WorldWideScience

Sample records for returns unemployment experiences

  1. Aggregate Unemployment Decreases Individual Returns to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammermueller, Andreas; Kuckulenz, Anja; Zwick, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Aggregate unemployment may affect individual returns to education through qualification-specific responses in participation and wage bargaining. This paper shows that an increase in regional unemployment by 1% decreases returns to education by 0.005 percentage points. This implies that higher skilled employees are better sheltered from labour…

  2. The reaction of stock market returns to anticipated unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Taamouti, Abderrahim; Gonzalo Muñoz, Jesús

    2012-01-01

    We empirically investigate the short-run impact of anticipated and unanticipated unemployment rates on stock prices. We particularly examine the nonlinearity in stock market's reaction to unemployment rate and study the effect at each individual point (quantile) of stock return distribution. Using nonparametric Granger causality and quantile regression based tests, we find that, contrary to the general findings in the literature, only anticipated unemployment rate has a strong impact on stock...

  3. Unemployment, Investment and Global Expected Returns: A Panel FAVAR Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ron Smith; Gylfi Zoega

    2005-01-01

    We consider the hypothesis that a common factor, global expected returns, drives unemployment and investment in 21 OECD countries over the period 1960-2002. We investigate this hypothesis using a panel-factor augmented-vector autoregression (FAVAR). We first estimate the common factors of unemployment and investment by principal components and show that the first principal component of unemployment is almost identical to that of investment and that they both show the pattern one would expect ...

  4. 26 CFR 301.6106-1 - Publicity of unemployment tax returns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publicity of unemployment tax returns. 301.6106... Records § 301.6106-1 Publicity of unemployment tax returns. For provisions relating to publicity of returns made in respect of unemployment tax imposed by chapter 23 of the Code, see §§ 301.6103(a)-1, 301...

  5. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3 - Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. 31... Provisions of Subtitle F, Internal Revenue Code of 1954) § 31.6011(a)-3 Returns under Federal Unemployment Tax Act. (a) Requirement. Every person shall make a return of tax under the Federal Unemployment Tax...

  6. 26 CFR 31.6011(a)-3A - Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Returns of the railroad unemployment repayment... unemployment repayment tax. (a) Requirement—(1) Employers. Every rail employer (as defined in section 3323(a) and section 1 of the Railroad Unemployment Insurance Act) shall make a return of the tax imposed by...

  7. 26 CFR 1.6050B-1 - Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... unemployment compensation payments. 1.6050B-1 Section 1.6050B-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Information returns by person making unemployment compensation payments. For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978, every person who makes payments of unemployment compensation (as defined in section 85...

  8. Perspectives of unemployed workers with mental health problems: barriers to and solutions for return to work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audhoe, Selwin S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Hoving, Jan L.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the barriers to and solutions for return to work (RTW) from the perspective of unemployed workers who were sick-listed due to mental health problems. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 25 sick-listed unemployed workers with mental health problems. Qualitative data analysis was

  9. Between unemployment and employment: experience of unemployed long-term pain sufferers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavare, Maria; Löfgren, Monika; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2012-01-01

    This study explored and analysed how patients experienced possibilities for, and barriers to, work return after participation in a multi-professional pain-rehabilitation program followed by a coached work-training program (CWT). Eleven informants (8 women/3 men) with long-term musculoskeletal pain who had participated in the CWT program for 4-21 months (mean=11) comprised the study. A qualitative emergent design was used. Data collected with interviews were analysed using the constant comparison method of grounded theory. Triangulation in researchers were used. The analyses of the interviews resulted in the development of a three-category theoretical model, which was named "a way back to work". The main category "Experience of a way back to work" consisted of the informants' experience during the process between unemployment and employment. The category "Support" describes the help the informants received from various actors, and the category "Negative response" describes negative responses from the actors involved, which was an important barrier in the process between unemployment and employment. Professional individualised support, participants feeling involved in their rehabilitation process, coaching at real workplaces and multi-professional team including health care personnel, were valuable during the process towards work.

  10. 26 CFR 31.6071(a)-1A - Time for filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Time for filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax. 31.6071(a)-1A Section 31.6071(a)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE... filing returns with respect to the railroad unemployment repayment tax. (a) In general. Each return of...

  11. Return to Learning, Return to Work: Helping Low-Qualified Adults Out of Unemployment. Briefing Note

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedefop - European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, the question uppermost in policymakers' minds has understandably been the explosive growth of youth unemployment. But the crisis has also severely affected low-qualified adults, who face the highest rate of unemployment across Europe. A recent Cedefop study confirms that work-based training programmes can address the particular needs…

  12. Career Transitions: The Experiences of Unemployed Women Managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 45 women managers was surveyed in a qualitative study to explore their experiences of being unemployed. The sample was purposeful, and the data were collected on a website-based survey. The experience of unemployment for female managers was far different from what was previously presumed from research largely drawn from male …

  13. The experience of returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Inger; Björklund, Anita

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore from an environmental perspective the experiences of returning to work of former unemployed sickness absentees. Five separate focus-group interviews were carried out with themes concerning different environmental areas. The findings showed that the participants in their process of being off work and then attempting returning to work experienced a personal transition manifesting itself as a negative self-image, change of life-rhythm and restrictions in their roles and activities. In their progression, the participants experienced a need for reorientation and expressed feelings of alienation, and for that reason felt need of support from a network, especially a professional one. Regarding attitudes in society, the participants reported experiences of social stigmatization, both in mass media and in their immediate social environment, and an increasing egocentricity among their fellow-workers. They perceived their progression back to work as a 'time quarantine' and as a long and destructive wait for support. The findings indicate that the phenomenon of 'returning to work' after unemployment and sick leave could not be reduced to a single issue. It should rather be seen as a dynamic problem with individual and structural, environmental aspects.

  14. 75 FR 24748 - Johnson Controls, Inc., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ...., Automotive Experience Division, Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through... unemployment insurance (UI) tax account, under the name Hoover Universal. Accordingly, the Department is... Division, including workers whose unemployment insurance (UI) wages are paid through Hoover Universal...

  15. Young Finnish Unemployed Men's Experiences of Having Participated in a Specific Active Labor Market Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Ove; Häggström, Elisabeth; Nyström, Lisbet

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe young Finnish unemployed men's experiences of having participated in a specific active labor market program, intended to fight unemployment and offered at a resource center. Fifteen young unemployed Finnish men in the age range 18 to 27 years were interviewed face-to-face. Purposive sampling was used to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analyzed using both manifest and latent qualitative content analysis. The present results reported that the young men felt that they, thanks to the program at the resource center, had acquired daily routines and could ultimately believe in the future. The young men described how they now had a structure, economic support, and that they could return to their daily life. The informants also described how they could see new possibilities and believe in oneself. There is a lack of empirical studies assessing the possible impact of active labor market programs on the unemployed based on participants' own experiences. Further research is needed to describe and elucidate in more detail the effects of targeted support measures and the needs of unemployed men of different ages and living in different contexts.

  16. The Link between Unemployment and Returns to Education: Evidence from 14 European Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Bernhard A.

    2002-01-01

    Estimates for 14 European countries used three models introducing unemployment, youth unemployment, and unemployment benefits respectively. Differences in unemployment probabilities at different educational levels and youth unemployment both appear to be important for a better understanding of the incentive structure behind educational decisions.…

  17. Does Financial Hardship Explain Differences Between Belgian and South African Unemployed Regarding Experiences of Unemployment, Employment Commitment, and Job Search Behaviour?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Vleugels

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether Belgian and South African unemployed differed regarding three psychological dimensions of unemployment: affect (experiences of unemployment, attitudes (employment commitment, and behaviour (job search intensity. Moreover, we expected country of residence to indirectly influence unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. A cross-sectional survey design was used to test our hypotheses. Data were sampled from unemployed people in the Brussels area in Belgium ('N' = 305, and the Potchefstroom area in South Africa ('N' = 381. The results indicated that, compared to the Belgian unemployed, the South African unemployed experienced their unemployment as more negative, were more committed towards employment and more intensively searched for work. Moreover, country of residence indirectly influenced unemployed people's experiences, employment commitment, and job search intensity via financial hardship. Some policy recommendations are suggested.

  18. The Experience of Unemployment for Fishery Workers in Newfoundland: What Helps and Hinders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgen, William A.; Amundson, Norman E.; McVicar, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Explores the unemployment experience of people involved in the fishery and living in the outports of Newfoundland and Labrador. Fifty-three critical incident interviews were conducted by community outreach workers. These interviews yielded important information about the factors that facilitated or hindered the unemployment experience. (Contains…

  19. Return to Experience and Initial Wage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to nonparametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationship...

  20. Return to experience and initial wage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, K.L.; Vejlin, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper estimates the relationship between initial wage and return to experience. We use a Mincer-like wage model to non-parametrically estimate this relationship allowing for an unobservable individual permanent effect in wages and unobservable individual return to experience. The relationshi...

  1. Does the Unemployement Benefit Institution Affect the Productivity of Workers? Evidence from a Field Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco, M.; Dalton, P.S.; Vargas, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We investigate whether and how the type of unemployment bene t institution affects productivity. We designed a field experiment to compare workers' productivity under a welfare system, where the unemployed receive an unconditional monetary transfer, with their productivity under a workfare

  2. Experiments on unemployment benefit sanctions and job search behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Sadrieh, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study on unemployment benefit sanctions. The experimental set-up allows us to distinguish between the effect of benefit sanctions once they are imposed (the ex post effect) and the threat of getting a benefit sanction imposed (the ex ante effect).

  3. Return on experience. Building tomorrow's safety rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2013-01-01

    Based on some experiments and witnesses, this set of articles outlines the importance of the return on experience in the evolution of process for improving the safety of nuclear installations. As an example, an article notably addresses the failures of Diesel engines which are used as spare generators in nuclear power stations: failures have been analysed and attributed to bearings, and more specifically to the degradation of their surface, and a third generation of bearings has been designed and produced. An article outlines that different industrials belonging to the nuclear sector as well as to other sectors share their returns on experience

  4. Mental health and individual experience of unemployed young adults in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kito, Aiko; Ueno, Takeji

    2016-01-01

    This study focused on the subjective experiences and mental health of young, unemployed adults in Japan. We explored how individuals describe their experiences of becoming unemployed and how these experiences influence their mental health within the current Japanese sociocultural context, using a social constructionist approach. We collected data from October 2012 to January 2013. Participants were 25 young unemployed Japanese job seekers (15 females), who were recruited using a purposive sampling strategy including snowball sampling. We conducted semi-structured interviews focusing on participants' previous work and job search experience, their lifestyle and health, the social support they considered necessary, their future job-seeking plans, and their demographic characteristics. Using thematic analysis, we identified four key themes from the interview data: stress relief, re-energization for future work, new job skills acquisition, and lifestyle change. The findings indicate that unemployment is sometimes experienced as more beneficial than employment. This might be because of the poor working environment in Japan, the financial support participants received, and the experience of short-term unemployment. The findings suggest that intervention is necessary to help young adults in Japan find high-quality jobs and that we must promote fair employment and decent working conditions for them.

  5. Exploring Limbo: The experience of job-loss and unemployment in a jewellery city in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The article investigates the experience of job-loss and the following unemployment. Based on the ethnographic research conducted in Valenza, Italy, between 2008 and 2012, the article challenges an interpretation of unemployment as a liminal phase. I argue former workers experience unemployment as a “Limbo” – an existential condition underpinned by the ambiguity of being and at the same time not-being a worker. The exploration of this “Limbo” sheds light on the emotional, physical and symbolic labour that laid-off workers undertake facing their new condition. This research offers elements to read the loss of a job as an exit from a community of practices and to investigate the ways in which individual negotiate this departure.

  6. Looking for Work after Forty: Job Search Experience of Older Unemployed Managers and Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Peter

    1990-01-01

    Describes the job search experiences of 348 previously unemployed managers and professionals over age 40. Reasons most frequently cited for leaving jobs were company reorganization, personality conflict, budget cut, and firm went out of business. Two most important barriers to reemployment given were age and being overqualified. Offers…

  7. Raiding Opportunities and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben

    2001-01-01

    , all types of workers experience unemployment, high-ability workers involuntarily. The raiding opportunities give rise to involuntary unemployment without changing the basic properties of the competitive model and thus suggest new implications of various institutional parameters on unemployment......, in particular, unemployment compensation, minimum wages, wage taxation, and search requirements....

  8. A QUALITATIVE RESEARCH ON THE UNEMPLOYMENT EXPERIENCES OF GRADUATES OF SPORT SCIENCES FACULTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzez Şaşmaz Ataçocuğu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment has been recognized as an important indicator of economies of the countries. Unemployment which expresses the status of complete unavailability of “labor” as the main factor of production, is a multidimensional problem, which can be encountered in all countries from less developed countries to developed countries. It is emerging in all sectors with various proportions and features. The research question of this paper was created by issues in the context of unemployment of graduates of the faculties of sports sciences which are raising labor supply to sports sector which is growing with every passing day. In the study, it was intended to analyze the unemployment experiences of faculty of sports sciences graduates (former words, the “PES” and to put the variables about the causes and consequences of this experience forward. In this context, the study sample was selected from people who were graduated from 4 separate departments of relevant faculties and have experienced unemployment. The sample consists of 20 participants for a total, 7 Physical Education and Sports Teaching Department, 5 Sports Management Department, 4 Coaching Education Department, 4 Recreation Department graduates. In the study, “Semi-structured in-depth interview” which is a specific research technique peculiar to “Qualitative Method” was applied. Interviews were recorded on a voice recorder, transferred to the “Word” text. Related findings (text subjected to content analysis, were classified under 5 themes that reflect the primary problematics relevant to the subject: 1. Unemployment Duration and Job Search Practices of Graduates, 2. The Perception of Employment in Anatolian Cities, 3. Pedagogic Formation Certificate as a Business Opportunity, 4. Effective Elements in Finding a Job, 5. The Perception of the Profession. From the results of the research, in general, the following tips were obtained: It appeared that those who have graduated from

  9. Understanding unemployed people's job search behaviour, unemployment experience and well-being: a comparison of expectancy-value theory and self-determination theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; De Witte, Hans; Feather, N T

    2005-06-01

    Previous unemployment research has directly tested hypotheses derived from expectancy-value theory (EVT; Feather, 1982, 1990), but no comparative analysis has been executed with another motivational framework. In one large study with 446 unemployed people, separate analyses provided good evidence for predictions derived from both EVT and self-determination theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985, 2000). Comparative analyses indicated that the type of people's job search motivation, as conceptualized through the notions of autonomous versus controlled motivation within SDT, is an important predictor of people's unemployment experience and wellbeing, beyond people's strength of motivation assessed within EVT through expectancies of finding a job and employment value. The importance of simultaneously testing two theoretical frameworks is discussed.

  10. Experiences of unemployed clients with services offered them by the front office of the Bridge project

    OpenAIRE

    Twum, Sampson

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the experiences of unemployed clients of the Bridge project to the services offered them by the front office. The Bridge project organises programs to ease immigrant’s integration. The project also aid immigrant’s integration with supervision, information and education through front office activity. This study used a qualitative research approach and the method of data collection was in-depth interviews. The participants were selected using snow b...

  11. The unemployed fathers’ experience of disciplining their children : a phenomenological enquiry

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    M.A. The aim of this research is to gain insight into the unemployed father’s experience of disciplining his children. The motivation for this research is multifaceted. Research trends, nationally and internationally, have shown an increased focus on the fathers’ role in the lives of their children (Burbach, Fox & Nicholson, 2004; Goldberg, Tan & Thorsen, 2009; Smit, 2004). Research examining the father is on the up rise as the value of understanding the father, his role and his impact on ...

  12. Reabsorption of returning workers from the Gulf: the Asian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, S

    1994-01-01

    This study examines trends in return labor migration from the Middle East to South Asia and Southeast Asia. Survey data were used to describe trends in outmigration and socioeconomic characteristics of return migrants and to examine the extent to which return migration is associated with skill level and use of savings and remittances on their return. General trends indicate a decline in outmigration during the late 1980s and early 1990s, after oil prices dropped in 1986. Migrants from Pakistan and Korea declined by half during 1981-85 and by 40% among Indian migrants. The demand for service workers and migrants willing to accept cuts in wages was unaffected. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries grew in the recent past. These increases were due to the replacement of workers from Jordan and Yemen who were expelled from Saudi Arabia after the Gulf crisis. The shift in occupational demand to service and higher level workers is expected to weaken migration from Pakistan and Bangladesh and to strengthen migration from Sri Lanka and other Southeast Asian countries with a skilled migrant labor force. Outmigration from Southeast Asian countries increased to high-growth destination countries such as Japan, Malaysia, and Singapore. Socioeconomic characteristics of migrants varied by country of origin. For instance, Philippine migrants were better educated. Migrants from Thailand, Bangladesh, and Pakistan were from rural and impoverished areas. Sri Lanka and the Philippines had many women migrants. Return migrants encountered high unemployment. Return migrants to Korea had fewer reemployment problems. Reemployment was associated with local country conditions. Unskilled workers had the highest rates of unemployment. Savings tended to be invested in real estate and housing. Savings and investment from remittance income was high in Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, and Thailand.

  13. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  14. Effects of Intensifying Labor Market Programs on Post-Unemployment Wages: Evidence From a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Kenneth Lykke

    This paper investigates effects on wages of a Danish field experiment intensifying Active Labor Market Policies (ALMP).We link unemployed workers who participated in an ALMP experiment called “Quickly Back” carried out by the Danish Ministry of Employment 2005-2006 in two counties to matched...... employer-employee and public transfer register data up to 2008 enabling us to analyze exact labor market transitions and jobs of the participants. Men in one of the counties experienced significant higher probability of earning higher short and long term wages after treatment. Treated men in the other...

  15. Experiences of occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parcsi, Lisa; Curtin, Michael

    2013-08-01

    Returning to work after maternity leave can be a challenging, anxious and fraught experience for women, and has been portrayed in the literature as a generally negative experience. Interestingly, although occupational therapists were predominantly women, no research was found focussing on their experiences of returning to work after maternity leave. The aim of this research was to gain an insight into occupational therapists' experiences of returning to work following maternity leave. Principles of interpretive phenomenological analysis were used to explore the individual experiences of six Australian occupational therapists returning to work after a period of maternity leave. Individual semi-structured interviews lasting up to 90 minutes were conducted. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed and then analysed. Two major themes emerged from the analysis of interviews: compromise and feeling valued. The experience of returning to work was a process of compromise in which women found strategies to cope with their changing roles and demands, to find a balance between home and work life. The women wanted to feel valued by their managers and co-workers, as this enabled them to feel comfortable and confident with some of the compromises they made. Occupational therapists returning to work after maternity leave will make compromises so that they can balance their home and work life. Occupational therapists value managers and co-workers who understand the compromises women make when returning to work following maternity leave and who create a supportive workplace that acknowledges and values their contribution. © 2013 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  16. CRPE: Cesium Return Program Experience FY 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, E.P.

    1995-11-01

    Since 1945, the chemical reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuels in the Hanford Chemical Separation areas has resulted in the generation of significant volumes of high-level, liquid, radioactive, by-product materials. However, because these materials were recognized to have beneficial uses, their disposal was delayed. To investigate the possibilities, the By-product Utilization Program (BUP) was initiated. The program mission was to develop a means for the application of radioactive-fission products for the benefit of society. Cs capsules were fabricated and distributed to private irradiation facilities for beneficial product sterilization. In June of 1988, a small leak developed in one of the Cs capsules at a private irradiator facility that is located in Decatur, Georgia. This leak prompted DOE to remove these capsules and to re-evaluate the BUP with the irradiator facilities that were currently using Cs capsules. As a result of this evaluation, a recall was issued to require that all remaining Cs capsules be returned to Hanford for safe management and storage pending final capsule disposition. The WHC completed the return of 309 capsules from a private irradiation facility, located in Northglenn, Colorado, to the Hanford Reservation. The DOE is also planning to remove 25 Cs capsules from a small, private irradiator facility located in Lynchburg, Virginia. This small irradiator facility is currently operational and uses the capsules for the underwater irradiation of wood-flooring products. This report discusses transportation-related activities that WHC has researched, developed, implemented, and is currently managing to ensure the safe and efficient movement of Cs-137 back to the Hanford Reservation

  17. Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller Foundation, New York, NY.

    In the introduction to this conference report, the problem of youth unemployment is reviewed and youth unemployment rates for 1976 are analyzed. Lester C. Thurow's study is presented as a discussion of the problem of youth unemployment. He examined the impact of economic growth, looked at the significance of the effect of unemployment on youth,…

  18. Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments Mission Design

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Currently the Georgia Tech Small Probes for Orbital Return of Experiments (SPORE) team is collaborating with Aurora Flight Sciences to provide a launch, re-entry,...

  19. The impact of entrepreneruship training on graduate unemployed : evidence from a randomized field experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Caeiro, Marta, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Context, Objectives and Entrepreneurship Intervention In the context of labour market issues, unemployment rates constitute, undoubtedly a major concern, especially under an economic and financial crisis situation, such as the currently faced by many European countries, since 2008. Unemployment rates are an important structural indicator, displaying both economic and social dimensions. An increase of unemployment might imply a loss of talent and unique human capital out of the labour force, c...

  20. Learned helplessness or expectancy-value? A psychological model for describing the experiences of different categories of unemployed people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Rodríguez, Y

    1997-06-01

    Various studies have explored the relationships between unemployment and expectation of success, commitment to work, motivation, causal attributions, self-esteem and depression. A model is proposed that assumes the relationships between these variables are moderated by (a) whether or not the unemployed individual is seeking a first job and (b) age. It is proposed that for the unemployed who are seeking their first job (seekers) the relationships among these variables will be consistent with expectancy-value theory, but for those who have had a previous job (losers), the relationships will be more consistent with learned helplessness theory. It is further assumed that within this latter group the young losers will experience "universal helplessness" whereas the adult losers will experience "personal helplessness".

  1. Explaining Disparities in Unemployment Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Karanassou, Marika; Snower, Dennis J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper attempts to explain disparities among the unemployment experiences of different OECD countries in terms of the `fragility' of the short-run unemployment equilibrium (the impact of labour market shocks on the short-run unemployment rate) and the lag structure of the employment determination, wage setting, and labour force participation decisions. The effects of this lag structure on unemployment dynamics are captured through two general measures of `unemployment persistence' (occurr...

  2. Exploration of Experiences and Perceptions of Three Botswana Basic Education Stakeholders on Employment and Unemployment of Graduates of Basic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidimane, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This study used a phenomenological approach to explore the lived experiences of three groups of stakeholders of the Botswana basic education program related to the employment and unemployment of graduates of basic education. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 participants from three groups of stakeholders, graduates of basic…

  3. The Experiences of Long-Term Unemployed Young Adults in the South West of England: Some New Insights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawy, Robert; Wheeler, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we explore the experiences of three long-term unemployed young adults from different backgrounds in the 18-24 age range. The data comprise three interviews conducted over an 18-month period with seven of the original 19 participants in the research. At the time of first interview none of the young adults had been in education,…

  4. Understanding unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Guillaume Rocheteau

    2006-01-01

    Modern economists have built models of the labor market, which isolate the market’s key drivers and describe the way these interact to produce particular levels of unemployment. One of the most popular models used by macroeconomists today is the search-matching model of equilibrium unemployment. We explain this model, and show how it can be applied to understand the way various policies, such as unemployment benefits, taxes, or technological changes, can affect the unemployment rate.

  5. Effects of Lifetime Unemployment Experience and Job Insecurity on Two-Year Risk of Physician-Diagnosed Incident Depression in the German Working Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wege, Natalia; Angerer, Peter; Li, Jian

    2017-08-11

    Unemployment and job insecurity have been reported to be associated with a higher risk of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the separate and combined effects of lifetime unemployment experience and job insecurity on the incidence of depression in an unselected working population in Germany. Data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) study were used, as was a final sample of those currently employed, with complete data at baseline (2009) and follow-up (2011) restricted to those free of depression in 2009 ( n = 7073). Poisson regression analysis was applied to test the prospective associations between unemployment, job insecurity, and a two-year incident of depression. Results showed that the experience of unemployment and perceived job insecurity were significantly associated with a higher risk of depression during the two-year follow-up (risk ratios 1.64; 95% confidence intervals (1.16, 2.31) and risk ratios 1.48; 95% confidence intervals (1.13, 1.92), respectively). Notably, the strongest risk was observed among participants with insecure jobs and past long-term unemployment (risk ratios 2.15; 95% confidence intervals (1.32; 3.52)). In conclusion, even during employment, the experience of lifetime unemployment led to a higher risk of depression. The combination of previous unemployment experience and anticipated job insecurity increased the risk of developing depression. Results support health promotion with special emphasis on unemployment and precarious working conditions.

  6. Physical exercise and return to work: cancer survivors' experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, Iris F.; de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2013-01-01

    In this qualitative study, we aimed to explore cancer survivors' experiences with (1) return to work (RtW) and work performance, (2) a physical exercise program after treatment, and (3) the perceived link between physical exercise and work. Semi-structured individual interviews were held with ten

  7. [Ontogenetic conditions of unemployment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchtová, Božena; Smajs, Josef; Kulhavý, Viktor; Okrajek, Petr; Kukla, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Previous unemployment studies mostly dealt with unemployments economic causes and consequences. Hidden causes of male unemployment, independent from socio-economic circumstances of a society, could consist, besides others, in natural biological factors - family experience during childhood. Theoretical background of our study included the concept of psychical deprivation, the concept of human ontogenesis developmental stages of E. Erikson and knowledge of biodromal psychology. Using data from the European Longitudinal Study of Parenthood and Childhood international project we compared groups of employed and unemployed men by means of a retrospective survey and we studied the following: 1. What differences there were in their childhood; 2. To what extent educational approaches transfer from parents to their children; 3. What influence has negative experience from childhood on the future assertion of men in the labour market. The survey set consisted of 3141 (88.7%) employed men and 399 (11.3%) unemployed men in 1991-1992. Basic research data were acquired by means of questionnaires. Relative risk was used to compare the groups of the employed and the unemployed. The employed men are more likely to be from complete families then the unemployed men. The unemployed men, in comparison to the employed men, 2.08 times more frequently spent their childhood in orphanages, children's villages or in foster families, 3.89 times more frequently attended special schools, 2.22 times more frequently lived away from home until the age of 18 and 2.51 times more frequently lived in detention centres or in diagnostic institutes until the age of 18 (p unemployed men were psychically and physically abused in their childhood. Consequences of negative experience from childhood decrease the chances of inclusion of young men into the labour market. Social roles of young men (future fathers) could be also distorted by such experience. Social integration and social success rate of the

  8. Return to work and cancer: the Australian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Georgina; Knott, Vikki; Delfabbro, Paul

    2013-03-01

    Research suggests that for many cancer survivors, returning to work has a range of benefits. However, considerable barriers have been identified as influencing the quality of return to work outcomes. This study explored the perspectives of Australian cancer survivors, managers and employee assistance program (EAP) professionals to gain an understanding of the return to work process and factors that affect the experience. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with cancer survivors (n = 15), managers (n = 12), and EAP professionals / psychologists (n = 4) from public and private sectors. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data to identify common and unique themes from the three participant groups. A range of drivers were identified including maintaining normality and regaining identity, which could act positively or negatively depending on survivors' coping ability and self awareness. Analysis revealed communication difficulties in the workplace that impact on emotional and practical support. Negotiating an employee's return is complex, influenced by the level of consultation with the employee and use of an ad hoc or structured process. Direct and indirect ways of supporting employees with cancer were identified, as was the need for colleague and manager support. This study supports previous research findings of the impact of cancer on work, and reveals managers' lack of knowledge on how to respond appropriately. The process of returning to work is complex, influenced by employees' and managers' attitudes, communication skills and coping abilities. Areas for workplace interventions to optimise support for the cancer survivor are described.

  9. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Badsberg, Jens Henrik; Osler, Merete

    2014-05-01

    Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast cancer. This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio-demography and co-morbid conditions. Multivariable analyses were performed by Cox's proportional hazard models. Two years after treatment, 81% of patients were still part of the work force, 10% of which were unemployed. Increasing duration of unemployment before breast cancer was associated with an adjusted HR = 4.37 (95% CI: 3.90-4.90) for unemployment after breast cancer. Other risk factors for unemployment included low socioeconomic status and demography, while adjuvant therapy did not increase the risk of unemployment. Duration of unemployment before breast cancer was the most important determinant of unemployment after breast cancer treatment. This allows identification of a particularly vulnerable group of patients in need of rehabilitation.

  10. Unemployment duration and unemployment insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røed, Knut; Jensen, Peter; Thoursie, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Based on pooled register data from Norway and Sweden, we find that differences in unemployment duration patterns reflect dissimilarities in unemployment insurance (UI) systems in a way that convincingly establishes the link between economic incentives and job search behaviour. Specifically, UI...... benefits are relatively more generous for low-income workers in Sweden than in Norway, leading to relatively longer unemployment spells for low-income workers in Sweden. Based on the between-countries variation in replacement ratios, we find that the elasticity of the outflow rate from insured unemployment...

  11. Analysis advanced methods of data bases of industrial experience return

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lannoy, A.; Procaccia, H.

    1994-05-01

    This is a presentation, through different conceptions of data bases on industrial experience return, of the principal methods for treatments and analyses of the collected data, going from the frequency statistic and factorial analysis, to the the Bayesian statistical decision theory, which is a real decision assistance tool for responsibles, conceivers and operators. Examples in various fields are given (OREDA: Offshore REliability DAta bank for marine drilling platforms, CEDB: Component Event Data Bank for european electric power industry, RDF 93: reliability of electronic components of ''France Telecom'', EVT: failure EVenTs data bank in the french nuclear power plants by ''EDF''). (A.B.). refs., figs., tabs

  12. Cost-effectiveness of a participatory return-to-work intervention for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders: design of a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Sylvia J; Anema, Johannes R; Schellart, Antonius J M; van Mechelen, Willem; van der Beek, Allard J

    2010-03-28

    Within the working population there is a vulnerable group: workers without an employment contract and workers with a flexible labour market arrangement, e.g. temporary agency workers. In most cases, when sick-listed, these workers have no workplace/employer to return to. Also, for these workers access to occupational health care is limited or even absent in many countries. For this vulnerable working population there is a need for tailor-made occupational health care, including the presence of an actual return-to-work perspective. Therefore, a participatory return-to-work program has been developed based on a successful return-to-work intervention for workers, sick-listed due to low back pain.The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to study the (cost-)effectiveness of this newly developed participatory return-to-work program adapted for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers, sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders, compared to usual care. The design of this study is a randomised controlled trial with one year of follow-up. The study population consists of temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed between 2 and 8 weeks due to musculoskeletal disorders. The new return-to-work program is a stepwise program aimed at making a consensus-based return-to-work implementation plan with the possibility of a (therapeutic) workplace to return-to-work. Outcomes are measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is duration of the sickness benefit period after the first day of reporting sick. Secondary outcome measures are: time until first return-to-work, total number of days of sickness benefit during follow-up; functional status; intensity of musculoskeletal pain; pain coping; and attitude, social influence and self-efficacy determinants. Cost-benefit is evaluated from an insurer's perspective. A process evaluation is part of this study. For sick-listed workers without an

  13. Cost-effectiveness of a participatory return-to-work intervention for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders: design of a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellart Antonius JM

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the working population there is a vulnerable group: workers without an employment contract and workers with a flexible labour market arrangement, e.g. temporary agency workers. In most cases, when sick-listed, these workers have no workplace/employer to return to. Also, for these workers access to occupational health care is limited or even absent in many countries. For this vulnerable working population there is a need for tailor-made occupational health care, including the presence of an actual return-to-work perspective. Therefore, a participatory return-to-work program has been developed based on a successful return-to-work intervention for workers, sick-listed due to low back pain. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a randomised controlled trial to study the (cost-effectiveness of this newly developed participatory return-to-work program adapted for temporary agency workers and unemployed workers, sick-listed due to musculoskeletal disorders, compared to usual care. Methods/Design The design of this study is a randomised controlled trial with one year of follow-up. The study population consists of temporary agency workers and unemployed workers sick-listed between 2 and 8 weeks due to musculoskeletal disorders. The new return-to-work program is a stepwise program aimed at making a consensus-based return-to-work implementation plan with the possibility of a (therapeutic workplace to return-to-work. Outcomes are measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is duration of the sickness benefit period after the first day of reporting sick. Secondary outcome measures are: time until first return-to-work, total number of days of sickness benefit during follow-up; functional status; intensity of musculoskeletal pain; pain coping; and attitude, social influence and self-efficacy determinants. Cost-benefit is evaluated from an insurer's perspective. A process evaluation is

  14. Return to Work: Work-Based Learning and the Reintegration of Unemployed Adults into the Labour Market. Working Paper No 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehmel, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Low-qualified adults have experienced a greater rise in unemployment than any other group in Europe. What particular barriers are they facing in (re-)entering the labour market? How can VET be used in active labour market policies to help overcome these barriers? How can training programmes be designed to address the particular needs of this…

  15. Tackling Unemployment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-01-31

    Jan 31, 2014 ... Unemployment is synonymous to 'joblessness' and it breeds generalized hardship in life, helplessness, lack of social security, idleness, poverty, depression, suicidal tendencies, loss of self esteem, diseases like hypertension, and dependency even in very minor responsibilities. It has also been implicated ...

  16. Experiences of returning to elite beach volleyball after shoulder injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Sofie; Östenberg, Anna Hafsteinsson; Sjöström, Rita; Alricsson, Marie

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine beach volleyball players' experience regarding shoulder injury and how it affects their return to play. To achieve the research aims a qualitative design with semi-structured interviews had been conducted, five elite beach volleyball players, four men and one woman aged 27-42 participated in the study. All participants had suffered a severe shoulder injury, with absence from training and competing for at least 28 days. The findings of this study indicate that it is the individual's inner motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community, family, teammate and coach that are the most important factors when going through rehabilitation and getting back to playing beach volleyball after a shoulder injury. All participants had been affected by their injury in some way; some of the participants had been affected in a positive way since they had become mentally stronger and had developed better volleyball technique after rehabilitation. The conclusions of this study indicate that there are three distinct factors that increase the chances of getting back to playing beach volleyball after shoulder injury; it is the players' self motivation, together with a clear goal and support from the community.

  17. Experiences of unemployment and well-being after job loss during economic recession: Results of a qualitative study in east central Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiswåls, Anne-Sofie; Marttila, Anneli; Mälstam, Emelie; Macassa, Gloria

    2017-12-13

    Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Six different themes emerged from the accounts: The respondents perceived work as the basis for belonging, and loss of work affected their social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. They also expressed feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness, which affected their physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents' negative emotions. The respondents reported activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts as part of their coping strategy against poor mental health. Conclusions: After job loss, the respondents experienced feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. They also felt worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having other activities gave the respondents structure and meaning.

  18. Experiences of unemployment and well-being after job loss during economic recession: Results of a qualitative study in east central Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Sofie Hiswåls

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Several studies have revealed an association between unemployment and ill health, and shown that unemployment can affect people differently. This study aimed to provide an understanding of the experiences of unemployment and perceptions of wellbeing among persons who involuntary lost their work during the recent economic recession in Gävle Municipality. Methods: Sixteen unemployed men and women aged 28-62 were interviewed face-to-face. A purposeful sampling strategy was used in order to suit the research question and to increase the variation among informants. The interview texts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results: Six different themes emerged from the accounts: The respondents perceived work as the basis for belonging, and loss of work affected their social life and consumption patterns due to changes in their financial situation. They also expressed feelings of isolation, loss of self-esteem, and feelings of hopelessness, which affected their physical well-being. Longer duration of unemployment increased the respondents’ negative emotions. The respondents reported activities, structure, and affiliation in other contexts as part of their coping strategy against poor mental health. Conclusions: After job loss, the respondents experienced feelings of loss of dignity and belonging as a human being. They also felt worry, insecurity, and stress due to their changed financial situation, which in turn led to isolation and loss of self-esteem. Social support and having other activities gave the respondents structure and meaning.

  19. Unemployment among breast cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Ewertz, Marianne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2014-01-01

    AIM: Though about 20% of working age breast cancer survivors do not return to work after treatment, few studies have addressed risk factors for unemployment. The majority of studies on occupational consequences of breast cancer focus on non-employment, which is a mixture of sickness absence......, unemployment, retirement pensions and other reasons for not working. Unemployment in combination with breast cancer may represent a particular challenge for these women. The aim of the present study is therefore to analyze the risk for unemployment in the years following diagnosis and treatment for breast...... cancer. METHOD: This study included 14,750 women diagnosed with breast cancer in Denmark 2001-2009 identified through a population-based clinical database and linked with information from Danish administrative population based registers for information on labour market affiliation, socio...

  20. Reintegration of Pakistani return migrants from the Middle East in the domestic labour market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, G M

    1998-01-01

    This study compared the unemployment rates among return migrants and nonmigrants and examined the reintegration pattern of returnees in the domestic labor market. The study utilized three data sets: the 1980 World Bank Survey of Return Migrant Households; the 1986 ILO/ARTEP Survey of Return Migrant Households; the 1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey. Findings showed that unemployment rates were much higher among return migrants than nonmigrants. Although this difference narrowed with the passage of time, even among those who returned to Pakistan at least 18 months prior to the surveys, more than 10% of workers were unemployed. The multivariate analysis further showed that returnees, irrespective of the period elapsed since their return, were more likely to be unemployed than nonmigrants. With respect to the reintegration pattern of return migrants, the study revealed that variables indicating their human capital, such as occupation and pre-migration and during-migration work experience, appear to have a greater influence on their post-return adjustment than the variables related to economic positions such as savings. The results also showed that the types of jobs unemployed returnees were looking for differed substantially from those held by employed return migrants. A possibility was that unemployed returnees could not save enough from their overseas earnings to become self-employed. Thus, provision of credit for self-employment seems to be the right way to accommodate these workers.

  1. Numerical experiment with modelled return echo of a satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We have simulated the return echo of a satellite altimeter from a rough ocean surface using an analytical formula and have studied its sensitivity with respect to various oceanic and altimeter parameters. Our numerical expcriment shows that for normally observed significant wave heights (SWFI) the effect of ...

  2. Understanding unemployment scars: A vignette Experiment of employers' decisions in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Hyggen, Christer; Imdorf, Christian; Parsanaglou, Dimitris; Sacchi, Stefan; Samuel, Robin; Stoilova, Rumiana; Shi, Lulu P.; Yfanti, Aggeliki; Yordanova, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to broaden the understanding of how early job insecurity can affect an individual’s future career from an employer’s perspective NEGOTIATE conducted an employer‐sided survey with an integrated multidimensional vignette experiment in Bulgaria, Greece, Norway and Switzerland. This report documents the sampling and data‐collection in the four countries. In addition we present some basic descriptive results from the survey. Data from the survey will be available for public use, follo...

  3. Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Unemployment Insurance Query (UIQ) provides State Unemployment Insurance agencies real-time online access to SSA data. This includes SSN verification and Title...

  4. Snakes or Ladders? An Examination of the Experiences of Two Teacher Leaders Returning to Classroom Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Teachers who have held leadership roles at the school, district, or provincial level have the potential to contribute to student and school success when they return to classroom teaching. The contrasting experiences of two teacher leaders who returned voluntarily to classroom teaching are analyzed using Owens's (2004) social constructivist theory…

  5. Mental health among the unemployed and the unemployment rate in the municipality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Novo, Mehmed; Hammarström, Anne

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that unemployment experiences increase the risk of poor mental health and that this effect differs depending on individual characteristics. Relatively little is known, however, about how the unemployment rate and labour market conditions impact the relationship. This study investigates how municipal unemployment rates and vacancy rates affect mental health in a nationally representative longitudinal survey of initially unemployed Swedish respondents. The study uses a nationally representative longitudinal survey of currently and recently unemployed people in Sweden, in which respondents were re-interviewed one year after the initial interview. Mental health was measured using the GHQ-12. The present article uses multilevel models (hierarchical linear models) to combine municipal-level information on unemployment levels and vacancy rates with individual-level control variables. Higher municipal vacancy rates improved mental health among the unemployed. However, no coherent effect of municipal unemployment rate on the relationship between unemployment and mental health was found. The effect of municipal vacancy rates can be understood in terms of the impact of perceived opportunity on the sense of life-course predictability. That there was no effect of municipal unemployment rate indicates that high local unemployment levels do not reduce the sense of shame and perceived stigma among the unemployed. Taken together, our findings would seem to present a rather bleak picture of the current dramatic labour market situation. The unemployed will be negatively affected by the extremely low demand for labour, while they will not be able to take comfort from their growing numbers.

  6. The effects of a learning-goal orientation training on self-regulation: A field experiment among unemployed job seekers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordzij, G.; van Hooft, E.A.J.; van Mierlo, H.; van Dam, A.; Born, M.Ph.

    2013-01-01

    Finding reemployment after job loss is a complex and difficult task that requires extensive motivation and self-regulation. This study aimed to examine whether improving unemployed job seekers’ cognitive self-regulation can increase reemployment probabilities. Based on the goal orientation

  7. Africa - Israel - Africa Return-migration experiences of African labour migrants

    OpenAIRE

    Galia Sabar

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses homecoming experiences of African labour migrants who lived in Israel and returned home. Using qualitative research methodologies, I discerned what factors - material and non-material - determine the relative success of the return process. Focusing on these factors’ effects, I offer a new understanding of labour migrants’ homecoming experiences: those who are “content,” “readjusting,” or “lost. Following Ulrich Beck's (2006) analysis of cosmopolitanism, I suggest that thes...

  8. Unemployment Policy in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Hergezelová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: Goal of the study is analysis of the unemployment policy in Slovakia and policy measures to increase the employment rate. Research question: What was the development of unemployment in the period from 2006 to September 2016 and what measures were taken by the Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family to reduce the unemployment rate in Slovakia? Method: Comparison of the unemployment rate in period between 2006 to 2016. Information was gathered from online sources and publications. Using the collected data, the individual unemployment rates in all Slovak regions and districts will be compared. Results: During examined period between 2006 and 2016 the highest unemployment rate was 14.40% in 2010. The paper also mentions the economic crisis that struck Slovakia between 2008 and 2010. During this period, the unemployment in Slovakia increased by 4.8%. The primary objective of the government was to reduce the unemployment rate below 10%. This has been achieved in March 2016. The positive news is the tendency of constantly falling unemployment in our country. Society: Unemployment is one of the negative phenomena in society. Job loss or inability to find a job application one is deprived of the possibility to implement and enforce own life goals. Unemployed, unless one can find a job, can enter the phase of adaptation to the lifestyle of the unemployed, which is characterized by resignation, loss of hope, passivity. A person ceases to be active, considering that his work does not make sense. Job loss affects negatively self-peception, lower self-esteem and leads to feelings of inferiority. Limitations: The aim of the Slovak Republic was in 2016 to keep unemployment below 10% and then continue the trend of reducing unemployment by new laws, inviting new investors and put into practice various measures, such as various programs for the unemployed.

  9. Health Status and Experience of the Migrant Workers Returned from Spain to Colombia: A Qualitative Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Villa, Carolina; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A; Cardona-Arango, Doris; Ronda-Pérez, Elena

    2017-12-14

    This study aims to understand the migratory experience and the employment, work and health conditions of the returned migrants from Spain to Colombia. A qualitative study was conducted by means of 23 semi-structured interviews with Colombian returned migrant workers. Qualitative narrative content analysis was performed using Atlas.Ti software. Main findings are represented by nine categories emerged from the participants' discourses: (1) impact of the economic crisis on work and employment conditions in Spain, (2) economic crisis and return, (3) characteristics of returnees, (4) perception of the returnees about Colombia, (5) the role of social support networks, (6) employment and working conditions in Colombia, (7) health and wellbeing, (8) future plans and expectations, (9) the experience of being immigrant. Adjustment difficulties in participants are evidenced by the return migration process and the conditions of the social, political and economic system in Colombia. Return migration represents the reconfiguration of personal and working lives of this population. This situation requires the development of global policies and strategies in public health to facilitate the adaptation of these people.

  10. Customer experiences and return patronage in airport hotels: Evidence from OR Tambo International Airport, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oswald Mhlanga

    2018-05-01

    Contribution/value-add: To the best of the researchers’ knowledge, this study is a first attempt to determine customer experiences and return patronage in hotels at or near airports in South Africa. The results could help airport hotels to gain a competitive advantage over other hotel categories.

  11. Vasovagal Syncope and Blood Donor Return: Examination of the Role of Experience and Affective Expectancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olatunji, Bunmi O.; Etzel, Erin N.; Ciesielski, Bethany G.

    2010-01-01

    Vasovagal sensations (e.g., dizziness, nausea, and fainting) are one of the main reasons people find blood donation unpleasant. A better understanding of predictors of vasovagal sensations during blood donation could inform interventions designed to increase donor return rates. The present investigation examined the extent to which experience with…

  12. Unemployment, ethnicity and psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, J; Bebbington, P; Bhavsar, V; Kravariti, E; van Os, J; Murray, R M; Dutta, R

    2013-03-01

    This study describes the incidence of psychosis in unemployed people and determines whether unemployment has a greater impact on the development of psychosis amongst Black minority groups than White groups. Patients with a first diagnosis of Research Diagnostic Criteria psychosis, in a defined area of London from 1998 to 2004, were identified. Crude and standardised incidence rates of psychosis amongst unemployed people for each ethnic group were calculated. Poisson regression modelling tested for interactions between unemployment and ethnicity. Hundred cases occurred amongst employed people and 78 cases occurred amongst the unemployed people. When standardised to the employed White population of the area, White unemployed people had a standardised incidence ratio (SIR) of 11.7 (95% CI 6.4-19.7), Black Caribbean people had a SIR of 60.1(95% CI 39.3-88) and Black African people had a SIR of 40.7 (95% CI 25.8-61.1). There was no interaction however between ethnicity and unemployment (Likelihood ratio test P = 0.54). Rates of psychosis are high amongst unemployed people in south London and extremely high amongst Black Caribbean and Black African unemployed people. There was no evidence however that the minority groups were particularly sensitive to the stresses, limitations or meaning of unemployment. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Breastfeeding mothers returning to work: experiences of women at one university in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Carole; Monk, Hilary; Hall, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Working women need to juggle work, child care and family to continue to breastfeed. This qualitative study's aim was to explore women's experiences of returning to work following the birth of their baby. Focus groups were held with women within one multi-campus university, who had commenced breastfeeding at birth and had returned to work or study within 12 months. In addition, educators working with babies in childcare centres on two of the campuses were interviewed. Thematic analysis was employed used Rogoff's (2003) three planes of analysis, the individual, the interpersonal and the cultural-institutional. Three themes, proximity, flexibility, and communication, were identified relating to the factors impacting on women and their choices to breastfeed or wean on returning to work. From a socio-cultural perspective these themes can be understood as situated within the interrelated contexts of workplace, child care and family. Limitations of the study include the small number of participants and recruitment from one university.

  14. Trying the Unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Magnus Paulsen

    investigates the transformation towards the ‘active society’ through the spectre of unemployment and how it is governed. Two puzzles in the transformations have motivated the inquiry: firstly, the co-existence of a plurality of different, and often contradictory, conceptions of who the unemployed are and why...... they are unemployed; and secondly, the co-existence of wills to emancipate the unemployed alongside the justification of using coercive measures towards them. This thesis argues that if we want to understand the varieties within the transformations, the “what?” question, it is necessary to address the “how?”; i...

  15. Unemployment and Long-Term Unemployment of Immigrants in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerija Botrić

    2016-04-01

    older than 55 (in comparison to 35‒44 negative predictors: skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and male persons. The analysis for the 2012 (crisis year has identified the following significant predictors of unemployment status for immigrants in Croatia, listed in the decreasing marginal effects order: positive predictors: elementary occupations, plant and machine operators, persons aged 15‒24 (in comparison to the reference age cohort 35‒44, craft and related trade workers, service and sales workers, persons older than 55 (in comparison to the reference age cohort; negative predictors: skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers and persons living in urban areas. The analysis has revealed that traditional predictors of labour market outcome status have also been significant for the immigrant population in Croatia. It also reveals that they change over time. The occupation of the immigrant is more important in the crisis, which is probably related to the adverse demand effects of specific economic activities. Additionally, age has gained increased importance in the crisis, which is similar to the experiences of the domicile population. The second segment of the analysis was focused on long-term unemployment. Unemployment is considered to be short-term if the person is in that status for less than a year (in accordance with the long-term unemployment definition used by the Eurostat and very long-term if the person is in that status for more than two years. Descriptive statistics reveals that there is a higher share of persons with lower secondary education in the long-term unemployment sample, while the highest share, regardless of the duration of the unemployment, is reserved for upper secondary education. The data also reveal that the share of unemployed immigrants registered as unemployed at the public employment service increased in the crisis year, regardless of the duration of the unemployment. It is also interesting to note that the

  16. Extended unemployment and UI benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Valletta; Katherine Kuang

    2010-01-01

    During the current labor market downturn, unemployment duration has reached levels well above its previous highs. Analysis of unemployment data suggests that extended unemployment insurance benefits have not been important factors in the increase in the duration of unemployment or in the elevated unemployment rate.

  17. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Pico Geerdsen, Lars; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due

    2015-01-01

    This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12...

  18. Unemployment Dynamics and Age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Gijsbert, A.; Lomwel, van C.; Ours, van Jan C.

    1998-01-01

    Youth unemployment is an issue of primary concern in WesternEuropean countries. In this paper we analyze dynamics in unemployment foryouths, adults (prime-aged individuals), and elderly. We use quarterly Frenchunemployment data, stratified by gender, age group, and duration, over theperiod

  19. AUTOMATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHMIDT, EMERSON P.; STEWART, CHARLES T.

    HIGH UNEMPLOYMENT RESULTS IN ECONOMIC LOSSES TO THE ECONOMY AND IMPOSES SUFFERING ON MILLIONS OF INDIVIDUALS AND FAMILIES. OF THE MANY TYPES, LONG-TERM STRUCTURAL UNEMPLOYMENT AFFECTS MORE THAN ONE MILLION WORKERS AND IS MOST INTRACTABLE TO TREATMENT AND DISTURBING IN TERMS OF HUMAN HARDSHIP. MOST OF THE WORKERS CLASSIFIED AS STRUCTURALLY…

  20. Rhode Island unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Leonard Lardaro

    2010-01-01

    How can a state like Rhode Island have such a high unemployment rate? This question has been asked often over the past year, especially since at one point, Rhode Island found itself with the dubious distinction of having the highest unemployment rate in the United States. Following that extreme, Rhode Island seemed to settle into a niche where its rank was third nationally.

  1. Misery loves company? A meta-regression examining aggregate unemployment rates and the unemployment-mortality association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelfs, David J; Shor, Eran; Blank, Aharon; Schwartz, Joseph E

    2015-05-01

    Individual-level unemployment has been consistently linked to poor health and higher mortality, but some scholars have suggested that the negative effect of job loss may be lower during times and in places where aggregate unemployment rates are high. We review three logics associated with this moderation hypothesis: health selection, social isolation, and unemployment stigma. We then test whether aggregate unemployment rates moderate the individual-level association between unemployment and all-cause mortality. We use six meta-regression models (each using a different measure of the aggregate unemployment rate) based on 62 relative all-cause mortality risk estimates from 36 studies (from 15 nations). We find that the magnitude of the individual-level unemployment-mortality association is approximately the same during periods of high and low aggregate-level unemployment. Model coefficients (exponentiated) were 1.01 for the crude unemployment rate (P = .27), 0.94 for the change in unemployment rate from the previous year (P = .46), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 5-year running average (P = .87), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the 10-year running average (P = .73), 1.01 for the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average (measured as a continuous variable; P = .61), and showed no variation across unemployment levels when the deviation of the unemployment rate from the overall average was measured categorically. Heterogeneity between studies was significant (P unemployment experiences change when macroeconomic conditions change. Efforts to ameliorate the negative social and economic consequences of unemployment should continue to focus on the individual and should be maintained regardless of periodic changes in macroeconomic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experiences and concerns about 'returning to work' for women breast cancer survivors: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedtke, Corine; de Rijk, Angelique; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Christiaens, Marie-Rose; Donceel, Peter

    2010-07-01

    To explore how female breast cancer patients experience work incapacity during the treatment and return-to-work phases and how interactions between patients and stakeholders affect this experience. Database search for full text articles published between January 1995 and January 2008 that focused on employed female breast cancer patients, factors related to work incapacity, and returning to work. Only results based on self-report data were included. Studies focusing on treatment, financial factors, rate of return, or absence were excluded. Six articles met the inclusion criteria. Women with breast cancer receive varied reactions but little advice about returning to work. Women were primarily concerned with disclosing the diagnosis to their employer and to relatives. Uncertainties about physical appearance, ability to work, and possible job loss affected the women's decisions about working during the treatment phase. After treatment, most women wanted to regain their 'normal life', but concentration and arm or fatigue problems potentially interfered. Although supportive work environments were helpful, the individual needs of women differed. Employers and employees need to find a balance in defining accommodating work. Many women received favourable support, but some reported feeling discriminated against. Many women re-evaluated the role of work in their lives after being confronted with breast cancer. Work adjustments could help women to keep their jobs during illness and recovery. To resolve women's concerns about returning to work, employers, physicians, and insurance institutions should consider increasing and improving communication with breast cancer patients and playing a more active and supportive role. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Unemployment Insurance and Inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe; Waisman, Gisela

    This paper examines the impact of higher unemployment insurance on the fraction of the work force paying into an unemployment insurance fond, wage differences and therefore inquality and education letting worker initial wealth being important for the decisions and implied values. As usually higher...... educated workers receive a lower fraction of their wages as unemployment insurance, we consider how the impact on labour market performance and wage differences and thereby inequality differ dependent on whether educated or uneducated workers receive higher benefits. The model can help shed light...... on the the puzzle why only some workers, for given educational level, pay into an unemployment insurance fond, the lower wealth mobility than income mobility as well as the relative compressed wage structure in countries with generous social assistance as well as unemployment insurance for low income workers...

  4. Understanding Unemployment Hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels Framroze

    What explains the persistence of unemployment? The literature on hysteresis, which is based on unit root testing in autoregressive models, consists of a vast number of univariate studies, i.e. that analyze unemployment series in isolation, but few multivariate analyses that focus on the sources...... of hysteresis. As a result, this question remains largely unanswered. This paper presents a multivariate econometric framework for analyzing hysteresis, which allows one to test different hypotheses about non-stationarity of unemployment against one another. For example, whether this is due to a persistently...... to UK quarterly data on prices, wages, output, unemployment and crude oil prices, suggests that, for the period 1988 up to the onset of the …financial crisis, the non-stationarity of UK unemployment cannot be explained as a result of slow adjustment, including sluggish wage formation as emphasized...

  5. Intended College Attendance: Evidence from an Experiment on College Returns and Cost

    OpenAIRE

    Bleemer, Zachary; Zafar, Basit

    2015-01-01

    Despite a robust college premium, college attendance rates in the US have remained stagnant and exhibit a substantial socioeconomic gradient. We focus on information gaps – specifically, incomplete information about college benefits and costs – as a potential explanation for these patterns. For this purpose, we conduct an information experiment about college returns and costs embedded within a representative survey of US household heads. We show that, at the baseline, perceptions of college c...

  6. Is Unemployment Always Higher when Insiders Decide?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper challenges the traditional view that unemployment is high because insiders determine the union wage. The insiders in this paper are characterised by being more efficient when they search for a job than the outsiders, implying that they experience relatively less unemployment. We assume...... that wages are determined by a monopoly union and further that a union leader is elected by a majority voting rule. Insiders may prefer a lower wage that outsiders, implying the possibility of lower unemployment when insiders are decisive in the union than if outsiders were decisive in the union....

  7. The unemployed mid-career adult: stressors and support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Ribton-Turner

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of unemployment in South Africa is of national concern yet the experience of being unemployed is little understood; not enough is known about the unemployed condition in South Africa. In this study eight unemployed mid-career adults who had been out of work for longer than six months were interviewed in order to explore their lived experience. A qualitative methodology was used and from the extensive interview data, using qualitative content analysis, themes relating to the unemployed condition emerged. Results support, to a large degree, the existing literature and studies on the stressors impacting on the unemployed. This study offers additional insight into the support structures available for the unemployed adult.

  8. Unemployment and unemployment protection in three groups of countries

    OpenAIRE

    Vroman, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    This report examines unemployment protection with emphasis on three groups of countries: 1) OECD, 2) Central-East Europe and the Former Soviet Union; and 3) East and South Asia. Section 1 notes the presence of various public social protection programs including pensions, work injury insurance, health insurance, and unemployment benefits. Section 2 describes the measurement of unemployment in these countries and provides details of their unemployment protection programs including unemployment ...

  9. Clinical providers' experiences with returning results from genomic sequencing: an interview study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Julia; Lewis, Katie; Amendola, Laura M; Bernhardt, Barbara A; Biswas, Sawona; Joshi, Manasi; McMullen, Carmit; Scollon, Sarah

    2018-05-08

    Current medical practice includes the application of genomic sequencing (GS) in clinical and research settings. Despite expanded use of this technology, the process of disclosure of genomic results to patients and research participants has not been thoroughly examined and there are no established best practices. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 21 genetic and non-genetic clinicians returning results of GS as part of the NIH funded Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) Consortium projects. Interviews focused on the logistics of sessions, participant/patient reactions and factors influencing them, how the sessions changed with experience, and resources and training recommended to return genomic results. The length of preparation and disclosure sessions varied depending on the type and number of results and their implications. Internal and external databases, online resources and result review meetings were used to prepare. Respondents reported that participants' reactions were variable and ranged from enthusiasm and relief to confusion and disappointment. Factors influencing reactions were types of results, expectations and health status. A recurrent challenge was managing inflated expectations about GS. Other challenges included returning multiple, unanticipated and/or uncertain results and navigating a rare diagnosis. Methods to address these challenges included traditional genetic counseling techniques and modifying practice over time in order to provide anticipatory guidance and modulate expectations. Respondents made recommendations to improve access to genomic resources and genetic referrals to prepare future providers as the uptake of GS increases in both genetic and non-genetic settings. These findings indicate that returning genomic results is similar to return of results in traditional genetic testing but is magnified by the additional complexity and potential uncertainty of the results. Managing patient expectations, initially

  10. Exploiting the return on experience of incidents in the field of industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bataille, C.; Crouail, P.; Gauron, C.; Abela, G.; Martin, E.

    2008-01-01

    After a presentation of the RELIR network (a French system of return on experience on radiological incidents), the aim of which is to collect typical incidents in different activity sectors (industry, medicine, veterinary, research, teaching, transports) in order to report them during professional training sessions, the authors briefly present some new files which have been recently produced. They deal with incidents due to a failing marking-out, intentional marking overstepping during non destructive testing, incomplete evacuation of the exclusion zone during non destructive testing and irradiation of an operator during a gamma-graphic shot, incident during a training session

  11. Keynes, investment, unemployment and expectations

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Ron P.; Zoega, Gylfi

    2009-01-01

    In Keynes' General Theory, investment determines effective demand, which determines unemployment and the labour market plays a negligible role. In New Keynesian models, labour market institutions determine the natural rate of unemployment and the speed at which unemployment adjusts to it. Investment is mostly ignored as a key variable behind the problem of high unemployment, despite a strong empirical association between investment and unemployment. We discuss the evolution of the 'Keynesian'...

  12. Return-to-work intervention during cancer treatment - The providers' experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K S; Momsen, A H; Stapelfeldt, C M

    2018-01-01

    To explore in-depth understanding of providers' experiences when involved in a return-to-work (RTW) intervention offered during cancer treatment. Semi-structured individual interviews and participant observations at a hospital department and two municipal job centers were carried out, including ten...... providers (physicians, nurses and social workers). A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was applied, involving coding, identification of themes and interpretation of findings. Three major themes were identified: Treatment first, Work as an integrated component in cancer rehabilitation, and Challenges...... in bringing up work issues. Differences in providers' experiences of the RTW intervention offered to cancer patients were found: in the hospital setting RTW was a second priority, whereas in the municipality job centers it was an integrated component. Further studies are needed to investigate how and when...

  13. UNEMPLOYMENT IN HUNEDOARA COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA ISAC

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment highlights a state of imbalance on the labour market which is characterized by a surplus of workforce in relation to job vacancies. This imbalance has been more apparent in Hunedoara County than in other counties, due to the fact that there are 3 mono-industrial areas that have been restructured over the past two decades. The effects are presented in this paper in the form of a complex statistical analysis. Thus, based on the evolution of the number of unemployed individuals in 1995, one can observe the periods of significant adverse effects upon the degree of employment. Moreover, one can make correlations with periods of international financial crisis and with the number of employees in the County in order to determine significant variables of the unemployment phenomenon. The content of this paper is significant and represents the analysis of the number of unemployed in the Jiu Valley, scattered across towns. As a form of financial protection, the unemployment benefit represents a financial instrument in the cases determined by this negative phenomenon, which is why in conclusion we make a comparison of the ways this aid is granted throughout several years and in various forms.

  14. The role of emotions in game experience: linking emotions, game experience and return intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Yassim, Mazia Seyed

    2011-01-01

    The focus of many marketing studies is to understand the needs and anticipations of consumers and how they can be provided with positive experiences. In their efforts to understand the consumer, consumer behaviour researchers generally adopt a cognitive perspective, which propagates a rational, information processing approach to consumer behaviour (O’Shaughnessy and O’Shaughnessy, 2003). However, a unitary theory of consumption behaviour is undesirable because this restricts the way in which ...

  15. Most Children With Epilepsy Experience Postictal Phenomena, Often Preventing a Return to Normal Activities of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEachern, Sarah J; D'Alfonso, Sabrina; McDonald, Roman J; Thornton, Nancy; Forkert, Nils D; Buchhalter, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    After a seizure, individuals with epilepsy have reported diverse symptoms in the postictal period, especially motor and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena have not been well characterized in children, and their impact on patient well-being is not understood. We hypothesized that in a subset of epilepsy patients, postictal symptoms would affect their ability to return to normal childhood activities. To test our hypothesis, a survey-based approach was used to characterize the type, frequency, and duration, as well as the impact of these symptoms on the ability of these children to return to their normal activities. In this prospective study, data were analyzed from 208 patients seen in the pediatric neurology outpatient clinic at the Alberta Children's Hospital. We found that 86% (179 out of 208) of respondents reported postictal symptoms, with the most common symptom category being fatigue, sleepiness, and/or tiredness (90%; 161 of 179). The greatest impact resulted from weakness or being unable to move normally, which prevented 78% of those affected (71 of 91) from returning to normal activities after a seizure. Children who had focal seizures were more likely to experience postictal fatigue, sleepiness, or tiredness (P = 0.01; Bonferroni corrected), but no other postictal symptoms were significantly associated with a specific seizure type or epilepsy syndrome. The results of this study further our understanding of the frequency, type, and duration of symptoms experienced in the postictal period and how these symptoms impact children with epilepsy. It is clear that postictal phenomena often occur after epileptic seizures and have a significant impact on the lives of children with epilepsy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of return to work and continuation of work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duijts, Saskia F A; van Egmond, Martine P; Gits, Maxime; van der Beek, Allard J; Bleiker, Eveline M

    2017-10-01

    Supportive interventions to enhance return to work (RTW) in cancer survivors hardly showed positive effects so far. Behavioral determinants might have to be considered in the development of interventions to achieve sustained employability. This study aimed to explore cancer survivors' perspectives and experiences regarding behavioral determinants of RTW and continuation of work. In this qualitative study, semi-structured telephone interviews were held with 28 cancer survivors. All participants were at working age, 1-2 years after diagnosis and employed at time of diagnosis. Thematic content analysis was performed. Work turned out to be a meaningful aspect of cancer survivors' life, and most participants reported a positive attitude towards their job. Social support to RTW or to continue working was mainly received from family and friends, but pressure to RTW from the occupational physician was also experienced. Changes in expectations regarding work ability from negative to positive during the treatment process were observed. Those who applied active coping mechanisms felt equipped to deal with difficulties regarding work. Behavioral determinants should be taken into account in the development of future interventions to support cancer survivors' RTW. However, the causal relationship still has to be determined. Implications for rehabilitation Factors influencing occupational motivation among cancer survivors need to be understood in more detail. Previous studies in non-cancer populations have demonstrated that behavioral determinants, such as a positive attitude towards work, high social support and self-efficacy may increase return to work rates or shorten the time to return to work. Addressing behavioral determinants in future development of work-related interventions for cancer survivors is essential in achieving sustained employability.

  17. Alcohol use and the wage returns to education and work experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Jeremy W; Hinde, Jesse M; Aldridge, Arnie P

    2018-02-01

    Despite a widely held belief that alcohol use should negatively impact wages, much of the literature on the topic suggests a positive relationship between nonproblematic alcohol use and wages. Studies on the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment have also failed to find a consistent, negative effect of alcohol use on years of education. Thus, the connections between alcohol use, human capital, and wages remain a topic of debate in the literature. In this study, we use the 1997 cohort of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth to estimate a theoretical model of wage determination that links alcohol use to wages via human capital. We find that nonbinge drinking is associated with lower wage returns to education whereas binge drinking is associated with increased wage returns to both education and work experience. We interpret these counterintuitive results as evidence that alcohol use affects wages through both the allocative and productive efficiency of human capital formation and that these effects operate in offsetting directions. We suggest that alcohol control policies should be more nuanced to target alcohol consumption in the contexts within which it causes harm. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Hysteresis and the natural rate of unemployment in Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, George

    1990-01-01

    Read before the Society, 23rd November 1989 Conventional Keynesian or Classical macroeconomic theories must be considered inadequate to explain unemployment experiences such as the Irish one. Rigidities that one might associate with fixed contracts, or even adjustment costs in relation to prices or quantities, can hardly account for 17 years of rising unemployment. Indeed, surely such an upturn in conjunction with the apparent breakdown of the unemployment-inflation relat...

  19. Predicting depressive symptoms in unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Zorica

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we review recent research literature focused on relationship between unemployment and depression, and theories emphasizing the mechanisms by which unemployment may contribute to increased levels of depression. Our research investigated depressive symptomatology and its predictors among unemployed people (N = 453 varying in length of unemployment. Results showed that self - mastery, self - esteem, financial strain, gender, intensity of job - seek behavior and length on unemployment were significant predictors of depressive symptoms. Results are discussed in light of current theories of unemployment and mental health and recommendations are made for practice.

  20. Can Professional Environments in Schools Promote Teacher Development? Explaining Heterogeneity in Returns to Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Matthew A.; Papay, John P.

    2014-01-01

    Although wide variation in teacher effectiveness is well established, much less is known about differences in teacher improvement over time. We document that average returns to teaching experience mask large variation across individual teachers and across groups of teachers working in different schools. We examine the role of school context in explaining these differences using a measure of the professional environment constructed from teachers responses to state-wide surveys. Our analyses show that teachers working in more supportive professional environments improve their effectiveness more over time than teachers working in less supportive contexts. On average, teachers working in schools at the 75th percentile of professional environment ratings improved 38% more than teachers in schools at the 25th percentile after 10 years. PMID:25866426

  1. Addressing barriers to health: Experiences of breastfeeding mothers after returning to work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valizadeh, Sousan; Hosseinzadeh, Mina; Mohammadi, Eesa; Hassankhani, Hadi; M Fooladi, Marjaneh; Schmied, Virginia

    2017-03-01

    Breastfeeding mothers returning to work often feel exhausted as they must feed on demand and attend to family and employment responsibilities, leading to concerns for their personal health. This study was prompted by a desire to understand and identify barriers to mothers' health. We describe the experiences of 12 Iranian breastfeeding and employed mothers through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and thematic analysis. Two main themes emerged: (i) working and mothering alone and (ii) facing concerns about health. The findings highlight the need for a support system for breastfeeding mothers within the family and in the workplace. Family-friendly policies targeting mothers' and employers' views are needed to support working mothers and promote breastfeeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Vehicle charging and return current measurements during electron-beam emission experiments from the Shuttle Orbiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, J.G.

    1988-01-01

    The prime objective of this research was to investigate the electro-dynamic response of the Shuttle Orbiter during electron beam emission from the payload bay. This investigation has been conducted by examining data collected by the Vehicle Charging And Potential (VCAP) Experiment. The VCAP experiment has flown on two Shuttle missions with a Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) capable of emitting a 100 mA beam of 1 keV electrons. Diagnostics of the charging and return current during beam emission were provided by a combined Charge and Current Probe (CCP) located in the payload bay of the Orbiter. The CCP measurements were used to conduct a parametric study of the vehicle charging and return current as a function of vehicle attitude, ambient plasma parameters, and emitted beam current. In particular, the CCP measurements were found to depend strongly on the ambient plasma density. The vehicle charging during a 100 mA beam emission was small when the predicted ambient plasma density was greater than 3 x 10 5 cm -3 , but appreciable charging occurred when the density was less than this value. These observations indicated that the effective current-collecting area of the Orbiter is approximately 42 m 2 , consistent with estimates for the effective area of the Orbiter's engine nozzles. The operation of the Orbiter's Reaction Control System thrusters can create perturbations in the Orbiter's neutral and plasma environment that affect the CCP measurements. The CCP signatures of thruster firings are quite complex, but in general they are consistent with the depletion of plasma density in the ram direction and the enhancement of plasma density in the Orbiter's wake

  3. Returning to life, the Lived Experiences of Pregnancy in Women with HIV: A Phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khalajinia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Pregnancy is every woman's stage of life. During this period, women experience physical, mental and social changes. It is very sensitive, challenging and therefore a critical period for every woman particularly in HIV-positive women. During pregnancy, an HIV-positive mother is facing a psychological crisis which includes fear of transmission to children, death, leaving children to the family or a guardian, adverse effects during pregnancy and the effects of pregnancy on their health. Therefore, HIV-positive pregnant women are vulnerable and require supportive interventions.  Care for pregnant women with HIV negative women are unique and different. However, no more information about experience of pregnancy in HIV positive women exists. Therfore, the aim of the present study was to explore the lived experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women. Methods: The present qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach included 12 HIV-infected pregnant women who referred to the counseling center for behavioral diseases at Imam Khomeini Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Sciences who were recruited through purposive sampling. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Data saturation was achieved after 16 interviews, each 40 to 90 min of duration with participants and then was analyzed by the method proposed by Diekelmann (1989. Results: The participants in the present study were of 22- 39 years of age. After data analysis, the main themes and 3 sub-themes emerged. These themes included: “return to life” with the three sub-themes of experience of motherhood, stability and protection, and gratification. Conclusion: The results revealed that although the experience of pregnancy in HIV-positive women was associated with a deep sense of fear of transmission of the disease and having children was viewed as a way of hope. Motherhood gave their lives meaning and provided for them to return to life

  4. How Effective are Unemployment Benefit Sanctions? Looking Beyond Unemployment Exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of benefit sanctions, i.e. temporary reductions in unemployment benefits as punishment for noncompliance with eligibility requirements. In addition to the effects on unemployment durations, we evaluate the effects on post-unemployment employment

  5. State Dependence in Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between the un...

  6. Informal Unemployment and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2016-01-01

    zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector...

  7. Voluntary Public Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O. Parsons, Donald; Tranæs, Torben; Bie Lilleør, Helene

    Denmark has drawn much attention for its active labor market policies, but is almost unique in offering a voluntary public unemployment insurance program requiring a significant premium payment. A safety net program – a less generous, means-tested social assistance plan – completes the system...

  8. Unemployment and endogenous growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schaik, A.B.T.M.; de Groot, H.L.F.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market, based on efficiency wages. Growth is driven by intentional R&D performed in the high-tech and high-wage sector. It is examined how a change in rivalry among firms affects simultaneously growth and unemployment.

  9. Overschooling and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Peter H. van der

    2002-01-01

    Although overschooling is regarded as the result of imperfect allocation in the labour market, hardly any attention has been given to the influence of another imperfection, unemployment. Several researchers report about an increasing incidence of overschooling in the Netherlands. Although a lot of

  10. Unemployment and domestic violence

    OpenAIRE

    Dan Anderberg; Helmut Rainer; Jonathan Wadsworth; Tanya Wilson

    2014-01-01

    Contrary to popular belief, the incidence of domestic violence in Britain does not seem to have risen during the recession. But according to research by Jonathan Wadsworth and colleagues, men and women have experienced different risks of unemployment - and these have had contrasting effects on the level of physical abuse.

  11. What is unemployment in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder J.; Schmidt, Torben Dall

    2011-01-01

    The purpose in this article is to evaluate the consistency between two measures of unemployment in a cross-country context. We use the European Community Household Panel to identify unemployment at an individual level based as well on the ILO criteria for being classified as unemployed...... as on the individual respondent reporting to be unemployed. This opens a unique opportunity to compare unemployment measured in two different ways based on a cross European Union panel study covering the years 1994 to 2001. The two main questions addressed in this article are to which extent the two unemployment...... measures differ and whether transition rates out of unemployment depend on which concept we use. Both questions are answered in the affirmative. The overall conclusion is that it is important, especially in some of the EU countries, to include both measures of unemployment as guidelines and indicators...

  12. Maximizing Science Return from Future Rodent Experiments on the International Space Station (ISS): Tissue Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S. Y.; Lai, S.; Klotz, R.; Popova, Y.; Chakravarty, K.; Beegle, J. E.; Wigley, C. L.; Globus, R. K.

    2014-01-01

    To better understand how mammals adapt to long duration habitation in space, a system for performing rodent experiments on the ISS is under development; Rodent Research-1 is the first flight and will include validation of both on-orbit animal support and tissue preservation. To evaluate plans for on-orbit sample dissection and preservation, we simulated conditions for euthanasia, tissue dissection, and prolonged sample storage on the ISS, and we also developed methods for post-flight dissection and recovery of high quality RNA from multiple tissues following prolonged storage in situ for future science. Mouse livers and spleens were harvested under conditions that simulated nominal, on-orbit euthanasia and dissection operations including storage at -80 C for 4 months. The RNA recovered was of high quality (RNA Integrity Number, RIN(is) greater than 8) and quantity, and the liver enzyme contents and activities (catalase, glutathione reductase, GAPDH) were similar to positive controls, which were collected under standard laboratory conditions. We also assessed the impact of possible delayed on-orbit dissection scenarios (off-nominal) by dissecting and preserving the spleen (RNAlater) and liver (fast-freezing) at various time points post-euthanasia (from 5 min up to 105 min). The RNA recovered was of high quality (spleen, RIN (is) greater than 8; liver, RIN (is) greater than 6) and liver enzyme activities were similar to positive controls at all time points, although an apparent decline in select enzyme activities was evident at the latest time (105 min). Additionally, various tissues were harvested from either intact or partially dissected, frozen carcasses after storage for approximately 2 months; most of the tissues (brain, heart, kidney, eye, adrenal glands and muscle) were of acceptable RNA quality for science return, whereas some tissues (small intestine, bone marrow and bones) were not. These data demonstrate: 1) The protocols developed for future flight

  13. The social interaction of return to work explored from co-workers experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjulin, Åsa; MacEachen, Ellen; Stiwne, Elinor Edvardsson; Ekberg, Kerstin

    2011-01-01

    The objective was to explore the role and contribution of co-workers in the return-to-work process. The social interaction of co-workers in the return-to-work process are analysed within the framework of the Swedish national and local employer organisational return-to-work policies. An exploratory qualitative method was used, consisting of open-ended interviews with 33 workplace actors across seven work units. Organisational return-to-work policies were collected from the three public sector employers. The key findings that emerged during analysis showed that some co-workers have a more work-task oriented approach towards the return-to-work process, whilst others had a more social relational approach. In both situations, the social relations worked hand in hand with job tasks (how task were allocated, and how returning workers were supported by others) and could make or break the return-to-work process. A suggestion for improvement of return-to-work models and policies is the need to take into account the social relations amongst workplace actors, especially involving co-workers when planning for return-to-work interventions. Otherwise the proper attention to work arrangements, social communication and the role of co-workers in the return-to-work process might not be seen.

  14. Preservation of Multiple Mammalian Tissues to Maximize Science Return from Ground Based and Spaceflight Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sungshin; Ray, Hami E; Lai, San-Huei; Alwood, Joshua S; Globus, Ruth K

    2016-01-01

    Even with recent scientific advancements, challenges posed by limited resources and capabilities at the time of sample dissection continue to limit the collection of high quality tissues from experiments that can be conducted only infrequently and at high cost, such as in space. The resources and time it takes to harvest tissues post-euthanasia, and the methods and duration of long duration storage, potentially have negative impacts on sample quantity and quality, thereby limiting the scientific outcome that can be achieved. The goals of this study were to optimize methods for both sample recovery and science return from rodent experiments, with possible relevance to both ground based and spaceflight studies. The first objective was to determine the impacts of tissue harvest time post-euthanasia, preservation methods, and storage duration, focusing on RNA quality and enzyme activities in liver and spleen as indices of sample quality. The second objective was to develop methods that will maximize science return by dissecting multiple tissues after long duration storage in situ at -80°C. Tissues of C57Bl/6J mice were dissected and preserved at various time points post-euthanasia and stored at -80°C for up to 11 months. In some experiments, tissues were recovered from frozen carcasses which had been stored at -80°C up to 7 months. RNA quantity and quality was assessed by measuring RNA Integrity Number (RIN) values using an Agilent Bioanalyzer. Additionally, the quality of tissues was assessed by measuring activities of hepatic enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase and GAPDH). Fresh tissues were collected up to one hour post-euthanasia, and stored up to 11 months at -80°C, with minimal adverse effects on the RNA quality of either livers or RNAlater-preserved spleens. Liver enzyme activities were similar to those of positive controls, with no significant effect observed at any time point. Tissues dissected from frozen carcasses that had been stored for up to 7

  15. Adolescent conscientiousness predicts lower lifetime unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam; Boyce, Christopher J; Wood, Alex M

    2017-04-01

    Existing research on Big Five personality and unemployment has relied on personality measures elicited after the respondents had already spent years in the labor market, an experience that could change personality. We clarify the direction of influence by using the British Cohort Study (N = 4,206) to examine whether conscientiousness and other Big Five personality traits at age 16-17 predict unemployment over age 16-42. Our hypothesis that higher conscientiousness in adolescence would predict lower unemployment was supported. In analyses controlling for intelligence, gender, and parental socioeconomic status, the less conscientious (-1 SD) had a predicted probability of unemployment twice as high (3.4% vs. 1.7%) as the highly conscientious (+1 SD), an effect size comparable to intelligence. Mediation analysis revealed that academic motivation and educational attainment explained only 8.9% of this association. Fostering conscientiousness in early life may be an effective way to reduce unemployment throughout adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Unemployment of the Young

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Mrgole

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The article treats the social dimensions and paradox of the ideological perceptions related to the unemployment of the young. In the paper, Mrgole focuses on the presentation and analysis of rhetorical models and argumentative constructions constituting the basic set of accepted social perceptions about vocation vocational education, work and emploment. He proceeds by criticizing the fundamental premises of functionalist conceptions serving as the basis for predominant ideological models. Postulating linguistic conceptualisation as the basis, Mrgole derives the logic of perceiving employment. as a socially normative category, and Iilustrates the problem of juvenile unemployment in this light. The interpretation is founded on the results of the evaluation obtained by the experimental project entitled Centres for Younger Adults, in which Mrgole, as an associate of the Centre for Adult Education, has participated since 1995.

  17. Direito e marxismo: a política de qualificação para trabalhadores desempregados na experiência do MTD em João Pessoa / Law and marxism: the qualification policy for unemployed workers and the unemployed workers movement experience in João Pessoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ítalo Giovanni Fernandes Correia

    2012-12-01

    capitalist logistics. Since the workers had taken away from them the means of production, they end up having only their workforce to sell and only by that being able to obtain what is necessary for them to survive. To justify this logic of domination of the man by the capital, the school gave its contribution. It served to form individuals who were worried with the competition and social ascension through merit; creating, then, people who are programmed to compete to succeed and reach a spot in the job market and, consequently, to an improvement in their material conditions. Education still follows a rhythm of employability condition, now increased by the neoliberal context, in which the portfolios tend to be larger by efforts of the individuals who try to enter the job market through qualification or professionalisation programs. It is intended, thus, to review: some concepts of exploration by work and structural unemployment; the neoliberal discourse of employability that harms unemployed workers; the relationship between the theoretical basis and the extensionist experience that followed the Unemployed Workers Movement, in João Pessoa, during the conquest and participation in a public policy of qualification to combat unemployment and reflect its consequences. Key words: Popular Juridical Advisement; professional qualification x job market; market margin policies.

  18. Youth unemployment: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, A

    1985-06-01

    This paper sets out to review the studies on youth unemployment conducted in a range of English speaking countries: America, Australia and Great Britain. The studies have been divided into six sections: psychological adjustment, attributions and expectations, education about unemployment, job choice and work experience, values, and job interview training. The paucity of good studies in this area partly explains the lack of clear replicated findings or coherent theories for the causes, correlates and consequences of unemployment among young people, though this is an area of relevance to social policy. Furthermore, it was concluded that various factors such as individual differences, salient demographic variables and previous work experience have been neglected. Nevertheless, many of the studies seem to indicate the presence of a destructive vicious circle which young people experience when failing to get a job: stress and disappointment, leading to lowered self-esteem, a change in expectations, and minor psychiatric illnesses which handicap the job search and application process so making unemployment all the more likely.

  19. Return Migrants’ Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Olwig, Karen Fog; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2016-01-01

    unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia......Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely......, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than...

  20. Informal unemployment and education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Kolm

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper develops a four-sector equilibrium search and matching model with informal sector employment opportunities and educational choice. We show that underground activities reduce educational attainments if informal employment opportunities mainly are available for low-educated workers. A more zealous enforcement policy will in this case improve educational incentives as it reduces the attractiveness of remaining a low-educated worker. However, unemployment also increases. Characterizing the optimal enforcement policies, we find that relatively more audits should be targeted towards the sector employing low-educated workers; elsewise, a too low stock of educated workers is materialized.

  1. UNEMPLOYMENT AND SELF-CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Redek, Tjaša; Sušjan, Andrej; Kostevc, Črt

    2013-01-01

    The article analyses the position of the unemployed in the labour market, primarily relationship between self-concept and self-esteem of workers and their motivation to seek work. The current crisis dramatically worsened labour market situation, making employment almost impossible for many, primarily the vulnerable groups (older, women). Survey data used in cluster analysis reveal that the unemployment is related to self-concept, but besides unemployment also other ...

  2. Obesity, Unemployment, and Earnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juho Härkönen

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the effects of obesity—a clear signal of weight abnormality—on unemployment and earnings among Finnish men and women. Our empirical data consist of the last four waves (waves 4 to 8 of the Finnish section of the European Community Household Panel (ECHP data collected between 1998 and 2001. According to our results, obese women have a significantly higher risk of unemployment (even after controlling for age, level of education and other related factors, than women who are not obese. Furthermore, the generally weaker occupational positions of obese women tend to translate to lower earnings. Overall, obese women are more likely to have weaker labour market attachment  and hold socio-economically weaker positions. Similar results were not found among men. Thus, our results indicate the presence of gender discrimination in the Finnish labour market. In the conclusions we further discuss weight related impacts on succeeding in the labour market, but also its role as a possible risk factor in drifting away from employment. We reflect on this issue as a form of inequality that can have an increasing significance in the future.

  3. Return Migrants’ Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems: The Bosnian Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Line Neerup Handlos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than was the case for those who had not left the country, as doctors considered them to be better endowed financially and therefore demanded larger bribes from them than they did from those who had remained in Bosnia. Moreover, during their stay abroad the returnees had lost the connections that could have helped them sidestep the corruption. Returned refugees are thus particularly vulnerable to the effects of corruption.

  4. Return Migrants’ Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems: The Bosnian Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerup Handlos, Line; Fog Olwig, Karen; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Norredam, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants’ access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than was the case for those who had not left the country, as doctors considered them to be better endowed financially and therefore demanded larger bribes from them than they did from those who had remained in Bosnia. Moreover, during their stay abroad the returnees had lost the connections that could have helped them sidestep the corruption. Returned refugees are thus particularly vulnerable to the effects of corruption. PMID:27657096

  5. Return Migrants' Experience of Access to Care in Corrupt Healthcare Systems: The Bosnian Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neerup Handlos, Line; Fog Olwig, Karen; Bygbjerg, Ib Christian; Norredam, Marie

    2016-09-19

    Equal and universal access to healthcare services is a core priority for a just health system. A key societal determinant seen to create inequality in access to healthcare is corruption in the healthcare system. How return migrants' access to healthcare is affected by corruption is largely unstudied, even though return migrants may be particularly vulnerable to problems related to corruption due to their period of absence from their country of origin. This article investigates how corruption in the healthcare sector affects access to healthcare for refugees who repatriated to Bosnia, a country with a high level of corruption, from Denmark, a country with a low level of corruption. The study is based on 18 semi-structured interviews with 33 refugees who returned after long-term residence in Denmark. We found that the returned refugees faced greater problems with corruption than was the case for those who had not left the country, as doctors considered them to be better endowed financially and therefore demanded larger bribes from them than they did from those who had remained in Bosnia. Moreover, during their stay abroad the returnees had lost the connections that could have helped them sidestep the corruption. Returned refugees are thus particularly vulnerable to the effects of corruption.

  6. How effective are unemployment benefit sanctions? Looking beyond unemployment exit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arni, P.; Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive evaluation of the effects of benefit sanctions on post-unemployment outcomes such as post-unemployment employment stability and earnings. We use rich register data which allow us to distinguish between a warning that a benefit reduction may take place in the near

  7. Manager Experiences with the Return to Work Process in a Large, Publically Funded, Hospital Setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Young, Amanda Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous research on the role of managers in the return to work (RTW) process has primarily been conducted in contexts where the workplace has declared organizational responsibility for the process. While this is a common scenario, in some countries, including Denmark, there is no explicit......, organizational, and policy factors. Instances were observed where supervisors faced the dilemma of balancing ethical and managerial principles with requirements of keeping staffing budgets. Conclusion Although it is not their legislative responsibility, Danish managers play a key role in the RTW process. As has...... been observed in other contexts, Danish supervisors struggle to balance considerations for the returning worker with those of their teams....

  8. A social net? Internet and social media use during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Feuls, Miriam; Fieseler, Christian; Suphan, Anne

    2014-01-01

    This is the author’s accepted, refereed manuscript to the article Many people who are unemployed tend to experience forms of psychological and social losses, including a weakened time structure, diminished social contacts, an absence of collective purpose, falling status, and inactivity. This article focuses on the experience of diminished social contacts and addresses whether social media help the unemployed maintain their relationships. Based on qualitative interviews with unempl...

  9. Unemployment and mental health scarring during the life course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Winefield, Anthony; Nilsson, Karina; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-06-01

    There has been little research on the long-term relationship between unemployment experiences and mental health over the life course. This article investigates the relationship between youth unemployment as well as that of unemployment experiences during later periods and mental health at ages 16, 21, 30 and 42 years. The study makes use of the 'Northern Swedish Cohort' (NSC), a 27-year prospective cohort study. The cohort, investigated at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 42 years, consisted of all graduates from compulsory school in an industrial town in Sweden. Of the original 1083 participants, 94.3% of those still alive were still participating at the 27-year follow up. Mental health, measured through a three-item index of nervous symptoms, depressive symptoms and sleeping problems, was analysed using a repeated measures linear mixed models approach using ages 16, 21, 30 and 43 years. Unemployment exposure was measured as exposure to at least a 6-month spell during three periods; 18-21, 21-30 and 30-42 years. Youth unemployment was shown to be significantly connected with poorer mental health at all three target ages, 21, 30 and 42 years. Later singular unemployment experiences did not appear to have the same long-term negative effects. There was however an accumulation in poorer mental health among respondents with unemployment experiences during two, and even more so three, of the periods. There are long-term mental health scarring effects of exposure to youth unemployment and multiple exposure to unemployment during the life course. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  10. Working after a stroke: survivors' experiences and perceptions of barriers to and facilitators of the return to paid employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaszewski, Andy; Alaszewski, Helen; Potter, Jonathan; Penhale, Bridget

    2007-12-30

    This paper examines respondents' relationship with work following a stroke and explores their experiences including the perceived barriers to and facilitators of a return to employment. Our qualitative study explored the experiences and recovery of 43 individuals under 60 years who had survived a stroke. Participants, who had experienced a first stroke less than three months before and who could engage in in-depth interviews, were recruited through three stroke services in South East England. Each participant was invited to take part in four interviews over an 18-month period and to complete a diary for one week each month during this period. At the time of their stroke a minority of our sample (12, 28% of the original sample) were not actively involved in the labour market and did not return to the work during the period that they were involved in the study. Of the 31 participants working at the time of the stroke, 13 had not returned to work during the period that they were involved in the study, six returned to work after three months and nine returned in under three months and in some cases virtually immediately after their stroke. The participants in our study all valued work and felt that working, especially in paid employment, was more desirable than not working. The participants who were not working at the time of their stroke or who had not returned to work during the period of the study also endorsed these views. However they felt that there were a variety of barriers and practical problems that prevented them working and in some cases had adjusted to a life without paid employment. Participants' relationship with work was influenced by barriers and facilitators. The positive valuations of work were modified by the specific context of stroke, for some participants work was a cause of stress and therefore potentially risky, for others it was a way of demonstrating recovery from stroke. The value and meaning varied between participants and this variation

  11. Entrepreneurship and unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stel, A.; Thurik, R.; Verheul, I.; Baljeu, L.

    2008-01-01

    We examine the relationship between entrepreneurship (as measured by fluctuations in the business ownership rate) and unemployment in Japan for the period between 1972 and 2002. We find that, although Japan’s unemployment rate has been influenced by specific exogenous shocks, the effects of

  12. Family Problems and Youth Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Goede, Martijn; Spruijt, Ed; Maas, Cora; Duindam, Vincent

    2000-01-01

    Examines how family and personal characteristics relate to the employment situation of adolescents (N=995) in Denmark. Results show that parental divorce, parental unemployment (only for males), low parental affective involvement, and adolescent relationship problems were related to youth unemployment, but educational career and work commitment…

  13. A novel Chirped Return-to-Zero Transmitter and Transmission Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Fenghai; Peucheret, Christophe; Xueyan, Zheng

    2000-01-01

    A new 10 Gb/s chirped return-to-zero transmitter using CW light modulated by only one external modulator is proposed. Transmission over 3600 km of standard single mode fibre is performed in a re-circulating loop set-up with 80 km amplifier span....

  14. The Unemployment-Stock Market Relationship in South Africa: Evidence from Symmetric and Asymmetric Cointegration Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Phiri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine linear and nonlinear cointegration and causal relations between unemployment and stock market returns in South Africa using quarterly data collected between 1994:Q1 and 2016:Q1. Our empirical results reveal significant cointegration effects between the time series in both linear and nonlinear models, even though both frameworks ultimately reject the notion of any causal relations between the variables. Collectively, our study rejects the notion of unemployment being a good predictor for stock market returns and neither do developments in the stock market have any effect on the unemployment rate. Such evidence advocates for weak-form efficiency in the JSE equity prices whereby unemployment data cannot help investors to predict the movement of future share prices and further suggests that policymakers cannot rely on stock market development as an avenue towards lowering the prevailingly high levels of unemployment as set in current macroeconomic policy objectives.

  15. An Examination of the Broader Effects of Warzone Experiences on Returning Iraq/Afghanistan Veterans’ Psychiatric Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrel, Nathan A.; DeBeer, Bryann B.; Meyer, Eric C.; Silvia, Paul J.; Beckham, Jean C.; Young, Keith A.; Morissette, Sandra B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present research was to test the hypotheses that: (1) Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans experience a wide range of psychiatric symptomatology (e.g., obsessive-compulsive symptoms, hypochondriasis, somatization); and (2) General psychiatric symptomatology among Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans is associated with their warzone experiences. To achieve this objective, Iraq/Afghanistan war veterans (N = 155) completed a screening questionnaire that assessed a wide range of psychiatric symptoms along with a measure of warzone experiences. As expected, returning veterans reported significant elevations across a wide range of clinical scales. Approximately three-fourths screened positive on at least one clinical subscale, and a third screened positive on five or more. In addition, nearly all of these conditions were associated with veterans’ warzone experiences (average r = 0.36); however, this association was much stronger among veterans with PTSD (average r = 0.33) than among veterans without PTSD (average r = 0.15). We also observed that approximately 18% of the variance in total psychiatric symptomatology was attributable to warzone experiences above and beyond the effects of childhood trauma and demographic factors. Taken together, these findings suggest that returning veterans experience a broad array of psychiatric symptoms that are strongly associated with their warzone experiences. PMID:25541538

  16. Mental health of patients with human immunodeficiency virus in Japan: a comparative analysis of employed and unemployed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Shimada, Megumi; Ikeda, Kazuko; Ishiuchi-Ishitani, Seiko; Tsuno, Yoko Sumikawa; Ohira, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    In developed countries, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has become a chronic disease. The aims of this study were to clarify the physical, social, and psychological factors affecting Japanese HIV patients in a stable condition and to identify factors related to mental health of employed and unemployed HIV patients. The target subjects were people with HIV infection who were treated as outpatients at core hospitals for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) treatment in Japan. A questionnaire including items from the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was sent to each medical facility with a request for participation from the HIV-infected outpatients. Responses from 1199 patients were analyzed. Mental health was reportedly better in the employed patients than in the unemployed patients. The unemployed patients were more likely to have resigned from their jobs because of poor health, to have resigned voluntarily, or to have been unfairly dismissed. Once the patients stopped working because of HIV, returning to work became difficult. In the employed patients, a good workplace environment was strongly related to lower scores on HADS. Higher HADS scores were recorded for employed patients infected with HIV for six years or more. For the unemployed patients, a relationship was observed between strong feelings of stigmatization and HADS scores. Quitting a job because of an experience related to HIV status may be related to feelings of stigmatization.

  17. Measures to facilitate the reintegration of returning migrant workers: international experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, R

    1988-06-01

    Bilateral and multilateral measures implemented to assist migrants who return to their country of origin have been designed to respond to a number of different but specific situations. 2 bilateral agreements are briefly described: 1) an agreement between the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of Turkey signed in the early 1970s, and 2) an agreement between France and Algeria signed in 1980. 3 different types of multilateral activities are described: 1) the operation of the so-called Return of Talent program by the Intergovernmental Committee for Migration, 2) the Transfer of KNow-how Through Expatriate Nationals program of the UN Development Programme, and 3) the elaboration of a model machinery on return migration by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. While the 1st 2 activities are operational programs, by which annually between 1000-2000 professionals are assisted in their permanent return to or temporary sojourn in their developing countries of origin, with the financial support of both the developed and the developing countries concerned, the 3rd initiative is a conceptual effort aimed at assisting governments to implement policy measures designed to make return migration commensurate with national development goals. 3 recent proposals include 1) the proposal for an international labor compensatory facility, 2) an international fund for vocational training, and 3) an international fund for manpower resources. A common factor shared by all these programs is that they have all involved on 1 side industrial receiving countries which feel themselves obliged to observe a number of principles guaranteed by law and which govern employment conditions and working relations. The reintegration measures implemented or proposed in cooperation with them have been adopted in full consideration of the prevailing standards of these countries, as different as they may be from 1 country to another. A common consideration has been that the

  18. A comparison of efficiency of mentoring and coaching the unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Jagodnik, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Master's thesis focuses on the comparison of mentoring and coaching of unemployed person entering labour market. Which approach is more siutable, considering unemployed person's needs, experience, knowledge and skills, which approach gives better results and what are advatages and disadvantages of both of them, are the questions anwsered by comparison between mentoring and coaching, based on three coaching and two mentoring process, using participatory action research approach. Effectiveness ...

  19. The experience of attempting to return to work following spinal cord injury: a systematic review of the qualitative literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Gillean; Unsworth, Carolyn; Murphy, Gregory

    2018-07-01

    This review sought to answer the question "What are the barriers and facilitators influencing people's experience of return to work following spinal cord injury?" Studies that met the selection criteria were identified, presented and critically appraised using National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines. Thematic synthesis was completed with studies possessing strong methodological rigor. Synthesis and interpretation involved three stages; coding of primary data; development of descriptive themes reflective of the primary data; and establishment of analytical themes to answer the review question. Data from nine papers were included in the thematic synthesis. Several descriptive themes and three analytical themes were drawn from the data to answer the research question. Analytical themes included: a matrix of personal and environmental factors exists requiring complex navigation in order to create possibilities and opportunities for postinjury employment; the process of seeking or gaining employment shares a reciprocal relationship with the temporal nature of adjustment to spinal cord injury; and there is an intrinsic need for occupational engagement through paid employment. Returning to or gaining employment after spinal cord injury is a fundamentally difficult experience for people. Multiple strategies are required to support the navigation of the process. There is, however, a need in people with spinal cord injury, to be a worker, and with that comes the inherent benefits of being employed. Implications for rehabilitation Returning to work should be a significant focus of spinal cord injury rehabilitation. Employment is both possible and health promoting following spinal cord injury. Multiple strategies are required to support people to navigate the return to work process. It is important to be cognizant of the individual motivations for being a worker and the complexity of the adjustment process. Spinal cord injury centers can provide a

  20. Outsourcing, Unemployment and Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Keuschnigg; Evelyn Ribi

    2007-01-01

    Outsourcing of labor intensive activities challenges the welfare state and undermines the protection of low-skilled workers. The stylized facts are that profits are concentrated among the high-skilled, involuntary unemployment is mostly among the low-skilled, and private unemployment insurance is missing. This paper analyzes the effectiveness of redistribution and insurance policies when heterogeneous firms can outsource labor intensive components to low-wage economies. The main results are: ...

  1. Sleep behavior and unemployment conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S; Mullahy, John

    2014-07-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative sample of adults with 24h time diaries. We find that higher aggregate unemployment is associated with longer mean sleep duration, with each additional point of state unemployment associated with an additional average 0.83 min of sleep (punemployment is associated with more sleeplessness. Instead, we find that higher state unemployment is associated with less frequent time use described as "sleeplessness" (marginal effect=0.05 at 4% unemployment and 0.034 at 14% unemployment, p<0.001), after controlling for a secular trend. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 48 CFR 970.2270 - Unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unemployment compensation... Unemployment compensation. (a) Each state has its own unemployment compensation system to provide payments to... unemployment compensation benefits through a payroll tax on employers. Most DOE contractors are subject to the...

  3. Recent experience in health promotion at Johnson & Johnson: lower health spending, strong return on investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henke, Rachel M; Goetzel, Ron Z; McHugh, Janice; Isaac, Fik

    2011-03-01

    Johnson & Johnson Family of Companies introduced its worksite health promotion program in 1979. The program evolved and is still in place after more than thirty years. We evaluated the program's effect on employees' health risks and health care costs for the period 2002-08. Measured against similar large companies, Johnson & Johnson experienced average annual growth in total medical spending that was 3.7 percentage points lower. Company employees benefited from meaningful reductions in rates of obesity, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, tobacco use, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition. Average annual per employee savings were $565 in 2009 dollars, producing a return on investment equal to a range of $1.88-$3.92 saved for every dollar spent on the program. Because the vast majority of US adults participate in the workforce, positive effects from similar programs could lead to better health and to savings for the nation as a whole.

  4. What are retail investors' risk-return preferences towards renewable energy projects? A choice experiment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salm, Sarah; Hille, Stefanie Lena; Wüstenhagen, Rolf

    2016-01-01

    Citizens own nearly half the renewable energy generation capacity in Germany and have been important drivers of the country's energy transition. In contrast to citizens' important role in financing renewable energies, the energy policy and economics literature has traditionally focused on other investors, such as incumbent energy firms. To close this gap, this paper reports on a large-scale survey of 1,990 German retail investors. Conducting a choice experiment with the subset of 1,041 respondents who expressed an interest in investing in community renewable energy projects, we present a unique dataset allowing for new insights in risk-return expectations of retail investors. We find that apart from return on investment, respondents are particularly sensitive to the minimum holding period and the issuer of community renewable energy investment offerings. A minimum holding period of 10 years implies a risk premium of 2.76% points. A subsequent segmentation analysis shows that two groups of potential community renewable energy investors with different risk-return expectations can be identified: “local patriots” and “yield investors”. In contrast to professional investors, a majority of retail investors use simple decision rules such as calculating payback time or relying on their gut feeling when making investments. - Highlights: • Out of 1,990 retail investors surveyed, 1,041 express interest to invest in renewables. • Two target segments are identified, “local patriots” and “yield investors”. • “Local patriots” are willing to forgo return on investment in local projects. • Solar photovoltaic is most popular technology, followed by wind and small hydro. • Majority of investors use simple payback calculation or decide intuitively.

  5. Self-Blame and Commodification of Unemployed Young People

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pultz, Sabina

    Young people face the risk of unemployment in a labor market characterized by a drift towards precarious employment (Kalleberg, 2013). Building on poststructuralist theory this study documents how young unemployed people’s understanding of unemployment is affected by neoliberal discourses, also...... reflected in the technologies applied by the institutions in the employment area. As a result, responsibility for unemployment is increasingly placed on the individual and self-blame is promoted as the predominant explanation. This qualitative study consists of a combination of field observations made...... people experience their situation and position themselves in regards to this normative encouragement to blame themselves. Personal branding and networking are identified as strategies enforced by the employment system and can be viewed as technologies of the self encouraging young people to commodify...

  6. Getting Out of the House: an Examination of the Experience of a Group of Women Returning to Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Des Mooney

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Using a qualitative case study method, this research focuses on a group of adult „returning‟ students completing a childcare course. The study does not focus on the academic merits of the students, but rather on the experience returning to education has on the lives of the students. Methods used included the hosting of three focus groups, a questionnaire and observations. Using a holistic analysis approach a number of key issues and themes emerged. These themes include motivation to return to education; family; identity; education as a facilitator of positive risk taking behaviour; education and perspective transformation; impact of teaching on learning, and impact on peer relationships. This study concludes that there is significant impact on the families of the students with routines and issues around children and childcare prevalent. The study also noted the impact on the identities of the students as well as the impact on the peer relationships as a result of engaging in adult learning. In addition the study noted the relationship between teaching methods and student learning, with students feeling more involved in the teaching/learning process compared to previous experience. Significant also was the level of critical refection and critical self-reflection the students engaged in as part of their learning experience. This study concludes with some recommendations that include greater participation with the student group in the organization of classes and curricula and more formal and informal dialogue between students and tutors.

  7. To implement REX today: why? How? References for an event-related return on experience as a source of learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bringaud, Violaine; Fayolle, Patrice; Madec, Veronique; Gauthereau, Vincent; Raud, Geraldine; Hernandez, Guillaume; Vautier, Jean-Francois; Le Roy, Guilhem; Maffre, Jean-Francois; Pichancourt, Isabelle; Rousseau, Jean-Marie

    2014-01-01

    The REX (Return on Experience) is an arrangement which is supposed to allow lessons to be learned from dysfunctions occurring during activities in nuclear installations. This report, written by a work group, proposes a synthesis of some references regarding REX arrangements, and aims at deepening the discussion and at the evolution of these arrangements. It presents the different components of a REX arrangement, and outlines its operational objectives: to understand, to share and to act. It highlights the conditions for an efficient REX arrangement: definition of an event, analysis methods, analysis abilities, management approaches, corrective actions, and so on. It indicates how to use this document and some useful references

  8. Optimal workfare with voluntary and involuntary unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Claus Thustrup; Tranæs, Torben

    2005-01-01

    This paper addresses the welfare implications of introducing workfare into unemployment benefit policy. We consider a population composed of employed and unemployed workers and of individuals who do not seek employment. Job search behavior is unobservable, which means that voluntarily unemployed ...... by facilitating better unemployment insurance for workers, and we characterize the situations where this is the case.......This paper addresses the welfare implications of introducing workfare into unemployment benefit policy. We consider a population composed of employed and unemployed workers and of individuals who do not seek employment. Job search behavior is unobservable, which means that voluntarily unemployed...... individuals can claim unemployment insurance (UI) benefits intended for unemployed workers. As a consequence, pecuniary benefit schemes underinsure workers against unemployment. We show that requiring unproductive activities (workfare) in exchange for UI benefits may generate a Pareto improvement...

  9. The impact of EMU on European unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Juan F. Jimeno; Jose Vinals

    1998-01-01

    Persistent unemployment is the top social and economic problem of most EU countries. Today, the unemployment rate in most EU countries is above ten percent and, although unemployment has decreased during expansions, the average EU unemployment rate within each cycle has increased since the early seventies. Although unemployment evolutions have been to some extent similar in EU countries, there are some outliers. On the one side, Portugal, Austria, the UK, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg, whic...

  10. U.S. Soldier Peacekeeping Experiences and Wellbeing After Returning from Deployment to Kosovo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adler, Amy

    2000-01-01

    ... (alcohol consumption, sick days, and sleep). Findings indicated that soldiers reporting high levels of exposure to peacekeeping experiences reported more post-traumatic symptoms, greater use of conflict-related tactics, more alcohol consumption...

  11. The health effects of US unemployment insurance policy: Does income from unemployment benefits prevent cardiovascular disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Walter (Stefan); M.M. Glymour (Maria); M. Avendano Pabon (Mauricio)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the

  12. A picture for the coupling of unemployment and inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdari, H.; Hosseiny, A.; Vasheghani Farahani, S.; Jafari, G. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the scaling features of two well heard characters in the media; unemployment and inflation. We carry out a scaling analysis on the coupling between unemployment and inflation. This work is based on the wavelet analysis as well as the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Through our analysis we state that while unemployment is time scale invariant, inflation is bi-scale. We show that inflation possess a five year time scale where it experiences different behaviours before and after this scale period. This behaviour of inflation provides basis for the coupling to inherit the stated time interval. Although inflation is bi-scale, it is unemployment that shows a strong multifractality feature. Owing to the cross wavelet analysis we provide a picture that illustrates the dynamics of coupling between unemployment and inflation regarding intensity, direction, and scale. The fact of the matter is that the coupling between inflation and unemployment is not equal in one way compared to the opposite. Regarding the scaling; coupling exhibits different features in various scales. In a sense that although in one scale its correlation behaves in a positive/negative manner, at the same time it can be negative/positive for another scale.

  13. The Decline of Intergenerational Mobility in Denmark: Returns to Education, Demographic Change, and Labor Market Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harding, David; Munk, Martin David

    2018-01-01

    wealth, local area characteristics, primary school quality, educational attainment, internal migration to urban areas, marriage, assortative mating, childbearing, and work experience. Our results highlight the importance of both parent and child work experience and family structure in the family...... of origin among both men and women as well as, to a lesser degree, marital status, assortative mating, and childbearing among women. Although education was an important driver of parent-child income rank associations in each cohort, it played little role in accounting for increases in those associations...

  14. Fear expression and return of fear following threat instruction with or without direct contingency experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, Gaetan; Kuhn, Manuel; Raes, An K.; Kalisch, Raffael; De Houwer, Jan; Lonsdorf, Tina B.

    2016-01-01

    Prior research showed that mere instructions about the contingency between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) can generate fear reactions to the CS. Little is known, however, about the extent to which actual CS–US contingency experience adds anything beyond the effect of

  15. YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT AND SCHOOL DROPOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viorel POP

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unemployment is one of the most serious problems of the contemporary world, fact which is expressed not only by all European statistics, statistics showing a growing number of unemployed, despite the consistent concern of the governments of all developed countries. Worse is that the unemployment is the highest among young people up to 25 years, many of them being university graduates. This way the trend of young people to stop attending studies appeared ... seeing as useless their efforts to invest in their future through university studies, the chances of finding a job are minimal despite their diplomas. Hence the name of "the lost generation" - the way that young people are called nowadays. The market economy, based mainly on private property is not considering social issues, it pursues just one goal: profit, more exactly the profit maximization.

  16. Core Self-Evaluations and Individual Strategies of Coping with Unemployment among Displaced Spanish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virkes, Tihana; Maslić Seršić, Darja; Lopez-Zafra, Esther

    2017-10-30

    Unemployment has negative but also positive effects on mental health and general well-being depending on which coping strategies the individual use. Our aim was to determine the contribution of core self-evaluations in explaining the coping strategies of job search and job devaluation, as well as to test the potential moderation effect of job search and mediation effect of job devaluation on the relationship between self core-evaluations and both positive and negative experience of unemployment. One hundred seventy-eight individuals who lost their jobs involuntarily for a longer period than one month completed a questionnaire while attending to employment office. Results show that there is a significant relation between core-self evaluations and job devaluation (.37**). Furthermore, core-self evaluations were positively related to positive experience of unemployment (r = .31; p unemployment (r = .60; p unemployment strategies (job devaluation; β = .26; p unemployment. But, individuals with a longer duration of the current period of unemployment and higher core self-evaluations had a more positive experience of unemployment, and job devaluation partially mediated this relation (SE = .002; p = .038). These results imply that programs interventions should include the improvement of core self-evaluations and the positive experience of unemployed people.

  17. The impact of unemployment insurance benefits on the probability of migration of the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gose, E; Paul, C

    1990-08-01

    "By ignoring individual unemployment compensation benefits and conditions of job termination, past migration research has concluded that personal unemployment doubles the likelihood of interstate labor-force migration. Findings from the present study indicate that aggregating the unemployed, without adjusting for these two factors, overstates the probability of migration for the involuntarily unemployed benefit recipient and understates the likelihood of migration for the voluntarily unemployed benefit recipient. The results suggest that federal discretionary unemployment-compensation programs, which are implemented during recessionary periods, likely serve to retard out-migration of those who are involuntarily unemployed." Data are from a 1982 sample of unemployed U.S. workers. excerpt

  18. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Recent labour market reforms in Europe have been aimed at activating non-employed people and shortening unemployment duration. While this should indisputably be a central policy aim, the exclusive focus on quick re-employment neglects the importance of its quality and stability. Therefore......, this paper analyses the effect of labour market policy on re-employment stability in Europe. Combining EU-SILC longitudinal survey data with macro-data on labour market policy, we conduct multi-level survival analysis. Empirical evidence suggests that countries with more generous unemployment insurance......, and their positive effect on re-employment stability on the other hand....

  19. The challenges that employees who abuse substances experience when returning to work after completion of employee assistance programme (EAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeker, Shaheed; Matimba, Tandokazi; Machingura, Last; Msimango, Henry; Moswaane, Bobo; Tom, Sinazo

    2015-01-01

    Employee assistance programs (EAPs) are responsible for helping employees cope with problems such as: mental distress, alcoholism and other drug dependencies, marital and financial difficulties--in short, the whole host of personal and family troubles endemic to the human condition. The study explored the challenges that employees who abuse substances experience when returning to work after the completion of an employee assistance program. The study used a qualitative exploratory descriptive research design. Three male participants and two key informants participated in the study. One semi structured interview was conducted with each one of the participants and one semi structured interview with the key informants. Four themes emerged: 1) Loss of one's worker role identity, 2) Negative influences of the community continues to effect the success of EAP, 3) EAP as a vehicle for change and, 4) Healthy occupations strengthen EAP. This study portrayed the following: how substance abuse effect the worker role of individuals employed in the open labor market, the challenges and facilitators experienced by employees who abuse substances when returning to their previous work roles and how occupation based interventions can be incorporated in EAP programs. Occupational therapists could use the health promotion approach, work simplification, energy conservation techniques and ergonomic analysis techniques.

  20. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joosen, Margot C W; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment. Six months after treatment, work-related limitations and employed VR strategies at work before treatment were explored. Next, VR treatment experiences regarding return-to-work (RTW) were explored. Two researchers performed partially independent, qualitative analyses that revealed topics, discussed by the project team, and organised into domains, categories and sub-categories. Work-related limitations were: symptoms of prolonged fatigue, personal limitations (e.g. lack of self-reflection on individual capacity and limitations), interpersonal factors, activities and conditions at work and life/work imbalance. Before the treatment, VR strategies such as work adaptations, well-intentioned advice and support, and/or referral to psychological or physical care were employed. VR treatment experiences on RTW were: personal challenges (e.g. gained awareness and coping skills), improved activities during work, work adaptations and unresolved problems (e.g. remaining fatigue symptoms and sickness absence). New information about work experiences before and after multi-component VR treatments in workers with prolonged fatigue may help employers, occupational physicians and other caregivers to develop VR strategies that better meet individuals' needs.

  1. Return on experience after the declaration of an event in interventional radiology at Strasbourg University Hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-03-01

    This document reports investigation performed after information of the French Nuclear Safety authority (ASN) by Strasbourg University Hospitals of the fact that patients presented undesired effects after X-ray treatments. Inspections aimed at analyzing the circumstances and the causes of these effects, and at examining the implemented corrective actions. No technical failure has been detected on the apparatus, but an insufficient attention to dose optimization and to follow-on has been highlighted. Some failures have been identified in traceability of maintenance operations, in training, and in adjustment optimization. Corrective actions are described, and some comments are made, inspired from this experience

  2. Supervisors’ experiences with the return-to-work process of hospital workers absent from work due to a health problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan

    context. Aim: In order to gain knowledge about the potential role of supervisors in supporting RTW of a sick listed worker in Denmark, an exploratory qualitative pilot study will be conducted. We seek to open a window of understanding into the experience of managers who have been involved in RTW...... procedures, including the managers’ roles and contributions to the process. Methods: Using purposive sampling, approximately 20 hospital supervisors in charge of conducting sick leave interviews will participate in a face‐to‐face or focus group interviews in order to identify barriers and facilitators...... comparison analysis approach and computer assisted qualitative data analysis. Results: The study is in progress. Results will be available at the time of the conference. Conclusion: We will address questions regarding which factors supervisors feel are important to them in supporting returning workers...

  3. Colaborar con África: la experiencia del retorno Work with Africa: The experience of returning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Jerez Molina

    2010-09-01

    ? These are the main questions where our investigation comes from. Methodology: Non-directive interviews to seven nurses who had collaborated with the program. The obtained data were analysed by using The Taylor and Bogdan's method for the analysis of qualitative data. Results: The interviewed people affirm that, after the experience, one learns to appreciate what is available in the Western World. At the beginning it looks as if the nursery practice changes but, indeed, the human beings can adapt themselves to the environment either when arriving to Africa or when departing from. The imprint of these experiences makes the person. Very little differences are observed for people who have travelled more than once. Discussion-Conclusions: The experiences of each individual can be very different having in mind the objectives initially planned. The same can be said for the imprint of these experiences. But it is clear that, after a quite short time, any change in the nursing practice is not significant.

  4. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: A population-based questionnaire study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edén Lena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. Methods The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by χ2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Results Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Conclusion Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also

  5. Inequalities of quality of life in unemployed young adults: a population-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, Lars; Andersson, Ingemar H; Edén, Lena; Ejlertsson, Göran

    2007-03-21

    It is well known that unemployment is a great problem both to the exposed individual and to the whole society. Unemployment is reported as more common among young people compared to the general level of unemployment. Inequity in health status and life-satisfaction is related to unemployment. The purpose of this population-based study was to describe QOL among unemployed young people compared to those who are not unemployed, and to analyse variables related to QOL for the respective groups. The sample consisted of 264 young unemployed individuals and 528 working or studying individuals as a reference group. They all received a questionnaire about civil status, educational level, immigration, employment status, self-reported health, self-esteem, social support, social network, spare time, dwelling, economy and personal characteristics. The response rate was 72%. The significance of differences between proportions was tested by Fisher's exact test or by chi2 test. Multivariate analysis was carried out by means of a logistic regression model. Our results balance the predominant picture of youth unemployment as a principally negative experience. Although the unemployed reported lower levels of QOL than the reference group, a majority of unemployed young adults reported good QOL, and 24% even experienced higher QOL after being unemployed. Positive QOL related not only to good health, but also to high self-esteem, satisfaction with spare time and broad latitude for decision-making. Even if QOL is good among a majority of unemployed young adults, inequalities in QOL were demonstrated. To create more equity in health, individuals who report reduced subjective health, especially anxiety need extra attention and support. Efforts should aim at empowering unemployed young adults by identifying their concerns and resources, and by creating individual programmes in relation not only to education and work, but also to personal development.

  6. Inflation or unemployment? Who cares?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Lelyveld, Iman

    In the last two decades a large number of game-theoretic models describing monetary policy have been used to examine the characteristics of policies over a wide range of 'rules of the game'. Regardless of the specification of the model, the degree of inflation aversion - relative to unemployment -

  7. Rent control and unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael; Rosholm, Michael; Munch, Jakob Roland

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyse how rent control affects the duration of individual unemployment. In atheoretical search model we distinguish between two effects of rent control. On one hand, rentcontrol reduces housing mobility and hence mobility in the labour market. On the other hand, tomaintain rent...

  8. Marriage, Wealth, and Unemployment Duration:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lentz, Rasmus; Tranæs, Torben

    and the wealthier the woman is, the longer it takes for her to find a job. The contrary is the case for men, where spouse income affects job finding positively: the more the wife earns, the faster the husband finds a job. This is so despite the fact that greater own wealth also prolongs unemployment spells for men...

  9. Are homeowners really more unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Jakob Roland; Rosholm, Michael; Svarer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effects of homeownership on labour mobility and unemployment duration. We distinguish between finding employment locally or being geographically mobile. We find that homeownership hampers the propensity to move for job reasons, but improves the chances of finding local...

  10. Motivating and Counseling the Unemployed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Noordzij (Gera)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDuring a ‘learning goal orientation’ training course for unemployed people, one of the participants, a woman in her forties, had a lot of resistance to participate in the course. I persuaded her to stay and assured her that all she had to do was sit down and watch. She persevered in her

  11. Business Cycle Dependent Unemployment Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Svarer, Michael

    The consequences of business cycle contingencies in unemployment insurance systems are considered in a search-matching model allowing for shifts between "good" and "bad" states of nature. We show that not only is there an insurance argument for such contingencies, but there may also be an incentive...

  12. Recalls and unemployment insurance taxes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 10 (2004), s. 651-656 ISSN 1350-4851 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : recalls * unemployment insurance taxes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.135, year: 2004 http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=bth&AN=14132347&site=ehost-live

  13. Benefit Reentitlement Conditions in Unemployment Insurance Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.; Christoffersen, Mark Strøm; Svarer, Michael

    and employment requirements are substitute instruments in affecting job search incentives and thus gross unemployment. We analyse the optimal design of the unemployment insurance system (benefit levels, duration and employment requirements) under a utilitarian social welfare function. Simulations show...

  14. The ecological effect of unemployment on the incidence of very low birthweight in Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, R; Hansen, H T; Hartig, T

    1999-12-01

    Little attention has been paid to the ecological effects of unemployment, despite strong theory suggesting that being socially or economically connected to unemployed persons can induce illness. Theory suggests, for example, that the labor market experience of adult males should affect maternal and infant health. We advance this line of inquiry by testing the hypothesis that quarterly increases in unemployment among Norwegian and Swedish males were associated with increased incidence of very low weight births from 1973 through 1995. Results support the hypothesis. We estimate that approximately 188 very low weight births could have been averted in Norway, and about 329 in Sweden, if quarterly increases in male unemployment had been constrained to the median over the 23-year period. Our findings imply that the social cost of unemployment may be underestimated by focusing on unemployment as an individual risk factor.

  15. Diminishing returns: the influence of experience and environment on time-memory extinction in honey bee foragers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Darrell; Van Nest, Byron N; Seier, Edith

    2011-06-01

    Classical experiments demonstrated that honey bee foragers trained to collect food at virtually any time of day will return to that food source on subsequent days with a remarkable degree of temporal accuracy. This versatile time-memory, based on an endogenous circadian clock, presumably enables foragers to schedule their reconnaissance flights to best take advantage of the daily rhythms of nectar and pollen availability in different species of flowers. It is commonly believed that the time-memory rapidly extinguishes if not reinforced daily, thus enabling foragers to switch quickly from relatively poor sources to more productive ones. On the other hand, it is also commonly thought that extinction of the time-memory is slow enough to permit foragers to 'remember' the food source over a day or two of bad weather. What exactly is the time-course of time-memory extinction? In a series of field experiments, we determined that the level of food-anticipatory activity (FAA) directed at a food source is not rapidly extinguished and, furthermore, the time-course of extinction is dependent upon the amount of experience accumulated by the forager at that source. We also found that FAA is prolonged in response to inclement weather, indicating that time-memory extinction is not a simple decay function but is responsive to environmental changes. These results provide insights into the adaptability of FAA under natural conditions.

  16. CLIFF COLLAPSE HAZARD FROM REPEATED MULTICOPTER UAV ACQUISITIONS: RETURN ON EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. B. Dewez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cliff collapse poses a serious hazard to infrastructure and passers-by. Obtaining information such as magnitude-frequency relationship for a specific site is of great help to adapt appropriate mitigation measures. While it is possible to monitor hundreds-of-meter-long cliff sites with ground based techniques (e.g. lidar or photogrammetry, it is both time consuming and scientifically limiting to focus on short cliff sections. In the project SUAVE, we sought to investigate whether an octocopter UAV photogrammetric survey would perform sufficiently well in order to repeatedly survey cliff face geometry and derive rock fall inventories amenable to probabilistic rock fall hazard computation. An experiment was therefore run on a well-studied site of the chalk coast of Normandy, in Mesnil Val, along the English Channel (Northern France. Two campaigns were organized in January and June 2015 which surveyed about 60 ha of coastline, including the 80-m-high cliff face, the chalk platform at its foot, and the hinterland in a matter of 4 hours from start to finish. To conform with UAV regulations, the flight was flown in 3 legs for a total of about 30 minutes in the air. A total of 868 and 1106 photos were respectively shot with a Sony NEX 7 with fixed focal 16mm. Three lines of sight were combined: horizontal shots for cliff face imaging, 45°-oblique views to tie plateau/platform photos with cliff face images, and regular vertical shots. Photogrammetrically derived dense point clouds were produced with Agisoft Photoscan at ultra-high density (median density is 1 point every 1.7cm. Point cloud density proved a critical parameter to reproduce faithfully the chalk face’s geometry. Tuning down the density parameter to “high” or “medium”, though efficient from a computational point of view, generated artefacts along chalk bed edges (i.e. smoothing the sharp gradient and ultimately creating ghost volumes when computing cloud to cloud differences. Yet

  17. 20 CFR 617.58 - Unemployment insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment insurance. 617.58 Section 617.58 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TRADE ADJUSTMENT ASSISTANCE... Unemployment insurance. Unemployment insurance payable to an adversely affected worker shall not be denied or...

  18. The Impact of Youth Unemployment Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Larsen, Birthe

    This paper examines the impact of unemployment, unemployment distribution, wages and welfare of Youth Unemployment Programmes (YUPs). This paper analyse what happens when the number of skilled workers increases relatively to the number of unskilled workers. The results depend on the productivity...... of the skilled workers when employed in the "skilled sector" relatively to the productivity of the unskilled worker....

  19. Unemployment Duration over the Business Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael

    1996-01-01

    In this paper I study the way in which individual unemployment durations vary over the business cycle, as measured by the aggregate unemployment rate. I decompose the cyclical variations in observed unemployment durations into a composition al and a general part. The compositional part consists...

  20. The Match Quality Gains from Unemployment Insurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, Mario

    2004-01-01

    The benefits of unemployment insurance (UI) by measuring its effect in match quality are assessed. The relationship between post-unemployment job tenure and measures of the state level UI generosity and the unemployment rate at the time of the job is analyzed, using NLSY data.

  1. “Dis-able bodied” or “dis-able minded”: stakeholders’ return-to-work experiences compared between physical and mental health conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vossen, E.E.M.; Gestel, N.M. van; Heijden, B.I.J.M. van der; Rouwette, E.A.J.A.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to explore if and why the return-to-work (RTW) experiences of various workplace stakeholders in the Netherlands and Denmark differ between physical and mental health conditions, and to understand the consequences of potentially different experiences for the RTW process in

  2. Military and mental health correlates of unemployment in a national sample of women veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Williams, Lindsay; Washington, Donna L

    2015-04-01

    The unemployment rate is currently higher among women Veterans than among male Veterans and civilian women. Employment is a key social determinant of health, with unemployment being strongly associated with adverse health. To identify military-related and health-related characteristics associated with unemployment in women Veterans. Secondary analysis of workforce participants (n=1605) in the National Survey of Women Veterans telephone survey. Demographics, mental health conditions, health care utilization, and military experiences and effects. Unemployment was defined as being in the labor force but unemployed and looking for work. The χ analyses to identify characteristics of unemployed women Veterans; logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with unemployment. Ten percent of women Veterans were unemployed. Independent correlates of unemployment were screening positive for depression [odds ratio (OR)=4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8-12.4], military service during wartime (OR=2.9; 95%, CI 1.1-7.3), and service in the regular military (vs. in the National Guards/Reserves only) (OR=6.8; 95% CI, 2.2-20.5). Two postactive duty perceptions related to not being respected and understood as a Veteran were each independently associated with unemployment. Whether depression underlies unemployment, is exacerbated by unemployment, or both, it is critical to identify and treat depression among women Veterans, and also to investigate women Veterans' experiences and identities in civilian life. Community-based employers may need education regarding women Veterans' unique histories and strengths. Women who served in the regular military and during wartime may benefit from job assistance before and after they leave the military. Gender-specific adaptation of employment services may be warranted.

  3. 20 CFR 625.7 - Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.7 Disaster Unemployment Assistance: Duration. DUA shall be payable... unemployment which begin during a Disaster Assistance Period. ...

  4. [Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment and Return to Work].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mernyi, Lena; Hölzle, Patricia; Hamann, Johannes

    2017-05-12

    Objective People with mental diseases have a high risk of unemployment and they have only limited access to the labor market. The return to work is often associated with fears.The present study aims to provide an overview of the number of hospitalized psychiatric patients with permanent employment. Moreover it should give an insight into the process of return to work, the experiences patients gain and the support they receive. Methods In the participating clinics we measured the number of patients with permanent employment. The main inclusion criteria for further survey were the status of permanent employment and age between 18 and 65. The participating patients were interviewed on two occasions, at the time of inclusion and 3 months after the patient was discharged. The questions addressed working conditions, job satisfaction and the process of return-to-work. For statistical analysis, descriptive statistics (frequencies, means, standard deviations) were used. Results Only 21 % of n = 815 inpatients of the participating hospitals were permanently employed. Many patients did not return to work after being discharged. In many cases the interviewed patients saw a connection between their job and their current episode of illness. In this context patients reported unsatisfying workplace conditions such as long working hours, bad work organization and social conflicts. Conclusions For mentally ill patients, the employment rate in the primary labor market is devastating low. After psychiatric inpatient treatment patients are at high risk to lose their jobs. In order to prevent this development, work-related stress factors should be discussed with inpatients at an early stage and support should be provided during the return-to-work-process. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Societal preferences for the return of incidental findings from clinical genomic sequencing: a discrete-choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Dean A; Peacock, Stuart J; Pataky, Reka; van der Hoek, Kimberly; Jarvik, Gail P; Hoch, Jeffrey; Veenstra, David

    2015-04-07

    An important challenge with the application of next-generation sequencing technology is the possibility of uncovering incidental genomic findings. A paucity of evidence on personal utility for incidental findings has hindered clinical guidelines. Our objective was to estimate personal utility for complex information derived from incidental genomic findings. We used a discrete-choice experiment to evaluate participants' personal utility for the following attributes: disease penetrance, disease treatability, disease severity, carrier status and cost. Study participants were drawn from the Canadian public. We analyzed the data with a mixed logit model. In total, 1200 participants completed our questionnaire (available in English and French). Participants valued receiving information about high-penetrance disorders but expressed disutility for receiving information on low-penetrance disorders. The average willingness to pay was $445 (95% confidence interval [CI] $322-$567) to receive incidental findings in a scenario where clinicians returned information about high-penetrance, medically treatable disorders, but only 66% of participants (95% CI 63%-71%) indicated that they would choose to receive information in that scenario. On average, participants placed an important value ($725, 95% CI $600-$850) on having a choice about what type of findings they would receive, including receipt of information about high-penetrance, treatable disorders or receipt of information about high-penetrance disorders with or without available treatment. The predicted uptake of that scenario was 76% (95% CI 72%-79%). Most participants valued receiving incidental findings, but personal utility depended on the type of finding, and not all participants wanted to receive incidental results, regardless of the potential health implications. These results indicate that to maximize benefit, participant-level preferences should inform the decision about whether to return incidental findings. © 2015

  6. Experiences of participating in return-to-work group programmes for people with musculoskeletal disorders: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamnes, Bente; Rønningen, Aud; Skarbø, Åse

    2017-09-01

    The present study aimed to explore the experiences of individuals with musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) who had participated in return-to-work group programmes (RTW-GPs) and to assess whether the programmes had had an impact on their work disability. Three focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted involving 17 women (mean age = 47) with MSDs who had completed RTW-GPs. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using thematic analyses. Participant experiences were categorised into three main themes: changed way of thinking, the importance of being able to work, and a changed lifestyle. The respondents said that participation in the RTW-GPs had enabled them to shift their focus from problems to opportunities. They had become more aware of strategies to enhance their energy levels and continue working. Several participants had reduced their work hours to achieve a better balance between work and daily life. Many participants had also changed their lifestyle habits, which had led to weight reduction, more energy and less pain. The study participants had attained a heightened awareness of what they could do to continue working. Many participants had introduced changes in their daily lives, with consequences for employment, social life and lifestyle. The findings suggest that RTW-GPs can help people with MSDs to remain in employment and prevent absenteeism. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Workforce re-entry for Japanese unemployed dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Y; Miura, H

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to define the profile of unemployed dental hygienists who could be enticed to re-enter the workforce and the factors that could facilitate their re-entry into the dental field in Japan. The questionnaire was mailed with a postage-paid return envelope to a sample of 3095 licensed dental hygienists. A 50.4% response rate (S = 1477) was observed. The rate of working dental hygienists was 60.3% (n = 891), and of unemployed dental hygienists was 39.7% (n = 586). Of the latter, 31.9% (n = 187) stated intentions of returning to the workplace. The unemployed dental hygienists seeking employment were more often married and had more children, compared with working dental hygienists currently. This group also had significantly fewer total service years. Moreover, only 11.96% of them belonged to the Japan Dental Hygienists' Association, and 41.3% of those attended training workshops. According to their response, they perceived their top three major barriers to re-entry as 'lack sufficient dental hygiene skill', 'child rearing' and 'poor working atmosphere'. 'Flexibility in the work schedule' and 'location' were the most important factors for re-entry from their perspective. There were not many dental hygienists hoping to return to the dental field. The findings suggested that strategies to encourage non-practicing dental hygienists to re-entry should be emphasized in the areas of a flexible working atmosphere, easy access to information on how to return to practice and guidance on how to maintain professionalism during inactivity. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Do Military Peacekeepers Want to Talk about Their Experiences? Perceived Psychological Support of UK Military Peacekeepers on Return from Deployment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Greenberg, Neil

    2006-01-01

    ...: To investigate the perceived psychological support requirements for service personnel on peacekeeping deployments when they return home from operations and examine their views on the requirement...

  9. Sleep Behavior and Unemployment Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Antillón, Marina; Lauderdale, Diane S.; Mullahy, John

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has reported that habitually short sleep duration is a risk factor for declining health, including increased risk of obesity, diabetes and coronary heart disease. In this study we investigate whether macroeconomic conditions are associated with variation in mean sleep time in the United States, and if so, whether the effect is procyclical or countercyclical. We merge state unemployment rates from 2003 through 2012 with the American Time Use Survey, a nationally representative ...

  10. Unemployment (Fears) and Deflationary Spirals

    OpenAIRE

    Den Haan, WJ; Riegler, M; Karner Rendahl, Robert Pontus

    2017-01-01

    The interaction of incomplete markets and sticky nominal wages is shown to magnify business cycles even though these two features—in isolation—dampen them. During recessions, fears of unemployment stir up precautionary sentiments that induce agents to save more. The additional savings may be used as investments in both a productive asset (equity) and an unproductive nominal liquid asset. The desire to hold the nominal liquid asset puts deflationary pressure on the economy which, provided that...

  11. Sociological analysis of the problem of unemployment among Ukrainian youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. O. Didukh

    2016-03-01

    The effect on the structure of youth unemployment factors such as age groups and distribution activities. Found that the most vulnerable to unemployment is the age group 15-24 years. Much attention is given to matching the level of education of young people and requirements of employers to their employees. Revealed that the necessary correction of the entire education system. Thus, the main conclusion is significant opportunity to improve the efficiency of the State Employment Center as one of the basic tools of the modern state youth policy. Proposed as an important step to regulate the problem of youth unemployment improvement of the State Employment Service, which should appeal to the international experience and to reform the mechanism of state support for entrepreneurship by providing incentives, subsidies or state aid to business expansion and others. That young people are the most responsive to the psychological perception of new technologies entrepreneurship.

  12. Unemployment effects of climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babiker, Mustafa H.; Eckaus, Richard S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper models the unemployment effects of restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions, embodying two of the most significant types of short-term economic imperfections that generate unemployment: sectoral rigidities in labor mobility and sectoral rigidities in wage adjustments. A labor policy is also analyzed that would reduce the direct negative economic effects of the emissions restrictions. The politics of limiting greenhouse gas emissions are often dominated by relatively short-term considerations. Yet the current economic modeling of emissions limitations does not embody economic features that are likely to be particularly important in the short term, in particular, the politically sensitive unemployment rate. Moreover, only a few of these studies also consider policies that would offset the negative direct economic effects of emissions restrictions. For plausible estimates of the parameters, the model shows that, with the labor market imperfections, if there were no offsetting policies, the reductions in GNP in the U.S. in the first 10 years after emissions restrictions were imposed would be as much as 4%. However, if there were two policies, instead of just one: a counteracting labor market policy, as well as the emissions restrictions, the negative direct economic effects could be completely eliminated

  13. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorente, Alejandro; Garcia-Herranz, Manuel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban

    2015-01-01

    Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  14. Social media fingerprints of unemployment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Llorente

    Full Text Available Recent widespread adoption of electronic and pervasive technologies has enabled the study of human behavior at an unprecedented level, uncovering universal patterns underlying human activity, mobility, and interpersonal communication. In the present work, we investigate whether deviations from these universal patterns may reveal information about the socio-economical status of geographical regions. We quantify the extent to which deviations in diurnal rhythm, mobility patterns, and communication styles across regions relate to their unemployment incidence. For this we examine a country-scale publicly articulated social media dataset, where we quantify individual behavioral features from over 19 million geo-located messages distributed among more than 340 different Spanish economic regions, inferred by computing communities of cohesive mobility fluxes. We find that regions exhibiting more diverse mobility fluxes, earlier diurnal rhythms, and more correct grammatical styles display lower unemployment rates. As a result, we provide a simple model able to produce accurate, easily interpretable reconstruction of regional unemployment incidence from their social-media digital fingerprints alone. Our results show that cost-effective economical indicators can be built based on publicly-available social media datasets.

  15. Unemployment and Underemployment: A Narrative Analysis about Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blustein, David L.; Kozan, Saliha; Connors-Kellgren, Alice

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we conducted a narrative analysis of interviews with unemployed and underemployed adults to better understand their experiences and to learn how they are coping with job loss. Seven men and six women from diverse backgrounds who were receiving career exploration and job search services were interviewed at a one-stop career center in…

  16. Coping with Unemployment: Personality, Role Demands, and Time Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoye, Greet; Lootens, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Time structure has been found to be an important coping mechanism for dealing with the negative effects of unemployment on psychological well-being. This study extends the literature by investigating personality (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, neuroticism, and proactivity) and role demands (marital status, being the only…

  17. Developing Digital Immigrants' Computer Literacy: The Case of Unemployed Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ktoridou, Despo; Eteokleous-Grigoriou, Nikleia

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a 40-hour computer course for beginners provided to a group of unemployed women learners with no/minimum computer literacy skills who can be characterized as digital immigrants. The aim of the study is to identify participants' perceptions and experiences regarding technology,…

  18. Is labour market training a curse for the unemployed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Skipper, Lars

    2009-01-01

    In 1994 a social experiment was conducted in Denmark, where unemployed applicants for classroom training were randomised into treatment and control groups. The data are contaminated by the presence of no-shows and crossovers, biasing the traditional experimental estimator. We interpret our...

  19. Wiedereingliederung von Langzeitarbeitslosen : Chancen und Risiken im Erwerbsverlauf (Reintegration of long-term unemployed people : opportunities and risks in the career)

    OpenAIRE

    Gilberg, Reiner; Hess, Doris; Schröder, Helmut

    1999-01-01

    "This paper sets forth selected results of the longitudinally-related evaluation of the employment biographies of long-term unemployed people. The focus of attention is the event-analytical consideration of the probability of returning from unemployment back into employment, the significance of human capital investments and the significance of unemployment for the income obtained. The analyses of the employment biographies of long-term employed people show that the chance of reintegration int...

  20. The Unemployed Workers’ Perceptions of Stress and Employment Prospects in Macedonia: The Role of Alternative Adjustment Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski Dimitar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Depressed labour market conditions in Macedonia manifested by high and persistent unemployment rate, strong segmentation and prevailing long-term unemployment is considered as a heritage of more than two decades long period of transition. Unemployment has a number of negative consequences such a decreased income which is assumed to influence the subjective experience of unemployment. The negative macroeconomic shocks in Macedonia have been mitigated due to the strengthened role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms such as: employment in the informal sector, emigration and inactivity. However, their impact on the unemployed workers’ perceptions of stress and future labour market prospects is less clear-cut. In this paper we use results from a survey carried out on a sample of unemployed workers in Macedonia in order to identify the psychological implications of unemployment by assessing the perceived stress and employment prospects with particular reference to the role of alternative labour market adjustment mechanisms.

  1. Parental unemployment and children's happiness: A longitudinal study of young people's well-being in unemployed households☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh; Vernoit, James

    2014-01-01

    Using a unique longitudinal data of British youths we estimate how adolescents' overall happiness is related to parents' exposure to unemployment. Our within-child estimates suggest that parental job loss when the child was relatively young has a positive influence on children's overall happiness. However, this positive association became either strongly negative or statistically insignificant as the child grew older. The estimated effects of parental job loss on children's happiness also appear to be unrelated to its effect on family income, parent–child interaction, and children's school experience. Together these findings offer new psychological evidence of unemployment effects on children's livelihood. PMID:24932068

  2. Experiences of the return to work process after stroke while participating in a person-centred rehabilitation programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öst Nilsson, Annika; Eriksson, Gunilla; Johansson, Ulla; Hellman, Therese

    2017-09-01

    In Sweden, less than 50% of those getting stroke in working age return to work (RTW). Effective rehabilitation programmes need to be developed and therapeutic aspects understood. To explore and describe how persons with stroke experience their RTW process while participating in a person-centred rehabilitation programme focusing on RTW. Seven persons with mild or moderate stroke were interviewed twice during the intervention in the vocational training phase using semi-structured interviews. Data were analysed using grounded theory. Having a coordinator by their side gave support and guidance during the RTW process. Knowledge of stroke, strategies and a straightforward communication created a structure for the RTW process. Expressing one's own wishes increased opportunities to influence and decide which path to follow in order to reach the goal. Straightforward, open and recurring communication facilitated the possibility to adapt to the situation. These aspects increased insight and awareness which facilitated the RTW process. The findings indicate that a precondition for a fruitful RTW process was that suitable platforms at work were created in which the actors involved could cooperate. This knowledge might also be valuable in the RTW process for people with other diagnosis.

  3. Gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire. First returns on experience and opportunities in nuclear maintenance and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguet, Fr.; Joly, P.; Leconte, F.; Baritaux, S.; Prin, C.

    2013-06-01

    In a brief text and a Power Point Presentation, the authors report a return on experience for the implementation of two applications using gas shielded metal arc welding process (GMAW): the on-site welding of the final joint of steam generators, and the coating of a tubing flare. In the first case, the authors analyze not only the compliance with specified technical requirements, but also outline the need to support the process with new verification methods in real time, associated development and validation efforts, and organisational and decisional measures to guarantee a good implementation of the process on site. In the second case, they analyze the process ability to meet technical specifications requiring dilution control, a perfect reproducibility, as well a good control of the welding bath. The authors outline that these two applications which are both using the same term (gas shielded metal arc welding with fusible electrode wire), implement two different transfer regimes and processes. They also discuss operational constraints, and technical opportunities and constraints of fusible electrode wire

  4. The Impact of Active Labour Market Policy on Post-Unemployment Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blasco, Sylvie; Rosholm, Michael

    While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which w......, the positive impact of the treatment becomes smaller but remains significant. 80% of the global impact of intensification acts through the direct channel for men.......While job search theory predicts that active labour market policies (ALMPs) can affect post-unemployment outcomes, empirical evaluations investigating transition rates have mostly focused on the impact of ALMPs on exit rates from the current unemployment spell. We use a social experiment, which...... was conducted in Denmark in 2005-6, to investigate the effects of a dramatic intensification of ALMPs on reemployment stability. We investigate the nature of this impact. We estimate a duration model with lagged duration dependence to separately identify "indirect" (via shorter unemployment duration...

  5. The Great Recession, unemployment and suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norström, Thor; Grönqvist, Hans

    2015-02-01

    How have suicide rates responded to the marked increase in unemployment spurred by the Great Recession? Our paper puts this issue into a wider perspective by assessing (1) whether the unemployment-suicide link is modified by the degree of unemployment protection, and (2) whether the effect on suicide of the present crisis differs from the effects of previous economic downturns. We analysed the unemployment-suicide link using time-series data for 30 countries spanning the period 1960-2012. Separate fixed-effects models were estimated for each of five welfare state regimes with different levels of unemployment protection (Eastern, Southern, Anglo-Saxon, Bismarckian and Scandinavian). We included an interaction term to capture the possible excess effect of unemployment during the Great Recession. The largest unemployment increases occurred in the welfare state regimes with the least generous unemployment protection. The unemployment effect on male suicides was statistically significant in all welfare regimes, except the Scandinavian one. The effect on female suicides was significant only in the eastern European country group. There was a significant gradient in the effects, being stronger the less generous the unemployment protection. The interaction term capturing the possible excess effect of unemployment during the financial crisis was not significant. Our findings suggest that the more generous the unemployment protection the weaker the detrimental impact on suicide of the increasing unemployment during the Great Recession. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. The BG18, a B(U)F type package used for the transport of irradiated fuel rods - return of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen, S.; Herman, S. [Transnubel, Dessel (Belgium)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the return of experience of Transnubel after a period of nearly 3 years operation of the BG18 package in several nuclear power plants and hot cell facilities. This package has been used mainly for the shipment of full scale as well as samples of irradiated fuel rods - UOX or MOX, PWR or BWR.

  7. The BG18, a B(U)F type package used for the transport of irradiated fuel rods - return of experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergen, S.; Herman, S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to share the return of experience of Transnubel after a period of nearly 3 years operation of the BG18 package in several nuclear power plants and hot cell facilities. This package has been used mainly for the shipment of full scale as well as samples of irradiated fuel rods - UOX or MOX, PWR or BWR

  8. Unfolding the values of work - therapists´ experience of addressing the return to work process in occupational rehabilitation based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevanger, Nina E; Fimland, Marius S; Johnsen, Roar; Rise, Marit B

    2018-04-27

    Facilitating return to work can be challenging due to the complexity of work disability. Few studies have examined rehabilitation programs based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy that intend to support return to work, and none have investigated therapists' experience with providing such programs. The aim of this study was therefore to explore therapists' experience of addressing the return to work process in an inpatient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. This was a qualitative interview study supported by participant observation. Therapists were interviewed regarding their experiences with addressing return to work in an inpatient occupational rehabilitation program based on Acceptance and Commitment Therapy. In addition, the rehabilitation program was investigated through participant observation. The interviews were analysed according to Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis and informed by an analysis of field notes from the participant observation. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy was experienced as a meaningful approach to facilitate return to work, as it allowed therapists to address all relevant aspects of the individual participant's life that might influence work participation. The therapists' twofold goal was to support participants in building both a meaningful life and sustainable work participation. To do so, they attempted to instil long-term and interrelated processes concerning ownership, causes of sick leave, relation to expectations, the values of work, and the scope of agency. Unfolding values connected to work participation might reconcile the tension between work and family life by integrating work with other areas of life. Providing work participation with personal meaning also seems especially commensurable with a context where economy presents a poor incentive for return to work. Therapists should, however, be attentive to the need to secure the prominence of return to work by relating

  9. Growing population causes of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  10. Accounting for unemployment: the long and short of it

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Hornstein

    2012-01-01

    Shimer (2012) accounts for the volatility of unemployment based on a model of homogeneous unemployment. Using data on short-term unemployment he finds that most of unemployment volatility is accounted for by variations in the exit rate from unemployment. The assumption of homogeneous exit rates is inconsistent with the observed negative duration dependence of unemployment exit rates for the U.S. labor market. We construct a simple model of heterogeneous unemployment with short-term and long-t...

  11. The macroeconomics of demographic unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, M

    1990-02-01

    "What are the macroeconomic consequences of an increase in labour supply? In the short run, unemployment occurs, due to both lack of aggregate demand and capital shortage. Demand-side policy and money wage restraint prove to be ineffective in this situation, owing to capital shortage. On the other hand, a reduction in working hours without wage compensation as well as a policy mix of both demand-side policy and investment policy turn out to be effective. The reduction in working hours lowers individual income and raises individual leisure, as compared to the policy mix." (SUMMARY IN GER) excerpt

  12. Skill level, Cognitive Ability, Unemployment and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Birthe

    2004-01-01

    -biasedtechnological shocks increase unemployment, this may explain why themarket it-self cannot respond to this by making it sufficiently attractiveto acquire skills. Consequently, the trade-off in-between subsidizing educationand thereby reducing unemployment and optimizing welfare maybe eliminated. We analyse this issue...... in a simple educational model andnext in a search equilibrium model including a skill choice decision.Keywords: Education, subsidies, efficiency, unemployment.JEL codes: I20, J64....

  13. Health effects of unemployment benefit program generosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cylus, Jonathan; Glymour, M Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the impact of unemployment benefit programs on the health of the unemployed. We linked US state law data on maximum allowable unemployment benefit levels between 1985 and 2008 to individual self-rated health for heads of households in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and implemented state and year fixed-effect models. Unemployment was associated with increased risk of reporting poor health among men in both linear probability (b=0.0794; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.0623, 0.0965) and logistic models (odds ratio=2.777; 95% CI=2.294, 3.362), but this effect is lower when the generosity of state unemployment benefits is high (b for interaction between unemployment and benefits=-0.124; 95% CI=-0.197, -0.0523). A 63% increase in benefits completely offsets the impact of unemployment on self-reported health. Results suggest that unemployment benefits may significantly alleviate the adverse health effects of unemployment among men.

  14. Jobless. Unemployment and young people's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S L; Taylor, R J; Kerr, C B

    1998-03-02

    Morrell, Taylor and Kerr, from the University of Sydney's Department of Public Health, review the evidence of an association between unemployment and psychological and physical ill-health in young people aged 15-24 years. Aggregate data show youth unemployment and youth suicide to be strongly associated. Youth unemployment is also associated with psychological symptoms, such as depression and loss of confidence. Effects on physical health have been less extensively studies; however, there is some evidence for an association with raised blood pressure. Finally, the prevalence of lifestyle risk factors (cannabis use and, less consistently, tobacco and alcohol consumption) is higher in unemployed compared with employed young people.

  15. Return of overseas contract workers and their rehabilitation and development in Kerala (India). A critical account of policies, performance and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, P R

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of labor migrants from Kerala state, India, who were 40-60% of all contract workers in the Middle East and who returned after the mid-1980s. Descriptions are provided of the characteristics of return migrants, the Kerala economy, return migration policies, and impact studies of returnees. About 500,000 returned to Kerala. Returnees were middle aged, with low levels of education, skills, and experience. About 50% of returnees remained unemployed. The other 50% either retired or sought self-employment or other wage labor. Surveys conducted in 1985, 1987, 1993-93, and 1997 reveal that returnees peaked during the 1990s. By 1997, returnees to the Kadinamkulam panchayat included about one-sixth who were women. Most returnees had worked in Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, and Kuwait. The reasons for return were poor working and living conditions, lack of opportunity or contract for staying longer, or forced repatriation. Upon return, 50% of the women and about 16% of the men remained unemployed. Return wages were about the same as before the migration. Returnees complained about the lack of support from government and society. Impact studies do not differentiate migration effects from development effects in general. Evaluation should focus on multidimensional impacts and individual attainment of emigration goals.

  16. Unemployment vs. In-work Benefits with Search Unemployment and Observable Abilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Bovenberg, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    This paper explores the optimal interaction between the tax system and unemployment compensation in insuring people against the risks of involuntary unemployment and low ability.To that end, we introduce search unemployment in a model of optimal non-linear income taxation.We find that the optimal

  17. Unemployment Benefits and Parental Resources: What Helps the Young Unemployed with Labour Market Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Marita

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with the question of how different resources affect the labour market integration of the young unemployed. Previous research has often focused on the effects of unemployment compensation benefits on labour market outcomes. However, for young unemployed people additional parental resources may be even more important. The article…

  18. Youth Unemployment and Employment Policy: A Global Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Higgins, Niall

    This book looks at the issue of youth unemployment and examines policy responses. Part I considers the youth unemployment problem. Chapter 1 is an overview, covering size of the problem and the close relationship between youth and adult unemployment. Chapter 2 examines youth unemployment characteristics and distribution of unemployment across…

  19. Demographic aspects of unemployment in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, A A

    1979-01-01

    The extent and structure of open unemployment in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan was examined. The data on unemployment in Jordan come from censuses and labor force sample surveys. The last census was conducted in 1961 and obviously cannot provide current information, but a multipurpose household survey has been conducted annually since 1972. The survey sample is a stratified multistage random sample; 3 strata are distinquished, i.e., cities, camps, and rural areas. For this survey, the unemployed are defined as those persons who are physically unable to perform work and who want work and are actively seeking work but are unemployed at present. In this analysis, those persons among the unemployed who are in the age group 12-14 are excluded. 82.3% of the unemployed in the sample were men. The total unemployment rate was 1.6%, but the rate for women was 2.8% and that for men only 1.5%. The rate for women may be overstated to an unknown extent due to underreporting of women in the labor force, yet it seems unlikely that this factor would explain all of the differences in the extent of unemployment between men and women. The cultural bias against work for women outside the home exerts an influence in making it more difficult for women to find a job, but because of this bias many women do not even enter the labor force and hence cannot be unemployed. Most of the unemployed were in the 20-24 age group and to a lesser extent in the 15-19 age group. Almost 60% of the unemployed were in these 2 age groups. Beyond these ages, the percentages of unemployed decreased regularly with age, with the age group 40-44 as a minor exception. When taking sex into account, the 1st phenomenon to be observed was the highly skewed age distribution of female unemployed who were all under age 30. Of the unemployed men, most were also young, with 34.6% in the 20-24 age group and 52.9% younger than 25 years. For married women the low unemployment rate can be explained by the fact that many

  20. Do early unemployment and health status among young men and women affect their chances of later employment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this 5-year prospective study was to investigate the risk of future unemployment among young people who had experienced early unemployment, and to examine whether this risk was influenced by their health status. A total of 1,083 pupils in the final year of compulsory schooling were included in the cohort. The non-participation rate was 2%. At the time of a five-year follow-up, of those who were unemployed during the first two-year period, 71% of the men and 49% of the women were unemployed, had recent experience of unemployment, or were outside the labour market. The relative risk of being unemployed was 2.39 for men (95% CI 1.85-3.10) and 1.76 for women (95% CI 1.25-2.48) among those who had experienced early unemployment compared with those who had been in Youth Opportunities Programmes (YOP) or in work. Young women in YOP had the same risk of later unemployment as those who had experienced early unemployment, while young men in YOP did not have increased risk. Health status and health behaviour had only a minor influence on the risk of unemployment.

  1. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period 1980-2000, and adopting a quasi-experimental design,…

  2. Unemployment in Families: The Case of Housework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret; Killewald, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    Unemployment has consequences for individuals, but its impacts also reverberate through families. This paper examines how families adapt to unemployment in one area of life--time in housework. Using 74,881 observations from 10,390 couples in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, we estimate fixed effects models and find that individuals spend…

  3. "Learning to Do" during High Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee-Weise, Michelle; Horn, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Even as the economy appears to have turned a corner, high unemployment persists. Strangely, as millions nationwide struggle to find work, there are millions of jobs that remain unfilled. High unemployment rates may therefore have less to do than commonly assumed with an economy that is not healthy enough to produce jobs or employers who are…

  4. Unemployment and the health of Slovak adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleskova, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Research on unemployment started during the 1930’s and still attracts the attention of many researchers. It has been found that job loss has serious negative consequences for many aspects of the individual’s life. However, the influence of unemployment on the individual is not simple and is

  5. Unemployment Impairs Mental Health: Meta-Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Karsten I.; Moser, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    The effect of unemployment on mental health was examined with meta-analytic methods across 237 cross-sectional and 87 longitudinal studies. The average overall effect size was d = 0.51 with unemployed persons showing more distress than employed persons. A significant difference was found for several indicator variables of mental health (mixed…

  6. The Gendered Consequences of Unemployment Insurance Reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, Irma; Mills, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period

  7. Youth Unemployment. The Causes and Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report examines the causes and consequences of youth unemployment in Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) member countries. Summarized first is the youth unemployment situation since the 1974/1975 recession. In a section on recent developments in youth labor markets a series of tables and graphs provide data on youth…

  8. Optimal unemployment insurance with monitoring and sanctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.; Fredriksson, P.; Holmlund, B.; van Ours, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article analyses the design of optimal unemployment insurance in a search equilibrium framework where search effort among the unemployed is not perfectly observable. We examine to what extent the optimal policy involves monitoring of search effort and benefit sanctions if observed search is

  9. Catching Hipo's: Screening, Wages and Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, I study the wage a firm sets to attract high ability workers (hipo's) in situations of unemployment. I show that the higher unemployment, the larger a firm's incentives to sort high and low ability workers. Moreover, workers will signal their (high) ability in situations

  10. Unemployed citizen or 'at risk' client?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Caswell, Dorte; Marston, Greg

    2010-01-01

    The paper explores recent developments in Australian and Danish unemployment policies with a special focus on the technologies used to classify and categorize unemployed people on government benefits. Using governmentality as our theoretical framework, we consider the implications of reducing com...

  11. Youth Unemployment and Its Educational Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Henry M.

    1983-01-01

    Competing explanations for youth unemployment (demography, minimum wages, education and training, economic conditions) have profoundly different implications for policy. The history of youth unemployment in Australia and the United States is explored and the causes of the problem as well as some solutions are evaluated. (LC)

  12. The gendered consequences of unemployment insurance reforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi-Reci, I.; Mills, M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether a series of unemployment insurance benefit reforms that took place over a 20-year period in the Netherlands had a gendered effect on the duration of unemployment and labor market outcomes. Using longitudinal data from the Dutch Labor Supply Panel (OSA) over the period

  13. Wages, unemployment, and the underground economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolm, Ann-Sofie; Larsen, Birthe

    2003-01-01

    the impact of higher punishmentrates and a higher audit rate on labour market performance. We findthat a higher punishment rate reduces the size of the informal sectorand reduces unemployment. A higher audit rate has an ambiguousimpact on unemployment, and may actually increase the size of theunderground...

  14. Business Ownership and Unemployment in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van Acht; J. Stam; A.R. Thurik (Roy); I. Verheul (Ingrid)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of industrial structure, more specifically of business ownership, is investigated on the level of unemployment in Japan. The question is to what extent business ownership, i.e., entrepreneurship, can reduce the level of unemployment. It will be concluded that Japan is

  15. Legislating health care coverage for the unemployed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, H A; Feldman, G; Gallner, I; Tysor, M

    1985-01-01

    Because the unemployed and their families are often likely to develop stress-related health problems, ensuring them access to health care is a public health issue. Congressional efforts thus far to legislate health coverage for the unemployed have proposed a system that recognizes people's basic need for coverage but has several limitations.

  16. Manager Experiences with the Return to Work Process in a Large, Publically Funded, Hospital Setting: Walking a Fine Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochkendahl, Mette Jensen; Myburgh, Corrie; Young, Amanda Ellen; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2015-12-01

    Previous research on the role of managers in the return to work (RTW) process has primarily been conducted in contexts where the workplace has declared organizational responsibility for the process. While this is a common scenario, in some countries, including Denmark, there is no explicit legal obligation on the workplace to accommodate RTW. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge about the potential roles and contributions of managers in supporting returning employees in a context where they have no legal obligation to actively support RTW. Nineteen Danish hospital managers participated in a one-on-one interview or focus group discussions aimed at identifying barriers and facilitators for supporting employees in their RTW. Five individual interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted. Transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Four main themes were identified: (1) 'Coordinator and collaborator'; (2) 'Dilemmas of the RTW policy enforcer'; (3) 'The right to be sick and absent'; and (4) 'Keep the machinery running…'. Our findings indicated that supervisors' capacity to support returning workers was related to individual, communication, organizational, and policy factors. Instances were observed where supervisors faced the dilemma of balancing ethical and managerial principles with requirements of keeping staffing budgets. Although it is not their legislative responsibility, Danish managers play a key role in the RTW process. As has been observed in other contexts, Danish supervisors struggle to balance considerations for the returning worker with those of their teams.

  17. Unemployment, Parental Help, and Self-Efficacy During the Transition to Adulthood*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Jeylan T.; Kim, Minzee; Staff, Jeremy; Vuolo, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Youth unemployment reduces the capacity to achieve diverse markers of adulthood, potentially undermining the young adult’s sense of confidence and independence. While parents often come to the aid of their unemployed young adult children, such support may also have negative psychological repercussions. Applying a hierarchical modeling strategy to longitudinal data from the Youth Development Study, we find that both unemployment and parental financial support have negative consequences for youth’s self-efficacy. These common experiences may thus diminish youth’s personal psychological resources as they make the increasingly lengthy and precarious transition to adulthood. PMID:27840554

  18. Social capital, friendship networks, and youth unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hällsten, Martin; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Youth unemployment is a contemporary social problem in many societies. Youths often have limited access to information about jobs and limited social influence, yet little is known about the relationship between social capital and unemployment risk among youth. We study the effect of social capital on unemployment risk in a sample of 19 year olds of Swedish, Iranian, and Yugoslavian origin living in Sweden (N = 1590). We distinguish between two dimensions of social capital: occupational contact networks and friendship networks. First, ego's unemployment is found to be strongly associated with friends' unemployment among individuals of Yugoslavian origins and individuals of Swedish origin, but not Iranian origin. Second, occupational contact networks reduce unemployment risks for all groups, but especially so for Iranians. The effect sizes of the two dimensions are similar and substantial: going from low to high values on these measures is associated with a difference of some 60-70 percent relative difference in unemployment risk. The findings are robust to a number of different model specifications, including a rich set of social origin controls, personality traits, educational performance, friends' characteristics, and friendship network characteristics, as well as controls for geographical employment patterns. A sensitivity simulation shows that homogeneity bias need to be very strong to explain away the effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of Unemployment on Crime in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Hsuan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study discovers how unemployment rate explains the changes in the crime rate tendency in Europe by the two-stage-least square regression. The crime rate in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU area is found evidently more sensitive to unemployment than the non-EMU countries. The adoption of a common currency also strengthens the connections of the criminal problem among the EMU countries. We found the seriousness of the endogenous bias involved using the OLS methodology, so previous findings on the small effect of unemployment on crime rate obtained by employing the OLS methodology could be unreliable. Empirically, a one-percentage-point increase in unemployment increases the property crime by nearly 9% on average. The large unemployment effect implies that the increase in the unemployment rate that occurred after the financial crisis in 2008, followed by the European sovereign-debt crisis, may account for the trending increasing tendencies of the crime rate in Europe. The high unemployment effect revealed markedly different policy implications than those that have previously been considered in the literature. These findings suggest that the key determinants for governmental authorities in the EMU area successfully mitigating crime would greatly depend on how the governments resolve their economic recession.

  20. The Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle: Additional Estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniesner, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Illustrates that the business cycle does indeed disturb relative Black/White rates of return to schooling. Blacks fare relatively poorly in times of high unemployment. Data tables and formulas are presented to support the argument. (CT)

  1. Tunisia’s Revolution and Youth Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Siala

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Youth joblessness was one of the main triggers of Tunisia’s January Revolution. Unemployment rate in Tunisia has increased from 13 percent in 2010 to 18.3 percent in 2011 (NIS, 2011. Young people and women are more affected by this increase in unemployment .Thus, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of various individual and job-related characteristics on the probabilities of unemployment of females and males aged 15–29 and to explore policy actions to create jobs in Tunisia. These issues are addressed using data from a 2010 survey of the National Institute of Statistics that provided information on the employment status of youth aged 15–29. The main estimated results show first that individual’s age, gender, marital status, level of education, sector of economic activity, type of employment and region of residence are significantly related to the unemployment. The results indicate that, for young workers, unemployment incidence increases with the level of education. Education has a greater impact on the unemployment of females than on that of males. Second, there is a negative and significant effect of the agricultural, educational and health sectors on the probability of transition into unemployment for women and men in which case the estimated impact is greater for men. Third, coastal area and public employment are associated with lower probability of transition into unemployment. Finally, Tunisian policymakers are aware of the fact that the elected National Constituent Assembly and the transitional government have a set of challenging tasks to accomplish in order to lower the rate of youth unemployment. For instance, generating funds for business development and infrastructure in non-coastal regions, and collaborating with the private sector to promote investment– whether foreign or domestic – and employment for educated young people.

  2. High local unemployment and increased mortality in Danish adults; results from a prospective multilevel study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, M; Christensen, Ulla; Lund, Rikke

    2003-01-01

    registers. Data were pooled data from two population studies conducted in Copenhagen, Denmark. The association between unemployment at parish level and mortality was examined in Cox proportional hazard analysis. A total of 15 980 men and women, aged 20-67 years and employed at 1 January 1980, were studied...... was also a risk factor (hazard ratio(yes/no) 1.38:1.16-1.64). These estimates attenuated somewhat when other social and behavioural covariates were taken into account. The effects were similar in men and women, but the influence of individuals' unemployment experience during one and five years decreased...... gradually with increasing age. CONCLUSION: This prospective study suggests that high local unemployment and individuals' experience of unemployment increase mortality risk, even after adjustment for other social and behavioural factors....

  3. Productive Reintegration of Return Emigrants and Rural Tourism: Life and Work Experiences in Sardinia (Italy and in a Mountain Area in the Province of Marrakech (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Gentileschi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides a contribution to the formulation of return migration policies that seek to harness the skills gained by emigrants and channel their savings into the creation of small businesses within a local development scheme. We have drawn from experiences described by return emigrants, gathered in Sardinia and in the Marrakech province in Morocco, to formulate measures capable of generating positive opportunities for encouraging the return of migrants to their home areas, utilizing the skills gained in the hospitality industry in Europe and investing their savings in their country. The measures are also designed to offer return migrants an alternative to settling in urban destinations. The case study is concerned with a rural tourism initiative in subcoastal and interior areas as an alternative to marine and coastal tourism. Based on the premise that only those areas with a natural and cultural heritage offer good potential for the development of rural tourism, the following conclusions are presented: a one seemingly useful form of action is for the authorities in the host countries to organise training courses for migrant workers, within the cooperation framework for assisting migrants to return to their home countries; b it is essential for local authorities in the migrants’ home countries to improve transportation systems, facilities and tourist services in general; c equally important in the home countries is the adoption of measures aimed at the recognition, rehabilitation and enhancement of the archaeological heritage, material culture and of traditions in general, together with the natural/ environmental resources for an integrated tourist product.

  4. Five Characteristics of Youth Unemployment in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Eichorst, Werner; Gábos, András

    2015-01-01

    Current levels of youth unemployment need to be understood in the context of increased labor market flexibility, an expansion of higher education, youth migration, and family legacies of long-term unemployment. Compared with previous recessions, European-wide policies and investments have...... significantly increased with attempts to support national policies. By mapping these developments and debates, we illustrate the different factors shaping the future of European labor markets. We argue that understanding youth unemployment requires a holistic approach that combines an analysis of changes...

  5. Contractual Incompleteness, Unemployment, and Labour Market Segmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altmann, Steffen; Falk, Armin; Grunewald, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    This article provides evidence that involuntary unemployment, and the segmentation of labour markets into firms offering "good" and "bad" jobs, may both arise as a consequence of contractual incompleteness.We provide a simple model that illustrates how unemployment and market segmentation may...... jointly emerge as part of a market equilibrium in environments where work effort is not third-party verifiable. Using experimental labour markets that differ only in the verifiability of effort, we demonstrate empirically that contractual incompleteness can cause unemployment and segmentation. Our data...

  6. House Prices, Geographical Mobility, and Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingholt, Marcus Mølbak

    2017-01-01

    Geographical mobility correlates positively with house prices and negatively with unemployment over the U.S. business cycle. I present a DSGE model in which declining house prices and tight credit conditions impede the mobility of indebted workers. This reduces the workers’ cross-area competition...... for jobs, causing wages and unemployment to rise. A Bayesian estimation shows that this channel more than quadruples the response of unemployment to adverse housing market shocks. The estimation also shows that adverse housing market shocks caused the decline in mobility during the Great Recession. Absent...

  7. Dealing with unemployment: What should be the role of labour market programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Borland

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents a summary of evidence on outcomes from active labour market programs. Active labour market programs aim to increase the likelihood of employment for individuals who are unemployed or at risk of unemployment. The focus of this review is on studies of active labour market programs in Australia, supplemented with international evidence. An overview and historical background on active labour market programs is provided, as well as an introduction to the empirical methods used to estimate the effect of the programs. Evidence on the effects of the main types of programs – case management, work experience programs and formal education and training – is reviewed, and the main findings are distilled into a set of lessons for policy makers. The review concludes that active labour market programs cannot by themselves have a major impact on the rate of unemployment, but some spending on these programs is justified by outcomes such as increasing the pool of unemployed who are job ready and sharing the burden of unemployment. Job search and wage subsidy programs are suggested to be good ways to assist unemployed who are less disadvantaged. For unemployed with higher levels of disadvantage, priority should be given to programs that create jobs with opportunities for linked training, and that provide a pathway to a permanent job.

  8. The effects of action video game experience on the time course of inhibition of return and the efficiency of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castel, Alan D; Pratt, Jay; Drummond, Emily

    2005-06-01

    The ability to efficiently search the visual environment is a critical function of the visual system, and recent research has shown that experience playing action video games can influence visual selective attention. The present research examined the similarities and differences between video game players (VGPs) and non-video game players (NVGPs) in terms of the ability to inhibit attention from returning to previously attended locations, and the efficiency of visual search in easy and more demanding search environments. Both groups were equally good at inhibiting the return of attention to previously cued locations, although VGPs displayed overall faster reaction times to detect targets. VGPs also showed overall faster response time for easy and difficult visual search tasks compared to NVGPs, largely attributed to faster stimulus-response mapping. The findings suggest that relative to NVGPs, VGPs rely on similar types of visual processing strategies but possess faster stimulus-response mappings in visual attention tasks.

  9. An Empirical Analyses of Unemployment Hysteresis and Natural Rate of Unemployment Approaches for MENA Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan ERDOĞAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to test natural rate of unemployment and approach of unemployment hysteresis in MENA*** countries for the period of 1991-2014 by using panel data analysis methods which considering the cross-sectional dependency properties. Cross-sectional dependency test results indicate that there is cross-section dependency among all variables. According to CADF test results, unemployment rates in all countries have unit root. According to the CIPS test results, unemployment rates in MENA countries has unit root. In this context, all the impact of a shock can be seen on the unemployment rate in the mentioned region is permanent. Therefore; it can be said that the current approach of unemployment hysteresis in the region countries are valid.

  10. Reservation wages, expected wages and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S; Taylor, K

    2013-01-01

    We model unemployment duration, reservation and expected wages simultaneously for individuals not in work, where wage expectations are identified via an exogenous policy shock. The policy shock increased expected wages, which were found to be positively associated with reservation wages.

  11. Unemployment Insurance Benefit Levels and Consumption Changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Crossley, Thomas

    We use a survey of unemployed people to examine how a job loss impacts on household expenditures. The principal focus is on the effect of the level of income replacement provided by Unemployment Insurance. We restrict attention to a sub-sample of respondents who are still in their first spell...... of unemployment after six months. For this group we find large consumption falls, averaging about 16% of total expenditure. The actual fall depends on a variety of factors of which the most important is the pre-job loss ratio of the respondent's income to household income. The effects of varying the replacement...... within the household and hence on other facets of behaviour such as job search, unemployment duration and the quality of any new job taken...

  12. UNEMPLOYMENT IN URBAN ETHIOPIA: DETERMINANTS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eyerusalem

    Data from the 2004 wave of the Ethiopian Urban Socio Economic Survey on four major cities of .... public sector jobs and for those with their fathers are civil servants. Haile (2003), using ... not address rural unemployment. Two econometric ...

  13. The Effect of Unemployment Insurance Exhaustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie; Weatherall, Cecilie Dohlmann

    In this article we investigate how the long-term unemployed react to the threat of running out of unemployment insurance (UI) in a system in which other social benefits are available. The empirical analysis is based on very precise administrative records of unemployment spells in Denmark...... risk model to estimate the conditional probability of leaving unemployment to enter employment or receive other social benefits. We restrict our analysis to men aged 25-44 in 1998. Our results show that even for men having an initial UI entitlement for 4 years the threat of running out of UI indeed....... To identify the effect of UI exhaustion, we exploit the 1999 legislative change in the duration of benefit that progressively reduced regular UI entitlement from five to four years. According to time of entry into the UI system, all UI recipients had their potential UI period shortened. We use a competing...

  14. Do conditional benefits reduce equilibrium unemployment?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Ploeg, F.

    2006-01-01

    Although unconditional unemployment benefits destroy jobs in competitive and noncompetitive labor markets, conditional benefits can spur job growth in noncompetitive labor markets. Unconditional benefits reduce the penalty of shirking and misconduct, while conditional benefits increase this penalty.

  15. Essays on employment and unemployment transitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagore Garcia, Amparo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis addresses relevant questions related to labour market transitions in Spain. Using administrative records data from Spanish Social Security and applying correlated competing risks models, the impact of the current recession on unemployment and employment transitions and gender differences

  16. Promoting wellbeing in young unemployed adults: the importance of identifying meaningful patterns of time use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Justin Newton; Bundy, Anita C; Matthews, Lynda R

    2011-04-01

    This study set out to explore the differences in time use between 'unemployed', 'unemployed but in education' and part-time and full-time employed 18- to 25-year-old Australians. Unemployed individuals generally experience poor health and this may be related to the way they use their time. Activity-based interventions may be one health-promoting strategy. This knowledge is important for all occupational therapists, as many service users are likely to be unemployed. Time use of unemployed 18- to 25-year-olds (measured using the Modified Occupational Questionnaire) was compared with the time use of part- and full-time employed 18- to 25-year-olds (from the 2006 Australian Time Use Survey). Individuals in the 'unemployed' groups spent significantly less time engaged in work-related activities than their employed peers. This time was reallocated mainly to recreation and leisure and household work (for both men and women) and child care and sleeping (women only). Recreation and leisure activities were generally passive, home-based activities such as watching television or 'doing nothing'. Individuals in the 'unemployed but in education' groups also spent less time in employment-related activities, but the majority of this time was reallocated to education activities. Individuals in the 'unemployed' groups spent large amounts of time engaged in potentially non-directed use of time (e.g. watching television or 'doing nothing'). Such patterns of time use have previously been associated with poor health. To support the health of unemployed individuals more effectively, occupational therapy interventions must focus on enhancing the quality of time use for this population. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2010 Australian Association of Occupational Therapists.

  17. Experimental evidence from active placement efforts among unemployed in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Pathric

    2014-06-01

    This article uses data from a field experiment in Sweden to analyze the effects of active placement efforts. In particular, the relative efficiency between combining job-search monitoring and job-search assistance, and monitoring alone, is analyzed. Although the impact estimates are generally imprecisely estimated, a general conclusion is that placement programs are effective policies in increasing the job exit rate for various groups of unemployed. I find that monitoring of job search is an efficient method to increase off-unemployment exit rate both alone and combined with job-search assistance services. The results, however, indicate that the combined services generate more permanent job exits. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Hysteresis in unemployment: evidence from sector-specific unemployment in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Barışık, Salih; Cevik, Emrah Ismail

    2009-01-01

    High levels of inflation and unemployment have been experienced together in the world after 1970’s. Efforts of decreasing inflation have been achieved in the world after 1990’s. The fact that there has been no evidence the unemployment rate beginning to decrease despite the increasing growth rates in the USA and Europe countries recalls hysteresis effect. This phenomenon observed in Turkey after 1994 and 2001 crises. This paper examines hysteresis effect in sector-specific unemployment in Tur...

  19. Should Unemployment Insurance Vary with the Unemployment Rate? Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kroft, Kory; Notowidigdo, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    We study how optimal unemployment insurance (UI) benefits vary over the business cycle by estimating how the moral hazard cost and the consumption smoothing benefit of UI vary with the unemployment rate. We find that the moral hazard cost is procyclical, greater when the unemployment rate is relatively low. By contrast, our evidence suggests that the consumption smoothing benefit of UI is acyclical. Using these estimates to calibrate our job search model, we find that a one standard deviation...

  20. Unemployment risk and income change after testicular cancer diagnosis: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Yakir; Ratzon, Navah Z; Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Miraim; Peretz, Tamar; de Boer, Angela G E M

    2016-01-01

    Among patients with cancer, returning to full working may serve as an indicator for return to normal lifestyle following illness, as opposed to unemployment or shifting to part-time work. The aim of the project was to clarify the association between unemployment risk and decreased income at 4 years after the diagnosis of testicular cancer (TC). A case control in a cohort study includes baseline measurement of people participating in the Israeli Central Bureau of Statistics 1995 National Census, and follow-up until 2011. Cancer incidence, employment status, and income level were ascertained through the Israel Cancer Registry and Tax Authority, respectively. A matched group was sampled from the population in the census. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to assess odds ratios (ORs) for study׳s outcomes, while controlling for age, ethnicity, education, and socioeconomic and employment status at 2 years before diagnosis. A total of 113 cases of TC and 468 persons in the matched group were included in the study after excluding persons who died during the study period. No association was found between TC and subsequent risk after the 4 years of unemployment (OR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.65-1.95) or decreased income (OR = 1.41, 95% CI: 0.84-2.36). Predictors of subsequent unemployment were unemployment 2 years before diagnosis (OR = 6.91, 95% CI: 4.39-10.86) and increasing age (OR = 1.03 per year, 95% CI: 1.01-1.06). TC survivorship is not associated with subsequent unemployment or decreased income at 4 years after diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Both sides of the couch: a qualitative exploration of the experiences of female healthcare professionals returning to work after treatment for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, T

    2015-11-01

    The aim was to explore the experiences of healthcare professionals (HCPs) who had treatment for cancer and then returned to work. The intention was to identify how HCPs' experiences differed to those of the general public with cancer, and also to explore how HCPs were reintegrated into the workplace following treatment. An interpretive phenomenological approach was employed and conversational interviews were undertaken with 13 women volunteers from a variety of healthcare disciplines including nursing, midwifery, social work, physiotherapy, radiography and general practice. During analysis 59 categories were constructed which were accommodated within 14 themes; six of which are reported here. Participants used knowledge to make sense of their diagnosis, severity and extent of cancer. Several participants covertly accessed their medical records to find out more about their clinical condition. Familiarity with both the environment and oncology personnel resulted in benefits and disadvantage in equal measure. Managers responded to participants' return to work in a variety of ways, and involvement of Occupational Health Departments was inconsistent. Healthcare professionals had distinctly unique experiences because of being patient and provider, and each made personal decisions about sharing their cancer experiences with patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Ethical Considerations Related to Return of Results from Genomic Medicine Projects: The eMERGE Network (Phase III) Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossey, Robyn; Kochan, David; Winkler, Erin; Pacyna, Joel E.; Olson, Janet; Thibodeau, Stephen; Connolly, John J.; Harr, Margaret; Behr, Meckenzie A.; Prows, Cynthia A.; Cobb, Beth; Myers, Melanie F.; Leslie, Nancy D.; Namjou-Khales, Bahram; Milo Rasouly, Hila; Wynn, Julia; Fedotov, Alexander; Chung, Wendy K.; Gharavi, Ali; Williams, Janet L.; Pais, Lynn; Holm, Ingrid; Aufox, Sharon; Smith, Maureen E.; Scrol, Aaron; Leppig, Kathleen; Jarvik, Gail P.; Wiesner, Georgia L.; Li, Rongling; Stroud, Mary; Smoller, Jordan W.; Sharp, Richard R.; Kullo, Iftikhar J.

    2018-01-01

    We examined the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process at 9 academic institutions in the electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE) Network, for proposed electronic health record-based genomic medicine studies, to identify common questions and concerns. Sequencing of 109 disease related genes and genotyping of 14 actionable variants is being performed in ~28,100 participants from the 9 sites. Pathogenic/likely pathogenic variants in actionable genes are being returned to study participants. We examined each site’s research protocols, informed-consent materials, and interactions with IRB staff. Research staff at each site completed questionnaires regarding their IRB interactions. The time to prepare protocols for IRB submission, number of revisions and time to approval ranged from 10–261 days, 0–11, and 11–90 days, respectively. IRB recommendations related to the readability of informed consent materials, specifying the full range of potential risks, providing options for receiving limited results or withdrawal, sharing of information with family members, and establishing the mechanisms to answer participant questions. IRBs reviewing studies that involve the return of results from genomic sequencing have a diverse array of concerns, and anticipating these concerns can help investigators to more effectively engage IRBs. PMID:29301385

  3. Job search requirements for older unemployed workers

    OpenAIRE

    Bloemen, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Many OECD countries have, or have had, a policy that exempts older unemployed people from the requirement to search for a job. An aging population and low participation by older workers in the labor market increasingly place public finances under strain, and spur calls for policy measures that activate labor force participation by older workers. Introducing job search requirements for the older unemployed aims to increase their re-employment rates. Abolishing the exemption from job search req...

  4. Liquidity and Insurance for the Unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Shimer; Ivan Werning

    2008-01-01

    We study the optimal design of unemployment insurance for workers sampling job opportunities over time. We focus on the optimal timing of benefits and the desirability of allowing workers to freely access a riskless asset. When workers have constant absolute risk aversion preferences, it is optimal to use a very simple policy: a constant benefit during unemployment, a constant tax during employment that does not depend on the duration of the spell, and free access to savings using a riskless ...

  5. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. 20 CFR 625.8 - Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Applications for Disaster Unemployment... LABOR DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.8 Applications for Disaster Unemployment Assistance. (a... unemployment shall be filed with respect to the individual's applicable State at the times and in the manner as...

  7. 20 CFR 325.4 - Claim for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Claim for unemployment benefits. 325.4 Section 325.4 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER THE RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.4 Claim for unemployment benefits. (a...

  8. The Determinants of Actual Migration and the Role of Wages and Unemployment in Albania: an Empirical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cattaneo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the determinants of internal migration in Albania, adopting the Harris-Todaro approach to migration: an internal migration function is estimated using district wage and unemployment rate differentials. The aggregate level wages and unemployment, included in the migration equation, are retrieved from a first stage wage and unemployment equations, estimated controlling for personal characteristics. Moreover, in order to test the predictions of the human capital model of migration, the difference between migrants and non-migrants is emphasized in the estimation. The data source is the "Living Standard Measurement Survey for Albania" (2002, undertaken by the national Institute of Statistics and the World Bank jointly. The results reveal that both wage and unemployment differentials are important determinants of the propensity to migrate in Albania. This conclusion is further emphasized by noting that migrants gain substantially in terms of higher returns to individual characteristics after emigration.

  9. Psychosocial work conditions, unemployment and self-reported psychological health: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the association between psychosocial conditions at work, unemployment and self-reported psychological health. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire for the 2000 public health survey in Scania was administered to both working and unemployed people aged 18-64 years. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the association between psychosocial factors at work/unemployment and self-reported psychological health (General Health Questionnaire 12). Psychosocial conditions at work were classified according to the Karasek-Theorell demand-control/decision latitudes into relaxed, active, passive and job strain. The multivariate analyses included age, country of origin, education, economic stress and social participation. A total of 5180 people returned their questionnaire, giving a participation rate of 59%. Fifteen per cent of men and 20% of women reported poor psychological health. Those with high demands and high control (active category), those with high demands and low control (job strain category) and the unemployed had significantly higher odds ratios of poor psychological health compared to those with low demands and high control (relaxed category). Those with low demands and low control (passive category) did not differ significantly from the relaxed category. The associations remained in the multivariate analyses. The study found that certain psychosocial work factors are associated with higher levels of self-reported psychological ill-health and illustrates the great importance of psychosocial conditions in determining psychological health at the population level. As found elsewhere, being unemployed was an even stronger predictor of psychological ill-health.

  10. Urban job creation and unemployment in LDCs: Todaro vs. Harris and Todaro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomqvist, A G

    1978-03-01

    Overwhelming urban migration occurred so rapidly in many developing countries that widespread unemployment and squalid living conditions are commonplace. For many of these countries, stopping urban migration has become a major policy. Two models propose 2 different theories of urban unemployment. Todaro's short-term effects model concludes that job creation actually causes unemployment. Todaro and Harris formulated a long-term effects model in which welfare subsidies create more employment and stimulate the economy. A real solution to urban job creation would include optimal allocation of investment between the rural and labor sectors. A once and for all hiring tax would reduce replacement hiring. It is impossible to design an optimal tax subsidy package for urban unemployment unless it includes knowledge of the dynamic response of migration and unemployment to the rate of net and gross hiring of labor. If subsidy taxes are levied on the agricultural sector, the net result may be a higher rate of capital formation in the (low social return) manufacturing sector and a lower one in the agricultural sector.

  11. [Unemployment and Addiction: The SUNRISE Project].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherbaum, N; Specka, M; Kaspar, C; Mikoteit, T; Lieb, B

    2018-01-01

    In the SUNRISE-project, the unemployment benefit office refers long-term unemployed clients (25-49 years old) to medical and psychological specialists of an addiction clinic, if substance-related problems are suspected as an obstacle for job placement. The present study aims at characterizing these clients with respect to educational qualifications, vocational training, diagnosed addictive disorders, and other mental disorders. Of special interest is the temporal sequence of unemployment and addictive disorders. Officials referred clients to medical examination if substance abuse was suspected. The examination was based on Europ-ASI, diagnosis of mental disorders based on SCID-I and SCID-II. In 87 out of the first 100 examined persons, an addictive disorder was diagnosed, most frequently alcohol-related disorders, and often multiple addictive disorders. These 87 clients were on average 40 years old (SD 8.5), and mostly male (73 out of 87 clients). About one-third had very low school qualification, and 55.2% had not completed vocational training. An additional psychiatric diagnosis was made in 51.7%. Addictive disorders had commenced during adolescence or early adulthood in most cases. The longest duration of continuous employment was 3 years (median). In only a few cases (7.4%), the current period of unemployment had started before regular substance use. Many long-term unemployed clients examined here showed deficits in schooling and vocational training, early onset of regular substance use, and additional mental disorders. In most cases, the addictive disorder did not emerge as a consequence of unemployment, but had existed before. Programs combining the efforts of unemployment benefit offices and the healthcare system are needed for these clients to help them gain access to the regular job market. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. How Changes in Unemployment Benefit Duration Affect the Inflow Into Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.; Tuit, S.

    2010-01-01

    We study how changes in the maximum benefit duration affec the inow into unemployment in the Netherlands. Until August 2003, workers who became un- employed after age 57.5 were entitled to unemployment benefits until the age of 65, after which they would receive old age pensions. This characteristic

  13. Policy on professional support in return-to-work: Occupational health professionals' experiences in a Canadian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiwald, Karin; Meershoek, Agnes; de Rijk, Angelique; Nijhuis, Frans J N

    2015-01-01

    In Canada and other countries, sickness-based absences among workers is an economic and sociological problem. Return-to-work (RTW) policy developed by both employer and worker' representatives (that is, bipartite policy) is preferred to tackle this problem. The intent was to examine how this bipartite agreed-upon RTW policy works from the perspective of occupational health professionals (those who deliver RTW services to workers with temporary or permanent disabilities) in a public healthcare organization in Canada. In-depth interviews were held with 9 occupational health professionals and transcribed verbatim. A qualitative, social constructivist, analysis was completed. The occupational health professionals experienced four main problems: 1) timing and content of physicians' medical advice cannot be trusted as a basis for RTW plans; 2) legal status of the plans and thus needing workers' consent and managers' approval can create tension, conflict and delays; 3) limited input and thus little fruitful inference in transdisciplinary meetings at the workplace; and yet 4) the professionals can be called to account for plans. Bipartite representation in developing RTW policy does not entirely delete bottlenecks in executing the policy. Occupational health professionals should be offered more influence and their professionalism needs to be enhanced.

  14. Unemployment, drugs and attitudes among European youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N

    2018-01-01

    This paper studies changes in the patterns of drug consumption and attitudes towards drugs in relation to sky-high (youth) unemployment rates brought about by the Great Recession. Our analysis is based on data for 28 European countries that refer to young people. We find that the consumption of cannabis and 'new substances' is positively related to increasing unemployment rates. An increase of 1% in the regional unemployment rate is associated with an increase of 0.7 percentage points in the ratio of young people who state that they have consumed cannabis at some point in time. Our findings also indicate that higher unemployment may be associated with more young people perceiving that access to drugs has become more difficult, particularly access to ecstasy, cocaine and heroin. According to young Europeans, when the economy worsens, anti-drug policies should focus on the reduction of poverty and unemployment, and not on implementing tougher measures against users. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gold Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Robert J. Barro; Sanjay P. Misra

    2013-01-01

    From 1836 to 2011, the average real rate of price change for gold in the United States is 1.1% per year and the standard deviation is 13.1%, implying a one-standard-deviation confidence band for the mean of (0.1%, 2.1%). The covariances of gold's real rate of price change with consumption and GDP growth rates are small and statistically insignificantly different from zero. These negligible covariances suggest that gold's expected real rate of return--which includes an unobserved dividend yiel...

  16. Returning home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Jytte; Brøgger, Ditte

    2016-01-01

    flows. By focusing on these educational migrants, this paper explores how they connect to their rural homes. Guided by a critical reading of the migration-development scholarship, the paper examines how migrants and their relatives make sense of educational migrants’ remitting and returning practices......, and by comparing three groups of educational migrants, the migrants’ reasons for staying connected and sending remittances are scrutinized. The paper finds that although educational migrants do not generate extensive economic remittances for local development in Nepal, they stay connected to their rural homes...

  17. La experiencia comparada en materia de "clasificación" de desempleados y destinatarios de programas de transferencias de ingresos condicionadas A comparative experience on classification of unemployed people and receptors of conditional income transfer programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Arcidiácono

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos años se han ensayado, en los países centrales y en algunos países de América Latina, ciertas estrategias frente al desempleo que se basan en el uso de metodologías clasificatorias que divide a grupos poblacionales según sus condiciones de "empleabilidad" y de la relación que establezcan con el mercado laboral. Entre ellas se encuentra, el Worker Profiling and Reemployment Services System que encuentra su fundamento en la necesidad de reducir la dependencia de los individuos en relación con la asistencia que les provee el seguro de desempleo. Por otra parte, en algunos países de América Latina se han implementado una serie de programas de transferencia de ingresos condicionados que se encuentran desvinculados de las políticas activas de empleo. Así, en Argentina se ha hecho uso de clasificaciones "empleables" o "inempleables y vulnerables" para agrupar a los receptores del Plan Jefas y Jefes de Hogar Desocupados. El artículo analiza ambos tipos de metodologías "clasificatorias" prestando particular atención a la filosofía que sustenta estas estrategias, las consecuencias que conlleva adscribir a los sujetos condiciones diferenciales de "empleabilidad", estableciendo referencias comparativas entre ambos casos elegidos. Para esto, se efectúa una revisión de la literatura (investigaciones autóctonas e internacionales y de la información oficial sobre las distintas estrategias frente al desempleo. Finalmente, el artículo reflexiona en torno a los límites y alcances que tienen estas medidas puestas en marcha y la importancia de replantear aspectos centrales de las mismas. Más allá de la variedad de matices o la intensidad bajo la cual se implementen en los países, se reflexiona en torno al riesgo de marcar las trayectorias laborales de modo irreversible.In the last years, certain strategies to overcome the unemployment have been implemented in developed countries and in some countries of Latin America, based on

  18. Trajectories of Cigarette Smoking From Adolescence to Adulthood as Predictors of Unemployment Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenshu; Burke, Lindsay; Brook, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: This longitudinal study examined the association between trajectories of cigarette smoking and unemployment across a 29-year time period from mean age 14 to mean age 43. Methods: Participants came from a community-based random sample of residents in 2 upstate New York counties. Data were collected at 7 timepoints. Results: Using growth mixture modeling, 5 trajectory groups of cigarette smokers were identified. The trajectory groups were as follows: heavy/continuous smokers, occasional smokers, late-starting smokers, quitters/decreasers, and nonsmokers. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to study the relationship between the participant’s trajectory group membership and unemployment in the fifth decade of life. The association was determined with controls for age, gender, current cigarette use, current alcohol use, current marijuana use, physical diseases, occupation, educational level, past unemployment experience, socioeconomic status measures of family of origin, depressive mood, and self-control from adolescence through the early 40s. The findings indicate that patterns of adolescent and young adult cigarette smoking have implications for later unemployment. Overall, the results showed that people who fell into the categories of heavy/continuous smokers (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.84) and occasional smokers (AOR = 4.03) were more likely to be unemployed at mean age 43 when compared with nonsmokers. There was no significant difference between the quitters/decreasers and the nonsmokers with respect to unemployment. Conclusions: Intervention programs designed to deal with unemployment should consider focusing on heavy/continuous and occasional cigarette smokers as risk factors for unemployment. PMID:24997307

  19. Risk and Returns to Education. NBER Working Paper No. 18300

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey; Fang, Chichun; Gomes, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the returns to education in a life-cycle framework that incorporates risk preferences, earnings volatility (including unemployment), and a progressive income tax and social insurance system. We show that such a framework significantly reduces the measured gains from education relative to simple present-value calculations, although the…

  20. Interventions to enhance return-to-work for cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Angela G. E. M.; Taskila, Tyna K.; Tamminga, Sietske J.; Feuerstein, Michael; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Verbeek, Jos H.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer patients are 1.4 times more likely to be unemployed than healthy people. Therefore it is important to provide cancer patients with programmes to support the return-to-work (RTW) process. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011. To evaluate the effectiveness of

  1. Great expectations: Past wages and unemployment durations☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böheim, Renè; Horvath, Gerard Thomas; Winter-Ebmer, Rudolf

    2011-01-01

    Decomposing wages into worker and firm wage components, we find that firm-fixed components are sizeable parts of workers' wages. If workers can only imperfectly observe the extent of firm-fixed components in their wages, they might be misled about the overall wage distribution. Such misperceptions may lead to unjustified high reservation wages, resulting in overly long unemployment durations. We examine the influence of previous wages on unemployment durations for workers after exogenous lay-offs and, using Austrian administrative data, we find that younger workers are, in fact, unemployed longer if they profited from high firm-fixed components in the past. We interpret our findings as evidence for overconfidence generated by imperfectly observed productivity. PMID:22211003

  2. Work-related limitations and return-to-work experiences in prolonged fatigue: workers' perspectives before and after vocational treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosen, Margot C. W.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2011-01-01

    To gain insight into fatigued workers' perspectives regarding work experience before and after receiving vocational rehabilitation (VR) treatments. A qualitative survey was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 21 fatigued workers who attended an outpatient multi-component VR treatment.

  3. Returning to the Richness of Experience: Is Autoethnography a Useful Approach for Outdoor Educators in Promoting Pro-Environmental Behaviour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Robbie

    2013-01-01

    The use of autoethnography in social science research is becoming increasingly popular. The potential this research approach might offer to the theory and practice of outdoor education has yet to be fully examined. In this paper, autoethnography is used to explore some personal accounts of my own outdoor experiences from which I derive distinctive…

  4. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  5. Unemployment and Mental Disorders - An Empirical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Esben; Eriksson, Tor Viking; Mortensen, Preben Bo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is also to analyze the importance of unemployment and other social factors as risk factors for impaired mental health. It departs from previous studies in that we make use of information about first admissions to a psychiatric hospital or ward as our measure of mental...... from the Psychiatric case register. Secondly, we estimate conditional logistic regression models for case-control data on first admissions to a psychiatric hospital. The explanatory variables in the empirical analysis include age, gender, education, marital status, income, wealth, and unemployment (and...

  6. The Effects of Benefits, Incentives, and Sanctions on Youth Unemployment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Jensen, Peter S.; Nielsen, Michael Svarer

    1999-01-01

    The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses the effe......The youth unemployment rate in Denmark has recently been declining dramatically, which is unique among the OECD countries. In 1996, a radical labour market reform was implemented, the Youth Unemployment Programme (YUP), directed towards unemployed, low-educated youth. This paper analyses...

  7. [Measurement of unemployment-related psychological stress: Validation of the Unemployment Stress (USS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág; Martos, Tamás

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays the theme of unemployment and the given answers of it are up to date questions in psychology. In spite of this fact, the psychological methods measuring this phenomenon are often missing. That is why the Unemployment Stress Scale (USS) is presented in this article. The aim of our study is to develop a scale called USS and test it's validity and reliability. There were 287 adult unemployed persons asked in this study. Besides the USS we used the Beck Depression Scale, the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT), the Sense of Coherence Scale (Hungarian version) and the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale. According to our results, USS has showed an excellent criterion and construct validity. A useful scale has been formed according to test-retest results. (Cronbach-alfa: 0.88 and 0.86 according to the samples). Moreover our scale has a strong correlation with the Spielberger Anxiety Scale (TRAIT) and the Beck Depression Scale. These chracteristics of the new scale proved that we fond a factor, independent from the self esteem and the sense of coherence, which represents the stress level in the situation of unemployment. This scale is a professional construction to measure stress contributed to unemployment. The USS can be a useful scale in clinical practice because after measuring with this scale we can protect the personality of the unemployed by representing the actual unemployment stress level. That is why professionals can help earlier in a crisis like this.

  8. The return of the Pholela experiment: medical history and primary health care in post-Apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Howard

    2014-10-01

    I examine why South Africa's pioneering Pholela model of primary health care, dating from the 1940s, held such appeal for the country's new policymakers after 1994, and why those policymakers have failed to make it the basis of an effective public health care system since then. In the 1940s, the innovative Pholela experiment had served as such a model, to be replicated gradually throughout the country until a new health care system in its image was finally in place. However, this vision was dashed by the hostility of the mainstream medical profession and, after 1948, even more so by the new apartheid government, causing the idea to wither and become no more than a vanishing memory. In the 1990s, the model resurfaced as part of the country's transition to democracy, eliciting great enthusiasm among a new generation of health policymakers. I conclude by looking at the fate to date of this second coming of the Pholela experiment.

  9. The Health Effects of US Unemployment Insurance Policy: Does Income from Unemployment Benefits Prevent Cardiovascular Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Glymour, Maria; Avendano, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies suggest that unemployment predicts increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but whether unemployment insurance programs mitigate this risk has not been assessed. Exploiting US state variations in unemployment insurance benefit programs, we tested the hypothesis that more generous benefits reduce CVD risk. Methods Cohort data came from 16,108 participants in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) aged 50–65 at baseline interviewed from 1992 to 2010. Data on first and recurrent CVD diagnosis assessed through biennial interviews were linked to the generosity of unemployment benefit programmes in each state and year. Using state fixed-effect models, we assessed whether state changes in the generosity of unemployment benefits predicted CVD risk. Results States with higher unemployment benefits had lower incidence of CVD, so that a 1% increase in benefits was associated with 18% lower odds of CVD (OR:0.82, 95%-CI:0.71–0.94). This association remained after introducing US census regional division fixed effects, but disappeared after introducing state fixed effects (OR:1.02, 95%-CI:0.79–1.31).This was consistent with the fact that unemployment was not associated with CVD risk in state-fixed effect models. Conclusion Although states with more generous unemployment benefits had lower CVD incidence, this appeared to be due to confounding by state-level characteristics. Possible explanations are the lack of short-term effects of unemployment on CVD risk. Future studies should assess whether benefits at earlier stages of the life-course influence long-term risk of CVD. PMID:25025281

  10. "From Snail Mode to Rocket Ship Mode": Adolescents and Young Adults' Experiences of Returning to Work and School After Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Eden R; Pieters, Huibrie C; Ganz, Patricia A; Landier, Wendy; Pavlish, Carol; Heilemann, MarySue V

    2017-12-01

    Resuming normal activities, such as work and school, is an important dimension of psychosocial recovery in cancer survivorship. Minimal data exist regarding adolescents or young adults' experiences of returning to school or work after cancer. The purpose of this study was to explore the processes of resuming work and school among adolescents and young adults after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). In-depth interviews were conducted with 18 adolescents and young adults, who were 15-29 years when they underwent HCT and 6-60 months post-transplant at study enrollment. Interview transcripts were systematically analyzed using Grounded Theory methodology. Participants described the context in which they attempted to return to work or school, specific challenges they faced, and strategies they developed in these environments. Feeling left behind from their peers and their pre-diagnosis selves, participants described "rushing" back to school and work impulsively, taking on too much too quickly while facing overwhelming physical and cognitive demands. Factors motivating this sense of urgency as well as barriers to successful and sustainable reentry in these settings are also addressed. Findings are discussed in the context of important opportunities for clinical management, age-appropriate interventions, and implications for future research. A better understanding of psychosocial late effects, specifically related to school and work trajectories after cancer, is critical to survivorship care for adolescent and young adult cancer survivors.

  11. [A nurse's experience using the super-link system theory to help a T6 spinal cord injury patient return to school].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Yeh; Wu, Tzu-Jung; Sung, Shi-Hui; Chen, Hsiao-Yu

    2010-04-01

    The subject of this article is a 20 year-old female with thoracic spinal cord injury with paraplegia suffered during a car accident. The article reports on the nursing experience in helping the patient manage her autonomic dysreflexia (AD), training the patient in self-catheterization, and using relevant social resources in order to achieve a successful return to her studies at school. The authors collected data using interviews, observations, and physical assessments between November 20 and December 30, 2008. The two nursing diagnoses of AD and inadequate preparation for a successful return to school during rehabilitation hospitalization were made during caring procedures. Holistic nursing assessment was employed and the Super-Link System Theory was applied to establish a link between the hospital and school. Individual nursing interventions used included understanding the inducement and treatment of AD, performing self-catheterization, and enhancing the support system by introducing successful clients and relevant social resources in order to transition the patient successfully to her new post-injury life. The patient consequently transitioned smoothly from rehabilitation hospital to school. The authors hope this case report will provide a useful reference for nurses charged with caring for patients with spinal cord injuries while still enrolled at school.

  12. Economic growth, sectoral structure and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment.

  13. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has be...... are categorised as having problems besides unemployment (Caswell et al., 2011)....

  14. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...

  15. A Forecast Model for Unemployment by Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranæs, Torben; Larsen, Anders Holm; Groes, Niels

    1994-01-01

    We present a dynamic forecast model for the labour market: demand for labour by education and the distribution of labour by education among industries are determined endogenously with overall demand by industry given exogenously. The model is derived from a simple behavioural equation based on a ...... for educational groups, where the initial forecast year is a change point for unemployment....

  16. Meeting and activating the newly unemployed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons

    -demanding activity. As intensive activation is usually accompanied by intensive search monitoring, it is important to disentangling the contribution of the costly activation programs from that of caseworker meetings. Using Danish data for the period 2010-13, the paper shows that requiring newly unemployed intensive...... activation, contrary to job search meetings, reduces employment and increases sickness benefit claims....

  17. Youth Unemployment Outline of a Psychosocial Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamm, Margrit

    2006-01-01

    This analysis of education policy constitutes an attempt to outline the problem of youth unemployment. Building on a recognition that structural change in the "society of labourers" has also affected the social entity "young people", it shows the problems inherent in our concept of linear transitions to working life and the…

  18. Explaining unemployment trends in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Dur (Robert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, a small macroeconomic model of the Dutch labour market is estimated. The model is used to detect the causes of the rise in unemployment since the early 70s. In contrast to existing empirical work, we treat labour supply as an endogenous variable. This adjustment appears to

  19. Violence, Grants, Poverty, Inequality, Unemployment and Hope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Notwithstanding the impressive achievements recorded in poverty reduction, extraordinarily high levels of violent rebellion and strikes are encountered, unexpected after 20 years of democratic transition. This paper locates the drivers of this socio-political instability in poverty, inequality and unemployment: the consequence ...

  20. Unemployment, Entrepreneurial Education and Mega Universities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Individuals acquire education for two broad fundamental reasons, as an investment and as consumption. The investment function of education has continued to create tension for job search leading to cases of unemployment. Entrepreneurship education and establishment of mega universities have being identified as ...

  1. Some Further Evidence on the Rate of Return to Schooling and the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Randall H.

    1980-01-01

    The business cycle has a strong impact on calculated rates of return to schooling. Cross-sectional rates of return are positively related to the unemployment rate in the year the cross-section is taken. The sensitivity of the relationship was not found to be substantially different among the races. (CT)

  2. A Case Study and Balance Sheet Approach to Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Describes positive and negative aspects of employment and unemployment in a balance sheet framework. Discusses the value of the balance sheet approach in understanding individual differences in reactions to unemployment. (Author/KS)

  3. Refugee youth, unemployment and extremism: countering the myth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Mikhael

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Refugee youth unemployment has been linked to increased risk of extremism and/or exploitation. Research indicates, however, that unemployment is just one of many factors triggering frustration among young refugees.

  4. ANALYSIS OF UNEMPLOYMENT CHALLENGES IN PALESTINE BETWEEN 2000 AND 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed SALAMA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the challenges of unemployment in Palestine between 2000 and 2015. The study aims to understand the trends and sources of unemployment in Palestine. Using the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS data, trend analysis was used to understand the trends of unemployment in both parts of Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip between 2000 and 2015. The Results showed that there is a downward trend in the unemployment rate in West Bank and an upward trend appears on the unemployment rate in Gaza Strip. The constraints during the second Intifada and the Siege on Gaza Strip are the main factors that affected on unemployment between 2000 and 2015. The economic growth difference in both parts of Palestine (West Bank and Gaza Strip can be one of the reasons that affecting on unemployment besides the other reasons. Some solutions are introduced for unemployment challenge in Palestine beside the solution of lack of independence issue.

  5. UNEMPLOYMENT TRENDS DURING ECONOMY CRISIS 2014-2015 IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostikova E. K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article lists factors affecting the socio-economic situation and questions concerning unemployment in Russia are discussed specifically. The purpose is to identify weak points in the labor market. Visual support reflects the dynamics of unemployment in Russia during economy crisis. Unemployment trends by federal districts, the causes of regional unemployment imbalances are examined. The novelty of the author’s approach is to forecast the unemployment rate for future periods with expert assessments to determine the risk of deviation of unemployment from trend. Data were analyzed in terms of unemployment level in Europe and comparison with Russian indicators was conducted. Based on the research, causes of unemployment in Russia and ways of its decline were discovered. Appropriate conclusions were made.

  6. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    OpenAIRE

    Cerveny, J.; Ours, J.C. van

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of ...

  7. Suicide and unemployment in Italy, 1982-1994

    OpenAIRE

    Preti, A.; Miotto, P.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether either the condition of being unemployed, or changes in unemployment rates are associated with suicide risk. DESIGN: Administrative data for suicide according to occupational status have been analysed considering three employment categories: employed, seeking new job (unemployed), seeking first job (never employed). Comparison of suicide rates by economic position and correlation between suicide and unemployment rates have been made. SUBJECTS AND SETTIN...

  8. Unemployment and Welfare State: What do the Data Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    DING, HONG

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the relationship between welfare expenditure by government and unemployment outcomes. Using a panel of 34 OECD countries from 1980 to 2010 and a two-way fixed effect model for panel data subject to endogeneity test and persistence test, the results of the paper suggest that total welfare expenditure as a percentage of GDP has a statistically significant positive impact on unemployment outcomes (total unemployment, long-term unemployment and youth unemployme...

  9. Veteran Unemployment of Transitioning Marines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    military experience. C2 Marines have high AFQT scores and work with information systems; they may pursue, for example, computer science degrees in college...i.e., they made a rational decision based on lack of information). DOD actuarial officials use the low MGIB benefit use rate to maintain program...such as computer science , to make their military skills transferable, while others may not. Marines in services, repair/maintenance, operator, and

  10. Interpreting strain measurements when drilling anisotropic rocks: return of experience from using CSIRO cells in Tournemire argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ouanas, Abdelmonem

    2010-01-01

    In Geomechanics, determining the state of stress and the rheology of rock massif can be obtained by measuring the strain response of the ground under the effect of a known stress. A method among others is to use a cell integrated (with strain gauges oriented in different directions) installed in a borehole and secured to the mass through an epoxy glue. This measurement is used, notably, to determine the stress state in situ by the 'overcoring' method and the elastic parameters of the rock from the 'biaxial' test. Between November 2005 and January 2006, a geomechanical testing campaign was conducted in the argillaceous formation of the Tournemire experimental site (Aveyron, France) using CSIRO Hi cells. The strain measurements obtained during overcoring and biaxial tests have shown unusual phenomena, which have made difficult the determination of anisotropic elastic parameters of the rock and the access to the site stress. Therefore, through researches for explanations of the origin of these phenomena, this thesis aimed to improve and contribute to the understanding of the Tournemire argillite behaviour and to upgrade the measurement protocol as well as the interpretation of cells CSIRO's strain. The approach was, firstly, to issue a number of hypotheses to explain certain phenomena observed in literature. In a second step, these hypotheses were tested through analytical and numerical modelling of the biaxial and overcoring tests then through the realization of new experiments in situ within laboratory on argillite, and also on materials tests (cement, sample of glue). It is concluded that the unusual phenomena observed are essentially the result of the conditions for implementing in situ CSIRO's cell. The study particularly focused on the artefacts induced by the visco-plastic behaviour of the epoxy glue when it is incompletely polymerised. The role of damage on the rock generated by drilling operations is also discussed. Some practical recommendations for

  11. The Female-Male Differential in Unemployment Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Beth

    1974-01-01

    The male-female differential in unemployment is attributed to three major factors. They are frictional unemployment, cyclical layoff often connected with lack of specific training, and occupational and geographic immobility. Women receive less specific training then men; however, the net effect of this lack on female unemployment is quite small.…

  12. 253 Education and the Paradox of Graduate Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... basically four major types of unemployment; the cyclical, seasonal, frictional and structural. Cyclical unemployment is the type of joblessness that occurs as a result of lower rates of production, during recessions in business cycles resulting in massive layoffs of workers. Seasonal unemployment results from.

  13. 20 CFR 606.41 - High unemployment deferral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment deferral. 606.41 Section... UNDER THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.41 High unemployment deferral. (a) Applicability. Subsection (b)(3)(C) of section...

  14. 20 CFR 606.42 - High unemployment delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false High unemployment delay. 606.42 Section 606... THE FEDERAL UNEMPLOYMENT TAX ACT; ADVANCES UNDER TITLE XII OF THE SOCIAL SECURITY ACT Relief from Interest Payment § 606.42 High unemployment delay. (a) Applicability. Paragraph (9) of section 1202 (b) of...

  15. 45 CFR 302.65 - Withholding of unemployment compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Withholding of unemployment compensation. 302.65... HUMAN SERVICES STATE PLAN REQUIREMENTS § 302.65 Withholding of unemployment compensation. The State plan... State agency charged with the administration of the State unemployment compensation laws in accordance...

  16. 20 CFR 336.2 - Duration of normal unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of normal unemployment benefits. 336... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT DURATION OF NORMAL AND EXTENDED BENEFITS Normal Benefits § 336.2 Duration of normal unemployment benefits. (a) 130 compensable day limitation. A qualified employee who has satisfied the waiting...

  17. How Changes in Financial Incentives Affect the Duration of Unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lalive, R.; van Ours, J.C.; Zweimüller, J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies how changes in the two key parameters of unemployment insurance - the benefit replacement rate (RR) and the potential duration of benefits (PBD) - affect the duration of unemployment.In 1989, the Austrian government made unemployment insurance more generous by changing,

  18. 44 CFR 206.141 - Disaster unemployment assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disaster unemployment assistance. 206.141 Section 206.141 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... § 206.141 Disaster unemployment assistance. The authority to implement the disaster unemployment...

  19. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbring, J.H.; van den Berg, G.J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    In this article, we study U.S. unemployment dynamics using grouped unemployment data from the Current Population Survey over the period 1968-1992. We estimate a model that traces variation in these unemployment data, both over time and between demographic groups, back to the underlying variation in

  20. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates

  1. Unemployment of non-western immigrants in the Great Recession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007–February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western

  2. 45 CFR 233.101 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.101... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. Effective October 1, 1990 (for Puerto Rico, American... children of unemployed parents. A State plan under title IV-A for payment of such aid must: (1) Include a...

  3. 45 CFR 233.100 - Dependent children of unemployed parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dependent children of unemployed parents. 233.100... unemployed parents. (a) Requirements for State Plans. If a State wishes to provide AFDC for children of unemployed parents, the State plan under title IV-A of the Social Security Act must: (1) Include a definition...

  4. Social Support and Self-Esteem in Unemployed University Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackovic-Grgin, Katica; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined the relationships between length of unemployment time, self-esteem and general life satisfaction of university graduates (n=98). Also examined the function of social support during the period of unemployment. Results indicated length of unemployment, contrary to previous findings, was not related to self-esteem and general life…

  5. Unemployment Insurance Fund Insolvency and Debt in Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Saul J.

    Without changes in Michigan's unemployment insurance law, the state's unemployment insurance debt will probably reach $3.8 billion by the end of 1985. Currently, Michigan's employers pay unemployment insurance tax rates that vary from 1 to 9 percent, depending upon the amount of benefits charged against their accounts. Beginning with the federal…

  6. ASPECT UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEM IN RESOURCEEFFICIENT ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Sаmоkhvаlоv

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the question of resource efficiency and the problem of unemployment. Stressed the importance of efficient use of human resources for domestic companies and the country as a whole. The definition of unemployment, which is one of the greatest challenges of the market economy. The problem of unemployment is one of the most important today, particularly for the Russian labor market. Analyzed, compared, such as the types of unemployment: frictional, structural and cyclical. The problem of unemployment exacerbates a difficult financial position, pushing to seek work of housewives, pensioners and students. It reflects the main approaches for the consideration of unemployment. The correlation between unemployment and economic crisis. Companies that are in a crisis, trying to maneuver and keep your team. Practice the system of long administrative leave and the use of part-time employment, resulting in a hidden unemployment. The extent of its increase as the phase-out. The main methods of state regulation that reduce unemployment associated with the development of ways of retraining the unemployed, social support for the unemployed, assistance in the creation of additional jobs, and others. We consider the law "On employment in the Russian Federation" and the activities of labor exchanges, represented by their main position and functions designed to support and help in finding work. It analyzes the level of unemployment over the past five years. To date, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, unemployment in Russia is 5.3 %. The lowest unemployment is currently in Moscow – less than 1 %, the highest in Ingushetia – more than 40 %. Nevertheless, unemployment in our country for more than seven million people, and it is a huge untapped resource.

  7. Project Leamlng for the Unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Dobrovoljc

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the first officially valid program of informal education in Slovenia, Project Learning for Younger Adults (PUM. It has been designed for young people between 15 and 25 who have left school without having finished their vocational or professional trainings; they also Jack experience, so they have more difficulties looking for a job. This is the third year of the program taking place in the existing form. In the last three years it has fully justified its existence: young participants use to finish it successfully. The evaluation of the program in the study year 1999/2000 showed that the program serves its purpose since as much as 57.6 percent of participants have reached the fundamental goal of the program - being prepared for further education. For the population attending PUM this is an extraordinary success.

  8. Macroeconomic Variables and Unemployment: The Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylan Taner Doğan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the response of unemployment to selective macroeconomics shocks over period of 2000:Q1-2010:Q1. It is found that positive shocks to growth, growth in export and and inflation reduce unemployment. On the other hand, shocks to exchange rate, interbank interest rate and money supply increase unemployment. Our results are consistent with Phillips curve and Okun’s Law suggestion. Namely, negative relationship between output and unemployment and positive relationship between unemployment and inflation are found. Also, this study found consistent results with earlier literature.

  9. Is Longer Unemployment Rewarded with Longer Job Tenure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohara, Miki; Sasaki, Masaru; Machikita, Tomohiro

    security offices: one includes information about the circumstances of job seekers receiving unemployment insurance, and the other includes information about job seekers applying for jobs. We first show a negative relationship between unemployment duration and the subsequent job duration. Restricting...... the sample to job seekers who changed search behaviors in the final 59 days before expiration of unemployment insurance, we secondly show an even greater negative effect of unemployment duration on the following job duration. The importance lies not only in the duration of unemployment. If job seekers keep...

  10. 20 CFR 325.2 - Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Procedure for registering for unemployment... UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE ACT REGISTRATION FOR RAILROAD UNEMPLOYMENT BENEFITS § 325.2 Procedure for registering for unemployment benefits. (a) Registering as unemployed. To claim unemployment benefits for any day...

  11. 20 CFR 625.5 - Unemployment caused by a major disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unemployment caused by a major disaster. 625... DISASTER UNEMPLOYMENT ASSISTANCE § 625.5 Unemployment caused by a major disaster. (a) Unemployed worker. The unemployment of an unemployed worker is caused by a major disaster if— (1) The individual has a...

  12. Unemployment and long-run economic growth: The role of income inequality and urbanisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castells-Quintana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most dramatic aspects of the current economic crisis are with no doubt the experience of high and persistent rates of unemployment and the accelerated pace at which inequalities increase. But high and persistent levels of unemployment and increasing inequality are more than a consequence of scarcer opportunities related to the crisis; they can also be negative determinants for subsequent long-run economic growth. In this work, we consider unemployment and income inequality, and interactions between both, as possible determinants of longrun growth by using cross-sectional international data. Our results suggest that: 1 while initial high unemployment rates do not seem to be statistically significant to explain long-run growth, they do have a negative and significant effect when interacting with increases in inequality. 2 When we differentiate based on levels of urbanization, increasing inequality harms growth in countries with high levels of urbanization, as well as in countries with low levels of urbanization in which there is high and persistent unemployment.

  13. Impact of Macroeconomic Policies on Poverty and Unemployment Rates in Nigeria, Implications for Attaining Inclusive Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Nwosa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the effect of macroeconomic policies on unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria from 1980 to 2013 with implication to achieving inclusive growth. The inability of macroeconomic policies in addressing the rising issues unemployment and poverty rates in Nigeria despite the impressive economic growth experience over the last decades has increasingly called for the need for the pursuance of inclusive growth to address the social issues of unemployment and poverty rate. Previous studies have not considered the extent to which macroeconomic policies affects unemployment and poverty rate in Nigeria, and the implication of this relationship to the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The study adopts the Ordinary Least Square (OLS technique. The study observed that among macroeconomic policy variables only exchange rate significantly influenced unemployment rate while only fiscal policy significantly influenced and poverty rate. This implies that present macroeconomic policies in Nigeria do not guarantee the attainment of inclusive growth in Nigeria. The contribution of the paper is that to achieve inclusive growth that guarantees high employment and reduced poverty rate, there is the need for a re-examination of macroeconomic policy management in Nigeria.

  14. [The general practitioner and the unemployed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruud, J

    1992-02-20

    Unemployment has increased in Norway during the last years. In order to study the impact of unemployment on primary health care in Hedmark county, a questionnaire was sent to 132 general practitioners. 70% replied. Some of the questions dealt with the doctors' requests for social security benefits for patients whose problems were related to loss of job. During one week 30% of the doctors had written this kind of sickness certificate. Further, during one month, 35% had recommended rehabilitation or disability pension. During the last year, 26% of the doctors had received requests activity proposing sickness certification for some of their employees from companies that were forced to reduce activity. The author discusses these results, and outlines the possible consequences for patient, doctor and the social security system.

  15. Unemployment and mortality: evidence from the PSID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Timothy J

    2014-07-01

    We use micro-data to investigate the relationship between unemployment and mortality in the United States using Logistic regression on a sample of over 16,000 individuals. We consider baselines from 1984 to 1993 and investigate mortality up to ten years from the baseline. We show that poor local labor market conditions are associated with higher mortality risk for working-aged men and, specifically, that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate increases their probability of dying within one year of baseline by 6%. There is little to no such relationship for people with weaker labor force attachments such as women or the elderly. Our results contribute to a growing body of work that suggests that poor economic conditions pose health risks and illustrate an important contrast with studies based on aggregate data. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Croatian Government and Programmes Regarding the Return of War Migrants: between Plans and Realisations – the Experience of The Brod-Posavina County

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragutin Babić

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the Croatian government’s programme documents regarding the return and caring for of war migrants. Its aim is to analyse and explain documents, formulated on the national level, as well as those on various local levels in the Brod-Posavina county, and to evaluate their implementation. Return flows began in 1992, after war operations settled down in Croatia. The first returnees were persons whose settlements had not been occupied and who could move into their dwellings straightforwardly. The return of war migrants, as a state strategy, came to the forefront after conclusion of the war in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina and after the signing of the agreement on peaceful reintegration of the Croatian Danubian lands into the Republic of Croatia’s state and legislative system. Croatia recognises the right of all war migrants to return to their homes. Return of dispersed persons and refugees involves various aspects, ranging from state-security problems to pension, economic, social and psychological aspects. The question of return, apart from issues pertaining to the renewal of material structures, includes also the (reconstruction of local communities, which will probably be the most difficult problem to resolve during the process of return. The chances of co-existence of various war migrant groups, especially Croats and Serbs, remain the most important and also the most difficult problem arising in this context. Documents dealing with return are numerous, yet they have been, for the most part, formulated on the national level; much more rarely on the level of local units and return destinations, which is also the main difficulty in regard to the institutional regulation of return flows. Local units mostly act only as intermediaries between international organisations that finance return and individual returnees receiving financial aid or credit. The return of war migrants is mainly financed out of the Republic of Croatia

  17. State Dependence in Unemployment among Danish Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the extent state dependence among unemployed Danish immigrants in a dynamic discrete choice framework. Three alternative methodologies are employed to control for the problem of the initial condition. The empirical findings show that there is a considerable correlation between...... compared to an individual who was employed at period “t-1”. This average partial effect is the same for western compared to non-western immigrants and women compared to men....

  18. PRE-ELECTIONAL DECREASE OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT RATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjan Miličević

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Opportunistic business cycle models test whether the current government has the ability to reduce unemployment in pre-election period. First opportunistic business cycle models tested regressions using unemployment rate as the dependent variable, and for explanatory variables used unemployment rate in the previous two periods and political dummy variable defined as unity several quarters prior to election and zero elsewhere. Such models did not find evidence of opportunistic cycle for unemployment. Haynes and Stone in their model estimated regressions using unemployment as the dependent variable and sixteen dummy variables as explanatory variables (one for each quarter in the Presidential electoral term. Results showed that unemployment has roughly sinusoidal sixteen quarter cycle, where unemployment troughs on average the quarter of the election. Mentioned models are tested with data for the United States for the period from 1948 to 2011 where regressions results coincide with models mentioned in the article.

  19. Transmission and compression of an intense relativistic electron beam produced by a converging annular diode with return current feedback through the cathode. Pt. 2. The experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.G.; Schuch, R.L.

    1976-02-01

    The complete results of the experiments with the converging annular diode within return current fedback through the cathode (Triax) are reported herein. The diode was designed to focus a relativistic high-current electron beam to a small focus. It did confirm the Triaxial theory detailed in Part I, and it did achieve a factor of 10 areal compression with 50% efficiency (which was below expectations). There were two principal reasons for this shortfall. First, the rapid diode plasma motion of 10 cm/μsec that was discovered necessitated the use of larger A-K gaps than expected and led to thicker beam sheets than are needed for good focusing. Second, the intrinsic angular spread of the electrons, even from the best cathode surfaces, introduced excessive angular momentum into the beam so that only a minor portion of the electrons could reach the axis. However, the yield of useful information about diode physics in general and about the influence of prepulse, the role of diode plasmas, the motion of energetic beams within conducting boundaries, diode emission properties, and diode diagnostic techniques in particle has had a significant and useful impact on the electron beam program at Sandia

  20. The Emotional Toll of Long-Term Unemployment: Examining the Interaction Effects of Gender and Marital Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Basbug

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that long-term unemployment (LTU generates a negative emotional toll but leaves unexplored how such toll varies by gender and marital status. Using a mixed-methods approach we examine how the negative emotional toll of LTU is shaped by the interaction of gender and marital status. Our qualitative findings suggest that more unemployed married men than women experience marital tensions that exacerbate the emotional toll of unemployment. Our analysis of survey data show that while marriages improve the well-being of both unemployed men and women, for married men but not women such benefits disappear once we control for household income. These findings contribute to the existing literature by deepening our understanding of how gender and marital status mediate the emotional toll of LTU.

  1. "Dis-able bodied" or "dis-able minded": stakeholders' return-to-work experiences compared between physical and mental health conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossen, Emmie; Van Gestel, Nicolette; Van der Heijden, Beatrice I J M; Rouwette, Etiënne A J A

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore if and why the return-to-work (RTW) experiences of various workplace stakeholders in the Netherlands and Denmark differ between physical and mental health conditions, and to understand the consequences of potentially different experiences for the RTW process in both health conditions. We studied 21 cases of long-term sickness absence, and held a total of 61 semi-structured interviews with the various actors involved in these cases. Physical cases were seen as "easy" and mental cases as "difficult" to manage, based on the visibility and predictability of health complaints. On this ground, assessing work ability and following required RTW actions were perceived as more urgent in mental than in physical cases. Despite these perceptions, in practice, the assessment of work ability seemed to impair the RTW process in mental cases (but not in physical ones), and the (non-)uptake of RTW actions appeared to have similar results in both mental and physical cases. With these outcomes, the effectiveness of a differential approach is questioned, and the relevance of a bidirectional dialog on work ability and a phased RTW plan is highlighted, regardless of the absence cause. Our study also demonstrates how policymakers need to strike a balance between obligatory and permissive legislation to better involve workplaces in RTW issues. Implications for rehabilitation Both physically and mentally sick-listed employees could benefit from a bidirectional dialog on work ability as well as from a phased RTW plan. A greater role for employers in the RTW process should be accompanied with a support for sick-listed employees, in both physical and mental sickness absence cases. Dutch and Danish RTW legislation could be improved by carefully balancing obligatory and permissive rules and regulations to involve workplaces in RTW matters.

  2. How do line managers experience and handle the return to work of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress? A one-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladegaard, Yun; Skakon, Janne; Elrond, Andreas Friis; Netterstrøm, Bo

    2017-08-28

    To examine how line managers experience and manage the return to work process of employees on sick leave due to work-related stress and to identify supportive and inhibiting factors. Semi-structured interviews with 15 line managers who have had employees on sick leave due to work-related stress. The grounded theory approach was employed. Even though managers may accept the overall concept of work-related stress, they focus on personality and individual circumstances when an employee is sick-listed due to work-related stress. The lack of a common understanding of stress creates room for this focus. Line managers experience cross-pressure, discrepancies between strategic and human-relationship perspectives and a lack of organizational support in the return to work process. Organizations should aim to provide support for line managers. Research-based knowledge and guidelines on work-related stress and return to work process are essential, as is the involvement of coworkers. A commonly accepted definition of stress and a systematic risk assessment is also important. Cross-pressure on line managers should be minimized and room for adequate preventive actions should be provided as such an approach could support both the return to work process and the implementation of important interventions in the work environment. Implication for rehabilitation Organizations should aim to provide support for line managers handling the return to work process. Cross-pressure on line managers should be minimized and adequate preventive actions should be provided in relation to the return to work process. Research-based knowledge and guidelines on work-related stress and return to work are essential. A common and formal definition of stress should be emphasized in the workplace.

  3. Do high levels of unemployment influence the health of those who are not unemployed? A gendered comparison of young men and women during boom and recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novo, M; Hammarström, A; Janlert, U

    2001-08-01

    Research has shown that health among young people, particularly women, deteriorates during a recession compared to a boom. It seems that the trade cycle mainly affects the health of those who are not long-term unemployed. The aim of this study was to analyse the relation between the health of non-unemployed people and the levels of unemployment in society. Two groups of young people aged 21 were surveyed, one in 1986 (the boom group, n = 1083) and one in 1994 (the recession group, n = 898). The non-response rate was 2% in the first and 10% in the second group. Both groups were investigated with a self-administered questionnaire, which included questions about somatic and psychological health, as well as experiences of employment, unemployment, education and labour market programmes. Young men and women generally reported more somatic and psychological symptoms during recession than boom. The only exception was psychological symptoms among men, which was of the same magnitude during both periods. Poorer health during recession was found among women in work and in labour market programmes, as well as among both male and female students. Multiple regression analysis was performed in order to analyse if the occupational-related health effects of the trade cycle remained after controlling for possible moderating factors. The effects of unemployment in society on young people's health may be mediated through pessimism about the future, high demands and financial problems. Lack of control over the work situation may also be an important contributing factor to ill health among women during recession. The trade cycle was correlated with ill health among women only. Possible explanations for poorer health among women during a recession were discussed.

  4. Unemployment, Growth and the Organisation of Work

    OpenAIRE

    Henri L.F. de Groot; Anton B.T.M. van Schaik

    2002-01-01

    We develop a two-sector endogenous growth model with a dual labour market resulting from the presence of an effort extraction function in one sector. Effort of workers can be influenced by pay and monitoring. This results in an endogenous non-competitive wage differential between sectors and a monitoring intensity that is a source of fixed costs for the firm. Growth is driven by investments in R&D performed in the high-wage sector. Unemployment is determined by the costs and benefits of waiti...

  5. Environmental policy, pollution, unemployment and endogenous growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lars Haagen; Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1995-01-01

    The paper develops a model of endogenous economic growth with pollution externalities and a labor market distorted by union monopoly power and by taxes and transfers. We study the optimal second-best pollution tax and abatement policy and find that a shift toward greener preferences will tend...... to reduce unemployment, although it will hamper growth. We also find that greater labor-market distortions call for higher pollution tax rates. Finally, we show that a switch from quantity control of pollution combined with grandfathering of pollution rights to regulation via emission charges has...

  6. Illegal aliens, unemployment and immigration policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djajic, S

    1987-02-01

    "This paper develops a simple two-country model of illegal immigration in an attempt to examine the interaction among variables such as the stock of migrant labor, the unemployment rates of the two economies, and the rate of spending by the host country on the enforcement of its immigration restrictions. The focus of the analysis is on the dynamics of immigration policy and on its role in determining the nature of the mechanism by which disturbances to the labor market of one country are transmitted to that of the other in the short run and in the long run." excerpt

  7. Competing Risks Copula Models for Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Simon M. S.; Stephan, Gesine; Wilke, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    The copula graphic estimator (CGE) for competing risks models has received little attention in empirical research, despite having been developed into a comprehensive research method. In this paper, we bridge the gap between theoretical developments and applied research by considering a general...... class of competing risks copula models, which nests popular models such as the Cox proportional hazards model, the semiparametric multivariate mixed proportional hazards model (MMPHM), and the CGE as special cases. Analyzing the effects of a German Hartz reform on unemployment duration, we illustrate...

  8. NEW ISSUES STATUTORY UNEMPLOYMENT INSURANCE SYSTEM AND STIMULATE EMPLOYMENT (FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF THE LABOUR LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vidat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available It is inconceivable By O.U.G. no. 60/2016 were brought new changes and additions to Law no. 76/2002 on the unemployment insurance system and stimulation of employment due to: labor shortages in certain regions claimed by business representatives; European climate of uncertainty marked by the possible exit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in the European Union, and the high probability of returning to Romania for workers who have exercised their right to free movement within the European Union; avoidance of loss absorption external grants for this year.

  9. Selection into Labor Force and Gender Unemployment Gaps

    OpenAIRE

    Alena Bicakova

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets the groundwork for analysis of the effect of selection into labor force on gender unemployment gaps. We derive the Manski bounds for gender unemployment gaps in 21 EU countries and show that in addition to the positive selection documented in the gender wage gap research, there is also evidence of negative selection into the labor force among women after childbirth. While positive selection of women into the labor force leads to downward bias in gender unemployment gaps, negat...

  10. COMPONENTS OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT ANALYSIS IN CONTEMPORARY ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Enea-SMARANDACHE

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The unemployment is a permanent phenomenon in majority countries of the world, either with advanced economies, either in course of developed economies, and the implications and the consequences are more complexes, so that, practically, the fight with unemployment becomes a fundamental objective for the economy politics. In context, the authors proposed to set apart essentially components for unemployment analyse with the scope of identification the measures and the instruments of counteracted.

  11. Job search monitoring and assistance for the unemployed

    OpenAIRE

    Marinescu, Ioana E.

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, reducing unemployment is among the most important policy goals. In this context, monitoring job search by the unemployed and providing job search assistance can play a crucial role. However, more and more stringent monitoring and sanctions are not a panacea. Policymakers must consider possible downsides, such as unemployed people accepting less stable and lower-paying jobs. Tying “moderate” monitoring to job search assistance may be the essential ingredient to make this app...

  12. The Effects of Unemployment on the Earnings of Young Australians

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Gray

    2000-01-01

    The high rates of youth unemployment experienced in a number of OECD economies has raised concerns about the effect of this on subsequent earnings. Using the Australian Youth Survey (AYS) a longitudinal survey of Australian youth, we estimate the effects of unemployment on subsequent hourly and weekly earnings. The estimates suggest that, when unobserved heterogeneity is taken into account, it is only long histories of unemployment which have a negative effect on hourly wages. On the other ha...

  13. The Thick Market Effect on Local Unemployment Rate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gan; Qinghua Zhang

    2005-01-01

    This paper studies how the thick market effect influences local unemployment rate fluctuations. The paper presents a model to demonstrate that the average matching quality improves as the number of workers and firms increases. Unemployed workers accumulate in a city until the local labor market reaches a critical minimum size, which leads to cyclical fluctuations in the local unemployment rates. Since larger cities attain the critical market size more frequently, they have shorter unemploymen...

  14. Rural-Urban Migration and Unemployment: Theory and Policy Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Zenou, Yves

    2010-01-01

    We develop a regional model where, in the city, unemployment prevails because of too high (efficiency) wages, while, in the rural area, workers are paid at their marginal productivity. We characterize the steady-state equilibrium and show that it is unique. We then consider two policies: decreasing urban unemployment benefits and subsidizing urban employment. We find that decreasing the unemployment benefit in the city creates urban jobs and reduces rural-urban migration since new migrants ha...

  15. Does an increase in unemployment income lead to longer unemployment spells?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toomet, Ott-Siim

    2005-01-01

    Danish unemployment assistance depends on age; it increases by 70% when unemployedindividuals turn 25. This feature is used to identify the impact of income on theunemployment-to-employment hazard rate. A mixed proportional hazard frameworkbased on a 10% representative Danish registry data set is...

  16. Financial Development and Unemployment in Emerging Market Economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayar Yilmaz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Financial sector has experienced significant expansion together with accelerating financial globalization in recent years and had important positive and negative economic implications for all the economies. This study investigates the interaction among unemployment, financial development and domestic investment in 16 emerging market economies during 2001-2014 period using panel data analysis. We found that there was long relationship among the variables and domestic investment had negative impact on the unemployment, while financial development had no significant impact on the unemployment. Furthermore, there was unidirectional causality from development of financial sector to unemployment.

  17. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profiling techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment service and random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  18. Coping with unemployment: does educational attainment make any difference?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Kriegbaum, Margit

    2006-01-01

    AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional association between educational attainment and coping strategies with unemployment in a random sample of 37- to 56-year-old Danish men and women in long-term unemployment. METHODS: Data were based on a survey among 575 men and 1......,064 women who had been unemployed at least 70% of the time during a three-year period (October 1996 to October 1999). The outcome measures were two scales for coping with unemployment, one for problem-solving coping, and one for avoidant coping. Educational attainment was measured by years of vocational...

  19. Risk for unemployment of cancer survivors: A Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Kathrine; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Diderichsen, Finn

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cancer survivors are at an increased risk for unemployment after cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cohort of 65,510 patients who were part of the workforce in the year before diagnosis and a random sample of 316,925 age and gender-matched controls were followed for up...... that the risk for unemployment was highest amongst persons aged 50-60 years at time of diagnosis. Risk factors for unemployment were found to be manual work, medium income and vocational education. CONCLUSION: Generally, cancer patients were at a small increased risk for unemployment and low socioeconomic...

  20. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce equilibrium unemployment targeted hiring subsidies and profilin techniques for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To analyze the effects of these two instruments, our model combines two search methods: the public employment serviceand random search, jobseekers choose between...... an active and a passive search strategy, while labour market policy has two options available. First, only the long-term unemployed placed by the public employment service are subsidized. Second, the subsidy is paid for each match with a long-term unemployed irrespective of the search method used. We show...

  1. Pathways between under/unemployment and health among racialized immigrant women in Toronto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premji, Stephanie; Shakya, Yogendra

    2017-02-01

    We sought to document pathways between under/unemployment and health among racialized immigrant women in Toronto while exploring the ways in which gender, class, migration and racialization, as interlocking systems of social relations, structure these relationships. We conducted 30 interviews with racialized immigrant women who were struggling to get stable employment that matched their education and/or experience. Participants were recruited through flyers, partner agencies and peer researcher networks. Most interviews (21) were conducted in a language other than English. Interviews were transcribed, translated as appropriate and analyzed using NVivo software. The project followed a community-based participatory action research model. Under/unemployment negatively impacted the physical and mental health of participants and their families. It did so directly, for example through social isolation, as well as indirectly through representation in poor quality jobs. Under/unemployment additionally led to the intensification of job search strategies and of the household/caregiving workload which also negatively impacted health. Health problems, in turn, contributed to pushing participants into long-term substandard employment trajectories. Participants' experiences were heavily structured by their social location as low income racialized immigrant women. Our study provides needed qualitative evidence on the gendered and racialized dimensions of under/unemployment, and adverse health impacts resulting from this. Drawing on intersectional analysis, we unpack the role that social location plays in creating highly uneven patterns of under/unemployment and negative health pathways for racialized immigrant women. We discuss equity informed strategies to help racialized immigrant women overcome barriers to stable work that match their education and/or experience.

  2. Unemployment as a source of mental distress to individuals and their family: Unemployed parents' perceptions during the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasquilho, Diana; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar; Santos, Teresa; Gaspar, Tânia; Caldas de Almeida, J M

    2016-08-01

    Due to the economic recession, several people in Europe became unemployed. This situation may risk their mental health. This study explored parents' perceptions about their unemployment's effects in daily life during the recession. A total of 59 unemployed parents (40.7% fathers and 59.3% mothers), ageing 44.4 years (±6.2), answer a question on how the unemployment affected their family lives. Thematic analysis was used to analyse data. The findings suggest that unemployment is a source of adult and youth mental distress and of economic hardship and changes in family relations. Support to unemployed individuals and their families could benefit from these insights when granting the needed financial and socioemotional assistance. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Structural analysis of unemployment in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. F. Ibragimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research aim. The article analyzes the state of unemployment in theRussian Federation. Modern macroeconomic conditions and the state of the labor market necessitate identifying population groups, constituting unemployment risks. Both representatives of different schools of economic thought and modern Russian scholars devoted their work to studying unemployment problems and the need for government regulation of employment and unemployment. However, a more accurate characteristic of the level and state of unemployment requires a more thorough analysis.Materials and methods. In order to present the general picture of unemployment in theRussian Federation, structural analysis of the phenomenon is used with the help of corresponding indexes, which, in our opinion, make it possible to evaluate the level and state of unemployment in detail. Indexes of absolute structure changes, degree of absolute shift intensity were used for analysis, the level of concentration was determined etc.Results. The calculations revealed the most vulnerable groups in the structure of the unemployed, showing the necessity of searching for and applying new forms and tools of government policy for reducing the level of unemployment. According to the official statistics, the level of unemployment inRussia was 5.6 % in 2015. The labor market in theRussian Federation is characterized by a gender gap – unemployed men outnumber unemployed women by 7.8%. Besides, there is a consistent trend of increase in the number of university-educated unemployed people. According to the calculations, the percentage of women with higher and secondary education is higher than the share of men. The difference in the structure of the unemployed among women and men in regards to education is in average about 14% of the maximum possible. Quite a high level of youth unemployment (approximately 25% describes the unstable position of the given group in the labor market.Calculations of Grofman, Kazinets

  4. From unemployment to disability? Relationship between unemployment rate and new disability pensions in Iceland 1992-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurður; Ólafsson, Stefán

    2012-02-01

    The study was carried out in order to examine the effect of unemployment on the incidence of disability pension in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2007. The annual incidence of disability pension for the period 1992-2007 was calculated. Correlations and significance tests for the relationship between unemployment rates and disability pension incidence rates were calculated. The relationship was examined for different disease groups. Two big fluctuations occurred in the unemployment rate during the study period with an upswing in unemployment from 1993 to 1995 and in 2002 and 2003. In both cases, there were corresponding increases in the incidence of disability pension. The incidence of disability pension declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same extent. Health and mental and physical capability determine the overall incidence of disability pension, but marginal fluctuations over time seem to be related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The observed disability pension incidence pattern in the two unemployment cycles of the study period indicates mainly that people with impaired health are forced out of the labour market in times of increasing unemployment rather than pointing towards a negative effect of unemployment on health. Our findings indicate that there is a need to strengthen the vocational rehabilitation system in Iceland as well as the support system for employment and social participation.

  5. The 'successful' return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Karen Fog

    2012-01-01

    Research on female migrant caregivers has tended to focus upon the emotional and social problems they encounter working abroad, given women’s traditional role as caregivers for their own families. This article analyses how Caribbean women who have returned after a period abroad as domestic workers...... inscribe their migration experiences within the gendered narrative of the good relative who migrates to help the family left behind and therefore deserves social recognition in the community of origin. It argues that this narrative allows the women to both affirm and reinterpret local family and gender...... roles within the context of migration. This analysis points to the close connection between narrative structures, accounts of migration experiences, and self-presentations and suggests that narratives about family and gender roles not only reflect people’s lives, but are also a malleable resource...

  6. Unemployment and activation policies in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth, Erling

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The NorSpaR project aims to analyse the main public policy initiatives by which Norway and Spain cope with the new social and economic challenges derived from the so-called New Social Risks (NSR. Although both countries present significant differences in their institutional settings (such as Spanish EU membership, or its belonging to diverse welfare regimes types (Norway is generally included in the Nordic regime, while Spain is part of the Mediterranean one, both countries share a common interest in addressing the aforementioned challenges while maintaining social cohesion. In the last decade, governments in both countries have tried to respond to those challenges by reforming their labour markets, adapting their unemployment schemes, as well as their gender, family and long-term care policies. The analysis covered in this project includes three areas of public policy addressing NSR. First, dependency is one of the most daunting challenges for post-industrial societies experiencing population ageing and with an increasing number of frail people in need of care. This situation is forcing governments to rethink their long-term care policies. Second, family and gender public programs need to respond to the growing difficulties of families in reconciling professional and family life. Third, in the transition to a post-industrial order, and in a context of mass unemployment, social protection systems have a renewed prominence. Along with the so-called passive policies offering financial support to the unemployed, active labour market policies are geared to put people back into work. In our analysis we try to find answers to the following questions: What are the challenges that each of these policies have been trying to address in recent years? How have these policies evolved? What kinds of reforms have been implemented, and which ones have been neglected? Have the policy goals and targets of welfare programs been modified in any significant way

  7. Graduate Unemployment in South Africa: Social Inequality Reproduced

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldry, Kim

    2016-01-01

    In this study, I examine the influence of demographic and educational characteristics of South African graduates on their employment/unemployment status. A sample of 1175 respondents who graduated between 2006 and 2012 completed an online survey. Using binary logistic regression, the strongest determinants of unemployment were the graduates' race,…

  8. Unemployment Benefit Exhaustion: Incentive Effects on Job-Finding Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Trine; Geerdsen, Lars Pico; Knudsen, Anne-Sofie Due; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This systematic review studied the impact of exhaustion of unemployment benefits on the exit rate out of unemployment and into employment prior to benefit exhaustion or shortly thereafter. Method: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to prepare this review, and ultimately located 12 studies for final analysis and interpretation.…

  9. Business cycles and compositional variation in U.S. unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den G.J.; Abbring, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In the past decades several features of U.S. unemployment dynamics have been investigated empirically. The original focus of research was onthe duration of unemployment. In later studies the cyclicality of incidence and duration, compositional effects and duration dependence of the exitrate out of

  10. Diagnosing Unemployment: The 'Classification' Approach to Multiple Causation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, P.

    2002-01-01

    The establishment of appropriate policy measures for fighting unemployment has always been difficult since causes of unemployment are hard to identify. This paper analyses an approach used mainly in the 1960s and 1970s in economics, in which classification is used as a way to deal with such a

  11. Youth's Unemployment and Illiteracy: Impact on National Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Though unemployment is a global phenomenon, the situation in Nigeria has reached the crises state, yet it is reported by economists, super financial institutions such as World Ban that the yearly growth of Nigeria economy is 7.8 percent. However, this paper espouses that unemployment, illiteracy and faulty institutional, ...

  12. The Relationship between Inflation and Unemployment in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample period was divided into two subsamples -from 1970 to 1982 and 1983 to 2013- in order to test for the effect of the Economic Recovery Programme on the relationship between inflation and unemployment. The empirical estimate reveals that, changes in unemployment does not brings about changes in inflation ...

  13. Youth unemployment and its consequences in Calabar metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, consequences of youth unemployment in Nigeria were examined using Calabar metropolis in Cross River State as a case study. The literature is full of scholarly research on the social phenomenon of youth unemployment around the globe. This phenomenon has continued in Nigeria in the face of unfulfilled ...

  14. The Effect of Receiving Supplementary UI Benefits on Unemployment Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyyrä, Tomi; Parrotta, Pierpaolo; Rosholm, Michael

    We consider the consequences of working part-time on supplemen­tary unemployment insurance beneits in the Danish labour market. Following the "timing-of-events" approach we estimate causal effects of subsidized part-time work on the hazard rate out of unemployment insurance beneit receipt. We fin...

  15. Regional unemployment and human capital in transition economies

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán; Terrell, K.

    -, č. 77 (2007), s. 1-34 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : unemployment * human capital * regional labor markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://ipc.umich.edu/ working papers/ipc-77-jurajda,terrell,regional-unemployment-human- capital -transition-economies.pdf

  16. Who are the job seekers? : Explaining unemployment among doctoral recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yerkes, M.; Van de Schoot, R.; Sonneveld, H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite increased attention for doctoral education in recent years, one particular phenomenon has received little attention—the unemployment of doctoral candidates following graduation. While the unemployment of doctoral recipients is relatively low in comparison to the general popula-tion, the

  17. Unemployment in South Africa: Building a Spatio-temporal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial understanding of unemployment in South Africa is often limited to provinces. This paper explores ways to integrate unemployment data from 1991 to 2007 to obtain a spatially more detailed understanding of the phenomenon. Creating such a temporal GIS is challenging because of the changing administrative ...

  18. Characteristics and Determinants of Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth unemployment is a serious concern to policy makers in many developing countries because of its multidimensional impact. In this connection, the paper attempts to characterize youth unemployment in Ethiopia and reveal its major determinants. Univariate results indicate that the youth in general, including teenager ...

  19. Maternal unemployment and childhood overweight: is there a relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Leslie; Liu, Yujia; Rodriguez, Eunice

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies have shown a positive association between maternal work hours and childhood overweight. However, it is unclear what role job instability plays in this relationship; therefore, this study examined whether children whose mothers experienced unemployment were more likely to have greater increases in body mass index (BMI) as compared with children whose mothers were stably employed. The effects of unemployment benefits, welfare and number of hours worked were also explored. A multiple regression analysis was used to analyse changes in BMI over a 4-year period using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In all, 4890 US children, aged 2-16 at baseline, were included in the analysis. As compared with children of mothers who were employed full-time and did not receive welfare, children of mothers who experienced unemployment and received unemployment benefits were not more likely to have significantly different changes in BMI. Yet children of mothers who experienced unemployment and did not receive unemployment benefits were significantly more likely to have greater increases in BMI. These results were also shown in models which controlled for height. This supports the conclusion that adiposity changes, and not simply growth-rate differences, account for the different BMI changes between groups. Aspects of maternal employment other than number of work hours are associated with child BMI, including unemployment events and what type of support a mother receives during the time of unemployment. This has implications for policies that relate to benefits for mothers who lose their jobs.

  20. The Long-Term Effects of Youth Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mroz, Thomas A.; Savage, Timothy H.

    2006-01-01

    Using NLSY data, we examine the long-term effects of youth unemployment on later labor market outcomes. Involuntary unemployment may yield suboptimal investments in human capital in the short run. A theoretical model of dynamic human capital investment predicts a rational "catch-up" response. Using semiparametric techniques to control for the…

  1. Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Youth unemployment in Nigeria: some implications for the third Millenium. ... Government in league with the private sector it is further suggested, can create job corps for school dropouts as one major remedy to unemployment. The paper further sees hope for Nigeria only if Youths are mobilized by way of genuinely ...

  2. Problems And Counselling Needs Of Unemployed Youths In Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problems And Counselling Needs Of Unemployed Youths In Nigeria. ... African Journal for the Psychological Study of Social Issues ... Unemployed youths in Nigeria have problems in clusters of finance, family- related, health–related and socio-psychological and their most counselling need is how to develop skills that will ...

  3. Unemployment and labour force market in Republic of Kosova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mic UKAJ, Msc.

    2013-07-01

    The very high rate of unemployment in Republic of Kosova presents one of main challenges that Country faces for a long time. The purpose of this research is to analyze the situation of labour force in Kosova, and come up with conclusions and recommendations regarding the creation of genuine economic policy which would cause the reduction of unemployment rate in country.

  4. Structure of labour market and unemployment in Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nour, S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the structure of the labour market and unemployment in Sudan. One advantage of our analysis is that we explain several stylized facts on the labour market using new secondary data on population, employment and unemployment based on Sudan Central Bureau of Statistics (2010) the

  5. High Graduate Unemployment Rate and Taiwanese Undergraduate Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chih-Chun

    2011-01-01

    An expansion in higher education in combination with the recent global economic recession has resulted in a high college graduate unemployment rate in Taiwan. This study investigates how the high unemployment rate and financial constraints caused by economic cutbacks have shaped undergraduates' class choices, job needs, and future income…

  6. Background and Training Needs of Persistently Unemployed Negroes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beacham, Herbert C.

    1971-01-01

    The major purpose of the study was to describe the home, educational and occupational back grounds, econmic status, frequency and duration of unemployment of persistently unemployed Negroes in Tampa, Florida, and their expressed opinions about training, retraining, and relocation of their residences to obtain employment after training. (Author)

  7. The Psychological Effects of Unemployment on a Group of Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Jim; Davies, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Three groups of 50 adolescents each (those employed since school, those involved in Youth Opportunities Programs YOP!, and those unemployed since school) were administered the Goldberg General Health Questionnaire, the Rosenberg Depression Scale, and two self-esteem inventories. The unemployed youth had lower self-esteem, more psychosomatic…

  8. Supporting Unemployed, Middle-Aged Men: A Psychoeducational Group Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Charlotte M.; Shillingford, M. Ann

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comprehensive group counseling approach to support unemployed, middle-aged men. An inclusive group curriculum designed to provide support and address potential mental health issues related to unemployment is introduced. The focus of the group is divided into 6 major areas that research has shown to have a significant impact…

  9. Does International Migration Pay Off? The Labor Market Situation of Finnish Return Migrants Based on Longitudinal Register Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saara Koikkalainen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available International mobility is a form of flexible labor market adaptation available for young Nordic nationals who have the privilege of relatively easy return if life abroad does not work out. The article considers mobility as a labor market transition and examines the pre- and post-migration situation of two Finnish return migrant groups—those who lived abroad in 1999 and in 2004—based on longitudinal register data. It considers the consequences of return for an individual migrant: is it a form of failure in labor market integration in the country of destination or rather a sign of success whereby the skills, resources, and experiences gained abroad are brought back to the country of origin. Migrants who leave Finland nowadays often opt to move to other Nordic countries and are younger, more educated, and have a better socio-economic status than previous migrant generations. The article demonstrates that international migration does not deteriorate the returnees’ labor market status. While re-entry into the Finnish labor market may take some time and flexibility, mobility seems to pay off and have beneficial consequences: return migrants earn higher taxable incomes and have lower unemployment rates than their peers who only stayed in the national labor markets..

  10. Self Service Technologies: A Cause of Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otekhile Cathy-Austin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The self-service technologies (SSTs are fast changing the conventional way of transacting business by business organisations. The rapid innovation of self-service technologies and its adoption and usages in all facets of human systems is acclaimed to be fast rendering low skilled workers jobless. The major sectors of the economy in advanced economies have reached their peaks and can no longer provide new employment due to an increase in the productivity growth rate as a result of technology advances. These SSTs have in no small measure brought about an increase in productivity growth rate, cost reduction and anincrease in the speed of service delivery to customers. This paper examines if self-service technologies truly are the cause of persistent unemployment through a study of the long term metamorphosis of the major economic sectors in advanced economies. This study revealed that the SSTs presents both risks and opportunities.

  11. Can a carbon permit system reduce Spanish unemployment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehn, Taran; Gomez-Plana, Antonio G.; Kverndokk, Snorre

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of carbon policy on unemployment in Spain and whether recycling the public revenues earned from permit auctions can alleviate this problem. While Spain's deviation from the European Union's intermediate emission goals is more serious than most other member countries' unemployment in Spain is also well above average for the European Union. We use a computable general equilibrium model that includes unemployment in the markets for unskilled and skilled labour. We find that introducing carbon permits does not aggravate Spanish unemployment. In fact, if supplied with revenue recycling schemes, unemployment rates may actually fall. Contrary to other European studies, we find that the best option is to reduce payroll taxes on relatively skilled types of labour. This reform is successful in both increasing labour demand and dampening the supply response to rising wages. However, while all of the recycling schemes generate dividends in terms of aggregate welfare, none entirely offsets the abatement costs. (author)

  12. Intersections of discrimination due to unemployment and mental health problems: the role of double stigma for job- and help-seeking behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Tobias; Waldmann, Tamara; Oexle, Nathalie; Wigand, Moritz; Rüsch, Nicolas

    2018-05-21

    The everyday lives of unemployed people with mental health problems can be affected by multiple discrimination, but studies about double stigma-an overlap of identities and experiences of discrimination-in this group are lacking. We therefore studied multiple discrimination among unemployed people with mental health problems and its consequences for job- and help-seeking behaviors. Everyday discrimination and attributions of discrimination to unemployment and/or to mental health problems were examined among 301 unemployed individuals with mental health problems. Job search self-efficacy, barriers to care, and perceived need for treatment were compared among four subgroups, depending on attributions of experienced discrimination to unemployment and to mental health problems (group i); neither to unemployment nor to mental health problems (group ii); mainly to unemployment (group iii); or mainly to mental health problems (group iv). In multiple regressions among all participants, higher levels of discrimination predicted reduced job search self-efficacy and higher barriers to care; and attributions of discrimination to unemployment were associated with increased barriers to care. In ANOVAs for subgroup comparisons, group i participants, who attributed discrimination to both unemployment and mental health problems, reported lower job search self-efficacy, more perceived stigma-related barriers to care and more need for treatment than group iii participants, as well as more stigma-related barriers to care than group iv. Multiple discrimination may affect job search and help-seeking among unemployed individuals with mental health problems. Interventions to reduce public stigma and to improve coping with multiple discrimination for this group should be developed.

  13. Illness in travelers returned from Brazil: the GeoSentinel experience and implications for the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mary E; Chen, Lin H; Han, Pauline V; Keystone, Jay S; Cramer, Jakob P; Segurado, Aluisio; Hale, DeVon; Jensenius, Mogens; Schwartz, Eli; von Sonnenburg, Frank; Leder, Karin

    2014-05-01

    Brazil will host the 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, events that are expected to attract hundreds of thousands of international travelers. Travelers to Brazil will encounter locally endemic infections as well as mass event-specific risks. We describe 1586 ill returned travelers who had visited Brazil and were seen at a GeoSentinel Clinic from July 1997 through May 2013. The most common travel-related illnesses were dermatologic conditions (40%), diarrheal syndromes (25%), and febrile systemic illness (19%). The most common specific dermatologic diagnoses were cutaneous larva migrans, myiasis, and tungiasis. Dengue and malaria, predominantly Plasmodium vivax, were the most frequently identified specific causes of fever and the most common reasons for hospitalization after travel. Dengue fever diagnoses displayed marked seasonality, although cases were seen throughout the year. Among the 28 ill returned travelers with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, 11 had newly diagnosed asymptomatic infection and 9 had acute symptomatic HIV. Our analysis primarily identified infectious diseases among travelers to Brazil. Knowledge of illness in travelers returning from Brazil can assist clinicians to advise prospective travelers and guide pretravel preparation, including itinerary-tailored advice, vaccines, and chemoprophylaxis; it can also help to focus posttravel evaluation of ill returned travelers. Travelers planning to attend mass events will encounter other risks that are not captured in our surveillance network.

  14. 75 FR 28070 - Comment Request for Information Collection: “Confidentiality & Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-19

    ... State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and State Income and Eligibility Verification... Unemployment Compensation Information final rule and State Income and Eligibility Verification System (IEVS... and Training Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Room...

  15. 76 FR 12760 - Comment Request for Information Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-08

    ... Collection for Report ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment Assistance Activities (OMB Control No. 1205- 0051... soliciting comments concerning the proposed extension of the ETA 902, Disaster Unemployment [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background The ETA 902 Report, Disaster Unemployment...

  16. 78 FR 16298 - Comment Request for Information Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Collection: Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment Compensation Information Final Rule and... about the regulatory requirements of the Confidentiality and Disclosure of State Unemployment... Administration, Office of Unemployment Insurance, 200 Constitution Avenue NW., Room S4524, Washington, DC 20210...

  17. 76 FR 5070 - Offset of Tax Refund Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ... Payments To Collect Delinquent State Unemployment Compensation Debts AGENCY: Financial Management Service... (referred to as ``tax refund offset'') to collect delinquent State unemployment compensation debts. The Department of the Treasury (Treasury) will incorporate the procedures necessary to collect State unemployment...

  18. Unemployment, underweight, and obesity: Findings from Understanding Society (UKHLS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amanda; Kumari, Meena

    2017-04-01

    Elevated morbidity and mortality among jobseekers may be partly explained by adiposity, but previous studies of unemployment and body mass index (BMI), which have usually modelled associations as linear, have produced inconsistent results. However, both underweight and obesity are associated with mortality, and both weight loss and weight gain associated with a stressful environment. If unemployment is associated with both underweight and obesity for different subgroups, these associations may previously have masked each other, whilst affecting health through divergent pathways. We investigated whether there is a previously overlooked U-shaped association of unemployment and BMI, which could help explain jobseekers' elevated morbidity and mortality, and identify groups vulnerable to underweight and obesity during unemployment. We used multinomial models to simultaneously investigate associations of unemployment with BMI-defined underweight, overweight, and obesity in 10,737 working-age UK adults from Understanding Society (UKHLS) in 2010-12. Moderating impacts of unemployment duration, demographic factors and smoking were explored. Current jobseekers were more likely to be underweight (Odds ratio (OR): 4.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.12-7.73) and less likely to be overweight (OR: 0.71, CI: 0.55, 0.92) adjusted for gender, age, education, health, smoking and physical activity, while unemployed non-smokers had increased odds of obesity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.06-2.18). Underweight and overweight associations were more apparent for longer-term jobseekers, men, and jobseekers from lower-income households. We conclude that unemployment is associated with underweight and, in nonsmokers, obesity. Results show the unemployment-adiposity relationship cannot be properly studied assuming unidirectionality of effects, and suggest unemployment may affect health of different groups via divergent adiposity-mediated pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc

  19. The role of empowerment and quality of life in depression severity among unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Suzanne; Bejerholm, Ulrika

    2017-09-01

    Sick leave and unemployment are highly prevalent among people with affective disorders. Their depression severity is disabling and inversely related to having employment. No evidence-based vocational rehabilitation exists for this target group. Knowledge is therefore needed to understand the psychosocial factors that affect depression severity in order to develop new rehabilitation interventions. This study examined relationships between depression severity and empowerment, working life aspirations, occupational engagement, and quality of life in unemployed people with affective disorders receiving mental healthcare. In this cross-sectional study of 61 participants, instruments on psychosocial factors and questions on descriptive sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were administered. Descriptive, correlation, and regression statistics were applied. Correlation and regression analyses showed significant inverse relations between depression severity and empowerment and quality of life. The odds for more severe depression decreased with higher empowerment and quality of life. However, neither extent of engagement in daily life nor working life aspiration was related to depression severity. An empowerment approach and strategies, which support the quality of life, are needed in development of vocational rehabilitation interventions, and bridging of mental healthcare and vocational services. Implications for Rehabilitation Enhancing empowerment and quality life in the return to work process can decrease depression severity in unemployed people with affective disorder. There is a need to address work issues in addition to symptom reduction in primary and mental healthcare. Bridging the service and time gap between vocational rehabilitation and healthcare is recommended for mitigating long-term unemployment for people with affective disorders who want to work.

  20. Health-related quality of life and cognitive emotion regulation strategies in the unemployed: a cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extremera, Natalio; Rey, Lourdes

    2014-11-29

    The loss of one's job has been conceptualized as a major stressful life event in an adult's life and has consistently been associated with lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies after the experience of stressful events has emerged as an important predictor of adverse psychological and health outcomes. However, the effect of these coping strategies on the HRQoL of unemployed people has not been examined until now. We aimed to study the associations of these cognitive emotion regulation strategies on HRQoL of unemployed people. Using cross-sectional data, 1,125 unemployed adults were assessed using a Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for cognitive coping and SF-12 to assess HRQoL. We studied the effect of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on mental and physical health composite separately, adjusting for gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, using hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed unemployed men tended to express greater use of self-blame, other-blame, and catastrophizing, and lower use of perspective taking strategies when confronted with unemployment. Moreover, self-blame (for mental health composite only), blaming others, rumination, and catastrophizing negatively correlated, while positive reappraisal, putting into perspective, planning, and positive refocusing positively correlated with both mental and physical health composite in unemployed people. Further hierarchical regression analyses indicate that five strategies (a lower reported use of self-blame, rumination, and catastrophizing, as well as higher scores of positive reappraisal and positive refocusing) and three strategies (lower scores of catastrophizing and rumination and high scores in planning) have significant and independent contributions, beyond gender, age, educational level and length of unemployment, to the prediction of mental health and physical health composite, respectively

  1. Predictability of Stock Returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Sekreter

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Predictability of stock returns has been shown by empirical studies over time. This article collects the most important theories on forecasting stock returns and investigates the factors that affecting behavior of the stocks’ prices and the market as a whole. Estimation of the factors and the way of estimation are the key issues of predictability of stock returns.

  2. Wage Returns to University Disciplines in Greece: Are Greek Higher Education Degrees Trojan Horses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livanos, Ilias; Pouliakas, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the wage returns to qualifications and academic disciplines in the Greek labour market. Exploring wage responsiveness across various degree subjects in Greece is interesting, as it is characterised by high levels of graduate unemployment, which vary considerably with the field of study, and relatively low levels of wage…

  3. Childhood Self-Control and Unemployment Throughout the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Liam; Egan, Mark; Baumeister, Roy F.

    2015-01-01

    The capacity for self-control may underlie successful labor-force entry and job retention, particularly in times of economic uncertainty. Analyzing unemployment data from two nationally representative British cohorts (N = 16,780), we found that low self-control in childhood was associated with the emergence and persistence of unemployment across four decades. On average, a 1-SD increase in self-control was associated with a reduction in the probability of unemployment of 1.4 percentage points after adjustment for intelligence, social class, and gender. From labor-market entry to middle age, individuals with low self-control experienced 1.6 times as many months of unemployment as those with high self-control. Analysis of monthly unemployment data before and during the 1980s recession showed that individuals with low self-control experienced the greatest increases in unemployment during the recession. Our results underscore the critical role of self-control in shaping life-span trajectories of occupational success and in affecting how macroeconomic conditions affect unemployment levels in the population. PMID:25870404

  4. Short- and long-term effects of unemployment on fertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Schwandt, Hannes

    2014-01-01

    Scholars have been examining the relationship between fertility and unemployment for more than a century. Most studies find that fertility falls with unemployment in the short run, but it is not known whether these negative effects persist, because women simply may postpone childbearing to better economic times. Using more than 140 million US birth records for the period 1975–2010, we analyze both the short- and long-run effects of unemployment on fertility. We follow fixed cohorts of US-born women defined by their own state and year of birth, and relate their fertility to the unemployment rate experienced by each cohort at different ages. We focus on conceptions that result in a live birth. We find that women in their early 20s are most affected by high unemployment rates in the short run and that the negative effects on fertility grow over time. A one percentage point increase in the average unemployment rate experienced between the ages of 20 and 24 reduces the short-run fertility of women in this age range by six conceptions per 1,000 women. When we follow these women to age 40, we find that a one percentage point increase in the unemployment rate experienced at ages 20–24 leads to an overall loss of 14.2 conceptions. This long-run effect is driven largely by women who remain childless and thus do not have either first births or higher-order births. PMID:25267622

  5. Unemployment and household food hardship in the economic recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Kim, Youngmi; Birkenmaier, Julie

    2016-02-01

    The present study examined the association between unemployment and household food insecurity during the 2007-2009 economic recession in the USA. Longitudinal survey of the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP; 2008-2011). Food insecurity was measured by five questions excerpted from an eighteen-item Food Security Scale. Unemployment was measured by a dichotomous indicator, the number of job losses and the total duration of all episodes in the observation period. As nationally representative data, the SIPP interviewed respondents in multiple waves with a time interval of four months. The study created two analytic samples including working-age household heads employed at the beginning of the observation period. The size of the two samples was 14,417 and 13,080. Unemployment was positively associated with food insecurity (OR=1.55; 95% CI 1.32, 1.83; Punemployment (OR=1.54; 95% CI 1.27, 1.88; Punemployment, one more episode of unemployment increased the odds of food insecurity by 8% (OR=1.08; 95% CI 1.00, 1.18; Punemployment and food insecurity is useful to better identify and serve the at-risk population. Connecting unemployment assistance closely to nutrition assistance could lower the prevalence of food insecurity among unemployed households. Public policy should better account for both episodes and duration of unemployment to reduce food insecurity.

  6. Do small labor market entry cohorts reduce unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Garloff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Germany, like many OECD countries, faces a shift in the age composition of its population,and will face an even more drastic demographic change in the years ahead. From a theoretical point of view, decreasing cohort sizes may on the one hand reduce unemployment due to inverse cohort crowding or, on the other hand, increase unemploymentif companies reduce jobs disproportionately. Consequently, the actual effect of cohort shrinkage on employment and unemployment is an empirical question. OBJECTIVE We quantitatively assess the relationship between (unemployment and cohort sizes. METHODS We analyze a long panel of population and labor-market data for Western German labor market regions. We isolate the direct, statistical effect of aging in a decomposition approach and estimate the overall effect by regression. In this context, we account for the likely endogeneity of cohort size due to migration of the young workforce across regions using lagged births as instrument. RESULTS The direct effect of the age composition of the labor force on unemployment is negligible.In contrast, the elasticities of unemployment and employment with regard to the labor-market entry cohort's size are significantly positive or negative, respectively. The causal effect indicates an over-elastic reaction by unemployment. CONCLUSIONS Our results provide good news for the Western German labor market: small entry cohorts are indeed likely to decrease the overall unemployment rate and thus to improve the situation of job seekers. Accordingly, we find the employment rate is positively affected by a decrease in the youth proportion.

  7. The agony of unemployment in the Euro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristanović Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the evolution of the unemployment problem in the Euro Area. Our goal is to look at what are the roots of the unemployment problem and to devise reasons of the already chronic unemployment problem. We show the main factors that prolong the agony of unemployment and whether it is likely that in the near future, the problem of unemployment in the Euro Area will bi past. In the Euro Area we follow the analysis of basic macroeconomic indicators of balance in an economy - GDP, inflation and unemployment. We consider whether the monetary strategy of inflation targeting has contributed to the unemployment problem, by reducing the potential output, but also to confirm that within the current global crisis there are some deviations from the theoretical concepts of basic macroeconomic relationships - Okun's law and the Phillips curve. We show that only Germany, with a 'small' sacrifice, can save the real sector in the peripheral Mediterranean countries, as well as in the entire Euro Area.

  8. The Vietnam Vet's Battle--Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Wayne E.; Radcliff, Jo Ann

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to survey the employment situation of returning Vietnam veterans. The picture appears to be one of frustration. There are a number of programs available but a communications gap seems to exist between the programs and the veterans. (Author)

  9. Effect of unemployment on cardiovascular risk factors and mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagożdżon, P; Parszuto, J; Wrotkowska, M; Dydjow-Bendek, D

    2014-09-01

    Following the economic changes in Poland, increasing health discrepancies were observed during a period of 20 years, which may be partly attributable to the consequences of unemployment. To assess the association between unemployment, major cardiovascular risk factors and mental health. A cross-sectional study in which data were collected between 2009 and 2010 during preventive health examinations by an occupational medicine service in Gdansk, Poland. Data on blood pressure, resting heart rate, information about smoking habits, body mass index and history of use of mental health services were collected during these assessments. Multiple logistic regression was used during data analysis to adjust for age, gender, education and length of employment. Study participants comprised 3052 unemployed and 2059 employed individuals. After adjustment for age, gender, education and number of previous employments, the odds ratio (OR) for hypertension in relation to unemployment was 1.02 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.84-1.23]. There was a statistically significant negative association between being overweight and unemployment (OR = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.66-0.99). Smoking was positively associated with unemployment after adjustment for age and sex (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.25-1.67). There was a positive relationship between mental ill-health and unemployment among study participants (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 0.91-4.65), but this was not statistically significant. The patterns of major cardiovascular risk factors differed between unemployed and employed individuals in Poland. Our observations suggest employment status is a predictor of specific disease risk profiles; consequently, specific preventive measures are needed in unemployed individuals. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Labour market and the charasteristics of unemployment in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Artan Haziri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Kosovo, given its difficult past, is the most underdeveloped country of Europe. Gross national product is the lowest in the region, in 2009 was 1853 Euros per capita, which is half the value of the average gross natio-nal product of the region. Average economic growth in Kosovo during 2006-2009 was 4.8%. This economic growth, although seemingly large, given the low level of development in Kosovo cannot solve problems to address important economic issues that Kosovo faces, unemployment, poverty etc. Kosovo has a large import of goods and the export-import cover is only 10%, thus the trade deficit is extremely high. Unemploy-ment remains the main economic problem for many years in Kosovo. The unemployment rate in Kosovo remains high even though there are no clear statistics about the rate of unemployment. According to many stu-dies, whether local or international institutions, the unemployment rate ranges near 40%. So this high rate of unemployment  imposes as a pri-mary and essential task before the Kosovo institutions to establish poli-cies and strategies for promoting employment which is undoubtedly the best way to combat poverty.According to many studies, in order to keep the unemployment at current levels, Kosovo needs a growth rate of 7% and therefore we conclude that in order to reduce unemployment, the growth should be significantly increased over 7%, and with current developments this is unachievable, neither it is expected to be achieved by the competent institutions regarding economical growth

  11. Claim rates of compensable back injuries by age, gender, occupation, and industry. Do they relate to return-to-work experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, J V; Oleinick, A

    1998-07-15

    A retrospective cohort study of Michigan workers' compensation cases involving back injuries in 1986 and 1987 with incidence and outcome data. To determine claim rates by age, gender, and industry or occupation for compensable back injuries and to investigate the relation between occupation and return to work. The cohort of 24,094 Michigan workers' compensation cases from 1986 and 1987 in which claimants were compensated for back injuries was reviewed. Compensation eligibility requires more than 7 days' disability after injury. Claim rates for back injuries by age, gender, and industry or occupation using employment data interpolated from 1980 and 1990 Census 1% Public Use Microdata Samples. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed for return to work in the first 8 weeks after injury, with occupation coded at the three-digit level. All-age claim rates for Michigan compensable back injuries by occupation ranged between 0.03% and 1.7% annually (0.39% for all cases) and were generally higher in women in white collar occupations and in men in blue collar occupations. The claim rate peaked in men in the 25-34 year range, with the highest rates in manual labor occupations. The peak claim rates by age were less marked in women, tending to occur broadly throughout the 25-44-year range. Similar all-age values were recorded by industry. The male-to-female risk ratio over all occupations does not vary by age and is approximately 1.4:1. As the classification of occupation became more detailed, large differences in risk were documented within major occupation groups. The highest risk in this study was approximately 6% annually for 25-44 year old men in driver-sales (beverage truck drivers and delivery workers). Only 7 of 40 occupation categories showed a significant relative hazard for return to work in the first 8 weeks after injury, and these were blue collar occupations with earlier return than the reference sales category. For Michigan compensable back injuries, a

  12. Do Targeted Hiring Subsidies and Profiling Techniques Reduce Unemployment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahn, Elke; Wagner, Thomas

    To reduce unemployment targeted hiring subsidies for long-term unemployed are often recommended. To explore their effect on employment and wages, we devise a model with two types of unemployed and two methods of search, a public employment service (PES) and random search. The eligibility of a new......, which ad­vance the search effectiveness of the PES, crowd out the active jobseekers and reduce overall employment as well as social welfare. Nevertheless, reforms are a visible success for the PES and its target group, as they significantly increase the service's placement rate and lower the duration...

  13. The Patterns of Unemployment and the Geography of Social Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alves, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    . Although statistics of unemployment have already demonstrated the unequal incidence of the phenomenon in social groups, the issue of uneven territorial impact on the phenomenon at intra-urban level remains relatively unknown. The purpose of this article is to show and to interpret the spatial patterns...... of unemployment in the city of Porto using GIS (Geographic Information System - GIS) technology. Under this analysis the overlap of the spatial patterns of unemployment with the spatial distribution of social housing, allows the discussion of the relationship that occurs between these patterns and the reasons...

  14. The effect of receiving supplementary UI benefits on unemployment duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomi, Kyyrä,; Pierpaolo, Parrotta,; Rosholm, Michael

    2013-01-01

    insurance benefit receipt. We find evidence of a negative in-treatment effect and a positive post-treatment effect, both of which vary across different groups of individuals. The resulting net effect on the expected unemployment duration is positive for some groups (e.g. married women) and negative......We consider the consequences of working part-time and receiving supplementary benefits for part-time unemployment in the Danish labor market. Following the timing-of-events approach we estimate causal effects of part-time work with supplementary benefits on the hazard rate out of unemployment...

  15. Crescimento populacional, ocupação e desemprego dos jovens: a experiência recente da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre Population growth, labor by youth and unemployment: the recent experience of the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul Luís Assumpção Bastos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo investiga o quanto o tamanho relativo da população juvenil na Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre (RMPA afetou a ocupação e o desemprego desse segmento no período 1993-2004. Esta questão ganha relevância no presente tanto pelo fato de que diversos estudos têm apontado a ocorrência do fenômeno de uma onda jovem nas principais regiões metropolitanas do país, nos anos 90, quanto pela correlata observação de uma tendência à elevação do desemprego entre os jovens no período. Assim, primeiramente, é feita uma síntese dos argumentos a respeito dos efeitos do tamanho relativo da coorte juvenil sobre a situação deste grupo populacional no mercado de trabalho. Em seguida, identificam-se as principais tendências da população e da força de trabalho juvenil no mercado de trabalho da RMPA, bem como se estimam os efeitos do tamanho relativo da coorte juvenil sobre a ocupação e o desemprego desse grupo populacional.This article studies to what extent the relative size of the young population in the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre (RMPA affected employment and unemployment of this group between 1993 and 2004. This question has taken on considerable importance, based on two different factors. The first is the fact that a number of studies have indicated the occurrence of the phenomenon of a wave of youth in the largest metropolitan areas in the country during the 1990s. Secondly, the concomitant trend toward higher unemployment among youth during this same period. The article is organized in the following way: after the Introduction, Section 2 presents a synthesis of the arguments regarding the effects of the relative size of the cohort of youth on the situation of this group in the labor market. Section 3 identifies the main trends of the younger population within the labor market in the RMPA and estimates the effects of the relative size of this cohort on the employment and unemployment of this population group

  16. Combination of Wearable Multi-Biosensor Platform and Resonance Frequency Training for Stress Management of the Unemployed Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanqing Wu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently considerable research is being directed toward developing methodologies for controlling emotion or releasing stress. An applied branch of the basic field of psychophysiology, known as biofeedback, has been developed to fulfill clinical and non-clinical needs related to such control. Wearable medical devices have permitted unobtrusive monitoring of vital signs and emerging biofeedback services in a pervasive manner. With the global recession, unemployment has become one of the most serious social problems; therefore, the combination of biofeedback techniques with wearable technology for stress management of unemployed population is undoubtedly meaningful. This article describes a wearable biofeedback system based on combining integrated multi-biosensor platform with resonance frequency training (RFT biofeedback strategy for stress management of unemployed population. Compared to commercial system, in situ experiments with multiple subjects indicated that our biofeedback system was discreet, easy to wear, and capable of offering ambulatory RFT biofeedback.Moreover, the comparative studies on the altered autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation before and after three week RFT biofeedback training was performed in unemployed population with the aid of our wearable biofeedback system. The achieved results suggested that RFT biofeedback in combination with wearable technology was capable of significantly increasingoverall HRV, which indicated by decreasing sympathetic activities, increasing parasympathetic activities, and increasing ANS synchronization. After 3-week RFT-based respiration training, the ANS’s regulating function and coping ability of unemployed population have doubled, and tended toward a dynamic balance.

  17. Between Evasion and Activism: A Qualitative Inquiry into the Political Behavior of German and Swedish Long-Term Unemployed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This comparative article aims to understand the patterns underlying the political behavior of young German and Swedish long-term unemployed individuals. Based on almost 40 qualitative interviews, the analysis follows a grounded theory approach and shows that “unemployment” is not an objective reality that imposes uniform living conditions. Social and political activities diverge considerably, even though our respondents experience similar pressures and sanctions by public opinion, political parties, public administrations, relatives and/or acquaintances. The consequences of unemployment depend on individual mind-sets, support networks and coping strategies. This study identifies informal networks of social relations as one main factor influencing unemployed young peoples’ political behavior. Three types of political involvement are shaped by the routines and norms reproduced within their web of social relations in everyday life: evasion, civic minimalism and reluctant activism. The similarities between the German and the Swedish respondents overshadowed the national differences

  18. Unemployment estimation: Spatial point referenced methods and models

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Soraia; Turkman, Kamil Feridun; Correia, Luis; Rue, Haavard

    2017-01-01

    Portuguese Labor force survey, from 4th quarter of 2014 onwards, started geo-referencing the sampling units, namely the dwellings in which the surveys are carried. This opens new possibilities in analysing and estimating unemployment and its spatial

  19. The Incidence of Unemployment: Identifying Quits and Layoffs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael

    1997-01-01

    We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM-algorithm......We analyse what determines the incidence of unemployment among Danish employees by estimation of a logit model for becoming unemployed. Our data is incomplete in the sense that we do not observe whether a transition was caused by the person quitting or being laid off, so we apply the EM......-algorithm to this problem. The models are extended to account for the panel data structure of the data set by including random effects. We use exclusion restrictions to identify quits and lay offs. We find many quitters among young and old women but only few among men....

  20. Labor Market Size and Unemployment Duration: A Theoretical Note

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schaeffer; Tesfa Gebremedhin

    2004-01-01

    When job prospects are uncertain, labor market size matters even when labor and jobs, respectively, are homogenous. The expected unemployment duration and its standard deviation may then differ systematically with labor market size.

  1. The impact of foreign direct investment on unemployment in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Palát

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The flow of foreign direct investment is one of the indicators of economic interconnection with the rest of the world. The paper is aimed at evaluating of inward FDI flows into Japanese economy and unemployment development. For many decades, Japan has attracted considerably lower levels of inward FDI compared to other developed countries of the world. Also the rate of unemployment in Japan was relatively low which is caused by a specific attitude of the active population of Japan towards employment issues. Methods of regression and correlation analysis (including testing the statistical significance were used in the analysis of FDI and unemployment. The correlation has been approved between FDI and the rate of unemployment.

  2. Active Labour Market Programme Participation for Unemployment Insurance Recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filges, Trine; Smedslund, Geir; Jørgensen, Anne-Marie Klint

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This review evaluates the effectiveness of Active Labour Market Programme (ALMP) participation on employment status for unemployment insurance recipients. Methods and Analysis: We followed Campbell Collaboration guidelines to conduct a systematic review. Results: A total of 73 studies...

  3. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  4. The trade-off between unemployment and wage inequality revisited

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 4 (2014), s. 891-915 ISSN 0030-7653 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : unemployment * wage inequality * labor supply Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.846, year: 2014

  5. Inequality confirmed: institutional exclusion in the interaction between job-centre advisors and unemployed young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Rantakeisu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, the pressures on the unemployed have intensified in Sweden owing to increasing demands on individuals to be employable. This article centres on unemployed youths’ experiences of their visits to the public employment services in four Swedish municipalities and how these experiences can be understood against the background of the intersection of social class and gender. A total of 18 unemployed youths were interviewed and their reasoning was compared with their respective employment-agency officers. The analysis shows that the employment agency gives priority to young working-class men over young working-class women and to middle-class youths over working-class youths, respectively. Young working-class women’s wish to combine employment with caregiving is seen as an encumbrance by the employment agency and these women expressed the harshest criticism against the employment agency. When the advisors meet youths who do not correspond with the current expectations and ideals of the labour market, they risk taking part in an institutional process of exclusion of these youngsters.

  6. [Does Return to Work after Vocational Retraining Depend on Labour Market?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C; Streibelt, M

    2016-10-01

    Background: Studies about the impact of the labour market on return to work (RTW) after vocational retraining are contradictory. We examined if (1) RTW after vocational retraining depends on regional labour markets and if (2) the regional labour markets variance affects the influence of personal characteristics on RTW. Methods: The data consisted of the scientific use file (completed rehabilitation in the course of health insurance 2002-2009) of the German Federal Pension Insurance (51 626 persons of 7 year cohorts) and regional economic data (412 districts). Multilevel logistic regression models were used. Results: At the context level the logarithmic unemployment rate was the most relevant predictor. The RTW rate decreased with increasing unemployment rate, saturating at an unemployment rate of around 15%. Significant differences between the intervention types (integration, 1-year and 2-year vocational retraining programs) were observed. The effects of individual predictors were clearer with higher unemployment, e. g. education, individual unemployment, income and further vocational interventions prior to vocational retraining. Conclusion: We demonstrate that the success of vocational retraining depends on the regional labour market. Furthermore individual predictors show stronger effects on success with the context of "poor" labour markets. In addition to the existing evidence the regional unemployment rate should be taken into consideration in effectiveness research studies and benchmarking processes in quality assurance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. METHODOLOGICAL PROPOSAL FOR COMPILING THE ILO UNEMPLOYMENT WITH MONTHLY PERIODICITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia PISICĂ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of methodology for deriving the monthly unemployment statistics directly from the quarterly Labour Force Survey (LFS results by econometric modeling meets the requirements of insuring the information on short-term needed for employment policies, aiming to achieve the objectives of Europe 2020. Estimated monthly data series according to the methodology allow assessment of short-term trends in unemployment measured according to the criteria of the International Labour Organisation (ILO in terms of comparability with European statistics.

  8. Labour Market Institutions and Unemployment: Does Finance Matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Rault; Anne-Gaël Vaubourg

    2012-01-01

    We explore whether finance influences the impact of labour market institutions on unemployment. Using a data set of 18 OECD countries over 1980–2004, we estimate a panel Vector AutoRegressive model. We check whether causalities from labour market variables to unemployment are affected by financial factors. In Belgium, Italy, Australia, Japan and Spain, accounting for financial indicators mitigates the benefits of labour market flexibility or makes it harmful to employment. In Austria, Canada,...

  9. The causal effect of paternal unemployment on children's personality

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, Viola; Bertoni, Marco; Corazzini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP), we show that paternal unemployment has a surprisingly positive causal effect on the "Big 5" personality traits of children aged 17 to 25. In particular, our results from longitudinal value-added models for personality suggest that paternal unemployment makes children significantly more conscientious and less neurotic. Our results are robust to different estimation methods and to selection on unobservables. Furthermore, these...

  10. STABILITY, BIFURCATIONS AND CHAOS IN UNEMPLOYMENT NON-LINEAR DYNAMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pagliari Carmen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional analysis of unemployment in relation to real output dynamics is based on some empirical evidences deducted from Okun’s studies. In particular the so called Okun’s Law is expressed in a linear mathematical formulation, which cannot explain the fluctuation of the variables involved. Linearity is an heavy limit for macroeconomic analysis and especially for every economic growth study which would consider the unemployment rate among the endogenous variables. This paper deals with an introductive study about the role of non-linearity in the investigation of unemployment dynamics. The main idea is the existence of a non-linear relation between the unemployment rate and the gap of GDP growth rate from its trend. The macroeconomic motivation of this idea moves from the consideration of two concatenate effects caused by a variation of the unemployment rate on the real output growth rate. These two effects are concatenate because there is a first effect that generates a secondary one on the same variable. When the unemployment rate changes, the first effect is the variation in the level of production in consequence of the variation in the level of such an important factor as labour force; the secondary effect is a consecutive variation in the level of production caused by the variation in the aggregate demand in consequence of the change of the individual disposal income originated by the previous variation of production itself. In this paper the analysis of unemployment dynamics is carried out by the use of the logistic map and the conditions for the existence of bifurcations (cycles are determined. The study also allows to find the range of variability of some characteristic parameters that might be avoided for not having an absolute unpredictability of unemployment dynamics (deterministic chaos: unpredictability is equivalent to uncontrollability because of the total absence of information about the future value of the variable to

  11. Psychiatric disorders and health service utilization in unemployed youth

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim Youth unemployment is associated with increased levels of anxiety, depression, alcohol abuse, reduced self-esteem and satisfaction with life. Up to date data based on standardized psychiatric diagnostic assessments in adolescent or young adult unemployment is very scarce. To our knowledge, this study has, for the first time, assessed both Axis-I (non-personality) and Axis-II (personality) psychiatric disorders and related constructs in a pres...

  12. Unemployment, labor costs, and recessions: implications for the inflation outlook

    OpenAIRE

    Fee, Kyle; Schweitzer, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    Economists have been arguing about the connection between unemployment and infl ation for decades. Critics claim that the connection is unreliable and leads policymakers astray, while others argue that the relationship is useful for forecasting. We examine the more direct connections between elevated unemployment levels and the rate of increase in wage and labor costs, more generally. We fi nd that wage and labor cost growth has declined markedly following recent recessions. It has again decl...

  13. Young Long-term Unemployed and the Individualization of Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hobbins

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, as in most Western societies, a common belief is that unemployment is somehow linked to the individual, her lack of work ethic, or other personal shortcomings rather than to structural causes. This is not only manifested in public arenas such as the media or political debates but also in our social surroundings. In recent years, these views have gained importance, indicating a shift in the location of responsibilities from the welfare state to the individual. This shift entails high demands and expectations on unemployed people and is something they have to deal with and relate to. One of the most exposed groups is young long-term unemployed. The aim of this article is to highlight how the discourse of individualized responsibility is reflected in unemployed peoples’ stories, and to shed light on the ways in which young long-term unemployed adults relate to and position themselves toward this discourse. Based on 18 qualitative interviews with young Swedish long-term unemployed people, the findings show three approaches to the discourse: conformity, distancing, and resistance.

  14. Unemployment Rate, Smoking in China: Are They Related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing; Shen, Jay J; Cochran, Chris

    2016-01-08

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment rate and smoking have yielded mixed results. The issue in China has not been studied. This study aims to examine the influence of unemployment rate on smoking in China. Logit model and two-stage least squares (2SLS) estimation were used to estimate the effects. Estimations were done for 4585 individual over 45 using data from China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study conducted in Zhejiang and Gansu provinces in 2008 and 2012. A percent increase in the unemployment rate resulted in the increase in the likelihood of smoking by a combined 9.1 percent for those who smoked including a 2.9% increase for those who smoked 1-10 cigarettes per day; a 2.8% increase for those who smoked 11-20 cigarettes per day; and a 3.4% increase for those who smoked 20 cigarettes or more per day. The effects were stronger for those who were employed. Non-drinkers were more likely to engage in smoking with increased unemployment rate. 2SLS estimation revealed the same association. The unemployment rate was positively associated with smoking behavior. Smoking control and intervention strategies should focus on both the individual's characteristics and the physical environment in which unemployment rate tend to rise.

  15. Suicide and unemployment in Australia 1907-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, S; Taylor, R; Quine, S; Kerr, C

    1993-03-01

    Ever since Durkheim postulated a relationship between economic change and suicide there has been evidence of a general association between aggregate data on unemployment and the frequency of suicide. Quantitatively, however, the association has been variable and it is clear that due to differing cultural, social and individual determinants of suicide, the relationship is complex. Methodological difficulties abound with interpretation of aggregate data. Australian records for most of the present century are suitable for examining secular trends in suicide and unemployment by age group and gender to gain an indication of the extent to which both parameters may be causally related. An aggregate/ecological study was designed to incorporate quantitative and qualitative strategies. Annual age-adjusted male and female suicide rates and annual unemployment rates were derived for the period 1907-1990. Female suicide rates were generally stable throughout the period, whereas those for males demonstrated sharp fluctuations with the peaks coinciding with times of high unemployment. The association between suicide and unemployment for 15-24 year old males was comparatively high for the recent period, 1966-1990. The increasingly youthful contribution to male suicide was demonstrated by a rise in the loss of life years during 1973-1984. Despite the inability of any investigation based on aggregate data to establish an unequivocable causal relationship, no evidence was detected to suggest that relatively high population levels of unemployment were not related to the occurrence of suicide.

  16. [Parents' unemployment, selected life conditions, adolescents' wellbeing and perceived health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowicz, Piotr

    2005-01-01

    Unemployment in Poland is one of the most negative outcomes of the economical transformations taking place in the last decade of the XX and first years of the XXI century. Therefore, the study on an influence of parents' unemployment upon adolescents' life conditions and health was undertaken in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Training Department of the National Institute of Hygiene. The data were collected from randomly selected sample of 783 students aged 14-15 years attending to ten private and public secondary schools (gymnasiums) in Warsaw. A part of the questionnaire elaborated in Health Promotion and Postgraduate Department covered information about negative life events, which had occurred in the previous year, also about a loss of the job by father or mother. The self-assessment of health, and physical and psychical wellbeing measured the perceived health. The study showed that significantly higher percentage of the students, whose father or mother had lost a job in the previous year, noticed also occurrence of father and mother health disorders, lack of support from father and mother, frequent quarrels between parents, too much of home duties, worsening a housing conditions, lack of possibilities to travel away on vacation and lack of own money. The differences were higher, if both the parents were unemployed. Moreover, the children of unemployed parents significantly lower assessed their health, and physical and psychical wellbeing. It is necessary to help immediately the students, whose parents are unemployed, with financial and psychological support in frame of the programmes of unemployment overcoming.

  17. 24 CFR 598.110 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 598.110 Section 598.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... TWO AND THREE DESIGNATIONS Eligibility Requirements § 598.110 Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment...) Unemployment. Unemployment is demonstrated by: (1) The most recent data available indicating that the annual...

  18. 20 CFR 601.2 - Approval of State unemployment compensation laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of State unemployment compensation... unemployment compensation laws. States may at their option submit their unemployment compensation laws for... Employment and Training Administration (ETA), one copy of the State unemployment compensation law properly...

  19. 76 FR 18259 - Announcement Regarding Delaware Triggering “on” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Triggering ``on'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08) AGENCY: Employment and...'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended provisions... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The...

  20. 76 FR 18260 - Announcement Regarding Pennsylvania Triggering “Off” Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Triggering ``Off'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). AGENCY: Employment and... ``off'' Tier Four of Emergency Unemployment Compensation 2008 (EUC08). Public Law 111-312 extended... the EUC08 program for qualified unemployed workers claiming benefits in high unemployment states. The...

  1. 24 CFR 597.102 - Tests of pervasive poverty, unemployment and general distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., unemployment and general distress. 597.102 Section 597.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating..., unemployment and general distress. (a) Pervasive poverty. Pervasive poverty shall be demonstrated by the... component areas of an affluent character. (b) Unemployment. Unemployment shall be demonstrated by: (1) Data...

  2. Transitions to Long-Term Unemployment Risk among Young People: Evidence from Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Elish; McGuinness, Seamus; O'Connell, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    Many young people have short spells of unemployment during their transition from school to work; however, some often get trapped in unemployment and risk becoming long-term unemployed. Much research has been undertaken on the factors that influence unemployment risk for young people during their school-to-work transition. However, very little is…

  3. 26 CFR 1.501(c)(17)-1 - Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. 1.501(c... Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts. (a) Requirements for qualification. (1) A supplemental unemployment... the purpose of providing supplemental unemployment compensation benefits (as defined in section 501(c...

  4. Factors Affecting Self-Esteem and Self-Efficacy in the Unemployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddy, Luther M., III

    2013-01-01

    Unemployment is, and will likely continue to be, a problem in industrialized nations. Numerous studies have concluded unemployment negatively impacts self-esteem and self-efficacy. Additional studies have shown that unemployed individuals with lower self-esteem and self-efficacy tend to remain unemployed longer than individuals with higher…

  5. Are There Geographical Variations in the Psychological Cost of Unemployment in South Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdthavee, Nattavudh

    2007-01-01

    Are certain groups of unemployed individuals hurt less by unemployment than others? This paper is an attempt to test the hypothesis that non-pecuniary costs of unemployment may vary between societies with different unemployment rates. Using cross-sectional data from the SALDRU93 survey, I show that households' perceptions of life satisfaction are…

  6. Predictable return distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thomas Quistgaard

    trace out the entire distribution. A univariate quantile regression model is used to examine stock and bond return distributions individually, while a multivariate model is used to capture their joint distribution. An empirical analysis on US data shows that certain parts of the return distributions......-of-sample analyses show that the relative accuracy of the state variables in predicting future returns varies across the distribution. A portfolio study shows that an investor with power utility can obtain economic gains by applying the empirical return distribution in portfolio decisions instead of imposing...

  7. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J.; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset’s returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset’s return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations. PMID:28553012

  8. Does Aggregated Returns Disclosure Increase Portfolio Risk Taking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beshears, John; Choi, James J; Laibson, David; Madrian, Brigitte C

    2017-06-01

    Many experiments have found that participants take more investment risk if they see returns less frequently, see portfolio-level returns (rather than each individual asset's returns), or see long-horizon (rather than one-year) historical return distributions. In contrast, we find that such information aggregation treatments do not affect total equity investment when we make the investment environment more realistic than in prior experiments. Previously documented aggregation effects are not robust to changes in the risky asset's return distribution or the introduction of a multi-day delay between portfolio choice and return realizations.

  9. [Impact of the labour market on vocational retraining centre participants' return to work: a study on employment agencies level].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, C; Flach, T; Schmidt, C

    2012-08-01

    This paper is aimed at identifying labour market factors impacting vocational retraining centre participants' return to work on Employment Agencies level and at comparing results to unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). Databases are regional return to work rates of 2006 graduates, selected labour market indicators 2007, and the 2007 labour market classification of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB). The n = 75 Employment Agency districts where 74.5 % of the participants followed-up lived were analyzed using analyses of variance and multiple loglinear regression. Compared to the unemployment context (Social Code Book III), the impact of the labour market is much lower and less complex. In the multiple model, the regional unemployment rate and the regional tertiarization rate (size of the service sector) are found to be significant and superior to the IAB-classification. Hence, participants' return to work is less dependent on labour market conditions than unemployed people's return to work (Social Code Book III). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret Gough

    2017-01-01

    There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with cha...

  11. Once again on Interregional, International and Cross-age Comparison of Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Gennadi Kazakevitch

    2003-01-01

    Any discussion on unemployment is never restricted with the data on unemployment only. Unemployment is linked to several key indicators such as number of employed, active population and participation rate. As we often see, increase in unemployment occurs simultaneously with increase in the number of jobs, if participation rate increases at the same time. This makes doubtful any simplistic interregional, international, inter-temporal or cross-age comparison of unemployment data taken in isolat...

  12. Social support as moderator of the stress on unemployed people’s health

    OpenAIRE

    Guarino, Leticia Rosaria; Universidad Simón Bolívar; Sojo, Victor; Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to assess moderating role of two indexes of social support in the relationship between the length of unemployment and the physical and mental health of Venezuelan unemployed. Self-report measures were administered to a sample of 328 unemployed residents in Caracas, Venezuela. Results indicated that perceived social support acted as moderator in predicting better general health and lower somatization in the unemployed, acting as buffer of longer periods of unemploy...

  13. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  14. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9%) had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010. PMID:27073716

  15. Inequalities in US Life Expectancy by Area Unemployment Level, 1990–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal K. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the association between unemployment and life expectancy in the United States during 1990–2010. Census-based unemployment rates were linked to US county-level mortality data. Life expectancies were calculated by age, sex, race, and unemployment level during 1990–2010. Differences in life expectancy were decomposed by age and cause of death. Life expectancy was consistently lower in areas with higher unemployment rates. In 2006–2010, those in areas with high unemployment rates (≥9% had a life expectancy of 76.9 years, compared with 80.7 years for those in areas with low unemployment rates (<3%. The association between unemployment and life expectancy was stronger for men than for women. Life expectancy ranged from 69.9 years among black men in high unemployment areas to 90.0 years among Asian/Pacific Islander women in low unemployment areas. Disparities persisted over time. In 1990–1992, life expectancy was 4.7 years shorter in high unemployment than in low unemployment areas. In 2006–2010, the life expectancy difference between the lowest and highest unemployment areas decreased to 3.8 years. Heart disease, cancer, homicide, unintentional injuries, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and liver cirrhosis contributed most to the lower life expectancy in high unemployment areas. High unemployment areas recorded larger gains in life expectancy than low unemployment areas, contributing to the narrowing gap during 1990–2010.

  16. The Great Recession and America’s Geography of Unemployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C.; Monnat, Shannon M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Great Recession of 2007–2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. Contribution To present new estimates of the recession’s impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession

  17. The Great Recession and America's Geography of Unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, Brian C; Monnat, Shannon M

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the U.S. since the Great Depression. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, as well as the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state inequality between local labor market conditions. To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately large recession-related increases in unemployment.

  18. The Great Recession and America's geography of unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Thiede

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Great Recession of 2007-2009 was the most severe and lengthy economic crisis in the US since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The impacts on the population were multi-dimensional, but operated largely through local labor markets. Objective: To examine differences in recession-related changes in county unemployment rates and assess how population and place characteristics shaped these patterns. Methods: We calculate and decompose Theil Indexes to describe recession-related changes in the distribution of unemployment rates between counties and states. We use exploratory spatial statistics to identify geographic clusters of counties that experienced similar changes in unemployment. We use spatial regression to evaluate associations between county-level recession impacts on unemployment and demographic composition, industrial structure, and state context. Results: The recession was associated with increased inequality between county labor markets within states, but declining between-state differences. Counties that experienced disproportionate recession-related increases in unemployment were spatially clustered and characterized by large shares of historically disadvantaged racial and ethnic minority populations, low educational attainment, and heavy reliance on pro-cyclical industries. Associations between these sources of vulnerability were partially explained by unobserved state-level factors. Conclusions: The local consequences of macroeconomic trends are associated with county population characteristics, and the structural contexts and policy environments in which they are embedded. The recession placed upward pressure on within-state disparities in local labor market conditions. Contribution: To present new estimates of the recession's impact on local labor markets, quantify how heterogeneous impacts affected the distribution of unemployment prevalence, and identify county characteristics associated with disproportionately

  19. Duration on unemployment: geographic mobility and selectivity bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, E P; Paul, C; Wilhite, A

    1994-01-01

    Modeling the factors affecting the duration of unemployment was found to be influenced by the inclusion of migration factors. Traditional models which did not control for migration factors were found to underestimate movers' probability of finding an acceptable job. The empirical test of the theory, based on the analysis of data on US household heads unemployed in 1982 and employed in 1982 and 1983, found that the cumulative probability of reemployment in the traditional model was .422 and in the migration selectivity model was .624 after 30 weeks of searching. In addition, controlling for selectivity eliminated the significance of the relationship between race and job search duration in the model. The relationship between search duration and the county unemployment rate in 1982 became statistically significant, and the relationship between search duration and 1980 population per square mile in the 1982 county of residence became statistically insignificant. The finding that non-Whites have a longer duration of unemployment can better be understood as non-Whites' lower geographic mobility and lack of greater job contacts. The statistical significance of a high unemployment rate in the home labor market reducing the probability of finding employment was more in keeping with expectations. The findings assumed that the duration of employment accurately reflected the length of job search. The sample was redrawn to exclude discouraged workers and the analysis was repeated. The findings were similar to the full sample, with the coefficient for migration variable being negative and statistically significant and the coefficient for alpha remaining positive and statistically significant. Race in the selectivity model remained statistically insignificant. The findings supported the Schwartz model hypothesizing that the expansion of the radius of the search would reduce the duration of unemployment. The exclusion of the migration factor misspecified the equation for

  20. Migration in the Face of Unemployment and Unemployment Risk: a Case Study of Temporal and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Kley

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs an elaborated model of migration decision-making and behaviour to analyse the influence of individually experienced unemployment and unemployment risk. Following a contrast group design, respondents from two cities inGermanywith different levels of economic prosperity are compared using event history data from a tailor-made panel study. According to a micro-economic approach to migration it is expected that respondents living in an economically deprived city are more likely to decide in favour of migration and actually move compared to those living in a prosperous city because they often perceive opportunities as better elsewhere than at their current place of residence. Moreover, perceiving a risk of becoming unemployed in the near future might trigger migration decision-making more in a deprived city because difficulties to find a new job at the place of residence are anticipated. On the other hand, the new household economics approach and the theory of social networks stress the importance of the meso level. Individuals seldom decide in favour or against migration solely; the family rather makes joint decisions. Former research revealed that for unemployed people social networks are a major source for social support and are therefore especially important. There is evidence that in deprived regions social networks deter individuals stronger from moving than in others. These theoretical considerations and findings lead to the expectation that once people are unemployed they seldom leave deprived regions, what is at odds with the expectations from micro-economic theory. The analyses reveal that the perceived risk of becoming unemployed indeed triggers migration decision-making, but exclusively in the deprived city, whereas people who are already unemployed do not consider or plan leaving the city more often than employed people. Nevertheless, having a partner, children and family at the place of residence might outweigh the

  1. Out of Unemployment? A Comparative Analysis of the Risks and Opportunities Longer-Term Unemployed Immigrant Youth Face when Entering the Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmberg-Heimonen, Ira; Julkunen, Ilse

    2006-01-01

    Because of high unemployment rates among youth in Europe, comparative research has focused on identification of those risks and opportunities associated with the integration process from unemployment to work. The integration process of immigrant youth, however, received much less attention, despite their initially higher risk of unemployment than…

  2. GLOBALIZATION OF ECONOMY AND GREATER CYCLES OF THE TOTAL REGIONAL PRODUCT, INFLATION AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Belkin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of synchronization of greater and small waves of real gross national product of the USA and a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area is shown on the materials of economic statistics. The conclusion about defining influence of dynamics of real gross national product of the USA on the basic macroeconomic parameters of the Chelyabinsk area owing to high dependence of its economy on export of metal products is done from here. It is evidently shown, that the modern world economic crisis quite keeps within the theory of greater cycles of an economic conjuncture of N.D. Kondratyev. To greater cycles of a total regional product of the Chelyabinsk area there correspond return greater cycles of inflation and unemployment.

  3. The Instrumented Flux Return Detector of the SuperB Experiment: R&D Studies and First Results of the Fermilab Beam Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, M.; Baldini, W.; Calabrese, R.; Carassiti, V.; Cotta, A.; Cibinetto, G.; Evangelisti, F.; Luppi, E.; Malaguti, R.; Manzali, M.; Melchiorri, M.; Munerato, M.; Santoro, V.; Tommassetti, L.; Benettoni, M.; Dalcorso, F.; Feltresi, E.; Fanin, C.; Gagliardi, N.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Stroili, R.

    SuperB is a super-flavor factory that will be built in Tor Vergata (Italy). The project, recently approved by the Italian Government, and classified as the flagship project of the Italian INFN, foresees the construction of a high intensity asymmetric electron-positron collider and of the related detector. The expected luminosity of 2x1036cm-2 s-1, a factor 100 higher than the last generation of B-factories, will allow the high statistic study of rare decays and, possibly, will allow a deeper insight in the field of new physics. Part of the SuperB apparatus is the Instrumented Flux Return (IFR). This detector exploits the flux return iron structure of the superconducting solenoid as absorber for the identification of muons and neutral hadrons. In more details, It consists of ≃ 92 cm of iron interleaved by 9 layers of highly segmented scintillators. The detection technique is based on relatively inexpensive extruded plastic scintillator bars produced at the FNAL-NICADD facility. The scintillation light is collected through Wave Length Shifting fibers and guided to recently developed devices called Silicon Photon Multipliers used as photodetectors. The use of plastic scintillator as active material ensures reliability, robustness and long term stability while the high granularity and the fast response guarantee a good space-time resolution, extremely important to cope with the expected high particles flux. The readout scheme under evaluation is this manuscript is the double coordinate readout ("BIRO readout") where two layers of orthogonal scintillator bars provide both, the polar and azimuthal coordinate. In order to deeply understand the performances and possible drawbacks of the above technique, a full depth prototype has been designed and built in Ferrara and Padova, and tested at the Fermilab Test Beam Facility (FBTF) in December 2010. In this paper a comprehensive description of the IFR related R&D studies will be presented. In particular, we will focus on the

  4. The persisting effect of unemployment on health and social well-being in men early in working life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, M E; Montgomery, S M; Bartley, M J

    1999-05-01

    In our studies of the effects of unemployment in the early working life of men in a British national birth cohort we have shown elsewhere that this experience was part of a longer term accumulation of social and health disadvantage. This present study asks whether men's unemployment also inflicted potential longterm damage to future socio-economic chances and health. We therefore constructed indicators of socio-economic circumstances and health at 33 years from factors already shown to be associated with health in later life. For the socio-economic indicator we used a combination of income, occupational status and home ownership and described this as socio-economic capital. For the health indicator we combined scores of body mass index, leisure time exercise, frequency of eating fresh fruit and of smoking, and described this as health capital. After controlling for pre-labour market socio-economic and health factors, prolonged unemployment is shown here to reduce significantly both socio-economic and health capital by age 33 years. We conclude that the experience of prolonged unemployment early in the working life of this population of young men looks likely to have a persisting effect on their future health and socio-economic circumstances.

  5. What factors are associated with unplanned return following transurethral resection of bladder tumor? An analysis of a large single institution's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghali, Fady; Moses, Rachel A; Raffin, Eric; Hyams, Elias S

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to evaluate factors associated with unplanned hospital return (UR) following transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), the largest source of readmission among ambulatory urological procedures. A retrospective review of TURBTs at a single academic institution between April 2011 and August 2014 was performed. Demographics, comorbidities, length of stay, tumor size and multiple other factors were recorded. UR was recorded within 30 days of surgery. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to determine factors associated with UR. Among 708 patients undergoing TURBT, 23.9% were female with a mean age of 70 years. The rate of UR was 10.9%. The most common cause of UR was gross hematuria, accounting for 70%. On bivariate analysis, Foley catheter placement in the operating room, non-aspirin anticoagulation and index length of stay longer than 24 h were associated with hematuria-related UR (p hematuria-related UR (p  0.05). On multivariable analysis, only Foley placement in the operating room remained associated with higher rates of hematuria-related UR, while preoperative antibiotics, female gender and aspirin therapy remained associated with a lower likelihood of this event. UR following TURBT is common and typically results from gross hematuria. Patients with postoperative Foley catheterization in the operating room may require additional counseling or supervision before discharge, and should be considered for discharge with a Foley rather than having a prompt voiding trial.

  6. Perceived Barriers and Facilitators for Return to Work Among Colorectal Cancer Survivors: Malaysian Healthcare Professionals Experience- A Qualitative Inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Sze Loon; Loh, Siew Yim; Su, Tin Tin

    2015-06-01

    Return to work (RTW) can be a challenging occupational health (OH) issue among previously-employed colorectal cancer survivors. This study aimed to explore the various perceived barriers and facilitators encountered during the RTW process in cancer survivorship, from the perception of healthcare professionals (HCP). Face to face, semistructured interviews were carried out on twelve HCP (government and private sectors) from various disciplines. Data collected were transcribed verbatim and data management was aided by NVivo software 8.0. A new theory from contextual data was generated using open coding, axial coding and selective coding. The HCP shared numerous barriers and facilitators associated with RTW, under four categories. The key barriers were disturbing side effects, psychological barriers (personal factor), compensation (financial factor), poor ability to multitask (work-related factor), long paid medical leaves policy, employer's lackadaisical attitude, lack of knowledge and awareness of RTW (environmental factor). Key facilitators identified were desire to resume working life and to contribute to society (personal factor), financial pressure, maintain organizational health insurance (financial factor), less physically demanding job (work-related factor), supportive workplace and strict organizational policy on medical leaves (environmental factor). While not all HCP were trained in RTW, they all agreed that RTW is important for survivors and workplace. Occupational health doctors have a direct role in helping survivors RTW. Early Intervention on RTW during survivorship should involve occupational health doctors and employers, targeting the modifiable factors (environmental and work-related) to improve RTW after cancer.

  7. Unemployment risk among individuals undergoing medical treatment for chronic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, N; Nakamura, T; Tsuchiya, N; Tsuji, I; Hozawa, A; Tomita, H

    2016-03-01

    Chronic diseases increase the risk of unemployment even in non-disaster settings; therefore, in post-disaster settings, special attention needs to be paid to the employment status of those suffering from chronic diseases. To examine the association between chronic disease and the risk of unemployment in a disaster area. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shichigahama Town, Miyagi, north-eastern Japan, where had been severely inundated by the 2011 tsunami. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between undergoing medical treatment for a combination of chronic diseases (stroke, cancer, myocardial infarction and angina) and unemployment risk. Confounders such as psychological distress and levels of daily life activity were considered. Among the 2588 individuals studied, there was a statistically significant association between undergoing medical treatment for chronic disease and the risk of unemployment [odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.02-2.7, P unemployment risk was observed only in participants with a higher degree of psychological distress and/or poorer levels of daily life activity. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. The Normative Impact of Unemployment Insurance : A European Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Tabin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The debate on classification instruments for social security regimes opened by Esping-Andersen (1990 usually neglects the examination of the normative impact of the welfare state. This article focus on this latter through an analysis of systems of protection against unemployment in 11 of the European countries included in the database known as the Mutual Information System on Social Protection (MISSOC.We show in this article that unemployment insurance only recognize legal, authorized and declared salaried employees who have resided in the country for a set period of time, which confirms the close link between social policy and nationality, with some foreign workers being excluded from the circle of beneficiaries because of these norms. Unemployment insurance also always considers jobs as rare social goods - workers are expected to hold on to them, but they are declined differently along a person’s life course. The dominance of the male employment norm and the complete lack of consideration given to domestic labour by unemployment insurance contribute to structuring gendered roles as separate and hierarchically organized. Disparities between countries, whether related to contextual differences or to the history of the local welfare state, do not weaken these arguments since they are not founded upon fundamentally different conceptions of unemployment.

  9. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  10. Return on experience of the post-accidental management of the Chernobyl accident within the Belarusian context - PAREX. Synthesis report delivered to the ASN on the 19 March 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heriard Dubreuil, Gilles; Lochard, Jacques; Ollagnon, Henry; Baude, Stephane; Bataille, Celine

    2007-01-01

    This approach to a return on experience of the post-accidental management of the Chernobyl accident identified four main steps: the passage from an accidental phase to a post-accidental phase from 1986 to 1991 (implementation of countermeasures, design of a radiological protection), the setting of an institutional and legal framework for the post-accidental management from 1991 to 1993 (compensations, definition of standards for food production and consumption, psychological support of populations), the search for alternative strategies from 1993 to 2001, and a sustainable rehabilitation of living conditions in contaminated territories between 2001 and 2006. Based on the return on experience on this various issues, the authors draw a set of lessons and give recommendations. They notably address the characteristics of a situation of durable radiological contamination, the role of standards in the response to a post-accidental situation, the role of expertise and knowledge building, the role and action of public authorities, the progressive building up of a local response to the crisis, the preparedness to a situation of durable contamination

  11. The influence of military sexual trauma on returning OEF/OIF male veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragon, Sasha A; Wang, David; Pritchett, Lonique; Graham, David P; Plasencia, M Leili; Teng, Ellen J

    2015-11-01

    Military sexual trauma (MST) encompasses experiences of sexual harassment and/or assault that occur during active duty military service. MST is associated with postdeployment mental health, interpersonal, and physical difficulties and appears to be more influential in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than other active duty experiences, including combat, among women veterans. Although some literature suggests that men who experience MST also evidence significant postdeployment difficulties, research in this area is lacking. The current study evaluated a large sample of returning male veterans (N = 961) who served in Iraq and/or Afghanistan. Veterans were referred for treatment in a trauma and anxiety specialty clinic at a large VA hospital. Of this sample, 18% (n = 173) reported MST perpetrated by a member of their unit. Results indicated veterans who reported MST were younger (p = .001), less likely to be currently married (p sexual abuse either as children or adults (p < .001). Analyses revealed that MST was negatively associated with postdeployment social support (p < .001 and positively associated with postdeployment perceived emotional mistreatment (p = .004), but was not associated with postdeployment loss of romantic relationship (p = .264), job loss (p = .351), or unemployment (p = .741) after statistically controlling for other trauma exposures and current social support. Results reflect the detrimental associations of MST on male veterans and the need for more research in this area. These findings also highlight the need for treatment interventions that address social and interpersonal functioning in addition to symptoms of depressive disorders. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 3. Do changes in physical activity behaviors associated with unemployment differ by gender? This study uses nationally representative, longitudinal data on couples in the United States, covering the period 1999-2013. These data, obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are used to estimate fixed-effects models of the relationships between one's own, and one's partner's, unemployment and participation in physical activity. I find that for men unemployment is not associated with changes in physical activity time. For women, own unemployment is associated with increases in physical activity, whereas a partner's unemployment is associated with decreases in physical activity. I argue that unemployed women, unlike men, are able to take advantage of the increased availability of time through reduced labor supply to invest in their health during unemployment, which could have positive long-run consequences. Results suggest the importance of studying unemployment and health at the household level and suggest a need for further investigation into gender differences in unemployment and health.

  13. A couple-level analysis of participation in physical activity during unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Gough

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a well-documented negative correlation between unemployment and health. Yet, little research has examined how unemployment relates to participation in physical activity, and few researchers have considered how an individual's unemployment may affect the health of their spouse or partner. The purpose of this study is to answer three questions: 1. Is one's own unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 2. Is one's partner's unemployment associated with changes in physical activity participation? 3. Do changes in physical activity behaviors associated with unemployment differ by gender? This study uses nationally representative, longitudinal data on couples in the United States, covering the period 1999–2013. These data, obtained from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, are used to estimate fixed-effects models of the relationships between one's own, and one's partner's, unemployment and participation in physical activity. I find that for men unemployment is not associated with changes in physical activity time. For women, own unemployment is associated with increases in physical activity, whereas a partner's unemployment is associated with decreases in physical activity. I argue that unemployed women, unlike men, are able to take advantage of the increased availability of time through reduced labor supply to invest in their health during unemployment, which could have positive long-run consequences. Results suggest the importance of studying unemployment and health at the household level and suggest a need for further investigation into gender differences in unemployment and health.

  14. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  15. Unemployment estimation: Spatial point referenced methods and models

    KAUST Repository

    Pereira, Soraia

    2017-06-26

    Portuguese Labor force survey, from 4th quarter of 2014 onwards, started geo-referencing the sampling units, namely the dwellings in which the surveys are carried. This opens new possibilities in analysing and estimating unemployment and its spatial distribution across any region. The labor force survey choose, according to an preestablished sampling criteria, a certain number of dwellings across the nation and survey the number of unemployed in these dwellings. Based on this survey, the National Statistical Institute of Portugal presently uses direct estimation methods to estimate the national unemployment figures. Recently, there has been increased interest in estimating these figures in smaller areas. Direct estimation methods, due to reduced sampling sizes in small areas, tend to produce fairly large sampling variations therefore model based methods, which tend to

  16. Youth, work, unemployment and identity: An social psychological approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimena del Carmen Gallardo Góngora

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis aims to study some of the aspects of the work of young unemployed Chileans. This was done through the analysis of their “centrality” by taking into account the influence of values and concepts they have about work, in the process of their identity construction. The research was divided into two different sections. The first one is the theoretical framework, which consists of studies and analysis from a  social  psychological perspective in relation to the phenomena that come up from the main purpose of the study. For example, youth as a psychosocial phenomenon; work as meaning, centrality and psychosocial functions; Identity under a psychosocial approach as well as psychosocial effects due to the unemployment they suffer. The second section of the research is the qualitative analysis, which considers work factors regarding to young unemployed Chileans as well as the influence of such factors in the process of their identity construction.

  17. An Imputation Model for Dropouts in Unemployment Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Petra

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Incomplete unemployment data is a fundamental problem when evaluating labour market policies in several countries. Many unemployment spells end for unknown reasons; in the Swedish Public Employment Service’s register as many as 20 percent. This leads to an ambiguity regarding destination states (employment, unemployment, retired, etc.. According to complete combined administrative data, the employment rate among dropouts was close to 50 for the years 1992 to 2006, but from 2007 the employment rate has dropped to 40 or less. This article explores an imputation approach. We investigate imputation models estimated both on survey data from 2005/2006 and on complete combined administrative data from 2005/2006 and 2011/2012. The models are evaluated in terms of their ability to make correct predictions. The models have relatively high predictive power.

  18. DETERMINANTS OF YOUTH UNEMPLOYMENT: A SURVEY OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian CONDRATOV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The issue of the unemployment concerning the population aged between 15-24 years has represented an important subject of research, due to the multiple implications that such a problem propagates on both social and economic sphere. Through this paper we wanted to achieve an updated synthesis of the results of the studies undertaken at an international level treating the unemployment problem among the young population. For combating efficiently this imbalance it is necessary to know its determinative factors. The studies undertaken along years identified determinative factors of different nature and, also, with a diffrent gravity of influence on the modification of the unemployment rate. Among the most important determinative factors the speciality litterature mentions: the demographic tendencies, the economic environment, the regulations concerning the work market and the educational system.

  19. Instability of capitalism inflation, unemployment, and business cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adil H. Mouhammed

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the instability of capitalism defined as a condition under which capitalism creates inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. Great economists such as Marx, Veblen, and Schumpeter have examined this problem, concluding that capitalist instability will transform capitalism. A model is developed in this paper to investigate instability, and the finding is that the basic causebehind instability is the conflict on income share: wages and profits. The fluctuations in the share of profits create inflation, unemployment, and business cycles. This generalization has been verified by using data from the American economy for the 1970s, 1980s, and the 1990s. Over this period, the paper concludes, whenthe profit share is high, moderate inflation and employment were generated, and when profit share is low, inflation, unemployment, and business cycles have appeared.

  20. Unemployment and Causes of Hospital Admission Considering Different Analytical Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Gulis, Gabriel; Kronborg Bak, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    and circulatory disease. Register-based data was analysed for the period of 2006 to 2009. In the cross-sectional analysis, a multiple logistic regression model was conducted based on the year 2006 and cohort information from the same year onward up to 2009 was available for a cox regression model. Social welfare...... compensated unemployment and both types of disease specific hospital admission was associated statistically significant in the cross-sectional analysis. With regard to circulatory disease, the cohort approach suggests that social welfare compensated unemployment might lead to hospital admission due...... to the disease. Given the significant results in the cross-sectional analysis for hospital admission due to cancer, the unfound cohort effect might indicate a reverse causation suggesting that the disease caused joblessness and finally, social welfare compensated unemployment and not vice versa. Comparing...

  1. RETRACTED: Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayr Figueiredo de Oliveira

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Updated September 4, 2014. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------- RETRACTION: The paper “Technology and Unemployment for Executives in Hospitals” by Jayr Figuereido, published in vol 7 (3 2012, has been retracted by the editors because significant parts of the paper were plagiarized and without proper citation to the publication “Gondim, S. M. G., Estramiana, J. L. Á., Luna, A. d. F., Oliveira, T. S. S. d., & Souza, G. C. d. (2010. Atribuições de causas ao desemprego e valores pessoais. Estudos de Psicologia (Natal, 15, 309-317”. This strong determination was taken by the editorial committee in order to correct this misbehavior and to compensate the detriment caused to the academic community. Apologies are offered to our readers for not having spotted this problem during the edition process. We are constantly introducing more tools in our editorial process in order to avoid plagiarism and abuses like the presented in this case. It is in our greatest concern to preserve the academic integrity of our publication. --------------------------------------------------------------- Abstract: This study aims to investigate how managers of health care institutions explain the causes of unemployment, and how this explanation is related to their personal and family values, in accordance with Schwartz’s theoretical model. For that, we used two questionnaires: one analyzes the explanations for unemployment, and the other one is the Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ 21 – short version. Employed and formerly unemployed workers do not show any significant differences in explaining the causes of unemployment. On the other hand, regarding values, formerly unemployed workers show universalism and benevolence, values related to the self-transcendence dimension. Employed workers, in turn, show values of security, related to the conservatism dimension. The conclusion is that, even though technological innovations

  2. [Fluctuations in unemployment and disability in Iceland 1992-2006].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorlacius, Sigurdur; Olafsson, Stefán

    2008-03-01

    To examine and explain the effect of unemployment on the number of disability pensioners in Iceland by examining changes in this relationship from 1992 to 2006. Information on gender and place of residence of new recipients of disability pension in Iceland and corresponding information on unemployment for each year in the period 1992 to 2006. The variables were correlated and disaggregated by gender and regions within Iceland. Two big fluctuations occurred in the rate of new disability pension receivers during the study period, with significant increases in disability from 1993 to 1995 and again from 2003 onwards. Both of these fluctuations are associated with considerable increases in the unemployment rate. The extent of new disability pensioners declined again when the level of unemployment went down, even though not to the same relative extent. In the upswing from 2003 a delay of about a year in the increase of disability pensioners' numbers, following the rise in unemployment rate, became more prominent and the overall rate of new disability pensioners reached new highs. The relationship applies equally to the capital area as well as the provincial areas as a whole. There is though a small deviation in three of the seven provincial areas, with less decline of the disability rate on the downswing. Health and capability condition determine the overall disability rate, but fluctuations over time are related to environmental conditions in the labour market, especially the unemployment rate. The features of the welfare system, especially the benefit and rehabilitation system, as well as the extent and character of activation measures in the labour market also influence the number of disability pensioners. A new method of disability assessment from late 1999 may have had some influence on the relationship during the latter part of the period and increasing applications from people with mental and psychiatric deficiencies seems to have had a significant influence on

  3. The influence of neighborhood unemployment on mortality after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrath, Michael; Wellmann, Jürgen; Diederichs, Claudia; Binse, Lisa; Kalic, Marianne; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Berger, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of neighborhood characteristics on mortality after stroke. Aim of our study was to analyze the influence of district unemployment as indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES-NH) on poststroke mortality, and to compare these results with the mortality in the underlying general population. Our analyses involve 2 prospective cohort studies from the city of Dortmund, Germany. In the Dortmund Stroke Register (DOST), consecutive stroke patients (N=1883) were recruited from acute care hospitals. In the Dortmund Health Study (DHS), a random general population sample was drawn (n=2291; response rate 66.9%). Vital status was ascertained in the city's registration office and information on district unemployment was obtained from the city's statistical office. We performed multilevel survival analyses to examine the association between district unemployment and mortality. The association between neighborhood unemployment and mortality was weak and not statistically significant in the stroke cohort. Only stroke patients exposed to the highest district unemployment (fourth quartile) had slightly higher mortality risks. In the general population sample, higher district unemployment was significantly associated with higher mortality following a social gradient. After adjustment for education, health-related behavior and morbidity was made the strength of this association decreased. The impact of SES-NH on mortality was different for stroke patients and the general population. Differences in the association between SES-NH and mortality may be partly explained by disease-related characteristics of the stroke cohort such as homogeneous lifestyles, similar morbidity profiles, medical factors, and old age. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Phobos Sample Return: Next Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyi, Lev; Martynov, Maxim; Zakharov, Alexander; Korablev, Oleg; Ivanov, Alexey; Karabadzak, George

    The Martian moons still remain a mystery after numerous studies by Mars orbiting spacecraft. Their study cover three major topics related to (1) Solar system in general (formation and evolution, origin of planetary satellites, origin and evolution of life); (2) small bodies (captured asteroid, or remnants of Mars formation, or reaccreted Mars ejecta); (3) Mars (formation and evolution of Mars; Mars ejecta at the satellites). As reviewed by Galimov [2010] most of the above questions require the sample return from the Martian moon, while some (e.g. the characterization of the organic matter) could be also answered by in situ experiments. There is the possibility to obtain the sample of Mars material by sampling Phobos: following to Chappaz et al. [2012] a 200-g sample could contain 10-7 g of Mars surface material launched during the past 1 mln years, or 5*10-5 g of Mars material launched during the past 10 mln years, or 5*1010 individual particles from Mars, quantities suitable for accurate laboratory analyses. The studies of Phobos have been of high priority in the Russian program on planetary research for many years. Phobos-88 mission consisted of two spacecraft (Phobos-1, Phobos-2) and aimed the approach to Phobos at 50 m and remote studies, and also the release of small landers (long-living stations DAS). This mission implemented the program incompletely. It was returned information about the Martian environment and atmosphere. The next profect Phobos Sample Return (Phobos-Grunt) initially planned in early 2000 has been delayed several times owing to budget difficulties; the spacecraft failed to leave NEO in 2011. The recovery of the science goals of this mission and the delivery of the samples of Phobos to Earth remain of highest priority for Russian scientific community. The next Phobos SR mission named Boomerang was postponed following the ExoMars cooperation, but is considered the next in the line of planetary exploration, suitable for launch around 2022. A

  5. Unemployment and Subsequent Employment Stability: Does Labour Market Policy Matter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Fervers, Lukas

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of unemployment insurance generosity and active labour market policy on reemployment stability in Europe. Using EU‐SILC and OECD data, we conduct discrete time survival analyses with shared frailty specification to identify policy effects at the micro and macro level....... These results point to a policy trade‐off between the well‐confirmed disincentive and locking‐in effect of unemployment benefits and ALMP programmes on the one hand, and their positive effect on reemployment stability on the other hand....

  6. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Mangasa Augustinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract               Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and ho...

  7. The socio-economic impact of the involuntary mass return to Yemen in 1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hear, N

    1994-01-01

    800,000 Yemen nationals were forced to leave Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and other countries in the region during the Gulf War. Their mass return to Yemen followed immediately after reunification of North and South Yemen. Analysis reveals that the term "migrant worker" is a misnomer and obscures the variations in wealth, residence, and status. Returnees had variable lengths of stay abroad, number of dependents or family members abroad or at home, types of occupation, ownership of assets, frequency of visits to the community of origin, and remittances. The range of long-term migrants included wealthy merchants and bankers, middle level service and retail workers, and poor workers in the informal sector. The common thread is that all suffered some decline in standard of living. The return was less disruptive for short-term migrants. Some long-term residents no longer had social and economic ties to Yemen, and some had no experience living in Yemen. About 33% were estimated to be without ties to home communities. The decline in remittances from abroad affected foreign exchange receipts. The country shifted from labor scarcity to unemployment conditions. The infrastructure in housing, education, and social services was strained. The one-time influx of capital was short-lived. Returnees comprised about 7% of the total population. The feared upheaval politically and economically did not occur. Suggested improvements for future mass resettlement include offering shanty dwellers a supplemental feeding program, a means of obtaining secure housing, and increased infrastructure. The long-term benefits of encouraging a return to agriculture should have been more widely promoted.

  8. Labor Market Returns to Sub-Baccalaureate Credentials: How Much Does a Community College Degree or Certificate Pay?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadgar, Mina; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2015-01-01

    This study provides one of the first estimates of the returns to different types of community college credentials--short-term certificates, long-term certificates, and associate degrees--across different fields of study. We exploit a rich data set that includes matched, longitudinal college transcripts and Unemployment Insurance records for…

  9. Unemployment Among Mexican Immigrant Men in the United States, 2003 – 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Based on their socioeconomic characteristics, Mexican immigrant men should have very high un-employment. More than half do not have a high school diploma. One in four works in construction; at the height of the recent recession, 20% of construction workers were unemployed. Yet their unemployment rates are similar to those of native-born white men. After controlling for education and occupation, Mexican immigrant men have lower probabilities of unemployment than native-born white men – both before and during the recent recession. I consider explanations based on eligibility for unemployment benefits, out-migrant selection for unemployment, and employer preferences for Mexican immigrant labor. PMID:25432614

  10. A Perishable Inventory Model with Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiawan, S. W.; Lesmono, D.; Limansyah, T.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model for a perishable inventory with return by assuming deterministic demand and inventory dependent demand. By inventory dependent demand, it means that demand at certain time depends on the available inventory at that time with certain rate. In dealing with perishable items, we should consider deteriorating rate factor that corresponds to the decreasing quality of goods. There are also costs involved in this model such as purchasing, ordering, holding, shortage (backordering) and returning costs. These costs compose the total costs in the model that we want to minimize. In the model we seek for the optimal return time and order quantity. We assume that after some period of time, called return time, perishable items can be returned to the supplier at some returning costs. The supplier will then replace them in the next delivery. Some numerical experiments are given to illustrate our model and sensitivity analysis is performed as well. We found that as the deteriorating rate increases, returning time becomes shorter, the optimal order quantity and total cost increases. When considering the inventory-dependent demand factor, we found that as this factor increases, assuming a certain deteriorating rate, returning time becomes shorter, optimal order quantity becomes larger and the total cost increases.

  11. Rural-urban migration, urban unemployment and underemployment, and job-search activity in LDCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, G S

    1975-06-01

    A quantity adjustment framework is used to analyze unemployment and underemployment in less developed countries (LDCs). The basic premise of the formal theoretical model presented is that the same kinds of forces that explain the choices of workers between the rural and urban sectors can also explain thier choices between 1 labor market and another within an urban area and are most likely made simultaneously. The decision makers, whether family units or individuals, are presumed to consider the various labor market opportunities available to them and to choose the one which maximizes their expected future income. In the model the primary equilibrating force is taken to be the movement of workers between labor markets, not changes in wages. The point of departure is the received theory of rural urban migration in LDS, which is the model of Harris and Todaro (1970). The 1st step is a summary of the basic features of the model. While accepting their basic approach emphasizing movement of workers rather than changes in wages, it is shown that the particular implication of the model with respect to the equilibrium urban unemployment rate substantially overstates the rates actually observed by Turnham (1971) and others. The analysis is then extended to consider several important factors which have previously been neglected--a more generalized approach to the job search process, the possibility of underemployment in the so-called urban "murky sector," preferential treatment by employers of the better educated, and consideration of labor turnover--and demonstrate that the resulting framework gives predictions closer to actual experience. Harris and Todaro in their original discussion concluded that a combination of a wage subsidy in the modern sector and physical restriction of migration would be required to realize a first best state lying on the economy's production possibility frontier. Subsequently Bhagwati and Srinivasan (1974) challenged them and demonstrated that a

  12. Returning to Work After Electrical Injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stergiou-Kita, M.; Mansfield, E.; Bayley, M.

    2014-01-01

    were conducted with individuals who experienced an electrical injury at the workplace. Participants were recruited from specialized burns rehabilitation programs in Ontario, Canada. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and thematic analysis used to analyze the qualitative interviews. Data regarding......The objective of this study was to gain an understanding of workers' experiences with returning to work, the challenges they experienced, and the supports they found most beneficial when returning to work after a workplace electrical injury. Thirteen semistructured qualitative telephone interviews...

  13. Unemployment Anxiety of Student Taking Sports Education in University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Shalal Abdulla; Devecioglu, Sebahattin

    2018-01-01

    Anxiety is one of the critical medical conditions that affect individuals due to various reasons. Some of these reasons may be related to inheritance while others are acquired during major life events. In this investigation, the level of unemployment anxiety was evaluated for students at Firat University, Elazig, Turkey. The study population…

  14. A Glimpse of Urban Youth Unemployment in Ethiopia | Gizaw ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this article is to explore the employment status, issues, causes, and possible policy options. The study used both secondary and primary data sources. The study indicated that urban youth unemployment in Ethiopia is fast growing mainly due to the imbalance between the demand and supply sides of the job ...

  15. Gender unemployment gaps: evidence from the new EU member states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2010), s. 41-97 ISSN 1211-3298 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP402/08/P466 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * labor force participation * family leave policies Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/wp/Wp410.pdf

  16. Gender unemployment gaps in the EU: blame the family

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bičáková, Alena

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 22 (2016), s. 1-31 E-ISSN 2193-9012 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP402/12/G130 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : gender unemployment gap * family leave * gender discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  17. 253 Education and the Paradox of Graduate Unemployment: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... The paper is an assessment of education, graduate unemployment and the ... acknowledged as a legitimized vehicle for self and societal advancement. The ... curriculum and pedagogical reforms, upgrading existing facilities to match ... It is against this background that the paper examines the issue of.

  18. Does Unemployment Lead to a Less Healthy Lifestyle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Micha; Bauer, Jan Michael; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we use 22 years of data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and information on plant closures to investigate the effects of unemployment on four indicators of unhealthy lifestyles: diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and (a lack of) physical activity. In contrast to much...

  19. Youth Unemployment and Localized Impact: A Career Studies Teacher's Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godden, Lorraine

    2015-01-01

    The global economic downturn and high youth unemployment have created a challenging context for Ontario secondary-school teachers to meet the compulsory half-credit career studies course objectives intended to support school-to-work (STW) transition. Bronfenbrener's (1979) ecological systems theory provided a clear framework to examine influences…

  20. Unemployment Assistance and Transition to Employment in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Iturriza (Ana); A.S. Bedi (Arjun Singh); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn 2001-02, Argentina experienced a wrenching economic crisis. Plan Jefes, implemented in May 2002, was Argentina's institutional response to the increases in unemployment and poverty triggered by the crisis. The program provided a social safety net and appears to have successfully