wave theory and the slip Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB)technique is developed to study the phenomenon of cavitations and other hydrodynamic features of high-speed submerged bodies. The present system can achieve a transient acceleration in the water instead of long-time acceleration outside the water. The projectile can obtain a maximum speed of 30m/s in about 200μs by the SHPB launcher. The cavitation characteristics in the stage of acceleration and deceleration are captured by the high-speed camera. The processes of cavitation inception, development and collapse are also simulated with the business software FLUENT, and the results are in good agreement with experiment. There is about 20-30%energy loss during the launching processes, the mechanism of energy loss is also preliminary investigated by measuring the energy of the incident bar and the projectile.%@@ A scaled underwater launch system based on the stress wave theory and the slip Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) technique is developed to study the phenomenon of cavitations and other hydrodynamic features of high-speed submerged bodies.The present system can achieve a transient acceleration in the water instead of long-time acceleration outside the water.The projectile can obtain a maximum speed of 30m/s in about 200 μs by the SHPB launcher.The cavitation characteristics in the stage of acceleration and deceleration are captured by the high-speed camera.

  14. Design of the Remote Steerable ECRH launching system for the ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhoeven, A G A [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B S Q [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bongers, W A [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands)] (and others)

    2005-01-01

    An ECRH (electron-cyclotron resonance heating) launching system for the ITER upper ports is being designed. The aim of the system is to inject Electron Cyclotron Waves (ECW) in the ITER plasma in order to stabilize neoclassical tearing modes (NTM). Each of the four upper-port launchers consists of six mm-wave lines capable of transmitting high power up to 2 MW per line at 170 GHz. In order to exploit the capability of ECW for localized heating and current drive over a range of plasma radii in ITER, the ECH and CD upper port launcher must have a beam steering capability. The Remote Steering (RS) principle has great advantages, because it enables to avoid steerable mirrors with flexible cooling lines at the plasma-facing end of the launcher. The principle consists of a long, corrugated, square waveguide having the steerable optics placed outside of the first confinement boundary of the vacuum vessel. All vulnerable components are far away from the hostile plasma environment. Furthermore, the RS launching system enables to do maintenance on the system during shutdown, without affecting the torus vacuum and the blanket cooling circuits.

  15. Evaluating the Stability of NASA's Space Launch System with Adaptive Augmenting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Hannan, Michael R.; Wall, John H.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's baseline Space Launch System (SLS) flight control system (FCS) design includes an adaptive augmenting control (AAC) component that modifies the attitude control system response to provide the classical gain-scheduled control architecture with additional performance and robustness. The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) teamed with the Space Launch System (SLS) Program to perform a comprehensive assessment of the stability and robustness of the FCS with AAC. This paper provides an overview of the approach, specific analysis techniques, and outcomes that were particularly relevant for the SLS Program. Multiple analysis techniques that specifically target the nonlinear AAC were commissioned as part of this assessment, which was completed outside of the Program's standard design analysis cycle. The following analyses were included, with each technique adding its own valuable insights: Lyapunov-based stability analysis, classical stability analysis with static AAC gain variations, circle criterion-based analysis of the FCS with a time-varying element, time-domain stability margin assessment, Monte Carlo simulations with expanded dispersions, and an extensive set of stressing cases. Several of the completed analyses focused on determining whether the inclusion of AAC introduced risk to the FCS, while others quantified the benefits of the adaptive augmentation.

  16. NASA's Space Launch System: Developing the World's Most Powerful Solid Booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priskos, Alex

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Journey to Mars has begun. Indicative of that challenge, this will be a multi-decadal effort requiring the development of technology, operational capability, and experience. The first steps are under way with more than 15 years of continuous human operations aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and development of commercial cargo and crew transportation capabilities. NASA is making progress on the transportation required for deep space exploration - the Orion crew spacecraft and the Space Launch System (SLS) heavy-lift rocket that will launch Orion and large components such as in-space stages, habitat modules, landers, and other hardware necessary for deep-space operations. SLS is a key enabling capability and is designed to evolve with mission requirements. The initial configuration of SLS - Block 1 - will be capable of launching more than 70 metric tons (t) of payload into low Earth orbit, greater mass than any other launch vehicle in existence. By enhancing the propulsion elements and larger payload fairings, future SLS variants will launch 130 t into space, an unprecedented capability that simplifies hardware design and in-space operations, reduces travel times, and enhances the odds of mission success. SLS will be powered by four liquid fuel RS-25 engines and two solid propellant five-segment boosters, both based on space shuttle technologies. This paper will focus on development of the booster, which will provide more than 75 percent of total vehicle thrust at liftoff. Each booster is more than 17 stories tall, 3.6 meters (m) in diameter and weighs 725,000 kilograms (kg). While the SLS booster appears similar to the shuttle booster, it incorporates several changes. The additional propellant segment provides additional booster performance. Parachutes and other hardware associated with recovery operations have been deleted and the booster designated as expendable for affordability reasons. The new motor incorporates new avionics, new propellant

  17. A Space Based Internet Protocol System for Launch Vehicle Tracking and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Morgan, Dwayne; Streich, Ron; Bauer, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia are responsible for the overall management of the NASA Sounding Rocket and Scientific Balloon Programs. Payloads are generally in support of NASA's Space Science Enterprise's missions and return a variety of scientific data as well as providing a reasonably economical means of conducting engineering tests for instruments and devices used on satellites and other spacecraft. Sounding rockets used by NASA can carry payloads of various weights to altitudes from 50 km to more than 1,300 km. Scientific balloons can carry a payload weighing as much as 3,630 Kg to an altitude of 42 km. Launch activities for both are conducted not only from established ranges, but also from remote locations worldwide requiring mobile tracking and command equipment to be transported and set up at considerable expense. The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce tracking and control costs of these launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating this ground infrastructure. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initiated from practically any location. A low cost Commercial Off The Shelf (COTS) system is currently under development for sounding rockets that also has application to UAVs and scientific balloons. Due to relatively low data rate (9600 baud) currently available, the system will first be used to provide GPS data for tracking and vehicle recovery. Range safety requirements for launch vehicles usually stipulate at least two independent tracking sources. Most sounding rockets flown by NASA now carry GP receivers that output position data via the payload telemetry system to the ground station. The Flight Modem can be configured as a completely separate link thereby eliminating the requirement for tracking radar. The

  18. Complex Decision-Making Applications for the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyles, Garry; Flores, Tim; Hundley, Jason; Monk, Timothy; Feldman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is ending and elements of the Constellation Program are either being cancelled or transitioned to new NASA exploration endeavors. NASA is working diligently to select an optimum configuration for the Space Launch System (SLS), a heavy lift vehicle that will provide the foundation for future beyond LEO large ]scale missions for the next several decades. Thus, multiple questions must be addressed: Which heavy lift vehicle will best allow the agency to achieve mission objectives in the most affordable and reliable manner? Which heavy lift vehicle will allow for a sufficiently flexible exploration campaign of the solar system? Which heavy lift vehicle configuration will allow for minimizing risk in design, test, build and operations? Which heavy lift vehicle configuration will be sustainable in changing political environments? Seeking to address these questions drove the development of an SLS decisionmaking framework. From Fall 2010 until Spring 2011, this framework was formulated, tested, fully documented, and applied to multiple SLS vehicle concepts at NASA from previous exploration architecture studies. This was a multistep process that involved performing FOM-based assessments, creating Pass/Fail gates based on draft threshold requirements, performing a margin-based assessment with supporting statistical analyses, and performing sensitivity analysis on each. This paper discusses the various methods of this process that allowed for competing concepts to be compared across a variety of launch vehicle metrics. The end result was the identification of SLS launch vehicle candidates that could successfully meet the threshold requirements in support of the SLS Mission Concept Review (MCR) milestone.

  19. Palladium(II/Cationic 2,2’-Bipyridyl System as a Highly Efficient and Reusable Catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck Reaction in Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Yu Tsai

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A water-soluble and air-stable Pd(NH32Cl2/cationic 2,2’-bipyridyl system was found to be a highly-efficient and reusable catalyst for the coupling of aryl iodides and alkenes in neat water using Bu3N as a base. The reaction was conducted at 140 °C in a sealed tube in air with a catalyst loading as low as 0.0001 mol % for the coupling of activated aryl iodides with butyl and ethyl acrylates, providing the corresponding products in good to excellent yields with very high turnover numbers. In the case of styrene, Mizoroki-Heck coupling products were obtained in good to high yields by using a greater catalyst loading (1 mol % and TBAB as a phase-transfer agent. After extraction, the residual aqueous solution could be reused several times with only a slight decrease in its activity, making the Mizoroki-Heck reaction “greener”.

  20. Technical Concept Document. Central Archive for Reusable Defense Software (CARDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-28

    component and therefore lost to the reuser . Typically, components selected for reuse Page 1 STARS-VC.BO09/001/00 28 Feiwuay 1994 are taken from the...underlying services that the component may have relied upon are no longer present for the reuser . Certainly the reusability of a component is enhanced...built, and maintained to house reusable components. reuser One who implements a system through the reuse process. rule base A collection of rules

  1. Launch mission summary and terminal countdown, Delta 153 Satellite Business Systems satellite (SBS-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A brief summary of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and mission is contained. Information relative to launch windows, vehicle telemetry coverage, realtime data flow, telemetry coverage by station, selected trajectory information, and a brief sequence of flight events is also included.

  2. Reusable Launch Vehicle Design Implications for Regeneration Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    Michalski & Johnson, 2007). The problem with developing a generic model is that the vehicle does not yet exist; therefore, recovery, maintenance, and...Assessment For the second objective of gaining insight into ground operations using the model) many studies were performed (Johnson et al, 2006; Michalski ...2007; Michalski and Johnson, 2007; Michalski and Johnson 2008; Johnson and Jackson 2008, Johnson et al, 2008). Although the baseline MILEPOST

  3. Quality Initiatives in the Commercial Development of Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    them, made some observers cynical about NASA’s capacity to create a second-generation RLV—the Space Shuttle was the first generation RLV. a. First...and material transactions and decisions, especially at process and organizational interfaces. Let Customers Pull The customer pulls products from...programs in recent years. The principal attributes of the IPPD management approach include: (1) aligning the organizational structure with the work

  4. Cryogenic Composite Tank Fabrication for Reusable Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — XCOR has conducted extensive research and development, and material characterization analysis of a nonflammable, high-strength, lightweight thermoplastic...

  5. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) Drop Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shreves, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    The Landing Parachute Demonstrator (LPD) was conceived as a low-cost, rapidly-developed means of providing soft landing for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) crew module (CM). Its experimental main parachute cluster deployment technique and off-the-shelf hardware necessitated a full-scale drop test prior to the MLAS mission in order to reduce overall mission risk. This test was successfully conducted at Wallops Flight Facility on March 6, 2009, with all vehicle and parachute systems functioning as planned. The results of the drop test successfully qualified the LPD system for the MLAS flight test. This document captures the design, concept of operations and results of the drop test.

  6. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project (XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi (the heavenly stems and earthly branches) date records, we launch a Date Recovery System (DRS) for ancient China. Of high analysis function, this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System, which may have wide applications in the area of literary history, archaeology and cultural relic, etc., and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations. As an example, we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  7. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project(XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi(the heavenly stems and earthly branches)date records,we launch a Date Recovery System(DRS)for ancient China. Of high analysis function,this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System,which may have wide applications in the area of literary history,archaeology and cultural relic,etc.,and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations.As an example,we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  8. A Lunar Electromagnetic Launch System for In-Situ Resource Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Michael R.; Kuznetsov, Steven B.; Kloesel, Kurt J.

    2010-01-01

    Future human exploration of the moon will require the development of capabilities for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). Transport of lunar-derived commodities such as fuel and oxygen to orbiting resource depots has been proposed to enable refueling landers or other vehicles. A lunar electromagnetic launch (LEML) system could be an effective means of transporting materials, as an alternative to non-renewable chemical-based propulsion systems. An example LEML concept is presented based on previous studies, existing EML technologies, and NASA's human exploration architecture. A preliminary assessment of the cost-versus-benefit of such a system is also offered; the conclusion, however, is not as favorable for LEML as originally suggested.

  9. Personnel launch system (PLS) lifting body and low lift-to-drag (L/D)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Harry O.

    1990-09-01

    The Personnel Launch System (PLS) is a small transportation system designed to transport people, but no cargo, to and from low-earth orbit. The PLS is being considered as an addition to the manned launch capability of the United States for three main reasons: (1) to assure manned access to space, (2) to achieve a first-stage abort ability, and (3) to reduce operations costs. To those ends, two designs are being considered for the PLS that differ in their lift-to-drag (L/D) ratio. The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center was assigned the task of examining low L/D capsules with no wings and a parachute landing capability. The Langley Research Center is studying a higher L/D PLS with wings and runway landings. Whichever design is selected, the PLS will act as a complement to the Space Shuttle fleet and will enhance the ability of our Nation to achieve reliable, safe, and cost-effective access to space flight, thus furthering the goals of the U.S. space program and increasing the safety of the human crews manning a future space station.

  10. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NASA Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  11. Time Domain Stability Margin Assessment of the NS Space Launch System GN&C Design for Exploration Mission One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, Keith; Wall, John

    2017-01-01

    The baseline stability margins for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle were generated via the classical approach of linearizing the system equations of motion and determining the gain and phase margins from the resulting frequency domain model. To improve the fidelity of the classical methods, the linear frequency domain approach can be extended by replacing static, memoryless nonlinearities with describing functions. This technique, however, does not address the time varying nature of the dynamics of a launch vehicle in flight. An alternative technique for the evaluation of the stability of the nonlinear launch vehicle dynamics along its trajectory is to incrementally adjust the gain and/or time delay in the time domain simulation until the system exhibits unstable behavior. This technique has the added benefit of providing a direct comparison between the time domain and frequency domain tools in support of simulation validation.

  12. Is It Worth It? - the Economics of Reusable Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Over the past several decades billions of dollars have been invested by governments and private companies in the pursuit of lower cost access to space through earth-to-orbit (ETO) space transportation systems. Much of that investment has been focused on the development and operation of various forms of reusable transportation systems. From the Space Shuttle to current efforts by private commercial companies, the overarching belief of those making such investments has been that reusing system elements will be cheaper than utilizing expendable systems that involve throwing away costly engines, avionics, and other hardware with each flight. However, the view that reusable systems are ultimately a "better" approach to providing ETO transportation is not held universally by major stakeholders within the space transportation industry. While the technical feasibility of at least some degree of reusability has been demonstrated, there continues to be a sometimes lively debate over the merits and drawbacks of reusable versus expendable systems from an economic perspective. In summary, is it worth it? Based on our many years of direct involvement with the business aspects of several expendable and reusable transportation systems, it appears to us that much of the discussion surrounding reusability is hindered by a failure to clearly define and understand the financial and other metrics by which the financial "goodness" of a reusable or expandable approach is measured. As stakeholders, the different users and suppliers of space transportation have a varied set of criteria for determining the relative economic viability of alternative strategies, including reusability. Many different metrics have been used to measure the affordability of space transportation, such as dollars per payload pound (kilogram) to orbit, cost per flight, life cycle cost, net present value/internal rate of return, and many others. This paper will examine the key considerations that influence

  13. Reusable State Machine Code Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffstadt, A. A.; Reyes, C.; Sommer, H.; Andolfato, L.

    2010-12-01

    The State Machine model is frequently used to represent the behaviour of a system, allowing one to express and execute this behaviour in a deterministic way. A graphical representation such as a UML State Chart diagram tames the complexity of the system, thus facilitating changes to the model and communication between developers and domain experts. We present a reusable state machine code generator, developed by the Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María and the European Southern Observatory. The generator itself is based on the open source project architecture, and uses UML State Chart models as input. This allows for a modular design and a clean separation between generator and generated code. The generated state machine code has well-defined interfaces that are independent of the implementation artefacts such as the middle-ware. This allows using the generator in the substantially different observatory software of the Atacama Large Millimeter Array and the ESO Very Large Telescope. A project-specific mapping layer for event and transition notification connects the state machine code to its environment, which can be the Common Software of these projects, or any other project. This approach even allows to automatically create tests for a generated state machine, using techniques from software testing, such as path-coverage.

  14. NASA's Space Launch System: A Heavy-Lift Platform for Entirely New Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Space Launch System (SLS) will contribute a new capability for human space flight and scientific missions beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO). The SLS Program, managed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center, will develop the heavy-lift vehicle that will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. Orion will carry crews to space, provide emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel, and provide safe reentry from deep-space return velocities. Supporting Orion s first autonomous flight to lunar orbit and back in 2017 and its first crewed flight in 2021, the SLS ultimately offers a flexible platform for both human and scientific exploration. The SLS plan leverages legacy infrastructure and hardware in NASA s inventory, as well as continues with advanced technologies now in development, to deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) lift capability in 2017, evolving to a 130-t capability, using a block upgrade approach. This paper will give an overview of the SLS design and management approach against a backdrop of the missions it will support. It will detail the plan to deliver the initial SLS capability to the launch pad in the near term, as well as summarize the innovative approaches the SLS team is applying to deliver a safe, affordable, and sustainable long-range capability for entirely new missions-opening a new realm of knowledge and a world of possibilities for multiple partners. Design reference missions that the SLS is being planned to support include Mars, Jupiter, Lagrange Points, and near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), among others. The Agency is developing its mission manifest in parallel with the development of a heavy-lift flagship that will dramatically increase total lift and volume capacity beyond current launch vehicle options, reduce trip times, and provide a robust platform for conducting new missions

  15. NASA's Space Launch System: Deep-Space Deployment for SmallSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schorr, Andy

    2017-01-01

    From its upcoming first flight, NASA's new Space Launch System (SLS) will represent a game-changing opportunity for smallsats. On that launch, which will propel the Orion crew vehicle around the moon, the new exploration-class launch vehicle will deploy 13 6U CubeSats into deep-space, where they will continue to a variety of destinations to perform diverse research and demonstrations. Following that first flight, SLS will undergo the first of a series of performance upgrades, increasing its payload capability to low Earth orbit from 70 to 105 metric tons via the addition of a powerful upper stage. With that change to the vehicle's architecture, so too will its secondary payload accommodation for smallsats evolve, with current plans calling for a change from the first-flight limit of 6U to accommodating a range of sizes up to 27U and potentially ESPA-class payloads. This presentation will provide an overview and update on the first launch of SLS and the secondary payloads it will deploy. Currently, flight hardware has been produced for every element of the vehicle, testing of the vehicle's propulsion elements has been ongoing for years, and structural testing of its stages has begun. Major assembly and testing of the Orion Stage Adapter, including the secondary payload accommodations, will be completed this year, and the structure will then be shipped to Kennedy Space Center for integration of the payloads. Progress is being made on those CubeSats, which will include studies of asteroids, Earth, the sun, the moon, and the impacts of radiation on organisms in deep space. They will feature revolutionary innovations for smallsats, including demonstrations of use of a solar sail as propulsion for a rendezvous with an asteroid, and the landing of a CubeSat on the lunar surface. The presentation will also provide an update on progress of the SLS Block 1B configuration that will be used on the rocket's second flight, a discussion of planned secondary payload accommodations

  16. Launching of Microwaves into a Dense Plasma in Open Confinement Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2001-02-15

    A study is made of the propagation of microwave beams in a plasma and their passage through the critical surface. It is shown that, in order for microwaves to penetrate deeply into a dense plasma, it is necessary to launch them through a magnetic mirror at a slight angle to the device axis. The characteristic features of ray trajectories are analyzed both ahead of and behind the critical surface. In a dense plasma behind the critical surface, microwaves tend to run out of the axial region toward the plasma periphery. This tendency may be unfavorable for heating plasmas whose radial density profiles are strongly peaked about the system axis. The problems under analysis are particularly important for assessing the prospects for ECR heating of dense plasmas in open confinement systems.

  17. Implementing planetary protection on the Atlas V fairing and ground systems used to launch the Mars Science Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benardini, James N; La Duc, Myron T; Ballou, David; Koukol, Robert

    2014-01-01

    On November 26, 2011, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launched from Florida's Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard an Atlas V 541 rocket, taking its first step toward exploring the past habitability of Mars' Gale Crater. Because microbial contamination could profoundly impact the integrity of the mission, and compliance with international treaty was a necessity, planetary protection measures were implemented on all MSL hardware to verify that bioburden levels complied with NASA regulations. The cleanliness of the Atlas V payload fairing (PLF) and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL were also evaluated. By applying proper recontamination countermeasures early and often in the encapsulation process, the PLF was kept extremely clean and was shown to pose little threat of recontaminating the enclosed MSL flight system upon launch. Contrary to prelaunch estimates that assumed that the interior PLF spore burden ranged from 500 to 1000 spores/m², the interior surfaces of the Atlas V PLF were extremely clean, housing a mere 4.65 spores/m². Reported here are the practices and results of the campaign to implement and verify planetary protection measures on the Atlas V launch vehicle and associated ground support systems used to launch MSL. All these facilities and systems were very well kept and exceeded the levels of cleanliness and rigor required in launching the MSL payload.

  18. America's Next Great Ship: Space Launch System Core Stage Transitioning from Design to Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkenstock, Benjamin; Kauer, Roy

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) Program is essential to achieving the Nation's and NASA's goal of human exploration and scientific investigation of the solar system. As a multi-element program with emphasis on safety, affordability, and sustainability, SLS is becoming America's next great ship of exploration. The SLS Core Stage includes avionics, main propulsion system, pressure vessels, thrust vector control, and structures. Boeing manufactures and assembles the SLS core stage at the Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) in New Orleans, LA, a historical production center for Saturn V and Space Shuttle programs. As the transition from design to manufacturing progresses, the importance of a well-executed manufacturing, assembly, and operation (MA&O) plan is crucial to meeting performance objectives. Boeing employs classic techniques such as critical path analysis and facility requirements definition as well as innovative approaches such as Constraint Based Scheduling (CBS) and Cirtical Chain Project Management (CCPM) theory to provide a comprehensive suite of project management tools to manage the health of the baseline plan on both a macro (overall project) and micro level (factory areas). These tools coordinate data from multiple business systems and provide a robust network to support Material & Capacity Requirements Planning (MRP/CRP) and priorities. Coupled with these tools and a highly skilled workforce, Boeing is orchestrating the parallel buildup of five major sub assemblies throughout the factory. Boeing and NASA are transforming MAF to host state of the art processes, equipment and tooling, the most prominent of which is the Vertical Assembly Center (VAC), the largest weld tool in the world. In concert, a global supply chain is delivering a range of structural elements and component parts necessary to enable an on-time delivery of the integrated Core Stage. SLS is on plan to launch humanity into the next phase of space exploration.

  19. A photovoltaic 12/1 concentrating solar power system with a unique launch stowing configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falbel, G.

    1998-07-01

    Recent advancements in photovoltaic solar cells made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) have shown that with concentration ratios greater than one solar constant, overall efficiencies up to 23% can be achieved. A second issue applicable to solar power systems for spacecraft is the cost driver, which requires that the efficiency/weight ratio be improved so that solar panels with high output, weighing less, will reduce payload weights, which, in turn, reduces launch costs. This has resulted in a Figure of Merit being introduced to grade the characteristics of solar panels for spacecraft. This Figure of Merit defines a ratio of watts/kilogram for a solar panel. Typical flat plate panels on current spacecraft, fabricated with silicon solar cells without concentration, provide Figures of Merit of 25 to 30 watts/Kg. This paper describes a new design of a 12/1 solar concentrator in which conservative calculations show improvements on this Figure of Merit by a major factor. An ultra-lightweight cylindrical solar concentrator is coiled up around a spacecraft in the launch mode, using the same principle as is used in Lufkin type metal measuring tapes. This provides a high volumetric efficiency launch folded mode as compared to the current method of accordion pleats of flat solar panels. The deployment means of this coiled launch mode configuration is much simpler and inherently more reliable than the current unfolding of accordion pleats, and is self powered by the spring action of the coiled cylindrical aluminum mirror. A special triangular heat pipe transfers the heat absorbed by the solar array to the cylindrical mirror, which also acts as the heat dissipator. Through the use of flexible bellows in the heat pipe assembly the assembly collapses to a cylindrical shape having a radial thickness of less than 1 inch, so that only two coils of this concentrating collector around a 10 ft diameter spacecraft results in a 2 ft. wide, x 66 ft. long deployed collector module capable of

  20. Prediction and warning system of SEP events and solar flares for risk estimation in space launch operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rigo, Alberto; Núñez, Marlon; Qahwaji, Rami; Ashamari, Omar; Jiggens, Piers; Pérez, Gustau; Hernández-Pajares, Manuel; Hilgers, Alain

    2016-07-01

    A web-based prototype system for predicting solar energetic particle (SEP) events and solar flares for use by space launch operators is presented. The system has been developed as a result of the European Space Agency (ESA) project SEPsFLAREs (Solar Events Prediction system For space LAunch Risk Estimation). The system consists of several modules covering the prediction of solar flares and early SEP Warnings (labeled Warning tool), the prediction of SEP event occurrence and onset, and the prediction of SEP event peak and duration. In addition, the system acquires data for solar flare nowcasting from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS)-based techniques (GNSS Solar Flare Detector, GSFLAD and the Sunlit Ionosphere Sudden Total Electron Content Enhancement Detector, SISTED) as additional independent products that may also prove useful for space launch operators.

  1. Reusable shape memory polymer mandrels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Matthew C.; Stahl, Jaime

    2005-05-01

    Cornerstone Research Group, Inc. (CRG) has recently demonstrated the feasibility of filament winding complex compound-curved composite shapes on shape memory polymer (SMP) mandrels. Under thermal stimuli, SMPs can exhibit a radical change from a rigid polymer to a flexible, elastic state, and then back to a rigid state again. SMP tubes were fabricated using CRG's Veriflex, a thermoset SMP resin system. The SMP tubes were raised above the transition temperature, the temperature at which the SMP becomes pliable and rubber-like and inflated inside a clamshell master metal mold with a cavity in the shape of the desired mandrel. The SMP was then cooled; the lowering of the temperature allows the SMP to become a rigid structure again, resulting in an exact replica of the cavity without the need of air pressure. A composite part was filament wound onto the SMP mandrel and after curing of the composite, the SMP mandrel is again raised above the transition temperature. This allows the mandrel to return to its memory shape for easy extraction. This paper will demonstrate and discuss the feasibility of SMP mandrels for filament winding and fiber placement composite manufacturing techniques allowing for quick, easy, and low cost mandrels that are dimensionally accurate, autoclave-tolerant, rapidly removable, and reusable .

  2. Statistical methods for launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Michael Benjamin

    A novel trajectory and attitude control and navigation analysis tool for powered ascent is developed. The tool is capable of rapid trade-space analysis and is designed to ultimately reduce turnaround time for launch vehicle design, mission planning, and redesign work. It is streamlined to quickly determine trajectory and attitude control dispersions, propellant dispersions, orbit insertion dispersions, and navigation errors and their sensitivities to sensor errors, actuator execution uncertainties, and random disturbances. The tool is developed by applying both Monte Carlo and linear covariance analysis techniques to a closed-loop, launch vehicle guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) system. The nonlinear dynamics and flight GN&C software models of a closed-loop, six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF), Monte Carlo simulation are formulated and developed. The nominal reference trajectory (NRT) for the proposed lunar ascent trajectory is defined and generated. The Monte Carlo truth models and GN&C algorithms are linearized about the NRT, the linear covariance equations are formulated, and the linear covariance simulation is developed. The performance of the launch vehicle GN&C system is evaluated using both Monte Carlo and linear covariance techniques and their trajectory and attitude control dispersion, propellant dispersion, orbit insertion dispersion, and navigation error results are validated and compared. Statistical results from linear covariance analysis are generally within 10% of Monte Carlo results, and in most cases the differences are less than 5%. This is an excellent result given the many complex nonlinearities that are embedded in the ascent GN&C problem. Moreover, the real value of this tool lies in its speed, where the linear covariance simulation is 1036.62 times faster than the Monte Carlo simulation. Although the application and results presented are for a lunar, single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO), ascent vehicle, the tools, techniques, and mathematical

  3. Stabilized rhodium(0) nanoparticles: a reusable hydrogenation catalyst for arene derivatives in a biphasic water-liquid system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, J; Roucoux, A; Patin, H

    2000-02-18

    A colloidal system based on an aqueous suspension of rhodium(o) nanoparticles proved to be an efficient catalyst for the hydrogenation of arene derivatives under biphasic conditions. The rhodium nanoparticles (2-2.5 nm) were synthesized by the reduction of RhCl3 x 3H2O with sodium borohydride and were stabilized by highly water-soluble N-alkyl-N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium salts (HEA-Cn). These surfactant molecules were characterized by measurements of the surface tension and the aqueous dispersions with rhodium were observed by transmission electron cryomicroscopy. The catalytic system is efficient under ultramild conditions, namely room temperature and 1 atm H2 pressure. The aqueous phase which contains the protected rhodium(0) colloids can be reused without significant loss of activity. The microheterogeneous behavior of this catalytic system was confirmed on a mercury poisoning experiment.

  4. RBCC可重复使用运载器上升段轨迹优化设计%Since the multi-phase and multi-control-variable trajectory of the reusable launch vehicle ( RLV) which is coupled with the thrust powered by rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) is difficult to solve,the numerical optimization model and method based on Gau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚春林; 韩璐

    2012-01-01

    Since the multi-phase and multi-control-variable trajectory of the reusable launch vehicle ( RLV) which is coupled with the thrust powered by rocket based combined cycle (RBCC) is difficult to solve,the numerical optimization model and method based on Gauss Pseudospectral Method (CPM) were proposed,and the optimal-fuel ascent trajectory was obtained. Hie trajectory is divided into three phases powered by rocket,ramjet and scramjet in sequence. The angle of attack and fuel flow are control variables,and according to the trajectory mission,the ignition and work condition of the each mode,the optimization model was built,the terminal and path constraints were imposed. The optimal trajectory was solved by using GPM and the boundary control variables were solved by a special method. Compared with the result by traditional method,the optimization model and GPM can solve trajectory optimization problems effectively, and the optimal result accords with the characteristic of the RBCC-powered RLV and satisfies all the constraints.%针对火箭基组合动力(RBCC)可重复使用运载器(RLV)轨迹多段、多控制变量、推力与飞行轨迹耦合,飞行轨迹设计困难的问题,提出了基于高斯伪光谱方法的数值优化求解模型和求解方法,并获得满足要求的上升段燃料最省轨迹.将该轨迹分为3部分,分别由引射火箭、亚燃冲压和超燃冲压发动机提供动力,以攻角和燃料秒流量为控制变量,根据轨迹任务和各模态发动机启动及工作条件建立优化模型、设定各段末端和路径约束,利用高斯伪谱法求解最优轨迹并利用特殊方法计算边界控制变量.通过与传统方法所得轨迹的对比表明,所建立的优化模型和方法可快速求解出RBCC运载器上升段最优轨迹,优化结果符合RBCC运载器工作特点.

  5. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making progress toward delivering a new capability for exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. This fact drives the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history. To arrive at the current SLS plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and arrived at the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. This paper will explore ways to fit this major development within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017. It will explain the SLS Program s long-range plan to keep the budget within bounds, yet evolve the 70 metric ton (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through a competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface over 4 decades ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. NASA is refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. Space Policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap. Launching the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle s (MPCV s) first autonomous certification flight in 2017, followed by a crewed flight in 2021, the SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. In addition, the SLS will accommodate

  6. LUVOIR and HabEx mission concepts enabled by NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip; MSFC Advanced Concept Office

    2016-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has developed candidate concepts for the 'decadal' LUVOIR and HabEx missions. ATLAST-12 is a 12.7 meter diameter on-axis telescope designed to meet the science objectives of the AURA Cosmic Earth to Living Earth report. HabEx-4 is a 4.0 meter diameter off-axis telescope designed to both search for habitable planets and perform general astrophysics observations. These mission concepts take advantage of the payload mass and volume capacity enabled by NASA Space Launch System to make the design architectures as simple as possible. Simplicity is important because complexity is a significant contributor to mission risk and cost. This poster summarizes the two mission concepts.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Ron; Carr, Zak; MacLean, Matthew; Dufrene, Aaron; Mehta, Manish

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the Tunable Diode Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (TDLAS) measurement of several water transitions that were interrogated during a hot-fire testing of the Space Launch Systems (SLS) sub-scale vehicle installed in LENS II. The temperature of the recirculating gas flow over the base plate was found to increase with altitude and is consistent with CFD results. It was also observed that the gas above the base plate has significant velocity along the optical path of the sensor at the higher altitudes. The line-by-line analysis of the H2O absorption features must include the effects of the Doppler shift phenomena particularly at high altitude. The TDLAS experimental measurements and the analysis procedure which incorporates the velocity dependent flow will be described.

  8. Development of Re-usable C++ classes for Location Aware Management and Control Systems for Shipping Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dhiren Dave; Sanjay Nalbalwar; Ashok Ghatol

    2012-01-01

    Location aware management and location based automation are fast upcoming technologies which are facilitated by availability of reliable,accurate,and cheap global positioning systems and location based services.This paper discusses the development of C++ classes,which may be used for development of software for location aware management and control,specifically in merchant shipping,so as to provide improved safety,increased automation,prevention of pollution and reducing the work burden of the crew.The GPS is used in conjunction with the regionally accessible nested global shorelines (RANGS) dataset for this purpose.The design of two main C++ classes named CShorelines and CGPSInput have been discussed.A control system mandatory on all oil-tankers above 150 GRT (and few other vessels) called ODMCS has been made location aware using the novel software developed and the results obtained have been critically examined and presented.

  9. Expert system decision support for low-cost launch vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szatkowski, G. P.; Levin, Barry E.

    1991-01-01

    Progress in assessing the feasibility, benefits, and risks associated with AI expert systems applied to low cost expendable launch vehicle systems is described. Part one identified potential application areas in vehicle operations and on-board functions, assessed measures of cost benefit, and identified key technologies to aid in the implementation of decision support systems in this environment. Part two of the program began the development of prototypes to demonstrate real-time vehicle checkout with controller and diagnostic/analysis intelligent systems and to gather true measures of cost savings vs. conventional software, verification and validation requirements, and maintainability improvement. The main objective of the expert advanced development projects was to provide a robust intelligent system for control/analysis that must be performed within a specified real-time window in order to meet the demands of the given application. The efforts to develop the two prototypes are described. Prime emphasis was on a controller expert system to show real-time performance in a cryogenic propellant loading application and safety validation implementation of this system experimentally, using commercial-off-the-shelf software tools and object oriented programming techniques. This smart ground support equipment prototype is based in C with imbedded expert system rules written in the CLIPS protocol. The relational database, ORACLE, provides non-real-time data support. The second demonstration develops the vehicle/ground intelligent automation concept, from phase one, to show cooperation between multiple expert systems. This automated test conductor (ATC) prototype utilizes a knowledge-bus approach for intelligent information processing by use of virtual sensors and blackboards to solve complex problems. It incorporates distributed processing of real-time data and object-oriented techniques for command, configuration control, and auto-code generation.

  10. Impact of Cross-Axis Structural Dynamics on Validation of Linear Models for Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing; Derry, Stephen D.; Zhou Zhiqiang; Newsom, Jerry R.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study was performed to examine the advisability of incorporating a set of Programmed Test Inputs (PTIs) during the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle flight. The intent of these inputs is to provide validation to the preflight models for control system stability margins, aerodynamics, and structural dynamics. During October 2009, Ares I-X program was successful in carrying out a series of PTI maneuvers which provided a significant amount of valuable data for post-flight analysis. The resulting data comparisons showed excellent agreement with the preflight linear models across the frequency spectrum of interest. However unlike Ares I-X, the structural dynamics associated with the SLS boost phase configuration are far more complex and highly coupled in all three axes. This presents a challenge when implementing this similar system identification technique to SLS. Preliminary simulation results show noticeable mismatches between PTI validation and analytical linear models in the frequency range of the structural dynamics. An alternate approach was examined which demonstrates the potential for better overall characterization of the system frequency response as well as robustness of the control design.

  11. Automatic Generation of Agents using Reusable Soft Computing Code Libraries to develop Multi Agent System for Healthcare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priti Srinivas Sajja

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates architecture for a multi agent system in healthcare domain. The architecture is generic and designed in form of multiple layers. One of the layers of the architecture contains many proactive, co-operative and intelligent agents such as resource management agent, query agent, pattern detection agent and patient management agent. Another layer of the architecture is a collection of libraries to auto-generate code for agents using soft computing techniques. At this stage, codes for artificial neural network and fuzzy logic are developed and encompassed in this layer. The agents use these codes for development of neural network, fuzzy logic or hybrid solutions such as neuro-fuzzy solution. Third layer encompasses knowledge base, metadata and other local databases. The multi layer architecture is supported by personalized user interfaces for friendly interaction with its users. The framework is generic, flexible, and designed for a distributed environment like the Web; with minor modifications it can be employed on grid or cloud platform. The paper also discusses detail design issues, suitable applications and future enhancement of the work.

  12. Lipase B from Candida antarctica Immobilized on a Silica-Lignin Matrix as a Stable and Reusable Biocatalytic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Zdarta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted of the possible use of a silica-lignin hybrid as a novel support for the immobilization of lipase B from Candida antarctica. Results obtained by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and atomic force microscopy (AFM, as well as the determination of changes in porous structure parameters, confirmed the effective immobilization of the enzyme on the surface of the composite matrix. Based on a hydrolysis reaction, a determination was made of the retention of activity of the immobilized lipase, found to be 92% of that of the native enzyme. Immobilization on a silica-lignin matrix produces systems with maximum activity at pH = 8 and at a temperature of 40 °C. The immobilized enzyme exhibited increased thermal and chemical stability and retained more than 80% of its activity after 20 reaction cycles. Moreover immobilized lipase exhibited over 80% of its activity at pH range 7–9 and temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C, while native Candida antarctica lipase B (CALB exhibited the same only at pH = 7 and temperature of 30 °C.

  13. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  14. Academician V.F. Utkin, General Designer of Space Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyukhov, S.; Novykov, O.

    2002-01-01

    Academician Vladimir Fedorovich Utkin was an outstanding scientist and designer of rocket and space machinery, Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Twice Hero of Socialist Labor, Lenin Prize and USSR State Prize winner, bearer of six Orders of Lenin and many other government awards. For 19 years, 1971 - 1990, V. F. Utkin held a position of General Designer in Yuzhnoye SDO having inherited this post from Academician Mikhail Kuzmich Yangel - Yuhnoye's founder. From 1990 till 2000 V. F. Utkin headed Central Scientific Research Institute of Machinery of Russia (TsNIIMash) as its General Designer. Under leadership of V. F. Utkin Yuzhnoye SDO designed several generations of unique strategic missile systems that laid the foundation for Rocket Strategic Forces of the Soviet Union and Russia, subsequently, developed one of the largest high-performance liquid- propellant ICBM SS-18 (Satan), solid-propellant ICBM SS-24 designed for both silo and rail- road deployment, environment friendly Zenit launch vehicle, delivered more than three hundred military, scientific and environmental satellites with tasks. A series of complicated scientific and technical problems has been resolved, a number of unique designing and technological solutions has been implemented in course of development, e.g. separating and orbital warheads, pop-up launch of heavy missiles from a container, continuous and persistent combat duty of liquid-propellant missiles, missile tolerance to nuclear explosion damage, liberation of vessels from ice captivity in the Arctic Ocean using Cosmos-1500 satellite - ancestor of the Ocean satellite constellation designed for accomplishment of seafaring tasks. The existing Russian Program for Rocket and Space Machinery development was designed under leadership of V.F. Utkin.

  15. Acoustic-Modal Testing of the Ares I Launch Abort System Attitude Control Motor Valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, R. Benjamin; Fischbach, Sean R.

    2010-01-01

    The Attitude Control Motor (ACM) is being developed for use in the Launch Abort System (LAS) of NASA's Ares I launch vehicle. The ACM consists of a small solid rocket motor and eight actuated pintle valves that directionally allocate.thrust_- 1t.has-been- predicted-that significant unsteady. pressure.fluctuations.will.exist. inside the-valves during operation. The dominant frequencies of these oscillations correspond to the lowest several acoustic natural frequencies of the individual valves. An acoustic finite element model of the fluid volume inside the valve has been critical to the prediction of these frequencies and their associated mode shapes. This work describes an effort to experimentally validate the acoustic finite model of the valve with an acoustic modal test. The modal test involved instrumenting a flight-like valve with six microphones and then exciting the enclosed air with a loudspeaker. The loudspeaker was configured to deliver broadband noise at relatively high sound pressure levels. The aquired microphone signals were post-processed and compared to results generated from the acoustic finite element model. Initial comparisons between the test data and the model results revealed that additional model refinement was necessary. Specifically, the model was updated to implement a complex impedance boundary condition at the entrance to the valve supply tube. This boundary condition models the frequency-dependent impedance that an acoustic wave will encounter as it reaches the end of the supply tube. Upon invoking this boundary condition, significantly improved agreement between the test data and the model was realized.

  16. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  17. Mars Conjunction Crewed Missions With a Reusable Hybrid Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Strange, Nathan J.; Qu, Min; Hatten, Noble

    2015-01-01

    A new crew Mars architecture has been developed that provides many potential benefits for NASA-led human Mars moons and surface missions beginning in the 2030s or 2040s. By using both chemical and electric propulsion systems where they are most beneficial and maintaining as much orbital energy as possible, the Hybrid spaceship that carries crew round trip to Mars is pre-integrated before launch and can be delivered to orbit by a single launch. After check-out on the way to cis-lunar space, it is refueled and can travel round trip to Mars in less than 1100 days, with a minimum of 300 days in Mars vicinity (opportunity dependent). The entire spaceship is recaptured into cis-lunar space and can be reused. The spaceship consists of a habitat for 4 crew attached to the Hybrid propulsion stage which uses long duration electric and chemical in-space propulsion technologies that are in use today. The hybrid architecture's con-ops has no in-space assembly of the crew transfer vehicle and requires only rendezvous of crew in a highly elliptical Earth orbit for arrival at and departure from the spaceship. The crew transfer vehicle does not travel to Mars so it only needs be able to last in space for weeks and re-enter at lunar velocities. The spaceship can be refueled and resupplied for multiple trips to Mars (every other opportunity). The hybrid propulsion stage for crewed transits can also be utilized for cargo delivery to Mars every other opportunity in a reusable manner to pre-deploy infrastructure required for Mars vicinity operations. Finally, the Hybrid architecture provides evolution options for mitigating key long-duration space exploration risks, including crew microgravity and radiation exposure.

  18. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishment, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D. R.; Phelps, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) represents the largest solid rocket motor (SRM) ever flown and the only human-rated solid motor. High reliability of the RSRM has been the result of challenges addressed and lessons learned. Advancements have resulted by applying attention to process control, testing, and postflight through timely and thorough communication in dealing with all issues. A structured and disciplined approach was taken to identify and disposition all concerns. Careful consideration and application of alternate opinions was embraced. Focus was placed on process control, ground test programs, and postflight assessment. Process control is mandatory for an SRM, because an acceptance test of the delivered product is not feasible. The RSRM maintained both full-scale and subscale test articles, which enabled continuous improvement of design and evaluation of process control and material behavior. Additionally RSRM reliability was achieved through attention to detail in post flight assessment to observe any shift in performance. The postflight analysis and inspections provided invaluable reliability data as it enables observation of actual flight performance, most of which would not be available if the motors were not recovered. RSRM reusability offered unique opportunities to learn about the hardware. NASA is moving forward with the Space Launch System that incorporates propulsion systems that takes advantage of the heritage Shuttle and Ares solid motor programs. These unique challenges, features of the RSRM, materials and manufacturing issues, and design improvements will be discussed in the paper.

  19. In-Flight Suppression of a De-Stabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John; VanZwieten, Tannen; Giiligan Eric; Miller, Chris; Hanson, Curtis; Orr, Jeb

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) has been developed for NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) family of launch vehicles and implemented as a baseline part of its flight control system (FCS). To raise the technical readiness level of the SLS AAC algorithm, the Launch Vehicle Adaptive Control (LVAC) flight test program was conducted in which the SLS FCS prototype software was employed to control the pitch axis of Dryden's specially outfitted F/A-18, the Full Scale Advanced Systems Test Bed (FAST). This presentation focuses on a set of special test cases which demonstrate the successful mitigation of the unstable coupling of an F/A-18 airframe structural mode with the SLS FCS.

  20. How to Improve the Supportive Role of Estonian Innovation System toward Launching New Products by High Technology Companies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liisi Sepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to evaluate how supportive is Estonian national innovation system toward the launching of new innovative products by high technology firms. The article intends to combine two broad areas of research – national innovation system approach and the different models of the new product launching. Based on the literature review and in-depth analysis of three case studies of Estonian high-tech company’s major barriers as well success factors of highly innovative product launches were identified. The barriers of the new product launching were linked with the systemic failures of the national innovation system. The most relevant failures of Estonian national innovation system inhibiting the new product development are capability and networking failures. The sources of innovation of high-technology firms are too narrow, linkages with domestic firms and higher education institutions as well with foreign firms are poorly developed. High-tech firms have also serious capacity problems due to the extremely weak support mechanism by national innovation system on the seed funding stage of product development and prototype building stage as well. Paper argues that resources needed for the innovation should not be looked too narrowly following linear innovation model approach. Instead interactive approach is needed, which combines capability building, network development, interactive learning with direct investments into fundamental research.

  1. Launch Services, a Proven Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, W. C.; Simpson, J.

    2002-01-01

    From a commercial perspective, the ability to justify "leap frog" technology such as reusable systems has been difficult to justify because the estimated 5B to 10B investment is not supported in the current flat commercial market coupled with an oversupply of launch service suppliers. The market simply does not justify investment of that magnitude. Currently, next generation Expendable Launch Systems, including Boeing's Delta IV, Lockheed Martin's Atlas 5, Ariane V ESCA and RSC's H-IIA are being introduced into operations signifying that only upgrades to proven systems are planned to meet the changes in anticipated satellite demand (larger satellites, more lifetime, larger volumes, etc.) in the foreseeable future. We do not see a new fleet of ELVs emerging beyond that which is currently being introduced, only continuous upgrades of the fleet to meet the demands. To induce a radical change in the provision of launch services, a Multinational Government investment must be made and justified by World requirements. The commercial market alone cannot justify such an investment. And if an investment is made, we cannot afford to repeat previous mistakes by relying on one system such as shuttle for commercial deployment without having any back-up capability. Other issues that need to be considered are national science and security requirements, which to a large extent fuels the Japanese, Chinese, Indian, Former Soviet Union, European and United States space transportation entries. Additionally, this system must support or replace current Space Transportation Economies with across-the-board benefits. For the next 10 to 20 years, Multinational cooperation will be in the form of piecing together launch components and infrastructure to supplement existing launch systems and reducing the amount of non-recurring investment while meeting the future requirements of the End-User. Virtually all of the current systems have some form of multinational participation: Sea Launch

  2. A Modular Minimum Cost Launch System for Nano-Satellites Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As minimum cost will be required for a dedicated Nano-Sat Launch Vehicle, a parallel staged, highly modular vehicle architecture is proposed for development. The...

  3. A long way to market launching. Fuel cell heating systems; Ein langer Weg zur Marktreife. Brennstoffzellenheizungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilming, Wilhelm

    2010-07-01

    Although the launching of fuel cells in the market has often been announced but never realized. The end of the current decade is now envisaged for serial production and marketing. Will the technology be successful or will it flop? (orig.)

  4. Low Cost, High Efficiency, Pressurization System for Responsive Launch Operations Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — KT Engineering (KTE) is pleased to submit this proposal to address the stated need for "innovative solutions that will allow spaceport launch service providers to...

  5. Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Environments on Launch and Landing Availability for NASA's Exploration Systems Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Leahy, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. Natural environments information is an important asset for NASA's development of the next generation space transportation system as part of the Exploration Systems Development (ESD) Programs, which includes the Space Launch System (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Programs. Natural terrestrial environment conditions - such as wind, lightning and sea states - can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from pre-launch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Space vehicles are particularly sensitive to these environments during the launch/ascent and the entry/landing phases of mission operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch provides engineering design support for NASA space vehicle projects and programs by providing design engineers and mission planners with natural environments definitions as well as performing custom analyses to help characterize the impacts the natural environment may have on vehicle performance. One such analysis involves assessing the impact of natural environments to operational availability. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of meeting/exceeding various sets of hypothetical vehicle-specific parametric constraint thresholds. Outputs are tabulated by month and hour of day to show both seasonal and diurnal variation. This paper will discuss how climate analyses are performed by the MSFC Natural Environments Branch to support the ESD Launch Availability (LA) Technical Performance Measure (TPM), the SLS Launch Availability due to Natural Environments TPM, and several MPCV (Orion) launch and landing availability analyses - including the 2014 Orion Exploration Flight Test 1 (EFT-1) mission.

  6. Space Launch System Booster Separation Aerodynamic Testing in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Floyd J., Jr.; Pinier, Jeremy T.; Chan, David T.; Crosby, William A.

    2016-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation of a 0.009 scale model of the Space Launch System (SLS) was conducted in the NASA Langley Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel to characterize the aerodynamics of the core and solid rocket boosters (SRBs) during booster separation. High-pressure air was used to simulate plumes from the booster separation motors (BSMs) located on the nose and aft skirt of the SRBs. Force and moment data were acquired on the core and SRBs. These data were used to corroborate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations that were used in developing a booster separation database. The SRBs could be remotely positioned in the x-, y-, and z-direction relative to the core. Data were acquired continuously while the SRBs were moved in the axial direction. The primary parameters varied during the test were: core pitch angle; SRB pitch and yaw angles; SRB nose x-, y-, and z-position relative to the core; and BSM plenum pressure. The test was conducted at a free-stream Mach number of 4.25 and a unit Reynolds number of 1.5 million per foot.

  7. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  8. NASA's Space Launch System: A Flagship for Exploration Beyond Earth's Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s (NASA s) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is making measurable progress toward delivering a new capability for human and scientific exploration. To arrive at the current plan, government and industry experts carefully analyzed hundreds of architecture options and selected the one clear solution to stringent requirements for safety, affordability, and sustainability over the decades that the rocket will be in operation. Slated for its maiden voyage in 2017, the SLS will provide a platform for further cooperation in space based on the International Space Station model. This briefing will focus on specific progress that has been made by the SLS team in its first year, as well as provide a framework for evolving the vehicle for far-reaching missions to destinations such as near-Earth asteroids, Lagrange Points, and Mars. As this briefing will show, the SLS will serve as an infrastructure asset for robotic and human scouts of all nations by harnessing business and technological innovations to deliver sustainable solutions for space exploration.

  9. Methodology for CFD Design Analysis of National Launch System Nozzle Manifold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haire, Scot L.

    1993-01-01

    The current design environment dictates that high technology CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis produce quality results in a timely manner if it is to be integrated into the design process. The design methodology outlined describes the CFD analysis of an NLS (National Launch System) nozzle film cooling manifold. The objective of the analysis was to obtain a qualitative estimate for the flow distribution within the manifold. A complex, 3D, multiple zone, structured grid was generated from a 3D CAD file of the geometry. A Euler solution was computed with a fully implicit compressible flow solver. Post processing consisted of full 3D color graphics and mass averaged performance. The result was a qualitative CFD solution that provided the design team with relevant information concerning the flow distribution in and performance characteristics of the film cooling manifold within an effective time frame. Also, this design methodology was the foundation for a quick turnaround CFD analysis of the next iteration in the manifold design.

  10. Aluminum 2195 T8 Gore Development for Space Launch System Core and Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Gores are pie-shaped panels that are welded together to form the dome ends of rocket fuel tanks as shown in figure 1. Replacing aluminum alloy 2219 with aluminum (Al)-lithium (Li) alloy 2195 as the Space Launch System (SLS) cryogenic tank material would save enormous amounts of weight. In fact, it has been calculated that simply replacing Al 2219 gores with Al 2195 gores on the SLS core stage domes could save approximately 3,800 pound-mass. This is because the Al-Li 2195 alloy exhibits both higher mechanical properties and lower density than the SLS baseline Al 2219 alloy. Indeed, the known advantages of Al 2195 led to its use as a replacement for Al 2219 in the shuttle external tank program. The required thicknesses of Al 2195 gores for either SLS core stage tanks or upper stage tanks will depend on the specific design configurations. The required thicknesses or widths may exceed the current experience base in the manufacture of such gores by the stretch-forming process. Accordingly, the primary objective of this project was to enhance the formability of Al 2195 by optimizing the heat treatment and stretch-forming process for gore thicknesses up to 0.75 inches, which envelop the maximum expected gore thicknesses for SLS tank configurations.

  11. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of metal alloys in the space transportation system launch environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz

    1990-01-01

    AC impedance measurements were performed to investigate the corrosion resistance of 18 alloys under conditions similar to the Space Transportation System (STS) launch environment. The alloys were: (1) zirconium 702; (2) Hastelloy C-22, C-276, C-4, and B-2; (3) Inconel 600 and 825; (4) Ferralium 255; (5) Inco Alloy G-3; (6) 20Cb-3; (7) SS 904L, 304LN, 316L, 317L, and 304L; (8) ES 2205; and (9) Monel 400. AC impedance data were gathered for each alloy at various immersion times in 3.55 percent NaCl-0.1N HCl. Polarization resistance values were obtained for the Nyguist plots at each immersion time using the EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT software package available with the 388 electrochemical impedance software. Hastelloy C-22 showed the highest overall values for polarization resistance while Monel 400 and Inconel 600 had the lowest overall values. There was good general correlation between the corrosion performance of the alloys at the beach corrosion testing site, and the expected rate of corrosion as predicted based on the polarization resistance values obtained. The data indicate that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy can be used to predict the corrosion performance of metal alloys.

  12. Self-Healing Nanocomposites for Reusable Composite Cryotanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberly, Daniel; Ou, Runqing; Karcz, Adam; Skandan, Ganesh

    2013-01-01

    Composite cryotanks, or composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs), offer advantages over currently used aluminum-lithium cryotanks, particularly with respect to weight savings. Future NASA missions are expected to use COPVs in spaceflight propellant tanks to store fuels, oxidizers, and other liquids for launch and space exploration vehicles. However, reliability, reparability, and reusability of the COPVs are still being addressed, especially in cryogenic temperature applications; this has limited the adoption of COPVs in reusable vehicle designs. The major problem with composites is the inherent brittleness of the epoxy matrix, which is prone to microcrack formation, either from exposure to cryogenic conditions or from impact from different sources. If not prevented, the microcracks increase gas permeation and leakage. Accordingly, materials innovations are needed to mitigate microcrack damage, and prevent damage in the first place, in composite cryotanks. The self-healing technology being developed is capable of healing the microcracks through the use of a novel engineered nanocomposite, where a uniquely designed nanoparticle additive is incorporated into the epoxy matrix. In particular, this results in an enhancement in the burst pressure after cryogenic cycling of the nanocomposite COPVs, relative to the control COPVs. Incorporating a novel, self-healing, epoxy-based resin into the manufacture of COPVs allows repeatable self-healing of microcracks to be performed through the simple application of a low-temperature heat source. This permits COPVs to be reparable and reusable with a high degree of reliability, as microcracks will be remediated. The unique phase-separated morphology that was imparted during COPV manufacture allows for multiple self-healing cycles. Unlike single-target approaches where one material property is often improved at the expense of another, robustness has been introduced to a COPV by a combination of a modified resin and

  13. Launching applications on compute and service processors running under different operating systems in scalable network of processor boards with routers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomkins, James L.; Camp, William J.

    2009-03-17

    A multiple processor computing apparatus includes a physical interconnect structure that is flexibly configurable to support selective segregation of classified and unclassified users. The physical interconnect structure also permits easy physical scalability of the computing apparatus. The computing apparatus can include an emulator which permits applications from the same job to be launched on processors that use different operating systems.

  14. Effectiveness of M.A. EPM Program Launched Through Distance Education System of Allama Iqbal Open University Islamabad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain Shah, Syed Manzoor; Ahmad, Masoor

    2014-01-01

    The study focus the effectiveness of the M.A EPM program launched through distance education system of AIOU. For this purpose the performance of heads of educational institutions with and without M.A EPM degree was analyzed keeping in view different major aspects i.e. planning strategies, managerial approaches, coordination, administration and use…

  15. Reusable Assessment Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Henke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a Web-based Test, Examination and Assessment system that can be used via the Internet. It is therefore suitable for both local and remote examination preparation as well as examination within a lab course (entry test. This solution is also intended for the use in lectures dealing with the design of complex digital control systems within the newly created European Master Degree Program “Remote Engineering”. Actual Learning Management Systems (LMS include mainly tools for authoring multiple choice or cloze questions and the like and use very simple assessment mechanisms. We also describe Web-based scenarios to assess higher levels of knowledge.

  16. New Pedagogies and Re-Usable Learning Objects: Toward a Different Role for an LMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collis, Betty; Strijker, Allard

    While the idea of reusing objects in digital learning environments is not new, continual strides are being made toward improving the prospects of reusability. A major trend in company training settings is to think of reusability in terms of a LMS (learning management system), but instructor use and pedagogies are little considered. This paper…

  17. Lunar landing and launch facilities (Complex 39L): Guidance systems and propellant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    After a general, overall definition of Complex 39L during the previous two years, the 1988-89 projects were chosen to focus on more specific aspects, specifically, guidance systems and propellant systems. Six teams or subtasks were formulated: cascade refrigeration for boil-off recovery of cryogenic storage vessels; lunar ground-based radar system to track space vehicles; microwave altimeter for spacecraft; development of a computational model for the determination of lunar surface and sub-surface temperatures; lunar cryogenic facility for the storage of fuels; and lunar lander fuel inventory tent for the storage of cryogenic vessels. At the present time, a cascade refrigeration system for a cryogenic boil-off recovery system has been designed. This is to serve as a baseline system. The ground-based tracking system uses existing technology to implement a reliable tracking radar for use on the lunar surface. A prototype has been constructed. The microwave altimeter is for use on lunar landers. It makes use of the Doppler effect to measure both altitude and the vertical velocity component of the spacecraft. A prototype has been constructed. A computational model that predicts the spatial and temporal temperature profiles of the lunar subsurface was formulated. Propellant storage vessels have been designed. A support for these vessels which minimizes heat leaks was also designed. Further work on the details of the Fuel Inventory Tent (FIT) was performed. While much design work on the overall Complex 39L remains to be done, significant new work has been performed in the subject areas.

  18. A comparison of reusable and disposable perioperative textiles: sustainability state-of-the-art 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcash, Michael

    2012-05-01

    Contemporary comparisons of reusable and single-use perioperative textiles (surgical gowns and drapes) reflect major changes in the technologies to produce and reuse these products. Reusable and disposable gowns and drapes meet new standards for medical workers and patient protection, use synthetic lightweight fabrics, and are competitively priced. In multiple science-based life cycle environmental studies, reusable surgical gowns and drapes demonstrate substantial sustainability benefits over the same disposable product in natural resource energy (200%-300%), water (250%-330%), carbon footprint (200%-300%), volatile organics, solid wastes (750%), and instrument recovery. Because all other factors (cost, protection, and comfort) are reasonably similar, the environmental benefits of reusable surgical gowns and drapes to health care sustainability programs are important for this industry. Thus, it is no longer valid to indicate that reusables are better in some environmental impacts and disposables are better in other environmental impacts. It is also important to recognize that large-scale studies of comfort, protection, or economics have not been actively pursued in the last 5 to 10 years, and thus the factors to improve both reusables and disposable systems are difficult to assess. In addition, the comparison related to jobs is not well studied, but may further support reusables. In summary, currently available perioperative textiles are similar in comfort, safety, and cost, but reusable textiles offer substantial opportunities for nurses, physicians, and hospitals to reduce environmental footprints when selected over disposable alternatives. Evidenced-based comparison of environmental factors supports the conclusion that reusable gowns and drapes offer important sustainability improvements. The benefit of reusable systems may be similar for other reusables in anesthesia, such as laryngeal mask airways or suction canisters, but life cycle studies are needed to

  19. Ramjet Application Possibilities for Increasing Fire Range of the Multiple Launch Rocket Systems Ammunition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zubov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers a possibility to increase a flying range of the perspective rockets equipped with the control unit with aerodynamic controllers for the multiple launch rocket systems “Smerch”.To increase a flying range and reduce a starting mass of the rocket, the paper studies a possibility to replace the single-mode rocket engine used in the solid-fuel rocket motor for the direct-flow propulsion jet engine (DFPJE with not head sector air intakes. The DFPJE is implemented according to the classical scheme with a fuel charged in the combustion chamber. A separated solid propellant starting accelerator provides the rocket acceleration to reach a speed necessary for the DFPJE to run.When designing the DFPJE a proper choice of not head air intake parameters is one of the most difficult points. For this purpose a COSMOS Flow Simulation software package and analytical dependences were used to define the following: a boundary layer thickness where an air intake is set, maximum permissible and appropriate angles of attack and deviation angles of controllers at the section where the DFPJE works, and some other parameters as well.Calculation of DFPJE characteristics consisted in determining parameters of an air-gas path of the propulsion system, geometrical sizes of the pipeline flow area, sizes of a fuel charge, and dependence of the propulsion system impulse on the flight height and speed. Calculations were performed both in thermodynamic statement of problem and in using software package of COSMOS Flow Simulation.As a result of calculations and design engineering activities the air intake profile is created and mass-dimensional characteristics of DFPJE are defined. Besides, calculations of the starting solid fuel accelerator were carried out. Further design allowed us to create the rocket shape, estimate its mass-dimensional characteristics, and perform ballistic calculations, which proved that achieving a range of 120 km for the rocket is

  20. Learning Objects Reusability Effectiveness Metric (LOREM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torky Ibrahim Sultan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research we aim to propose an advanced metric to evaluate the effectiveness of learning objects in order to be reused in new contexts. By the way learning objects reusability is achieving economic benefits from educational technology as it saving time and improving quality, but in case of choosing unsuitable learning object it may be less benefit than creating the learning object from scratch. Actually learning objects reusability can facilitate systems development and adaptation. By surveying the current evaluation metrics, we found that while they cover essential aspects, they enables all reviewers of learning objects to evaluate all criteria without paying attention to their roles in creating the learning object which affect their capability to evaluate specific criteria. Our proposed Approach (LOREM is evaluating learning objects based on a group of Aspects which measure their level of effectiveness in order to be reused in other contexts. LOREM classifies reviewers into 3 categories; 1. Academic Group: (Subject Expert Matter “SME” and Instructor. 2. Technical Group: (Instructional Designer “ID”, LO Developer and LO Designer. 3. Students group. The authorization of reviewers in these several categories are differentiated according to reviewer's type, e.g., (Instructor, LO Developer and their area of expert (their expertise subjects for academic and students reviewers.

  1. Computer controlled vent and pressurization system. [of launch vehicle cryogenic propellant tanks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieslewicz, E. J.

    1975-01-01

    The paper illustrates how the Centaur space launch vehicle airborne computer, which was primarily used to perform guidance, navigation, and sequencing tasks, was further used to monitor and control inflight pressurization and venting of the cryogenic propellant tanks. Computer software flexibility also provided a failure detection and correction capability necessary to adopt and operate redundant hardware techniques and enhance the overall vehicle reliability.

  2. Mechanical Design and Optimization of Swarm-Capable UAV Launch Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    varies greatly, but the core functionality remains the same. Figure 3.7 is a computer-aided design (CAD) image generated using SOLIDWORKS soft- ware...of a sample UAV launching section. From this point forward, all referenced CAD images were created using SOLIDWORKS software. Also, some components of

  3. Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN and C) Design Overview and Flight Test Results from NASA's Max Launch Abort System (MLAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Lanzi, Raymond J.; Ward, Philip R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration Engineering and Safety Center designed, developed and flew the alternative Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) as risk mitigation for the baseline Orion spacecraft launch abort system already in development. The NESC was tasked with both formulating a conceptual objective system design of this alternative MLAS as well as demonstrating this concept with a simulated pad abort flight test. Less than 2 years after Project start the MLAS simulated pad abort flight test was successfully conducted from Wallops Island on July 8, 2009. The entire flight test duration was 88 seconds during which time multiple staging events were performed and nine separate critically timed parachute deployments occurred as scheduled. This paper provides an overview of the guidance navigation and control technical approaches employed on this rapid prototyping activity; describes the methodology used to design the MLAS flight test vehicle; and lessons that were learned during this rapid prototyping project are also summarized.

  4. Genomic Data Commons launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Genomic Data Commons (GDC), a unified data system that promotes sharing of genomic and clinical data between researchers, launched today with a visit from Vice President Joe Biden to the operations center at the University of Chicago.

  5. Reusable rocket engine optical condition monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyett, L.; Maram, J.; Barkhoudarian, S.; Reinert, J.

    1987-01-01

    Plume emission spectrometry and optical leak detection are described as two new applications of optical techniques to reusable rocket engine condition monitoring. Plume spectrometry has been used with laboratory flames and reusable rocket engines to characterize both the nominal combustion spectra and anomalous spectra of contaminants burning in these plumes. Holographic interferometry has been used to identify leaks and quantify leak rates from reusable rocket engine joints and welds.

  6. Mobile Authoring of Open Educational Resources as Reusable Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinshuk; Jesse, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    E-learning technologies have allowed authoring and playback of standardized reusable learning objects (RLO) for several years. Effective mobile learning requires similar functionality at both design time and runtime. Mobile devices can play RLO using applications like SMILE, mobile access to a learning management system (LMS), or other systems…

  7. SPECIAL COLLOQUIUM : Building a Commercial Space Launch System and the Role of Space Tourism in the Future (exceptionally on Tuesday)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    The talk will explore a little of the history of space launch systems and rocketry, will explain why commercial space tourism did not take off after Apollo, and what is happening right now with commercial space systems such as Virgin's, utilising advances in aerospace technology not exploited by conventional ground-based rocket systems. I will then explain the Virgin Galactic technology, its business plan as a US-regulated space tourism company, and the nature of its applications. I will then go on to say a little of how our system can be utilised for sub-orbital space science based on a commercial business plan

  8. Modeling, Analysis and Simulation Approaches Used in Development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Max Launch Abort System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuchnovicz, Daniel E.; Dennehy, Cornelius J.; Schuster, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Engineering and Safety Center was chartered to develop an alternate launch abort system (LAS) as risk mitigation for the Orion Project. Its successful flight test provided data for the design of future LAS vehicles. Design of the flight test vehicle (FTV) and pad abort trajectory relied heavily on modeling and simulation including computational fluid dynamics for vehicle aero modeling, 6-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for flight trajectory modeling, and 3-degree-of-freedom kinematics models for parachute force modeling. This paper highlights the simulation techniques and the interaction between the aerodynamics, flight mechanics, and aerodynamic decelerator disciplines during development of the Max Launch Abort System FTV.

  9. Near-Optimal Operation of Dual-Fuel Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.; Chou, H. C.; Bowles, J. V.

    1996-01-01

    A near-optimal guidance law for the ascent trajectory from earth surface to earth orbit of a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit pure rocket launch vehicle is derived. Of interest are both the optimal operation of the propulsion system and the optimal flight path. A methodology is developed to investigate the optimal throttle switching of dual-fuel engines. The method is based on selecting propulsion system modes and parameters that maximize a certain performance function. This function is derived from consideration of the energy-state model of the aircraft equations of motion. Because the density of liquid hydrogen is relatively low, the sensitivity of perturbations in volume need to be taken into consideration as well as weight sensitivity. The cost functional is a weighted sum of fuel mass and volume; the weighting factor is chosen to minimize vehicle empty weight for a given payload mass and volume in orbit.

  10. Quality Control Algorithms and Proposed Integration Process for Wind Profilers Used by Launch Vehicle Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Impact of winds to space launch vehicle include Design, Certification Day-of-launch (DOL) steering commands (1)Develop "knockdowns" of load indicators (2) Temporal uncertainty of flight winds. Currently use databases from weather balloons. Includes discrete profiles and profile pair datasets. Issues are : (1)Larger vehicles operate near design limits during ascent 150 discrete profiles per month 110-217 seasonal 2.0 and 3.5-hour pairs Balloon rise time (one hour) and drift (up to 100 n mi) Advantages of the Alternative approach using Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) are: (1) Obtain larger sample size (2) Provide flexibility for assessing trajectory changes due to winds (3) Better representation of flight winds.

  11. The K-1 reusable aerospace vehicle: managing to achieve low cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller (HM), George E.; Lepore, Debra Facktor

    2000-03-01

    Kistler Aerospace Corporation is developing the world's first privately funded, fully reusable aerospace vehicle, the K-1. This vehicle represents a new implementation of proven technologies, designed by an elite, experienced team of engineers and managers and implemented by the best manufacturing capability in the United States. Kistler Aerospace expects to begin commercial operations of the K-1 in 2000. Market researchers predict that during the next decade telecommunications satellite ventures will require launch services for over 1,400 payloads to LEO. This prediction greatly exceeds the current available industry capacity. The K-1 was designed primarily to meet this anticipated growth in demand. Significant progress has been made in constructing the K-1 vehicle fleet. The fully reusable K-1 vehicle is designed to lower the cost of access to space, increase launch reliability, and reduce lead-time-to-launch requirements. The K-1 will offer significant cost benefits and aircraft type reliability based on a proven flight record.

  12. Space Station Freedom electric power system photovoltaic power module integrated launch package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathanson, Theodore H.; Clemens, Donald D.; Spatz, Raymond R.; Kirch, Luke A.

    1990-01-01

    The launch of the Space Station Freedom solar power module requires a weight efficient structure that will include large components within the limited load capacity of the Space Shuttle cargo bay. The design iterations to meet these requirements have evolved from a proposal concept featuring a separate cradle and integrated equipment assembly (IEA), to a package that interfaces directly with the Shuttle. Size, weight, and cost have been reduced as a result.

  13. AdaNET phase 0 support for the AdaNET Dynamic Software Inventory (DSI) management system prototype. Catalog of available reusable software components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Lionel

    1989-01-01

    The Ada Software Repository is a public-domain collection of Ada software and information. The Ada Software Repository is one of several repositories located on the SIMTEL20 Defense Data Network host computer at White Sands Missile Range, and available to any host computer on the network since 26 November 1984. This repository provides a free source for Ada programs and information. The Ada Software Repository is divided into several subdirectories. These directories are organized by topic, and their names and a brief overview of their topics are contained. The Ada Software Repository on SIMTEL20 serves two basic roles: to promote the exchange and use (reusability) of Ada programs and tools (including components) and to promote Ada education.

  14. Update on Risk Reduction Activities for a Liquid Advanced Booster for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Doering, Kimberly B; Meadows, Robert G.; Lariviere, Brian W.; Graham, Jerry B.

    2015-01-01

    The stated goals of NASA's Research Announcement for the Space Launch System (SLS) Advanced Booster Engineering Demonstration and/or Risk Reduction (ABEDRR) are to reduce risks leading to an affordable Advanced Booster that meets the evolved capabilities of SLS; and enable competition by mitigating targeted Advanced Booster risks to enhance SLS affordability. Dynetics, Inc. and Aerojet Rocketdyne (AR) formed a team to offer a wide-ranging set of risk reduction activities and full-scale, system-level demonstrations that support NASA's ABEDRR goals. For NASA's SLS ABEDRR procurement, Dynetics and AR formed a team to offer a series of full-scale risk mitigation hardware demonstrations for an affordable booster approach that meets the evolved capabilities of the SLS. To establish a basis for the risk reduction activities, the Dynetics Team developed a booster design that takes advantage of the flight-proven Apollo-Saturn F-1. Using NASA's vehicle assumptions for the SLS Block 2, a two-engine, F-1-based booster design delivers 150 mT (331 klbm) payload to LEO, 20 mT (44 klbm) above NASA's requirements. This enables a low-cost, robust approach to structural design. During the ABEDRR effort, the Dynetics Team has modified proven Apollo-Saturn components and subsystems to improve affordability and reliability (e.g., reduce parts counts, touch labor, or use lower cost manufacturing processes and materials). The team has built hardware to validate production costs and completed tests to demonstrate it can meet performance requirements. State-of-the-art manufacturing and processing techniques have been applied to the heritage F-1, resulting in a low recurring cost engine while retaining the benefits of Apollo-era experience. NASA test facilities have been used to perform low-cost risk-reduction engine testing. In early 2014, NASA and the Dynetics Team agreed to move additional large liquid oxygen/kerosene engine work under Dynetics' ABEDRR contract. Also led by AR, the

  15. Best Practices from the Design and Development of the Ares I Launch Vehicle Roll and Reaction Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Adam; Paseur, Lila F.; Pitts, Hank M.

    2012-01-01

    On April 15, 2010 President Barak Obama made the official announcement that the Constellation Program, which included the Ares I launch vehicle, would be canceled. NASA s Ares I launch vehicle was being designed to launch the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, returning humans to the moon, Mars, and beyond. It consisted of a First Stage (FS) five segment solid rocket booster and a liquid J-2X Upper Stage (US) engine. Roll control for the FS was planned to be handled by a dedicated Roll Control System (RoCS), located on the connecting interstage. Induced yaw or pitch moments experienced during FS ascent would have been handled by vectoring of the booster nozzle. After FS booster separation, the US Reaction Control System (ReCS) would have provided the US Element with three degrees of freedom control as needed. The best practices documented in this paper will be focused on the technical designs and producibility of both systems along with the partnership between NASA and Boeing, who was on contract to build the Ares I US Element, which included the FS RoCS and US ReCS. In regards to partnership, focus will be placed on integration along with technical work accomplished by Boeing. This will include detailed emphasis on task orders developed between NASA and Boeing that were used to direct specific work that needed to be accomplished. In summary, this paper attempts to capture key best practices that should be helpful in the development of future launch vehicle and spacecraft RCS designs.

  16. Design and Analysis of Outer Mold Line Close-outs for the Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Flight Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Schuster, David M.; Tyler, Erik D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) chartered the NASA Engineering Safety Center (NESC) to demonstrate an alternate launch abort concept as risk mitigation for the Orion project's baseline "tower" design. On July 8, 2009, a full scale, passive aerodynamically stabilized Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) pad abort demonstrator was successfully launched from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility. Aerodynamic close-outs were required to cover openings on the MLAS fairing to prevent aerodynamic flow-through and to maintain the MLAS OML surface shape. Two-ply duct tape covers were designed to meet these needs. The duct tape used was a high strength fiber reinforced duct tape with a rubberized adhesive that demonstrated 4.6 lb/in adhesion strength to the unpainted fiberglass fairing. Adhesion strength was observed to increase as a function of time. The covers were analyzed and experimentally tested to demonstrate their ability to maintain integrity under anticipated vehicle ascent pressure loads and to not impede firing of the drogue chute mortars. Testing included vacuum testing and a mortar fire test. Tape covers were layed-up on thin Teflon sheets to facilitate installation on the vehicle. Custom cut foam insulation board was used to fill mortar hole and separation joint cavities and provide support to the applied tape covers. Flight test results showed that the tape covers remained adhered during flight.

  17. The Effects of Foam Thermal Protection System on the Damage Tolerance Characteristics of Composite Sandwich Structures for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, A. T.; Hodge, A. J.; Jackson, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    For any structure composed of laminated composite materials, impact damage is one of the greatest risks and therefore most widely tested responses. Typically, impact damage testing and analysis assumes that a solid object comes into contact with the bare surface of the laminate (the outer ply). However, most launch vehicle structures will have a thermal protection system (TPS) covering the structure for the majority of its life. Thus, the impact response of the material with the TPS covering is the impact scenario of interest. In this study, laminates representative of the composite interstage structure for the Ares I launch vehicle were impact tested with and without the planned TPS covering, which consists of polyurethane foam. Response variables examined include maximum load of impact, damage size as detected by nondestructive evaluation techniques, and damage morphology and compression after impact strength. Results show that there is little difference between TPS covered and bare specimens, except the residual strength data is higher for TPS covered specimens.

  18. Evaluation of Product Launch

    OpenAIRE

    MARŠÁLKOVÁ, Nina

    2012-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the evaluation of the launch of product on the market and the proposal of a more appropriate solution. Author has chosen company Aponia software, s.r.o. with a place of business in Brno. It is small company which produces and sells navigations for mobile devices. During writing this thesis author focus on the launch of navigation for operating system Android on the market.

  19. Reproducibility and reusability of scientific software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Lior

    2017-01-01

    Information science and technology has been becoming an integral part of astronomy research, and due to the consistent growth in the size and impact of astronomical databases, that trend is bound to continue. While software is a vital part information systems and data analysis processes, in many cases the importance of the software and the standards of reporting on the use of source code has not yet elevated in the scientific communication process to the same level as other parts of the research. The purpose of the discussion is to examine the role of software in the scientific communication process in the light of transparency, reproducibility, and reusability of the research, as well as discussing software in astronomy in comparison to other disciplines.

  20. Product Lifecycle Management Technology Applied in Missile Launching Systems Production and Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. O. Karasev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the problems in the construction of the launch-site "Vostochniy" production and installation logistic. The stages of complex high-end product lifecycle described. The concepts and techniques of life cycle management and variants of their application offered as solution of this problems. Practical way to optimize logistics and lifecycle management processes using ILS Suite multi-agent software submitted. Side effect of this solution is creating of relevant integrated logistic support database, that could be used in the future projects. Results for tests and some perspectives for future investigation described.

  1. RL-10 Based Combined Cycle For A Small Reusable Single-Stage-To-Orbit Launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Price, John; Filipenco, Victor

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses a new application of the combined propulsion known as the KLIN(TM) cycle, consisting of a thermally integrated deeply cooled turbojet (DCTJ) and liquid rocket engine (LRE). If based on the RL10 rocket engine family, the KLIN (TM) cycle makes a small single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) reusable launcher feasible and economically very attractive. Considered in this paper are the concept and parameters of a small SSTO reusable launch vehicle (RLV) powered by the KLIN (TM) cycle (sSSTO(TM)) launcher. Also discussed are the benefits of the small launcher, the reusability, and the combined cycle application. This paper shows the significant reduction of the gross take off weight (GTOW) and dry weight of the KLIN(TM) cycle-powered launcher compared to an all-rocket launcher.

  2. The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, T.; Rogers, A.; Wallace, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Reusable Astronomy Portal (TRAP) aims to provide a common platform for rapidly deploying Astronomy Archives to the web. TRAP is currently under development for both the VAO Data Discovery Portal and the MAST Multi-Mission Portal (Figure 1). TRAP consists of 2 major software packages: the TRAP Client and the TRAP Server. The TRAP framework allows developers to deploy the Server, connect to data resources, then focus on building custom tools for the Client. TRAP is built upon proven industry technologies including the Ext/JS JavaScript Component Library, Mono.NET Web Services, and JSON message based APIs. The multi-layered architecture of TRAP decouples each layer: Client, Service and Data Access, enabling each to evolve independently over time. Although currently deployed to provide astronomy science data access, the TRAP architecture is flexible enough to thrive in any distributed data environment.

  3. Human Systems Engineering for Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Gena; Stambolian, Damon B.; Stelges, Katrine

    2012-01-01

    Launch processing at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is primarily accomplished by human users of expensive and specialized equipment. In order to reduce the likelihood of human error, to reduce personal injuries, damage to hardware, and loss of mission the design process for the hardware needs to include the human's relationship with the hardware. Just as there is electrical, mechanical, and fluids, the human aspect is just as important. The focus of this presentation is to illustrate how KSC accomplishes the inclusion of the human aspect in the design using human centered hardware modeling and engineering. The presentations also explain the current and future plans for research and development for improving our human factors analysis tools and processes.

  4. Launch Vehicle Control Center Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.; Epps, Amy; Woodruff, Van; Vachon, Michael Jacob; Monreal, Julio; Levesque, Marl; Williams, Randall; Mclaughlin, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Launch vehicles within the international community vary greatly in their configuration and processing. Each launch site has a unique processing flow based on the specific launch vehicle configuration. Launch and flight operations are managed through a set of control centers associated with each launch site. Each launch site has a control center for launch operations; however flight operations support varies from being co-located with the launch site to being shared with the space vehicle control center. There is also a nuance of some having an engineering support center which may be co-located with either the launch or flight control center, or in a separate geographical location altogether. A survey of control center architectures is presented for various launch vehicles including the NASA Space Launch System (SLS), United Launch Alliance (ULA) Atlas V and Delta IV, and the European Space Agency (ESA) Ariane 5. Each of these control center architectures shares some similarities in basic structure while differences in functional distribution also exist. The driving functions which lead to these factors are considered and a model of control center architectures is proposed which supports these commonalities and variations.

  5. Metallurgical analysis of a failed maraging steel shear screw used in the band separation system of a satellite launch vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.V.S. Narayana Murty

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Maraging steels have excellent combination of strength and toughness and are extensively used for a variety of aerospace applications. In one such critical application, this steel was used to fabricate shear screws of a stage separation system in a satellite launch vehicle. During assembly preparations, one of the shear screws which connected the separation band and band end block has failed at the first thread. Microstructural analysis revealed that the crack originated from the root of the thread and propagated in an intergranular mode. The failure is attributed to combined effect of stress and corrosion leading to stress corrosion cracking.

  6. The Effect of Software Reusability on Information Theory Based Software Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    disagree on how abstract the code needs to be before it may be reused. Kernighan [KERNI84] presents reuse at the program level utilizing the UNIX pipe... Kernighan , Brian W., "The UNIX System and Software Reusability," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-10, No. 5, September 1984, pp. 513-518...KERNI84] Kernighan , Brian W., "The UNIX System and Software Reusability," IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, Vol. SE-10, No. 5, September 1984, pp

  7. Analyzing the Impacts of Natural Environments on Launch and Landing Availability for NASA's Eploration Systems Development Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altino, Karen M.; Burns, K. Lee; Barbre, Robert E.; Leahy, Frank B.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities for human and scientific exploration beyond Earth orbit. Natural environments information is an important asset for NASA's development of the next generation space transportation system as part of the Exploration Systems Development Program, which includes the Space Launch System (SLS) and MultiPurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Programs. Natural terrestrial environment conditions - such as wind, lightning and sea states - can affect vehicle safety and performance during multiple mission phases ranging from prelaunch ground processing to landing and recovery operations, including all potential abort scenarios. Space vehicles are particularly sensitive to these environments during the launch/ascent and the entry/landing phases of mission operations. The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch provides engineering design support for NASA space vehicle projects and programs by providing design engineers and mission planners with natural environments definitions as well as performing custom analyses to help characterize the impacts the natural environment may have on vehicle performance. One such analysis involves assessing the impact of natural environments to operational availability. Climatological time series of operational surface weather observations are used to calculate probabilities of meeting or exceeding various sets of hypothetical vehicle-specific parametric constraint thresholds.

  8. Resolving the Problem of Intelligent Learning Content in Learning Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey-Lopez, Marta; Brusilovsky, Peter; Meccawy, Maram; Diaz-Redondo, Rebeca; Fernandez-Vilas, Ana; Ashman, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Current e-learning standardization initiatives have put much effort into easing interoperability between systems and the reusability of contents. For this to be possible, one of the most relevant areas is the definition of a run-time environment, which allows Learning Management Systems to launch, track and communicate with learning objects.…

  9. EADS Roadmap for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Grimard, Max

    2002-01-01

    still think about the future, especially at industry level in order to make the most judicious choices in technologies, vehicle types as well as human resources and facilities specialization (especially after recent merger moves). and production as prime contractor, industrial architect or stage provider have taken benefit of this expertise and especially of all the studies ran under national funding and own financing on reusable vehicles and ground/flight demonstrators have analyzed several scenarios. VEHICLES/ASTRIUM SI strategy w.r.t. launch vehicles for the two next decades. Among the main inputs taken into account of course visions of the market evolutions have been considered, but also enlargement of international cooperations and governments requests and supports (e.g. with the influence of large international ventures). 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  10. Using PHM to measure equipment usable life on the Air Force's next generation reusable space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasdel, A.

    The U.S. Air Force procures many launch vehicles and launch vehicle services to place their satellites at their desired location in space. The equipment on-board these satellite and launch vehicle often suffer from premature failures that result in the total loss of the satellite or a shortened mission life sometimes requiring the purchase of a replacement satellite and launch vehicle. The Air Force uses its EELV to launch its high priority satellites. Due to a rise in the cost of purchasing a launch using the Air Force's EELV from 72M in 1997 to as high as 475M per launch today, the Air Force is working to replace the EELV with a reusable space booster (RSB). The RSB will be similar in design and operations to the recently cancelled NASA reusable space booster known as the Space Shuttle. If the Air Force uses the same process that procures the EELV and other launch vehicles and satellites, the RSB will also suffer from premature equipment failures thus putting the payloads at a similar high risk of mission failure. The RSB is expected to lower each launch cost by 50% compared to the EELV. The development of the RSB offers the Air Force an opportunity to use a new reliability paradigm that includes a prognostic and health management program and a condition-based maintenance program. These both require using intelligent, decision making self-prognostic equipment The prognostic and health management program and its condition-based maintenance program allows increases in RSB equipment usable life, lower logistics and maintenance costs, while increasing safety and mission assurance. The PHM removes many decisions from personnel that, in the past resulted in catastrophic failures and loss of life. Adding intelligent, decision-making self-prognostic equipment to the RSB will further decrease launch costs while decreasing risk and increasing safety and mission assurance.

  11. Improving of technical characteristics of launch vehicles with liquid rocket engines using active onboard de-orbiting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the analysis of technical requirements (TR) for the development of modern space launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid rocket engines (LRE) is fulfilled in relation to the anthropogenic impact decreasing. Factual technical characteristics on the example of a promising type of rocket ;Soyuz-2.1.v.; are analyzed. Meeting the TR in relation to anthropogenic impact decrease based on the conventional design approach and the content of the onboard system does not prove to be efficient and leads to depreciation of the initial technical characteristics obtained at the first design stage if these requirements are not included. In this concern, it is shown that the implementation of additional active onboard de-orbiting system (AODS) of worked-off stages (WS) into the onboard LV stages systems allows to meet the TR related to the LV environmental characteristics, including fire-explosion safety. In some cases, the orbital payload mass increases.

  12. Demonstration of the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, M.; Guarro, S.; Apostolakis, G.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) is a new approach developed to integrate the modeling and analysis of the hardware and software components of an embedded system. The objective is to complement the traditional approaches which generally follow the philosophy of separating out the hardware and software portions of the assurance analysis. In this paper, the DFM approach is demonstrated using the Titan 2 Space Launch Vehicle Digital Flight Control System. The hardware and software portions of this embedded system are modeled in an integrated framework. In addition, the time dependent behavior and the switching logic can be captured by this DFM model. In the modeling process, it is found that constructing decision tables for software subroutines is very time consuming. A possible solution is suggested. This approach makes use of a well-known numerical method, the Newton-Raphson method, to solve the equations implemented in the subroutines in reverse. Convergence can be achieved in a few steps.

  13. Development of a full scale remote steerable ECRH mm-wave launching system test set-up for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands)], E-mail: ben@rijnh.nl; Bongers, W.A.; Graswinckel, M.F. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Jamar, J. [TNO Science and Industry, Business Unit Design and Manufacturing, Eindhoven, P.O. Box 6235, 5600 HE Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kruijt, O.G.; Lamers, B.; Ronden, D.M.S. [FOM Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Edisonbaan 14, 3439 MN Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Verhoeven, A.G.A

    2007-10-15

    FOM is developing a full-scale mock-up of the mm-wave upper-port launching system for electron cyclotron resonance heating in ITER. The test set-up foresees in most of the typical ITER operation conditions, e.g. primary vacuum and the secondary vacuum, blanket cooling and component cooling conditions. All relevant operational ITER conditions except neutron radiation can be simulated, including baking conditions. The fabrication of the launching system mock-up will be the last step in the development phase, which will be characterized by the fabrication of test samples and mm-wave tests and calculations. The parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation in CATIA [D.M.S. Ronden, et al., Parameterized modeling of mm-wave beam propagation of the ITER ECRH remote steering upper port launcher in CATIA, this conference] (8th figure in this article) the test and calculation results will be used for the built to print design of the remote steering ECRH launcher for the ITER upper ports [A.G.A. Verhoeven, et al., Design of the Remote Steering ITER ECRH Upper Port Launcher, this conference].

  14. Experimental investigation and CFD simulation of active damping mechanism for propellant slosh in spacecraft launch systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuva, Dhawal

    2011-07-01

    Motion of propellant in the liquid propellant tanks due to inertial forces transferred from actions like stage separation and trajectory correction of the launch vehicle is known as propellant slosh. If unchecked, propellant slosh can reach resonance and lead to complete loss of the spacecraft stability, it can change the trajectory of the vehicle or increase consumption of propellant from the calculated requirements, thereby causing starvation of the latter stages of the vehicle. Predicting the magnitude of such slosh events is not trivial. Several passive mechanisms with limited operating range are currently used to mitigate the effects of slosh. An active damping mechanism concept developed here can operate over a large range of slosh frequencies and is much more effective than passive damping devices. Spherical and cylindrical tanks modeled using the ANSYS CFX software package considers the free surface of liquid propellant exposed to atmospheric pressure. Hydrazine is a common liquid propellant and since it is toxic, it cannot be used in experiment. But properties of hydrazine are similar to the properties of water; therefore water is substituted as propellant for experimental study. For close comparison of the data, water is substituted as propellant in CFD simulation. The research is done in three phases. The first phase includes modeling free surface slosh using CFD and validation of the model by comparison to previous experimental results. The second phase includes developing an active damping mechanism and simulating the behavior using a CFD model. The third phase includes experimental development of damping mechanism and comparing the CFD simulation to the experimental results. This research provides an excellent tool for low cost analysis of damping mechanisms for propellant slosh as well as proves that the concept of an active damping mechanism developed here, functions as expected.

  15. ANFIS Approach for Optimal Selection of Reusable Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Ravichandran

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a growing world, the development of modern software system requires large-scale manpower, high development cost, larger completion time and high risk of maintaining the software quality. Component- Based Software Development (CBSD approach is based on the concept of developing modern software systems by selecting the appropriate reusable components or COTS (Commercial Off-The-Shelf components and then assembling them with well-defined software architecture. The proper selection of COTS components will really reduce the manpower, development cost, product completion time, risk, maintenance cost and also it addresses the high quality software product. In this paper, we develop an automated process of component selection by using Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS based technique by using 14 reusable components’ parameters as a first time in this field. Again, for increasing the accuracy of a model, Fuzzy- Weighted-Relational-Coefficient (FWRC matrix is derived between the components and CBS development with the help of 14 component parameters, namely, Reliability, Stability, Portability, Consistency, Completeness, Interface & Structural Complexity, Understandability of Software Documents, Security, Usability, Accuracy, Compatibility, Performance, Serviceability and Customizable. In the recent literature studies reveals that almost all the researchers have been designed a general fuzzy-design rule for a component selection problem of all kinds of software architecture; but it leads to a poor selection of components and this paper suggests adoption of a specific fuzzy-design rule for every software architecture application for the selection of reusable components. Finally, it is concluded that the selection of reusable components through ANFIS performs better than the other models discussed so far.

  16. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several

  17. Athermal laser launch telescopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamphues, F.G.; Henselmans, R.; Rijnveld, N.; Lemmen, M.H.J.; Doelman, N.J.; Nijkerk, M.D.

    2011-01-01

    ESO has developed a concept for a compact laser guide star unit for use in future Adaptive Optics (AO) systems. A small powerful laser is combined with a telescope that launches the beam, creating a single modular unit that can be mounted directly on a large telescope. This approach solves several o

  18. Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) Pad Abort Test Vehicle (PATV) II Attitude Control System (ACS) Integration and Pressurization Subsystem Dynamic Random Vibration Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekrami, Yasamin; Cook, Joseph S.

    2011-01-01

    In order to mitigate catastrophic failures on future generation space vehicles, engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration have begun to integrate a novel crew abort systems that could pull a crew module away in case of an emergency at the launch pad or during ascent. The Max Launch Abort System (MLAS) is a recent test vehicle that was designed as an alternative to the baseline Orion Launch Abort System (LAS) to demonstrate the performance of a "tower-less" LAS configuration under abort conditions. The MLAS II test vehicle will execute a propulsive coast stabilization maneuver during abort to control the vehicles trajectory and thrust. To accomplish this, the spacecraft will integrate an Attitude Control System (ACS) with eight hypergolic monomethyl hydrazine liquid propulsion engines that are capable of operating in a quick pulsing mode. Two main elements of the ACS include a propellant distribution subsystem and a pressurization subsystem to regulate the flow of pressurized gas to the propellant tanks and the engines. The CAD assembly of the Attitude Control System (ACS) was configured and integrated into the Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) design. A dynamic random vibration analysis was conducted on the Main Propulsion System (MPS) helium pressurization panels to assess the response of the panel and its components under increased gravitational acceleration loads during flight. The results indicated that the panels fundamental and natural frequencies were farther from the maximum Acceleration Spectral Density (ASD) vibrations which were in the range of 150-300 Hz. These values will direct how the components will be packaged in the vehicle to reduce the effects high gravitational loads.

  19. Constructing Relationship Between Software Metrics and Code Reusability in Object Oriented Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj H.M

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The role of the design pattern in the form of software metric and internal code architecture for object-oriented design plays a critical role in software engineering regarding production cost efficiency. This paper discusses code reusability that is a frequently exercised cost saving methodology in IT production. After reviewing existing literature towards a study on software metrics, we found that very few studies are witnessed to incline towards code reusability. Hence, we developed a simple analytical model that establishes a relationship between the design components of standard software metric and code reusability using case studies of three software projects (Customer Relationship Management project, Supply Chain Management project, and Enterprise Relationship Management project. We also testify our proposal using stochastic based Markov model to find that proposed system can extract significant information of maximized values of code reusability with increasing level of uncertainties of software project methodologies.

  20. Range Safety Real-time System for Satellite Launch Vehicle Missions–Testing Methodologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Varaprasad

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available A real-time system plays a critical role in the range safety decision-making in a satellitelaunch mission. Real-time software, the heart of such systems, is becoming an issue of criticality.Emphasis is being laid on the development of reliable, robust, and operational system. Thispaper purports to delineate prudent testing methodologies implemented to test the real-timesystem.

  1. Expected Value Analysis for an Unmanned Expendable Launch Vehicle Payload Escape System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    68 i V List of Figures Figure Page 2.1 Apollo Spacecraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.2 Paraglider Recovery...few cm/s at the moment of contact" (17t5). Paraglider System. Crawford and MoNerney discuss Space-General Corporation’s study of three applications of... paragliders as recovery systems (4:293). The first, was a paraglider assembly designed to recover the Saturn SI-C 10 I booster. The second, a system

  2. Technical and Economical study of New Technologies and Reusable Space Vehicles promoting Space Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastav, Deepanshu; Malhotra, Sahil

    2012-07-01

    For many of us space tourism is an extremely fascinating and attractive idea. But in order for these to start we need vehicles that will take us to orbit and bring us back. Current space vehicles clearly cannot. Only the Space Shuttle survives past one use, and that's only if we ignore the various parts that fall off on the way up. So we need reusable launch vehicles. Launch of these vehicles to orbit requires accelerating to Mach 26, and therefore it uses a lot of propellant - about 10 tons per passenger. But there is no technical reason why reusable launch vehicles couldn't come to be operated routinely, just like aircraft. The main problem about space is how much it costs to get there, it's too expensive. And that's mainly because launch vehicles are expendable - either entirely, like satellite launchers, or partly, like the space shuttle. The trouble is that these will not only reduce the cost of launch - they'll also put the makers out of business, unless there's more to launch than just a few satellites a year, as there are today. Fortunately there's a market that will generate far more launch business than satellites ever well - passenger travel. This paper assesses this emerging market as well as technology that will make space tourism feasible. The main conclusion is that space vehicles can reduce the cost of human transport to orbit sufficiently for large new commercial markets to develop. Combining the reusability of space vehicles with the high traffic levels of space tourism offers the prospect of a thousandfold reduction in the cost per seat to orbit. The result will be airline operations to orbit involving dozens of space vehicles, each capable of more than one flight per day. These low costs will make possible a rapid expansion of space science and exploration. Luckily research aimed at developing low-cost reusable launch vehicles has increased recently. Already there are various projects like Spaceshipone, Spaceshiptwo, Spacebus, X-33 NASA etc. The

  3. Moon-Based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture: The MARTA Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.; Bechtel, R.; Chen, T.; Cormier, T.; Kalaver, S.; Kirtas, M.; Lewe, J.-H.; Marcus, L.; Marshall, D.; Medlin, M.; McIntire, J.; Nelson, D.; Remolina, D.; Scott, A.; Weglian, J.; Olds, J.

    2000-01-01

    The Moon-based Advanced Reusable Transportation Architecture (MARTA) Project conducted an in-depth investigation of possible Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to lunar surface transportation systems capable of sending both astronauts and large masses of cargo to the Moon and back. This investigation was conducted from the perspective of a private company operating the transportation system for a profit. The goal of this company was to provide an Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of 25% to its shareholders. The technical aspect of the study began with a wide open design space that included nuclear rockets and tether systems as possible propulsion systems. Based on technical, political, and business considerations, the architecture was quickly narrowed down to a traditional chemical rocket using liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. However, three additional technologies were identified for further investigation: aerobraking, in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and a mass driver on the lunar surface. These three technologies were identified because they reduce the mass of propellant used. Operational costs are the largest expense with propellant cost the largest contributor. ISRU, the production of materials using resources on the Moon, was considered because an Earth to Orbit (ETO) launch cost of 1600 per kilogram made taking propellant from the Earth's surface an expensive proposition. The use of an aerobrake to circularize the orbit of a vehicle coming from the Moon towards Earth eliminated 3, 100 meters per second of velocity change (Delta V), eliminating almost 30% of the 11,200 m/s required for one complete round trip. The use of a mass driver on the lunar surface, in conjunction with an ISRU production facility, would reduce the amount of propellant required by eliminating using propellant to take additional propellant from the lunar surface to Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). However, developing and operating such a system required further study to identify if it was cost effective. The

  4. Cleared for Launch - Lessons Learned from the OSIRIS-REx System Requirements Verification Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Craig; Adams, Angela; Williams, Bradley; Goodloe, Colby

    2017-01-01

    Requirements verification of a large flight system is a challenge. It is especially challenging for engineers taking on their first role in space systems engineering. This paper describes our approach to verification of the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security-Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) system requirements. It also captures lessons learned along the way from developing systems engineers embroiled in this process. We begin with an overview of the mission and science objectives as well as the project requirements verification program strategy. A description of the requirements flow down is presented including our implementation for managing the thousands of program and element level requirements and associated verification data. We discuss both successes and methods to improve the managing of this data across multiple organizational interfaces. Our approach to verifying system requirements at multiple levels of assembly is presented using examples from our work at instrument, spacecraft, and ground segment levels. We include a discussion of system end-to-end testing limitations and their impacts to the verification program. Finally, we describe lessons learned that are applicable to all emerging space systems engineers using our unique perspectives across multiple organizations of a large NASA program.

  5. NASA Historical Data Book. Volume 5; NASA Launch Systems, Space Transportation, Human Spaceflight and Space Science, 1979-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumerman, Judy A. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    In 1973, NASA published the first volume of the NASA Historical Data Book, a hefty tome containing mostly tabular data on the resources of the space agency between 1958 and 1968. There, broken into detailed tables, were the facts and figures associated with the budget, facilities, procurement, installations, and personnel of NASA during that formative decade. In 1988, NASA reissued that first volume of the data book and added two additional volumes on the agency's programs and projects, one each for 1958-1968 and 1969-1978. NASA published a fourth volume in 1994 that addressed NASA resources for the period between 1969 and 1978. This fifth volume of the NASA Historical Data Book is a continuation of those earlier efforts. This fundamental reference tool presents information, much of it statistical, documenting the development of four critical areas of NASA responsibility for the period between 1979 and 1988. This volume includes detailed information on the development and operation of launch systems, space transportation, human spaceflight, and space science during this era. As such, it contains in-depth statistical information about the early Space Shuttle program through the return to flight in 1988, the early efforts to build a space station, the development of new launch systems, and the launching of seventeen space science missions. A companion volume will appear late in 1999, documenting the space applications, support operations, aeronautics, and resources aspects of NASA during the period between 1979 and 1988. NASA began its operations as the nation's civilian space agency in 1958 following the passage of the National Aeronautics and Space Act. It succeeded the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA). The new organization was charged with preserving the role of the United States "as a leader in aeronautical and space science and technology" and in its application, with expanding our knowledge of the Earth's atmosphere and space, and with

  6. Military Handbook: Management and Design Guidance Electromagnetic Radiation Hardness for Air Launched Ordnance Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-15

    35 E-25. Composite Worst-Case Sueaeptibility Values for’CMOS Devices .......... . ... 3.-37 E-26. Typical Input-Output Trans3er Char;aceri; tic for 9615...system is attacted to the delivery aircraft until it Impacto a target, it is exposed to electromagnetic radiation from emitters aboard the delivery...hardness characteristics of the system. 18 ?41L-HDBK-335 (USA?) 15 JANUARY 1981 ii iii &Sb u C6 I too Iwo9 6 I 1 9~I n. II !- 00j6 Is a tic ,20 MIL

  7. LM-3A Launch Vehicle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RenShufang

    2004-01-01

    The LM-3A launch vehicle is a large three-stage liquidpropellant launch vehicle developed on the basis ot LM-3 ana LM-2C. By incorporating the mature technologies of LM-3 and adding a more powerful improved LOX/LH cryogenic third stage and more capable control system, LM-3A has a

  8. The Gaia astrophysical parameters inference system (Apsis). Pre-launch description

    CERN Document Server

    Bailer-Jones, C A L; Arcay, B; Astraatmadja, T; Bellas-Velidis, I; Berihuete, A; Bijaoui, A; Carrión, C; Dafonte, C; Damerdji, Y; Dapergolas, A; de Laverny, P; Delchambre, L; Drazinos, P; Drimmel, R; Frémat, Y; Fustes, D; García-Torres, M; Guédé, C; Heiter, U; Janotto, A -M; Karampelas, A; Kim, D -W; Knude, J; Kolka, I; Kontizas, E; Kontizas, M; Korn, A J; Lanzafame, A C; Lebreton, Y; Lindstrøm, H; Liu, C; Livanou, E; Lobel, A; Manteiga, M; Martayan, C; Ordenovic, Ch; Pichon, B; Recio-Blanco, A; Rocca-Volmerange, B; Sarro, L M; Smith, K; Sordo, R; Soubiran, C; Surdej, J; Thévenin, F; Tsalmantza, P; Vallenari, A; Zorec, J

    2013-01-01

    The Gaia satellite will survey the entire celestial sphere down to 20th magnitude, obtaining astrometry, photometry, and low resolution spectrophotometry on one billion astronomical sources, plus radial velocities for over one hundred million stars. Its main objective is to take a census of the stellar content of our Galaxy, with the goal of revealing its formation and evolution. Gaia's unique feature is the measurement of parallaxes and proper motions with hitherto unparalleled accuracy for many objects. As a survey, the physical properties of most of these objects are unknown. Here we describe the data analysis system put together by the Gaia consortium to classify these objects and to infer their astrophysical properties using the satellite's data. This system covers single stars, (unresolved) binary stars, quasars, and galaxies, all covering a wide parameter space. Multiple methods are used for many types of stars, producing multiple results for the end user according to different models and assumptions. ...

  9. The TWINS Science Data System after the launch of TWINS 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Valek, P.; Skoug, R.; Delapp, D.; Redfern, J.; Carruth, B.; McComas, D.

    2007-05-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) 1 satellite is in orbit and science data are expected to commence in the near future. TWINS-1 comprises half of the TWINS stereoscopic neutral atom imaging system that will advance our knowledge of the Earth's ring current. To support the expected data return, we have developed a Science Data System (SDS) for the TWINS mission. The TWINS SDS is an IDL- and Java- driven data interface that operates primarily via a web browser, and has as its spine an SQL-queryable database. Through this interface, TWINS science data will be provided to the TWINS team, the space science community, and the public. In this paper we present the current and future capabilities of the TWINS SDS, as well as how the SDS fits into virtual observatory infrastructure.

  10. New Projects Planed/launched By Cei Wg On Satellite Navigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszczak, S.; Manzoni, G.

    In the paper a short description of main projects on satellite positioning and naviga- tion in CEI countries is given. Special attention is devoted to the activity of members of Working Group on Satellite Navigation Systems. The projects in which they are involved and results of performed experiments can be specified as follows: - EGNOS positioning - the first results in CEI area, - application of various transmission tech- niques to diffusion of DGPS/RTK data from reference stations (SWIFT/DARC, RDS, radiobeacons, UHF transmission), - development of integrated GPS/INS methods for car navigation and GIS purposes, - development of software for integration of satellite vehicle position with numerical maps for car navigation, monitoring and acquisition of terrestrial data for GIS, - elaboration of method and software development for nav- igation and monitoring of aircraft during approaching and landing phase of flight, - elaboration of methods and software for integration of 3D satellite positions of user with Digital Terrain Model (DTM), - development of digital technology for bathy- metric survey with satellite positioning technique; mapping of shallow waters, lakes, rivers and inland water reservoirs, The recently planned studies and experiments cover land, marine and aircraft satellite navigation with EGNOS system in CEI countries. The project of extension of the EGNOS system to the Central and East European region is under preparation. Other important research is conducted on mapping of roads and rails tracks using integrated DGPS/INS techniques.

  11. Design and Control of the Electric Drive of the Anti- Hail Launching System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Manolea

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present, the Romanian anti-hail launchers are manually operated. This means that the positioning of the launcher on the two directions (azimuth and elevation are adjusted based on the commands, by the human operator. The paper describes the design, implementation and experimental results of the electric drives of the two axes by using permanent magnets synchronous motors (PMSM supplied by smart drives. The solution offers the possibility of automation and integration of the anti-hail launchers within intelligent systems.

  12. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Environments and Base Flow Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Knox, Kyle; Seaford, Mark; Dufrene, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    NASA MSFC and CUBRC designed and developed a 2% scale SLS propulsive wind tunnel test program to investigate base flow effects during flight from lift-off to MECO. This type of test program has not been conducted in 40+ years during the NASA Shuttle Program. Dufrene et al paper described the operation, instrumentation type and layout, facility and propulsion performance, test matrix and conditions and some raw results. This paper will focus on the SLS base flow physics and the generation and results of the design environments being used to design the thermal protection system.

  13. Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    There are three major space launch bases in China, the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center,the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center and the Xichang Satellite Launch Center. All the three launch centers are located in sparsely populated areas where the terrain is even and the field of vision is broad. Security, transport conditions and the influence of the axial rotation

  14. 240-kA switch with potential application in electromagnetic-launch systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honig, E.M.

    1983-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) launchers have severe switching requirements. Switching demands for railgun systems, for instance, inlcude current conduction from hundreds of kA to a few MA, conduction times of a ms to a few s, standoff voltages as high as a few tens of kV, to rcovery voltages of 1 to 10 kV after conduction, opening and closing duty, and repetitive operation up to about 50 Hz. These demands, particularly for repetitive opening duty, are far beyond the capability of most current switches and switching concepts. This paper will review the performance of rod array triggered vacuum gap (RATVG) switches and discuss their potential for solving switching problems in EM launcher systems. A new mode of operation for the RATVG switch is proposed. Fundamental considerations for the operation of opening switches and their associated transfer circuits are presented. Methods of recovering the railgun's inductive energy to enable efficient repetitive operation are discussed and new circuits with such capability are proposed.

  15. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  16. Reusable Solid Rocket Motor - Accomplishments, Lessons, and a Culture of Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dennis R.; Phelps, Willie J.

    2011-01-01

    The Reusable Solid Rocket Motor represents the largest solid rocket motor ever flown and the only human rated solid motor. Each Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) provides approximately 3-million lb of thrust to lift the integrated Space Shuttle vehicle from the launch pad. The motors burn out approximately 2 minutes later, separate from the vehicle and are recovered and refurbished. The size of the motor and the need for high reliability were challenges. Thrust shaping, via shaping of the propellant grain, was needed to limit structural loads during ascent. The motor design evolved through several block upgrades to increase performance and to increase safety and reliability. A major redesign occurred after STS-51L with the Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor. Significant improvements in the joint sealing systems were added. Design improvements continued throughout the Program via block changes with a number of innovations including development of low temperature o-ring materials and incorporation of a unique carbon fiber rope thermal barrier material. Recovery of the motors and post flight inspection improved understanding of hardware performance, and led to key design improvements. Because of the multidecade program duration material obsolescence was addressed, and requalification of materials and vendors was sometimes needed. Thermal protection systems and ablatives were used to protect the motor cases and nozzle structures. Significant understanding of design and manufacturing features of the ablatives was developed during the program resulting in optimization of design features and processing parameters. The project advanced technology in eliminating ozone-depleting materials in manufacturing processes and the development of an asbestos-free case insulation. Manufacturing processes for the large motor components were unique and safety in the manufacturing environment was a special concern. Transportation and handling approaches were also needed for the large

  17. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development and Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan; Kirchner, Robert; Engel, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    The Space Launch System (SLS) base heating test is broken down into two test programs: (1) Pathfinder and (2) Main Test. The Pathfinder Test Program focuses on the design, development, hot-fire test and performance analyses of the 2% sub-scale SLS core-stage and booster element propulsion systems. The core-stage propulsion system is composed of four gaseous oxygen/hydrogen RS-25D model engines and the booster element is composed of two aluminum-based model solid rocket motors (SRMs). The first section of the paper discusses the motivation and test facility specifications for the test program. The second section briefly investigates the internal flow path of the design. The third section briefly shows the performance of the model RS-25D engines and SRMs for the conducted short duration hot-fire tests. Good agreement is observed based on design prediction analysis and test data. This program is a challenging research and development effort that has not been attempted in 40+ years for a NASA vehicle.

  18. A Business Analysis of a SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hempsell, Mark; Aprea, Julio; Gallagher, Ben; Sadlier, Greg

    2016-04-01

    Between 2012 and 2014 an industrial consortium led by Reaction Engines conducted a feasibility study for the European Space Agency with the objective to explore the feasibility of SKYLON as the basis for a launcher that meets the requirements established for the Next Generation European Launcher. SKYLON is a fully reusable single stage to orbit launch system that is enabled by the unique performance characteristic of the Synergetic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine and is under active development. The purpose of the study which was called "SKYLON-based European Launch Service Operator (S-ELSO)" was to support ESA decision making on launch service strategy by exploring the potential implications of this new launch system on future European launch capability and the European industry that supports it. The study explored both a SKYLON operator (S-ELSO) and SKYLON manufacturer as separate business ventures. In keeping with previous studies, the only strategy that was found that kept the purchase price of the SKYLON low enough for a viable operator business was to follow an "airline" business model where the manufacturer sells SKYLONs to other operators in addition to S-ELSO. With the assumptions made in the study it was found that the SKYLON manufacturer with a total production run of between 30 and 100 SKYLONs could expect an Internal Rate of Return of around 10%. This was judged too low for all the funding to come from commercial funding sources, but is sufficiently high for a Public Private Partnership. The S-ELSO business model showed that the Internal Rate of Return would be high enough to consider operating without public support (i.e. commercial in operation, irrespective of any public funding of development), even when the average launch price is lowered to match the lowest currently quoted price for expendable systems.

  19. Launch Control Network Engineer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is being built at the Kennedy Space Center in order to successfully launch NASA’s revolutionary vehicle that allows humans to explore further into space than ever before. During my internship, I worked with the Network, Firewall, and Hardware teams that are all contributing to the huge SCCS network project effort. I learned the SCCS network design and the several concepts that are running in the background. I also updated and designed documentation for physical networks that are part of SCCS. This includes being able to assist and build physical installations as well as configurations. I worked with the network design for vehicle telemetry interfaces to the Launch Control System (LCS); this allows the interface to interact with other systems at other NASA locations. This network design includes the Space Launch System (SLS), Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS), and the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). I worked on the network design and implementation in the Customer Avionics Interface Development and Analysis (CAIDA) lab.

  20. Magnetic Launch Assist Demonstration Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    This image shows a 1/9 subscale model vehicle clearing the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev), test track during a demonstration test conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies. To launch spacecraft into orbit, a Magnetic Launch Assist System would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a launch-assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  1. Small Space Launch: Origins & Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, T.; Delarosa, J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Space Situational Awareness capability continues to be a key element in obtaining and maintaining the high ground in space. Space Situational Awareness satellites are critical enablers for integrated air, ground and sea operations, and play an essential role in fighting and winning conflicts. The United States leads the world space community in spacecraft payload systems from the component level into spacecraft, and in the development of constellations of spacecraft. In the area of launch systems that support Space Situational Awareness, despite the recent development of small launch vehicles, the United States launch capability is dominated by an old, unresponsive and relatively expensive set of launchers in the Expandable, Expendable Launch Vehicles (EELV) platforms; Delta IV and Atlas V. The United States directed Air Force Space Command to develop the capability for operationally responsive access to space and use of space to support national security, including the ability to provide critical space capabilities in the event of a failure of launch or on-orbit capabilities. On 1 Aug 06, Air Force Space Command activated the Space Development & Test Wing (SDTW) to perform development, test and evaluation of Air Force space systems and to execute advanced space deployment and demonstration projects to exploit new concepts and technologies, and rapidly migrate capabilities to the warfighter. The SDTW charged the Launch Test Squadron (LTS) with the mission to develop the capability of small space launch, supporting government research and development space launches and missile defense target missions, with operationally responsive spacelift for Low-Earth-Orbit Space Situational Awareness assets as a future mission. This new mission created new challenges for LTS. The LTS mission tenets of developing space launches and missile defense target vehicles were an evolution from the squadrons previous mission of providing sounding rockets under the Rocket

  2. Probabilistic Design Analysis (PDA) Approach to Determine the Probability of Cross-System Failures for a Space Launch Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Lo, Yunnhon; Ward, Natalie C.

    2010-01-01

    Quantifying the probability of significant launch vehicle failure scenarios for a given design, while still in the design process, is critical to mission success and to the safety of the astronauts. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is chosen from many system safety and reliability tools to verify the loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) requirements set by the NASA Program Office. To support the integrated vehicle PRA, probabilistic design analysis (PDA) models are developed by using vehicle design and operation data to better quantify failure probabilities and to better understand the characteristics of a failure and its outcome. This PDA approach uses a physics-based model to describe the system behavior and response for a given failure scenario. Each driving parameter in the model is treated as a random variable with a distribution function. Monte Carlo simulation is used to perform probabilistic calculations to statistically obtain the failure probability. Sensitivity analyses are performed to show how input parameters affect the predicted failure probability, providing insight for potential design improvements to mitigate the risk. The paper discusses the application of the PDA approach in determining the probability of failure for two scenarios from the NASA Ares I project

  3. Dynamic Reusable Workflows for Ocean Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. Signell

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog searches and data access now make it possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate—end-to-end—data search, analysis, and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused, and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS which automates the skill assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC Catalog Service for the Web (CSW, then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enter the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased

  4. Dynamic reusable workflows for ocean science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signell, Richard; Fernandez, Filipe; Wilcox, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Digital catalogs of ocean data have been available for decades, but advances in standardized services and software for catalog search and data access make it now possible to create catalog-driven workflows that automate — end-to-end — data search, analysis and visualization of data from multiple distributed sources. Further, these workflows may be shared, reused and adapted with ease. Here we describe a workflow developed within the US Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) which automates the skill-assessment of water temperature forecasts from multiple ocean forecast models, allowing improved forecast products to be delivered for an open water swim event. A series of Jupyter Notebooks are used to capture and document the end-to-end workflow using a collection of Python tools that facilitate working with standardized catalog and data services. The workflow first searches a catalog of metadata using the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) Catalog Service for the Web (CSW), then accesses data service endpoints found in the metadata records using the OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS) for in situ sensor data and OPeNDAP services for remotely-sensed and model data. Skill metrics are computed and time series comparisons of forecast model and observed data are displayed interactively, leveraging the capabilities of modern web browsers. The resulting workflow not only solves a challenging specific problem, but highlights the benefits of dynamic, reusable workflows in general. These workflows adapt as new data enters the data system, facilitate reproducible science, provide templates from which new scientific workflows can be developed, and encourage data providers to use standardized services. As applied to the ocean swim event, the workflow exposed problems with two of the ocean forecast products which led to improved regional forecasts once errors were corrected. While the example is specific, the approach is general, and we hope to see increased use of dynamic

  5. Xichang Satellite Launch Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuJie

    2004-01-01

    Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) is mainly for geosynchronous orbit launches. The main purpose of XSLC is to launch spacecraft, such as broadcasting,communications and meteorological satellites, into geo-stationary orbit.Most of the commercial satellite launches of Long March vehicles have been from Xichang Satellite Launch Center. With 20 years' development,XSLC can launch 5 kinds of launch vehicles and send satellites into geostationary orbit and polar orbit. In the future, moon exploration satellites will also be launched from XSLC.

  6. Military Demand Analysis and Suggestions about Submarine Torpedo Launching System%潜艇鱼雷发射系统军事需求及对策分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亮; 李伟; 于大方

    2011-01-01

    潜艇鱼雷发射系统是潜艇武器系统的重要组成部分,其战技性能直接影响潜艇整体作战效能.本文针对潜艇鱼雷发射系统研究与建设现状,结合未来海战中潜艇作战行动的特点,分析了潜艇鱼雷发射系统的最新军事需求.通过分析鱼雷发射系统的综合指标要求,指出了其未来的发展趋势和涉及的关键技术,特别强调了鱼雷发射系统的整体性要求,并提出了几点建议.%Torpedo launching system is a key component of submarine weapon system, and its performance influences submarine's operational effectiveness. Considering the current research and development situations of submarine torpedo launching system, the new military demand for the submarine torpedo launching system in accordance with the future submarine combat is analyzed in this paper. By analyzing the composite index for torpedo launching system, the developing trend and the key technologies of the system are pointed out with emphasis on integrity demand, and some suggestions are offered.

  7. Normalized Specifications for Identifying Reusable Software

    OpenAIRE

    Luqi

    1987-01-01

    An approach to retrieving reusable software components by means of module specifications is described. The approach depends on normalizing specifications to reduce the variations in the representation of software concepts. The concept is illustrated in terms of both formal and informal approaches to component specifications.

  8. Supporting software reusability with polymorphic types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, Bert

    1995-01-01

    This thesis concerns the technical problems of software reuse and the -related- problem of constructing highly reusable software. Although several of the problems of software reuse are to be found in the fields of psychology and/or economics, the technica plroblems are there to be solved as well. On

  9. 14 CFR 437.67 - Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tracking a reusable suborbital rocket. 437... a reusable suborbital rocket. A permittee must— (a) During permitted flight, measure in real time the position and velocity of its reusable suborbital rocket; and (b) Provide position and...

  10. Advanced Launch System Complex

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: Area 1-120 consists of three liquid rocket stands, with five firing positions, a control center and various support facilities. Vertical Stand 1A is a...

  11. Tracks for Eastern/Western European Future Launch Vehicles Cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eymar, Patrick; Bertschi, Markus

    2002-01-01

    exclusively upon Western European elements indigenously produced. Yet some private initiatives took place successfully in the second half of the nineties (Eurockot and Starsem) bringing together companies from Western and Eastern Europe. Evolution of these JV's are already envisioned. But these ventures relied mostly on already existing vehicles. broadening the bases in order to enlarge the reachable world market appears attractive, even if structural difficulties are complicating the process. had recently started to analyze, with KSRC counterparts how mixing Russian and Western European based elements would provide potential competitive edges. and RKA in the frame of the new ESA's Future Launch Preparatory Programme (FLPP). main technical which have been considered as the most promising (reusable LOx/Hydrocarbon engine, experimental reentry vehicles or demonstrators and reusable launch vehicle first stage or booster. international approach. 1 patrick.eymar@lanceurs.aeromatra.com 2

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF M.A. EPM PROGRAM LAUNCHED THROUGH DISTANCE EDUCATION SYSTEM OF ALLAMA IQBAL OPEN UNIVERSITY ISLAMABAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Manzoor HUSSAIN SHAH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study focus the effectiveness of the M.A EPM progam launched through distance education system of AIOU. For this purpose the performance of heads of educational institutions with and without M.A EPM degree was analyzed keeping in view different major aspects i.e. planning strategies, managerial approaches, coordination, administration and use of financial resources. The population of the study consisted of heads of educational institutions with and without MA EPM degree in Punjab. It was found that the performance of heads with EPM degree was better while planning strategies, management, coordination, following govt. policies, preparing annual budget and using financial resources as compared to heads without EPM degree. On the basis of the conclusions of the study it was recommended that MA EPM degree may be declared compulsory for heads of educational institutions. All the universities may start MA EPM degree to fulfill the requirements of working and professional educational planners and managers of the country.

  13. A Machine Learning based Efficient Software Reusability Prediction Model for Java Based Object Oriented Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surbhi Maggo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Software reuse refers to the development of new software systems with the likelihood of completely or partially using existing components or resources with or without modification. Reusability is the measure of the ease with which previously acquired concepts and objects can be used in new contexts. It is a promising strategy for improvements in software quality, productivity and maintainability as it provides for cost effective, reliable (with the consideration that prior testing and use has eliminated bugs and accelerated (reduced time to market development of the software products. In this paper we present an efficient automation model for the identification and evaluation of reusable software components to measure the reusability levels (high, medium or low of procedure oriented Java based (object oriented software systems. The presented model uses a metric framework for the functional analysis of the Object oriented software components that target essential attributes of reusability analysis also taking into consideration Maintainability Index to account for partial reuse. Further machine learning algorithm LMNN is explored to establish relationships between the functional attributes. The model works at functional level rather than at structural level. The system is implemented as a tool in Java and the performance of the automation tool developed is recorded using criteria like precision, recall, accuracy and error rate. The results gathered indicate that the model can be effectively used as an efficient, accurate, fast and economic model for the identification of procedure based reusable components from the existing inventory of software resources.

  14. In-Flight Suppression of a Destabilized F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using frequency-domain reconstruction of flight data, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  15. In-Flight Suppression of an Unstable F/A-18 Structural Mode Using the Space Launch System Adaptive Augmenting Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Wall, John H.; Miller, Christopher J.; Hanson, Curtis E.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) Flight Control System (FCS) includes an Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) component which employs a multiplicative gain update law to enhance the performance and robustness of the baseline control system for extreme off-nominal scenarios. The SLS FCS algorithm including AAC has been flight tested utilizing a specially outfitted F/A-18 fighter jet in which the pitch axis control of the aircraft was performed by a Non-linear Dynamic Inversion (NDI) controller, SLS reference models, and the SLS flight software prototype. This paper describes test cases from the research flight campaign in which the fundamental F/A-18 airframe structural mode was identified using post-flight frequency-domain reconstruction, amplified to result in closed loop instability, and suppressed in-flight by the SLS adaptive control system.

  16. Evaluation of Acoustic Emission NDE of Composite Crew Module Service Module/Alternate Launch Abort System (CCM SM/ALAS) Test Article Failure Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Michael R.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2010-01-01

    Failure tests of CCM SM/ALAS (Composite Crew Module Service Module / Alternate Launch Abort System) composite panels were conducted during July 10, 2008 and July 24, 2008 at Langley Research Center. This is a report of the analysis of the Acoustic Emission (AE) data collected during those tests.

  17. Cassini launch contingency effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  18. Conceptual design of a crewed reusable space transportation system aimed at parabolic flights: stakeholder analysis, mission concept selection, and spacecraft architecture definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Roberta; Viola, Nicole; Fenoglio, Franco; Santoro, Francesco

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a methodology to derive architectures and operational concepts for future earth-to-orbit and sub-orbital transportation systems. In particular, at first, it describes the activity flow, methods, and tools leading to the generation of a wide range of alternative solutions to meet the established goal. Subsequently, the methodology allows selecting a small number of feasible options among which the optimal solution can be found. For the sake of clarity, the first part of the paper describes the methodology from a theoretical point of view, while the second part proposes the selection of mission concepts and of a proper transportation system aimed at sub-orbital parabolic flights. Starting from a detailed analysis of the stakeholders and their needs, the major objectives of the mission have been derived. Then, following a system engineering approach, functional analysis tools as well as concept of operations techniques allowed generating a very high number of possible ways to accomplish the envisaged goals. After a preliminary pruning activity, aimed at defining the feasibility of these concepts, more detailed analyses have been carried out. Going on through the procedure, the designer should move from qualitative to quantitative evaluations, and for this reason, to support the trade-off analysis, an ad-hoc built-in mission simulation software has been exploited. This support tool aims at estimating major mission drivers (mass, heat loads, manoeuverability, earth visibility, and volumetric efficiency) as well as proving the feasibility of the concepts. Other crucial and multi-domain mission drivers, such as complexity, innovation level, and safety have been evaluated through the other appropriate analyses. Eventually, one single mission concept has been selected and detailed in terms of layout, systems, and sub-systems, highlighting also logistic, safety, and maintainability aspects.

  19. Aquarius, a reusable water-based interplanetary human spaceflight transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, Daniel R.; Logan, James S.

    2016-11-01

    Attributes of a reusable interplanetary human spaceflight transport are proposed and applied to example transits between the Earth/Moon system and Deimos, the outer moon of Mars. Because the transport is 54% water by mass at an interplanetary departure, it is christened Aquarius. In addition to supporting crew hydration/hygiene, water aboard Aquarius serves as propellant and as enhanced crew habitat radiation shielding during interplanetary transit. Key infrastructure and technology supporting Aquarius operations include pre-emplaced consumables and subsurface habitat at Deimos with crew radiation shielding equivalent to sea level on Earth, resupply in a selenocentric distant retrograde orbit, and nuclear thermal propulsion.

  20. Orbital Spacecraft Consumables Resupply System (OSCRS): Monopropellant application to space station and OMV automatic refueling impacts of an ELV launch, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    The use of orbital spacecraft consumables resupply system (OSCRS) at the Space Station is investigated, its use with the orbital maneuvering vehicle, and launch of the OSCRS on an expendable launch vehicles. A system requirements evaluation was performed initially to identify any unique requirements that would impact the design of OSCRS when used at the Space Station. Space Station documents were reviewed to establish requirements and to identify interfaces between the OSCRS, Shuttle, and Space Station, especially the Servicing Facility. The interfaces between OSCRS and the Shuttle consists of an avionics interface for command and control and a structural interface for launch support and for grappling with the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System. For use of the OSCRS at the Space Station, three configurations were evaluated using the results of the interface definition to increase the efficiency of OSCRS and to decrease the launch weight by Station-basing specific OSCRS subsystems. A modular OSCRS was developed in which the major subsystems were Station-based where possible. The configuration of an OSCRS was defined for transport of water to the Space Station.

  1. 15 CFR 744.3 - Restrictions on Certain Rocket Systems (including ballistic missile systems and space launch...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Vehicles (including cruise missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. 744.3... missile systems, target drones and reconnaissance drones) End-Uses. (a) General prohibition. In addition... transfer (in-country) you know that the item: (1) Will be used in the design, development, production...

  2. A Evaluation of Software Re-Usability Using Software Metrics through Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available flexibility and quality through reusability, replace-ability, efficient reusability and scalability are some additional benefits of Component based software development .Component Based Software Engineering (CBSE is a paradigm that aims at constructing and designing systems using a pre-defined set of software components explicitly created for reuse. According to Clements, CBSE embodies the “the „buy, don‟t build‟ philosophy”. The idea of reusing software components has been present in software engineering for several decades. Although the software industry developed massively in recent decades, component reuse is still facing numerous challenges and lacking adoption by practitioners. One of the impediments preventing efficient and effective reuse is the difficulty to determine which artifacts are best suited to solve a particular problem in a given context and how easy it will be to reuse them there. So far, no clear framework is describing the reusability of software and structuring appropriate metrics that can be found in literature. Nevertheless, a good understanding of reusability as well as adequate and easy to use metrics for quantification of reusability are necessary to simplify and accelerate the adoption of component reuse in software development. Keywords—

  3. Facile synthesis of enzyme-embedded magnetic metal-organic frameworks as a reusable mimic multi-enzyme system: mimetic peroxidase properties and colorimetric sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chen; Wang, Yang; Ding, Qinghua; Jiang, Long; Li, Ming; Zhu, Weiwei; Pan, Duo; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Mingzhu

    2015-11-01

    This work reports a facile and easily-achieved approach for enzyme immobilization by embedding glucose oxidase (GOx) in magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (mZIF-8) via a de novo approach. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting GOx embedded mZIF-8 (mZIF-8@GOx) was utilized as a colorimetric sensor for rapid detection of glucose. This method was constructed on the basis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which possessed very fascinating peroxidase-like properties, and the cascade reaction for the visual detection of glucose was combined into one step through the mZIF-8@GOx based mimic multi-enzyme system. After characterization by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometry, the as-prepared mZIF-8@GOx was confirmed with the robust core-shell structure, the monodisperse nanoparticle had an average diameter of about 200 nm and displayed superparamagnetism with a saturation magnetization value of 40.5 emu g-1, it also exhibited a large surface area of 396.10 m2 g-1. As a peroxidase mimic, mZIF-8 was verified to be highly stable and of low cost, and showed a strong affinity towards H2O2. Meanwhile, the mZIF-8 embedded GOx also exhibited improved activity, stability and greatly enhanced selectivity in glucose detection. Moreover, the mZIF-8@GOx had excellent recyclability with high activity (88.7% residual activity after 12 times reuse).This work reports a facile and easily-achieved approach for enzyme immobilization by embedding glucose oxidase (GOx) in magnetic zeolitic imidazolate framework 8 (mZIF-8) via a de novo approach. As a demonstration of the power of such materials, the resulting GOx embedded mZIF-8 (mZIF-8@GOx) was utilized as a colorimetric sensor for rapid detection of glucose. This method was constructed on the basis of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which possessed very fascinating peroxidase-like properties, and the cascade

  4. Magnetic Launch Assist Vehicle-Artist's Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle clearing the track and shifting to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The system, formerly referred as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) system, is a launch system developed and tested by Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using an off-board electric energy source and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  5. Magnetic Launch Assist Experimental Track

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In this photograph, a futuristic spacecraft model sits atop a carrier on the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) System, experimental track at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). Engineers at MSFC have developed and tested Magnetic Launch Assist technologies that would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at very high speeds. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically drive a space vehicle along the track. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long and capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds. This track is an advanced linear induction motor. Induction motors are common in fans, power drills, and sewing machines. Instead of spinning in a circular motion to turn a shaft or gears, a linear induction motor produces thrust in a straight line. Mounted on concrete pedestals, the track is 100-feet long, about 2-feet wide, and about 1.5-feet high. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  6. Reusable Lexical Representations for Idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I introduce (1) a technically simple and highly theory-independent way for lexically representing flexible idiomatic expressions, and (2) a procedure to incorporate these lexical representations in a wide variety of NLP systems. The method is based on Structural EQuivalence Classes

  7. Reusable Lexical Representations for Idioms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, J.E.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I introduce (1) a technically simple and highly theory-independent way for lexically representing flexible idiomatic expressions, and (2) a procedure to incorporate these lexical representations in a wide variety of NLP systems. The method is based on Structural EQuivalence Classes for

  8. Iraq Radiosonde Launch Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Iraqi upper air records loaned to NCDC from the Air Force 14th Weather Squadron. Scanned notebooks containing upper air radiosonde launch records and data. Launches...

  9. Launching technological innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Talke, Katrin; Salomo, Søren

    2009-01-01

    have received less attention. This study considers the interdependencies between strategic, internally and externally, directed tactical launch activities and investigates both direct and indirect performance effects. The analysis is based upon data from 113 technological innovations launched...

  10. Reducing the Cost of Laparoscopy: Reusable versus Disposable Laparoscopic Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios K. Manatakis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost-effectiveness in health care management is critical. The situation in debt-stricken Greece is further aggravated by the financial crisis and constant National Health System expense cut-downs. In an effort to minimize the cost of laparoscopy, our department introduced reusable laparoscopic instruments in December 2011. The aim of this study was to assess potential cost reduction of laparoscopic operations in the field of general surgery. Hospital records, invoice lists, and operative notes between January 2012 and December 2013, were retrospectively reviewed and data were collected on laparoscopic procedures, instrument failures, and replacement needs. Initial acquisition cost of 5 basic instrument sets was €21,422. Over the following 24 months, they were used in 623 operations, with a total maintenance cost of €11,487. Based on an average retail price of €490 per set, projected cost with disposable instruments would amount to €305,270, creating savings of €272,361 over the two-year period under study. Despite the seemingly high purchase price, each set amortized its acquisition cost after only 9 procedures and instrument cost depreciated to less than €55 per case. Disposable instruments cost 9 times more than reusable ones, and their high price would almost equal the total hospital reimbursement by social security funds for many common laparoscopic procedures.

  11. Refractory Materials for Flame Deflector Protection System Corrosion Control: Similar Industries and/or Launch Facilities Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Luz Marina; Hintze, Paul E.; Parlier, Christopher R.; Coffman, Brekke E.; Sampson, Jeffrey W.; Kolody, Mark R.; Curran, Jerome P.; Perusich, Stephen A.; Trejo, David; Whitten, Mary C.; Zidek, Jason

    2009-01-01

    A trade study and litera ture survey of refractory materials (fi rebrick. refractory concrete. and si licone and epoxy ablatives) were conducted to identify candidate replacement materials for Launch Complexes 39A and 398 at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). In addition, site vis its and in terviews with industry expens and vendors of refractory materials were conducted. As a result of the si te visits and interviews, several products were identified for launch applications. Firebrick is costly to procure and install and was not used in the si tes studied. Refractory concrete is gunnable. adheres well. and costs less 10 install. Martyte. a ceramic fi lled epoxy. can protect structural stccl but is costly. difficullto apply. and incompatible with silicone ablatives. Havanex, a phenolic ablative material, is easy to apply but is costly and requires frequent replacement. Silicone ablatives are ineJ[pensive, easy to apply. and perl'onn well outside of direct rocket impingement areas. but refractory concrete and epoxy ablatives provide better protection against direcl rocket exhaust. None of the prodUCIS in this trade study can be considered a panacea for these KSC launch complexes. but the refractory products. individually or in combination, may be considered for use provided the appropriate testing requirements and specifications are met.

  12. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Shireesha

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing newsoftware products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuserepository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describeshow a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking ifoptimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providingcoding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable componentsand guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  13. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    CERN Document Server

    Shireesha, P; 10.5121/ijsea.2010.1303

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and guidelines and best practices for making configurable and easy to use.

  14. An Approach to Calculate Reusability in Source Code Using Metrics

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit Patidar; Prof. Virendra Singh

    2015-01-01

    Reusability is an only one best direction to increase developing productivity and maintainability of application. One must first search for good tested software component and reusable. Developed Application software by one programmer can be shown useful for others also component. This is proving that code specifics to application requirements can be also reused in develop projects related with same requirements. The main aim of this paper proposed a way for reusable module. An pro...

  15. Building Reusable Software Component For Optimization Check in ABAP Coding

    OpenAIRE

    Shireesha, P.; S.S.V.N.Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Software component reuse is the software engineering practice of developing new software products from existing components. A reuse library or component reuse repository organizes stores and manages reusable components. This paper describes how a reusable component is created, how it reuses the function and checking if optimized code is being used in building programs and applications. Finally providing coding guidelines, standards and best practices used for creating reusable components and ...

  16. Effectiveness of Loan Guarantees versus Tax Incentives for Space Launch Ventures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottoline, S.; Coleman, R.

    1999-01-01

    Over the course of the past few years, several new and innovative fully or partiailly reusable launch vehicle designs have been initiated with the objective of reducing the cost of space transportation. These new designs are in various stages hardware development for technology and system demonstrators. The larger vehicles include the Lockheed Martin X-33 technology demonstrator for VentureStar and the Space Access launcher. The smaller launcher ventures include Kelly Space and Technology and Rotary Rocket Company. A common denominator between the new large and small commercial launch systems is the ability to obtain project financing and at an affordable cost. Both are having or will have great difficulty in obtaining financing in the capital markets because of the dollar amounts and the risk involved. The large established companies are pursuing multi-billion dollar developments which are a major challenge to finance because of the size and risk of the projects. The smaller start-up companies require less capital for their smaller systems, however, their lack of corporate financial muscle and launch vehicle track record results in a major challenge to obtain financing also because of high risk. On Wall Street, new launch system financing is a question of market, technical, organizational, legal/regulatory and financial risk. The current limit of acceptable financial risk for Space businesses on Wall Street are the telecommunications and broadcast satellite projects, of which many in number are projected for the future. Tbc recent problems with Iridium market and financial performance are casting a long shadow over new satellite project financing, making it increasingly difficult for the new satellite projects to obtain needed financing.

  17. Multigraph: Reusable Interactive Data Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    There are surprisingly few good software tools available for presenting time series data on the internet. The most common practice is to use a desktop program such as Excel or Matlab to save a graph as an image which can be included in a web page like any other image. This disconnects the graph from the data in a way that makes updating a graph with new data a cumbersome manual process, and it limits the user to one particular view of the data. The Multigraph project defines an XML format for describing interactive data graphs, and software tools for creating and rendering those graphs in web pages and other internet connected applications. Viewing a Multigraph graph is extremely simple and intuitive, and requires no instructions; the user can pan and zoom by clicking and dragging, in a familiar "Google Maps" kind of way. Creating a new graph for inclusion in a web page involves writing a simple XML configuration file. Multigraph can read data in a variety of formats, and can display data from a web service, allowing users to "surf" through large data sets, downloading only those the parts of the data that are needed for display. The Multigraph XML format, or "MUGL" for short, provides a concise description of the visual properties of a graph, such as axes, plot styles, data sources, labels, etc, as well as interactivity properties such as how and whether the user can pan or zoom along each axis. Multigraph reads a file in this format, draws the described graph, and allows the user to interact with it. Multigraph software currently includes a Flash application for embedding graphs in web pages, a Flex component for embedding graphs in larger Flex/Flash applications, and a plugin for creating graphs in the WordPress content management system. Plans for the future include a Java version for desktop viewing and editing, a command line version for batch and server side rendering, and possibly Android and iPhone versions. Multigraph is currently in use on several web

  18. Expendable launch vehicle studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Reiss, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Analytical support studies of expendable launch vehicles concentrate on the stability of the dynamics during launch especially during or near the region of maximum dynamic pressure. The in-plane dynamic equations of a generic launch vehicle with multiple flexible bending and fuel sloshing modes are developed and linearized. The information from LeRC about the grids, masses, and modes is incorporated into the model. The eigenvalues of the plant are analyzed for several modeling factors: utilizing diagonal mass matrix, uniform beam assumption, inclusion of aerodynamics, and the interaction between the aerodynamics and the flexible bending motion. Preliminary PID, LQR, and LQG control designs with sensor and actuator dynamics for this system and simulations are also conducted. The initial analysis for comparison of PD (proportional-derivative) and full state feedback LQR Linear quadratic regulator) shows that the split weighted LQR controller has better performance than that of the PD. In order to meet both the performance and robustness requirements, the H(sub infinity) robust controller for the expendable launch vehicle is developed. The simulation indicates that both the performance and robustness of the H(sub infinity) controller are better than that for the PID and LQG controllers. The modelling and analysis support studies team has continued development of methodology, using eigensensitivity analysis, to solve three classes of discrete eigenvalue equations. In the first class, the matrix elements are non-linear functions of the eigenvector. All non-linear periodic motion can be cast in this form. Here the eigenvector is comprised of the coefficients of complete basis functions spanning the response space and the eigenvalue is the frequency. The second class of eigenvalue problems studied is the quadratic eigenvalue problem. Solutions for linear viscously damped structures or viscoelastic structures can be reduced to this form. Particular attention is paid to

  19. An Approach to Calculate Reusability in Source Code Using Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Patidar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Reusability is an only one best direction to increase developing productivity and maintainability of application. One must first search for good tested software component and reusable. Developed Application software by one programmer can be shown useful for others also component. This is proving that code specifics to application requirements can be also reused in develop projects related with same requirements. The main aim of this paper proposed a way for reusable module. An process that takes source code as a input that will helped to take the decision approximately which particular software, reusable artefacts should be reused or not.

  20. Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    2015. When the draft RFP was posted a Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC) internal Comment Resolution Matrix ( CRM ) was inadvertently exposed for...competitiveness; and benefit the U.S. economy. The overall goal of the EELV December 2015 SAR March 14, 2016 16:05:14 UNCLASSIFIED 8 launch system investment is

  1. Simulated meteoroid penetration of reusable surface insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, J. K.; Christensen, H. E.

    1973-01-01

    Meteoroid impact simulation test results on insulation tiles were used to determine penetration resistance of reusable surface insulation attached to simulated shuttle structures. The probability of no meteoroid damage to a typical shuttle orbiter was determined. Specimens were plasma jet tested to determine effects of various size meteoroid cavities on their thermal performance. None of the tiles failed catastrophically, but large, egg-shaped craters did result from meteoroid penetration. The metallic side of a specimen that was completely penetrated showed a petalled hole typical for thin gage shielded structures.

  2. Aerosciences, Aero-Propulsion and Flight Mechanics Technology Development for NASA's Next Generation Launch Technology Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrell, Charles E., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) program, Vehicle Systems Research and Technology (VSR&T) project is pursuing technology advancements in aerothermodynamics, aeropropulsion and flight mechanics to enable development of future reusable launch vehicle (RLV) systems. The current design trade space includes rocket-propelled, hypersonic airbreathing and hybrid systems in two-stage and single-stage configurations. Aerothermodynamics technologies include experimental and computational databases to evaluate stage separation of two-stage vehicles as well as computational and trajectory simulation tools for this problem. Additionally, advancements in high-fidelity computational tools and measurement techniques are being pursued along with the study of flow physics phenomena, such as boundary-layer transition. Aero-propulsion technology development includes scramjet flowpath development and integration, with a current emphasis on hypervelocity (Mach 10 and above) operation, as well as the study of aero-propulsive interactions and the impact on overall vehicle performance. Flight mechanics technology development is focused on advanced guidance, navigation and control (GN&C) algorithms and adaptive flight control systems for both rocket-propelled and airbreathing vehicles.

  3. Reusable Hot-Wire Cable Cutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauken, Michael T.; Steinkraus, Joel M.

    2010-01-01

    During the early development stage of balloon deployment systems for missions, nichrome wire cable cutters were often used in place of pyro-actuated cutters. Typically, a nichrome wire is wrapped around a bundle of polymer cables with a low melting point and connected to a relay-actuated electric circuit. The heat from the nichrome reduces the strength of the cable bundle, which quickly breaks under a mechanical load and can thus be used as a release mechanism for a deployment system. However, the use of hand-made heated nichrome wire for cutters is not very reliable. Often, the wrapped nichrome wire does not cut through the cable because it either pulls away from its power source or does not stay in contact with the cable being cut. Because nichrome is not readily soldered to copper wire, unreliable mechanical crimps are often made to connect the nichrome to an electric circuit. A self-contained device that is reusable and reliable was developed to sever cables for device release or deployment. The nichrome wire in this new device is housed within an enclosure to prevent it from being damaged by handling. The electric power leads are internally connected within the unit to the nichrome wire using a screw terminal connection. A bayonet plug, a quick and secure method of connecting the cutter to the power source, is used to connect the cutter to the power leads similar to those used in pyro-cutter devices. A small ceramic tube [0.25-in. wide 0.5-in. long (.6.4-mm wide 13-mm long)] houses a spiraled nichrome wire that is heated when a cable release action is required. The wire is formed into a spiral coil by wrapping it around a mandrel. It is then laid inside the ceramic tube so that it fits closely to the inner surface of the tube. The ceramic tube provides some thermal and electrical insulation so that most of the heat generated by the wire is directed toward the cable bundle in the center of the spiral. The ceramic tube is cemented into an aluminum block, which

  4. Au/TiO2 Reusable Photocatalysts for Dye Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silija Padikkaparambil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanogold doped TiO2 catalysts are synthesized, and their application in the photodegradation of dye pollutants is studied. The materials are characterized using different analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, UV-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results revealed the strong interaction between the metallic gold nanoparticles and the anatase TiO2 support. Au doped systems showed very good photoactivity in the degradation of dye pollutants under UV irradiation as well as in sunlight. A simple mechanism is proposed for explaining the excellent photoactivity of the systems. The reusability studies of the photocatalysts exhibited more than 98% degradation of the dye even after 10 repeated cycles.

  5. Detection and modeling of the acoustic perturbation produced by the launch of the Space Shuttle using the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, T. J.; Calais, E.; Dautermann, T.

    2010-12-01

    Rocket launches are known to produce infrasonic pressure waves that propagate into the ionosphere where coupling between electrons and neutral particles induces fluctuations in ionospheric electron density observable in GPS measurements. We have detected ionospheric perturbations following the launch of space shuttle Atlantis on 11 May 2009 using an array of continually operating GPS stations across the Southeastern coast of the United States and in the Caribbean. Detections are prominent to the south of the westward shuttle trajectory in the area of maximum coupling between the acoustic wave and Earth’s magnetic field, move at speeds consistent with the speed of sound, and show coherency between stations covering a large geographic range. We model the perturbation as an explosive source located at the point of closest approach between the shuttle path and each sub-ionospheric point. The neutral pressure wave is propagated using ray tracing, resultant changes in electron density are calculated at points of intersection between rays and satellite-to-reciever line-of-sight, and synthetic integrated electron content values are derived. Arrival times of the observed and synthesized waveforms match closely, with discrepancies related to errors in the apriori sound speed model used for ray tracing. Current work includes the estimation of source location and energy.

  6. Methodology for Evaluating Quality and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Bireniene, Virginija; Serikoviene, Silvija

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to present the scientific model and several methods for the expert evaluation of quality of learning objects (LOs) paying especial attention to LOs reusability level. The activities of eQNet Quality Network for a European Learning Resource Exchange (LRE) aimed to improve reusability of LOs of European Schoolnet's LRE…

  7. Characteristic model based control of the X-34 reusable launch vehicle in its climbing phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Bin; WU HongXin; LIN ZongLi; LI Guo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,a characteristic model based longitudinal control design for the trans-aerosphere vehicle X-34 In its transonic and hypersonic climbing phase is proposed.The design is based on the dynamic characteristics of the vehicle and the curves it is to track in this climbing phase.Through a detailed analysis of the aerodynamics and vehicle dynamics during this climbing phase,an explicit description of the tracking curve for the flight path angle is derived.On the basis of this tracking curve,the tracking curves for the two short-period variables,the angle of attack and the pitch rate,are designed.An all-coefficient adaptive controller is then designed,based on the characteristic modeling,to cause these two short-period variables to follow their respective tracking curves.The proposed design does not require multiple working points,making the design procedure simple.Numerical simulation is performed to validate the performance of the controller.The simulation results Indicate that the resulting control law ensures that the vehicle climbs up successfully under the restrictions on the pitch angle and overloading.

  8. High-Fidelity Real-Time Trajectory Optimization for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Pure Teleoperations Adaptive Behaviors Situational AwarenessFeature ID Mission PlanningPath Planning Obstacle Detection/ Disturbance Estimation Path...Following Obstacle Detection/ Disturbance Rejection Figure 1.8 Autonomy Spectrum Adapted from Ref. [92]. Since optimal solutions are rarely...these angular relationships. The first approach consists of using trigonometry based on the physical geometry of the flight angles. This is done by

  9. Technology transfer metrics: Measurement and verification of data/reusable launch vehicle business analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivoli, George W.

    1996-01-01

    Congress and the Executive Branch have mandated that all branches of the Federal Government exert a concentrated effort to transfer appropriate government and government contractor-developed technology to the industrial use in the U.S. economy. For many years, NASA has had a formal technology transfer program to transmit information about new technologies developed for space applications into the industrial or commercial sector. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been in the forefront of the development of U.S. industrial assistance programs using technologies developed at the Center. During 1992-93, MSFC initiated a technology transfer metrics study. The MSFC study was the first of its kind among the various NASA centers. The metrics study is a continuing process, with periodic updates that reflect on-going technology transfer activities.

  10. Performance Study of Staging Variables on Two-Stage-to-Orbit Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    Milton E. Franke (Chairman) date ____________________________________ Ralph A. Anthenien (Member... Milton Franke, for his guidance and support throughout the course of this thesis effort. The insight and experience was certainly appreciated. I...Management, Air Force Institute of Technology (AU), Wright- Patterson AFB OH, March 2004. 2. Murphy, Kelly J. Gary Erickson , and Scott Goodliff

  11. The Development of Reusable Luggage Tag with the Internet of Things for Mobile Tracking and Environmental Sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Y. C. Wong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With more than two billion passengers worldwide travelling by air each year, vast amounts of lost luggage and disposable paper adhesive luggage tags are pushing the aviation industry to improve luggage tracking and reduce the one-off adhesive luggage paper tags. This paper reviews the current application of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID in the luggage handling system and proposes the Internet of Things’ (IoT development of the reusable luggage tag to facilitate aviation luggage handling, the tracking process and environmental conservation. A framework of IoT and its RFID components for the proposed reusable tag are presented. An integrated cyber-physical system, including a database management system and mobile app, for the reusable luggage tag is developed. Future studies will enhance the methodology of integrating the retail system, luggage tag, airport check-in counter, luggage handling system, aircraft, and the destination airport through the use of the tag, readers, antenna, and mobile devices.

  12. Linear quadratic servo control of a reusable rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with the development of a design method for a servo component in the frequency domain using singular values and its application to a reusable rocket engine. A general methodology used to design a class of linear multivariable controllers for intelligent control systems is presented. Focus is placed on performance and robustness characteristics, and an estimator design performed in the framework of the Kalman-filter formalism with emphasis on using a sensor set different from the commanded values is discussed. It is noted that loop transfer recovery modifies the nominal plant noise intensities in order to obtain the desired degree of robustness to uncertainty reflected at the plant input. Simulation results demonstrating the performance of the linear design on a nonlinear engine model over all power levels during mainstage operation are discussed.

  13. Foundations of reusable and interoperable facet models using category theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Daniel R

    2016-10-01

    Faceted browsing has become ubiquitous with modern digital libraries and online search engines, yet the process is still difficult to abstractly model in a manner that supports the development of interoperable and reusable interfaces. We propose category theory as a theoretical foundation for faceted browsing and demonstrate how the interactive process can be mathematically abstracted. Existing efforts in facet modeling are based upon set theory, formal concept analysis, and light-weight ontologies, but in many regards, they are implementations of faceted browsing rather than a specification of the basic, underlying structures and interactions. We will demonstrate that category theory allows us to specify faceted objects and study the relationships and interactions within a faceted browsing system. Resulting implementations can then be constructed through a category-theoretic lens using these models, allowing abstract comparison and communication that naturally support interoperability and reuse.

  14. Software Metrics to Estimate Software Quality using Software Component Reusability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakriti Trivedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Today most of the applications developed using some existing libraries, codes, open sources etc. As a code is accessed in a program, it is represented as the software component. Such as in java beans and in .net ActiveX controls are the software components. These components are ready to use programming code or controls that excel the code development. A component based software system defines the concept of software reusability. While using these components the main question arise is whether to use such components is beneficial or not. In this proposed work we are trying to present the answer for the same question. In this work we are presenting a set of software matrix that will check the interconnection between the software component and the application. How strong this relation defines the software quality after using this software component. The overall metrics will return the final result in terms of the boundless of the component with application.

  15. A literature review on business process modelling: new frontiers of reusability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldin, Laden; de Cesare, Sergio

    2011-08-01

    Business process modelling (BPM) has become fundamental for modern enterprises due to the increasing rate of organisational change. As a consequence, business processes need to be continuously (re-)designed as well as subsequently aligned with the corresponding enterprise information systems. One major problem associated with the design of business processes is reusability. Reuse of business process models has the potential of increasing the efficiency and effectiveness of BPM. This article critically surveys the existing literature on the problem of BPM reusability and more specifically on that State-of-the-Art research that can provide or suggest the 'elements' required for the development of a methodology aimed at discovering reusable conceptual artefacts in the form of patterns. The article initially clarifies the definitions of business process and business process model; then, it sets out to explore the previous research conducted in areas that have an impact on reusability in BPM. The article concludes by distilling directions for future research towards the development of apatterns-based approach to BPM; an approach that brings together the contributions made by the research community in the areas of process mining and discovery, declarative approaches and ontologies.

  16. Recommendation of a More Effective Alternative to the NASA Launch Services Program Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS) and Implementation of Updates to the Mission Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Over the course of my internship in the Flight Projects Office of NASA's Launch Services Program (LSP), I worked on two major projects, both of which dealt with updating current systems to make them more accurate and to allow them to operate more efficiently. The first project dealt with the Mission Integration Reporting System (MIRS), a web-accessible database application used to manage and provide mission status reporting for the LSP portfolio of awarded missions. MIRS had not gone through any major updates since its implementation in 2005, and it was my job to formulate a recommendation for the improvement of the system. The second project I worked on dealt with the Mission Plan, a document that contains an overview of the general life cycle that is followed by every LSP mission. My job on this project was to update the information currently in the mission plan and to add certain features in order to increase the accuracy and thoroughness of the document. The outcomes of these projects have implications in the orderly and efficient operation of the Flight Projects Office, and the process of Mission Management in the Launch Services Program as a whole.

  17. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  18. Arianespace streamlines launch procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenorovitch, Jeffrey M.

    1992-06-01

    Ariane has entered a new operational phase in which launch procedures have been enhanced to reduce the length of launch campaigns, lower mission costs, and increase operational availability/flexibility of the three-stage vehicle. The V50 mission utilized the first vehicle from a 50-launcher production lot ordered by Arianespace, and was the initial flight with a stretched third stage that enhances Ariane's performance. New operational procedures were introduced gradually over more than a year, starting with the V42 launch in January 1991.

  19. Experimental Validation of Fly-Wheel Passive Launch and On-Orbit Vibration Isolation System by Using a Superelastic SMA Mesh Washer Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Cheol Kwon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On-board appendages with mechanical moving parts for satellites produce undesirable micro-jitters during their on-orbit operation. These micro-jitters may seriously affect the image quality from high-resolution observation satellites. A new application form of a passive vibration isolation system was proposed and investigated using a pseudoelastic SMA mesh washer. This system guarantees vibration isolation performance in a launch environment while effectively isolating the micro-disturbances from the on-orbit operation of jitter source. The main feature of the isolator proposed in this study is the use of a ring-type mesh washer as the main axis to support the micro-jitter source. This feature contrasts with conventional applications of the mesh washers where vibration damping is effective only in the thickness direction of the mesh washer. In this study, the basic characteristics of the SMA mesh washer isolator in each axis were measured in static tests. The effectiveness of the design for the new application form of the SMA mesh washer proposed in this study was demonstrated through both launch environment vibration test at qualification level and micro-jitter measurement test which corresponds to on-orbit condition.

  20. 无人机液压弹射系统的模型研究与仿真%Research and Simulation to the Model of UAV Hydraulic Launch System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵灼辉; 吴素珍

    2014-01-01

    以气囊式蓄能器作为主要动力源、滑轮组作为增速机构的无人机液压弹射系统为研究对象,介绍了系统弹射阶段的工作原理,提出一种分析滑轮组模型的新方法,建立了系统的简化模型,并利用功率键合图法推导出了系统的数学模型。以一个实际系统为例进行仿真,得到了液压缸进油腔压力和无人机及滑车速度的变化曲线。通过类比证明该研究方法是可行的,为类似系统的设计和研究提供了理论的指导。%Taking unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV)hydraulic launch system with bladder accumulator as main power supply,pul-ley block as growth mechanism as research object,the working principle of the system launch phase was introduced,a new method was proposed to analyze pulley block modeling,the simplified model of the system was established,and the mathematical model of the sys-tem was deduced by using bond graph method. Based on a practical system for simulation,the changing characteristic curves of the hy-draulic cylinder intake chamber pressure and speed of UAV and sliding dolly were gotten. The method feasibility is proved by analogy, which provides theoretical guidance for the design and research of similar system.

  1. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David

    2015-01-01

    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  2. Condition monitoring helps make the Space Shuttle Main Engine reusable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, W. P.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is a reusable, high-performance liquid-propellant rocket engine being developed for the Space Shuttle Orbiter Vehicle. The SSME has been designed for long life, rapid postflight maintenance, and a fast vehicle turnaround cycle of 160 hours. To meet the unique reusability requirements, the SSME considers maintainability and condition monitoring much as airlines do today. The condition monitoring capabilities designed into this engine are discussed with major emphasis on internal inspection and techniques which ensure the reusability of the SSME.

  3. Reusable Electronics and Adaptable Communication as Implemented in the Odin Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Lyder, Andreas; Christensen, David Johan

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the electronics and communication system of Odin, a novel heterogeneous modular robot made of links and joints. The electronics is divided into two printed circuit boards: a General board with reusable components and a Specific board with non-reusable components. While...... electrical signals. The implementations of actuator and power links show that splitting the electronics into General and Specific boards allows rapid development of different types of modules, and an analysis of performance indicates that the communication system is simple, fast and flexible....... As the electronic design reuses approx. 50% of components between two different types of modules, we find it convenient for heterogeneous modular robots where production costs demand a small set of parts. In addition, as the features of the communication system are desirable in modular robots, we think...

  4. Recent Advances in Near-Net-Shape Fabrication of Al-Li Alloy 2195 for Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, John; Domack, Marcia; Hoffman, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Recent applications in launch vehicles use 2195 processed to Super Lightweight Tank specifications. Potential benefits exist by tailoring heat treatment and other processing parameters to the application. Assess the potential benefits and advocate application of Al-Li near-net-shape technologies for other launch vehicle structural components. Work with manufacturing and material producers to optimize Al-Li ingot shape and size for enhanced near-net-shape processing. Examine time dependent properties of 2195 critical for reusable applications.

  5. Big Bang launch

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    Physicists from the University, along with scientists and engineers around the world, watched with fevered anticipation as the world's biggest scientific experiment was launched in September. (1/1 page)

  6. Anchor Trial Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI has launched a multicenter phase III clinical trial called the ANCHOR Study -- Anal Cancer HSIL (High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion) Outcomes Research Study -- to determine if treatment of HSIL in HIV-infected individuals can prevent anal canc

  7. 基于 DNA-launched 的猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒反向遗传操作系统的建立%Establishment of DNA-launched Reverse Genetics System of PRRSV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹宗喜; 焦培荣; 谭树义; 叶保国; 亓文宝; 张桂红

    2016-01-01

    为构建猪繁殖与呼吸综合征病毒(PRRSV)反向遗传操作系统,将 PRRSV 全基因组分6段克隆,构建获得6个重组质粒,先由 A1和 A2片段或 B1和 B2片段连接构成 A 片段或 B 片段,然后 D、C、B 和A 片段依次亚克隆入 pOKq 载体。在基因组5′端和3′端分别加上 CMV 启动子序列和 BGH 终止信号肽,全基因组510位核苷酸突变引入遗传标记位点 FseⅠ。测序正确的全基因组质粒命名为 pOK-A2BCD。再将pOK-A2BCD 质粒转染 BHK-21细胞,拯救病毒通过 PCR、酶切、测序和间接免疫荧光试验(IFA)鉴定,结果表明拯救病毒成功,为进一步研究 PRRSV 致病性等相关分子机制奠定了基础。%To establish a reverse genetic system of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV),an DNA-launched (plasmid DNA transfection-based)reverse genetics system was developed for PRRSV by introduction of ribozyme elements at both termini of the viral genomic cDNA that were placed under the control of a CMV promoter.The strategy for construction of full-length cDNA clones:Capital letters (A1,A2,B1,B2,C,D)represent 6 overlapping fragments amplified from XH-GD genome according to the unique restriction enzyme cleavage sites in viral cDNA.An enzyme cleavage site Not I was added to 5′end of A fragment,while 41 nucleotides of polyadenosine tail followed by BGH polyadenylation signal and Kpn I were added to 3′end of D fragment by PCR mutagenesis.The Fse I in fragment A1 was created by mutation to be the genetic marker.A CMV promoter with T7 promotor preceded the viral genome.The fragments were inserted into the low-copy vector pOKq in the order of D to A.The completed full-length clone was named pOK-A2BCD.BHK cells were transfected with pOK-A2BCD,then the rescued viruses were identified by RT-PCR,restricted enzyme digestion,sequencing and IFA assays.The establishment of the reverse genetics system of PRRSV laid the foundation for further

  8. IBF Launched in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Yan

    2009-01-01

    @@ The India Business Forum(IBF)organized by the Confederation of Indian Industry(CII)and the Indian Embassy to China was officially launched in Beijing,on April 16,2009.With the theme of"Impact of Global Economic Crisis:Challenges and Opportunities for India and China",IBF(China)was launched to provide a lobby to promote bilateral trade and economic cooperation between the two countries.

  9. New product launch

    OpenAIRE

    Andžič, Vedrana

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this Master's thesis is description of new electric water heater launch process. The theoretical part of the thesis deals with marketing mix and goes deeper in explanation of product lifecycle theory. Theoretical part is the basis for practical part. Practical part describes company Ariston Thermo in brief and deals with technical parameters of new electric water heater VELIS as well as distribution and price policy during the launch process. The key part of the thesis is dedicated...

  10. Urban poor program launched.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The government of the Philippines has launched a program to deal with the rapidly growing urban poor population. 60 cities (including Metro Manila) are expected to increase their bloated population by 3.8% over 1990 which would be 27.7 million for 1991. Currently there is an exodus of people from the rural areas and by 2000 half the urban population will be squatters and slum dwellers. Basic services like health and nutrition are not expected to be able to handle this type of volume without a loss in the quality of service. The basic strategy of the new program is to recruit private medical practitioners to fortify the health care delivery and nutrition services. Currently the doctor/urban dweller ration is 1:9000. The program will develop a system to pool the efforts of government and private physicians in servicing the target population. Barangay Escopa has been chosen as the pilot city because it typifies the conditions of a highly populated urban area. The projects has 2 objectives: 1) demonstrate the systematic delivery of health and nutrition services by the private sector through the coordination of the government, 2) reduce mortality and morbidity in the community, especially in the 0-6 age group as well as pregnant women and lactating mothers.

  11. A Monte Carlo Analysis of the Thrust Imbalance for the Space Launch System Booster During Both the Ignition Transient and Steady State Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Winfred A., Jr.; Crowder, Winston; Steadman, Todd E.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the results of statistical analyses performed to predict the thrust imbalance between two solid rocket motor boosters to be used on the Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. Two legacy internal ballistics codes developed for the Space Shuttle program were coupled with a Monte Carlo analysis code to determine a thrust imbalance envelope for the SLS vehicle based on the performance of 1000 motor pairs. Thirty three variables which could impact the performance of the motors during the ignition transient and thirty eight variables which could impact the performance of the motors during steady state operation of the motor were identified and treated as statistical variables for the analyses. The effects of motor to motor variation as well as variations between motors of a single pair were included in the analyses. The statistical variations of the variables were defined based on data provided by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for the upgraded five segment booster and from the Space Shuttle booster when appropriate. The results obtained for the statistical envelope are compared with the design specification thrust imbalance limits for the SLS launch vehicle.

  12. Reusable space tug concept and mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresto Aleina, Sara; Viola, Nicole; Stesina, Fabrizio; Viscio, Maria Antonietta; Ferraris, Simona

    2016-11-01

    The paper deals with the conceptual design of a space tug to be used in support to Earth satellites transfer manoeuvres. Usually Earth satellites are released in a non-definitive low orbit, depending on the adopted launcher, and they need to be equipped with an adequate propulsion system able to perform the transfer to their final operational location. In order to reduce the mass at launch of the satellite system, an element pre-deployed on orbit, i.e. the space tug, can be exploited to perform the transfer manoeuvres; this allows simplifying the propulsion requirements for the satellite, with a consequent decrease of mass and volume, in favour of larger payloads. The space tug here presented is conceived to be used for the transfer of a few satellites from low to high orbits, and vice versa, if needed. To support these manoeuvres, dedicated refuelling operations are envisaged. The paper starts from on overview of the mission scenario, the concept of operations and the related architecture elements. Then it focuses on the detailed definition of the space tug, from the requirements' assessment up to the budgets' development, through an iterative and recursive design process. The overall mission scenario has been derived from a set of trade-off analyses that have been performed to choose the mission architecture and operations that better satisfy stakeholder expectations: the most important features of these analyses and their results are described within the paper. Eventually, in the last part of the work main conclusions are drawn on the selected mission scenario and space tug and further utilizations of this innovative system in the frame of future space exploration are discussed. Specifically, an enhanced version of the space tug that has been described in the paper could be used to support on orbit assembly of large spacecraft for distant and long exploration missions. The Space Tug development is an activity carried on in the frame of the SAPERE project (Space

  13. Intelligent, Reusable Software for Plug and Play Space Avionics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro proposes to build upon our existing space processing and hardening technologies and products e.g (Proton 200K), to research and develop reusable software...

  14. Considerations for the design of Ada reusable packages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nise, Norman S.; Giffin, Chuck

    1986-01-01

    Two important considerations that precede the design of Ada reusable packages (commonality and programming standards) are discuessed. First, the importance of designing packages to yield widespread commonality is expressed. A means of measuring the degree of applicability of packages both within and across applications areas is presented. Design consideration that will improve commonality are also discussed. Second, considerations for the development of programming standards are set forth. These considerations will lead to standards that will improve the reusability of Ada packages.

  15. Improvement of Reusable Surface Insulation (RSI) materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blome, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The mullite fiber based hardened compacted fibers (HCF) type of reusable surface insulation was further developed for use in the Space Shuttle Program. Two hundred fifty formulations of fiber mixtures, fillers, binders, and organic processing aids were made using mullite fibers as the basic ingredient. Most of the work was accomplished on 15-lb/cu ft material. It was established that higher density materials are stronger with strength values as high as 250 lb/sq in. in tension. New measurement techniques and equipment were developed for accurate determination of strength and strain to failure. Room temperature to 2300 F stress-strain relationships were made. The room temperature tensile modulus of elasticity is 61,700 lb/sq in. and the strain at failure is 0.165 percent, typically, when measured longitudinally parallel to the long axes of the fibers. Thermal insulating effectiveness was increased 20 percent by reducing the diameter of some of the fibers in the material. Improvements were made in density uniformity and strength uniformity in a block of HCF by mixing improvements and by the use of organic additives. Specifications were established on the materials and processes used in making the insulation.

  16. A Machine Learning based Efficient Software Reusability Prediction Model for Java Based Object Oriented Software

    OpenAIRE

    Surbhi Maggo; Chetna Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Software reuse refers to the development of new software systems with the likelihood of completely or partially using existing components or resources with or without modification. Reusability is the measure of the ease with which previously acquired concepts and objects can be used in new contexts. It is a promising strategy for improvements in software quality, productivity and maintainability as it provides for cost effective, reliable (with the consideration that prior testing and use has...

  17. Assessment and Accommodation of Thermal Expansion of the Internal Active Thermal Control System Coolant During Launch to On-Orbit Activation of International Space Station Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Darryl; Ungar, Eugene K.; Holt, James M.

    2002-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) employs an Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) comprised of several single-phase water coolant loops. These coolant loops are distributed throughout the ISS pressurized elements. The primary element coolant loops (i.e. U.S. Laboratory module) contain a fluid accumulator to accomodate thermal expansion of the system. Other element coolant loops are parasitic (i.e. Airlock), have no accumulator, and require an alternative approach to insure that the system maximum design pressure (MDP) is not exceeded during the Launch to Activation (LTA) phase. During this time the element loops is a stand alone closed system. The solution approach for accomodating thermal expansion was affected by interactions of system components and their particular limitations. The mathematical solution approach was challenged by the presence of certain unknown or not readily obtainable physical and thermodynamic characteristics of some system components and processes. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief description of a few of the solutions that evolved over time, a novel mathematical solution to eliminate some of the unknowns or derive the unknowns experimentally, and the testing and methods undertaken.

  18. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  19. Reusable, adhesiveless and arrayed in-plane microfluidic interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, R.; Meng, E.

    2011-05-01

    A reusable, arrayed interconnect capable of providing multiple simultaneous connections to and from a microfluidic device in an in-plane manner without the use of adhesives is presented. This method uses a 'pin-and-socket' design in which an SU-8 anchor houses multiple polydimethysiloxane septa (the socket) that each receive a syringe needle (the pin). A needle array containing multiple commercially available 33G (203 µm outer diameter) needles (up to eight) spaced either 2.54 or 1 mm (center-to-center) pierces the septa to access the microfluidic device interior. Finite element modeling and photoelastic stress experiments were used to determine the stress distribution during needle insertion; these results guided the SU-8 septa housing and septa design. The impact of needle diameter, needle tip style, insertion rate and number of needles on pre-puncture, post-puncture and removal forces was characterized. Pressurized connections to SU-8 channel systems withstood up to 62 kPa of pressurized water and maintained 25 kPa of pressurized water for over 24 h. The successful integration and functionality of the interconnect design with surface micromachined Parylene C microchannels was verified using Rhodamine B dye. Dual septa systems to access a single microchannel were demonstrated. Arrayed interconnects were compatible with integrated microfluidic systems featuring electrochemical sensors and actuators.

  20. Orbiting Depot and Reusable Lander for Lunar Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petro, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    A document describes a conceptual transportation system that would support exploratory visits by humans to locations dispersed across the surface of the Moon and provide transport of humans and cargo to sustain one or more permanent Lunar outpost. The system architecture reflects requirements to (1) minimize the amount of vehicle hardware that must be expended while maintaining high performance margins and (2) take advantage of emerging capabilities to produce propellants on the Moon while also enabling efficient operation using propellants transported from Earth. The system would include reusable single- stage lander spacecraft and a depot in a low orbit around the Moon. Each lander would have descent, landing, and ascent capabilities. A crew-taxi version of the lander would carry a pressurized crew module; a cargo version could carry a variety of cargo containers. The depot would serve as a facility for storage and for refueling with propellants delivered from Earth or propellants produced on the Moon. The depot could receive propellants and cargo sent from Earth on a variety of spacecraft. The depot could provide power and orbit maintenance for crew vehicles from Earth and could serve as a safe haven for lunar crews pending transport back to Earth.

  1. 某车载导弹发射系统振动特性%Vibration characteristics of a vehicular missile launching system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高星斗; 毕世华; 陈阵

    2011-01-01

    建立了某多联装车载导弹发射系统多体动力学模型,从理论、仿真计算、试验方面对发射系统的振动特性进行研究,分析计算了整体结构的振动模态,得到发射系统固有频率在3~20 Hz范围内,为车载导弹倾斜发射系统整体结构振动模态试验及动态响应分析提供了重要参考.试验结果与仿真结果的最大相对误差绝对值小于10%,计算结果与模态试验结果吻合较好,验证了建模及分析计算方法的正确性.%The multi-body dynamics model of a multiple missile launcher was built,and its vibration characteristics were studied from three aspects of theory calculation, simulation calculation and test; vibration modes were computed and analyzed. The results show that the natural frequency of launching system is about 3 - 20 Hz, which can also provide an important reference to modal testing and dynamic response analyzing of the whole vehicular missile oblique launching system. As the absolute value of the maximum relative error between results of simulation and test is less than 10% , the calculation results agree well with modal testing results, verifing the correctness of the modeling and analyzing method.

  2. Tabletop Experimental Track for Magnetic Launch Assist

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Advanced Space Transportation Program has developed the Magnetic Launch Assist System, formerly known as the Magnetic Levitation (MagLev) technology that could give a space vehicle a running start to break free from Earth's gravity. A Magnetic Launch Assist system would use magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track at speeds up to 600 mph. The vehicle would shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. Similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would electromagnetically propel a space vehicle along the track. The tabletop experimental track for the system shown in this photograph is 44-feet long, with 22-feet of powered acceleration and 22-feet of passive braking. A 10-pound carrier with permanent magnets on its sides swiftly glides by copper coils, producing a levitation force. The track uses a linear synchronous motor, which means the track is synchronized to turn the coils on just before the carrier comes in contact with them, and off once the carrier passes. Sensors are positioned on the side of the track to determine the carrier's position so the appropriate drive coils can be energized. MSFC engineers have conducted tests on the indoor track and a 50-foot outdoor track. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  3. Metric Tracking of Launch Vehicles Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs reliable, accurate navigation for launch vehicles and other missions. GPS is the best world-wide navigation system, but operates at low power making it...

  4. Strategies Behind The Successful Industrial Product Launch

    OpenAIRE

    Choffray, Jean-Marie; Gary L. Lilien

    1984-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a newly-developed microcomputer decision support system useful for predicting sales growth and testing launch strategies prior to an industrial product market introduction. Peer reviewed

  5. Alstom launches new mini hydro range

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    LSTOM POWER HYDRO has announced the launch of a complete mini hydro solution. Named Mini-Aqua, the product has been developed to integrate the hydro turbine, generator and control system in a single and optimised product.

  6. Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics and Optimum Fracture Control Analytical Procedures for a Reusable Solid Rocket Motor Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanagud, S.; Uppaluri, B.

    1977-01-01

    A methodology for the reliability analysis of a reusable solid rocket motor case is discussed. The analysis is based on probabilistic fracture mechanics and probability distribution for initial flaw sizes. The developed reliability analysis is used to select the structural design variables of the solid rocket motor case on the basis of minimum expected cost and specified reliability bounds during the projected design life of the case. Effects of failure prevention plans such as nondestructive inspection and the material erosion between missions are also considered in the developed procedure for selection of design variables. The reliability-based procedure can be modified to consider other similar structures of reusable space vehicle systems with different failure prevention plans.

  7. Space Launch System Base Heating Test: Sub-Scale Rocket Engine/Motor Design, Development & Performance Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Manish; Seaford, Mark; Kovarik, Brian; Dufrene, Aaron; Solly, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    ATA-002 Technical Team has successfully designed, developed, tested and assessed the SLS Pathfinder propulsion systems for the Main Base Heating Test Program. Major Outcomes of the Pathfinder Test Program: Reach 90% of full-scale chamber pressure Achieved all engine/motor design parameter requirements Reach steady plume flow behavior in less than 35 msec Steady chamber pressure for 60 to 100 msec during engine/motor operation Similar model engine/motor performance to full-scale SLS system Mitigated nozzle throat and combustor thermal erosion Test data shows good agreement with numerical prediction codes Next phase of the ATA-002 Test Program Design & development of the SLS OML for the Main Base Heating Test Tweak BSRM design to optimize performance Tweak CS-REM design to increase robustness MSFC Aerosciences and CUBRC have the capability to develop sub-scale propulsion systems to meet desired performance requirements for short-duration testing.

  8. VENESAT-1 Successfully Launched

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Venezuelan first satellite VENESAT-1 (or Simon Bolivar) was sent to space from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center(XSLC) at 0:53 (Beijing time) on October 30 atop a LM-3B launch vehicle. About 12 minutes later, the satellite entered the preset GTO orbit at the altitude of 36,000km. After four maneuvers, the satellite was normally positioned at 78 degrees west longitude at 15:39 (Beijing time) on November 9,beaming the majority of Latin America and part of the Caribbean region.

  9. Characterizing Epistemic Uncertainty for Launch Vehicle Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novack, Steven D.; Rogers, Jim; Al Hassan, Mohammad; Hark, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) has the task of estimating the aleatory (randomness) and epistemic (lack of knowledge) uncertainty of launch vehicle loss of mission and crew risk, and communicating the results. Launch vehicles are complex engineered systems designed with sophisticated subsystems that are built to work together to accomplish mission success. Some of these systems or subsystems are in the form of heritage equipment, while some have never been previously launched. For these cases, characterizing the epistemic uncertainty is of foremost importance, and it is anticipated that the epistemic uncertainty of a modified launch vehicle design versus a design of well understood heritage equipment would be greater. For reasons that will be discussed, standard uncertainty propagation methods using Monte Carlo simulation produce counter intuitive results, and significantly underestimate epistemic uncertainty for launch vehicle models. Furthermore, standard PRA methods, such as Uncertainty-Importance analyses used to identify components that are significant contributors to uncertainty, are rendered obsolete, since sensitivity to uncertainty changes are not reflected in propagation of uncertainty using Monte Carlo methods. This paper provides a basis of the uncertainty underestimation for complex systems and especially, due to nuances of launch vehicle logic, for launch vehicles. It then suggests several alternative methods for estimating uncertainty and provides examples of estimation results. Lastly, the paper describes how to implement an Uncertainty-Importance analysis using one alternative approach, describes the results, and suggests ways to reduce epistemic uncertainty by focusing on additional data or testing of selected components.

  10. Space Launching Site Protection against Lightning Hazards

    OpenAIRE

    Issac, F.; Bachelier, E.; Prost, D.; Enjalbert, V.; Mohedano, L.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; A launching pad, because of its activity, is particularly sensitive to the risk of lightning. The use of Standard IEC62305 "Protection against lightning" establishes the general framework for the Lightning Protection System (LPS). However, the specific activity of a launching pad requires special analysis on specific points of the LPS. Indeed, it is necessary to take into account the lightning conductor system particularity on the one hand, and the launcher electromagn...

  11. Reusable Social Networking Capabilities for an Earth Science Collaboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnes, C.; Da Silva, D.; Leptoukh, G. G.; Ramachandran, R.

    2011-12-01

    A vast untapped resource of data, tools, information and knowledge lies within the Earth science community. This is due to the fact that it is difficult to share the full spectrum of these entities, particularly their full context. As a result, most knowledge exchange is through person-to-person contact at meetings, email and journal articles, each of which can support only a limited level of detail. We propose the creation of an Earth Science Collaboratory (ESC): a framework that would enable sharing of data, tools, workflows, results and the contextual knowledge about these information entities. The Drupal platform is well positioned to provide the key social networking capabilities to the ESC. As a proof of concept of a rich collaboration mechanism, we have developed a Drupal-based mechanism for graphically annotating and commenting on results images from analysis workflows in the online Giovanni analysis system for remote sensing data. The annotations can be tagged and shared with others in the community. These capabilities are further supplemented by a Research Notebook capability reused from another online analysis system named Talkoot. The goal is a reusable set of modules that can integrate with variety of other applications either within Drupal web frameworks or at a machine level.

  12. Mobile Authoring of Open Educational Resources as Reusable Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Kinshuk

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available E-learning technologies have allowed authoring and playback of standardized reusable learning objects (RLO for several years. Effective mobile learning requires similar functionality at both design time and runtime. Mobile devices can play RLO using applications like SMILE, mobile access to a learning management system (LMS, or other systems which deploy content to mobile learners (Castillo & Ayala, 2008; Chu, Hwang, & Tseng, 2010; Hsu & Chen, 2010; Nakabayashi, 2009; Zualkernan, Nikkhah, & Al-Sabah, 2009. However, implementations which author content in a mobile context do not typically permit reuse across multiple contexts due to a lack of standardization. Standards based (IMS and SCORM authoring implementations exist for non-mobile platforms (Gonzalez-Barbone & Anido-Rifon, 2008; Griffiths, Beauvoir, Liber, & Barrett-Baxendale, 2009; Téllez, 2010; Yang, Chiu, Tsai, & Wu, 2004. However, this paradigm precludes capturing learning where and when it occurs. Consequently, RLO authored for e-learning lack learner generated content, especially with timely, relevant, and location aware examples.

  13. Reusable nanomaterial and plant biomass composites for the removal of Methylene Blue from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nidhi; Basniwal, Rupesh Kumar; Suman; Srivastava, Ashwani Kumar; Jain, Vinod Kumar

    2010-06-01

    A novel composite has been prepared from nanomaterials and powdered orange peel. The composite is adhered to a plastic strip and may be employed for the removal of synthetic dyes from aqueous solutions, for example from dyehouse effluents. Using Methylene Blue (CI Basic Blue 9) as the reference dye, the characteristics of the adsorbent have been studied. The effect of pH, type of nanomaterial (e.g. carbon nanotubes, activated carbon nanotubes, or titanium dioxide nanoparticles), contact time, and reusability have each been investigated. The results show that the adsorption capacity of suspended orange peel powder, an orange peel strip, and an activated carbon nanotube/orange peel strip were 46%, 67% and 78%, respectively. The uptake of dye was greatly affected by the pH of the solution, maximum absorption being obtained at pH 10, and none at all at pH 2. The improved performance was probably the result of the increased area available for adsorption compared with orange peel powder alone. The system was found to be reusable for up to six cycles without appreciable loss of adsorption and desorption efficiency. The nanomaterial in the composite enhanced performance, not only by increasing adsorption efficiency but also by inhibiting biodegradation of the orange peel powder, thereby increasing the life of the strips. The system offers an economical, user-friendly, efficient and reusable adsorption treatment for the removal of dyes from wastewater.

  14. Sustaining Human Presence on Mars Using ISRU and a Reusable Lander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arney, Dale C.; Jones, Christopher A.; Klovstad, Jordan J.; Komar, D.R.; Earle, Kevin; Moses, Robert; Shyface, Hilary R.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the impact of ISRU (In-Site Resource Utilization), reusability, and automation on sustaining a human presence on Mars, requiring a transition from Earth dependence to Earth independence. The study analyzes the surface and transportation architectures and compared campaigns that revealed the importance of ISRU and reusability. A reusable Mars lander, Hercules, eliminates the need to deliver a new descent and ascent stage with each cargo and crew delivery to Mars, reducing the mass delivered from Earth. As part of an evolvable transportation architecture, this investment is key to enabling continuous human presence on Mars. The extensive use of ISRU reduces the logistics supply chain from Earth in order to support population growth at Mars. Reliable and autonomous systems, in conjunction with robotics, are required to enable ISRU architectures as systems must operate and maintain themselves while the crew is not present. A comparison of Mars campaigns is presented to show the impact of adding these investments and their ability to contribute to sustaining a human presence on Mars.

  15. Robust CoAl Alloy: Highly Active, Reusable and Green Catalyst in the Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol%Robust CoAl Alloy: Highly Active, Reusable and Green Catalyst in the Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓洋; 尹安远; 郭晓东; 郭秀英; 戴维林; 范康年

    2011-01-01

    CoAl alloy catalyst is found, for the first time, to be highly active, selective and reusable for the synthesis of diols via the hydrogenolysis of glycerol under mild conditions. The products and the catalyst could be self-separated from the reaction system through a simple reactor.

  16. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  17. A ceramic matrix composite thermal protection system for hypersonic vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccitiello, Salvatore R.; Love, Wendell L.; Pitts, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The next generation of hypersonic vehicles (NASP, SSTO) that require reusable thermal protection systems will experience acreage surface temperatures in excess of 1100 C. More important, they will experience a more severe physical environment than the Space Shuttle due to non-pristine launching and landing conditions. As a result, maintenance, inspection, and replacement factors must be more thoroughly incorporated into the design of the TPS. To meet these requirements, an advanced thermal protection system was conceived, designated 'TOPHAT'. This system consists of a toughened outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) attached to a rigid reusable surface insulator (RSI) which is directly bonded to the surface. The objective of this effort was to evaluate this concept in an aeroconvective environment, to determine the effect of impacts to the CMC material, and to compare the results with existing thermal protection systems.

  18. Comparison of Two Recent Launch Abort Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Harding, Adam

    2011-01-01

    The development of new and safer manned space vehicles is a top priority at NASA. Recently two different approaches of how to accomplish this mission of keeping astronauts safe was successfully demonstrated. With work already underway on an Apollo-like launch abort system for the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), an alternative design concept named the Max Launch Abort System, or MLAS, was developed as a parallel effort. The Orion system, managed by the Constellation office, is based on the design of a single solid launch abort motor in a tower positioned above the capsule. The MLAS design takes a different approach placing the solid launch abort motor underneath the capsule. This effort was led by the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC). Both escape systems were designed with the Ares I Rocket as the launch vehicle and had the same primary requirement to safely propel a crew module away from any emergency event either on the launch pad or during accent. Beyond these two parameters, there was little else in common between the two projects, except that they both concluded in successful launches that will further promote the development of crew launch abort systems. A comparison of these projects from the standpoint of technical requirements; program management and flight test objectives will be done to highlight the synergistic lessons learned by two engineers who worked on each program. This comparison will demonstrate how the scope of the project architecture and management involvement in innovation should be tailored to meet the specific needs of the system under development.

  19. Pre-Launch Radiometric Performance Characterization of the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder on the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 Satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Craig K.; Kim, Edward; Leslie, R. Vincent; Lyu, Joseph; McCormick, Lisa M.; Anderson, Kent

    2017-01-01

    The Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) is a space-based, cross-track radiometer for operational atmospheric temperature and humidity sounding, utilizing 22 channels over a frequency range from 23 to 183 gigahertz. The ATMS for the Joint Polar Satellite System-1 has undergone two rounds of re-work in 2014-2015 and 2016, following performance issues discovered during and following thermal vacuum chamber (TVAC) testing at the instrument and observatory level. Final shelf-level testing, including measurement of pass band characteristics and spectral response functions, was completed in December 2016. Final instrument-level TVAC testing and calibration occurred during February 2017. Here we will describe the instrument-level TVAC calibration process, and illustrate with results from the final TVAC calibration effort.

  20. RAGE Architecture for Reusable Serious Gaming Technology Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wim van der Vegt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For seizing the potential of serious games, the RAGE project—funded by the Horizon-2020 Programme of the European Commission—will make available an interoperable set of advanced technology components (software assets that support game studios at serious game development. This paper describes the overall software architecture and design conditions that are needed for the easy integration and reuse of such software assets in existing game platforms. Based on the component-based software engineering paradigm the RAGE architecture takes into account the portability of assets to different operating systems, different programming languages, and different game engines. It avoids dependencies on external software frameworks and minimises code that may hinder integration with game engine code. Furthermore it relies on a limited set of standard software patterns and well-established coding practices. The RAGE architecture has been successfully validated by implementing and testing basic software assets in four major programming languages (C#, C++, Java, and TypeScript/JavaScript, resp.. Demonstrator implementation of asset integration with an existing game engine was created and validated. The presented RAGE architecture paves the way for large scale development and application of cross-engine reusable software assets for enhancing the quality and diversity of serious gaming.

  1. Simple and reusable picoinjector for liquid delivery via nanofluidics approach

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Shunbo

    2014-03-25

    Precise control of sample volume is one of the most important functions in lab-on-a-chip (LOC) systems, especially for chemical and biological reactions. The common approach used for liquid delivery involves the employment of capillaries and microstructures for generating a droplet which has a volume in the nanoliter or picoliter range. Here, we report a novel approach for constructing a picoinjector which is based on well-controlled electroosmotic (EO) flow to electrokinetically drive sample solutions. This picoinjector comprises an array of interconnected nanochannels for liquid delivery. Such technique for liquid delivery has the advantages of well-controlled sample volume and reusable nanofluidic chip, and it was reported for the first time. In the study of the pumping process for this picoinjector, the EO flow rate was determined by the intensity of the fluorescent probe. The influence of ion concentration in electrolyte solutions over the EO flow rate was also investigated and discussed. The application of this EO-driven picoinjector for chemical reactions was demonstrated by the reaction between Fluo-4 and calcium chloride with the reaction cycle controlled by the applied square waves of different duty cycles. The precision of our device can reach down to picoliter per second, which is much smaller than that of most existing technologies. This new approach, thus, opens further possibilities of adopting nanofluidics for well-controlled chemical reactions with particular applications in nanoparticle synthesis, bimolecular synthesis, drug delivery, and diagnostic testing.

  2. A microfabricated gecko-inspired controllable and reusable dry adhesive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chary, Sathya; Tamelier, John; Turner, Kimberly

    2013-02-01

    Geckos utilize a robust reversible adhesive to repeatedly attach and detach from a variety of vertical and inverted surfaces, using structurally anisotropic micro- and nano-scale fibrillar structures. These fibers, when suitably articulated, are able to control the real area of contact and thereby generate high-to-low van der Waals forces. Key characteristics of the natural system include highly anisotropic adhesion and shear forces for controllable attachment, a high adhesion to initial preload force ratio (μ‧) of 8-16, lack of inter-fiber self-adhesion, and operation over more than 30 000 cycles without loss of adhesion performance. A highly reusable synthetic adhesive has been developed using tilted polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) half-cylinder micron-scale fibers, retaining up to 77% of the initial value over 10 000 repeated test cycles against a flat glass puck. In comparison with other gecko-inspired adhesives tested over 10 000 cycles or more thus far, this paper reports the highest value of μ‧, along with a large shear force of ˜78 kPa, approaching the 88-226 kPa range of gecko toes. The anisotropic adhesion forces are close to theoretical estimates from the Kendall peel model, quantitatively showing how lateral shearing articulation in a manner similar to the gecko may be used to obtain adhesion anisotropy with synthetic fibers using a combination of tilt angle and anisotropic fiber geometry.

  3. Nonlinear Control of a Reusable Rocket Engine for Life Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, Carl F.; Holmes, Michael S.; Ray, Asok

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the conceptual development of a life-extending control system where the objective is to achieve high performance and structural durability of the plant. A life-extending controller is designed for a reusable rocket engine via damage mitigation in both the fuel (H2) and oxidizer (O2) turbines while achieving high performance for transient responses of the combustion chamber pressure and the O2/H2 mixture ratio. The design procedure makes use of a combination of linear and nonlinear controller synthesis techniques and also allows adaptation of the life-extending controller module to augment a conventional performance controller of the rocket engine. The nonlinear aspect of the design is achieved using non-linear parameter optimization of a prescribed control structure. Fatigue damage in fuel and oxidizer turbine blades is primarily caused by stress cycling during start-up, shutdown, and transient operations of a rocket engine. Fatigue damage in the turbine blades is one of the most serious causes for engine failure.

  4. Application of computational fluid dynamics to the design of the film cooled STME subscale nozzle for the National Launch System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    The status of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations for the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) film/dump cooled nozzle design is presented, with an emphasis on the timely impact of CFD on the design of the sub-scale nozzle coolant system. The following aspects of the sub-scale coolant delivery system were analyzed with CFD: 1) a design trade study of a mechanical flow splitting device for uniform distribution of the subsonic cavity flow, 2) a design trade study of the subsonic cavity lip to achieve film integrity, and 3) an analysis of the primary flow interaction with the core/secondary coolant streams. All design calculations were performed with the Generalized Aerodynamic Simulation Program (GASP), a 3-D, multi-block, generalized Navier-Stokes code capable of solving with frozen, finite-rate or equilibrium chemical kinetics. The initial design of the subsonic cavity flow used square posts to distribute the sonic orifice jets into a uniform flow. Calculations for this design indicated that an unacceptable mal-distribution of film occurred. Design modifications involving curved and slotted posts were computed in an effort to uniformly distribute the secondary coolant flow. Analysis of these configurations showed that although the flowfield improved in uniformity, it was still unacceptable, especially at higher feed pressures. Results from these studies were then incorporated into a design that resulted in the insertion of a porous metal ring into the subsonic cavity. Subsequent water flow model studies showed that this concept was successful in uniformly distributing flow exiting the cavity. In addition to the design of the subsonic cavity, CFD was also used to analyze the secondary coolant lip and the primary flow interaction with the core/secondary coolant streams. A series of calculations were first performed to modify the subsonic cavity lip contour. The flow over the modified lip was then computed simultaneously with the primary injectors to

  5. On the Concepts of Usability and Reusability of Learning Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel-Angel Sicilia

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available “Reusable learning objects” oriented towards increasing their potential reusability are required to satisfy concerns about their granularity and their independence of concrete contexts of use. Such requirements also entail that the definition of learning object “usability,” and the techniques required to carry out their “usability evaluation” must be substantially different from those commonly used to characterize and evaluate the usability of conventional educational applications. In this article, a specific characterization of the concept of learning object usability is discussed, which places emphasis on “reusability,” the key property of learning objects residing in repositories. The concept of learning object reusability is described as the possibility and adequacy for the object to be usable in prospective educational settings, so that usability and reusability are considered two interrelated – and in many cases conflicting – properties of learning objects. Following the proposed characterization of two characteristics or properties of learning objects, a method to evaluate usability of specific learning objects will be presented.

  6. Inheritance Hierarchy Based Reuse & Reusability Metrics in OOSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasib S. Gill,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Reuse and reusability are two major aspects in object oriented software which can be measured from inheritance hierarchy. Reusability is the prerequisite of reuse but both may or may not bemeasured using same metric. This paper characterizes metrics of reuse and reusability in Object Oriented Software Development (OOSD. Reuse metrics compute the extent to which classes have been reused and reusability metrics computes the extent to which classes can be reused. In this paper five new metrics namely- Breadth of Inheritance Tree (BIT, Method Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (MRPIR,Attribute Reuse Per Inheritance Relation (ARPIR, Generality of Class (GC and Reuse Probability (RP have been proposed. These metrics help to evaluate reuse and reusability of object oriented software.Four extensively validated existing object oriented metrics, namely- Depth of Inheritance Tree (DIT, Number of Children (NOC, Method Inheritance Factor (MIF and Attribute Inheritance Factor (AIFhave been selected and investigated for comparison with proposed metrics. All metrics can be computed from inheritance hierarchies and classified according to their characteristics. Further, metrics areevaluated against a case study. These metrics are helpful in comparing alternative inheritance hierarchies at design time to select best alternative, so that the development time and cost can be reduced.

  7. The Falcon Launch Vehicle - An Attempt at Making Access to Space More Affordable, Reliable and Pleasant

    OpenAIRE

    Musk, Elon; Koenigsmann, Hans; Gurevich, Gwynne

    2003-01-01

    Falcon is a mostly reusable, two stage, liquid oxygen and kerosene powered launch vehicle being built by Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) from the ground up. The vehicle is designed above all for high reliability, followed by low cost and a benign flight environment. Launched from Vandenberg, a standard Falcon can carry over 470 kg to a 700 km sun-synchronous orbit and a heavy Falcon can deliver 1450 kg to the same orbit. To minimize failure modes, the vehicle has the minimum pragmatic...

  8. Decision Making and Communications Process Assessment of NASA Using Three Change Requests from the Space Launch System Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Karen Campbell

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigated the communication and decision making process as part of the Systems Engineering practices at the NASA/Marshall Center to determine its level of effectiveness. Data was collected across three change requests to assess how decisions were made, how the decisions were communicated, and whether a process mattered in the formulation and dissemination of those decisions. Data results revealed the comprehensive decision making process for the technical change requests to be effective. Evidence revealed that the process was sufficiently tailored to accommodate the need of each individual technical change which promoted effective communication amongst the stakeholders in the formulation of the strategic decision recommendations elevated to upper management. However, data results also revealed the dissemination of the final decision and approval of the change requests from the higher organizational level down to all stakeholders was less effective. An establishment of a culmination meeting at the end of the change request decision process in which to close the communication loop with all entities would be beneficial.

  9. STS-121 Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Space Shuttle Discovery and its seven-member crew launched at 2:38 p.m. (EDT) to begin the two-day journey to the International Space Station (ISS) on the historic Return to Flight STS-121 mission. The shuttle made history as it was the first human-occupying spacecraft to launch on Independence Day. During its 12-day mission, this utilization and logistics flight delivered a multipurpose logistics module (MPLM) to the ISS with several thousand pounds of new supplies and experiments. In addition, some new orbital replacement units (ORUs) were delivered and stowed externally on the ISS on a special pallet. These ORUs are spares for critical machinery located on the outside of the ISS. During this mission the crew also carried out testing of Shuttle inspection and repair hardware, as well as evaluated operational techniques and concepts for conducting on-orbit inspection and repair.

  10. Artist's Concept of Magnetic Launch Assisted Air-Breathing Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This artist's concept depicts a Magnetic Launch Assist vehicle in orbit. Formerly referred to as the Magnetic Levitation (Maglev) system, the Magnetic Launch Assist system is a launch system developed and tested by engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) that could levitate and accelerate a launch vehicle along a track at high speeds before it leaves the ground. Using electricity and magnetic fields, a Magnetic Launch Assist system would drive a spacecraft along a horizontal track until it reaches desired speeds. The system is similar to high-speed trains and roller coasters that use high-strength magnets to lift and propel a vehicle a couple of inches above a guideway. A full-scale, operational track would be about 1.5-miles long, capable of accelerating a vehicle to 600 mph in 9.5 seconds, and the vehicle would then shift to rocket engines for launch into orbit. The major advantages of launch assist for NASA launch vehicles is that it reduces the weight of the take-off, the landing gear, the wing size, and less propellant resulting in significant cost savings. The US Navy and the British MOD (Ministry of Defense) are planning to use magnetic launch assist for their next generation aircraft carriers as the aircraft launch system. The US Army is considering using this technology for launching target drones for anti-aircraft training.

  11. Launch of Zoological Letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukatsu, Takema; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2016-02-01

    A new open-access journal, Zoological Letters, was launched as a sister journal to Zoological Science, in January 2015. The new journal aims at publishing topical papers of high quality from a wide range of basic zoological research fields. This review highlights the notable reviews and research articles that have been published in the first year of Zoological Letters, providing an overview on the current achievements and future directions of the journal.

  12. Launching Another Crisis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    North Korea's test-firing of a range of missiles gets a mixed reaction from the international communityWhen the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) test-fired a stream of missiles on July 5, it drew sharp concerns from a global communi- ty perpetually concerned over stability and security in the Asia-Pacific region. According to government reports from South Korea, the DPRK launched at least seven missiles from two sites along its east

  13. Throttleable GOX/ABS launch assist hybrid rocket motor for small scale air launch platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurrier, Zachary S.

    Aircraft-based space-launch platforms allow operational flexibility and offer the potential for significant propellant savings for small-to-medium orbital payloads. The NASA Armstrong Flight Research Center's Towed Glider Air-Launch System (TGALS) is a small-scale flight research project investigating the feasibility for a remotely-piloted, towed, glider system to act as a versatile air launch platform for nano-scale satellites. Removing the crew from the launch vehicle means that the system does not have to be human rated, and offers a potential for considerable cost savings. Utah State University is developing a small throttled launch-assist system for the TGALS platform. This "stage zero" design allows the TGALS platform to achieve the required flight path angle for the launch point, a condition that the TGALS cannot achieve without external propulsion. Throttling is required in order to achieve and sustain the proper launch attitude without structurally overloading the airframe. The hybrid rocket system employs gaseous-oxygen and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) as propellants. This thesis summarizes the development and testing campaign, and presents results from the clean-sheet design through ground-based static fire testing. Development of the closed-loop throttle control system is presented.

  14. GRYPHON: Air launched space booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    The project chosen for the winter semester Aero 483 class was the design of a next generation Air Launched Space Booster. Based on Orbital Sciences Corporation's Pegasus concept, the goal of Aero 483 was to design a 500,000 pound air launched space booster capable of delivering 17,000 pounds of payload to Low Earth Orbit and 8,000 pounds of payload to Geosynchronous Earth Orbit. The resulting launch vehicle was named the Gryphon. The class of forty senior aerospace engineering students was broken down into eight interdependent groups. Each group was assigned a subsystem or responsibility which then became their field of specialization. Spacecraft Integration was responsible for ensuring compatibility between subsystems. This group kept up to date on subsystem redesigns and informed those parties affected by the changes, monitored the vehicle's overall weight and dimensions, and calculated the mass properties of the booster. This group also performed the cost/profitability analysis of the Gryphon and obtained cost data for competing launch systems. The Mission Analysis Group was assigned the task of determining proper orbits, calculating the vehicle's flight trajectory for those orbits, and determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The Propulsion Group chose the engines that were best suited to the mission. This group also set the staging configurations for those engines and designed the tanks and fuel feed system. The commercial satellite market, dimensions and weights of typical satellites, and method of deploying satellites was determined by the Payloads Group. In addition, Payloads identified possible resupply packages for Space Station Freedom and identified those packages that were compatible with the Gryphon. The guidance, navigation, and control subsystems were designed by the Mission Control Group. This group identified required tracking hardware, communications hardware telemetry systems, and ground sites for the location of the Gryphon

  15. Closed End Launch Tube (CELT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueck, Dale E.; Immer, Christopher D.

    2004-02-01

    A small-scale test apparatus has been built and tested for the CELT pneumatic launch assist concept presented at STAIF 2001. The 7.5 cm (3-inch) diameter × 305 M (1000 feet) long system accelerates and pneumatically brakes a 6.35 cm diameter projectile with variable weight (1.5 - 5 Kg). The acceleration and braking tube has been instrumented with optical sensors and pressure transducers at 14 stations to take data throughout the runs. Velocity and pressure profiles for runs with various accelerator pressures and projectile weights are given. This test apparatus can serve as an important experimental tool for verifying this concept.

  16. Real-time diagnostics for a reusable rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, T. H.; Merrill, W.; Duyar, A.

    1992-01-01

    A hierarchical, decentralized diagnostic system is proposed for the Real-Time Diagnostic System component of the Intelligent Control System (ICS) for reusable rocket engines. The proposed diagnostic system has three layers of information processing: condition monitoring, fault mode detection, and expert system diagnostics. The condition monitoring layer is the first level of signal processing. Here, important features of the sensor data are extracted. These processed data are then used by the higher level fault mode detection layer to do preliminary diagnosis on potential faults at the component level. Because of the closely coupled nature of the rocket engine propulsion system components, it is expected that a given engine condition may trigger more than one fault mode detector. Expert knowledge is needed to resolve the conflicting reports from the various failure mode detectors. This is the function of the diagnostic expert layer. Here, the heuristic nature of this decision process makes it desirable to use an expert system approach. Implementation of the real-time diagnostic system described above requires a wide spectrum of information processing capability. Generally, in the condition monitoring layer, fast data processing is often needed for feature extraction and signal conditioning. This is usually followed by some detection logic to determine the selected faults on the component level. Three different techniques are used to attack different fault detection problems in the NASA LeRC ICS testbed simulation. The first technique employed is the neural network application for real-time sensor validation which includes failure detection, isolation, and accommodation. The second approach demonstrated is the model-based fault diagnosis system using on-line parameter identification. Besides these model based diagnostic schemes, there are still many failure modes which need to be diagnosed by the heuristic expert knowledge. The heuristic expert knowledge is

  17. Reusables get high marks in adult incontinence care market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tison-Rossman, J

    1992-11-01

    The adult incontinence care market is coming of age. As environmental concerns gradually erode the popularity of disposables, nursing homes and hospitals are looking at reusables in a new light. In addition, the aging of the U.S. population is expected to increase the demand for incontinence care products. A recent study found that the sales of reusable cloth diapers and pads accounted for $385 million annually. All of these factors add up to a lucrative market for textile rental companies that can supply these products.

  18. Wound dressing with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Shamim, Atif

    2016-10-20

    A wound dressing device with reusable electronics for wireless monitoring and a method of making the same are provided. The device can be a smart device. In an embodiment, the device has a disposable portion including one or more sensors and a reusable portion including wireless electronics. The one or more sensors can be secured to a flexible substrate and can be printed by non-contact printing on the substrate. The disposable portion can be removably coupled to the one or more sensors. The device can include one or more sensors for wireless monitoring of a wound, a wound dressing, a body fluid exuded by the wound and/or wearer health.

  19. Vertical Launch System Loadout Planner

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    beautiful wife, Angelica, and my children, Rebecca and Joshua. Your love and patience have supported me throughout this thesis development and I could...the Korean peninsula over a 15-day period for a ship on a deployment. Table 1 displays a schedule for the USS John Paul Jones (DDG 53). Table 1

  20. A computer model for evaluation of launch vehicle and target tracking error assignments for direct ascent, deep space ASAT (Anti-satellite) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, R. C.

    1983-12-01

    An unclassified computer model was developed for first order evaluation of deep space Anti-satellite (ASAT) targeting error assignments. Two independent error sources are modeled. With deep space tracking accuracies on the order of kilometers, there is uncertainty in the exact target position. Errors introduced by the launch vehicle guidance system result in uncertainty in the exact position of the ASAT itself. Once the target is acquired by the ASAT sensor subsystem, the maneuver subsystem must then have the capability to make the necessary trajectory corrections to precent a miss. The model assumes a direct ascent vehicle for which the user selects a trajectory by choosing the burnout and intercept position vectors, and a time of flight between them. Monte Carlo simulation is used to generate errors in burnout position and velocity, and intercept position from trivariate normal distributions scaled to user input standard deviations. This is repeated for 500 iterations, from which a mean miss distance and delta V required for trajectory correction can be determined, and used for further analysis.